WorldWideScience

Sample records for liquid hydrogen storage

  1. Pad B Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Felicia

    2007-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is home to two liquid hydrogen storage tanks, one at each launch pad of Launch Complex 39. The liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad B has a significantly higher boil off rate that the liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad A. This research looks at various calculations concerning the at Launch Pad B in an attempt to develop a solution to the excess boil off rate. We will look at Perlite levels inside the tank, Boil off rates, conductive heat transfer, and radiant heat transfer through the tank. As a conclusion to the research, we will model the effects of placing an external insulation to the tank in order to reduce the boil off rate and increase the economic efficiency of the liquid hydrogen storage tanks.

  2. Development of Automotive Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainz, G.; Bartlok, G.; Bodner, P.; Casapicola, P.; Doeller, Ch.; Hofmeister, F.; Neubacher, E.; Zieger, A.

    2004-06-01

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) takes up less storage volume than gas but requires cryogenic vessels. State-of-the-art applications for passenger vehicles consist of double-wall cylindrical tanks that hold a hydrogen storage mass of up to 10 kg. The preferred shell material of the tanks is stainless steel, since it is very resistant against hydrogen brittleness and shows negligible hydrogen permeation. Therefore, the weight of the whole tank system including valves and heat exchanger is more than 100 kg. The space between the inner and outer vessel is mainly used for thermal super-insulation purposes. Several layers of insulation foils and high vacuums of 10-3 Pa reduce the heat entry. The support structures, which keep the inner tank in position to the outer tank, are made of materials with low thermal conductivity, e.g. glass or carbon fiber reinforced plastics. The remaining heat in-leak leads to a boil-off rate of 1 to 3 percent per day. Active cooling systems to increase the stand-by time before evaporation losses occur are being studied. Currently, the production of several liquid hydrogen tanks that fulfill the draft of regulations of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project (EIHP) is being prepared. New concepts of lightweight liquid hydrogen storage tanks will be investigated.

  3. Novel developments in hydrogen storage, hydrogen activation and ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroodian, Amir

    2010-12-03

    This dissertation is divided into three chapters. Recently, metal-free hydrogen activation using phosphorous compounds has been reported in science magazine. We have investigated the interaction between hydrogen and phosphorous compounds in presence of strong Lewis acids (chapter one). A new generation of metal-free hydrogen activation, using amines and strong Lewis acids with sterically demanding nature, was already developed in our group. Shortage of high storage capacity using large substitution to improve sterical effect led us to explore the amine borane derivatives, which are explained in chapter two. Due to the high storage capacity of hydrogen in aminoborane derivatives, we have explored these materials to extend hydrogen release. These compounds store hydrogen as proton and hydride on adjacent atoms or ions. These investigations resulted in developing hydrogen storage based on ionic liquids containing methyl guanidinium cation. Then we have continued to develop ionic liquids based on methyl guanidinium cation with different anions, such as tetrafluoro borate (chapter three). We have replaced these anions with transition metal anions to investigate hydrogen bonding and catalytic activity of ionic liquids. This chapter illustrates the world of ionic liquid as a green solvent for organic, inorganic and catalytic reactions and combines the concept of catalysts and solvents based on ionic liquids. The catalytic activity is investigated particularly with respect to the interaction with CO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  4. Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

  5. Integrated Refrigeration and Storage for Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has used liquefied hydrogen (LH2) on a large scale since the beginning of the space program as fuel for the Centaur and Apollo upper stages, and more recently to feed the three space shuttle main engines. The LH2 systems currently in place at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pads are aging and inefficient compared to the state-of-the-art. Therefore, the need exists to explore advanced technologies and operations that can drive commodity costs down, and provide increased capabilities. The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) was developed at KSC to pursue these goals by demonstrating active thermal control of the propellant state by direct removal of heat using a cryocooler. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The key technology challenge was efficiently integrating the cryogenic refrigerator into the LH2 storage tank. A Linde LR1620 Brayton cycle refrigerator is used to produce up to 900W cooling at 20K, circulating approximately 22 g/s gaseous helium through the hydrogen via approximately 300 m of heat exchanger tubing. The GODU-LH2 system is fully operational, and is currently under test. This paper will discuss the design features of the refrigerator and storage system, as well as the current test results.

  6. Glass Bubbles Insulation for Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. P.; SaintCyr, W. W.; Barrett, T. M.; Baumgartner, R. G.; Lott, J. W.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    A full-scale field application of glass bubbles insulation has been demonstrated in a 218,000 L liquid hydrogen storage tank. This work is the evolution of extensive materials testing, laboratory scale testing, and system studies leading to the use of glass bubbles insulation as a cost efficient and high performance alternative in cryogenic storage tanks of any size. The tank utilized is part of a rocket propulsion test complex at the NASA Stennis Space Center and is a 1960's vintage spherical double wall tank with an evacuated annulus. The original perlite that was removed from the annulus was in pristine condition and showed no signs of deterioration or compaction. Test results show a significant reduction in liquid hydrogen boiloff when compared to recent baseline data prior to removal of the perlite insulation. The data also validates the previous laboratory scale testing (1000 L) and full-scale numerical modeling (3,200,000 L) of boiloff in spherical cryogenic storage tanks. The performance of the tank will continue to be monitored during operation of the tank over the coming years. KEYWORDS: Glass bubble, perlite, insulation, liquid hydrogen, storage tank.

  7. Liquid-phase chemical hydrogen storage: catalytic hydrogen generation under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai-Long; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Yan, Jun-Min; Zhang, Xin-Bo; Xu, Qiang

    2010-05-25

    There is a demand for a sufficient and sustainable energy supply. Hence, the search for applicable hydrogen storage materials is extremely important owing to the diversified merits of hydrogen energy. Lithium and sodium borohydride, ammonia borane, hydrazine, and formic acid have been extensively investigated as promising hydrogen storage materials based on their relatively high hydrogen content. Significant advances, such as hydrogen generation temperatures and reaction kinetics, have been made in the catalytic hydrolysis of aqueous lithium and sodium borohydride and ammonia borane as well as in the catalytic decomposition of hydrous hydrazine and formic acid. In this Minireview we briefly survey the research progresses in catalytic hydrogen generation from these liquid-phase chemical hydrogen storage materials.

  8. Annular Air Leaks in a liquid hydrogen storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, AG; Youngquist, RC; Starr, SO

    2017-12-01

    Large liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks are vital infrastructure for NASA, the DOD, and industrial users. Over time, air may leak into the evacuated, perlite filled annular region of these tanks. Once inside, the extremely low temperatures will cause most of the air to freeze. If a significant mass of air is allowed to accumulate, severe damage can result from nominal draining operations. Collection of liquid air on the outer shell may chill it below its ductility range, resulting in fracture. Testing and analysis to quantify the thermal conductivity of perlite that has nitrogen frozen into its interstitial spaces and to determine the void fraction of frozen nitrogen within a perlite/frozen nitrogen mixture is presented. General equations to evaluate methods for removing frozen air, while avoiding fracture, are developed. A hypothetical leak is imposed on an existing tank geometry and a full analysis of that leak is detailed. This analysis includes a thermal model of the tank and a time-to-failure calculation. Approaches to safely remove the frozen air are analyzed, leading to the conclusion that the most feasible approach is to allow the frozen air to melt and to use a water stream to prevent the outer shell from chilling.

  9. Diagnosis of a Poorly Performing Liquid Hydrogen Bulk Storage Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Angela G.

    2011-01-01

    There are two 850,000 gallon Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage spheres used to support the Space Shuttle Program; one residing at Launch Pad A and the other at Launch Pad B. The LH2 Sphere at Pad B has had a high boiloff rate since being brought into service in the 1960's. The daily commodity loss was estimated to be approximately double that of the Pad A sphere, and well above the minimum required by the sphere's specification. Additionally, after being re-painted in the late 1990's a "cold spot" appeared on the outer sphere which resulted in a poor paint bond, and mold formation. Thermography was used to characterize the area, and the boiloff rate was continually evaluated. All evidence suggested that the high boiloff rate was caused by an excessive heat leak into the inner sphere due to an insulation void in the annulus. Pad B was recently taken out of Space Shuttle program service which provided a unique opportunity to diagnose the sphere's poor performance. The sphere was drained and inerted, and then opened from the annular relief device on the top where a series of boroscoping operations were accomplished. Boroscoping revealed a large Perlite insulation void in the region of the sphere where the cold spot was apparent. Perlite was then trucked in and off-loaded into the annular void region until the annulus was full. The sphere has not yet been brought back into service.

  10. FINAL REPORT: Room Temperature Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Confined Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAJO, JOHN

    2014-06-12

    DOE continues to seek solid-state hydrogen storage materials with hydrogen densities of ≥6 wt% and ≥50 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at room temperature and moderate pressures enabling widespread use in transportation applications. Meanwhile, development including vehicle engineering and delivery infrastructure continues for compressed-gas hydrogen storage systems. Although compressed gas storage avoids the materials-based issues associated with solid-state storage, achieving acceptable volumetric densities has been a persistent challenge. This project examined the possibility of developing storage materials that would be compatible with compressed gas storage technology based on enhanced hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquid solvents. These materials would store hydrogen in molecular form eliminating many limitations of current solid-state materials while increasing the volumetric capacity of compressed hydrogen storage vessels. Experimental methods were developed to study hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquids. These methods included 1) fabrication of composites comprised of volatile liquid solvents for hydrogen confined within the nano-sized pore volume of nanoporous scaffolds and 2) measuring the hydrogen uptake capacity of these composites without altering the composite composition. The hydrogen storage capacities of these nano-confined solvent/scaffold composites were compared with bulk solvents and with empty scaffolds. The solvents and scaffolds were varied to optimize the enhancement in hydrogen solubility that accompanies confinement of the solvent. In addition, computational simulations were performed to study the molecular-scale structure of liquid solvent when confined within an atomically realistic nano-sized pore of a model scaffold. Confined solvent was compared with similar simulations of bulk solvent. The results from the simulations were used to formulate a mechanism for the enhanced solubility and to guide the

  11. Hydrogen storage by organic chemical hydrides and hydrogen supply to fuel cells with superheated liquid-film-type catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodoshima, S.; Shono, A.; Sato, K.; Saito, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Organic chemical hydrides, consisting of decalin / naphthalene and tetralin / naphthalene pairs, have been proposed as the storage medium of hydrogen for operating fuel cells in mobile and static modes. The target values in the DOE Hydrogen Plan, U.S., on storage ( 6.5 wt%, 62.0 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) are met with decalin ( 7.3 wt%, 64.8 kg-H 2 / m 3 ). In addition, existing gas stations and tank lorries are available for storage and supply of hydrogen by utilizing the decalin / naphthalene pair, suggesting that decalin is suitable for operating fuel-cell vehicles. Tetralin dehydrogenation proceeds quite rapidly, assuring a predominant power density, though its storage densities ( 3.0 wt%, 28.2 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) are relatively low. Efficient hydrogen supply from decalin or tetralin by heating at 210-280 o C was attained only with the carbon-supported nano-size metal catalysts in the 'superheated liquid-film states' under reactive distillation conditions, where coke formation over the catalyst surface was prevented. The catalyst layer superheated in the liquid-film states gave high reaction rates and conversions, minimizing the evaporation loss under boiling conditions and exergy loss in hydrogen energy systems. (author)

  12. Liquid Acquisition Device Hydrogen Outflow Testing on the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Engineering Design Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Greg; Statham, Geoff; Garces, Rachel; Cartagena, Will

    2015-01-01

    As part of the NASA Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Engineering Design Unit (EDU) testing with liquid hydrogen, screen-channel liquid acquisition devices (LADs) were tested during liquid hydrogen outflow from the EDU tank. A stainless steel screen mesh (325x2300 Dutch T will weave) was welded to a rectangular cross-section channel to form the basic LAD channel. Three LAD channels were tested, each having unique variations in the basic design. The LADs fed a common outflow sump at the aft end of the 151 cu. ft. volume aluminum tank, and included a curved section along the aft end and a straight section along the barrel section of the tank. Wet-dry sensors were mounted inside the LAD channels to detect when vapor was ingested into the LADs during outflow. The use of warm helium pressurant during liquid hydrogen outflow, supplied through a diffuser at the top of the tank, always led to early breakdown of the liquid column. When the tank was pressurized through an aft diffuser, resulting in cold helium in the ullage, LAD column hold-times as long as 60 minutes were achieved, which was the longest duration tested. The highest liquid column height at breakdown was 58 cm, which is 23 less than the isothermal bubble-point model value of 75 cm. This paper discusses details of the design, construction, operation and analysis of LAD test data from the CPST EDU liquid hydrogen test.

  13. Development of the ReaxFFCBN reactive force field for the improved design of liquid CBN hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Sung Jin; Yeo, Byung Chul; Han, Sang Soo

    2016-01-21

    Liquid CBN (carbon-boron-nitrogen) hydrogen-storage materials such as 3-methyl-1,2-BN-cyclopentane have the advantage of being easily accessible for use in current liquid-fuel infrastructure. To develop practical liquid CBN hydrogen-storage materials, it is of great importance to understand the reaction pathways of hydrogenation/dehydrogenation in the liquid phase, which are difficult to discover by experimental methods. Herein, we developed a reactive force field (ReaxFFCBN) from quantum mechanical (QM) calculations based on density functional theory for the storage of hydrogen in BN-substituted cyclic hydrocarbon materials. The developed ReaxFFCBN provides similar dehydrogenation pathways and energetics to those predicted by QM calculations. Moreover, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with the developed ReaxFFCBN can predict the stability and dehydrogenation behavior of various liquid CBN hydrogen-storage materials. Our simulations reveal that a unimolecular dehydrogenation mechanism is preferred in liquid CBN hydrogen-storage materials. However, as the temperature in the simulation increases, the contribution of a bimolecular dehydrogenation mechanism also increases. Moreover, our ReaxFF MD simulations show that in terms of thermal stability and dehydrogenation kinetics, liquid CBN materials with a hexagonal structure are more suitable materials than those with a pentagonal structure. We expect that the developed ReaxFFCBN could be a useful protocol in developing novel liquid CBN hydrogen-storage materials.

  14. Transient shielded liquid hydrogen containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, A.P.; Herring, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen in the liquid phase has been limited in duration due to the thermal performance constraints of conventional Liquid Hydrogen containers available. Conventional Liquid Hydrogen containers lose hydrogen because of their relatively high heat leak and variations in usage pattern of hydrogen due to shutdowns. Local regulations also discourage venting of hydrogen. Long term storage of Liquid Hydrogen without product loss was usually accomplished using Liquid Nitrogen sacrificial shields. This paper reports on a new low heat leak container developed and patented that will extend the storage time of liquid hydrogen by five hundred percent. The principle of operation of the Transient Shields which makes the extraordinary performance of this container feasible is described in this paper. Also covered are the impact of this new container on present applications of hydrogen and the new opportunities afforded to Liquid hydrogen in the world hydrogen market

  15. Experimental Investigation of Jet-Induced Mixing of a Large Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.; Vandresar, N. T.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of fluid mixing on the depressurization of a large liquid hydrogen storage tank. The test tank is approximately ellipsoidal, having a volume of 4.89 m(exp 3) and an average wall heat flux of 4.2 W/m(exp 2) due to external heat input. A mixer unit was installed near the bottom of the tank to generate an upward directed axial jet flow normal to the liquid-vapor interface. Mixing tests were initiated after achieving thermally stratified conditions in the tank either by the introduction of hydrogen gas into the tank or by self-pressurization due to ambient heat leak through the tank wall. The subcooled liquid jet directed towards the liquid-vapor interface by the mixer induced vapor condensation and caused a reduction in tank pressure. Tests were conducted at two jet submergence depths for jet Reynolds numbers from 80,000 to 495,000 and Richardson numbers from 0.014 to 0.52. Results show that the rate of tank pressure change is controlled by the competing effects of subcooled jet flow and the free convection boundary layer flow due to external tank wall heating. It is shown that existing correlations for mixing time and vapor condensation rate based on small scale tanks may not be applicable to large scale liquid hydrogen systems.

  16. The methods of hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert, J.M.; Cuevas, F.; Latroche, M.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen may be an excellent energy vector owing to its high specific energy. Its low density is however a serious drawback for its storage. Three techniques exist to store hydrogen. Storage under pressure is now performed in composite tanks under pressures around 700 bar. Liquid storage is achieved at cryogenic temperatures. Solid storage is possible in reversible metal hydrides or on high surface area materials. The three storage means are compared in terms of performance, energetic losses and risk. (authors)

  17. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David; Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, Greenwood Village, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean; Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Adjusting ratio of Q = Na/B will maximize H{sub 2} storage capacity of liquid carrier. • Mixtures of hydrolysis products are desirable to maximize solubility. • 6.5 wt.% hydrogen and remains liquid from beginning to end. - Abstract: In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH){sub 3}) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mol ratio of NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by {sup 11}B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH){sub 4}. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the {sup 11}B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8}, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt.% NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 M ratio of NaOH and B(OH){sub 3} and releases >8 eq of H{sub 2}. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 5}{sup 2−}, B{sub 4}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}{sup 2−}, B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{sup −}, B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}{sup −} and B(OH){sub 3}, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} can provide a 40% increase in H{sub 2} storage density compared to the hydrolysis

  18. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, David; Neiner, Doinita; Bowden, Mark; Whittemore, Sean; Holladay, Jamie; Huang, Zhenguo; Autrey, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adjusting ratio of Q = Na/B will maximize H 2 storage capacity of liquid carrier. • Mixtures of hydrolysis products are desirable to maximize solubility. • 6.5 wt.% hydrogen and remains liquid from beginning to end. - Abstract: In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH) 3 ) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mol ratio of NaOH to B(OH) 3 , M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH 4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11 B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH) 4 . When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH) 3 , M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11 B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB 3 H 8 , can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt.% NaB 3 H 8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 M ratio of NaOH and B(OH) 3 and releases >8 eq of H 2 . By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B 3 O 3 (OH) 5 2− , B 4 O 5 (OH) 4 2− , B 3 O 3 (OH) 4 − , B 5 O 6 (OH) 4 − and B(OH) 3 , can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB 3 H 8 can provide a 40% increase in H 2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate

  19. Development of a Practical Hydrogen Storage System Based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers and a Homogeneous Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Craig [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States); Brayton, Daniel [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States); Jorgensen, Scott W. [General Motors, LLC, Warren, MI (United States). Research and Development Center. Chemical and Material Systems Lab.; Hou, Peter [General Motors, LLC, Warren, MI (United States). Research and Development Center. Chemical and Material Systems Lab.

    2017-03-24

    The objectives of this project were: 1) optimize a hydrogen storage media based on LOC/homogeneous pincer catalyst (carried out at Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC) and 2) develop space, mass and energy efficient tank and reactor system to house and release hydrogen from the media (carried out at General Motor Research Center).

  20. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Univ. of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH)3) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mole ratio of NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH)4. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB3H8, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt% NaB3H8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 molar ratio of NaOH and B(OH)3 and releases >8 eq of H2. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B3O3(OH)52-, B4O5(OH)42-, B3O3(OH)4-, B5O6(OH)4- and B(OH)3, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB3H8 can provide a 40% increase in H2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate. The authors would like to thank Jim Sisco and Paul Osenar of

  1. Organic chemical hydrides as storage medium of hydrogen on the basis of superheated liquid-film concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinya Hodoshima; Atsushi Shono; Kazumi Satoh; Yasukazu Saito

    2006-01-01

    A catalysis pair of tetralin dehydrogenation / naphthalene hydrogenation has been proposed in the present paper as an organic chemical hydride for operating stationary fuel cells. Catalytic naphthalene hydrogenation, having been commercialized since the 1940's, proceeds to generate decalin via tetralin as an intermediate. The storage capacities of tetralin (3.0 wt%, 28.2 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) are lower than decalin (7.3 wt%, 64.8 kg-H 2 / m 3 ) but both tetralin dehydrogenation and naphthalene hydrogenation are much faster than the decalin / naphthalene pair. Moreover, existing infrastructures, e.g., gas station and tank lorry, are available for storage, transportation and supply of hydrogen. As for the stationary fuel cells with large space for hydrogen storage, tetralin as a hydrogen carrier is superior to decalin in terms of fast hydrogen supply. Rapid hydrogen supply from tetralin under mild conditions was only accomplished with the carbon supported metal catalysts in the 'superheated liquid-film states' under reactive distillation conditions. In contrast to the ordinary suspended states, the catalyst layer superheated in the liquid-film state gave high catalytic performances at around 250 C. As a result, serious coke formation over the catalyst surface and excessive exergy consumption were prevented simultaneously. (authors)

  2. Key study on the potential of hydrazine bisborane for solid- and liquid-state chemical hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylypko, Sergii; Petit, Eddy; Yot, Pascal G; Salles, Fabrice; Cretin, Marc; Miele, Philippe; Demirci, Umit B

    2015-05-04

    Hydrazine bisborane N2H4(BH3)2 (HBB; 16.8 wt %) recently re-emerged as a potential hydrogen storage material. However, such potential is controversial: HBB was seen as a hazardous compound up to 2010, but now it would be suitable for hydrogen storage. In this context, we focused on fundamentals of HBB because they are missing in the literature and should help to shed light on its effective potential while taking into consideration any risk. Experimental/computational methods were used to get a complete characterization data sheet, including, e.g., XRD, NMR, FTIR, Raman, TGA, and DSC. From the reported results and discussion, it is concluded that HBB has potential in the field of chemical hydrogen storage given that both thermolytic and hydrolytic dehydrogenations were analyzed. In solid-state chemical hydrogen storage, it cannot be used in the pristine state (risk of explosion during dehydrogenation) but can be used for the synthesis of derivatives with improved dehydrogenation properties. In liquid-state chemical hydrogen storage, it can be studied for room-temperature dehydrogenation, but this requires the development of an active and selective metal-based catalyst. HBB is a thus a candidate for chemical hydrogen storage.

  3. Modification of a liquid hydrogen tank for integrated refrigeration and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Jumper, K. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Notardonato, W. U.

    2015-12-01

    The modification and outfitting of a 125,000-liter liquid hydrogen tank was performed to provide integrated refrigeration and storage capability. These functions include zero boil-off, liquefaction, and densification and therefore require provisions for sub-atmospheric tank pressures within the vacuum-jacketed, multilayer insulated tank. The primary structural modification was to add stiffening rings inside the inner vessel. The internal stiffening rings were designed, built, and installed per the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, to prevent collapse in the case of vacuum jacket failure in combination with sub-atmospheric pressure within the tank. For the integrated refrigeration loop, a modular, skeleton-type heat exchanger, with refrigerant temperature instrumentation, was constructed using the stiffening rings as supports. To support the system thermal performance testing, three custom temperature rakes were designed and installed along the 21-meter length of the tank, once again using rings as supports. The temperature rakes included a total of 20 silicon diode temperature sensors mounted both vertically and radially to map the bulk liquid temperature within the tank. The tank modifications were successful and the system is now operational for the research and development of integrated refrigeration technology.

  4. Center for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The main goals of this project were to (1) Establish a Center for Hydrogen Storage Research at Delaware State University for the preparation and characterization of selected complex metal hydrides and the determination their suitability for hydrogen ...

  5. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  6. Large-Scale Demonstration of Liquid Hydrogen Storage with Zero Boiloff for In-Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bryant, C. B.; Flachbart, R. H.; Holt, K. A.; Johnson, E.; Hedayat, A.; Hipp, B.; Plachta, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    Cryocooler and passive insulation technology advances have substantially improved prospects for zero-boiloff cryogenic storage. Therefore, a cooperative effort by NASA s Ames Research Center, Glenn Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was implemented to develop zero-boiloff concepts for in-space cryogenic storage. Described herein is one program element - a large-scale, zero-boiloff demonstration using the MSFC multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB). A commercial cryocooler was interfaced with an existing MHTB spray bar mixer and insulation system in a manner that enabled a balance between incoming and extracted thermal energy.

  7. Hydrogen storage using borohydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard BONNETOT; Laetitia LAVERSENNE

    2006-01-01

    The possibilities of hydrogen storage using borohydrides are presented and discussed specially in regard of the recoverable hydrogen amount and related to the recovering conditions. A rapid analysis of storage possibilities is proposed taking in account the two main ways for hydrogen evolution: the dehydrogenation obtained through thermal decomposition or the hydrolysis of solids or solutions. The recoverable hydrogen is related to the dehydrogenation conditions and the real hydrogen useful percentage is determined for each case of use. The high temperature required for dehydrogenation even when using catalyzed compounds lead to poor outlooks for this storage way. The hydrolysis conditions direct the chemical yield of the water consuming, and this must be related to the experimental conditions which rule the storage capacity of the 'fuel' derived from the borohydride. (authors)

  8. Hydrogen storage compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  9. Handheld hydrogen - a new concept for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink

    2005-01-01

    A method of hydrogen storage using metal ammine complexes in combination with an ammonia decomposition catalyst is presented. This dense hydrogen storage material has high degree of safety compared to all the other available alternatives. This technology reduces the safety hazards of using liquid...

  10. NRCan's hydrogen storage R and D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scepanovic, V.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) has been working in partnership with industry, other government departments and academia to expedite the development of hydrogen technologies. NRCan's Hydrogen and Fuel Cell R and D Program covers all aspects of hydrogen technologies: production, storage, utilization and codes and standards. Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the advancement of fuel cell power systems in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. NRCan's storage program has been focused on developing storage materials and technologies for a range of applications with the emphasis on transportation. An overview of most recent hydrogen storage projects including pressurized hydrogen, liquid hydrogen and storage in hydrides and carbon-based materials will be given. (author)

  11. Hydrogen Storage Tank

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This huge stainless steel reservoir,placed near an end of the East Hall, was part of the safety equipment connected to the 2 Metre liquid hydrogen Bubble Chamber. It could store all the hydrogen in case of an emergency. The picture shows the start of its demolition.

  12. Generation of core–shell nanoparticles Al@Ti by laser ablation in liquid for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkov, A.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); The Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, “Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University)”, 9, Institutsky lane, 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow (Russian Federation); Barmina, E.V.; Simakin, A.V. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuzmin, P.G., E-mail: qzzzma@gmail.com [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronov, V.V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 31, Kashirskoye highway, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Core–shell Al@Ti NPs are generated by laser ablation in isopropanol. • Isopropanol was saturated with molecular hydrogen. • The composite metallic Al-Ti target was used. • HR TEM characterization shows that Ti core is covered by epitaxial Al shell. • Al@Ti NPs are promising for hydrogen storage. - Abstract: Core–shell Al@Ti nanoparticles are generated by ablation of a composite Ti–Al target in liquid isopropanol saturated with molecular hydrogen using a Nd:YAG laser with pulse duration of 10 ps and repetition rate of 200 kHz. The target is made of two plates of corresponding metals stacked together and placed into a flowing cell reactor. Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis of generated NPs reveals their core–shell structure with Ti core and Al shell. Average size of NPs determined by means of measuring disk centrifuge is around 40 nm. Saturation of NPs by hydrogen is due to sharp dependence of its solubility in these metals on temperature. XRD studies of generated NPs show the peaks of both metallic Ti and Al with some amount of TiO{sub 2}. No peaks of Ti–Al alloys are observed.

  13. Liquid hydrogen: back to basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherif, S.A. [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Univ. of Florida, Florida (United States)

    2009-07-01

    'Full text': Liquid hydrogen is primarily used as a rocket fuel and is predestined for supersonic and hypersonic space vehicles to a large extent because it has the lowest boiling point density and the highest specific thrust of any known fuel. Its favorable characteristics include its high heating value per unit mass, its wide ignition range in hydrogen/oxygen or air mixtures, as well as its large flame speed and cooling capacity due to its high specific heat which permits very effective engine cooling and cooling the critical parts of the outer skin. Liquid hydrogen has some other important uses such as in high-energy nuclear physics and bubble chambers. The transport of hydrogen is vastly more economical when it is in liquid form even though cryogenic refrigeration and special Dewar vessels are required. Although liquid hydrogen can provide a lot of advantages, its uses are restricted in part because liquefying hydrogen by existing conventional methods consumes a large amount of energy (around 30% of its heating value). Liquefying 1 kg of hydrogen in a medium-size plant requires 10 to 13 kWh of electric energy. In addition, boil-off losses associated with the storage, transportation, and handling of liquid hydrogen can consume up to 40% of its available combustion energy. It is therefore important to search for ways that can improve the efficiency of the liquefiers and diminish the boil-off losses. This lecture gives an overview of the main issues associated with the production, storage, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Some discussion of promising ways of hydrogen liquefaction will also be presented. (author)

  14. Spray Bar Zero-Gravity Vent System for On-Orbit Liquid Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Martin, J. J.; Hedayat, A.; Fazah, M.; Lak, T.; Nguyen, H.; Bailey, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    During zero-gravity orbital cryogenic propulsion operations, a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure control without propellant resettling. In this case, a longitudinal spray bar mixer system, coupled with a Joule-Thompson (J-T) valve and heat exchanger, was evaluated in a series of TVS tests using the 18 cu m multipurpose hydrogen test bed. Tests performed at fill levels of 90, 50, and 25 percent, coupled with heat tank leaks of about 20 and 50 W, successfully demonstrated tank pressure control within a 7-kPa band. Based on limited testing, the presence of helium constrained the energy exchange between the gaseous and liquid hydrogen (LH2) during the mixing cycles. A transient analytical model, formulated to characterize TVS performance, was used to correlate the test data. During self-pressurization cycles following tank lockup, the model predicted faster pressure rise rates than were measured; however, once the system entered the cyclic self-pressurization/mixing/venting operational mode, the modeled and measured data were quite similar. During a special test at the 25-percent fill level, the J-T valve was allowed to remain open and successfully reduced the bulk LH2 saturation pressure from 133 to 70 kPa in 188 min.

  15. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  16. Autothermal hydrogen storage and delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pez, Guido Peter [Allentown, PA; Cooper, Alan Charles [Macungie, PA; Scott, Aaron Raymond [Allentown, PA

    2011-08-23

    Processes are provided for the storage and release of hydrogen by means of dehydrogenation of hydrogen carrier compositions where at least part of the heat of dehydrogenation is provided by a hydrogen-reversible selective oxidation of the carrier. Autothermal generation of hydrogen is achieved wherein sufficient heat is provided to sustain the at least partial endothermic dehydrogenation of the carrier at reaction temperature. The at least partially dehydrogenated and at least partially selectively oxidized liquid carrier is regenerated in a catalytic hydrogenation process where apart from an incidental employment of process heat, gaseous hydrogen is the primary source of reversibly contained hydrogen and the necessary reaction energy.

  17. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  18. Zero boil-off methods for large-scale liquid hydrogen tanks using integrated refrigeration and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Swanger, A. M.; E Fesmire, J.; Jumper, K. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    NASA has completed a series of tests at the Kennedy Space Center to demonstrate the capability of using integrated refrigeration and storage (IRAS) to remove energy from a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank and control the state of the propellant. A primary test objective was the keeping and storing of the liquid in a zero boil-off state, so that the total heat leak entering the tank is removed by a cryogenic refrigerator with an internal heat exchanger. The LH2 is therefore stored and kept with zero losses for an indefinite period of time. The LH2 tank is a horizontal cylindrical geometry with a vacuum-jacketed, multilayer insulation system and a capacity of 125,000 liters. The closed-loop helium refrigeration system was a Linde LR1620 capable of 390W cooling at 20K (without any liquid nitrogen pre-cooling). Three different control methods were used to obtain zero boil-off: temperature control of the helium refrigerant, refrigerator control using the tank pressure sensor, and duty cycling (on/off) of the refrigerator as needed. Summarized are the IRAS design approach, zero boil-off control methods, and results of the series of zero boil-off tests.

  19. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  20. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, John; Larsen, B.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the hydrogenation characteristics of fine magnesium powder during repeated cycling has been performed using a high-pressure microbalance facility. No effect was found from the cycling regarding kinetics and storage capacity. The reaction rate of the absorption process was fast...... at temperatures around 600 K and above, but the reversed reaction showed somewhat slower kinetics around 600 K. At higher temperatures the opposite was found. The enthalpy and entropy change by the hydrogenation, derived from pressure-concentration isotherms, agree fairly well with those reported earlier....

  1. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  2. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Digby

    2010-01-01

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the

  3. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T [Ann Arbor, MI; Li, Yingwel [Ann Arbor, MI; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  4. Hydrogen Storage In Nanostructured Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Assfour, Bassem

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is an appealing energy carrier for clean energy use. However, storage of hydrogen is still the main bottleneck for the realization of an energy economy based on hydrogen. Many materials with outstanding properties have been synthesized with the aim to store enough amount of hydrogen under ambient conditions. Such efforts need guidance from material science, which includes predictive theoretical tools. Carbon nanotubes were considered as promising candidates for hydrogen storag...

  5. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  6. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Wang, Tao [Columbia, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  7. Adsorption methods for hydrogen isotope storage on zeolite sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, Ioana; Cristescu, Ion; Vasut, Felicia; Brad, Sebastian; Lazar, Alin

    2001-01-01

    Adsorption molecular sieves and activated carbon were used for hydrogen isotopes. The adsorption process proceeds at liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen temperatures. The synthetic zeolites have similar properties as natural zeolites, but they have a regular pore structure and affinity for molecules of different size with defined shapes. Experimental results obtained at liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen temperatures evidenced the efficient behavior of the activated carbon and zeolite sieves for hydrogen isotope temporary storage. (authors)

  8. Liquid hydrogen properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, H. I.; Han, K. Y.; Park, J.H.

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the input data, whose characteristic is thermodynamic and transport, in the form of equation for the thermo-hydraulic calculations using hydrogen as a working substance. The considered data in this report are particularly focused on the properties of para-hydrogen and of equilibrium-hydrogen around the working temperature range of the HANARO-CNS. The discussed properties of hydrogen are, in turn, the pressure of saturated vapors, the density, the heat of vaporization, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and heat capacity. Several equations to fit the above-mentioned experimental data allow calculating the various properties of liquid hydrogen with high accuracy at all considered temperatures

  9. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  10. Ammonia for hydrogen storage: challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klerke, Asbjørn; Christensen, Claus H.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of using ammonia as a hydrogen carrier is discussed. Compared to other hydrogen storage materials, ammonia has the advantages of a high hydrogen density, a well-developed technology for synthesis and distribution, and easy catalytic decomposition. Compared to hydrocarbons...... and alcohols, it has the advantage that there is no CO2 emission at the end user. The drawbacks are mainly the toxicity of liquid ammonia and the problems related to trace amounts of ammonia in the hydrogen after decomposition. Storage of ammonia in metal ammine salts is discussed, and it is shown...... that this maintains the high volumetric hydrogen density while alleviating the problems of handling the ammonia. Some of the remaining challenges for research in ammonia as a hydrogen carrier are outlined....

  11. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanostruc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirscher, M.; Becher, M.; Haluska, M.; Quintel, A.; Skakalova, V.; Choi, M.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Roth, S.; Stepanek, I.; Bernier, P.; Leonhardt, A.; Fink, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives a critical review of the literature on hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures. Furthermore, the hydrogen storage of graphite, graphite nanofibers (GNFs), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The samples were ball milled

  12. Hydrogen storage in planetary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltensperger, W.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen in contact with most substances undergoes first order phase transitions with increasing pressure during which hydrides are formed. This applies to the core of hydrogen rich planets. It is speculated that a partial hydrogen storage in the early history of the earth could have lead to the formation of continents. Primordial carbon hydrides are synthesized during this process. (Author) [pt

  13. Volatile liquid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

  14. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirscher, M; Becher, M

    2003-01-01

    The article gives a comprehensive overview of hydrogen storage in carbon nanostructures, including experimental results and theoretical calculations. Soon after the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, different research groups succeeded in filling carbon nanotubes with some elements, and, therefore, the question arose of filling carbon nanotubes with hydrogen by possibly using new effects such as nano-capillarity. Subsequently, very promising experiments claiming high hydrogen storage capacities in different carbon nanostructures initiated enormous research activity. Hydrogen storage capacities have been reported that exceed the benchmark for automotive application of 6.5 wt% set by the U.S. Department of Energy. However, the experimental data obtained with different methods for various carbon nanostructures show an extreme scatter. Classical calculations based on physisorption of hydrogen molecules could not explain the high storage capacities measured at ambient temperature, and, assuming chemisorption of hydrogen atoms, hydrogen release requires temperatures too high for technical applications. Up to now, only a few calculations and experiments indicate the possibility of an intermediate binding energy. Recently, serious doubt has arisen in relation to several key experiments, causing considerable controversy. Furthermore, high hydrogen storage capacities measured for carbon nanofibers did not survive cross-checking in different laboratories. Therefore, in light of today's knowledge, it is becoming less likely that at moderate pressures around room temperature carbon nanostructures can store the amount of hydrogen required for automotive applications.

  15. Carbon material for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlinos, Athanasios; Steriotis, Theodore; Stubos, Athanasios; Miller, Michael A

    2016-09-13

    The present invention relates to carbon based materials that are employed for hydrogen storage applications. The material may be described as the pyrolysis product of a molecular precursor such as a cyclic quinone compound. The pyrolysis product may then be combined with selected transition metal atoms which may be in nanoparticulate form, where the metals may be dispersed on the material surface. Such product may then provide for the reversible storage of hydrogen. The metallic nanoparticles may also be combined with a second metal as an alloy to further improve hydrogen storage performance.

  16. Catalyzed borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Ming [Augusta, GA

    2012-02-28

    A hydrogen storage material and process is provided in which alkali borohydride materials are created which contain effective amounts of catalyst(s) which include transition metal oxides, halides, and chlorides of titanium, zirconium, tin, and combinations of the various catalysts. When the catalysts are added to an alkali borodydride such as a lithium borohydride, the initial hydrogen release point of the resulting mixture is substantially lowered. Additionally, the hydrogen storage material may be rehydrided with weight percent values of hydrogen at least about 9 percent.

  17. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a method for converting metals to metal hydrides at low pressures for hydrogen storage systems with high efficiency with respect to volume...

  18. Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Darlene; Hampton, Michael

    2003-03-10

    This report describes research into the use of complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. The synthesis of a number of alanates, (AIH4) compounds, was investigated. Both wet chemical and mechano-chemical methods were studied.

  19. Use of triphenyl phosphate as risk mitigant for metal amide hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Concepcion, Jose A.; Anton, Donald L.

    2016-04-26

    A process in a resulting product of the process in which a hydrogen storage metal amide is modified by a ball milling process using an additive of TPP. The resulting product provides for a hydrogen storage metal amide having a coating that renders the hydrogen storage metal amide resistant to air, ambient moisture, and liquid water while improving useful hydrogen storage and release kinetics.

  20. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2006-08-22

    A hydrogen storage material and process of forming the material is provided in which complex hydrides are combined under conditions of elevated temperatures and/or elevated temperature and pressure with a titanium metal such as titanium butoxide. The resulting fused product exhibits hydrogen desorption kinetics having a first hydrogen release point which occurs at normal atmospheres and at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 90.degree. C.

  1. Review of Current State of the Art and Key Design Issues With Potential Solutions for Liquid Hydrogen Cryogenic Storage Tank Structures for Aircraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Arnold, Steven M.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Manderscheid, Jane M.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    2006-01-01

    Due to its high specific energy content, liquid hydrogen (LH2) is emerging as an alternative fuel for future aircraft. As a result, there is a need for hydrogen tank storage systems, for these aircraft applications, that are expected to provide sufficient capacity for flight durations ranging from a few minutes to several days. It is understood that the development of a large, lightweight, reusable cryogenic liquid storage tank is crucial to meet the goals of and supply power to hydrogen-fueled aircraft, especially for long flight durations. This report provides an annotated review (including the results of an extensive literature review) of the current state of the art of cryogenic tank materials, structural designs, and insulation systems along with the identification of key challenges with the intent of developing a lightweight and long-term storage system for LH2. The broad classes of insulation systems reviewed include foams (including advanced aerogels) and multilayer insulation (MLI) systems with vacuum. The MLI systems show promise for long-term applications. Structural configurations evaluated include single- and double-wall constructions, including sandwich construction. Potential wall material candidates are monolithic metals as well as polymer matrix composites and discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. For short-duration flight applications, simple tank designs may suffice. Alternatively, for longer duration flight applications, a double-wall construction with a vacuum-based insulation system appears to be the most optimum design. The current trends in liner material development are reviewed in the case that a liner is required to minimize or eliminate the loss of hydrogen fuel through permeation.

  2. Hydrogen storage container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  3. Hydrogen storage in graphitic nanofibres

    OpenAIRE

    McCaldin, Simon Roger

    2007-01-01

    There is huge need to develop an alternative to hydrocarbons fuel, which does not produce CO2 or contribute to global warming - 'the hydrogen economy' is such an alternative, however the storage of hydrogen is the key technical barrier that must be overcome. The potential of graphitic nanofibres (GNFs) to be used as materials to allow the solid-state storage of hydrogen has thus been investigated. This has been conducted with a view to further developing the understanding of the mechanism(s) ...

  4. Storage of hydrogen in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiswall, R.

    1981-01-01

    A review is dedicated to a problem of hydrogen storage as fuel of future, that can be used under various conditions, is easily obtained with the help of other types of energy and can be transformed into them. Data on reversible metal-hydrogen systems, where hydrogen can be obtained by the way of reaction of thermal decomposition are presented. Pressure-temperature-content diagrams, information on concrete Pd-H, TiFe-H, V-N systems are presented and analyzed from the point of view of thermodynamics. A table with thermodynamical characteristics of several hydrides is presented. The majority of known solid hydrides in relation to their use for hydrogen storage are characterized. The review includes information on real or supposed uses in concrete systems: in fuel cells, for levelling of loading of electric plants, in automobile engines, in hydride engines, for heat storage [ru

  5. Safety considerations for compressed hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the safety considerations for various hydrogen storage options, including stationary, vehicle storage, and mobile refueling technologies. Indications of some of the challenges facing the industry as the demand for hydrogen fuel storage systems increases. (author)

  6. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeholm, B.; Kjøller, John; Larsen, Bent

    1980-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen with commercially pure magnesium powder (above 99.7%) was investigated in the temperature range 250–400 °C. Hydrogen is readily sorbed above the dissociation pressure. During the initial exposure the magnesium powder sorbs hydrogen slowly below 400 °C but during the second...... that the particles do not disintegrate is explained by a sintering process at the working temperatures. Exposure to air does not impair the sorption ability; on the contrary, it appears that surface oxidation plays an important role in the reaction. Some handling problems, e.g. the reaction of the hydride with water...

  7. Hydrogen storage in nanostructured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assfour, Bassem

    2011-02-28

    Hydrogen is an appealing energy carrier for clean energy use. However, storage of hydrogen is still the main bottleneck for the realization of an energy economy based on hydrogen. Many materials with outstanding properties have been synthesized with the aim to store enough amount of hydrogen under ambient conditions. Such efforts need guidance from material science, which includes predictive theoretical tools. Carbon nanotubes were considered as promising candidates for hydrogen storage applications, but later on it was found to be unable to store enough amounts of hydrogen under ambient conditions. New arrangements of carbon nanotubes were constructed and hydrogen sorption properties were investigated using state-of-the-art simulation methods. The simulations indicate outstanding total hydrogen uptake (up to 19.0 wt.% at 77 K and 5.52wt.% at 300 K), which makes these materials excellent candidates for storage applications. This reopens the carbon route to superior materials for a hydrogen-based economy. Zeolite imidazolate frameworks are subclass of MOFs with an exceptional chemical and thermal stability. The hydrogen adsorption in ZIFs was investigated as a function of network geometry and organic linker exchange. Ab initio calculations performed at the MP2 level to obtain correct interaction energies between hydrogen molecules and the ZIF framework. Subsequently, GCMC simulations are carried out to obtain the hydrogen uptake of ZIFs at different thermodynamic conditions. The best of these materials (ZIF-8) is found to be able to store up to 5 wt.% at 77 K and high pressure. We expected possible improvement of hydrogen capacity of ZIFs by substituting the metal atom (Zn{sup 2+}) in the structure by lighter elements such as B or Li. Therefore, we investigated the energy landscape of LiB(IM)4 polymorphs in detail and analyzed their hydrogen storage capacities. The structure with the fau topology was shown to be one of the best materials for hydrogen storage. Its

  8. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    concepts transferred from the gaseous state. Separation of a ... molecular mass to that calculated by colligative methods. It is important in ... namics is vital in the design and optimization of the materials for hydrogen ... vehicular applications.

  9. Final Report: Metal Perhydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J-Y.; Shi, S.; Hackney, S.; Swenson, D.; Hu, Y.

    2011-07-26

    Hydrogen is a promising energy source for the future economy due to its environmental friendliness. One of the important obstacles for the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel source for applications such as fuel cells is the storage of hydrogen. In the infrastructure of the expected hydrogen economy, hydrogen storage is one of the key enabling technologies. Although hydrogen possesses the highest gravimetric energy content (142 KJ/g) of all fuels, its volumetric energy density (8 MJ/L) is very low. It is desired to increase the volumetric energy density of hydrogen in a system to satisfy various applications. Research on hydrogen storage has been pursed for many years. Various storage technologies, including liquefaction, compression, metal hydride, chemical hydride, and adsorption, have been examined. Liquefaction and high pressure compression are not desired due to concerns related to complicated devices, high energy cost and safety. Metal hydrides and chemical hydrides have high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities but encounter issues because high temperature is required for the release of hydrogen, due to the strong bonding of hydrogen in the compounds. Reversibility of hydrogen loading and unloading is another concern. Adsorption of hydrogen on high surface area sorbents such as activated carbon and organic metal frameworks does not have the reversibility problem. But on the other hand, the weak force (primarily the van der Waals force) between hydrogen and the sorbent yields a very small amount of adsorption capacity at ambient temperature. Significant storage capacity can only be achieved at low temperatures such as 77K. The use of liquid nitrogen in a hydrogen storage system is not practical. Perhydrides are proposed as novel hydrogen storage materials that may overcome barriers slowing advances to a hydrogen fuel economy. In conventional hydrides, e.g. metal hydrides, the number of hydrogen atoms equals the total valence of the metal ions. One Li

  10. Hydrogen storage development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.J.; Guthrie, S.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A summary of the hydride development efforts for the current program year (FY98) are presented here. The Mg-Al-Zn alloy system was studied at low Zn levels (2--4 wt%) and midrange Al contents (40--60 wt%). Higher plateau pressures were found with Al and Zn alloying in Mg and, furthermore, it was found that the hydrogen desorption kinetics were significantly improved with small additions of Zn. Results are also shown here for a detailed study of the low temperature properties of Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4}, and a comparison made between conventional melt cast alloy and the vapor process material.

  11. Hydrogen storage in complex hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupu, D.; Biris, A. R.; Misan, I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in mobile and stationary applications. A relevant role of the fuel cell powered vehicles on the market of the transportation systems will be achieved only if the research and development of on-board vehicular hydrogen storage are able to allow a driving range of at least 500 km. The on-board hydrogen storage systems are more challenging due to the space, weight and cost limitations. This range of autonomy between refueling requires materials able to store at least 6.5% weight hydrogen, available at moderate pressures, at the working temperature of the fuel cells and with acceptable cycling stability. The intensive research on the hydrogen storage in alloys and intermetallic of the LaNi 5 , FeTi or Laves phase type compounds, which started more than three decades ago did not resulted in materials of more than about 3% H storage capacities. The 7.5% H content of the Mg hydride is still of attracting interest but though the absorption has been achieved at lower temperatures by ball milling magnesium with various amounts of nickel, the desorption can not be attained at 1 bar H 2 below 280 deg. C and the kinetics of the process is too slow. In the last decade, the attention is focused on another class of compounds, the complex hydrides of aluminum with alkali metals (alanates), due to their high hydrogen content. It was found that doping with Ti-based catalysts improve the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation conditions of NaAlH 4 . Later on, it was shown that ball milling with solid state catalysts greatly improve the hydrogen desorption kinetics of NaAlH 4 , and this also helps to the rehydriding process. The hydrogen desorption from NaAlH 4 occurs in three steps, it shows a reversible storage capacity of 5.5% H and this led to further research work for a better knowledge of its application relating properties. In this work, ball milling experiments on Na

  12. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (0.05 kg H2/kgsystem), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/Lsystem). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material properties-and most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  13. Resistance probe for liquid hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauval, J.J.

    1959-01-01

    A simple device for determining the level of a liquid in equilibrium with its vapour is described. It makes use of the variation in heat exchange between a filament heated by a current and the atmosphere, on passing from the liquid to the gas. This apparatus is used to measure liquid hydrogen levels in liquefying dewar vessels. (author) [fr

  14. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S.

    2017-12-12

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  15. Liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougon, M.; Marquet, M.; Prugne, P.

    1961-01-01

    A description is given of 1) Atmospheric pressure target: liquid hydrogen, 400 mm thickness; thermal insulation: styrofoam; the hydrogen vapors are used to improve the target cooling; Mylar windows. 2) Vacuum target: 12 liter content: hydrogen or deuterium; liquid thickness 400 mm; thermal insulation is afforded by a vacuum vessel and a liquid nitrogen shield. Recovery and liquefaction of deuterium vapors are managed in the vacuum vessel which holds the target. The target emptying system is designed for operating in a few minutes. (author) [fr

  16. Amineborane Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2011-01-01

    The development of efficient and safe methods for hydrogen storage is a major hurdle that must be overcome to enable the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier. The objectives of this project in the DOE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydride Storage were both to develop new methods for on-demand, low temperature hydrogen release from chemical hydrides and to design high-conversion off-board methods for chemical hydride regeneration. Because of their reactive protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens and high hydrogen contents, amineboranes such as ammonia borane, NH 3 BH 3 (AB), 19.6-wt% H 2 , and ammonia triborane NH 3 B 3 H 7 (AT), 17.7-wt% H 2 , were initially identified by the Center as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage materials with the potential to store and deliver molecular hydrogen through dehydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions. In collaboration with other Center partners, the Penn project focused both on new methods to induce amineborane H 2 -release and on new strategies for the regeneration the amineborane spent-fuel materials. The Penn approach to improving amineborane H 2 -release focused on the use of ionic liquids, base additives and metal catalysts to activate AB dehydrogenation and these studies successfully demonstrated that in ionic liquids the AB induction period that had been observed in the solid-state was eliminated and both the rate and extent of AB H2-release were significantly increased. These results have clearly shown that, while improvements are still necessary, many of these systems have the potential to achieve DOE hydrogen-storage goals. The high extent of their H 2 -release, the tunability of both their H 2 materials weight-percents and release rates, and their product control that is attained by either trapping or suppressing unwanted volatile side products, such as borazine, continue to make AB/ionic-liquid based systems attractive candidates for chemical hydrogen storage applications. These

  17. Amineborane Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneddon, Larry G.

    2011-04-21

    The development of efficient and safe methods for hydrogen storage is a major hurdle that must be overcome to enable the use of hydrogen as an alternative energy carrier. The objectives of this project in the DOE Center of Excellence in Chemical Hydride Storage were both to develop new methods for on-demand, low temperature hydrogen release from chemical hydrides and to design high-conversion off-board methods for chemical hydride regeneration. Because of their reactive protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens and high hydrogen contents, amineboranes such as ammonia borane, NH3BH3 (AB), 19.6-wt% H2, and ammonia triborane NH3B3H7 (AT), 17.7-wt% H2, were initially identified by the Center as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage materials with the potential to store and deliver molecular hydrogen through dehydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions. In collaboration with other Center partners, the Penn project focused both on new methods to induce amineborane H2-release and on new strategies for the regeneration the amineborane spent-fuel materials. The Penn approach to improving amineborane H2-release focused on the use of ionic liquids, base additives and metal catalysts to activate AB dehydrogenation and these studies successfully demonstrated that in ionic liquids the AB induction period that had been observed in the solid-state was eliminated and both the rate and extent of AB H2-release were significantly increased. These results have clearly shown that, while improvements are still necessary, many of these systems have the potential to achieve DOE hydrogen-storage goals. The high extent of their H2­-release, the tunability of both their H2 materials weight-percents and release rates, and their product control that is attained by either trapping or suppressing unwanted volatile side products, such as borazine, continue to make AB/ionic­-liquid based systems attractive candidates for chemical hydrogen storage applications. These studies also

  18. Composition and method for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wendy L. (Inventor); Mao, Ho-Kwang (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method for hydrogen storage includes providing water and hydrogen gas to a containment volume, reducing the temperature of the water and hydrogen gas to form a hydrogen clathrate at a first cryogenic temperature and a first pressure and maintaining the hydrogen clathrate at second cryogenic temperature within a temperature range of up to 250 K to effect hydrogen storage. The low-pressure hydrogen hydrate includes H.sub.2 O molecules, H.sub.2 molecules and a unit cell including polyhedron cages of hydrogen-bonded frameworks of the H.sub.2 O molecules built around the H.sub.2 molecules.

  19. Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered glass microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambach, G.D.

    1995-04-18

    New, high strength glass microspheres filled with pressurized hydrogen exhibit densities which make them attractive for bulk hydrogen storage and transport. The membrane tensile stress at failure for our engineered glass microspheres is about 150,000 psi, permitting a threefold increase in pressure limit and storage capacity above commercial microspheres, which have been studied a decade ago and have been shown to fail at membrane stresses of 50,000 psi. Our analysis relating glass microspheres for hydrogen transport with infrastructure and economics, indicate that pressurized microspheres can be economically competitive with other forms of bulk rail and truck transport such as pressurized tube transports and liquid hydrogen trailers.

  20. Hydrogen-based electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-08-06

    An energy storage device (100) providing high storage densities via hydrogen storage. The device (100) includes a counter electrode (110), a storage electrode (130), and an ion conducting membrane (120) positioned between the counter electrode (110) and the storage electrode (130). The counter electrode (110) is formed of one or more materials with an affinity for hydrogen and includes an exchange matrix for elements/materials selected from the non-noble materials that have an affinity for hydrogen. The storage electrode (130) is loaded with hydrogen such as atomic or mono-hydrogen that is adsorbed by a hydrogen storage material such that the hydrogen (132, 134) may be stored with low chemical bonding. The hydrogen storage material is typically formed of a lightweight material such as carbon or boron with a network of passage-ways or intercalants for storing and conducting mono-hydrogen, protons, or the like. The hydrogen storage material may store at least ten percent by weight hydrogen (132, 134) at ambient temperature and pressure.

  1. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan; D Manager

    2012-03-14

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  2. Innovative hydrogen storage in hollow glass-microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keding, M.; Schmid, G.; Tajmar, M. [Austrian Research Centers, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen storage technologies are becoming increasingly important for a number of future applications. The Austrian Research Centers (ARC) are developing a unique hydrogen storage system that combines the advantages of both hollow glass microsphere and chemical compound hydrogen storage, but eliminates their respective drawbacks. Water is utilized as a functional liquid to carry the hollow glass microspheres that are loaded with up to 700 bar of hydrogen gas. Sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) is then injected together with the glass microspheres into a reaction chamber where the water reacts catalytically with the NaBH{sub 4} producing hydrogen and heat. The heat is then utilized to release the hydrogen from the hollow glass microspheres providing a double hydrogen generation process without any external energy or heat during storage or gas release. The paper described this hydrogen storage system with particular reference to microspheres, the coating process, the experimental facility and NaBH{sub 4} test results. It was concluded that hydrogen storage and production on demand is possible with microspheres and sodium borohydride solution. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  3. Liquid Hydrogen Sensor Considerations for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2006-01-01

    The on-orbit management of liquid hydrogen planned for the return to the moon will introduce new considerations not encountered in previous missions. This paper identifies critical liquid hydrogen sensing needs from the perspective of reliable on-orbit cryogenic fluid management, and contrasts the fundamental differences in fluid and thermodynamic behavior for ground-based versus on-orbit conditions. Opportunities for advanced sensor development and implementation are explored in the context of critical Exploration Architecture operations such as on-orbit storage, docking, and trans-lunar injection burn. Key sensing needs relative to these operations are also examined, including: liquid/vapor detection, thermodynamic condition monitoring, mass gauging, and leak detection. Finally, operational aspects of an integrated system health management approach are discussed to highlight the potential impact on mission success.

  4. Hydrogen storage and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di-Jia

    2018-01-01

    Global warming and future energy supply are two major challenges facing American public today. To overcome such challenges, it is imperative to maximize the existing fuel utilization with new conversion technologies while exploring alternative energy sources with minimal environmental impact. Hydrogen fuel cell represents a next-generation energy-efficient technology in transportation and stationary power productions. In this presentation, a brief overview of the current technology status of on-board hydrogen storage and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell in transportation will be provided. The directions of the future researches in these technological fields, including a recent "big idea" of "H2@Scale" currently developed at the U. S. Department of Energy, will also be discussed.

  5. Impact of hydrogen onboard storage technologies on the performance of hydrogen fuelled vehicles: A techno-economic well-to-wheel assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen onboard storage technologies form an important factor in the overall performance of hydrogen fuelled transportation, both energetically and economically. Particularly, advanced storage options such as metal hydrides and carbon nanotubes are often hinted favourable to conventional, liquid

  6. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 5 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen transportation/storage technology. 3. development of liquid hydrogen storage equipment); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 5 suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu dai 3 hen ekitai suiso chozo setsubi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the WE-NET development of large capacity liquid hydrogen storage technology, a study has been continued with a target of 50000 m{sup 3} storage development. As to the result of conceptual design and various types of the thermal insulating structure, to confirm the performance, studies were made on the thermal insulating performance test and the strength test on thermal insulating materials to be started in fiscal 1998. The large-capacity common testing equipment for thermal insulation performance to be used in and after fiscal 1998 was fabricated, and the basic performance of the equipment was confirmed by the preliminary cooling test. Further, the test pieces simulated of various thermal insulating structures were designed to study the thermal insulation performance, reformation during the test, strength, etc. It is required to solve problems such as weight reduction of test pieces, prevention of reformation, retention of vacuum, etc. In the test on strength of thermal insulating materials, a test is conducted to confirm strength of thermal insulating materials at temperatures of hydrogen by the extremely low temperature strength test equipment. The studies on test pieces to be used were summed up including the items to be paid attention to during the test because the test situation is different from that in testing metal materials. Since hydrogen is a very flammable gas, much attention should be paid to safety during the test. 13 refs., 63 figs., 32 tabs.

  7. Prospects for hydrogen storage in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzini, Valentina; Pellegrini, Vittorio

    2013-01-07

    Hydrogen-based fuel cells are promising solutions for the efficient and clean delivery of electricity. Since hydrogen is an energy carrier, a key step for the development of a reliable hydrogen-based technology requires solving the issue of storage and transport of hydrogen. Several proposals based on the design of advanced materials such as metal hydrides and carbon structures have been made to overcome the limitations of the conventional solution of compressing or liquefying hydrogen in tanks. Nevertheless none of these systems are currently offering the required performances in terms of hydrogen storage capacity and control of adsorption/desorption processes. Therefore the problem of hydrogen storage remains so far unsolved and it continues to represent a significant bottleneck to the advancement and proliferation of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies. Recently, however, several studies on graphene, the one-atom-thick membrane of carbon atoms packed in a honeycomb lattice, have highlighted the potentialities of this material for hydrogen storage and raise new hopes for the development of an efficient solid-state hydrogen storage device. Here we review on-going efforts and studies on functionalized and nanostructured graphene for hydrogen storage and suggest possible developments for efficient storage/release of hydrogen under ambient conditions.

  8. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  9. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  10. Magnesium mechanical alloys for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Konstanchuk, I.; Stepanov, A.; Boldyrev, V.

    1985-01-01

    Metal hybrides are currently being used to store and handle hydrogen and its isotopes. They are also being tested in hydrogen compressors and in heat energy, refrigerators and in hydrogen and thermal storage devices. Metal hydrides have been proposed as one of the possible media for hydrogen storage to overcome the limitations of other techniques in regard to safety hydrogen weight and volume ration. The suitability of metal hybrides as a hydrogen storage media depends on a number of factors such as storage capacity, reactivity with hydrogen at various pressures and temperatures, and the cost of base materials. Magnesium based alloys are promising materials for storing hydrogen. They are generally made by argon melting and no attention has been payed to other fabrication techniques such as mechanical alloying or powder technique

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on World Energy Network (WE-NET). Subtask 5. Development of hydrogen transportation and storage technologies (development of liquid hydrogen storage facilities); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaiahtsu (ekitai suiso chozo setsubi no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    An insulation structure suitable for large tanks was tested for insulation capability and strength at the liquid hydrogen temperature for the development of liquid hydrogen storage facilities. For the insulation test, a specimen was built of a porous solid material, and the specimen was given an additional duty of serving a test of a high temperature plate that was to impose loads on the specimen. The test conditions were not met, however, with too much variation in presence in temperature distribution. For the structural material compressive strength test, a method was worked out involving a hard urethane foam material specimen in liquid hydrogen, and was implemented. It was found that the specimen fracture that occurred was in the form of the collapse of the loaded surface. Tests were conducted at three temperatures, which were the normal temperature, the liquid nitrogen temperature, and the liquid hydrogen temperature, and compressive strength was determined for each of the three cases. No great difference in strength resulted from the difference between the two low temperatures. As for compressive strength at low temperatures, it was found that the strength was approximately two times greater than at the normal temperature. The above findings indicate that hard polyurethane foam is on the safe side when it is designed for the normal temperature. (NEDO)

  12. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  13. Hydrogen storage composition and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Leung K; Wicks, George G.

    2003-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition based on a metal hydride dispersed in an aerogel prepared by a sol-gel process. The starting material for the aerogel is an organometallic compound, including the alkoxysilanes, organometals of the form M(OR)x and MOxRy, where R is an alkyl group of the form C.sub.n H.sub.2n+1, M is an oxide-forming metal, n, x, and y are integers, and y is two less than the valence of M. A sol is prepared by combining the starting material, alcohol, water, and an acid. The sol is conditioned to the proper viscosity and a hydride in the form of a fine powder is added. The mixture is polymerized and dried under supercritical conditions. The final product is a composition having a hydride uniformly dispersed throughout an inert, stable and highly porous matrix. It is capable of absorbing up to 30 moles of hydrogen per kilogram at room temperature and pressure, rapidly and reversibly. Hydrogen absorbed by the composition can be readily be recovered by heat or evacuation.

  14. Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered glass microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambach, G.D.

    1995-02-28

    New, high strength glass microspheres filled with pressurized hydrogen exhibit densities which make them attractive for bulk hydrogen storage and transport. The membrane tensile stress at failure for engineered glass microspheres is about 150,000 psi, permitting a three-fold increase in pressure limit and storage capacity above commercial microspheres, which have been studied a decade ago and have been shown to fail at membrane stresses of 50,000 psi. This analysis relating glass microspheres for hydrogen transport with infrastructure and economics, indicate that pressurized microspheres can be economically competitive with other forms of bulk rail and truck transport such as pressurized tube transports and liquid hydrogen trailers. This paper will describe the matching of current glass microspheres with the useful application in commercial hydrogen bulk transport and storage.

  15. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 5. Development of hydrogen transport/storage technology (development of storage facility for liquid hydrogen); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (ekitai suiso chozo setsubi no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    As a part of the WE-NET project, the storage facility for a large amount of liquid hydrogen (LH) was studied. Gasification loss caused by heat input of LH delivery pumps was studied for liquefaction and power generation bases assuming an pump efficiency of 70%, and the total heat and mass balance such as interface conditions for calculating the amount of boil-off gas was reviewed. The target storage capacity of 50,000m{sup 3} was reasonable, however, the performance of loading arms should be examined. The capacity around 5,000m{sup 3} of coastal localized bases was reasonable for control delivery loss caused by coastal tanker or LH container system to 2.6%. The capacity of 500m{sup 3} was suitable for inland bases, resulting in the loss of 1.2%. The concept design of the storage tank of 50,000m{sup 3} extracted confirmation of low-temperature characteristics of adiabatic materials and structures, and development of leakage inspection technology and vacuum holding technology as issues. The concept design of the underground storage tank showed that the material specifications for LNG ones are applicable to it by using proper adiabatic structures. 4 refs., 72 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Hydrogen storage by physisorption on porous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panella, B.

    2006-09-13

    A great challenge for commercializing hydrogen powered vehicles is on-board hydrogen storage using economic and secure systems. A possible solution is hydrogen storage in light-weight solid materials. Here three principle storage mechanisms can be distinguished: i) absorption of hydrogen in metals ii) formation of compounds with ionic character, like complex hydrides and iii) physisorption (or physical adsorption) of hydrogen molecules on porous materials. Physical adsorption exhibits several advantages over chemical hydrogen storage as for example the complete reversibility and the fast kinetics. Two classes of porous materials were investigated for physical hydrogen storage, i.e. different carbon nanostructures and crystalline metal-organic frameworks possessing extremely high specific surface area. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms were measured using a Sieverts' apparatus both at room temperature and at 77 K at pressures up to the saturation regime. Additionally, the adsorption sites of hydrogen in these porous materials were identified using thermal desorption spectroscopy extended to very low temperatures (down to 20 K). Furthermore, the adsorbed hydrogen phase was studied in various materials using Raman spectroscopy at different pressures and temperatures. The results show that the maximum hydrogen storage capacity of porous materials correlates linearly with the specific surface area and is independent of structure and composition. In addition the pore structure of the adsorbent plays an important role for hydrogen storage since the adsorption sites for H2 could be assigned to pores possessing different dimensions. Accordingly it was shown that small pores are necessary to reach high storage capacities already at low pressures. This new understanding may help to tailor and optimize new porous materials for hydrogen storage. (orig.)

  17. Hydrogen storage by physisorption on porous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panella, B

    2006-09-13

    A great challenge for commercializing hydrogen powered vehicles is on-board hydrogen storage using economic and secure systems. A possible solution is hydrogen storage in light-weight solid materials. Here three principle storage mechanisms can be distinguished: i) absorption of hydrogen in metals ii) formation of compounds with ionic character, like complex hydrides and iii) physisorption (or physical adsorption) of hydrogen molecules on porous materials. Physical adsorption exhibits several advantages over chemical hydrogen storage as for example the complete reversibility and the fast kinetics. Two classes of porous materials were investigated for physical hydrogen storage, i.e. different carbon nanostructures and crystalline metal-organic frameworks possessing extremely high specific surface area. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms were measured using a Sieverts' apparatus both at room temperature and at 77 K at pressures up to the saturation regime. Additionally, the adsorption sites of hydrogen in these porous materials were identified using thermal desorption spectroscopy extended to very low temperatures (down to 20 K). Furthermore, the adsorbed hydrogen phase was studied in various materials using Raman spectroscopy at different pressures and temperatures. The results show that the maximum hydrogen storage capacity of porous materials correlates linearly with the specific surface area and is independent of structure and composition. In addition the pore structure of the adsorbent plays an important role for hydrogen storage since the adsorption sites for H2 could be assigned to pores possessing different dimensions. Accordingly it was shown that small pores are necessary to reach high storage capacities already at low pressures. This new understanding may help to tailor and optimize new porous materials for hydrogen storage. (orig.)

  18. Seasonal storage and alternative carriers: A flexible hydrogen supply chain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuß, M.; Grube, T.; Robinius, M.; Preuster, P.; Wasserscheid, P.; Stolten, D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Techno-economic model of future hydrogen supply chains. •Implementation of liquid organic hydrogen carriers into a hydrogen mobility analysis. •Consideration of large-scale seasonal storage for fluctuating renewable hydrogen production. •Implementation of different technologies for hydrogen storage and transportation. -- Abstract: A viable hydrogen infrastructure is one of the main challenges for fuel cells in mobile applications. Several studies have investigated the most cost-efficient hydrogen supply chain structure, with a focus on hydrogen transportation. However, supply chain models based on hydrogen produced by electrolysis require additional seasonal hydrogen storage capacity to close the gap between fluctuation in renewable generation from surplus electricity and fuelling station demand. To address this issue, we developed a model that draws on and extends approaches in the literature with respect to long-term storage. Thus, we analyse Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHC) and show their potential impact on future hydrogen mobility. We demonstrate that LOHC-based pathways are highly promising especially for smaller-scale hydrogen demand and if storage in salt caverns remains uncompetitive, but emit more greenhouse gases (GHG) than other gaseous or hydrogen ones. Liquid hydrogen as a seasonal storage medium offers no advantage compared to LOHC or cavern storage since lower electricity prices for flexible operation cannot balance the investment costs of liquefaction plants. A well-to-wheel analysis indicates that all investigated pathways have less than 30% GHG-emissions compared to conventional fossil fuel pathways within a European framework.

  19. Mechanisms of dispersion during liquid hydrogen leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proust, C.; Gaston, D.

    2000-01-01

    INERIS conducts research programs with a mission of assessing and preventing accidental and chronic risks to people and the environment due to industrial plants, chemical substances and underground operation. This paper is a study of the dispersion mechanism of cryogenic hydrogen and the mechanisms of flame propagation in clouds of hydrogen. The objective is to contribute to the industrial control implementation of significant storage of hydrogen liquid that has pressure close to the atmospheric pressure. Within the framework of this program, the only interest is with the risk presented by escape of significant flow. This corresponds to accidental ruptures in tanks. The following four phases are looked at: the escape incident and the determination of the leak flow; the formation of the liquid layer and the vaporization of the hydrogen; the formation of the Hydrogen cloud in air; and the explosive ignition in the atmosphere, propagation of the explosive flame and evaluation of the pressure wave. This situation has been limited to dispersion in free air and does not consider the impact of containment

  20. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 5. Development of technology of hydrogen transportation/storage (3rd edition, development of liquid hydrogen storage equipment, report on results of Air Liquide); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). Subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (daisanpen ekitai suiso chozo setsubi no kaihatsu Air Liquide sha seika hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In the fiscal 1995 study, items were searched which are keys to the design of a liquid hydrogen tanker of a capacity of 200,000m{sup 3}. Among those, the basic concepts were summarized which are necessary for the design of a liquid hydrogen tanker in terms of safety, and the extraporation of the existing low temperature technology into the large liquid hydrogen tank was studied. When adopting safety conditions of IGC Code applied to LNG to the liquid hydrogen tanker, it is necessary to limit the discharge amount of hydrogen to 3 kg/s. When considering safety at fire, for keeping safety of the same level as that of the LNG tanker, it is not appropriate to adopt the conventional vacuum insulation liquid hydrogen tank. In the fiscal 1995 study, 7 kinds of concept of the insulation structure were assumed, and it was concluded that BOR of 0.04-0.23/d was obtained. Also in fiscal 1996, the large liquid hydrogen tank was studied. For insulation of the large liquid hydrogen tank, the structure is most promising where AEROSIL bag or homogeneous AEROSIL is substituted for a forming heat insulating material of 4 design, but further study is needed for selection of the optimum heat insulating structure. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Potassium doped MWCNTs for hydrogen storage enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adabi Qomi, S.; Gashtasebi, M.; Khoshnevisan, B.

    2012-01-01

    Here we have used potassium doped MWCNTs for enhancement of hydrogen storage process. XRD and SEM images have confirmed the doping of potassium. For studying the storage process a hydrogenic battery set up has been used. In the battery the working electrode has been made of the silver foam deposited by the doped MWCNTs electrophoretically.

  2. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a bottom-up costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with ® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target

  3. Metal ammine complexes for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink; Johannessen, Tue

    2005-01-01

    The hopes of using hydrogen as an energy carrier are severely dampened by the fact that there is still no safe, high-density method available for storing hydrogen. We investigate the possibility of using metal ammine complexes as a solid form of hydrogen storage. Using Mg(NH3)(6)Cl-2 as the example......, we show that it can store 9.1% hydrogen by weight in the form of ammonia. The storage is completely reversible, and by combining it with an ammonia decomposition catalyst, hydrogen can be delivered at temperatures below 620 K....

  4. Hydrogen storage: state-of-the-art and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzimas, E.; Filiou, C.; Peteves, S.D.; Veyret, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    The EU aims at establishing a sustainable energy supply, able to provide affordable and clean energy without increasing green house gas emissions. Hydrogen and fuel cells are seen by many as key energy system solutions for the 21. century, enabling clean and efficient production of power and heat from a broad range of primary energy sources. To be effective, there is a crucial need for well-coordinated research, development and deployment at European Level. The particular segment of hydrogen storage is one key element of the full hydrogen chain and it must meet a number of challenges before it is introduced into the global energy system. Regarding its energy characteristics, the gravimetric energy density of hydrogen is about three times higher than gasoline, but its energy content per volume is about a quarter. Therefore, the most significant problem for hydrogen (in particular for on-board vehicles) is to store sufficient -amounts of hydrogen. The volumetric energy density of hydrogen can be increased by compression or liquefaction which are both the most mature technologies. Still the energy required for both compression and liquefaction is one element to be properly assessed in considering the different pathways in particular for distribution. As far as on-board vehicle storage is concerned all possible options (compressed, liquid, metal hydrides and porous structures) have their own advantages and disadvantages with respect to weight, volume, energy efficiency, refuelling times, cost and safety aspects. To address these problems, long-term commitments to scientific excellence in research, coupled with co-ordination between the many different stakeholders, is required. In the current state-of-the-art in hydrogen storage, no single technology satisfies all of the criteria required by manufacturers and end-users, and a large number of obstacles have to be overcome. The current hydrogen storage technologies and their associated limitations/needs for improvement

  5. Storage, generation, and use of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClaine, Andrew W.; Rolfe, Jonathan L.; Larsen, Christopher A.; Konduri, Ravi K.

    2006-05-30

    A composition comprising a carrier liquid; a dispersant; and a chemical hydride. The composition can be used in a hydrogen generator to generate hydrogen for use, e.g., as a fuel. A regenerator recovers elemental metal from byproducts of the hydrogen generation process.

  6. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nano-materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Eyler; Michel Junker; Emanuelle Breysse Carraboeuf; Laurent Allidieres; David Guichardot; Fabien Roy; Isabelle Verdier; Edward Mc Rae; Moulay Rachid Babaa; Gilles Flamant; David Luxembourg; Daniel Laplaze; Patrick Achard; Sandrine Berthon-Fabry; David Langohr; Laurent Fulcheri

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a French project related to hydrogen storage in carbon nano-materials. This 3 years project, co-funded by the ADEME (French Agency for the Environment and the Energy Management), aimed to assess the hydrogen storage capacity of carbon nano-materials. Four different carbon materials were synthesized and characterized in the frame of present project: - Carbon Nano-tubes; - Carbon Nano-fibres; - Carbon Aerogel; - Carbon Black. All materials tested in the frame of this project present a hydrogen uptake of less than 1 wt% (-20 C to 20 C). A state of the art of hydrogen storage systems has been done in order to determine the research trends and the maturity of the different technologies. The choice and design of hydrogen storage systems regarding fuel cell specifications has also been studied. (authors)

  7. Storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.; Hagler, R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Current practices and future requirements for the storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen are reviewed in order to identify inadequacies to be corrected before hydrogen can achieve its full potential as a substitute for fossil fuels. Consideration is given to the storage of hydrogen in underground solution-mined salt caverns, portable high-pressure containers and dewars, pressure vessels and aquifers and as metal hydrides, hydrogen transmission in evacuated double-walled insulated containers and by pipeline, and distribution by truck and internal distribution networks. Areas for the improvement of these techniques are indicated, and these technological deficiencies, including materials development, low-cost storage and transmission methods, low-cost, long-life metal hydrides and novel methods for hydrogen storage, are presented as challenges for research and development.

  8. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  9. Advanced compressed hydrogen fuel storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeary, B.

    2000-01-01

    Dynetek was established in 1991 by a group of private investors, and since that time efforts have been focused on designing, improving, manufacturing and marketing advanced compressed fuel storage systems. The primary market for Dynetek fuel systems has been Natural Gas, however as the automotive industry investigates the possibility of using hydrogen as the fuel source solution in Alternative Energy Vehicles, there is a growing demand for hydrogen storage on -board. Dynetek is striving to meet the needs of the industry, by working towards developing a fuel storage system that will be efficient, economical, lightweight and eventually capable of storing enough hydrogen to match the driving range of the current gasoline fueled vehicles

  10. Hydrogen storage technology materials and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klebanoff, Lennie

    2012-01-01

    Zero-carbon, hydrogen-based power technology offers the most promising long-term solution for a secure and sustainable energy infrastructure. With contributions from the world's leading technical experts in the field, Hydrogen Storage Technology: Materials and Applications presents a broad yet unified account of the various materials science, physics, and engineering aspects involved in storing hydrogen gas so that it can be used to provide power. The book helps you understand advanced hydrogen storage materials and how to build systems around them. Accessible to nonscientists, the first chapt

  11. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  12. Hydrogen storage - are we making progress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, L.; Milliken, J.; Satyapal, S.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The efficient storage of hydrogen in compact, lightweight systems that allow greater than 300-mile range has been identified as one of the major technical challenges facing the practical commercialization of fuel cell power systems for light-duty vehicles. Following the hydrogen vision announced by President Bush in his 2003 State of the Union address, the U.S. Department of Energy issued a Grand Challenge, soliciting ideas from universities, national laboratories, and industry. DOE's National Hydrogen Storage Project, an aggressive and innovative research program focused on materials R and D, will be launched in Fiscal Year 2005. An intensive effort is also underway in the private sector, both in the U.S. and abroad, to meet the challenging on-board hydrogen storage requirements. A historical perspective of hydrogen storage research and development will be provided and the current DOE technical targets for hydrogen storage systems will be discussed. The state-of-the-art in hydrogen storage will be summarized and recent progress assessed. Finally future research directions and areas of technical emphasis will be described. (author)

  13. Novel hydrogen storage materials: A review of lightweight complex hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, I.P.; Jain, Pragya; Jain, Ankur

    2010-01-01

    The world is facing energy shortage and has become increasingly depending on new methods to store and convert energy for new, environmentally friendly methods of transportation and electrical energy generation as well as for portable electronics. Mobility - the transport of people and goods - is a socioeconomic reality that will surely increase in the coming years. Non-renewable fossil fuels are projected to decline sharply after 20-30 years. CO 2 emission from burning such fuels is the main cause for global warming. Currently whole world is seeking international commitment to cut emissions of greenhouse gases by 60% by 2050. Hydrogen which can be produced with little or no harmful emissions has been projected as a long term solution for a secure energy future. Increasing application of hydrogen energy is the only way forward to meet the objectives of Department of Energy (DOE), USA, i.e. reducing green house gases, increasing energy security and strengthening the developing countries economy. Any transition from a carbon-based/fossil fuel energy system to a hydrogen based economy involves overcoming significant scientific, technological and socio-economic barriers before ultimate implementation of hydrogen as the clean energy source of the future. Lot of research is going on in the world to find commercially viable solutions for hydrogen production, storage, and utilization, but hydrogen storage is very challenging, as application part of hydrogen energy totally depend on this. During early nineties and now also hydrogen storage as gas, liquid and metal hydride has been undertaken to solve the problem of hydrogen storage and transportation for the utilization as hydrogen energy, but none of these roots could became commercially viable along with the safety aspects for gas and liquid. With the result many new novel materials appeared involving different principles resulting in a fairly complex situation with no correlation between any two materials. In the present

  14. Production, storage, transporation and utilization of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, E.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced from water and it can be used for fuel. Water is formed again by combustion of hydrogen with oxygen in the air. Hydrogen is an ideal fuel because hydrogen itself and gases formed by the combustion of hydrogen are not greenhouse and ozone layer damaging gases. Therefore, hydrogen is the most environmental friendly fuel that we have ever had. Hydrogen gas does not naturally exist. Therefore, hydrogen must be produced from hydrogen containing compounds such as water and hydrocarbons by adding energy. At present, hydrogen is produced in large scale as a raw material for the synthesis of ammonia, methanol and other chemicals but not for fuel. In other words, hydrogen fuel has not been realized but will be actualized in the near future. In this paper hydrogen will be discussed as fuel which will be used for aircraft, space application, power generation, combustion, etc. Especially, production of hydrogen is a very important technology for achieving hydrogen energy systems. Storage, transportation and utilization of hydrogen fuel will also be discussed in this paper

  15. Metal–organic frameworks for hydrogen storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, hydrogen storage in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has received increasing attention worldwide because they possess versatile structures, high surface areas, large free volumes, ultrahigh porosities, and tunable pore...

  16. Multi-component hydrogen storage material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faheem, Syed A.; Lewis, Gregory J.; Sachtler, J.W. Adriaan; Low, John J.; Lesch, David A.; Dosek, Paul M.; Wolverton, Christopher M.; Siegel, Donald J.; Sudik, Andrea C.; Yang, Jun

    2010-09-07

    A reversible hydrogen storage composition having an empirical formula of: Li.sub.(x+z)N.sub.xMg.sub.yB.sub.zH.sub.w where 0.4.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.8; 0.2.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.0.6; 0hydrogen storage compared to binary systems such as MgH.sub.2--LiNH.sub.2.

  17. Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Luping; Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Yang, Junbing

    2013-04-02

    A porous polymer, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene and its derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 are prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

  18. Hydrogen storage by polylithiated molecules and nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Er, S.; de Wijs, Gilles A.; Brocks, G.

    2009-01-01

    We study polylithiated molecules as building blocks for hydrogen storage materials, using first-principles calculations. CLi4 and OLi2 bind 12 and 10 hydrogen molecules, respectively, with an average binding energy of 0.10 and 0.13 eV, leading to gravimetric densities of 37.8 and 40.3 wt % of H2.

  19. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft. [liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene were assessed as alternate fuels for aircraft in terms of cost, capital requirements, and energy resource utilization. Fuel transmission and airport storage and distribution facilities are considered. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed and detailed descriptions of various fuel production and liquefaction processes are given. Technological deficiencies are identified.

  20. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

  1. Treatment and storage of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; An, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Lee, S. H.; Choi, H. J.; Back, S. W.; Kang, H. S.; Eom, K. Y.; Lee, M. S.

    2000-01-01

    Storage of gaseous hydrogen isotopes in a cylinder is a well-established technology. However, Immobilization in the solid form is preferred for long-term storage of radioactive isotope gas because of the concern for leakage of the gas. The experimental thermodynamic p-c-T data show that Ti and U soak up hydrogen isotope gas at a temperature of a few hundred .deg. C and modest pressures. It was found that more hydrogen is dissolved in the metal than deuterium at constant pressure. Thus, the lighter isotope tends to be enriched in the solid phase

  2. Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure container. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.J.; Lystrup, A.

    2005-07-01

    The objective of the project has been to study barriers for a production of advanced high pressure containers especially suitable for hydrogen, in order to create a basis for a container production in Denmark. The project has primarily focused on future Danish need for hydrogen storage in the MWh area. One task has been to examine requirement specifications for pressure tanks that can be expected in connection with these stores. Six potential storage needs have been identified: (1) Buffer in connection with start-up/regulation on the power grid. (2) Hydrogen and oxygen production. (3) Buffer store in connection with VEnzin vision. (4) Storage tanks on hydrogen filling stations. (5) Hydrogen for the transport sector from 1 TWh surplus power. (6) Tanker transport of hydrogen. Requirements for pressure containers for the above mentioned use have been examined. The connection between stored energy amount, pressure and volume compared to liquid hydrogen and oil has been stated in tables. As starting point for production technological considerations and economic calculations of various container concepts, an estimation of laminate thickness in glass-fibre reinforced containers with different diameters and design print has been made, for a 'pure' fibre composite container and a metal/fibre composite container respectively. (BA)

  3. Atomic hydrogen storage method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollam, J. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen, for use as a fuel or as an explosive, is stored in the presence of a strong magnetic field in exfoliated layered compounds such as molybdenum disulfide or an elemental layer material such as graphite. The compounds maintained at liquid helium temperatures and the atomic hydrogen is collected on the surfaces of the layered compound which are exposed during delamination (exfoliation). The strong magnetic field and the low temperature combine to prevent the atoms of hydrogen from recombining to form molecules.

  4. Development of hydrogen storage technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrogen to deliver energy for cars, portable devices and buildings is seen as one of the key steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. South Africa’s national hydrogen strategy, HySA, aims to develop and guide innovation along the value...

  5. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 9. Development of liquid hydrogen transportation and storage technologies - 1; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 9. Ekitai suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu - 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the development of liquid hydrogen transportation and storage technologies. Discussions were given on the following three types of specimens as the heat insulation performance test structures: the vacuum panel type (polyurethane foam coated with SUS sheet, while the inside is kept in the vacuum state); the solid vacuum type (combination of polyurethane foam with vacuum heat insulation); and the powder under normal pressure type (a structure in which the ambient of powder pearlite heat insulating material becomes the atmospheric pressure, whereas a SUS case is set up to separate vacuum layer of the test apparatus from atmosphere layer of the specimen, with the SUS case filled with pearlite). Adding the two types of specimens used in the previous fiscal year, five test specimens in total were discussed on the result of the performance tests to advance the database management. As a low temperature strength test for the insulating materials, the compression test was performed on a microsphere being a kind of solid vacuum (normal pressure) heat insulating materials at room temperature, the liquid nitrogen temperature and in liquid hydrogen atmosphere. The compression strength under liquid hydrogen is 1,044 MPa, which is two times greater than the normal temperature strength of 496 MPa, representing the compression strength rising in proportion with temperature drop. Problems were extracted in developing a small capacity liquid hydrogen transportation and storage system. (NEDO)

  6. Positron annihilation study of hydrogen storage alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Yasuharu; Araki, Hideki; Sakaki, Kouji

    2003-01-01

    Some AB 5 and AB 2 hydrogen storage alloys have been characterized by using positron-annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. It has been shown that they contain no constitutional vacancies and that deviations from the stoichiometric compositions are all compensated by antistructure atoms. Positron lifetimes in fully-annealed LaNi 5-x Al x and MmNi 5-x Al x alloys show good correlation with their hydrogen desorption pressures. On the other hand, surprising amounts of vacancies together with dislocations have been found to be generated during the first hydrogen absorption process of LaNi 5 and ZrMn 2 . These lattice defects play important role in hydrogen absorption-desorption processes of hydrogen storage alloys. (author)

  7. Theory of Hydrogen Storage: A New Strategy within Organometallic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufeng

    2006-03-01

    As one of the most vigorous fields in modern chemistry, organometallic chemistry has made vast contributions to a broad variety of technological fields including catalysis, light emitters, molecular devices, liquid crystals, and even superconductivity. Here we show that organometallic chemistry in nanoscale could be the frontier in hydrogen storage. Our study is based on the notion that the 3d transition metal (TM) atoms are superb absorbers for H storage, as their empty d orbital can bind dihydrogen ligands (elongated but non-dissociated H2) with high capacity at nearly ideal binding energy for reversible hydrogen storage. By embedding the TM atoms into a carbon-based nanostructures, high H capacity can be maintained. This presentation contains four parts. First, by comparing the conventional hydrogen storage media, e.g., metal hydrides and carbon-based materials, the general principles for designing hydrogen storage materials are outlined. Second, organometallic buckyballs are studied to demonstrate the novel strategy. The amount of H2 adsorbed on a Sc-coated fullerene, C48B12 [ScH]12, could approach 9 wt%, with binding energies of 30-40 kJ/mol. Third, the method is applied to the transition-metal carbide nanoparticles that have been synthesized experimentally. The similar non-dissociative H2 binding is revealed in our calculation, thereby demonstrating the resilience of the overall mechanism. Moreover, a novel self-catalysis process is identified. In the fourth part, transition-metal functionalization of highly porous carbon-based materials is discussed heuristically to foresee macroscopic media for hydrogen storage. Finally follows the summary and discussion of the remaining challenges to practical hydrogen storage. Work in collaboration with A. C. Dillon, Y.-H. Kim, M. Heben & S. B. Zhang and supported by the U.S. DOE/EERE under contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337.

  8. Hydrogen storage using microporous carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buczek, B.; Wolak, E.

    2005-01-01

    In the present century hydrogen will lie the most important source of energy and will replace petroleum and petroleum-derived products in the next future. Hydrogen is an almost ideal fuel, both because of its unlimited accessibility and for ecological reasons; the product of its combustion - water vapour - is neither any gaseous contamination nor a component of greenhouse gases. Nowadays hydrogen is applied in industrial processes, but may be also used as a source of house lighting and heating energy, for production of electricity, and as fuel for car engines. Fuel cells, applying reaction between hydrogen and oxygen for production of electricity have been for a long time used in the space technology. Application of hydrogen as fuel should give a possibility of storage and transfer of the high quality energy, i.e. the energy of a high exo-energetic ratio[l]. Due to its low density, one of the main obstacles to the widespread use of hydrogen in energy sector is an efficient storage technology. At present, the methods of hydrogen storage are to liquefy and store in refrigerated containers, which is very expensive, or to store it in high - pressure gas cylinders at room temperature. Unfortunately, low storage density of hydrogen for the latter technique is a significant drawback. Between alternatives have been considered (chemical storage in irreversible hydrogen carriers like methanol or ammonia, reversible metal and chemical hydrides and adsorption in porous media), the latter one seems to be the most promising [2]. Physical adsorption is a method by which more gas can be stored at a lower pressure by means of Van der Waals interactions at the gas solid interface. Adsorptive storage is particularly promising for permanent gases, which need to be stored, transported, or used in ambient temperature. Thanks to the high density of adsorbed phase, adsorptive storage system could allow the storage of a high density of hydrogen at much lower pressures than compression and

  9. Hydrogen storage using microporous carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Buczek; E Wolak

    2005-01-01

    In the present century hydrogen will be the most important source of energy and will replace petroleum and petroleum-derived products in the next future. Hydrogen is an almost ideal fuel, both because of its unlimited accessibility and for ecological reasons; the product of its combustion - water vapour - is neither any gaseous contamination nor a component of greenhouse gases. Nowadays hydrogen is applied in industrial processes, but may be also used as a source of house lighting and heating energy, for production of electricity, and as fuel for car engines. Fuel cells, applying reaction between hydrogen and oxygen for production of electricity have been for a long time used in the space technology. Application of hydrogen as fuel should give a possibility of storage and transfer of the high quality energy, i.e. the energy of a high exo-energetic ratio. Due to its low density, one of the main obstacles to the widespread use of hydrogen in energy sector is an efficient storage technology. At present, the methods of hydrogen storage are to liquefy and store in refrigerated containers, which is very expensive, or to store it in high - pressure gas cylinders at room temperature. Unfortunately, low storage density of hydrogen for the latter technique is a significant drawback. Between alternatives have been considered (chemical storage in irreversible hydrogen carriers like methanol or ammonia, reversible metal and chemical hydrides and adsorption in porous media), the latter one seems to lie the most promising. Physical adsorption is a method by which more gas can be stored at a lower pressure by means of Van der Waals interactions at the gas solid interface. Adsorptive storage is particularly promising for permanent gases, which need to be stored, transported, or used in ambient temperature. Thanks to the high density of adsorbed phase, adsorptive storage system could allow the storage of a high density of hydrogen at much lower pressures than compression and higher

  10. Silicon surface barrier detectors used for liquid hydrogen density measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D. T.; Milam, J. K.; Winslett, H. B.

    1968-01-01

    Multichannel system employing a radioisotope radiation source, strontium-90, radiation detector, and a silicon surface barrier detector, measures the local density of liquid hydrogen at various levels in a storage tank. The instrument contains electronic equipment for collecting the density information, and a data handling system for processing this information.

  11. Solid Aluminum Borohydrides for Prospective Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgaliuk, Iurii; Safin, Damir A; Tumanov, Nikolay A; Morelle, Fabrice; Moulai, Adel; Černý, Radovan; Łodziana, Zbigniew; Devillers, Michel; Filinchuk, Yaroslav

    2017-12-08

    Metal borohydrides are intensively researched as high-capacity hydrogen storage materials. Aluminum is a cheap, light, and abundant element and Al 3+ can serve as a template for reversible dehydrogenation. However, Al(BH 4 ) 3 , containing 16.9 wt % of hydrogen, has a low boiling point, is explosive on air and has poor storage stability. A new family of mixed-cation borohydrides M[Al(BH 4 ) 4 ], which are all solid under ambient conditions, show diverse thermal decomposition behaviors: Al(BH 4 ) 3 is released for M=Li + or Na + , whereas heavier derivatives evolve hydrogen and diborane. NH 4 [Al(BH 4 ) 4 ], containing both protic and hydridic hydrogen, has the lowest decomposition temperature of 35 °C and yields Al(BH 4 ) 3 ⋅NHBH and hydrogen. The decomposition temperatures, correlated with the cations' ionic potential, show that M[Al(BH 4 ) 4 ] species are in the most practical stability window. This family of solids, with convenient and versatile properties, puts aluminum borohydride chemistry in the mainstream of hydrogen storage research, for example, for the development of reactive hydride composites with increased hydrogen content. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Simultaneous purification and storage of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hynek, S.; Fuller, W.; Weber, R.; Carlson, E. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Specially coated magnesium particles have been shown to selectively absorb hydrogen from a hydrogen-rich gas stream such as reformate. These coated magnesium particles can store the absorbed hydrogen as required and subsequently deliver pure hydrogen, just as uncoated magnesium particles can. These coated magnesium particles could be used in a device that accepts a steady stream of reformate, as from a methane reformer, stores the selectively absorbed hydrogen indefinitely, and delivers purified hydrogen on demand. Unfortunately, this coating (magnesium nitride) has been shown to degrade over a period of several weeks, so that the magnesium within evidences progressively lower storage capacity. The authors are investigating two other coatings, one of which might be applicable to hydridable metals other than magnesium, to replace magnesium nitride.

  13. Analysis of hydrogen content and distribution in hydrogen storage alloys using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Hiroki; Hatakeyama, Keisuke; Satake, Yuichi; Esaka, Takao; Fujine, Shigenori; Yoneda, Kenji; Kanda, Keiji

    2000-01-01

    Small amounts of hydrogen in hydrogen storage alloys, such as Mg 2 Ni, were detected using neutron radiography (NRG). Hydrogen concentrations in a hydrogenated solid solution were determined by this technique. Furthermore, we were able to obtain NRG images for an initial stage of hydrogen absorption in the hydrogen storage alloys. NRG would be a new measurement method to clarify the behavior of hydrogen in hydrogen storage alloys. (author)

  14. Hydrogen Storage and Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Abhijit [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, A. S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Mazumder, M. K. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Karabacak, T. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kannarpady, Ganesh [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Sharma, R. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-07-31

    This is the final technical report. This report is a summary of the project. The goal of our project is to improve solar-to-hydrogen generation efficiency of the PhotoElectroChemical (PEC) conversion process by developing photoanodes with high absorption efficiency in the visible region of the solar radiation spectrum and to increase photo-corrosion resistance of the electrode for generating hydrogen from water. To meet this goal, we synthesized nanostructured heterogeneous semiconducting photoanodes with a higher light absorption efficiency compared to that of TiO2 and used a corrosion protective layer of TiO2. While the advantages of photoelectrochemical (PEC) production of hydrogen have not yet been realized, the recent developments show emergence of new nanostructural designs of photoanodes and choices of materials with significant gains in photoconversion efficiency.

  15. Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Leung K.; Schumacher, Ray F.; Wicks, George G.

    2010-02-23

    A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

  16. Hydrogen - High pressure production and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauretta, J.R

    2005-01-01

    The development of simple, safe and more and more efficient technologies for the production and the storage of hydrogen is necessary condition for the transition towards the economy of hydrogen.In this work the hydrogen production studies experimentally to high pressure by electrolysis of alkaline solutions without the intervention of compressing systems and its direct storage in safe containers.The made tests show that the process of electrolysis to high pressure is feasible and has better yield than to low pressure, and that is possible to solve the operation problems, with relatively simple technology.The preliminary studies and tests indicate that the system container that studied is immune to the outbreak and can have forms and very different sizes, nevertheless, to reach or to surpass the efficiency of storage of the conventional systems the investments necessary will be due to make to be able to produce aluminum alloy tubes of high resistance

  17. Nanoengineered Carbon Scaffolds for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, A. D.; Hudson, J. L.; Fan, H.; Booker, R.; Simpson, L. J.; O' Neill, K. J.; Parilla, P. A.; Heben, M. J.; Pasquali, M.; Kittrell, C.; Tour, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) fibers were engineered to become a scaffold for the storage of hydrogen. Carbon nanotube fibers were swollen in oleum (fuming sulfuric acid), and organic spacer groups were covalently linked between the nanotubes using diazonium functionalization chemistry to provide 3-dimensional (3-D) frameworks for the adsorption of hydrogen molecules. These 3-D nanoengineered fibers physisorb twice as much hydrogen per unit surface area as do typical macroporous carbon materials. These fiber-based systems can have high density, and combined with the outstanding thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes, this points a way toward solving the volumetric and heat-transfer constraints that limit some other hydrogen-storage supports.

  18. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Engineering Development Unit Hydrogen Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) project has been a long-running program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate to enhance the knowledge and technology related to handling cryogenic propellants, specifically liquid hydrogen. This particular effort, the CPST engineering development unit (EDU), was a proof of manufacturability effort in support of a flight article. The EDU was built to find and overcome issues related to manufacturability and collect data to anchor the thermal models for use on the flight design.

  19. Process for synthesis of ammonia borane for bulk hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrey, S Thomas [West Richland, WA; Heldebrant, David J [Richland, WA; Linehan, John C [Richland, WA; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J [Richland, WA; Zheng, Feng [Richland, WA

    2011-03-01

    The present invention discloses new methods for synthesizing ammonia borane (NH.sub.3BH.sub.3, or AB). Ammonium borohydride (NH.sub.4BH.sub.4) is formed from the reaction of borohydride salts and ammonium salts in liquid ammonia. Ammonium borohydride is decomposed in an ether-based solvent that yields AB at a near quantitative yield. The AB product shows promise as a chemical hydrogen storage material for fuel cell powered applications.

  20. Metal hydrides for hydrogen storage in nickel hydrogen batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, H.F.; Badcock, C.C.; Quinzio, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    Metal hydride hydrogen storage in nickel hydrogen (Ni/H 2 ) batteries has been shown to increase battery energy density and improve battery heat management capabilities. However the properties of metal hydrides in a Ni/H 2 battery environment, which contains water vapor and oxygen in addition to the hydrogen, have not been well characterized. This work evaluates the use of hydrides in Ni/H 2 batteries by fundamental characterization of metal hydride properties in a Ni/H 2 cell environment. Hydrogen sorption properties of various hydrides have been measured in a Ni/H 2 cell environment. Results of detailed thermodynamic and kinetic studies of hydrogen sorption in LaNi 5 in a Ni/H 2 cell environment are presented. Long-term cycling studies indicate that degradation of the hydride can be minimized by cycling between certain pressure limits. A model describing the mechanism of hydride degradation is presented

  1. Hydrogen storage in graphite nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C.; Tan, C.D.; Hidalgo, R.; Baker, R.T.K.; Rodriguez, N.M. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    1998-08-01

    Graphite nanofibers (GNF) are a type of material that is produced by the decomposition of carbon containing gases over metal catalyst particles at temperatures around 600 C. These molecularly engineered structures consist of graphene sheets perfectly arranged in a parallel, perpendicular or at angle orientation with respect to the fiber axis. The most important feature of the material is that only edges are exposed. Such an arrangement imparts the material with unique properties for gas adsorption because the evenly separated layers constitute the most ordered set of nanopores that can accommodate an adsorbate in the most efficient manner. In addition, the non-rigid pore walls can also expand so as to accommodate hydrogen in a multilayer conformation. Of the many varieties of structures that can be produced the authors have discovered that when gram quantities of a selected number of GNF are exposed to hydrogen at pressures of {approximately} 2,000 psi, they are capable of adsorbing and storing up to 40 wt% of hydrogen. It is believed that a strong interaction is established between hydrogen and the delocalized p-electrons present in the graphite layers and therefore a new type of chemistry is occurring within these confined structures.

  2. Storage of hydrogen in nanostructured carbon materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yürüm, Yuda; Yurum, Yuda; Taralp, Alpay; Veziroğlu, T. Nejat; Veziroglu, T. Nejat

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments focusing on novel hydrogen storage media have helped to benchmark nanostructured carbon materials as one of the ongoing strategic research areas in science and technology. In particular, certain microporous carbon powders, carbon nanomaterials, and specifically carbon nanotubes stand to deliver unparalleled performance as the next generation of base materials for storing hydrogen. Accordingly, the main goal of this report is to overview the challenges, distinguishing trait...

  3. Capacity retention in hydrogen storage alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anani, A.; Visintin, A.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A. J.; Reilly, J. J.; Johnson, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of our examination of the properties of several candidate materials for hydrogen storage electrodes and their relation to the decrease in H-storage capacity upon open-circuit storage over time are reported. In some of the alloy samples examined to date, only about 10 percent of the hydrogen capacity was lost upon storage for 20 days, while in others, this number was as high as 30 percent for the same period of time. This loss in capacity is attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) hydrogen desorbed from the electrode due to pressure differences between the cell and the electrode sample; and (2) chemical and/or electrochemical degradation of the alloy electrode upon exposure to the cell environment. The former process is a direct consequence of the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the hydride alloy phase and the partial pressure of hydrogen in the hydride phase in equilibrium with that in the electrolyte environment, while the latter is related to the stability of the alloy phase in the cell environment. Comparison of the equilibrium gas-phase dissociation pressures of these alloys indicate that reversible loss of hydrogen capacity is higher in alloys with P(eqm) greater than 1 atm than in those with P(eqm) less than 1 atm.

  4. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the heat transfer problems associated with a liquid hydrogen absorber for the MICE experiment. This report describes a technique for modeling heat transfer from the outside world, to the absorber case and in its vacuum vessel, to the hydrogen and then into helium gas at 14 K. Also presented are the equation for free convection cooling of the liquid hydrogen in the absorber

  5. Carbon Dioxide-Free Hydrogen Production with Integrated Hydrogen Separation and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Stefan; Müller, Michael; Jorschick, Holger; Helmin, Marta; Bösmann, Andreas; Palkovits, Regina; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-01-10

    An integration of CO 2 -free hydrogen generation through methane decomposition coupled with hydrogen/methane separation and chemical hydrogen storage through liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) systems is demonstrated. A potential, very interesting application is the upgrading of stranded gas, for example, gas from a remote gas field or associated gas from off-shore oil drilling. Stranded gas can be effectively converted in a catalytic process by methane decomposition into solid carbon and a hydrogen/methane mixture that can be directly fed to a hydrogenation unit to load a LOHC with hydrogen. This allows for a straight-forward separation of hydrogen from CH 4 and conversion of hydrogen to a hydrogen-rich LOHC material. Both, the hydrogen-rich LOHC material and the generated carbon on metal can easily be transported to destinations of further industrial use by established transport systems, like ships or trucks. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Adsorption methods for hydrogen isotope storage on zeolitic sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, Ioana; Cristescu, Ion; Vasut, F.; Brad, S.; Lazar, A.

    2001-01-01

    For hydrogen isotope separation, adsorption molecular sieves and active carbon were used. Adsorption process proceeds at liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen temperatures. Commercial zeolites have the same proprieties with natural zeolites, but they have a regular pore structure. They also have affinity for molecules of different size with defined shapes. Experimental results obtained at liquid nitrogen temperature (77.4 K) and liquid hydrogen revealed the efficient behaviour of the active carbon and zeolitic sieves for hydrogen isotopes temporary storage. We study adsorption of the synthetic zeolites in a wide range of temperatures and pressures and we used the molecular sieves 4A, 5A and active carbon. The 4A and 5A zeolites have a tridimensional structure with 11.4 A diameter. When the hydration water is eliminated, the material keeps a porous structure. The porous volume represents 45% from the zeolite mass for 4A and 5A sieves. The activation temperature of the zeolite and the carbon is very important for obtaining a high adsorption capacity. If the temperature used for activation is low, the structural water will be not eliminated and the adsorption capacity will be low. The excessive temperature will destroy the porous structure. The adsorption capacity for the hydrogen isotopes was calculated with the relation: A = V ads /m (cm 3 /g). The adsorption capacity and efficiency for the adsorbent materials, are given. Physical adsorption process of the hydrogen isotopes was carried out at liquid nitrogen temperature. The flux gas used in the adsorption system is composed of dry deuterium and protium. This mixture is cooled in liquid nitrogen and then is passed to the adsorbent getter at the same temperature (77.4 K). The gas flux in the adsorbent getter is 5 and 72 l/h (which correspond to 0.008 and 0.134 discharge velocity, respectively). (authors)

  7. Permeation barrier for lightweight liquid hydrogen tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheiss, D.

    2007-04-16

    For the future usage of hydrogen as an automotive fuel, its on-board storage is crucial. One approach is the storage of liquid hydrogen (LH2, 20 K) in double-walled, vacuum insulated tanks. The introduction of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) as structural material enables a high potential of reducing the weight in comparison to the state-of-the-art stainless steel tanks. The generally high permeability of hydrogen through plastics, however, can lead to long-term degradation of the insulating vacuum. The derived objective of this dissertation was to find and apply an adequate permeation barrier (liner) on CFRP. The investigated liners were either foils adhered on CFRP specimens or coatings deposited on CFRP specimens. The coatings were produced by means of thermal spraying, metal plating or physical vapor deposition (PVD). The materials of the liners included Al, Au, Cu, Ni and Sn as well as stainless steel and diamond-like carbon. The produced liners were tested for their permeation behavior, thermal shock resistance and adherence to the CFRP substrate. Additionally, SEM micrographs were used to characterize and qualify the liners. The foils, although being a good permeation barrier, adhered weakly to the substrate. Furthermore, leak-free joining of foil segments is a challenge still to be solved. The metal plating liners exhibited the best properties. For instance, no permeation could be detected through a 50 {mu}m thick Cu coating within the accuracy of the measuring apparatus. This corresponds to a reduction of the permeation gas flow by more than factor 7400 compared to uncoated CFRP. In addition, the metal platings revealed a high adherence and thermal shock resistance. The coatings produced by means of thermal spraying and PVD did not show a sufficient permeation barrier effect. After having investigated the specimens, a 170 liter CFRP tank was fully coated with 50 {mu}m Cu by means of metal plating. (orig.)

  8. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael A. [Southwest Research Institute; Page, Richard A. [Southwest Research Institute

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  9. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrock, Gary; Reilly, James; Graetz, Jason; Wegrzyn, James E.

    2010-11-23

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  10. Fullerene hydride - A potential hydrogen storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nai Xing Wang; Jun Ping Zhang; An Guang Yu; Yun Xu Yang; Wu Wei Wang; Rui long Sheng; Jia Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen, as a clean, convenient, versatile fuel source, is considered to be an ideal energy carrier in the foreseeable future. Hydrogen storage must be solved in using of hydrogen energy. To date, much effort has been put into storage of hydrogen including physical storage via compression or liquefaction, chemical storage in hydrogen carriers, metal hydrides and gas-on-solid adsorption. But no one satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. C 60 H 36 , firstly synthesized by the method of the Birch reduction, was loaded with 4.8 wt% hydrogen indicating [60]fullerene might be as a potential hydrogen storage material. If a 100% conversion of C 60 H 36 is achieved, 18 moles of H 2 gas would be liberated from each mole of fullerene hydride. Pure C 60 H 36 is very stable below 500 C under nitrogen atmosphere and it releases hydrogen accompanying by other hydrocarbons under high temperature. But C 60 H 36 can be decomposed to generate H 2 under effective catalyst. We have reported that hydrogen can be produced catalytically from C 60 H 36 by Vasks's compound (IrCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ) under mild conditions. (RhCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ) having similar structure to (IrCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ), was also examined for thermal dehydrogenation of C 60 H 36 ; but it showed low catalytic activity. To search better catalyst, palladium carbon (Pd/C) and platinum carbon (Pt/C) catalysts, which were known for catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic compounds, were tried and good results were obtained. A very big peak of hydrogen appeared at δ=5.2 ppm in 1 H NMR spectrum based on Evans'work (fig 1) at 100 C over a Pd/C catalyst for 16 hours. It is shown that hydrogen can be produced from C 60 H 36 using a catalytic amount of Pd/C. Comparing with Pd/C, Pt/C catalyst showed lower activity. The high cost and limited availability of Vaska's compounds, Pd and Pt make it advantageous to develop less expensive catalysts for our process based on

  11. Hydrogen storage in insulated pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.M.; Garcia-Villazana, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH{sub 2}). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current analysis and experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

  12. Nuclear power reactors and hydrogen storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Aly Mahmoud El Osery.

    1980-01-01

    Among conclusions and results come by, a nuclear-electric-hydrogen integrated power system was suggested as a way to prevent the energy crisis. It was shown that the hydrogen power system using nuclear power as a leading energy resource would hold an advantage in the current international situation as well as for the long-term future. Results reported provide designers of integrated nuclear-electric-hydrogen systems with computation models and routines which will allow them to explore the optimal solution in coupling power reactors to hydrogen producing systems, taking into account the specific characters of hydrogen storage systems. The models were meant for average computers of a type easily available in developing countries. (author)

  13. Hydrogen storage via polyhydride complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.M.; Zidan, R.A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The reversible dehydrogenation of NaAlH{sub 4} is catalyzed in toluene slurries of the NaAlH{sub 4} containing the pincer complex, IrH{sub 4} {l_brace}C{sub 6}H{sub 3}-2,6-(CH{sub 2}PBu{sup t}{sub 2}){sub 2}{r_brace}. The rates of the pincer complex catalyzed dehydrogenation are about five times greater those previously found for NaAlH{sub 4} that was doped with titanium through a wet chemistry method. Homogenization of NaAlH{sub 4} with 2 mole % Ti(OBu{sup n}){sub 4} under an atmosphere of argon produces a novel titanium containing material. TPD measurements show that the dehydrogenation of this material occurs about 30 C lower than that previously found for wet titanium doped NaAlH{sub 4}. In further contrast to wet doped NaAlH{sub 4}, the dehydrogenation kinetics and hydrogen capacity of the novel material are undiminished over several dehydriding/hydriding cycles. Rehydrogenation of the titanium doped material occurs readily at 170 C under 150 atm of hydrogen. TPD measurements show that about 80% of the original hydrogen content (4.2 wt%) can be restored under these conditions.

  14. Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen Initial Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.; Tomsik, T.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite major technology advances in the field of cryogenics. NASA loses approximately 50% of the hydrogen purchased because of a continuous heat leak into ground and flight vessels, transient chill down of warm cryogenic equipment, liquid bleeds, and vent losses. NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) needs to develop energy-efficient cryogenic ground systems to minimize propellant losses, simplify operations, and reduce cost associated with hydrogen usage. The GODU LH2 project has designed, assembled, and started testing of a prototype storage and distribution system for liquid hydrogen that represents an advanced end-to-end cryogenic propellant system for a ground launch complex. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The system is unique because it uses an integrated refrigeration and storage system (IRAS) to control the state of the fluid. This paper will present and discuss the results of the initial phase of testing of the GODU LH2 system.

  15. Solar hydrogen hybrid system with carbon storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zini, G.; Marazzi, R.; Pedrazzi, S.; Tartarini, P.

    2009-01-01

    A complete solar hydrogen hybrid system has been developed to convert, store and use energy from renewable energy sources. The theoretical model has been implemented in a dynamic model-based software environment and applied to real data to simulate its functioning over a one-year period. Results are used to study system design and performance. A photovoltaic sub-system directly drives a residential load and, if a surplus of energy is available, an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen which is stored in a cluster of nitrogen-cooled tanks filled with AX-21 activated carbons. When the power converted from the sun is not sufficient to cover load needs, hydrogen is desorbed from activated carbon tanks and sent to the fuel-cell sub-system so to obtain electrical energy. A set of sub-systems (bus-bar, buck- and boost-converters, inverter, control circuits), handle the electrical power according to a Programmable Logic Control unit so that the load can be driven with adequate Quality of Service. Hydrogen storage is achieved through physisorption (weak van der Waals interactions) between carbon atoms and hydrogen molecules occurring at low temperature (77 K) in carbon porous solids at relatively low pressures. Storage modeling has been developed using a Langmuir-Freundlich 1st type isotherm and experimental data available in literature. Physisorption storage provides safer operations along with good gravimetric (10.8% at 6 MPa) and volumetric (32.5 g/l at 6 MPa) storage capacities at costs that can be comparable to, or smaller than, ordinary storage techniques (compression or liquefaction). Several test runs have been performed on residential user data-sets: the system is capable of providing grid independence and can be designed to yield a surplus production of hydrogen which can be used to recharge electric car batteries or fill tanks for non-stationary uses. (author)

  16. Hydrogen storage materials at INCDTIM Cluj - Napoca. Achievements and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupu, D.; Biris, A.R.; Misan, I.

    2005-01-01

    Introducing hydrogen fuel to the transportation area poses key challenges for research on hydrogen storage materials. As one of the most promising alternative fuels for transport, hydrogen offers the long-term potential for an energy system that produces near-zero emissions and can be based on renewable energy sources. The Joint Research Centre (JRC), a Directorate-General of the European Commission fosters research for safe methods for storing hydrogen, for use in fuel cells or modified combustion engines in cars and other road vehicles. Hydrogen storage materials focused, in the last 30 years, the attention of the research programs in the many countries. Due to the fast development of the fuel cell technologies, the subject is much more stringent now. For mobile applications to fuel cell powered vehicles, on-board storage materials with hydrogen absorption/desorption capacities of at least 6.5%H are needed. For an efficient storage system the goal is to pack hydrogen as close as possible. Hydrogen storage implies the reduction of an enormous volume of H 2 gas (1 kg of gas has a volume of 11 m 3 at ambient temperature and pressure). To reach the high volumetric and gravimetric density suitable for mobile applications, basically six reversible storage methods are known today according to A. Zuettel: 1) high-pressure gas cylinders, 2) liquid in cryogenic tanks, 3) physisorbed on a solid surface e.g. carbon-nanotubes 4) metal hydrides of the metals or intermetallic compounds. 5) complex hydrides of light elements such as alanates and boranates, 6) storage via chemical reactions. Recently, the storage as hydrogen hydrates at 50 bar using promoters has been reported by F. Peetom. The paper discusses the feasibility of each of these storing alternatives. The authors presents their experience and results of the work in the field of metal hydrides and application obtained since 1975. All classes of hydrogen absorbing intermetallic compounds were studied: LaNi 5 , FeTi, Ti

  17. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  18. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage - New perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Morten B.; Jepsen, Lars H.; Lee, Young-Su

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, hydrogen has been considered as a possible energy carrier for the storage of renewable energy. The main focus has been on addressing the ultimate challenge: developing an environmentally friendly successor for gasoline. This very ambitious goal has not yet been fully reached...

  19. Hydrogen storage in sonicated carbon materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirscher, M.; Becher, M.; Haluska, M.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Quintel, A.; Duesberg, G.S.; Choi, Y.J.; Downes, P.; Hulman, M.; Roth, S.; Stepanek, I.; Bernier, P.

    2001-01-01

    The hydrogen storage in purified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphite and diamond powder was investigated at room temperature and ambient pressure. The samples were sonicated in 5 M HNO3 for various periods of time using an ultrasonic probe of the alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The goal of this

  20. Increasing hydrogen storage capacity using tetrahydrofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Takeshi; Haag, Joanna C; Prasad, Pinnelli S R; Warntjes, Ashleigh A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

    2009-10-21

    Hydrogen hydrates with tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a promoter molecule are investigated to probe critical unresolved observations regarding cage occupancy and storage capacity. We adopted a new preparation method, mixing solid powdered THF with ice and pressurizing with hydrogen at 70 MPa and 255 +/- 2 K (these formation conditions are insufficient to form pure hydrogen hydrates). All results from Raman microprobe spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and gas volumetric analysis show a strong dependence of hydrogen storage capacity on THF composition. Contrary to numerous recent reports that claim it is impossible to store H(2) in large cages with promoters, this work shows that, below a THF mole fraction of 0.01, H(2) molecules can occupy the large cages of the THF+H(2) structure II hydrate. As a result, by manipulating the promoter THF content, the hydrogen storage capacity was increased to approximately 3.4 wt % in the THF+H(2) hydrate system. This study shows the tuning effect may be used and developed for future science and practical applications.

  1. Hydrogen storage inside graphene-oxide frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Yue; Hill, James M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we use applied mathematical modelling to investigate the storage of hydrogen molecules inside graphene-oxide frameworks, which comprise two parallel graphenes rigidly separated by perpendicular ligands. Hydrogen uptake is calculated for graphene-oxide frameworks using the continuous approximation and an equation of state for both the bulk and adsorption gas phases. We first validate our approach by obtaining results for two parallel graphene sheets. This result agrees well with an existing theoretical result, namely 1.85 wt% from our calculations, and 2 wt% arising from an ab initio and grand canonical Monte Carlo calculation. This provides confidence to the determination of the hydrogen uptake for the four graphene-oxide frameworks, GOF-120, GOF-66, GOF-28 and GOF-6, and we obtain 1.68, 2, 6.33 and 0 wt%, respectively. The high value obtained for GOF-28 may be partly explained by the fact that the benzenediboronic acid pillars between graphene sheets not only provide mechanical support and porous spaces for the molecular structure but also provide the higher binding energy to enhance the hydrogen storage inside graphene-oxide frameworks. For the other three structures, this binding energy is not as large in comparison to that of GOF-28 and this effect diminishes as the ligand density decreases. In the absence of conflicting data, the present work indicates GOF-28 as a likely contender for practical hydrogen storage.

  2. Hydrogen storage property of nanoporous carbon aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jun; Liu Nianping; Ouyang Ling; Zhou Bin; Wu Guangming; Ni Xingyuan; Zhang Zhihua

    2011-01-01

    Carbon aerogels were prepared from resorcinol and formaldehyde via sol-gel process, high temperature carbonization and atmospheric pressure drying technology with solvent replacement. By changing the resorcinol-sodium carbonate molar ratio and the mass fraction of the reactants,resorcinol and formaldehyde, the pore structure of carbon aerogels can be controlled and the palladium-doped carbon aerogels were prepared.By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, it is confirmed that the Pd exists in the skeleton structure of carbon aerogels as a form of nano simple substance pellet. The specific surface area is successfully raised by 2 times, and palladium-doped carbon aerogels with a specific surface area of 1 273 m 2 /g have been obtained by carrying out the activation process as the post-processing to the doped carbon aerogels. The hydrogen adsorption results show that the saturated hydrogen storage mass fraction of the carbon aerogels with the specific surface area of 3 212 m 2 /g is 3% in the condition of 92 K, 3.5 MPa, and 0.84% in the condition of 303 K, 3.2 MPa. In addition, the hydrogen adsorption test of palladium-doped carbon aerogels at room temperature (303 K) shows that the total hydrogen storage capacity of doped carbon aerogels is declined due to the relative small specific surface, but the hydrogen storage of unit specific surface area is enhanced. (authors)

  3. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael U. Niemann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials have attracted great interest in recent years because of the unusual mechanical, electrical, electronic, optical, magnetic and surface properties. The high surface/volume ratio of these materials has significant implications with respect to energy storage. Both the high surface area and the opportunity for nanomaterial consolidation are key attributes of this new class of materials for hydrogen storage devices. Nanostructured systems including carbon nanotubes, nano-magnesium based hydrides, complex hydride/carbon nanocomposites, boron nitride nanotubes, TiS2/MoS2 nanotubes, alanates, polymer nanocomposites, and metal organic frameworks are considered to be potential candidates for storing large quantities of hydrogen. Recent investigations have shown that nanoscale materials may offer advantages if certain physical and chemical effects related to the nanoscale can be used efficiently. The present review focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing atomic or molecular hydrogen. The synergistic effects of nanocrystalinity and nanocatalyst doping on the metal or complex hydrides for improving the thermodynamics and hydrogen reaction kinetics are discussed. In addition, various carbonaceous nanomaterials and novel sorbent systems (e.g. carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, nanofibers, polyaniline nanospheres and metal organic frameworks etc. and their hydrogen storage characteristics are outlined.

  4. High Capacity Hydrogen Storage on Nanoporous Biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Wood, Mikael; Gordon, Michael; Parilla, Phillip; Benham, Michael; Wexler, Carlos; Hawthorne, Fred; Pfeifer, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology (http://all-craft.missouri.edu) has been optimizing nanoporous biocarbon for high capacity hydrogen storage. The hydrogen storage was measured gravimetrically and volumetrically (Sievert's apparatus). These measurements have been validated by NREL and Hiden Isochema. Sample S-33/k, our current best performer, stores 73-91 g H2/kg carbon at 77 K and 47 bar, and 1.0-1.6 g H2/kg carbon at 293 K and 47 bar. Hydrogen isotherms run by Hiden Isochema have given experimental binding energies of 8.8 kJ/mol compared to the binding energy of graphite of 5 kJ/mol. Results from a novel boron doping technique will also be presented. The benefits and validity of using boron-doping on carbon will also be discussed.

  5. Hydrogen storage properties of metallic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latroche, M.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, energy needs are mainly covered by fossil energies leading to pollutant emissions mostly responsible for global warming. Among the different possible solutions for greenhouse effect reduction, hydrogen has been proposed for energy transportation. Indeed, H 2 can be seen as a clean and efficient energy carrier. However, beside the difficulties related to hydrogen production, efficient high capacity storage means are still to be developed. Many metals and alloys are able to store large amounts of hydrogen. This latter solution is of interest in terms of safety, global yield and long term storage. However, to be suitable for applications, such compounds must present high capacity, good reversibility, fast reactivity and sustainability. In this paper, we will review the structural and thermodynamic properties of metallic hydrides. (authors)

  6. Recycling of chemical hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.F.; Davis, B.R.; Karan, K.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Light weight chemical hydrides such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and lithium borohydride (LiBH4) are promising hydrogen storage materials. They offer several advantages including high volumetric storage density, safe storage, practical storage and operating condition, controlled and rapid hydrogen release kinetics in alkaline aqueous media in the presence of catalysts. In addition, borate or borax, the reaction by-product, is environmentally friendly and can be directly disposed or recycled. One technical barrier for utilizing borohydrides as hydrogen storage material is their high production cost. Sodium borohydride currently costs $90 per kg while lithium borohydride costs $8000 per kg. For commercialization, new and improved technology to manufacture borohydrides must be developed - preferably by recycling borates. We are investigating different inorganic recycling routes for regenerating borohydrides from borates. In this paper, the results of a chlorination-based recycling route, incorporating multi-step reactions, will be discussed. Experiments were conducted to establish the efficiency of various steps of the selected regeneration process. The yields of desired products as a function of reaction temperature and composition were obtained from multi-phase batch reactor. Separation efficiency of desired product was also determined. The results obtained so far appear to be promising. (author)

  7. Hybrid Hydrogen and Mechanical Distributed Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ubertini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective energy storage technologies represent one of the key elements to solving the growing challenges of electrical energy supply of the 21st century. Several energy storage systems are available, from ones that are technologically mature to others still at a research stage. Each technology has its inherent limitations that make its use economically or practically feasible only for specific applications. The present paper aims at integrating hydrogen generation into compressed air energy storage systems to avoid natural gas combustion or thermal energy storage. A proper design of such a hybrid storage system could provide high roundtrip efficiencies together with enhanced flexibility thanks to the possibility of providing additional energy outputs (heat, cooling, and hydrogen as a fuel, in a distributed energy storage framework. Such a system could be directly connected to the power grid at the distribution level to reduce power and energy intermittence problems related to renewable energy generation. Similarly, it could be located close to the user (e.g., office buildings, commercial centers, industrial plants, hospitals, etc.. Finally, it could be integrated in decentralized energy generation systems to reduce the peak electricity demand charges and energy costs, to increase power generation efficiency, to enhance the security of electrical energy supply, and to facilitate the market penetration of small renewable energy systems. Different configurations have been investigated (simple hybrid storage system, regenerate system, multistage system demonstrating the compressed air and hydrogen storage systems effectiveness in improving energy source flexibility and efficiency, and possibly in reducing the costs of energy supply. Round-trip efficiency up to 65% can be easily reached. The analysis is conducted through a mixed theoretical-numerical approach, which allows the definition of the most relevant physical parameters affecting the system

  8. Cryogenic system for liquid hydrogen polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitami, T.; Chiba, M.; Hirabayashi, H.; Ishii, T.; Kato, S.

    1979-01-01

    A cryogenic system has been constructed for a liquid hydrogen polarimeter in order to measure polarization of high energy proton at the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron of Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. The system principally consists of a cryogenerator with a cryogenic transfer line, a liquid hydrogen cryostat, and a 14.5 l target container of thin aluminum alloy where liquid hydrogen is served for the experiment. The refrigeration capacity is about 54 W at 20.4 K without a target container. (author)

  9. Combined Solid State and High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grube, Elisabeth; Jensen, Torben René

    Presented at The First European Early Stage Researcher's Conference on Hydrogen Storage in Belgrade, Serbia.......Presented at The First European Early Stage Researcher's Conference on Hydrogen Storage in Belgrade, Serbia....

  10. Redox Flow Batteries, Hydrogen and Distributed Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, C R; Vrubel, Heron; Amstutz, Véronique; Peljo, Pekka; Toghill, Kathryn E; Girault, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    Social, economic, and political pressures are causing a shift in the global energy mix, with a preference toward renewable energy sources. In order to realize widespread implementation of these resources, large-scale storage of renewable energy is needed. Among the proposed energy storage technologies, redox flow batteries offer many unique advantages. The primary limitation of these systems, however, is their limited energy density which necessitates very large installations. In order to enhance the energy storage capacity of these systems, we have developed a unique dual-circuit architecture which enables two levels of energy storage; first in the conventional electrolyte, and then through the formation of hydrogen. Moreover, we have begun a pilot-scale demonstration project to investigate the scalability and technical readiness of this approach. This combination of conventional energy storage and hydrogen production is well aligned with the current trajectory of modern energy and mobility infrastructure. The combination of these two means of energy storage enables the possibility of an energy economy dominated by renewable resources.

  11. Synthesis of Nano-Light Magnesium Hydride for Hydrogen Storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Nano-light magnesium hydride that has the capability for hydrogen storage was synthesized from treatment of magnesium ribbon with hydrogen peroxide. The optimum time for complete hydrogenation of the magnesium hydride was 5 hours.

  12. Hydrogen storage in engineered carbon nanospaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Kraus, Michael; Beckner, Matt; Cepel, Raina; Suppes, Galen; Wexler, Carlos; Pfeifer, Peter

    2009-05-20

    It is shown how appropriately engineered nanoporous carbons provide materials for reversible hydrogen storage, based on physisorption, with exceptional storage capacities (approximately 80 g H2/kg carbon, approximately 50 g H2/liter carbon, at 50 bar and 77 K). Nanopores generate high storage capacities (a) by having high surface area to volume ratios, and (b) by hosting deep potential wells through overlapping substrate potentials from opposite pore walls, giving rise to a binding energy nearly twice the binding energy in wide pores. Experimental case studies are presented with surface areas as high as 3100 m(2) g(-1), in which 40% of all surface sites reside in pores of width approximately 0.7 nm and binding energy approximately 9 kJ mol(-1), and 60% of sites in pores of width>1.0 nm and binding energy approximately 5 kJ mol(-1). The findings, including the prevalence of just two distinct binding energies, are in excellent agreement with results from molecular dynamics simulations. It is also shown, from statistical mechanical models, that one can experimentally distinguish between the situation in which molecules do (mobile adsorption) and do not (localized adsorption) move parallel to the surface, how such lateral dynamics affects the hydrogen storage capacity, and how the two situations are controlled by the vibrational frequencies of adsorbed hydrogen molecules parallel and perpendicular to the surface: in the samples presented, adsorption is mobile at 293 K, and localized at 77 K. These findings make a strong case for it being possible to significantly increase hydrogen storage capacities in nanoporous carbons by suitable engineering of the nanopore space.

  13. Catalysis and Downsizing in Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianding Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg-based materials are promising candidates for hydrogen storage due to the low cost, high hydrogen storage capacity and abundant resources of magnesium for the realization of a hydrogen society. However, the sluggish kinetics and strong stability of the metal-hydrogen bonding of Mg-based materials hinder their application, especially for onboard storage. Many researchers are devoted to overcoming these challenges by numerous methods. Here, this review summarizes some advances in the development of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials related to downsizing and catalysis. In particular, the focus is on how downsizing and catalysts affect the hydrogen storage capacity, kinetics and thermodynamics of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials. Finally, the future development and applications of Mg-based hydrogen storage materials is discussed.

  14. Hydrogen bonding in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Patricia A; Ashworth, Claire R; Matthews, Richard P

    2015-03-07

    Ionic liquids (IL) and hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) are two diverse fields for which there is a developing recognition of significant overlap. Doubly ionic H-bonds occur when a H-bond forms between a cation and anion, and are a key feature of ILs. Doubly ionic H-bonds represent a wide area of H-bonding which has yet to be fully recognised, characterised or explored. H-bonds in ILs (both protic and aprotic) are bifurcated and chelating, and unlike many molecular liquids a significant variety of distinct H-bonds are formed between different types and numbers of donor and acceptor sites within a given IL. Traditional more neutral H-bonds can also be formed in functionalised ILs, adding a further level of complexity. Ab initio computed parameters; association energies, partial charges, density descriptors as encompassed by the QTAIM methodology (ρBCP), qualitative molecular orbital theory and NBO analysis provide established and robust mechanisms for understanding and interpreting traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds. In this review the applicability and extension of these parameters to describe and quantify the doubly ionic H-bond has been explored. Estimating the H-bonding energy is difficult because at a fundamental level the H-bond and ionic interaction are coupled. The NBO and QTAIM methodologies, unlike the total energy, are local descriptors and therefore can be used to directly compare neutral, ionic and doubly ionic H-bonds. The charged nature of the ions influences the ionic characteristics of the H-bond and vice versa, in addition the close association of the ions leads to enhanced orbital overlap and covalent contributions. The charge on the ions raises the energy of the Ylp and lowers the energy of the X-H σ* NBOs resulting in greater charge transfer, strengthening the H-bond. Using this range of parameters and comparing doubly ionic H-bonds to more traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds it is clear that doubly ionic H-bonds cover the full range of weak

  15. Hydrogen Storage in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jeffrey R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    The design and characterization of new materials for hydrogen storage is an important area of research, as the ability to store hydrogen at lower pressures and higher temperatures than currently feasible would lower operating costs for small hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. In particular, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent promising materials for use in storing hydrogen in this capacity. MOFs are highly porous, three-dimensional crystalline solids that are formed via linkages between metal ions (e.g., iron, nickel, and zinc) and organic molecules. MOFs can store hydrogen via strong adsorptive interactions between the gas molecules and the pores of the framework, providing a high surface area for gas adsorption and thus the opportunity to store hydrogen at significantly lower pressures than with current technologies. By lowering the energy required for hydrogen storage, these materials hold promise in rendering hydrogen a more viable fuel for motor vehicles, which is a highly desirable outcome given the clean nature of hydrogen fuel cells (water is the only byproduct of combustion) and the current state of global climate change resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. The work presented in this report is the result of collaborative efforts between researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and General Motors Corporation (GM) to discover novel MOFs promising for H2 storage and characterize their properties. Described herein are several new framework systems with improved gravimetric and volumetric capacity to strongly bind H2 at temperatures relevant for vehicle storage. These materials were rigorously characterized using neutron diffraction, to determine the precise binding locations of hydrogen within the frameworks, and high-pressure H2 adsorption measurements, to provide a comprehensive picture of H2 adsorption at all relevant pressures. A

  16. Hydrogen storage alternatives - a technological and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Joakim; Hjortsberg, Ove [Volvo Teknisk Utveckling AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    This study reviews state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage alternatives for vehicles. We will also discuss the prospects and estimated cost for industrial production. The study is based on published literature and interviews with active researchers. Among the alternatives commercially available today, we suggest using a moderate-pressure chamber for seasonal stationary energy storage; metal hydride vessels for small stationary units; a roof of high-pressure cylinders for buses, trucks and ferries; cryogenic high-pressure vessels or methanol reformers for cars and tractors; and cryogenic moderate-pressure vessels for aeroplanes. Initial fuel dispensing systems should be designed to offer hydrogen in pressurised form for good fuel economy, but also as cryogenic liquid for occasional needs of extended driving range and as methanol for reformer-equipped vehicles. It is probable that hydrogen can be stored efficiently in adsorbents for use in recyclable hydrogen fuel containers or rechargeable hydrogen vessels operating at ambient temperature and possibly ambient pressure by year 2004, and at reasonable or even low cost by 2010. The most promising alternatives involve various forms of activated graphite nanostructures. Recommendations for further research and standardisation activities are given.

  17. Development of porous materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinji Oshima; Osamu Kato; Takeshi Kataoka; Yoshihiro Kobori; Michiaki Adachi [Hydrogen and New Energy Research Laboratory Nippon Oil Corporation 8, Chidoricho, Naka-ku, Yokohama, 231-0815 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    To achieve hydrogen storage of more than 5 mass%, we are focusing on porous materials that consist of light elements. At WHEC 15, we reported that KOH-activated bamboo charcoal showed 0.79 mass% hydrogen uptake at 9.5 MPa and 303 K. After examining various carbon materials, we found that carbonized and KOH-activated polyacrylonitrile fibers showed 1.0 mass% hydrogen uptake at 9.5 MPa and 303 K. When the pressure was raised to 35 MPa, this material showed 1.5 mass% hydrogen uptake at 303 K. Besides porous carbon, other materials, such as coordination polymers, were examined. Since these materials contain elements other than carbon, different adsorption phenomena may be expected. Although the values of their hydrogen uptakes are still lower than those of carbon materials, a coordination polymer which showed 0.38 mass% hydrogen uptake at 9.5 MPa and 303 K was revealed to give an adsorption density of 47 kg/m{sup 3} at 0.1 MPa and 77 K, the highest value reported for a coordination polymer. (authors)

  18. Ford/BASF/UM Activities in Support of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veenstra, Mike [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Purewal, Justin [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Xu, Chunchuan [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Yang, Jun [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Blaser, Rachel [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Sudik, Andrea [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Siegel, Don [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ming, Yang [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Liu, Dong' an [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chi, Hang [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gaab, Manuela [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Arnold, Lena [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Muller, Ulrich [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2015-06-30

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically on the development of low-cost, on-board hydrogen storage technologies capable of achieving high energy densities and fast kinetics for hydrogen uptake and release. As present-day technologies -- which rely on physical storage methods such as compressed hydrogen -- are incapable of attaining established Department of Energy (DOE) targets, development of materials-based approaches for storing hydrogen have garnered increasing attention. Material-based storage technologies have potential to store hydrogen beyond twice the density of liquid hydrogen. To hasten development of these ‘hydride’ materials, the DOE previously established three centers of excellence for materials storage R&D associated with the key classes of materials: metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen, and adsorbents. While these centers made progress in identifying new storage materials, the challenges associated with the engineering of the system around a candidate storage material are in need of further advancement. In 2009 the DOE established the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence with the objective of developing innovative engineering concepts for materials-based hydrogen storage systems. As a partner in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence, the Ford-UM-BASF team conducted a multi-faceted research program that addresses key engineering challenges associated with the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems. First, we developed a novel framework that allowed for a material-based hydrogen storage system to be modeled and operated within a virtual fuel cell vehicle. This effort resulted in the ability to assess dynamic operating parameters and interactions between the storage system and fuel cell power plant, including the evaluation of performance throughout various drive cycles. Second, we engaged in cost modeling of various incarnations of the storage systems. This analysis

  19. GAT 4 production and storage of hydrogen. Report July 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns two aspects of the hydrogen: the production and the storage. For both parts the challenges and a state of the art are presented. It discusses also the hydrogen production by renewable energies, by solar energy, the hydrogen of hydrocarbons reforming purification, active phases development, thermal transfer simulation. Concerning the hydrogen storage the hydrogen adsorption by large surface solid, the storage by metallic hydrides, the alanates and light hydrides, the adsorption on carbon nano-tubes, the storage in nano-structures, the thermal and mechanical simulation of the hydrogen are presented. (A.L.B.)

  20. Modified Borohydrides for Reversible Hydrogen Storage (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Au

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results in the effort to destabilize lithium borohydride for reversible hydrogen storage. A number of metals, metal hydrides, metal chlorides and complex hydrides were selected and evaluated as the destabilization agents for reducing de-hydriding temperature and generating de-hydriding-re-hydriding reversibility. It is found that some additives are effective. The Raman spectroscopic analysis shows the change of B-H binding nature. (authors)

  1. Thermal properties of hydrogenated liquid natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2015-09-01

    Natural rubber (NR) was modified to form liquid natural rubber (LNR) via photooxidative degradation. Hydrogenated liquid natural rubber (HLNR) was synthesized by using diimide as source of hydrogen which the diimide is produced by thermolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide (TSH). The structure of HLNR was characterized by determining the changes of main peaks in Fourier Transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra after hydrogenation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the HLNR had higher decomposition temperature compared to LNR and the decomposition temperature is directly proportional to the percentage of conversion.

  2. Thermal properties of hydrogenated liquid natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) was modified to form liquid natural rubber (LNR) via photooxidative degradation. Hydrogenated liquid natural rubber (HLNR) was synthesized by using diimide as source of hydrogen which the diimide is produced by thermolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide (TSH). The structure of HLNR was characterized by determining the changes of main peaks in Fourier Transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra after hydrogenation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the HLNR had higher decomposition temperature compared to LNR and the decomposition temperature is directly proportional to the percentage of conversion

  3. Thermal properties of hydrogenated liquid natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Natural rubber (NR) was modified to form liquid natural rubber (LNR) via photooxidative degradation. Hydrogenated liquid natural rubber (HLNR) was synthesized by using diimide as source of hydrogen which the diimide is produced by thermolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide (TSH). The structure of HLNR was characterized by determining the changes of main peaks in Fourier Transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra after hydrogenation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the HLNR had higher decomposition temperature compared to LNR and the decomposition temperature is directly proportional to the percentage of conversion.

  4. PNNL Development and Analysis of Material-Based Hydrogen Storage Systems for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Klymyshyn, Nicholas A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pires, Richard P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ronnebro, Ewa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Simmons, Kevin L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westman, Matthew P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence is a team of universities, industrial corporations, and federal laboratories with the mandate to develop lower-pressure, materials-based, hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen fuel cell light-duty vehicles. Although not engaged in the development of new hydrogen storage materials themselves, it is an engineering center that addresses engineering challenges associated with the currently available hydrogen storage materials. Three material-based approaches to hydrogen storage are being researched: 1) chemical hydrogen storage materials 2) cryo-adsorbents, and 3) metal hydrides. As a member of this Center, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been involved in the design and evaluation of systems developed with each of these three hydrogen storage materials. This report is a compilation of the work performed by PNNL for this Center.

  5. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  6. Research of the cold shield in cryogenic liquid storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. B.; Zheng, J. P.; Wu, X. L.; Cui, C.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    To realize zero boil-off storage of cryogenic liquids, a cryocooler that can achieve a temperature below the boiling point temperature of the cryogenic liquid is generally needed. Taking into account that the efficiency of the cryocooler will be higher at a higher operating temperature, a novel thermal insulation system using a sandwich container filled with cryogenic liquid with a higher boiling point as a cold radiation shield between the cryogenic tank and the vacuum shield in room temperature is proposed to reduce the electricity power consumption. A two-stage cryocooler or two separate cryocoolers are adopted to condense the evaporated gas from the cold shield and the cryogenic tank. The calculation result of a 55 liter liquid hydrogen tank with a liquid nitrogen shield shows that only 14.4 W of electrical power is needed to make all the evaporated gas condensation while 121.7 W will be needed without the liquid nitrogen shield.

  7. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Liquid metallic hydrogen provides a compelling material for constructing a condensed matter model of the Sun and the photosphere. Like diamond, metallic hydrogen might have the potential to be a metastable substance requiring high pressures for forma- tion. Once created, it would remain stable even at lower pressures. The metallic form of hydrogen was initially conceived in 1935 by Eugene Wigner and Hillard B. Huntington who indirectly anticipated its elevated critical temperature for liquefaction (Wigner E. and Huntington H.B. On the possibility of a metallic modification of hydro- gen. J. Chem. Phys. , 1935, v.3, 764–770. At that time, solid metallic hydrogen was hypothesized to exist as a body centered cubic, although a more energetically accessible layered graphite-like lattice was also envisioned. Relative to solar emission, this struc- tural resemblance between graphite and layered metallic hydrogen should not be easily dismissed. In the laboratory, metallic hydrogen remains an elusive material. However, given the extensive observational evidence for a condensed Sun composed primarily of hydrogen, it is appropriate to consider metallic hydrogen as a solar building block. It is anticipated that solar liquid metallic hydrogen should possess at least some layered order. Since layered liquid metallic hydrogen would be essentially incompressible, its invocation as a solar constituent brings into question much of current stellar physics. The central proof of a liquid state remains the thermal spectrum of the Sun itself. Its proper understanding brings together all the great forces which shaped modern physics. Although other proofs exist for a liquid photosphere, our focus remains solidly on the generation of this light.

  8. Theoretical Studies of Hydrogen Storage Alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Hannes

    2012-03-22

    Theoretical calculations were carried out to search for lightweight alloys that can be used to reversibly store hydrogen in mobile applications, such as automobiles. Our primary focus was on magnesium based alloys. While MgH{sub 2} is in many respects a promising hydrogen storage material, there are two serious problems which need to be solved in order to make it useful: (i) the binding energy of the hydrogen atoms in the hydride is too large, causing the release temperature to be too high, and (ii) the diffusion of hydrogen through the hydride is so slow that loading of hydrogen into the metal takes much too long. In the first year of the project, we found that the addition of ca. 15% of aluminum decreases the binding energy to the hydrogen to the target value of 0.25 eV which corresponds to release of 1 bar hydrogen gas at 100 degrees C. Also, the addition of ca. 15% of transition metal atoms, such as Ti or V, reduces the formation energy of interstitial H-atoms making the diffusion of H-atoms through the hydride more than ten orders of magnitude faster at room temperature. In the second year of the project, several calculations of alloys of magnesium with various other transition metals were carried out and systematic trends in stability, hydrogen binding energy and diffusivity established. Some calculations of ternary alloys and their hydrides were also carried out, for example of Mg{sub 6}AlTiH{sub 16}. It was found that the binding energy reduction due to the addition of aluminum and increased diffusivity due to the addition of a transition metal are both effective at the same time. This material would in principle work well for hydrogen storage but it is, unfortunately, unstable with respect to phase separation. A search was made for a ternary alloy of this type where both the alloy and the corresponding hydride are stable. Promising results were obtained by including Zn in the alloy.

  9. Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800 and 1000 0 F (427 and 538 0 C). The meter may also be used to rapidly monitor changes in hydrogen concentration, over the same concentration range, and, therefore can be used as a sensor for sodium-water reactions in LMFBR steam generators

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1993. International clean energy system technology to utilize hydrogen - WE-NET (Sub-task 5. Development of hydrogen transportation and storage technology - Edition 3. Development of liquid hydrogen storage facility); 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) (Sub tusk 5: Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu - Dai 3 hen. Ekitai suiso chozo setsubi no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    With an intention to establish a technology required to build a hydrogen storage tank with a storage capacity of 50,000 m{sup 3} as the target shown in the basic plan for WE-NET, the current fiscal year has performed the technical literature surveys to identify the existing technologies. In the survey on the similar large storage system, a liquefied natural gas (LNG) was taken up, and the survey on the LNG bases in Japan was carried out. With regard to the existing liquefied hydrogen storage system, surveys were performed on the test site for developing the liquefied hydrogen/liquefied oxygen engines, the rocket launch sites, and liquefied hydrogen manufacturing plant. In relation with peripheral technologies for the underground storage tank being an excellent anti-seismic form, the LNG underground storage facilities were surveyed. Regarding the rock mass storage tank, surveys were carried out on the LPG rock mass storage having been used practically, and the LNG rock mass storage that is in the demonstration phase. In the research on storage facilities, surveys were executed on the forms and heat insulation structures of the similar large low-temperature storage tanks, the use record of the existing liquefied hydrogen storage tanks, heat insulating materials, and heat insulating structures. (NEDO)

  11. Microporous Metal Organic Materials for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Sankar; Jing Li; Karl Johnson

    2008-11-30

    We have examined a number of Metal Organic Framework Materials for their potential in hydrogen storage applications. Results obtained in this study may, in general, be summarized as follows: (1) We have identified a new family of porous metal organic framework materials with the compositions M (bdc) (ted){sub 0.5}, {l_brace}M = Zn or Co, bdc = biphenyl dicarboxylate and ted = triethylene diamine{r_brace} that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen ({approx}4.6 wt%) at 77 K and a hydrogen pressure of 50 atm. The modeling performed on these materials agree reasonably well with the experimental results. (2) In some instances, such as in Y{sub 2}(sdba){sub 3}, even though the modeling predicted the possibility of hydrogen adsorption (although only small quantities, {approx}1.2 wt%, 77 K, 50 atm. hydrogen), our experiments indicate that the sample does not adsorb any hydrogen. This may be related to the fact that the pores are extremely small or may be attributed to the lack of proper activation process. (3) Some samples such as Zn (tbip) (tbip = 5-tert butyl isophthalate) exhibit hysteresis characteristics in hydrogen sorption between adsorption and desorption runs. Modeling studies on this sample show good agreement with the desorption behavior. It is necessary to conduct additional studies to fully understand this behavior. (4) Molecular simulations have demonstrated the need to enhance the solid-fluid potential of interaction in order to achieve much higher adsorption amounts at room temperature. We speculate that this may be accomplished through incorporation of light transition metals, such as titanium and scandium, into the metal organic framework materials.

  12. Carbon nanotube materials for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, A.C.; Parilla, P.A.; Jones, K.M.; Riker, G.; Heben, M.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are essentially elongated pores of molecular dimensions and are capable of adsorbing hydrogen at relatively high temperatures and low pressures. This behavior is unique to these materials and indicates that SWNTs are the ideal building block for constructing safe, efficient, and high energy density adsorbents for hydrogen storage applications. In past work the authors developed methods for preparing and opening SWNTs, discovered the unique adsorption properties of these new materials, confirmed that hydrogen is stabilized by physical rather than chemical interactions, measured the strength of interaction to be {approximately} 5 times higher than for adsorption on planar graphite, and performed infrared absorption spectroscopy to determine the chemical nature of the surface terminations before, during, and after oxidation. This year the authors have made significant advances in synthesis and characterization of SWNT materials so that they can now prepare gram quantities of high-purity SWNT samples and measure and control the diameter distribution of the tubes by varying key parameters during synthesis. They have also developed methods which purify nanotubes and cut nanotubes into shorter segments. These capabilities provide a means for opening the tubes which were unreactive to the oxidation methods that successfully opened tubes, and offer a path towards organizing nanotube segments to enable high volumetric hydrogen storage densities. They also performed temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy on high purity carbon nanotube material obtained from collaborator Prof. Patrick Bernier and finished construction of a high precision Seivert`s apparatus which will allow the hydrogen pressure-temperature-composition phase diagrams to be evaluated for SWNT materials.

  13. Microwave plasma for hydrogen production from liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czylkowski Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen production by conversion of liquid compounds containing hydrogen was investigated experimentally. The waveguide-supplied metal cylinder-based microwave plasma source (MPS operated at frequency of 915 MHz at atmospheric pressure was used. The decomposition of ethanol, isopropanol and kerosene was performed employing plasma dry reforming process. The liquid was introduced into the plasma in the form of vapour. The amount of vapour ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 kg/h. Carbon dioxide with the flow rate ranged from 1200 to 2700 NL/h was used as a working gas. The absorbed microwave power was up to 6 kW. The effect of absorbed microwave power, liquid composition, liquid flow rate and working gas fl ow rate was analysed. All these parameters have a clear influence on the hydrogen production efficiency, which was described with such parameters as the hydrogen production rate [NL(H2/h] and the energy yield of hydrogen production [NL(H2/kWh]. The best achieved experimental results showed that the hydrogen production rate was up to 1116 NL(H2/h and the energy yield was 223 NL(H2 per kWh of absorbed microwave energy. The results were obtained in the case of isopropanol dry reforming. The presented catalyst-free microwave plasma method can be adapted for hydrogen production not only from ethanol, isopropanol and kerosene, but also from different other liquid compounds containing hydrogen, like gasoline, heavy oils and biofuels.

  14. Hydrogen storage in the form of metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanziger, M. G.; Santana, C. C.; Santos, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    Reversible reactions between hydrogen and such materials as iron/titanium and magnesium/ nickel alloy may provide a means for storing hydrogen fuel. A demonstration model of an iron/titanium hydride storage bed is described. Hydrogen from the hydride storage bed powers a converted gasoline electric generator.

  15. Hydrogen Storage using Physisorption : Modified Carbon Nanofibers and Related Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Marije Gessien

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes our research on adsorbent systems for hydrogen storage for small scale, mobile application. Hydrogen storage is a key element in the change-over from the less efficient and polluting internal combustion engine to the pollution-free operating hydrogen fuel cell. In general,

  16. Making the case for direct hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.D.; Thomas, C.E.; Baum, G.N.; Lomas, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Three obstacles to the introduction of direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are often states: (1) inadequate onboard hydrogen storage leading to limited vehicle range; (2) lack of an hydrogen infrastructure, and (3) cost of the entire fuel cell system. This paper will address the first point with analysis of the problem/proposed solutions for the remaining two obstacles addressed in other papers. Results of a recent study conducted by Directed Technologies Inc. will be briefly presented. The study, as part of Ford Motor Company/DOE PEM Fuel Cell Program, examines multiple pure hydrogen onboard storage systems on the basis of weight, volume, cost, and complexity. Compressed gas, liquid, carbon adsorption, and metal hydride storage are all examined with compressed hydrogen storage at 5,000 psia being judged the lowest-risk, highest benefit, near-term option. These results are combined with recent fuel cell vehicle drive cycle simulations to estimate the onboard hydrogen storage requirement for full vehicle range (380 miles on the combined Federal driving schedule). The results indicate that a PNGV-like vehicle using powertrain weights and performance realistically available by the 2004 PNGV target data can achieve approximate fuel economy equivalent to 100 mpg on gasoline (100 mpg{sub eq}) and requires storage of approximately 3.6 kg hydrogen for full vehicle storage quantity allows 5,000 psia onboard storage without altering the vehicle exterior lines or appreciably encroaching on the passenger or trunk compartments.

  17. Thermogravimetric research of hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleperis, J; Grinberga, L; Ergle, M; Chikvaidze, G; Klavins, J

    2007-01-01

    During thermogravimetric research of metal hydrides we noticed mass growth of samples above 200 deg. C even in an argon atmosphere. Further heating is leading to the growth of weight up to 2-7 weight% till 500 0 C. Second run of the same sample without taking out of DTA instrument gave only small mass changes, indicating that noticed mass increase during first run is permanent. Microscope and elemental analyses were made to determine the reason of mass growth. XRD inspection revealed the formation of new phase with bunsenite NiO structure with deformed cubic structure. The new phase is no more active to hydrogen sorption/desorption. Our results demonstrated that the usage of hydrogen storage alloys AB 5 must be taken with care - it is important not to exceed some critical temperature were irreversible structural, compositional and morphological changes will occur

  18. The U.S. National Hydrogen Storage Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunita Satyapal; Carole Read; Grace Ordaz; John Petrovic; George Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is being considered by many countries as a potential energy carrier for vehicular applications. In the United States, hydrogen-powered vehicles must possess a driving range of greater than 300 miles in order to meet customer requirements and compete effectively with other technologies. For the overall vehicular fleet, this requires that a range of 5-13 kg of hydrogen be stored on-board. The storage of such quantities of hydrogen within vehicular weight, volume, and system cost constraints is a major scientific and technological challenge. The targets for on-board hydrogen storage were established in the U.S. through the FreedomCAR and Fuel partnership, a partnership among the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and major energy companies. In order to achieve these long-term targets, the Department of Energy established a National Hydrogen Storage Project to develop the areas of metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage, carbon-based and high-surface-area sorbent materials, and new hydrogen storage materials and concepts. The current status of vehicular hydrogen storage is reviewed and hydrogen storage research associated with the National Hydrogen Storage Project is discussed. (authors)

  19. H2T liquid hydrogen delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.

    2002-01-01

    This Power Point presentation provides a preliminary evaluation of the cost of delivering liquid hydrogen produced in Quebec to hydrogen fuelled cars in Germany. The presentation describes the chain of events regarding liquid hydrogen delivery, beginning with the production of hydrogen from an initial source of hydro power. Water passes through an electrolyzer where hydrogen is liquefied and then placed into a container which is transported to market via truck, rail or tanker. Once transported, the hydrogen fuel is made available for consumers at refueling stations. The paper lists the costs related to transportation with reference to safety rules, pure transportation costs, leasing fees for the containers, and permission of customs duties for the import of hydrogen and export of empty containers between Quebec and Germany. A graph depicting a typical refueling station in Germany and the refueling events per hour was presented. For safety reasons, refueling is performed by a refueling robot. A blueprint of safety and protection distances at a refueling station was also presented. tabs., figs

  20. Comparison of hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    increase the hydriding and dehydriding rates, pure Mg was ground under hydrogen atmosphere (reactive .... Hydrogen storage properties of pure Mg and milled pure Mg. 833. Figure 3. ... elongated and flat shapes via collisions with the steel.

  1. Hydrogen Storage Performance in Pd/Graphene Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunyu; Szpunar, Jerzy A

    2016-10-05

    We have developed a Pd-graphene nanocomposite for hydrogen storage. The spherically shaped Pd nanoparticles of 5-45 nm in size are homogeneously distributed over the graphene matrix. This new hydrogen storage system has favorable features like desirable hydrogen storage capacity, ambient conditions of hydrogen uptake, and low temperature of hydrogen release. At a hydrogen charging pressure of 50 bar, the material could yield a gravimetric density of 6.7 wt % in the 1% Pd/graphene nanocomposite. As we increased the applied pressure to 60 bar, the hydrogen uptake capacity reached 8.67 wt % in the 1% Pd/graphene nanocomposite and 7.16 wt % in the 5% Pd/graphene nanocomposite. This system allows storage of hydrogen in amounts that exceed the capacity of the gravimetric target announced by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  2. Performance of a 10-kJ SMES model cooled by liquid hydrogen thermo-siphon flow for ASPCS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makida, Y; Shintomi, T; Hamajima, T; Tsuda, M; Miyagi, D; Ota, N; Katsura, M; Ando, K; Takao, T; Tsujigami, H; Fujikawa, S; Hirose, J; Iwaki, K; Komagome, T

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new electrical power storage and stabilization system, called an Advanced Superconducting Power Conditioning System (ASPCS), which consists of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and hydrogen energy storage, converged on a liquid hydrogen station for fuel cell vehicles. A small 10- kJ SMES system, in which a BSCCO coil cooled by liquid hydrogen was installed, was developed to create an experimental model of an ASPCS. The SMES coil is conductively cooled by liquid hydrogen flow through a thermo-siphon line under a liquid hydrogen buffer tank. After fabrication of the system, cooldown tests were carried out using liquid hydrogen. The SMES coil was successfully charged up to a nominal current of 200 A. An eddy current loss, which was mainly induced in pure aluminum plates pasted onto each pancake coils for conduction cooling, was also measured. (paper)

  3. Liquid hydrogen production via hydrogen sulfide methane reformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, 1769 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2008-01-03

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) methane (CH{sub 4}) reformation (H{sub 2}SMR) (2H{sub 2}S + CH{sub 4} = CS{sub 2} + 4H{sub 2}) is a potentially viable process for the removal of H{sub 2}S from sour natural gas resources or other methane containing gases. Unlike steam methane reformation that generates carbon dioxide as a by-product, H{sub 2}SMR produces carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), a liquid under ambient temperature and pressure - a commodity chemical that is also a feedstock for the synthesis of sulfuric acid. Pinch point analyses for H{sub 2}SMR were conducted to determine the reaction conditions necessary for no carbon lay down to occur. Calculations showed that to prevent solid carbon formation, low inlet CH{sub 4} to H{sub 2}S ratios are needed. In this paper, we analyze H{sub 2}SMR with either a cryogenic process or a membrane separation operation for production of either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Of the three H{sub 2}SMR hydrogen production flowsheets analyzed, direct liquid hydrogen generation has higher first and second law efficiencies of exceeding 80% and 50%, respectively. (author)

  4. Liquid hydrogen production via hydrogen sulfide methane reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) methane (CH 4) reformation (H 2SMR) (2H 2S + CH 4 = CS 2 + 4H 2) is a potentially viable process for the removal of H 2S from sour natural gas resources or other methane containing gases. Unlike steam methane reformation that generates carbon dioxide as a by-product, H 2SMR produces carbon disulfide (CS 2), a liquid under ambient temperature and pressure-a commodity chemical that is also a feedstock for the synthesis of sulfuric acid. Pinch point analyses for H 2SMR were conducted to determine the reaction conditions necessary for no carbon lay down to occur. Calculations showed that to prevent solid carbon formation, low inlet CH 4 to H 2S ratios are needed. In this paper, we analyze H 2SMR with either a cryogenic process or a membrane separation operation for production of either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Of the three H 2SMR hydrogen production flowsheets analyzed, direct liquid hydrogen generation has higher first and second law efficiencies of exceeding 80% and 50%, respectively.

  5. Study of liquid hydrogen and liquid deuterium cold neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harig, H.D.

    1969-01-01

    In view of the plant of the cold neutron source for a high flux reactor (maximal thermal flux of about 10 15 n/cm 2 s) an experimental study of several cold sources of liquid hydrogen and liquid deuterium has been made in a low power reactor (100 kW, about 10 12 n/cm 2 s). We have investigated: -cold neutron sources of liquid hydrogen shaped as annular layers of different thickness. Normal liquid hydrogen was used as well as hydrogen with a high para-percentage. -Cold neutron sources of liquid deuterium in cylinders of 18 and 38 cm diameter. In this case the sources could be placed into different positions to the reactor core within the heavy water reflector. This report gives a general description of the experimental device and deals more detailed with the design of the cryogenic systems. Then, the measured results are communicated, interpreted and finally compared with those of a theoretical study about the same cold moderators which have been the matter of the experimental investigation. (authors) [fr

  6. Hydrogen isotope storage in zircaloy scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. S.; Kuk, I. H.; Chung, H.; Paek, S. W.; Kang, H. S

    1999-08-01

    8 MCi of tritium a year will be produced after wolsong TRF is in operation. The metal hydride form is one of useful tritium storage. The metals in use for metal hydride are uranium, titanium, etc., however uranium is limited to use by regulation, and titanium is relatively costly. Both metals are not produced in country but whole amount is imported. On the other hand 2,000kg of zircaloy scrap is produced by CANDU nuclear fuel fabrication process, which is also useful for hydrogen storage. The purpose of this study is to evaluation of hydrogen absorption capacity for zircaloy scrap that is produced as waste by CANDU nuclear fuel fabrication process. The sample evacuated for an hour at 1000 deg C. The strip showed higher capacity : 0.7 at 25 deg C, 2.0 at 200 deg C, 2.0 at 200 deg C, 2.0 at 400 deg C, respectively. The H/M values for commercial zircaloy sponge were 2.0 at 25 deg C and 2.0 at 400 deg C.

  7. Hydrogen isotope storage in zircaloy scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. S.; Kuk, I. H.; Chung, H.; Paek, S. W.; Kang, H. S.

    1999-08-01

    8 MCi of tritium a year will be produced after wolsong TRF is in operation. The metal hydride form is one of useful tritium storage. The metals in use for metal hydride are uranium, titanium, etc., however uranium is limited to use by regulation, and titanium is relatively costly. Both metals are not produced in country but whole amount is imported. On the other hand 2,000kg of zircaloy scrap is produced by CANDU nuclear fuel fabrication process, which is also useful for hydrogen storage. The purpose of this study is to evaluation of hydrogen absorption capacity for zircaloy scrap that is produced as waste by CANDU nuclear fuel fabrication process. The sample evacuated for an hour at 1000 deg C. The strip showed higher capacity : 0.7 at 25 deg C, 2.0 at 200 deg C, 2.0 at 200 deg C, 2.0 at 400 deg C, respectively. The H/M values for commercial zircaloy sponge were 2.0 at 25 deg C and 2.0 at 400 deg C

  8. Energetic and economic evaluations on hydrogen storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arca, S.; Di Profio, P.; Germani, R. [Perugia Univ., Perugia (Italy). Centro di Eccellenza Materiali Innovativi Nanostrutturati, Dip. Chimica; Savelli, G.; Cotana, F.; Rossi, F.; Amantini, M. [Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Sezione di Fisica Tecnica

    2008-07-01

    With the development of the hydrogen economy and fuel cell vehicles, a major technological issue has emerged regarding the storage and delivery of large amounts of hydrogen. Several hydrogen storage methodologies are available while other technologies are being developed aside from the classical compression and liquefaction of hydrogen. A novel technology is also in rapid process, which is based on clathrate hydrates of hydrogen. The features and performances of available storage systems were evaluated in an effort to determine the best technology throughout the hydrogen chain. For each of the storage solutions presented, the key parameters were compared. These key parameters included interaction energy between hydrogen and support; real and practical storage capacity; and specific energy consumption. The paper presented the study methods and discussed hydrogen storage technologies using compressed hydrogen; metal hydrides; liquefied hydrogen; carbon nanotubes; ammonia; and gas hydrates. Carbon dioxide emissions were also evaluated for each storage system analyzed. The paper also presented the worst scenario. It was concluded that a technology based on clathrate hydrates of hydrogen, while being far from optimized, was highly competitive with the classical approaches. 21 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Craig M.; Zidan, Ragaiy A.

    2002-01-01

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  10. Liquid Hydrogen Consumption During Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issue of liquid hydrogen consumption and the points of its loss in prior to the shuttle launch. It traces the movement of the fuel from the purchase to the on-board quantity and the loss that results in 54.6 of the purchased quantity being on board the Shuttle.

  11. Developing business opportunities for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.

    2001-01-01

    A quick review of the history of Dynetek Industries Limited was provided. During the period 1991-1995, it began research and development efforts in the field of advanced lightweight fuel storage systems and the DyneCell R Fuel Storage Systems was introduced on the market. In 1997, it began supplying Ballard Power Systems with hydrogen fuel tanks. Trading on the Toronto Stock Exchange started in September 2000, and in 2001 Dynetek incorporated a 100 per cent European subsidiary, Dynetek Europe GmbH. The advantages of the product are numerous: lightest cylinder on the market with a metallic liner, highest storage capacity of all lightweight designs, non-permeable, one piece, seamless aluminium liner, and true fast-fill capabilities to name but a few. Dynetek's vision of market development was introduced. It involves a California demonstration project for the period 2001-2003 which should lead to transit vehicles in 2005-2008. Fleet vehicles are expected to follow suit during the same period, and the consumer market should be ripe in 2010-2015. Some of the challenges facing the industry were discussed and Dynetek's role in meeting them was examined. figs

  12. Method for storage of liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesky, H.; Wunderer, A.

    1978-01-01

    When nuclear fuel is reprocessed, apart from liquid radioactive wastes in certain cases also oxyhydrogen, i.e. a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen, is formed by radiolysis. It is proposed to remove the decay heat that will be formed by means of boiling cooling, to condense the steam and to recycle the condensate to the liquid waste store. The oxyhydrogen is to be rarefied by means of the steam and then catalytically recombined. The most advantageous process steps are discussed. (RW) [de

  13. Hydrogen production from glucose in ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assenbaum, D.W.; Taccardi, N.; Berger, M.E.M.; Boesmann, A.; Enzenberger, F.; Woelfel, R.; Wasserscheid, P. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer chemische Reaktionstechnik

    2010-07-01

    technologies suffer from the fact that the overall reaction rates are often restricted by mass and heat transport problems. Lastly, there are severe limitations concerning the feedstock selection as for some important substrates, such as e.g. glucose, the process can only be operated in very diluted systems to avoid rapid tar formation [22,23,24]. In this contribution we describe for the first time a catalytic reaction system producing hydrogen from glucose in astonishingly high selectivities using a single reaction step under very mild conditions. The catalytic reaction system is characterized by its homogeneous nature and comprises a Ru-complex catalyst dissolved and stabilized in an ionic liquid medium. Ionic liquids are salts of melting points below 100 C [25]. These liquid materials have attracted much interest in the last decade as solvents for catalytic reactions [26] and separation technologies (extraction, distillation) [27,28,29,30,31,32]. Besides, these liquids have found industrial applications as process fluids for mechanic [33] and electrochemical applications [34]. Finally, from the pioneering work of Rogers and co-workers, it is known that ionic liquids are able to dissolve significant amounts of water-insoluble biopolymers (such as e.g. cellulose and chitin)[35] and even complex biopolymer mixtures, such as e.g. wood, have been completely dissolved in some ionic liquids [36]. In our specific application, the role of the ionic liquid is threefold: a) the ionic liquid dissolves the carbohydrate starting material thus expanding the range of applicable carbohydrate to water insoluble polymers; b) the ionic liquid provides a medium to dissolve and stabilize the catalyst; c) the ionic liquid dissolves hydrogen at a very low level, so inhibiting any possible collateral hydrogen-consuming process (detailed investigation of the hydrogen solubility in ionic liquids have been reported by e.g. Brennecke and coworkers [37]). (orig.)

  14. Wind energy-hydrogen storage hybrid power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenjei Yang; Orhan Aydin [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics

    2001-07-01

    In this theoretical investigation, a hybrid power generation system utilizing wind energy and hydrogen storage is presented. Firstly, the available wind energy is determined, which is followed by evaluating the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system. A revised model of windmill is proposed from which wind power density and electric power output are determined. When the load demand is less than the output of the generation, the excess electric power is relayed to the electrolytic cell where it is used to electrolyse the de-ionized water. Hydrogen thus produced can be stored as hydrogen compressed gas or liquid. Once the hydrogen is stored in an appropriate high-pressure vessel, it can be used in a combustion engine, fuel cell, or burned in a water-cooled burner to produce a very high-quality steam for space heating, or to drive a turbine to generate electric power. It can also be combined with organic materials to produce synthetic fuels. The conclusion is that the system produces no harmful waste and depletes no resources. Note that this system also works well with a solar collector instead of a windmill. (author)

  15. Hydrogen storage in Chabazite zeolite frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regli, Laura; Zecchina, Adriano; Vitillo, Jenny G; Cocina, Donato; Spoto, Giuseppe; Lamberti, Carlo; Lillerud, Karl P; Olsbye, Unni; Bordiga, Silvia

    2005-09-07

    We have recently highlighted that H-SSZ-13, a highly siliceous zeolite (Si/Al = 11.6) with a chabazitic framework, is the most efficient zeolitic material for hydrogen storage [A. Zecchina, S. Bordiga, J. G. Vitillo, G. Ricchiardi, C. Lamberti, G. Spoto, M. Bjørgen and K. P. Lillerud, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 127, 6361]. The aim of this new study is thus to clarify both the role played by the acidic strength and by the density of the polarizing centers hosted in the same framework topology in the increase of the adsorptive capabilities of the chabazitic materials towards H2. To achieve this goal, the volumetric experiments of H2 uptake (performed at 77 K) and the transmission IR experiment of H2 adsorption at 15 K have been performed on H-SSZ-13, H-SAPO-34 (the isostructural silico-aluminophosphate material with the same Brønsted site density) and H-CHA (the standard chabazite zeolite: Si/Al = 2.1) materials. We have found that a H2 uptake improvement has been obtained by increasing the acidic strength of the Brønsted sites (moving from H-SAPO-34 to H-SSZ-13). Conversely, the important increase of the Brønsted sites density (moving from H-SSZ-13 to H-CHA) has played a negative role. This unexpected behavior has been explained as follows. The additional Brønsted sites are in mutual interaction via H-bonds inside the small cages of the chabazitic framework and for most of them the energetic cost needed to displace the adjacent OH ligand is higher than the adsorption enthalpy of the OH...H2 adduct. From our work it can be concluded that proton exchanged chabazitic frameworks represent, among zeolites, the most efficient materials for hydrogen storage. We have shown that a proper balance between available space (volume accessible to hydrogen), high contact surface, and specific interaction with strong and isolated polarizing centers are the necessary characteristics requested to design better materials for molecular H2 storage.

  16. Liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets; Cibles a hydrogene et deuterium liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougon, M; Marquet, M; Prugne, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    A description is given of 1) Atmospheric pressure target: liquid hydrogen, 400 mm thickness; thermal insulation: styrofoam; the hydrogen vapors are used to improve the target cooling; Mylar windows. 2) Vacuum target: 12 liter content: hydrogen or deuterium; liquid thickness 400 mm; thermal insulation is afforded by a vacuum vessel and a liquid nitrogen shield. Recovery and liquefaction of deuterium vapors are managed in the vacuum vessel which holds the target. The target emptying system is designed for operating in a few minutes. (author) [French] Description de: 1) Cible a pression atmospherique; hydrogene liquide, 400 mm d'epaisseur; l'isolement thermique: styrofoam; on utilise les vapeurs d'hydrogene pour ameliorer le refroidissement de la cible; hublots en Mylar. 2) Cible sous vide; contenance 12 litres; hydrogene ou deuterium; epaisseur du liquide 400 mm; l'isolement thermique est assure par une cuve a vide et un ecran d'azote liquide. Recuperation et liquefaction des vapeurs de deuterium sont effectuees dans la cuve a vide contenant la cible. Le systeme de vidange pour la cible est concu pour fonctionner en quelques minutes. (auteur)

  17. Properties of thermoplastic polymers used for hydrogen storage under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jousse, F.; Mazabraud, P.; Icard, B.; Mosdale, R.; Serre-Combe, P.

    2000-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen is one of the points of development of industrial applications of fuel cells of type PEMFC ( Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell). Developing an effective system of storage remains major. Ameliorations concerning the storage density of energy, the cost and facilities and the storage must be considered especially for the mobile applications. Among different approaches possible, the absorption on carbon nanotubes, the production by hydrides in the organic solutions or storage hyperbar in the gas state seem the most promising way. The storage of hydrogen gas at ambient temperature today appears as the simplest technical solution, the most advanced and the most economic solution. However, the energy density of hydrogen being weaker than that of the traditional fuels, of the quantities more important must be stored at equivalent rate. Hyperbar storage (higher pressure has 350 bar) of hydrogen makes it possible to reduce the volume of the tanks and strengthens the argument for their weights and cost

  18. Hydrogen Peroxide Storage in Small Sealed Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, J.

    1999-01-01

    Unstabilized hydrogen peroxide of 85% concentration has been prepared in laboratory quantities for testing material compatibility and long term storage on a small scale. Vessels made of candidate tank and liner materials ranged in volume from 1 cc to 2540 cc. Numerous metals and plastics were tried at the smallest scales, while promising ones were used to fabricate larger vessels and liners. An aluminum alloy (6061-T6) performed poorly, including increasing homogeneous decay due to alloying elements entering solution. The decay rate in this high strength aluminum was greatly reduced by anodizing. Better results were obtained with polymers, particularly polyvinylidene fluoride. Data reported herein include ullage pressures as a function of time with changing decay rates, and contamination analysis results

  19. New perspectives on potential hydrogen storage materials using high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang

    2013-09-21

    In addressing the global demand for clean and renewable energy, hydrogen stands out as the most suitable candidate for many fuel applications that require practical and efficient storage of hydrogen. Supplementary to the traditional hydrogen storage methods and materials, the high-pressure technique has emerged as a novel and unique approach to developing new potential hydrogen storage materials. Static compression of materials may result in significant changes in the structures, properties and performance that are important for hydrogen storage applications, and often lead to the formation of unprecedented phases or complexes that have profound implications for hydrogen storage. In this perspective article, 22 types of representative potential hydrogen storage materials that belong to four major classes--simple hydride, complex hydride, chemical hydride and hydrogen containing materials--were reviewed. In particular, their structures, stabilities, and pressure-induced transformations, which were reported in recent experimental works together with supporting theoretical studies, were provided. The important contextual aspects pertinent to hydrogen storage associated with novel structures and transitions were discussed. Finally, the summary of the recent advances reviewed and the insight into the future research in this direction were given.

  20. Motor fuels by hydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-05-07

    A process is disclosed for the production of knock-stable low-boiling motor fuels by conversion of liquid hydrocarbons which are vaporizable under the reaction conditions, which comprises passing the initial material at a temperature above 380/sup 0/C in a true vapor phase under pressure of more than 40 atmospheres together with hydrogen and gaseous hydrocarbons containing more than 1 carbon atom in the molecule in an amount by volume larger than that of the hydrogen over catalysts stable to poisoning stationarily confined in the reaction vessel.

  1. Synthesis of Ni/Graphene Nanocomposite for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunyu; Szpunar, Jerzy A; Cui, Xiaoyu

    2016-06-22

    We have designed a Ni-graphene composite for hydrogen storage with Ni nanoparticles of 10 nm in size, uniformly dispersed over a graphene substrate. This system exhibits attractive features like high gravimetric density, ambient conditions, and low activation temperature for hydrogen release. When charged at room temperature and an atmospheric hydrogen pressure of 1 bar, it could yield a hydrogen capacity of 0.14 wt %. When hydrogen pressure increased to 60 bar, the sorbent had a hydrogen gravimetric density of 1.18 wt %. The hydrogen release could occur at an operating temperature below 150 °C and completes at 250 °C.

  2. Economical Aspects of Sodium Borohydride for Hydrogen Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ture, I. Engin; Tabakoglu, F. Oznur; Kurtulus, Gulbahar

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is the best fuel among others, which can minimize the cause to global warming. Turkey has an important location with respect to hydrogen energy applications. Moreover, Turkey has 72.2% of the world's total boron reserves. Sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) which can be produced from borax has high hydrogen storage capacity. Hence, it is important for Turkey to lead studies about sodium borohydride to make it one of the most feasible hydrogen storage methods. In this paper an approximate process cost analysis of a NaBH 4 -H 2 system is given, starting with NaBH 4 production till recycling of it. It is found that, the usage of NaBH 4 as hydrogen storage material is relatively an expensive method but after improving reactions and by-product removal in the system and reducing the energy and reactant costs, sodium borohydride is one of the best candidates among hydrogen storage technologies. (authors)

  3. Resistance probe for liquid hydrogen; Sonde a resistance pour l'hydrogene liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauval, J J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    A simple device for determining the level of a liquid in equilibrium with its vapour is described. It makes use of the variation in heat exchange between a filament heated by a current and the atmosphere, on passing from the liquid to the gas. This apparatus is used to measure liquid hydrogen levels in liquefying dewar vessels. (author) [French] On decrit un dispositif simple permettant de determiner le niveau d'un liquide en equilibre avec sa vapeur. Il utilise la variation de l'echange thermique entre un filament chauffe par un courant et le milieu ambiant, quand on passe du liquide au gaz. Cet appareil est utilise pour mesurer des niveaux d'hydrogene liquide dans les dewars du liquefacteur. (auteur)

  4. Borazine-boron nitride hybrid hydrogen storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K [Knoxville, TN; Simonson, J Michael [Knoxville, TN; Maya, Leon [Knoxville, TN; Paine, Robert T [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-04-22

    A hybrid hydrogen storage composition includes a first phase and a second phase adsorbed on the first phase, the first phase including BN for storing hydrogen by physisorption and the second phase including a borazane-borazine system for storing hydrogen in combined form as a hydride.

  5. Spark Discharge Generated Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Storage Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vons, V.A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the largest obstacles to the large scale application of hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles is the absence of hydrogen storage methods suitable for application on-board of these vehicles. Metal hydrides are materials in which hydrogen is reversibly absorbed by one or more metals or

  6. Ageing of Mg-Ni-H hydrogen storage alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Král, Lubomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, OCT (2012), s. 14257-14264 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR GA106/09/0814; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0148 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Magnesium alloys * Hydrogen desorption * Hydrogen storage * Hydrogen-storage materials * Ageing Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 3.548, year: 2012

  7. Conception of modular hydrogen storage systems for portable applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladini, V.; Miotti, P.; Manzoni, G.; Ozebec, J.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen, till now the most prominent candidate as a future sustainable energy carrier, yields a gravimetric energy density three times as high as liquid hydrocarbon. Furthermore it is proven to be the most environmentally friendly fuel. Unfortunately, a few components regarding storage and tank solutions have not yet reached a technology level required for broad use. Thus, we intend to propose solutions and device concepts for both devices everyday use and space applications. This contribution assesses both state of the art of storage materials and existing technologies of power generation systems for application in portable devices. The aim of this work is to define the characteristics of a modular system, being suitable for a wide range of different devices, operating on advanced metal hydrides as the active hydrogen supply component. The concept has been studied and modelled with respect to volumes, mass and power requirements of different devices. The smallest system developed is intended to run, for example, a mobile phone. Minor tuning and straightforward scale up of this power supply module should make it suitable for general applicability in any portable device. (author)

  8. Safety Standard for Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems: Guidelines for Hydrogen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage and Transportation. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Safety Standard, which establishes a uniform process for hydrogen system design, materials selection, operation, storage, and transportation, is presented. The guidelines include suggestions for safely storing, handling, and using hydrogen in gaseous (GH2), liquid (LH2), or slush (SLH2) form whether used as a propellant or non-propellant. The handbook contains 9 chapters detailing properties and hazards, facility design, design of components, materials compatibility, detection, and transportation. Chapter 10 serves as a reference and the appendices contained therein include: assessment examples; scaling laws, explosions, blast effects, and fragmentation; codes, standards, and NASA directives; and relief devices along with a list of tables and figures, abbreviations, a glossary and an index for ease of use. The intent of the handbook is to provide enough information that it can be used alone, but at the same time, reference data sources that can provide much more detail if required.

  9. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: • Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. • The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. • Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. • The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. • The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (“Milk of Magnesia”) and magnesium oxide. • We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering

  10. Empirical Profiling of Cold Hydrogen Plumes Formed from Venting Of LH2 Storage Vessels: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rivkin, Carl H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schmidt, Kara [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartmann, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Hannah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weidner, Eveline [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Ciotti, Michael [H2 Fueling and CIP Markets Engineering

    2017-11-16

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage is a viable approach to assuring sufficient hydrogen capacity at commercial fuelling stations. Presently, LH2 is produced at remote facilities and then transported to the end-use site by road vehicles (i.e., LH2 tanker trucks). Venting of hydrogen to depressurize the transport storage tank is a routine part of the LH2 delivery process. The behaviour of cold hydrogen plumes has not been well-characterized because empirical field data is essentially non-existent. The NFPA 2 Hydrogen Storage Safety Task Group, which consists of hydrogen producers, safety experts, and CFD modellers, has identified the lack of understanding of hydrogen dispersion during LH2 venting of storage vessel as a critical gap for establishing safety distances at LH2 facilities, especially commercial hydrogen fuelling stations. To address this need, the NREL sensor laboratory, in collaboration with the NFPA 2 Safety Task Group developed the Cold Hydrogen Plume Analyzer to empirically characterize the hydrogen plume formed during LH2 storage tank venting. A prototype Analyzer was developed and field-deployed at an actual LH2 venting operation with critical findings that included: - H2 being detected as much as 2 m lower than the release point, which is not predicted by existing models - A small and inconsistent correlation between oxygen depletion and the hydrogen concentration - A negligible to non-existent correlation between in-situ temperature and the hydrogen concentration The Analyzer is currently being upgraded for enhanced metrological capabilities including improved real-time spatial and temporal profiling of the plume and tracking of prevailing weather conditions. Additional deployments are planned to monitor plume behaviour under different wind, humidity, and temperatures. This data will be shared with the NFPA 2 Safety Task Group and ultimately will be used support theoretical models and code requirements prescribed in NFPA 2.

  11. Composite high-pressure vessels for hydrogen storage in mobile application. Pt. 1 / Light weight composite cylinders for compressed hydrogen. Pt. 2 - custom made hydrogen storage tanks and vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasche, C. [MCS Cylinder Systems GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Recent developments on fuel cell technology demonstrated the feasibility of propelling vehicles by converting fuel directly into electricity. Fuel cells conveniently use either compressed (CGH{sub 2}) or liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) or methanol as the fuel source from a tank. Mobile storage of these fuelling will become an urgent need as this technology will come into series production expected for 2010. Due to the requirements on mobile hydrogen storage and the energy losses in the hydrogen-to-application-chain, a light-weight and energetic qualities and minimise ist bulky nature. Mobile storage of hydrogen can be realised either at high pressure values (> 20 MPa) or at deep temperatures (<-253 C). CGH{sub 2}: In the last few years, the introduction of natural gas driven vehicles has seen the development of compact mobile pressurised gas tanks in principle, this storage technique is also applicable for the compressed storage of hydrogen at filling pressures of > 20 MPa. LH{sub 2} : Storing hydrogen or natural gases in general in the liquid phase is accomplished either by applying a overpressure or keeping it below the phase transition temperature at ambient pressure in super insulated devices. (orig.)

  12. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  13. Hydrogen generation and storage from hydrolysis of sodium borohydride in batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, A.M.F.R.; Falcao, D.S. [Departamento de Eng. Quimica, Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Silva, R.A.; Rangel, C.M. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia e Inovacao, Paco do Lumiar 22, 1649-038 (Portugal)

    2006-08-15

    The catalytic hydrolysis of alkaline sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) solution was studied using a non-noble; nickel-based powered catalyst exhibiting strong activity even after long time storage. This easy-to-prepare catalyst showed an enhanced activity after being recovered from previous use. The effects of temperature, NaBH{sub 4} concentration, NaOH concentration and pressure on the hydrogen generation rate were investigated. Particular importance has the effect of pressure, since the maximum reached pressure of hydrogen is always substantially lower than predictions (considering 100% conversion) due to solubility effects. The solubility of hydrogen is greatly enhanced by the rising pressure during reaction, leading to storage of hydrogen in the liquid phase. This effect can induce new ways of using this type of catalyst and reactor for the construction of hydrogen generators and even containers for portable and in situ applications. (author)

  14. Performance Gains of Propellant Management Devices for Liquid Hydrogen Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; McQuillen, John B.; Chato, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents background, experimental design, and preliminary experimental results for the liquid hydrogen bubble point tests conducted at the Cryogenic Components Cell 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the test series was to investigate the parameters that affect liquid acquisition device (LAD) performance in a liquid hydrogen (LH2) propellant tank, to mitigate risk in the final design of the LAD for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission, and to provide insight into optimal LAD operation for future LH2 depots. Preliminary test results show an increase in performance and screen retention over the low reference LH2 bubble point value for a 325 2300 screen in three separate ways, thus improving fundamental LH2 LAD performance. By using a finer mesh screen, operating at a colder liquid temperature, and pressurizing with a noncondensible pressurant gas, a significant increase in margin is achieved in bubble point pressure for LH2 screen channel LADs.

  15. Technology Development for Hydrogen Propellant Storage and Transfer at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley; Krenn, Angela; Captain, Janine; Williams, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a major user of liquid hydrogen. In particular, NASA's John F. Kennedy (KSC) Space Center has operated facilities for handling and storing very large quantities of liquid hydrogen (LH2) since the early 1960s. Safe operations pose unique challenges and as a result NASA has invested in technology development to improve operational efficiency and safety. This paper reviews recent innovations including methods of leak and fire detection and aspects of large storage tank health and integrity. We also discuss the use of liquid hydrogen in space and issues we are addressing to ensure safe and efficient operations should hydrogen be used as a propellant derived from in-situ volatiles.

  16. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  17. Polyaniline as a material for hydrogen storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Nour F; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2013-07-12

    The main challenge of commercialization of the hydrogen economy is the lack of convenient and safe hydrogen storage materials, which can adsorb and release a significant amount of hydrogen at ambient conditions. Finding and designing suitable cost-effective materials are vital requirements to overcome the drawbacks of investigated materials. Because of its outstanding electronic, thermal, and chemical properties, the electrically conducting polyaniline (PANI) has a high potential in hydrogen storage applications. In this review, the progress in the use of different structures of conducting PANI, its nanocomposites as well as activated porous materials based on PANI as hydrogen storage materials is presented and discussed. The effect of the unique electronic properties based on the π-electron system in the backbone of these materials in view of the hydrogen uptake and the relevant mechanisms are highlighted. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. High-pressure torsion for new hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edalati, Kaveh; Akiba, Etsuo; Horita, Zenji

    2018-01-01

    High-pressure torsion (HPT) is widely used as a severe plastic deformation technique to create ultrafine-grained structures with promising mechanical and functional properties. Since 2007, the method has been employed to enhance the hydrogenation kinetics in different Mg-based hydrogen storage materials. Recent studies showed that the method is effective not only for increasing the hydrogenation kinetics but also for improving the hydrogenation activity, for enhancing the air resistivity and more importantly for synthesizing new nanostructured hydrogen storage materials with high densities of lattice defects. This manuscript reviews some major findings on the impact of HPT process on the hydrogen storage performance of different titanium-based and magnesium-based materials.

  19. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  20. Hydrogen storage in Ti-Mn-(FeV) BCC alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, S.F.; Huot, J.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the replacement of vanadium by the less expensive (FeV) commercial alloy has been investigated in Ti-Cr-V BCC solid solutions and promising results were reported. In the present work, this approach of using (FeV) alloys is adopted to synthesize alloys of the Ti-Mn-V system. Compared to the V-containing alloys, the alloys containing (FeV) have a smaller hydrogen storage capacity but a larger reversible hydrogen storage capacity, which is caused by the increase of the plateau pressure of desorption. Correlations between the structure and the hydrogen storage properties of the alloys are also discussed.

  1. Davisson-Germer Prize Talk: Hydrogen storage in nanoporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabal, Yves

    2009-03-01

    To develop a hydrogen-based energy technology, several classes of materials are being considered to achieve the DOE targets for gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen densities for hydrogen storage, including liquids (e.g. ammonium borohydrides), clathrate structures, complex metal hydrides, nanostructured (e.g. carbon) an nanoporous materials. Fundamental studies are necessary to determine the ultimate hydrogen capacity of each system. Nanoporous Metal-organic Framework (MOF) materials are promising candidates for hydrogen storage because the chemical nature and size of their unit cell can be tailored to weakly attract and incorporate H2 molecules, with good volumetric and mass density. In this talk, we consider the structure M2(BDC)2(TED), where M is a metal atom (Zn, Ni, Cu), BDC is benzenedicarboxylate and TED triethylenediamine, to determine the location and interaction of H2 molecules within the MOF. These compounds are isostructural and crystallize in the tetragonal phase (space group P4/ncc), they construct 3D porous structures with relatively large pore size (˜7-8 A ), pore volume (˜0.63-0.84 cc/g) and BET surface area (˜1500-1900 m^2/g). At high pressures (300-800 psi), the perturbation of the H-H stretching mode can be measured with IR absorption spectroscopy, showing a 35 cm-1 redshift from the unperturbed ortho (4155 cm-1 ) and para (4161 cm-1 ) frequencies. Using a newly developed non empirical van der Waals DFT method vdW-DFT),ootnotetextJ.Y. Lee, D.H. Olson, L. Pan, T.J. Emge, J. Li, Adv. Func. Mater. 17, 1255 (2007) it can be shown that the locus of the deepest H2 binding positions lies within to types of narrow channels. The energies of the most stable binding sites, as well as the number of such binding sites, are consistent with the values obtained from experimental adsorption isotherms, and heat of adsorption) data.ootnotetextM. Dion, H. Ryberg, E. Schroder, D. C. Langreth, B.I. Lundqvist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004). Importantly, the

  2. The Energy Efficiency of Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vestbø, Andreas Peter; Li, Qingfeng

    2007-01-01

    A number of the most common ways of storing hydrogen are reviewed in terms of energy efficiency. Distinction is made between energy losses during regeneration and during hydrogen liberation. In the latter case, the energy might have to be provided by part of the released hydrogen, and the true...

  3. Radiation Shielding and Hydrogen Storage with Multifunctional Carbon, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses two vital problems for long-term space travel activities: radiation shielding and hydrogen storage for power and propulsion. While both...

  4. Electrochemical modeling of hydrogen storage in hydride-forming electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Danilov, D.; Vermeulen, P.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2009-01-01

    An electrochemical kinetic model (EKM) is developed, describing the electrochemical hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials under equilibrium conditions. This model is based on first principles of electrochemical reaction kinetics and statistical thermodynamics and describes the complex,

  5. Low Pressure Adsorbent for Recovery & Storage Vented Hydrogen, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance fullerene-based adsorbent is proposed for recovery and storage hydrogen and separating helium via pressure-swing-adsorption (PSA) process....

  6. Reflector optimization for coupled liquid hydrogen moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyanagi, Y.; Iwasa, H.; Watanabe, N.; Furusaka, M.

    1991-01-01

    As a part of optimization studies on a coupled liquid hydrogen moderator system, the optimal thickness of the reflector, the effects of neutron absorbing liners and other beam hole/moderator on the cold-neutron-beam intensity were studied experimentally. It turns out that the optimal thickness is rather thick in this system and the existence of Cd liners around the beam extraction hole considerably reduces the cold neutron beam intensity, while the existence of other beam hole and moderator does not give an important intensity reduction. (author)

  7. New Transition metal assisted complex borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesha Srinivasan; Elias Lee Stefanakos; Yogi Goswami

    2006-01-01

    High capacity hydrogen storage systems are indeed essential for the on-board vehicular application that leads to the pollution free environment. Apart from the various hydrogen storage systems explored in the past, complex hydrides involving light weight alkali/alkaline metals exhibits promising hydrogenation/ dehydrogenation characteristics. New transition metal assisted complex borohydrides [Zn(BH 4 ) 2 ] have been successfully synthesized by an inexpensive mechano-chemical process. These complex hydrides possesses gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity of ∼8.4 wt.% at around 120 C. We have determined the volumetric hydrogen absorption and desorption of these materials for a number of cycles. Another complex borohydride mixture LiBH 4 /MgH 2 catalyzed with ZnCl 2 has been synthesized and characterized using various analytical techniques. (authors)

  8. Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests in Liquid Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; Chato, David J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325x2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3 - 24.2 K), pressures (100 - 350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010 - 0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF DOPED NANOPOROUS CARBONS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueking, Angela D.; Li, Qixiu; Badding, John V.; Fonseca, Dania; Gutierrez, Humerto; Sakti, Apurba; Adu, Kofi; Schimmel, Michael

    2010-03-31

    Hydrogen storage materials based on the hydrogen spillover mechanism onto metal-doped nanoporous carbons are studied, in an effort to develop materials that store appreciable hydrogen at ambient temperatures and moderate pressures. We demonstrate that oxidation of the carbon surface can significantly increase the hydrogen uptake of these materials, primarily at low pressure. Trace water present in the system plays a role in the development of active sites, and may further be used as a strategy to increase uptake. Increased surface density of oxygen groups led to a significant enhancement of hydrogen spillover at pressures less than 100 milibar. At 300K, the hydrogen uptake was up to 1.1 wt. % at 100 mbar and increased to 1.4 wt. % at 20 bar. However, only 0.4 wt% of this was desorbable via a pressure reduction at room temperature, and the high lowpressure hydrogen uptake was found only when trace water was present during pretreatment. Although far from DOE hydrogen storage targets, storage at ambient temperature has significant practical advantages oner cryogenic physical adsorbents. The role of trace water in surface modification has significant implications for reproducibility in the field. High-pressure in situ characterization of ideal carbon surfaces in hydrogen suggests re-hybridization is not likely under conditions of practical interest. Advanced characterization is used to probe carbon-hydrogen-metal interactions in a number of systems and new carbon materials have been developed.

  10. Chemical storage of hydrogen in few-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K. S.; Kumar, Prashant; Maitra, Urmimala; Govindaraj, A.; Hembram, K. P. S. S.; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Rao, C. N. R.

    2011-01-01

    Birch reduction of few-layer graphene samples gives rise to hydrogenated samples containing up to 5 wt % of hydrogen. Spectroscopic studies reveal the presence of sp3 C-H bonds in the hydrogenated graphenes. They, however, decompose readily on heating to 500 °C or on irradiation with UV or laser radiation releasing all the hydrogen, thereby demonstrating the possible use of few-layer graphene for chemical storage of hydrogen. First-principles calculations throw light on the mechanism of dehydrogenation that appears to involve a significant reconstruction and relaxation of the lattice. PMID:21282617

  11. New ternary intermetallics, based magnesium, for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquefere, J.G.

    2009-05-01

    The use of fossil fuels (non-renewable energy) is responsible for increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Among the considered alternatives, hydrogen is seen as the most attractive energy vector. The storage in intermetallics makes it possible to obtain mass and volume capacities (e.g. 140 g/L) higher than those obtained by liquid form or under pressure (respectively 71 and 40 g/L). We have synthesised Mg and Rare Earth based compounds (RE = Y, Ce and Gd), derived from the cubic Laves phases AB2. Their physical and chemical properties have been studied (hydrogenation, electrochemistry, magnetism,...). The conditions of sorption (P and T) are particularly favorable (i.e. absorption at room temperature and atmospheric pressure). Besides, to improve the sorption kinetics of metallic magnesium, the compounds developed previously were used as catalysts. Thus, GdMgNi4 was milled with magnesium and the speeds of absorption and desorption of the mixture are found higher than those obtained for the composites Mg+Ni or Mg+V, which are reference systems. A theoretical approach (DFT) was used to model the electronic structure of the ternary compounds (i.e. REMgNi4) and thus to predict or confirm the experimental results. (authors)

  12. ERDA's Chemical Energy Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, J. H.; Kelley, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Chemical Energy Storage Program is described with emphasis on hydrogen storage. Storage techniques considered include pressurized hydrogen gas storage, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage, storage in hydride compounds, and aromatic-alicyclic hydrogen storage. Some uses of energy storage are suggested. Information on hydrogen production and hydrogen use is also presented. Applications of hydrogen energy systems include storage of hydrogen for utilities load leveling, industrial marketing of hydrogen both as a chemical and as a fuel, natural gas supplementation, vehicular applications, and direct substitution for natural gas.

  13. Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered glass microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambach, G.D.

    1994-04-20

    New, high-strength, hollow, glass microspheres filled with pressurized hydrogen exhibit storage densities which make them attractive for bulk hydrogen storage and transport. The hoop stress at failure of our engineered glass microspheres is about 150,000 psi, permitting a three-fold increase in pressure limit and storage capacity above commercial microspheres, which fail at wall stresses of 50,000 psi. For this project, microsphere material and structure will be optimized for storage capacity and charge/discharge kinetics to improve their commercial practicality. Microsphere production scale up will be performed, directed towards large-scale commercial use. Our analysis relating glass microspheres for hydrogen transport with infrastructure and economics` indicate that pressurized microspheres can be economically competitive with other forms of bulk rail and truck transport such as hydride beds, cryocarbons and pressurized tube transports. For microspheres made from advanced materials and processes, analysis will also be performed to identify the appropriate applications of the microspheres considering property variables, and different hydrogen infrastructure, end use, production and market scenarios. This report presents some of the recent modelling results for large beds of glass microspheres in hydrogen storage applications. It includes plans for experiments to identify the properties relevant to large-bed hydrogen transport and storage applications, of the best, currently producible, glass microspheres. This work began in March, 1994. Project successes will be manifest in the matching of cur-rent glass microspheres with a useful application in hydrogen bulk transport and storage, and in developing microsphere materials and processes that increase the storage density and reduce the storage energy requirement.

  14. Nanoconfined Alkali-metal borohydrides for Reversible Hydrogen Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen has been identified as a promising energy carrier. Its combustion is not associated with pollution when generated from renewable energy sources like solar and wind. The large-scale use of hydrogen for intermittent energy storage and as a fuel for cars can contribute to the realization of a

  15. Hydrogen Storage in Porous Materials and Magnesium Hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grzech, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis representatives of two different types of materials for potential hydrogen storage application are presented. Usage of either nanoporous materials or metal hydrides has both operational advantages and disadvantages. A main objective of this thesis is to characterize the hydrogen

  16. Chemical-clathrate hybrid hydrogen storage: storage in both guest and host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Timothy A; Kim, Yongkwan; Andrews, Gary S; Ferrell, Jack R; Koh, Carolyn A; Herring, Andrew M; Sloan, E Dendy

    2008-11-12

    Hydrogen storage from two independent sources of the same material represents a novel approach to the hydrogen storage problem, yielding storage capacities greater than either of the individual constituents. Here we report a novel hydrogen storage scheme in which recoverable hydrogen is stored molecularly within clathrate cavities as well as chemically in the clathrate host material. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic measurements confirm the formation of beta-hydroquinone (beta-HQ) clathrate with molecular hydrogen. Hydrogen within the beta-HQ clathrate vibrates at considerably lower frequency than hydrogen in the free gaseous phase and rotates nondegenerately with splitting comparable to the rotational constant. Compared with water-based clathrate hydrate phases, the beta-HQ+H2 clathrate shows remarkable stability over a range of p-T conditions. Subsequent to clathrate decomposition, the host HQ was used to directly power a PEM fuel cell. With one H2 molecule per cavity, 0.61 wt % hydrogen may be stored in the beta-HQ clathrate cavities. When this amount is combined with complete dehydrogenation of the host hydroxyl hydrogens, the maximum hydrogen storage capacity increases nearly 300% to 2.43 wt %.

  17. Comparative study of hydrogen storage on metal doped mesoporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, P. M.; Sapag, K.; Oliva, M. I.; Eimer, G. A.

    2018-06-01

    The hydrogen adsorption capacity of mesoporous materials MCM-41 modified with Co, Fe, Ti, Mg and Ni at 77 K and 10 bar was investigated. Various techniques including XRD, N2 adsorption and DRUV-vis were employed for the materials characterization. The results showed that a low nickel loading on MCM-41 support promoted the presence of hydrogen-favorable sites, increasing the hydrogen storage capacity.

  18. Realization of a liquid hydrogen target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libin, J.F.; Gangnant, F.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments by the SPEG facility at GANIL need liquid hydrogen targets of some cm 3 . To achieve such targets, temperatures lower than 20 K must be obtained while their thin windows must withstand to pressures higher than 1000 m bars at these temperatures. Havar windows of 4.4 μm thickness met these requirements. A RW5 type Leybold cryo-generator was used as well as a system of ohmic heaters allowing regaining the initial state in a time equivalent with time elapsed for cooling. The working regime was chosen to be constant volume - variable pressure. The various components of this equipment (cryogenic head, buffer volume, hydrogen reservoir and vacuum pump) were coupled through 'aeroquip' allowing by dismantling and changes to keep the hydrogen isolated from the ambient atmosphere. The tests confirmed the accuracy of estimations done for the buffer volume and pressure. The only uncertainty is related to the window deformations. The time of cooling and reheating of target is around one hour. This allows during an experiment to aerate the chamber as the target was accessible to any necessary intervention

  19. Kinetics of hydrogen release from dissolutions of ammonia borane in different ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero-Pedraza, María José; Martín-Cortés, Alexandra; Navarrete, Alexander; Bermejo, María Dolores; Martín, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia borane is a promising hydrogen storage material that liberates hydrogen by thermolysis at moderate temperatures, but it also presents major limitations for practical applications including a long induction time before the initiation of hydrogen release and a difficult regeneration. Previous works have demonstrated that by dissolution of ammonia borane into several ionic liquids, and particularly in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride bmimCl, the induction period at the beginning of the thermolysis is eliminated, but some problems persist, including foaming and the formation of a residue after thermolysis that is insoluble in the ionic liquid. In this work, the release of hydrogen from ammonia borane dissolved in different ionic liquids has been analyzed, measuring the kinetics of hydrogen release, visually following the evolution of the sample during the process using pressure glass tube reactors, and analyzing the residue by spectroscopic techniques. While dissolutions of ammonia borane in most ionic liquids analyzed show similar properties as dissolutions in bmimCl, using ionic liquids with bis(trifluoromethylsulfanyl)imide Tf_2N anion the foaming problem is reduced, and in some cases the residue remains dissolved in the ionic liquid, while with ionic liquids with choline anion higher hydrogen yields are achieved that indicate that the decomposition of ammonia borane proceeds through a different path. - Highlights: • Hydrogen release from ammonia borane dissolved in 13 ionic liquids has been studied. • Induction time is shortened and hydrogen release rate is accelerated in all cases. • The best results are obtained using ionic liquids with Tf_2N anion. • Ch cation ionic liquids enable higher H_2 yield, but cyclotriborazane is produced.

  20. Final test results for the ground operations demonstration unit for liquid hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Jumper, K. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Described herein is a comprehensive project-a large-scale test of an integrated refrigeration and storage system called the Ground Operations and Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU LH2), sponsored by the Advanced Exploration Systems Program and constructed at Kennedy Space Center. A commercial cryogenic refrigerator interfaced with a 125,000 l liquid hydrogen tank and auxiliary systems in a manner that enabled control of the propellant state by extracting heat via a closed loop Brayton cycle refrigerator coupled to a novel internal heat exchanger. Three primary objectives were demonstrating zero-loss storage and transfer, gaseous liquefaction, and propellant densification. Testing was performed at three different liquid hydrogen fill-levels. Data were collected on tank pressure, internal tank temperature profiles, mass flow in and out of the system, and refrigeration system performance. All test objectives were successfully achieved during approximately two years of testing. A summary of the final results is presented in this paper.

  1. Density functional theory for hydrogen storage materials: successes and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hector, L G Jr; Herbst, J F

    2008-01-01

    Solid state systems for hydrogen storage continue to be the focus of considerable international research, driven to a large extent by technological demands, especially for mobile applications. Density functional theory (DFT) has become a valuable tool in this effort. It has greatly expanded our understanding of the properties of known hydrides, including electronic structure, hydrogen bonding character, enthalpy of formation, elastic behavior, and vibrational energetics. Moreover, DFT holds substantial promise for guiding the discovery of new materials. In this paper we discuss, within the context of results from our own work, some successes and a few shortcomings of state-of-the-art DFT as applied to hydrogen storage materials

  2. Investigation of cryogenic hydrogen storage on high surface area activated carbon. Equilibrium and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paggiaro, Ricardo Gaspar

    2008-11-29

    This thesis investigates cryo-adsorptive systems for hydrogen storage for mobile applications. By means of macroscopic and microscopic balance models, an extensive analysis is carried out, including among others the investigation of the thermal effects during high-pressure system filling, venting losses during normal operation and inactivity, time-course of system pressure and temperature and gas delivery under various operating conditions. Model results were compared with experimental data, good agreement was obtained. The analysis also includes a comparison to other storage technologies such as cryo-compressed gas and liquefaction storage. The results show that cryo-adsorptive systems have storage characteristics comparable to compressed gas systems, but at a much lower pressure. They are also energetically more efficient than liquid hydrogen systems. However, the necessity of cryotemperatures and thermal management during operation and filling might limit their application. (orig.)

  3. Atomic hydrogen storage. [cryotrapping and magnetic field strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollam, J. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen, for use as a fuel or as an explosive, is stored in the presence of a strong magnetic field in exfoliated layered compounds such as molybdenum disulfide or an elemental layer material such as graphite. The compound is maintained at liquid temperatures and the atomic hydrogen is collected on the surfaces of the layered compound which are exposed during delamination (exfoliation). The strong magnetic field and the low temperature combine to prevent the atoms of hydrogen from recombining to form molecules.

  4. Iron titanium manganase alloy hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, James J.; Wiswall, Jr., Richard H.

    1979-01-01

    A three component alloy capable of reversible sorption of hydrogen having the chemical formula TiFe.sub.1-x Mn.sub.x where x is in the range of about 0.02 to 0.5 and the method of storing hydrogen using said alloy.

  5. Analysis and Design of Cryogenic Pressure Vessels for Automotive Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Loza, Francisco Javier

    Cryogenic pressure vessels maximize hydrogen storage density by combining the high pressure (350-700 bar) typical of today's composite pressure vessels with the cryogenic temperature (as low as 25 K) typical of low pressure liquid hydrogen vessels. Cryogenic pressure vessels comprise a high-pressure inner vessel made of carbon fiber-coated metal (similar to those used for storage of compressed gas), a vacuum space filled with numerous sheets of highly reflective metalized plastic (for high performance thermal insulation), and a metallic outer jacket. High density of hydrogen storage is key to practical hydrogen-fueled transportation by enabling (1) long-range (500+ km) transportation with high capacity vessels that fit within available spaces in the vehicle, and (2) reduced cost per kilogram of hydrogen stored through reduced need for expensive structural material (carbon fiber composite) necessary to make the vessel. Low temperature of storage also leads to reduced expansion energy (by an order of magnitude or more vs. ambient temperature compressed gas storage), potentially providing important safety advantages. All this is accomplished while simultaneously avoiding fuel venting typical of cryogenic vessels for all practical use scenarios. This dissertation describes the work necessary for developing and demonstrating successive generations of cryogenic pressure vessels demonstrated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The work included (1) conceptual design, (2) detailed system design (3) structural analysis of cryogenic pressure vessels, (4) thermal analysis of heat transfer through cryogenic supports and vacuum multilayer insulation, and (5) experimental demonstration. Aside from succeeding in demonstrating a hydrogen storage approach that has established all the world records for hydrogen storage on vehicles (longest driving range, maximum hydrogen storage density, and maximum containment of cryogenic hydrogen without venting), the work also

  6. Modification of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, A.M.; Nouralishahi, A.; Karimi, A.; Kashefi, K. [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of petroleum industry (RIPI), Tehran (Iran); Khodadadi, A.A.; Mortazavi, Y. [Chemical engineering Department, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    Due to unique structural, mechanical and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotubes, SWNTs, they have been proposed as promising hydrogen storage materials especially in automotive industries. This research deals with investing of CNT's and some activated carbons hydrogen storage capacity. The CNT's were prepared through natural gas decomposition at a temperature of 900 C over cobalt-molybdenum nanoparticles supported by nanoporous magnesium oxide (Co-Mo/MgO) during a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The effects of purity of CNT (80-95%wt.) on hydrogen storage were investigated here. The results showed an improvement in the hydrogen adsorption capacity with increasing the purity of CNT's. Maximum adsorption capacity was 0.8%wt. in case of CNT's with 95% purity and it may be raised up with some purification to 1%wt. which was far less than the target specified by DOE (6.5%wt.). Also some activated carbons were manufactured and the results compared to CNTs. There were no considerable H{sub 2}-storage for carbon nanotubes and activated carbons at room-temperature due to insufficient binding between H{sub 2} molecules carbon nanostructures. Therefore, hydrogen must be adsorbed via interaction of atomic hydrogen with the storage environment in order to achieve DOE target, because the H atoms have a very stronger interaction with carbon nanostructures. (author)

  7. Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen, Thermal and Electrochemical Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Kasper T.; Sheppard, Drew; Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen has a very diverse chemistry and reacts with most other elements to form compounds, which have fascinating structures, compositions and properties. Complex metal hydrides are a rapidly expanding class of materials, approaching multi-functionality, in particular within the energy storage...... inspiration to solve the great challenge of our time: efficient conversion and large-scale storage of renewable energy....... field. This review illustrates that complex metal hydrides may store hydrogen in the solid state, act as novel battery materials, both as electrolytes and electrode materials, or store solar heat in a more efficient manner as compared to traditional heat storage materials. Furthermore, it is highlighted...

  8. Storage characteristics of hydrogen by titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. H.; Kang, H. S.; Back, S. W.; Choi, H. J.; Kim, K. R.; An, D. H.; Lee, H. S.; Jung, H. S.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen absorption experiments were performed by the sponge, strip and rod types of titanium(Ti) for investigating the absorption characteristics of hydrogen. From experimental results, Ti sponge showed the high hydrogen absorption capacity inspite of low reaction temperature(25 .deg. C), the H/M, which mean the capacity of hydrogen absorption was measured 2.0 for Ti sponge at 25 .deg. C. However, in case of strip and rod type of Ti, the hydrogen absorption capacities were very low in the experimental condition of 25 .deg. C. The pulverizing phenomena after metal hydriding reaction was observed in both Ti strip and Ti rod. However, the pulverizing phenomena was not observed in the Ti sponges because of high surface area

  9. Carbon compound used in hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work it is studied the activated carbon of mineral origin for the sorption of hydrogen. The carbon decreased of particle size by means of the one alloyed mechanical. The time of mill was of 10 hours. The characterization one carries out by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The hydrogen sipped in the carbon material it was determined using the Thermal gravimetric method (TGA). The conditions of hydrogenation went at 10 atm of pressure and ambient temperature during 18 hours. They were also carried out absorption/desorption cycles of hydrogen in the same one system of thermal gravimetric analysis. The results showed percentages of sorption of 2% approximately in the cycles carried out in the system TGA and of 4.5% in weight of hydrogen at pressure of 10 atmospheres and ambient temperature during 18 hours. (Author)

  10. Enhanced hydrogen storage by using lithium decoration on phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Wan, Neng, E-mail: wn@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: lsy@seu.edu.cn; Lei, Shuangying, E-mail: wn@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: lsy@seu.edu.cn; Yu, Hong [Key Laboratory of Microelectromechanical Systems of the Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2016-07-14

    The hydrogen storage characteristics of Li decorated phosphorene were systematically investigated based on first-principle density functional theory. It is revealed that the adsorption of H{sub 2} on pristine phosphorene is relatively weak with an adsorption energy of 0.06 eV. While this value can be dramatically enhanced to ∼0.2 eV after the phosphorene was decorated by Li, and each Li atom can adsorb up to three H{sub 2} molecules. The detailed mechanism of the enhanced hydrogen storage was discussed based on our density functional theory calculations. Our studies give a conservative prediction of hydrogen storage capacity to be 4.4 wt. % through Li decoration on pristine phosphorene. By comparing our calculations to the present molecular dynamic simulation results, we expect our adsorption system is stable under room temperature and hydrogen can be released after moderate heating.

  11. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 5 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (development of hydrogen transportation/storage technology. 2. development of the liquid hydrogen transportation tanker); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 5 suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu dai 2 hen ekitai suiso yuso tanker no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Technology development is being conducted for construction of the long distance transportation tanker of large quantity liquid hydrogen. In fiscal 1997, test pieces of thermal insulating materials to be planned for fiscal 1998 were designed and studied. The purpose of the test is to confirm thermal insulating performance and behaviors of each material under the temperature of liquid hydrogen. The inside of the outer tank of the experimental equipment was held at vacuum of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} Torr to exclude thermal convection effects and evaluate only heat coming from heater through the test piece. The heat from the heater at the lower part of the test piece is through the test piece and makes the liquid hydrogen of the upper tank evaporate. Thermal conductivity of the test piece is calculated from the evaporation quantity. As to PUF (polyurethane foam) panels, studied were reformation preventive measures, influential evaluation of the side transfer heat quantity, and the time required for vacuuming. In the vacuum panel, study subjects were extracted on the selection of core materials, reformation preventive measures, deterioration with age, the practical manufacturing method of experimental panels, etc. As to the super insulation, subjects were studied on the performance measuring method/accuracy, measures against heat transfer from the inside of the experimental equipment, control of the vacuum degree, etc. 10 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Large Scale Production of Densified Hydrogen Using Integrated Refrigeration and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, William U.; Swanger, Adam Michael; Jumper, Kevin M.; Fesmire, James E.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; Johnson, Wesley L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent demonstration of advanced liquid hydrogen storage techniques using Integrated Refrigeration and Storage (IRAS) technology at NASA Kennedy Space Center led to the production of large quantities of solid densified liquid and slush hydrogen in a 125,000 L tank. Production of densified hydrogen was performed at three different liquid levels and LH2 temperatures were measured by twenty silicon diode temperature sensors. System energy balances and solid mass fractions are calculated. Experimental data reveal hydrogen temperatures dropped well below the triple point during testing (up to 1 K), and were continuing to trend downward prior to system shutdown. Sub-triple point temperatures were seen to evolve in a time dependent manner along the length of the horizontal, cylindrical vessel. Twenty silicon diode temperature sensors were recorded over approximately one month for testing at two different fill levels (33 67). The phenomenon, observed at both two fill levels, is described and presented detailed and explained herein., and The implications of using IRAS for energy storage, propellant densification, and future cryofuel systems are discussed.

  13. Polyaniline-polypyrrole composites with enhanced hydrogen storage capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Nour F; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2013-06-13

    A facile method for the synthesis of polyaniline-polypyrrole composite materials with network morphology is developed based on polyaniline nanofibers covered by a thin layer of polypyrrole via vapor phase polymerization. The hydrogen storage capacity of the composites is evaluated at room temperature exhibits a twofold increase in hydrogen storage capacity. The HCl-doped polyaniline nanofibers exhibit a storage capacity of 0.46 wt%, whereas the polyaniline-polypyrrole composites could store 0.91 wt% of hydrogen gas. In addition, the effect of the dopant type, counteranion size, and the doping with palladium nanoparticles on the storage properties are also investigated. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Hydrogenation properties and microstructure of Ti-Mn-based alloys for hybrid hydrogen storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Masachika; Nakamura, Jin; Akiba, Etsuo

    2008-01-01

    Ti-Mn-based AB 2 -type alloys which are suitable for a hybrid hydrogen storage vessel have been synthesized and evaluated hydrogenation properties. As the third element V was added to Ti-Mn binary alloys. All the alloys synthesized in this work mainly consist of the C14 Laves and BCC phase. In the case of Ti0.5V0.5Mn alloy, the amounts of hydrogen absorption was 1.8 wt.% at 243 K under the atmosphere of 7 MPa H 2 , and the hydrogen desorption pressure was in the range of 0.2-0.4 MPa at 243 K. The hydrogen capacity of this alloy did not saturate under 7 MPa H 2 and seems to increase with hydrogen pressure up to 35 MPa that is estimated working pressure of the hybrid hydrogen storage vessel

  15. Design study of the cooling scheme for SMES system in ASPCS by using liquid hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makida, Yasuhiro, E-mail: yasuhiro.makida@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Shintomi, Takakazu [Nihon University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8251 (Japan); Asami, Takuya; Suzuki, Goro; Takao, Tomoaki [Sophia University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Hamajima, Takataro [Hachinohe Institutue of Technology, Hachinohe, Aomori 031-8501 (Japan); Tsuda, Makoto; Miyagi, Daisuke [Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Munakata, Kouhei; Kajiwara, Masataka [Iwatani Corp., Minato-ku, Tokyo 104-8058 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Advanced Superconducting Power Conditioning System is composed of SMES, FC–EL, H{sub 2} storage. •The ASPCS is proposed to be built beside a LH{sub 2} storage of a vehicle station to effectively use the cooling capability of liquid hydrogen. •The SMES coil, which is made from an MgB{sub 2} conductor, is indirectly cooled by LH{sub 2} through its own conduction. -- Abstract: From the point of view of environment and energy problems, the renewable energies have been attracting attention. However, fluctuating power generation by the renewable energies affects the stability of the power network. Thus, we propose a new electric power storage and stabilization system, Advanced Superconducting Power Conditioning System (ASPCS), in which a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and a hydrogen-energy-storage converge on a liquid hydrogen station for fuel cell vehicles. The ASPCS proposes that the SMES coils wound with MgB{sub 2} conductor are indirectly cooled by thermo-siphon circulation of liquid hydrogen to use its cooling capability. The conceptual design of cooling scheme of the ASPCS is presented.

  16. Design study of the cooling scheme for SMES system in ASPCS by using liquid hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makida, Yasuhiro; Shintomi, Takakazu; Asami, Takuya; Suzuki, Goro; Takao, Tomoaki; Hamajima, Takataro; Tsuda, Makoto; Miyagi, Daisuke; Munakata, Kouhei; Kajiwara, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Advanced Superconducting Power Conditioning System is composed of SMES, FC–EL, H 2 storage. •The ASPCS is proposed to be built beside a LH 2 storage of a vehicle station to effectively use the cooling capability of liquid hydrogen. •The SMES coil, which is made from an MgB 2 conductor, is indirectly cooled by LH 2 through its own conduction. -- Abstract: From the point of view of environment and energy problems, the renewable energies have been attracting attention. However, fluctuating power generation by the renewable energies affects the stability of the power network. Thus, we propose a new electric power storage and stabilization system, Advanced Superconducting Power Conditioning System (ASPCS), in which a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and a hydrogen-energy-storage converge on a liquid hydrogen station for fuel cell vehicles. The ASPCS proposes that the SMES coils wound with MgB 2 conductor are indirectly cooled by thermo-siphon circulation of liquid hydrogen to use its cooling capability. The conceptual design of cooling scheme of the ASPCS is presented

  17. Solutions to commercializing metal hydride hydrogen storage products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, J.J.; Belanger, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Whilst the concept of a Hydrogen economy in the broad sense may for some analysts and Fuel Cell technology developers be an ever moving target the use of hydrogen exists and is growing in other markets today. The use of hydrogen is increasing. Who are the users? What are their unique needs? How can they better be served? As the use of hydrogen increases there are things we can do to improve the perception and handling of hydrogen as an industrial gas that will impact the future issues of hydrogen as a fuel thereby assisting the mainstream availability of hydrogen fuel a reality. Factors that will induce change in the way hydrogen is used, handled, transported and stored are the factors to concentrate development efforts on. Other factors include: cost; availability; safety; codes and standards; and regulatory authorities acceptance of new codes and standards. New methods of storage and new devices in which the hydrogen is stored will influence and bring about change and increased use. New innovative products based on Metal Hydride hydrogen storage will address some of the barriers to widely distributed hydrogen as a fuel or energy carrier to which successful fuel cell product commercialization is subject. Palcan has developed innovative products based on it's Rare Earth Metal Hydride alloy. Some of these innovations will aid the distribution of hydrogen as a fuel and offer alternatives to the existing hydrogen user and to the Fuel Cell product developer. An overview of the products and how these products will affect the distribution and use of hydrogen as an industrial gas and fuel is presented. (author)

  18. Hydrogen storage by functionalised Poly(ether ether ketone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicini, R.; Giacoppo, G.; Carbone, A.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, Messina (Italy). Inst. for Advanced Energy Technologies

    2010-07-01

    In this work a functionalised polymer was studied as potential material for hydrogen storage in solid state. A Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) matrix was modified by a manganese oxide in situ formation. Here we report the functionalisation process and the preliminary results on hydrogen storage capability of the synthesised polymer. The polymer was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Gravimetric Hydrogen Adsorption measurements. In the functionalised PEEK, morphological changes occur as a function of oxide precursor concentration and reaction time. Promising results by gravimetric measurements were obtained with a hydrogen sorption of 0.24%wt/wt at 50 C and 60 bar, moreover, reversibility hydrogen adsorption and desorption in a wide range of both temperature and pressure was confirmed. (orig.)

  19. Storage of solid and liquid radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijasic, A.; Gacinovic, O.

    1961-01-01

    Solid radioactive waste collected during 1961 from the laboratories of the Institute amounted to 22.5 m 3 . This report contains data about activity of the waste collected from january to November 1961. About 70% of the waste are short lived radioactive material. Material was packed in metal barrels and stored in the radioactive storage in the Institute. There was no contamination of the personnel involved in these actions. Liquid radioactive wastes come from the Isotope production laboratory, laboratories using tracer techniques, reactor cooling; decontamination of the equipment. Liquid wastes from isotope production were collected in plastic bottles and stored. Waste water from the RA reactor were collected in special containers. After activity measurements this water was released into the sewage system since no activity was found. Table containing data on quantities and activity of radioactive effluents is included in this report

  20. Study of the storage of hydrogen in carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, E.; Chahine, R.; Cossement, D.; Tessier, A.; Belanger, M.; Bose, T.K.; Dodelet, J-P.; Dellero, T.

    2000-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen is one of the points of development in industrial applications of fuel cells (CAP) of type PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell). An effective system of storage would be a major step in the large scale utilization of this energy source. Process improvements concerning the storage density of energy, the cost, and facilities and the reliability of the storage must be sought in particular for the mobile applications. Among the different approaches possible, the absorption on carbon nanotubes, the production by hydrides in the organic solutions or storage hyperbar in the gas state seems the most promising way.The storage of hydrogen gas at ambient temperature today appears as the technical solution simplest, more advanced and more economic. However the energy density of hydrogen being weaker than that of the traditional fuels, of the quantities more important must be stored at equivalent rate. Hyperbar storage (higher pressure has 350 bar) of hydrogen makes it possible to reduce the volume of the tanks and strengthens the argument for their weights and cost

  1. In Pursuit of Sustainable Hydrogen Storage with Boron-Nitride Fullerene as the Storage Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Gaurab; Malakar, Tanmay; Paul, Ankan

    2016-06-22

    Using well calibrated DFT studies we predict that experimentally synthesized B24 N24 fullerene can serve as a potential reversible chemical hydrogen storage material with hydrogen-gas storage capacity up to 5.13 wt %. Our theoretical studies show that hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the fullerene framework can be achieved at reasonable rates using existing metal-free hydrogenating agents and base metal-containing dehydrogenation catalysts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Use of reversible hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darriet, B.; Pezat, M.; Hagenmuller, P.

    1980-01-01

    The addition of metals or alloys whose hydrides have a high dissociation pressure allows a considerable increase in the hydrogenation rate of magnesium. The influence of temperature and hydrogen pressure on the reaction rate were studied. Results concerning the hydriding of magnesium rich alloys such as Mg2Ca, La2Mg17 and CeMg12 are presented. The hydriding mechanism of La2Mg17 and CeMg12 alloys is given.

  3. Activation of erbium films for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumbach, Michael T.; Ohlhausen, James A.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Snow, Clark S.; Woicik, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    Hydriding of metals can be routinely performed at high temperature in a rich hydrogen atmosphere. Prior to the hydrogen loading process, a thermal activation procedure is required to promote facile hydrogen sorption into the metal. Despite the wide spread utilization of this activation procedure, little is known about the chemical and electronic changes that occur during activation and how this thermal pretreatment leads to increased rates of hydrogen uptake. This study utilized variable kinetic energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to interrogate the changes during in situ thermal annealing of erbium films, with results confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and low energy ion scattering. Activation can be identified by a large increase in photoemission between the valence band edge and the Fermi level and appears to occur over a two stage process. The first stage involves desorption of contaminants and recrystallization of the oxide, initially impeding hydrogen loading. Further heating overcomes the first stage and leads to degradation of the passive surface oxide leading to a bulk film more accessible for hydrogen loading.

  4. Improving hydrogen storage in Ni-doped carbon nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubizarreta, L.; Menendez, J.A.; Pis, J.J.; Arenillas, A. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    The effect of nickel distribution and content in Ni-doped carbon nanospheres on hydrogen storage capacity under conditions of moderate temperature and pressure was studied. It was found that the nickel distribution, obtained by using different doping techniques and conditions, has a noticeable influence on hydrogen storage capacity. The samples with the most homogeneous nickel distribution, obtained by pre-oxidising the carbon nanospheres, displayed the highest storage capacity. In addition, storage capacity is influenced by the amount of nickel. It was found a higher storage capacity in samples containing 5 wt.% of Ni. This is due to the greater interactions between the nickel and the support that produce a higher activation of the solid through a spillover effect. (author)

  5. Advancement of Systems Designs and Key Engineering Technologies for Materials Based Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Hassel, Bart A. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2015-09-18

    UTRC lead the development of the Simulink Framework model that enables a comparison of different hydrogen storage systems on a common basis. The Simulink Framework model was disseminated on the www.HSECoE.org website that is hosted by NREL. UTRC contributed to a better understanding of the safety aspects of the proposed hydrogen storage systems. UTRC also participated in the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of both the chemical- and the adsorbent-based hydrogen storage system during Phase 2 of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. UTRC designed a hydrogen storage system with a reversible metal hydride material in a compacted form for light-duty vehicles with a 5.6 kg H2 storage capacity, giving it a 300 miles range. It contains a heat exchanger that enables efficient cooling of the metal hydride material during hydrogen absorption in order to meet the 3.3 minute refueling time target. It has been shown through computation that the kinetics of hydrogen absorption of Ti-catalyzed NaAlH4 was ultimately limiting the rate of hydrogen absorption to 85% of the material capacity in 3.3 minutes. An inverse analysis was performed in order to determine the material property requirements in order for a metal hydride based hydrogen storage system to meet the DOE targets. Work on metal hydride storage systems was halted after the Phase 1 to Phase 2 review due to the lack of metal hydride materials with the required material properties. UTRC contributed to the design of a chemical hydrogen storage system by developing an adsorbent for removing the impurity ammonia from the hydrogen gas, by developing a system to meter the transport of Ammonia Borane (AB) powder to a thermolysis reactor, and by developing a gas-liquid-separator (GLS) for the separation of hydrogen gas from AB slurry in silicone oil. Stripping impurities from hydrogen gas is essential for a long life of the fuel cell system on board of a vehicle. Work on solid transport of AB was halted after the

  6. Advanced nanostructured materials as media for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Niculescu, V.; Armeanu, A.; Sandru, C.; Constantinescu, M.; Sisu, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In a future sustainable energy system based on renewable energy, environmentally harmless energy carriers like hydrogen, will be of crucial importance. One of the major impediments for the transition to a hydrogen based energy system is the lack of satisfactory hydrogen storage alternatives. Hydrogen storage in nanostructured materials has been proposed as a solution for adequate hydrogen storage for a number of applications, in particular for transportation. This paper is a preliminary study with the focus on possibilities for hydrogen storage in zeolites, alumina and nanostructured carbon materials. The adsorption properties of these materials were evaluated in correlation with their internal structure. From N 2 physisorption data the BET surface area (S BET ) , total pore volume (PV), micropore volume (MPV) and total surface area (S t ) were derived. H 2 physisorption measurements were performed at 77 K and a pressure value of 1 bar. From these data the adsorption capacities of sorbent materials were determined. Apparently the microporous adsorbents, e.g activated carbons, display appreciable sorption capacities. Based on their micropore volume, carbon-based sorbents have the largest adsorption capacity for H 2 , over 230 cm 3 (STP)/g, at the previous conditions. By increasing the micropore volume (∼ 1 cm 3 /g) of sorbents and optimizing the adsorption conditions it is expected to obtain an adsorption capacity of ∼ 560 cm 3 (STP)/g, close to targets set for mobile applications. (authors)

  7. Hydrogen production and storage: R & D priorities and gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    This review of priorities and gaps in hydrogen production and storage R & D has been prepared by the IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement in the context of the activities of the IEA Hydrogen Co-ordination Group. It includes two papers. The first is by Trygve Riis, Elisabet F. Hagen, Preben J.S. Vie and Oeystein Ulleberg. This offers an overview of the technologies for hydrogen production. The technologies discussed are reforming of natural gas; gasification of coal and biomass; and the splitting of water by water-electrolysis, photo-electrolysis, photo-biological production and high-temperature decomposition. The second paper is by Trygve Riis, Gary Sandrock, Oeystein Ulleberg and Preben J.S. Vie. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the possible hydrogen storage options available today and in the foreseeable future. Hydrogen storage can be considered for onboard vehicular, portable, stationary, bulk, and transport applications, but the main focus of this paper is on vehicular storage, namely fuel cell or ICE/electric hybrid vehicles. 7 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Metal-functionalized silicene for efficient hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tanveer; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2013-10-21

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory are used to investigate the electronic structure along with the stability, bonding mechanism, band gap, and charge transfer of metal-functionalized silicene to envisage its hydrogen-storage capacity. Various metal atoms including Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, and Ca are doped into the most stable configuration of silicene. The corresponding binding energies and charge-transfer mechanisms are discussed from the perspective of hydrogen-storage compatibility. The Li and Na metal dopants are found to be ideally suitable, not only for strong metal-to-substrate binding and uniform distribution over the substrate, but also for the high-capacity storage of hydrogen. The stabilities of both Li- and Na-functionalized silicene are also confirmed through molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that both of the alkali metals, Li(+) and Na(+), can adsorb five hydrogen molecules, attaining reasonably high storage capacities of 7.75 and 6.9 wt %, respectively, with average adsorption energies within the range suitable for practical hydrogen-storage applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. LANL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrogen Storage: Chemical Hydrogen Storage Using Ultra-high Surface Area Main Group Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Kauzlarich; Phillip P. Power; Doinita Neiner; Alex Pickering; Eric Rivard; Bobby Ellis, T. M.; Atkins, A. Merrill; R. Wolf; Julia Wang

    2010-09-05

    The focus of the project was to design and synthesize light element compounds and nanomaterials that will reversibly store molecular hydrogen for hydrogen storage materials. The primary targets investigated during the last year were amine and hydrogen terminated silicon (Si) nanoparticles, Si alloyed with lighter elements (carbon (C) and boron (B)) and boron nanoparticles. The large surface area of nanoparticles should facilitate a favorable weight to volume ratio, while the low molecular weight elements such as B, nitrogen (N), and Si exist in a variety of inexpensive and readily available precursors. Furthermore, small NPs of Si are nontoxic and non-corrosive. Insights gained from these studies will be applied toward the design and synthesis of hydrogen storage materials that meet the DOE 2010 hydrogen storage targets: cost, hydrogen capacity and reversibility. Two primary routes were explored for the production of nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm in diameter. The first was the reduction of the elemental halides to achieve nanomaterials with chloride surface termination that could subsequently be replaced with amine or hydrogen. The second was the reaction of alkali metal Si or Si alloys with ammonium halides to produce hydrogen capped nanomaterials. These materials were characterized via X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, FTIR, TG/DSC, and NMR spectroscopy.

  10. Storage capacity of hydrogen in gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Takaaki; Ogata, Kyohei; Hashimoto, Shunsuke; Sugahara, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Ohgaki, Kazunari

    2010-01-01

    The storage capacity of H 2 in the THF, THT, and furan hydrates was studied by p-V-T measurements. We confirmed that the storage and release processes of H 2 in all hydrates could be performed reversibly by pressure swing without destroying of hydrate cages. H 2 absorption in both THT and furan hydrates is much faster than THF hydrate in spite of same unit-cell structure. On the other hand, the storage amounts of H 2 are coincident in the all additive hydrates and would reach at about 1.0 mass% asymptotically.

  11. The liquid hydrogen moderator at the NIST research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Robert E.; Rowe, J. Michael; Kopetka, Paul

    1997-09-01

    In 1995, the NIST research reactor was shut down for a number of modifications, including the replacement of the D 2 O cold neutron source with a liquid hydrogen moderator. When the liquid hydrogen source began operating, the flux of cold neutrons increased by a factor of six over the D 2 O source. The design and operation of the hydrogen source are described, and measurements of its performance are compared with the Monte Carlo simulations used in the design. (auth)

  12. Tetrahydroborates: Development and Potential as Hydrogen Storage Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Puszkiel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of fossil fuels as an energy supply becomes increasingly problematic from the point of view of both environmental emissions and energy sustainability. As an alternative, hydrogen is widely regarded as a key element for a potential energy solution. However, different from fossil fuels such as oil, gas, and coal, the production of hydrogen requires energy. Alternative and intermittent renewable sources such as solar power, wind power, etc., present multiple advantages for the production of hydrogen. On one hand, the renewable sources contribute to a remarkable reduction of pollutants released to the air. On the other hand, they significantly enhance the sustainability of energy supply. In addition, the storage of energy in form of hydrogen has a huge potential to balance an effective and synergetic utilization of the renewable energy sources. In this regard, hydrogen storage technology presents a key roadblock towards the practical application of hydrogen as “energy carrier”. Among the methods available to store hydrogen, solid-state storage is the most attractive alternative both from the safety and the volumetric energy density points of view. Because of their appealing hydrogen content, complex hydrides and complex hydride-based systems have attracted considerable attention as potential energy vectors for mobile and stationary applications. In this review, the progresses made over the last century on the development in the synthesis and research on the decomposition reactions of homoleptic tetrahydroborates is summarized. Furthermore, theoretical and experimental investigations on the thermodynamic and kinetic tuning of tetrahydroborates for hydrogen storage purposes are herein reviewed.

  13. Theoretical maximal storage of hydrogen in zeolitic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitillo, Jenny G; Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Spoto, Giuseppe; Zecchina, Adriano

    2005-12-07

    Physisorption and encapsulation of molecular hydrogen in tailored microporous materials are two of the options for hydrogen storage. Among these materials, zeolites have been widely investigated. In these materials, the attained storage capacities vary widely with structure and composition, leading to the expectation that materials with improved binding sites, together with lighter frameworks, may represent efficient storage materials. In this work, we address the problem of the determination of the maximum amount of molecular hydrogen which could, in principle, be stored in a given zeolitic framework, as limited by the size, structure and flexibility of its pore system. To this end, the progressive filling with H2 of 12 purely siliceous models of common zeolite frameworks has been simulated by means of classical molecular mechanics. By monitoring the variation of cell parameters upon progressive filling of the pores, conclusions are drawn regarding the maximum storage capacity of each framework and, more generally, on framework flexibility. The flexible non-pentasils RHO, FAU, KFI, LTA and CHA display the highest maximal capacities, ranging between 2.86-2.65 mass%, well below the targets set for automotive applications but still in an interesting range. The predicted maximal storage capacities correlate well with experimental results obtained at low temperature. The technique is easily extendable to any other microporous structure, and it can provide a method for the screening of hypothetical new materials for hydrogen storage applications.

  14. Recommended Best Practices for the Characterization of Storage Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    This is a reference guide to common methodologies and protocols for measuring critical performance properties of advanced hydrogen storage materials. It helps users to communicate clearly the relevant performance properties of new materials as they are discovered and tested.

  15. Thermodynamically Tuned Nanophase Materials for reversible Hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping Liu; John J. Vajo

    2010-02-28

    This program was devoted to significantly extending the limits of hydrogen storage technology for practical transportation applications. To meet the hydrogen capacity goals set forth by the DOE, solid-state materials consisting of light elements were developed. Many light element compounds are known that have high capacities. However, most of these materials are thermodynamically too stable, and they release and store hydrogen much too slowly for practical use. In this project we developed new light element chemical systems that have high hydrogen capacities while also having suitable thermodynamic properties. In addition, we developed methods for increasing the rates of hydrogen exchange in these new materials. The program has significantly advanced (1) the application of combined hydride systems for tuning thermodynamic properties and (2) the use of nanoengineering for improving hydrogen exchange. For example, we found that our strategy for thermodynamic tuning allows both entropy and enthalpy to be favorably adjusted. In addition, we demonstrated that using porous supports as scaffolds to confine hydride materials to nanoscale dimensions could improve rates of hydrogen exchange by > 50x. Although a hydrogen storage material meeting the requirements for commercial development was not achieved, this program has provided foundation and direction for future efforts. More broadly, nanoconfinment using scaffolds has application in other energy storage technologies including batteries and supercapacitors. The overall goal of this program was to develop a safe and cost-effective nanostructured light-element hydride material that overcomes the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers to hydrogen reaction and diffusion in current materials and thereby achieve > 6 weight percent hydrogen capacity at temperatures and equilibrium pressures consistent with DOE target values.

  16. Experimental study on uranium alloys for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaconu, M.; Meleg, T.; Dinu, A.; Mihalache, M.; Ciuca, I.; Abrudeanu, M.

    2013-01-01

    The heaviest isotope of hydrogen is one of critically important elements in the field of fusion reactor technology. Conventionally, uranium metal is used for the storage of heavier isotopes of hydrogen (D and T). Under appropriate conditions, uranium absorbs hydrogen to form a stable UH 3 compound when exposed to molecular hydrogen at the temperature range of 300-500 O C at varied operating pressure below one atmosphere. However, hydriding-dehydriding on pure uranium disintegrates the specimen into fine powder. The powder is highly pyrophoric and has low heat conductivity, which makes it difficult to control the temperature, and has a high possibility of contamination Due to the powdering effect as hydrogen in uranium, alloying uranium with other metal looks promising for the use of hydrogen storage materials. This paper has the aim to study the hydriding properties of uranium alloys, including U-Ti U-Mo and U-Ni. The uranium alloys specimens were prepared by melting the constituent elements by means of simultaneous measurements of thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA-DTA) and studied in as cast condition as hydrogen storage materials. Then samples were thermally treated under constant flow of hydrogen, at various temperatures between 573-973 0 K. The structural and absorption properties of the products obtained were examined by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). They slowly reacted with hydrogen to form the ternary hydride and the hydrogenated samples mainly consisted of the pursued ternary hydride bat contained also U or UO 2 and some transient phase. (authors)

  17. Towards a hydrogen-driven society? Calculations and neutron scattering on potential hydrogen storage materials

    OpenAIRE

    Schimmel, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    For sustainable development, the resources of the earth need to be maintained and carbon dioxide emission should be avoided. In particular, we need to find an alternative for the use of fossil fuels in vehicles. Since long, hydrogen has been recognised as the fuel of the future because it exhausts only water when used in fuel cells and hardly any pollutants when used in conventional internal combustion engines. However, the storage of hydrogen onboard vehicles is a major concern. Hydrogen is ...

  18. Lunar-derived titanium alloys for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, S.; Hertzberg, A.; Woodcock, G.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen gas, which plays an important role in many projected lunar power systems and industrial processes, can be stored in metallic titanium and in certain titanium alloys as an interstitial hydride compound. Storing and retrieving hydrogen with titanium-iron alloy requires substantially less energy investment than storage by liquefaction. Metal hydride storage systems can be designed to operate at a wide range of temperatures and pressures. A few such systems have been developed for terrestrial applications. A drawback of metal hydride storage for lunar applications is the system's large mass per mole of hydrogen stored, which rules out transporting it from earth. The transportation problem can be solved by using native lunar materials, which are rich in titanium and iron.

  19. Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in a Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A highly order mesoporous carbon has been synthesized through a strongly acidic, aqueous cooperative assembly route. The structure and morphology of the carbon material were investigated using TEM, SEM and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The carbon was proven to be meso-structural and consisted of graphitic micro-domain with larger interlayer space. AC impedance and electrochemical measurements reveal that the synthesized highly ordered mesoporous carbon exhibits a promoted electrochemical hydrogen insertion process and improved capacitance and hydrogen storage stability. The meso-structure and enlarged interlayer distance within the highly ordered mesoporous carbon are suggested as possible causes for the enhancement in hydrogen storage. Both hydrogen capacity in the carbon and mass diffusion within the matrix were improved.

  20. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  1. Hydrogen storage capacity of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoda, Ai; Oshima, Shinji; Iki, Hideshi; Akiba, Etsuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The hydrogen adsorption of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons has been studied. • Lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity. • Lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. • Lithium reagent can alter the pore structure, depending on the raw material. • Optimizing the pore size and functional group is needed for better hydrogen uptake. - Abstract: The authors have studied the hydrogen adsorption performance of several types of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons. In the case of activated cokes, lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity from 5.02 kg/m 3 to 5.86 kg/m 3 at 303 K. Hydrogen adsorption density increases by around 17% after lithium doping, likely due to the fact that lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. The effects of lithium on hydrogen storage capacity vary depending on the raw material, because the lithium reagent can react with the material and alter the pore structure, indicating that lithium doping has the effect of plugging or filling the micropores and changing the structures of functional groups, resulting in the formation of mesopores. Despite an observed decrease in hydrogen uptake, lithium doping was found to improve hydrogen adsorption affinity. Lithium doping increases hydrogen uptake by optimizing the pore size and functional group composition

  2. Theory of molecular hydrogen sorption for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengbai

    2011-03-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) sorption has the advantage of fast kinetics and high reversibility. However, the binding strength is often too weak to be operative at near room temperatures. Research into such hydrogen sorption materials has branched into the study of pure van der Waals (vdW) physisorption and that of weak chemisorption (known to exist in the so-called Kubas complexes). In either case, however, theoretical tools to describe such weak interactions are underdeveloped with error bars that often exceed the strength of the interaction itself. We have used quantum-chemistry (QC) based approaches to benchmark the various available DFT methods for four classes of weak chemisorption systems [Sun et al., Phys. Rev. B 82, 073401 (2010)]. These involve complexes containing Li, Ca, Sc, and Ti with increased strength of H2 binding from predominantly vdW to mostly Kubas-like. The study reveals that most of the DFT functionals within the generalized gradient approximation underestimate the binding energy, oppose to overestimating it. The functionals that are easy to use yet yielding results reasonably close to those of accurate QC are the PBE and PW91. I will also discuss the effort of implementing vdW interaction into the currently available density functional methods [Sun, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 154102 (2008)]. The rationale is that while the true vdW is an electron-electron correlation, a DFT plus classical dispersion approach may be too simple and unnecessary within the DFT. A local pseudopotential approach has been developed to account for the core part of the polarizability of the elements. Applications to a number of benchmark systems yield good agreement with QC calculations. The application of this method and the QC methods to vdW hydrogen binding will also be discussed. Work supported by DOE/BES and DOE/EERE Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence under RPI subcontracts No. J30546/J90336.

  3. Hydrogen storage in Mg: a most promising material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, I.P.; Jain, A.; Lal, C.

    2009-01-01

    In the last one decade hydrogen has attracted worldwide interest as an energy carrier. This has generated comprehensive investigations on the technology involved and how to solve the problems of production, storage and applications of hydrogen. The interest in hydrogen as energy of the future is due to it being a clean energy, most abundant element in the universe, the lightest fuel and richest in energy per unit mass. Hydrogen as a fuel can be used to cook food, drive cars, jet planes, run factories and for all our domestic energy requirements. It can provide cheap electricity. In short, hydrogen shows the solution and also allows the progressive and non-traumatic transition of today's energy sources, towards feasible safe reliable and complete sustainable energy chains. The present article deals with the hydrogen storage in metal hydrides with particular interest in Mg as it has potential to become one of the most promising storage materials. Many metals combine chemically with Hydrogen to form a class of compounds known as Hydrides. These hydrides can discharge hydrogen as and when needed by raising their temperature or pressure. An optimum hydrogen-storage material is required to have various properties viz. high hydrogen capacity per unit mass and unit volume which determines the amount of available energy, low dissociation temperature, moderate dissociation pressure, low heat of formation in order to minimize the energy necessary for hydrogen release, low heat dissipation during the exothermic hydride formation, reversibility, limited energy loss during charge and discharge of hydrogen, fast kinetics, high stability against O 2 and moisture for long cycle life, cyclibility, low cost of recycling and charging infrastructures and high safety. So far most of the hydrogen storage alloys such as LaNi 5 , TiFe, TiMn 2 , have hydrogen storage capacities, not more than 2 wt% which is not satisfactory for practical application as per DOE Goal. A group of Mg based

  4. Ballmilling of metal borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Sanna

    2014-01-01

    of the renewable energy sources [2]. Borohydrides have received great attention as energy carrier due to their high gravimetric content of hydrogen, though unfortunately they are currently not applicable for industrial use due to high thermal stability and poor recycling. The purpose of the investigation...

  5. Hydrogen storage in porous carbons: modelling and performance improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellenq, R.J.M.; Maresca, O.; Marinelli, F.; Duclaux, L.; Azais, P.; Conard, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we aim at exploring using ab initio calculations, the various ways allowing for an efficient hydrogen docking in carbon porous materials. Firstly, the influence of surface curvature on the chemisorption of atomic hydrogen is considered. Then it is shown that electro-donor elements such as lithium or potassium used as dopant of the carbon substrate induce a strong physi-sorption for H 2 , allowing its storage at ambient temperature under moderate pressure. (authors)

  6. Iron-titanium-mischmetal alloys for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrock, Gary Dale

    1978-01-01

    A method for the preparation of an iron-titanium-mischmetal alloy which is used for the storage of hydrogen. The alloy is prepared by air-melting an iron charge in a clay-graphite crucible, adding titanium and deoxidizing with mischmetal. The resultant alloy contains less than about 0.1% oxygen and exhibits a capability for hydrogen sorption in less than half the time required by vacuum-melted, iron-titanium alloys.

  7. Nanosizing and nanoconfinement: new strategies towards meeting hydrogen storage goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, Petra E; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2010-12-17

    Hydrogen is expected to play an important role as an energy carrier in a future, more sustainable society. However, its compact, efficient, and safe storage is an unresolved issue. One of the main options is solid-state storage in hydrides. Unfortunately, no binary metal hydride satisfies all requirements regarding storage density and hydrogen release and uptake. Increasingly complex hydride systems are investigated, but high thermodynamic stabilities as well as slow kinetics and poor reversibility are important barriers for practical application. Nanostructuring by ball-milling is an established method to reduce crystallite sizes and increase reaction rates. Since five years attention has also turned to alternative preparation techniques that enable particle sizes below 10 nanometers and are often used in conjunction with porous supports or scaffolds. In this Review we discuss the large impact of nanosizing and -confinement on the hydrogen sorption properties of metal hydrides. We illustrate possible preparation strategies, provide insight into the reasons for changes in kinetics, reversibility and thermodynamics, and highlight important progress in this field. All in all we provide the reader with a clear view of how nanosizing and -confinement can beneficially affect the hydrogen sorption properties of the most prominent materials that are currently considered for solid-state hydrogen storage.

  8. Hydrogen storage in Earth's mantle and core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Two different approaches to explaining how hydrogen might be stored in the mantle are illustrated by a number of papers published over the past 25-30 years, but there has been little attempt to provide objective comparisons of the two. One approach invokes the presence in the mantle of dense hydrous magnesium silicates (DHMS) stable at elevated pressures and temperatures. The other involves nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) that contain hydrogen as a minor constituent on the ppm level. Experimental studies on DHMS indicate these phases may be stable to pressures and temperatures as high at 16 GPa and 1200 C. This temperature is lower than that indicated by a mantle geotherm at 16 GPa, but may be reasonable for a subducting slab. It is possible that other DHMS could be stable to even higher pressures, but little is known about maximum temperature limits. For NAM, small amounts of hydrogen (up to several hundred ppm) have been detected in olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and garnet recovered from xenoliths in kimberlites, eclogites, and alkali basalts; it has been demonstrated that synthetic wadsleyite and perovskite can accommodate significant amounts of hydrogen. A number of problems are associated with each possibility. For NAM originating in the mantle, one would like to assume that the hydrogen measured in samples recovered on Earth's surface was incorporated when the phase-crystallized at high temperatures and pressures, but it could have been introduced during transport to the surface. Major problems for the DHMS proponents are that none of these phases have been found as minerals and little is yet known about their stabilities in systems containing other cations such as Fe, Al, and Ca.

  9. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  10. Solid NMR characterization of hydrogen solid storage matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilette, M.A.; Charpentier, T.; Berthault, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop and validate characterization tools by NMR imagery and spectroscopy of the structure of materials for hydrogen storage, and of their evolution during load/unload cycles. The two main topics of this work are in one hand the analysis of the local structure of the materials and the understanding of their eventual modifications, and in another hand, the in-situ analysis of the distribution and diffusion of hydrogen inside the storage material. (O.M.)

  11. A lumped-parameter model for cryo-adsorber hydrogen storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kumar, V.; Raghunathan, K. [India Science Lab, General Motors R and D, Creator Building, International Technology Park, Bangalore 560066 (India); Kumar, Sudarshan [Chemical and Environmental Sciences Lab, General Motors R and D, 30500 Mound Road, Warren, MI 48090 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    One of the primary requirements for commercialization of hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles is the on-board storage of hydrogen in sufficient quantities. On-board storage of hydrogen by adsorption on nano-porous adsorbents at around liquid nitrogen temperatures and moderate pressures is considered viable and competitive with other storage technologies: liquid hydrogen, compressed gas, and metallic or complex hydrides. The four cryo-adsorber fuel tank processes occur over different time scales: refueling over a few minutes, discharge over a few hours, dormancy over a few days, and venting over a few weeks. The slower processes i.e. discharge, dormancy and venting are expected to have negligible temperature gradients within the bed, and hence are amenable to a lumped-parameter analysis. Here we report a quasi-static lumped-parameter model for the cryo-adsorber fuel tank, and discuss the results for these slower processes. We also describe an alternative solution method for dormancy and venting based on the thermodynamic state description. (author)

  12. Scanning electrochemical microscopy determination of hydrogen flux at liquid|liquid interface with potentiometric probe

    OpenAIRE

    Jedraszko, Justyna; Nogala, Wojciech; Adamiak, Wojciech; Girault, Hubert H.; Opallo, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy potentiometric determination of local hydrogen concentration and its flux next to the liquid|liquid interface was demonstrated. This method is based on the shift of open circuit potential of Pt-based reversible hydrogen electrode. The detection system was verified with a system generating hydrogen under galvanostatic conditions. Then, it was applied to aqueous|1,2-dichloroethane interface where hydrogen is produced with decamethylferrocene as electron donor.

  13. Calcium-decorated carbyne networks as hydrogen storage media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Pavel B; Lee, Hoonkyung; Antipina, Lyubov Yu; Singh, Abhishek K; Yakobson, Boris I

    2011-07-13

    Among the carbon allotropes, carbyne chains appear outstandingly accessible for sorption and very light. Hydrogen adsorption on calcium-decorated carbyne chain was studied using ab initio density functional calculations. The estimation of surface area of carbyne gives the value four times larger than that of graphene, which makes carbyne attractive as a storage scaffold medium. Furthermore, calculations show that a Ca-decorated carbyne can adsorb up to 6 H(2) molecules per Ca atom with a binding energy of ∼0.2 eV, desirable for reversible storage, and the hydrogen storage capacity can exceed ∼8 wt %. Unlike recently reported transition metal-decorated carbon nanostructures, which suffer from the metal clustering diminishing the storage capacity, the clustering of Ca atoms on carbyne is energetically unfavorable. Thermodynamics of adsorption of H(2) molecules on the Ca atom was also investigated using equilibrium grand partition function.

  14. Energy storage applications of activated carbons: supercapacitors and hydrogen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla Solís, Marta; Mokaya, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Porous carbons have several advantageous properties with respect to their use in energy applications that require constrained space such as in electrode materials for supercapacitors and as solid state hydrogen stores. The attractive properties of porous carbons include, ready abundance, chemical and thermal stability, ease of processability and low framework density. Activated carbons, which are perhaps the most explored class of porous carbons, have been traditionally employed as catalyst s...

  15. Energy conversion, storage and transportation by means of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlmeier, G; Mateos, P; Bolcich, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Data concerning the present consumption of energy indicate that the industrialized countries (representing 25% of the world's population) consume almost 75% of the world's energy production, while the need for energy aimed at maintaining the growth of non-industrialized countries increases day after day. Since estimations indicate that the fossil reverses will exhaust within frightening terms, the production of hydrogen from fossil fuels and, fundamentally, from renewable sources constitute a response to future energy demand. The production of hydrogen from water is performed by four different methods: direct thermal, thermochemical, electrolysis and photolysis. Finally, different ways of storaging and using hydrogen are proposed. (Author)

  16. Neutronic studies of a liquid hydrogen-water composite moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, T.; Ooi, M.; Iwasa, H.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Iverson, E.B.; Crabtree, J.A.; Lucas, A.T.

    2001-01-01

    A liquid hydrogen-liquid water composite moderator may provide performance like liquid methane at high-power spallation sources where liquid methane is impractical. We have measured the neutronic properties of such a composite moderator, where a hydrogen layer 1.25 cm thick was closely backed by water layers of 1.75 cm and 3.75 cm thickness. We also studied a moderator in which a 1.75 cm water layer was closely backed by a 1.25 cm hydrogen layer. We further performed simulations for each of these systems for comparison to the experimental results. We observed enhancement of the spectral intensity in the 'thermal' energy range as compared to the spectrum from a conventional liquid hydrogen moderator. This enhancement grew more significant as the water thickness increased, although the pulse shapes became wider as well. (author)

  17. Simple and Efficient System for Combined Solar Energy Harvesting and Reversible Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Mu, Xiaoyue; Liu, Wenbo; Mi, Zetian; Li, Chao-Jun

    2015-06-24

    Solar energy harvesting and hydrogen economy are the two most important green energy endeavors for the future. However, a critical hurdle to the latter is how to safely and densely store and transfer hydrogen. Herein, we developed a reversible hydrogen storage system based on low-cost liquid organic cyclic hydrocarbons at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. A facile switch of hydrogen addition (>97% conversion) and release (>99% conversion) with superior capacity of 7.1 H2 wt % can be quickly achieved over a rationally optimized platinum catalyst with high electron density, simply regulated by dark/light conditions. Furthermore, the photodriven dehydrogenation of cyclic alkanes gave an excellent apparent quantum efficiency of 6.0% under visible light illumination (420-600 nm) without any other energy input, which provides an alternative route to artificial photosynthesis for directly harvesting and storing solar energy in the form of chemical fuel.

  18. Hydrogen storage in double clathrates with tert-butylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Pinnelli S R; Sugahara, Takeshi; Sum, Amadeu K; Sloan, E Dendy; Koh, Carolyn A

    2009-06-18

    The first proof-of-concept of the formation of a double tert-butylamine (t-BuNH(2)) + hydrogen (H(2)) clathrate hydrate has been demonstrated. Binary clathrate hydrates with different molar concentrations of the large guest t-BuNH(2) (0.98-9.31 mol %) were synthesized at 13.8 MPa and 250 K, and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman microscopy. A structural transformation from sVI to sII of t-BuNH(2) hydrate was clearly observed under hydrogen pressures. Raman spectroscopic data suggested that the hydrogen molecules occupied the small cages and had similar occupancy to hydrogen in the double tetrahydrofuran (THF) + H(2) clathrate hydrate. The hydrogen storage capacity in this system was approximately 0.7 H(2) wt % at the molar concentration of t-BuNH(2) close to the sII stoichiometry.

  19. Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity over Electro-synthesized HKUST-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witri Wahyu Lestari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available HKUST-1 [Cu3(1,3,5-BTC2] (BTC = benzene-tri-carboxylate was synthesized using an electrochemical method and tested for hydrogen storage. The obtained material showed a remarkably higher hydrogen uptake over reported HKUST-1 and reached until 4.75 wt% at room temperature and low pressure up to 1.2 bar. This yield was compared to HKUST-1 obtained from the solvothermal method, which showed a hydrogen uptake of only 1.19 wt%. Enhancement of hydrogen sorption of the electro-synthesized product was due to the more appropriate surface area and pore size, effected by the preferable physical interaction between the hydrogen gasses and the copper ions as unsaturated metal centers in the frameworks of HKUST-1.

  20. Magnesium nanoparticles with transition metal decoration for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquini, Luca; Callini, Elsa; Brighi, Matteo; Boscherini, Federico; Montone, Amelia; Jensen, Torben R.; Maurizio, Chiara; Vittori Antisari, Marco; Bonetti, Ennio

    2011-01-01

    We report on the hydrogen storage behaviour of Mg nanoparticles (NPs) (size range 100 nm–1 μm) with metal-oxide core–shell morphology synthesized by inert gas condensation and decorated by transition metal (TM) (Pd or Ti) clusters via in situ vacuum deposition. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared and hydrogenated NPs is studied by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction including in situ experiments and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, in order to investigate the relationships with the hydrogen storage kinetics measured by the volumetric Sieverts method. With both Pd and Ti, the decoration deeply improves the hydrogen sorption properties: previously inert NPs exhibit complete hydrogenation with fast transformation kinetics, good stability and reversible gravimetric capacity that can attain 6 wt%. In the case of Pd-decoration, the occurrence of Mg–Pd alloying is observed at high temperatures and in dependence of the hydrogen pressure conditions. These structural transformations modify both the kinetics and thermodynamics of hydride formation, while Ti-decoration has an effect only on the kinetics. The experimental results are discussed in relation with key issues such as the amount of decoration, the heat of mixing between TM and Mg and the binding energy between TM and hydrogen.

  1. Theoretical study of hydrogen storage in metal hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alyson C M; Pavão, A C

    2018-05-04

    Adsorption, absorption and desorption energies and other properties of hydrogen storage in palladium and in the metal hydrides AlH 3 , MgH 2 , Mg(BH 4 ) 2 , Mg(BH 4 )(NH 2 ) and LiNH 2 were analyzed. The DFT calculations on cluster models show that, at a low concentration, the hydrogen atom remains adsorbed in a stable state near the palladium surface. By increasing the hydrogen concentration, the tetrahedral and the octahedral sites are sequentially occupied. In the α phase the tetrahedral site releases hydrogen more easily than at the octahedral sites, but the opposite occurs in the β phase. Among the hydrides, Mg(BH 4 ) 2 shows the highest values for both absorption and desorption energies. The absorption energy of LiNH 2 is higher than that of the palladium, but its desorption energy is too high, a recurrent problem of the materials that have been considered for hydrogen storage. The release of hydrogen, however, can be favored by using transition metals in the material structure, as demonstrated here by doping MgH 2 with 3d and 4d-transition metals to reduce the hydrogen atomic charge and the desorption energy.

  2. Development of hydrogen storage systems using sodium alanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano Martinez, Gustavo Adolfo

    2010-12-06

    In this work, hydrogen storage systems based on sodium alanate were studied, modelled and optimised, using both experimental and theoretical approaches. The experimental approach covered investigations of the material from mg scale up to kg scale in demonstration test tanks, while the theoretical approach discussed modelling and simulation of the hydrogen sorption process in a hydride bed. Both approaches demonstrated the strong effect of heat transfer on the sorption behaviour of the hydride bed and led to feasible methods to improve and optimise the volumetric and gravimetric capacities of hydrogen storage systems. The applied approaches aimed at an optimal integration of sodium alanate material in practical hydrogen storage systems. First, it was experimentally shown that the size of the hydride bed influences the hydrogen sorption behaviour of the material. This is explained by the different temperature profiles that are developed inside the hydride bed during the sorptions. In addition, in a self-constructed cell it was possible to follow the hydrogen sorptions and the developed temperature profiles within the bed. Moreover, the effective thermal conductivity of the material was estimated in-situ in this cell, given very good agreement with reported values of ex-situ measurements. It was demonstrated that the effective thermal conductivity of the hydride bed can be enhanced by the addition of expanded graphite. This enhancement promotes lower temperature peaks during the sorptions due to faster heat conduction through the bed, which in addition allows faster heat transfer during sorption. Looking towards simulations and further evaluations, empirical kinetic models for both hydrogen absorption and desorption of doped sodium alanate were developed. Based on the results of the model, the optimal theoretical pressure-temperature conditions for hydrogen sorptions were determined. A new approach is proposed for the mass balance of the reactions when implementing

  3. Technoeconomic analysis of renewable hydrogen production, storage, and detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Kadam, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies of different degrees of completeness and detail have been performed on several projects being funded by the Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. Work this year focused on projects at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, although analyses of projects at other institutions are underway or planned. Highly detailed analyses were completed on a fiber optic hydrogen leak detector and a process to produce hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. Less detailed economic assessments of solar and biologically-based hydrogen production processes have been performed and focused on the steps that need to be taken to improve the competitive position of these technologies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on all analyses to reveal the degree to which the cost results are affected by market changes and technological advances. For hydrogen storage by carbon nanotubes, a survey of the competing storage technologies was made in order to set a baseline for cost goals. A determination of the likelihood of commercialization was made for nearly all systems examined. Hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis and steam reforming was found to have significant economic potential if a coproduct option could be co-commercialized. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production may have economic potential, but only if low-cost cells can be modified to split water and to avoid surface oxidation. The use of bacteria to convert the carbon monoxide in biomass syngas to hydrogen was found to be slightly more expensive than the high end of currently commercial hydrogen, although there are significant opportunities to reduce costs. Finally, the cost of installing a fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detection system in passenger vehicles was found to be very low and competitive with alternative sensor systems.

  4. Hydrogen storage alloy electrode for nickel-hydrogen storage battery use; Nikkeru-suiso chikudenchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagase, H.; Tadokoro, M.

    1995-06-16

    In the conventional hydrogen storage alloy electrode, water soluble polymer is employed as for the binder. Employing the water soluble polymer as for the binder may cause the film formation on the surface of the hydrogen storage alloy to hinder the hydrogen absorption at the alloy surface, resulting in the decrease in activity of electrode and in the discharge characteristic at a low temperature. This invention proposes the addition of Vinylon fiber in the binder of the hydrogen storage alloy electrode made by kneading the hydrogen storage alloy and the binder. The Vinylon fiber improves the strength of the electrode, as it forms a network in the electrode. Furthermore, the point contact between the alloy and the Vinylon fiber in the electrode prevents the film formation which hinders the oxygen absorption and chemical reaction on the surface of the alloy. As for the binder, carboxymethyl cellulose is used. The preferable size of Vinylon fiber is fiber diameter of 0.1 - 0.5 denier and fiber length of 0.5 - 5.0 mm. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Fractional Consumption of Liquid Hydrogen and Liquid Oxygen During the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle uses the propellants, liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, to meet part of the propulsion requirements from ground to orbit. The Kennedy Space Center procured over 25 million kilograms of liquid hydrogen and over 250 million kilograms of liquid oxygen during the 3D-year Space Shuttle Program. Because of the cryogenic nature of the propellants, approximately 55% of the total purchased liquid hydrogen and 30% of the total purchased liquid oxygen were used in the Space Shuttle Main Engines. The balance of the propellants were vaporized during operations for various purposes. This paper dissects the total consumption of liqUid hydrogen and liqUid oxygen and determines the fraction attributable to each of the various processing and launch operations that occurred during the entire Space Shuttle Program at the Kennedy Space Center.

  6. Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

    2014-04-01

    Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

  7. Carbide-Derived Carbons with Tunable Porosity Optimized for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, John E.; Gogotsi, Yury; Yildirim, Taner

    2010-01-07

    On-board hydrogen storage is a key requirement for fuel cell-powered cars and trucks. Porous carbon-based materials can in principle adsorb more hydrogen per unit weight at room temperature than liquid hydrogen at -176 oC. Achieving this goal requires interconnected pores with very high internal surface area, and binding energies between hydrogen and carbon significantly enhanced relative to H2 on graphite. In this project a systematic study of carbide-derived carbons, a novel form of porous carbon, was carried out to discover a high-performance hydrogen sorption material to meet the goal. In the event we were unable to improve on the state of the art in terms of stored hydrogen per unit weight, having encountered the same fundamental limit of all porous carbons: the very weak interaction between H2 and the carbon surface. On the other hand we did discover several strategies to improve storage capacity on a volume basis, which should be applicable to other forms of porous carbon. Further discoveries with potentially broader impacts include • Proof that storage performance is not directly related to pore surface area, as had been previously claimed. Small pores (< 1.5 nm) are much more effective in storing hydrogen than larger ones, such that many materials with large total surface areas are sub-par performers. • Established that the distribution of pore sizes can be controlled during CDC synthesis, which opens the possibility of developing high performance materials within a common family while targeting widely disparate applications. Examples being actively pursued with other funding sources include methane storage, electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors with record high specific capacitance, and perm-selective membranes which bind cytokines for control of infections and possibly hemodialysis filters.

  8. Two-dimensional thermal analysis of liquid hydrogen tank insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babac, Gulru; Sisman, Altug [Istanbul Technical University, Energy Institute, Ayazaga campus, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Cimen, Tolga [Jaguar and Landrover, Banbury Road, Gaydon, Warwick CV35 0RR (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) storage has the advantage of high volumetric energy density, while boil-off losses constitute a major disadvantage. To minimize the losses, complicated insulation techniques are necessary. In general, Multi Layer Insulation (MLI) and a Vapor-Cooled Shield (VCS) are used together in LH{sub 2} tanks. In the design of an LH{sub 2} tank with VCS, the main goal is to find the optimum location for the VCS in order to minimize heat leakage. In this study, a 2D thermal model is developed by considering the temperature dependencies of the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of hydrogen gas. The developed model is used to analyze the effects of model considerations on heat leakage predictions. Furthermore, heat leakage in insulation of LH{sub 2} tanks with single and double VCS is analyzed for an automobile application, and the optimum locations of the VCS for minimization of heat leakage are determined for both cases. (author)

  9. Experimental study of hydrogen isotopes storage on titanium bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasut, Felicia; Zamfirache, Marius; Bornea, Anisia; Pearsica, Claudia; Bidica, Nicolae

    2002-01-01

    As known, the Nuclear Power Plant Cernavoda equipped with a Canadian reactor, of CANDU type, is the most powerful tritium source from Europe. On long term, due to a 6·10 16 Bq/year, Cernavoda area will be contaminated due to the increasing tritium quantity. Also, the continuous contamination of heavy water from the reactor, induces a reduction of moderation's capacity. Therefore, one considers that it is improperly to use heavy water if its activity level is higher than 40 Ci/kg in the moderator and 2 Ci/kg in the cooling fluid. For these reasons, we have developed a detritiation technology, based on catalytic isotopic exchange and cryogenic distillation. Tritium will be removed from the tritiated heavy water, so it appears the necessity of storage of tritium in a special vessel that can provide a high level of protection and safety of environment and personal. There several metals were tested as storage beds for hydrogen isotopes. One of the reference materials used for storage of hydrogen isotopes is uranium, a material with a great storage capacity, but unfortunately it is a radioactive metal and also can react with the impurities from the stored gas. Other metals and alloys as ZrCo, Ti, FeTi are also adequate as storage beds at normal temperature. The paper presents studies about the reaction between hydrogen and titanium used as storage bed for the hydrogen isotopes resulted after the detritiation of tritiated heavy water. The experiments that were carried out used protium and mixture of deuterium and protium at different storage parameters as process gas. (authors)

  10. Technical and economic evaluation of hydrogen storage systems based on light metal hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jepsen, Julian

    2014-07-01

    Novel developments regarding materials for solid-state hydrogen storage show promising prospects. These complex hydrides exhibit high mass-related storage capacities and thus great technical potential to store hydrogen in an efficient and safe way. However, a comprehensive evaluation of economic competitiveness is still lacking, especially in the case of the LiBH4 / MgH2 storage material. In this study, an assessment with respect to the economic feasibility of implementing complex hydrides as hydrogen storage materials is presented. The cost structure of hydrogen storage systems based on NaAlH4 and LiBH4 / MgH2 is discussed and compared with the conventional high pressure (700 bar) and liquid storage systems. Furthermore, the properties of LiBH4 / MgH2, so-called Li-RHC (Reactive Hydride Composite), are scientifically compared and evaluated on the lab and pilot plant scale. To enhance the reaction rate, the addition of TiCl3 is investigated and high energy ball milling is evaluated as processing technique. The effect of the additive in combination with the processing technique is described in detail. Finally, an optimum set of processing parameters and additive content are identified and can be applied for scaled-up production of the material based on simple models considering energy input during processing. Furthermore, thermodynamic, heat transfer and kinetic properties are experimentally determined by different techniques and analysed as a basis for modelling and designing scaled-up storage systems. The results are analysed and discussed with respect to the reaction mechanisms and reversibility of the system. Heat transfer properties are assessed with respect to the scale-up for larger hydrogen storage systems. Further improvements of the heat transfer were achieved by compacting the material. In this regard, the influence of the compaction pressure on the apparent density, thermal conductivity and sorption behaviour, was investigated in detail. Finally, scaled

  11. Closed-cell polymeric foam for hydrogen separation and storage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pientka, Zbyněk; Pokorný, P.; Bélafi-Bakó, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 304, 1-2 (2007), s. 82-87 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymeric foam * gas separation * hydrogen storage Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.432, year: 2007

  12. Hydrogen storage alloys for nickel/metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, Nobuhiro; Sakai, Tetsuo; Myamura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Uehara, Itsuki [Osaka National Research Inst. (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    Efforts to improve performance of metal hydride electrodes such as substitution of alloy components, heat treatment, and surface treatment intended to change surface and bulk structure of hydrogen storage alloys, mainly LaNi{sub 5} based alloys, are reviewed. The importance of control of morphology is emphasized. (author)

  13. Magnesium Borohydride: From Hydrogen Storage to Magnesium Battery**

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtadi, Rana; Matsui, Masaki; Arthur, Timothy S; Hwang, Son-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Beyond hydrogen storage: The first example of reversible magnesium deposition/stripping onto/from an inorganic salt was seen for a magnesium borohydride electrolyte. High coulombic efficiency of up to 94 % was achieved in dimethoxyethane solvent. This Mg(BH_4)_2 electrolyte was utilized in a rechargeable magnesium battery.

  14. Hydrogen storage in metal-organic frameworks: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for hydrogen storage have continued to receive intense interest over the past decade. MOFs are a class of organic-inorganic hybrid crystalline materials consisting of metallic moieties that are linked by strong...

  15. Computational investigation and design of coordination compounds for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Jens Strabo

    Two classes of high capacity hydrogen storage materials, the metal tetrahydroborates and the metal ammines, were investigated at the atomic scale using density functional theory simulations. It was shown that simple model structures could be used to asses the stabilities of complex systems. Trends...

  16. Are carbon nanostructures an efficient hydrogen storage medium?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirscher, M.; Becher, M.; Haluska, M.; Zeppelin, von F.; Chen, X.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Roth, S.

    2003-01-01

    Literature data on the storage capacities of hydrogen in carbon nanostructures show a scatter over several orders of magnitude which cannot be solely explained by the limited quantity or purity of these novel nanoscale materials. With this in mind, this article revisits important experiments.

  17. Modeling of electrochemical hydrogen storage in metal hydride electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Danilov, D.; Vermeulen, P.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    The recently presented Electrochemical Kinetic Model (EKM), describing the electrochemical hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials, has been extended by the description of the solid/electrolyte interface, i.e. the charge transfer kinetics and electrical double layer charging. A complete set of

  18. Modeling of electrochemical hydrogen storage in metal hydride electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Danilov, D.; Vermeulen, P.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    The recently presented electrochemical kinetic model, describing the electrochemical hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials, was extended by the description of the solid/electrolyte interface, i.e., the charge-transfer kinetics and electrical double-layer charging. A complete set of equations

  19. Hydrogen storage capacity of titanium met-cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akman, N; Durgun, E; Yildirim, T; Ciraci, S

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of hydrogen molecules on the titanium metallocarbohedryne (met-car) cluster has been investigated by using the first-principles plane wave method. We have found that, while a single Ti atom at the corner can bind up to three hydrogen molecules, a single Ti atom on the surface of the cluster can bind only one hydrogen molecule. Accordingly, a Ti 8 C 12 met-car can bind up to 16 H 2 molecules and hence can be considered as a high-capacity hydrogen storage medium. Strong interaction between two met-car clusters leading to the dimer formation can affect H 2 storage capacity slightly. Increasing the storage capacity by directly inserting H 2 into the met-car or by functionalizing it with an Na atom have been explored. It is found that the insertion of neither an H 2 molecule nor an Na atom could further promote the H 2 storage capacity of a Ti 8 C 12 cluster. We have also tested the stability of the H 2 -adsorbed Ti 8 C 12 met-car with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations which have been carried out at room temperature

  20. Alternative Energetics DC Microgrid With Hydrogen Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaļeskis Genadijs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is related to an alternative energetics microgrid with a wind generator and a hydrogen energy storage system. The main aim of this research is the development of solutions for effective use of the wind generators in alternative energetics devices, at the same time providing uninterrupted power supply of the critical loads. In this research, it was accepted that the alternative energetics microgrid operates in an autonomous mode and the connection to the conventional power grid is not used. In the case when wind speed is low, the necessary power is provided by the energy storage system, which includes a fuel cell and a tank with stored hydrogen. The theoretical analysis of the storage system operation is made. The possible usage time of the stored hydrogen depends on the available amount of hydrogen and the consumption of the hydrogen by the fuel cell. The consumption, in turn, depends on used fuel cell power. The experimental results suggest that if the wind generator can provide only a part of the needed power, the abiding power can be provided by the fuel cell. In this case, a load filter is necessary to decrease the fuel cell current pulsations.

  1. The electrochemistry and modelling of hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalisvaart, W.P.; Vermeulen, P.; Ledovskikh, A.V.; Danilov, D.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2007-01-01

    Mg-based alloys are promising hydrogen storage materials because of the high gravimetric energy density of MgH 2 (7.6 wt.%). A major disadvantage, however, is its very slow desorption kinetics. It has been argued that, in contrast to the well-known rutile-structured Mg hydride, hydrided Mg-transition metal alloys have a much more open crystal structure facilitating faster hydrogen transport. In this paper, the electrochemical aspects of new Mg-Sc and Mg-Ti materials will be reviewed. Storage capacities as high as 6.5 wt.% hydrogen have been reached with very favourable discharge kinetics. A theoretical description of hydrogen storage materials has also been developed by our group. A new lattice gas model is presented and successfully applied to simulate the thermodynamic properties of various hydride-forming materials. The simulation results are expressed by parameters corresponding to several energy contributions, for example mutual atomic hydrogen interaction energies. A good fit of the lattice gas model to the experimental data is found in all cases

  2. Homogeneous Catalysis for Sustainable Hydrogen Storage in Formic Acid and Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordakis, Katerina; Tang, Conghui; Vogt, Lydia K; Junge, Henrik; Dyson, Paul J; Beller, Matthias; Laurenczy, Gábor

    2018-01-24

    Hydrogen gas is a storable form of chemical energy that could complement intermittent renewable energy conversion. One of the main disadvantages of hydrogen gas arises from its low density, and therefore, efficient handling and storage methods are key factors that need to be addressed to realize a hydrogen-based economy. Storage systems based on liquids, in particular, formic acid and alcohols, are highly attractive hydrogen carriers as they can be made from CO 2 or other renewable materials, they can be used in stationary power storage units such as hydrogen filling stations, and they can be used directly as transportation fuels. However, to bring about a paradigm change in our energy infrastructure, efficient catalytic processes that release the hydrogen from these molecules, as well as catalysts that regenerate these molecules from CO 2 and hydrogen, are required. In this review, we describe the considerable progress that has been made in homogeneous catalysis for these critical reactions, namely, the hydrogenation of CO 2 to formic acid and methanol and the reverse dehydrogenation reactions. The dehydrogenation of higher alcohols available from renewable feedstocks is also described. Key structural features of the catalysts are analyzed, as is the role of additives, which are required in many systems. Particular attention is paid to advances in sustainable catalytic processes, especially to additive-free processes and catalysts based on Earth-abundant metal ions. Mechanistic information is also presented, and it is hoped that this review not only provides an account of the state of the art in the field but also offers insights into how superior catalytic systems can be obtained in the future.

  3. Stability analysis of high temperature superconducting coil in liquid hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, T.; Yagai, T.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, it is expected that hydrogen plays an important role in energy source including electric power in near future. Liquid hydrogen has high potential for cooling down superconducting coil wound with high temperature superconductors (HTS), such as BSCCO, YBCO. In this paper, we study stabilities of the coils wound with BSCCO tapes, which are immersed in the liquid hydrogen, and compare stability results with those cooled by liquid helium. We treat a minimum propagation zone (MPZ) theory to evaluate the coil stability considering boiling heat flux of the liquid hydrogen, and specific heat, heat conduction and resistivity of HTS materials as a function of temperature. It is found that the coil cooled by the liquid hydrogen has higher stability margin than that cooled by the liquid helium. We compare the stability margins of both coils wound with Bi-2223/Ag tape and Bi-2212/Ag tape in liquid hydrogen. As a result, it is found that the stability of Bi-2212 coil is equivalent to that of Bi-2223 coil in low and high magnetic field, while the maximum current of Bi-2212 coil exceeds a little bit that of Bi-2223 coil in both magnetic fields

  4. Paracyclophane functionalized with Sc and Li for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Rohit Y.; Dhilip Kumar, T. J.

    2018-01-01

    Li and Sc metals functionalized on the delocalized π -electrons of benzene rings in [2,2]paracyclophane structure are studied for hydrogen storage efficiency by using the M06 DFT functional with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. It is found that Sc and Li functionalized [2,2]paracyclophane complexes can hold up to 10 H2 molecules and 8 H2 molecules by Kubas-Niu-Jena interaction and charge polarization mechanism with hydrogen weight percentage of 11.4 and 13.5, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulation at various temperatures showed appreciable thermal stability while the chemical potential calculation at room temperature reveals that Sc functionalized [2,2]paracyclophane system will be a promising hydrogen storage material.

  5. Adiabatic liquid piston compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Tage [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Elmegaard, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Schroeder Pedersen, A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-01-15

    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, an underground cavern is used as a pressure vessel for the storage of the compressed air. Both systems are in the range of 100 MW electrical power output with several hours of production stored as compressed air. In this range, enormous volumes are required, which make underground caverns the only economical way to design the pressure vessel. Both systems use axial turbine compressors to compress air when charging the system. The compression leads to a significant increase in temperature, and the heat generated is dumped into the ambient. This energy loss results in a low efficiency of the system, and when expanding the air, the expansion leads to a temperature drop reducing the mechanical output of the expansion turbines. To overcome this, fuel is burned to heat up the air prior to expansion. The fuel consumption causes a significant cost for the storage. Several suggestions have been made to store compression heat for later use during expansion and thereby avoid the use of fuel (so called Adiabatic CAES units), but no such units are in operation at present. The CAES system investigated in this project uses a different approach to avoid compression heat loss. The system uses a pre-compressed pressure vessel full of air. A liquid is pumped into the bottom of the vessel when charging and the same liquid is withdrawn through a turbine when discharging. In this case, the liquid works effectively as a piston compressing the gas in the vessel, hence the name &apos

  6. Trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Hu Rui; Xie Shuxian; Weng Kuiping

    2010-01-01

    In order to finish the design of tritium extraction system (TES) of fusion fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) tritium blanket, involving the dynamic mathematical model of liquid metal in contact with a gaseous atmosphere, approximate mathematical equation of tritium in lithium tin alloy was deduced. Moreover, carrying process used for trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy was investigated with hydrogen being used to simulate tritium in the study. The study results indicate that carrying process is effective way for hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy, and the best flow velocity of carrier gas is about 4 L/min under 1 kg alloy temperatures and carrying numbers are the main influencing factors of hydrogen number. Hydrogen extraction efficiency can reach 85% while the alloy sample is treated 6 times at 823 K. (authors)

  7. Liquid Hydrogen Recirculation System for Forced Flow Cooling Test of Superconducting Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Y.; Kainuma, T.; Shigeta, H.; Shiotsu, M.; Tatsumoto, H.; Naruo, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Nonaka, S.; Inatani, Y.; Yoshinaga, S.

    2017-12-01

    The knowledge of forced flow heat transfer characteristics of liquid hydrogen (LH2) is important and necessary for design and cooling analysis of high critical temperature superconducting devices. However, there are few test facilities available for LH2 forced flow cooling for superconductors. A test system to provide a LH2 forced flow (∼10 m/s) of a short period (less than 100 s) has been developed. The test system was composed of two LH2 tanks connected by a transfer line with a controllable valve, in which the forced flow rate and its period were limited by the storage capacity of tanks. In this paper, a liquid hydrogen recirculation system, which was designed and fabricated in order to study characteristics of superconducting cables in a stable forced flow of liquid hydrogen for longer period, was described. This LH2 loop system consists of a centrifugal pump with dynamic gas bearings, a heat exchanger which is immersed in a liquid hydrogen tank, and a buffer tank where a test section (superconducting wires or cables) is set. The buffer tank has LHe cooled superconducting magnet which can produce an external magnetic field (up to 7T) at the test section. A performance test was conducted. The maximum flow rate was 43.7 g/s. The lowest temperature was 22.5 K. It was confirmed that the liquid hydrogen can stably circulate for 7 hours.

  8. The storage of hydrogen and the problems it involves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Jonville, P.

    1975-01-01

    The limitation of fossil fuel resources has brought about active research in the field of synthetic fuels which, in the more or less near future, could lead to freedom from dependence on production of the former. On a long-term basis, hydrogen would appear to be the best candidate as a substitute for conventional fuels. Among the possibilities of storage in a motor vehicle, its absorption in a metallic hydride provides the most attractive solution. Account taken of the weight limitations of this storage method, the use of hydrogen in an internal combustion engine can be envisaged only for short-range urban vehicles. Optimal use of its energy content will be made possible by means of fuel cells. The development of such a storage-propulsion chain nevertheless requires considerable work in research and development, both for the study of hydrides and the technology of fuel cells [fr

  9. Storage of hydrogen and the problems it involves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R; Jonville, P

    1975-01-01

    The limitation of fossil fuel resources has brought about active research in the field of synthetic fuels which, in the more or less near future, could lead to freedom from dependence on production of the former. On a long-term basis, hydrogen would appear to be the best candidate as a substitute for conventional fuels. Among the possibilities of storage in a motor vehicle, its absorption in a metallic hydride provides the most attractive solution. Account taken of the weight limitations of this storage method, the use of hydrogen in an internal combustion engine can be envisaged only for short-range urban vehicles. Optimal use of its energy content will be made possible by means of fuel cells. The development of such a storage-propulsion chain nevertheless requires considerable work in research and development, both for the study of hydrides and the technology of fuel cells.

  10. Hydrogen storage for mixed wind-nuclear power plants in the context of a hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taljan, Gregor; Fowler, Michael; Canizares, Claudio; Verbic, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    A novel methodology for the economic evaluation of hydrogen production and storage for a mixed wind-nuclear power plant considering some new aspects such as residual heat and oxygen utilization is applied in this work. This analysis is completed in the context of a hydrogen economy and competitive electricity markets. The simulation of the operation of a combined nuclear-wind-hydrogen system is discussed first, where the selling and buying of electricity, the selling of excess hydrogen and oxygen, and the selling of heat are optimized to maximize profit to the energy producer. The simulation is performed in two phases: in a pre-dispatch phase, the system model is optimized to obtain optimal hydrogen charge levels for the given operational horizons. In the second phase, a real-time dispatch is carried out on an hourly basis to optimize the operation of the system as to maximize profits, following the hydrogen storage levels of the pre-dispatch phase. Based on the operation planning and dispatch results, an economic evaluation is performed to determine the feasibility of the proposed scheme for investment purposes; this evaluation is based on calculations of modified internal rates of return and net present values for a realistic scenario. The results of the present studies demonstrate the feasibility of a hydrogen storage and production system with oxygen and heat utilization for existent nuclear and wind power generation facilities. (author)

  11. Hydrogenation Reactions in Ionic Liquids. The Efficient Reduction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2008-12-09

    Dec 9, 2008 ... Volatile organic solvents such as ethanol, methanol and THF are often used for the ... remained consistently high and only declined markedly on the fifth cycle. ... transferral of the viscous liquid from the hydrogenation reactor.

  12. Hydrogen storage on carbon materials: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Cazorla Amoros; D Lozano Castello; F Suarez Garcia; M Jorda Beneytoa; A Linares Solano

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: From an economic point of view, the use of hydrogen could revolutionize energy and transportation markets, what generates a great interest towards this fuel. This interest has led to the so-called 'hydrogen economy'. However, the main drawback for the use of hydrogen as transportation fuel or in power generation is the storage of this gas to reach a sufficiently high energy density, which could fit to the goals of the DOE hydrogen plan to automotive fuel cell systems i.e. 62 kg H 2 /m 3 ). [1] A review of both experimental and theoretical studies published on the field of hydrogen storage on carbon materials (nano-tubes, nano-fibers and porous carbons) shows a large dispersion in hydrogen storage values. Although some values have exceeded by far the goals of the DOE [2], other authors assure that it is not feasible the use of carbonaceous materials as hydrogen storage systems [3]. The first objective of this presentation is to analyze some possible reasons of the large values dispersion. The discrepancy among the different theoretical studies can be due to non-realist models or to unsuitable approaches. High results dispersion and low reproducibility of experimental measurements are mostly consequence of experimental errors (as for example, the use of small amount of sample) and/or to the use of non-purified materials. In fact, the main disadvantage of the use of novel carbon materials, such as nano-tubes and nano-fibers, is the unavailability of large amounts of those materials with sufficient purity in order to get both feasible measurements in the laboratory, an their subsequent use in large scale. In addition to these possible reasons of errors, for a better understanding of the large results dispersion, the different mechanism of hydrogen storage, such as hydride formation, hydrogen transfer and hydrogen adsorption will be also reviewed in this presentation. Differently to nano-tubes and nano-fibers, activated carbons are

  13. Hydrogen storage on carbon materials: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazorla-Amoros, D.; Lozano-Castello, D.; Suarez-Garcia, F.; Jorda-Beneyto, M.; Linares-Solano, A.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: From an economic point of view, the use of hydrogen could revolutionize energy and transportation markets, what generates a great interest towards this fuel. This interest has led to the so-called 'hydrogen economy'. However, the main drawback for the use of hydrogen as transportation fuel or in power generation is the storage of this gas to reach a sufficiently high energy density, which could fit to the goals of the DOE hydrogen plan to automotive fuel cell systems i.e. 62 kg H 2 /m 3 ) [1]. A review of both experimental and theoretical studies published on the field of hydrogen storage on carbon materials (nano-tubes, nano-fibers and porous cartons) shows a large dispersion in hydrogen storage values. Although some values have exceeded by far the goals of the DOE [2], other authors assure that it is not feasible the use of carbonaceous materials as hydrogen storage systems [3]. The first objective of this presentation is to analyze some possible reasons of the large values dispersion. The discrepancy among the different theoretical studies can be due to non-realist models or to unsuitable approaches. High results dispersion and low reproducibility of experimental measurements are mostly consequence of experimental errors (as for example, the use of small amount of sample) and/or to the use of non-purified materials. In fact, the main disadvantage of the use of novel carbon materials, such as nano-tubes and nano-fibers, is the unavailability of large amounts of those materials with sufficient purity in order to get both feasible measurements in the laboratory, an their subsequent use in large scale. In addition to these possible reasons of errors, for a better understanding of the large results dispersion, the different mechanism of hydrogen storage, such as hydride formation, hydrogen transfer and hydrogen adsorption will be also reviewed in this presentation. Differently to nano-tubes and nano-fibers, activated carbons are

  14. Liquid hydrogen transfer pipes and level regulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, M.; Prugne, P.; Roubeau, P.

    1961-01-01

    Describes: 1) Transfer pipes - Plunging rods in liquid hydrogen Dewars; transfer pipes: knee-joint system for quick and accurate positioning of plunging Dewar rods; system's rods: combined valve and rod; valves are activated either by a bulb pressure or by a solenoid automatically or hand controlled. The latter allows intermittent filling. 2) Level regulating systems: Level bulbs: accurate to 1 or 4 m; maximum and minimum level bulbs: automatic control of the liquid hydrogen valve. (author) [fr

  15. Research on hydrogen storage alloys and their uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, C.B.; Hewitt, J.S.; Khatamian, D.; Manchester, F.D.; McLean, A.; Ward, C.A.; Weatherly, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    A brief account is given of the work being done by members of the Centre on the development of hydrogen storage alloys having useful, reliable, and predictable, performance characteristics. Metals and alloys which have been studied, in one or more aspects, so far, include FeTi, and also FeTi with small added amounts of C, Mn, Al and Mischmetal. Experimental work on the FeTi family of alloys has been concentrated on surface structure and surface behaviour and the importance of these for determining successful activation for hydrogen absorption. As a part of development work on control devices responding to temperature changes through hydrogen desorption, experiments have been performed on hydrides of Nb, La-Ni-Al and Ca-Ni. Some theoretical modelling on kinetics of hydrogen absorption into metals has also been done

  16. System level permeability modeling of porous hydrogen storage materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Voskuilen, Tyler (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-01-01

    A permeability model for hydrogen transport in a porous material is successfully applied to both laboratory-scale and vehicle-scale sodium alanate hydrogen storage systems. The use of a Knudsen number dependent relationship for permeability of the material in conjunction with a constant area fraction channeling model is shown to accurately predict hydrogen flow through the reactors. Generally applicable model parameters were obtained by numerically fitting experimental measurements from reactors of different sizes and aspect ratios. The degree of channeling was experimentally determined from the measurements and found to be 2.08% of total cross-sectional area. Use of this constant area channeling model and the Knudsen dependent Young & Todd permeability model allows for accurate prediction of the hydrogen uptake performance of full-scale sodium alanate and similar metal hydride systems.

  17. Destabilized and catalyzed borohydride for reversible hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F [Northville, MI; Nakamura, Kenji [Toyota, JP; Au, Ming [Martinez, GA; Zidan, Ragaiy [Alken, SC

    2012-01-31

    A process of forming a hydrogen storage material, including the steps of: providing a first material of the formula M(BH.sub.4).sub.X, where M is an alkali metal or an alkali earth metal, providing a second material selected from M(AlH.sub.4).sub.x, a mixture of M(AlH.sub.4).sub.x and MCl.sub.x, a mixture of MCl.sub.x and Al, a mixture of MCl.sub.x and AlH.sub.3, a mixture of MH.sub.x and Al, Al, and AlH.sub.3. The first and second materials are combined at an elevated temperature and at an elevated hydrogen pressure for a time period forming a third material having a lower hydrogen release temperature than the first material and a higher hydrogen gravimetric density than the second material.

  18. Natural diatomite modified as novel hydrogen storage material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiao; Zheng, Chenghui; Yang, Huaming

    2014-03-01

    Natural diatomite, subjected to different modifications, is investigated for hydrogen adsorption capacities at room temperature. An effective metal-modified strategy is developed to disperse platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) nanoparticles on the surface of diatomite. Hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine diatomite (diatomite) is 0.463 wt.% at 2.63 MPa and 298 K, among the highest of the known sorbents, while that of acid-thermally activated diatomite (A-diatomite) could reach up to 0.833 wt.% due to the appropriate pore properties by activation. By incorporation with a small amount of Pt and Pd ( 0.5 wt.%), hydrogen adsorption capacities are enhanced to 0.696 wt.% and 0.980 wt.%, respectively, indicating that activated diatomite shows interesting application in the field of hydrogen storage at room temperature.

  19. Liquid Transfer Cryogenic Test Facility: Initial hydrogen and nitrogen no-vent fill data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Nyland, Ted W.; Papell, S. Stephen

    1990-01-01

    The Liquid Transfer Cryogenic Test Facility is a versatile testbed for ground-based cryogenic fluid storage, handling, and transfer experimentation. The test rig contains two well instrumented tanks, and a third interchangeable tank, designed to accommodate liquid nitrogen or liquid hydrogen testing. The internal tank volumes are approx. 18, 5, and 1.2 cu. ft. Tank pressures can be varied from 2 to 30 psia. Preliminary no vent fill tests with nitrogen and hydrogen were successfully completed with the test rig. Initial results indicate that no vent fills of nitrogen above 90 percent full are achievable using this test configuration, in a 1-g environment, and with inlet liquid temperatures as high as 143 R, and an average tank wall temperature of nearly 300 R. This inlet temperature corresponds to a saturation pressure of 19 psia for nitrogen. Hydrogen proved considerably more difficult to transfer between tanks without venting. The highest temperature conditions resulting in a fill level greater than 90 percent were with an inlet liquid temperature of 34 R, and an estimated tank wall temperature of slightly more than 100 R. Saturation pressure for hydrogen at this inlet temperature is 10 psia. All preliminary no vent fill tests were performed with a top mounted full cone nozzle for liquid injection. The nozzle produces a 120 degree conical droplet spray at a differential pressure of 10 psi. Pressure in the receiving tank was held to less than 30 psia for all tests.

  20. Deuterium exchange between liquid water and gaseous hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Ghosh, S.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1982-01-01

    The overall separation factors for the deuterium exchange between liquid water and gaseous hydrogen have been calculated over a wide range of temperature, pressure and deuterium concentrations. These data would be useful in the design and other considerations for heavy water production, based on hydrogen-water exchange. (author)

  1. In situ NMR studies of hydrogen storage kinetics and molecular diffusion in clathrate hydrate at elevated hydrogen pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuchi, T. [Okayama Univ., Misasa, Tottori (Japan); Moudrakovski, I.L.; Ripmeester, J.A. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Steacie Inst. for Molecular Sciences

    2008-07-01

    The challenge of storing high-density hydrogen into compact host media was investigated. The conventional storage scheme where an aqueous solution is frozen with hydrogen gas is too slow for practical use in a hydrogen-based society. Therefore, the authors developed a faster method whereby hydrogen was stored into gas hydrates. The hydrogen gas was directly charged into hydrogen-free, crystalline hydrate powders with partly empty lattices. The storage kinetics and hydrogen diffusion into the hydrate was observed in situ by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in a pressurized tube cell. At pressures up to 20 MPa, the storage was complete within 80 minutes, as observed by growth of stored-hydrogen peak into the hydrate. Hydrogen diffusion within the crystalline hydrate media is the rate-determining step of current storage scheme. Therefore, the authors measured the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen molecules using the pulsed field gradient NMR method. The results show that the stored hydrogen is very mobile at temperatures down to 250 K. As such, the powdered hydrate media should work well even in cold environments. Compared with more prevailing hydrogen storage media such as metal hydrides, clathrate hydrates have the advantage of being free from hydrogen embrittlement, more chemically durable, more environmentally sound, and economically affordable. It was concluded that the powdered clathrate hydrate is suitable as a hydrogen storage media. 22 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Nanodiamond for hydrogen storage: temperature-dependent hydrogenation and charge-induced dehydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lin; Barnard, Amanda S

    2012-02-21

    Carbon-based hydrogen storage materials are one of hottest research topics in materials science. Although the majority of studies focus on highly porous loosely bound systems, these systems have various limitations including use at elevated temperature. Here we propose, based on computer simulations, that diamond nanoparticles may provide a new promising high temperature candidate with a moderate storage capacity, but good potential for recyclability. The hydrogenation of nanodiamonds is found to be easily achieved, in agreement with experiments, though we find the stability of hydrogenation is dependent on the morphology of nanodiamonds and surrounding environment. Hydrogenation is thermodynamically favourable even at high temperature in pure hydrogen, ammonia, and methane gas reservoirs, whereas water vapour can help to reduce the energy barrier for desorption. The greatest challenge in using this material is the breaking of the strong covalent C-H bonds, and we have identified that the spontaneous release of atomic hydrogen may be achieved through charging of hydrogenated nanodiamonds. If the degree of induced charge is properly controlled, the integrity of the host nanodiamond is maintained, which indicates that an efficient and recyclable approach for hydrogen release may be possible. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  3. Microscale Enhancement of Heat and Mass Transfer for Hydrogen Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drost, Kevin [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Jovanovic, Goran [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Paul, Brian [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The document summarized the technical progress associated with OSU’s involvement in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. OSU focused on the development of microscale enhancement technologies for improving heat and mass transfer in automotive hydrogen storage systems. OSU’s key contributions included the development of an extremely compact microchannel combustion system for discharging hydrogen storage systems and a thermal management system for adsorption based hydrogen storage using microchannel cooling (the Modular Adsorption Tank Insert or MATI).

  4. Structure and weak hydrogen bonds in liquid acetaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordeiro Maria A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to investigate the structure and hydrogen bonds formation in liquid acetaldehyde. An all atom model for the acetaldehyde have been optimized in the present work. Theoretical values obtained for heat of vaporisation and density of the liquid are in good agreement with experimental data. Graphics of radial distribution function indicate a well structured liquid compared to other similar dipolar organic liquids. Molecular mechanics minimization in gas phase leads to a trimer of very stable structure. The geometry of this complex is in very good agreement with the rdf. The shortest site-site correlation is between oxygen and the carbonyl hydrogen, suggesting that this correlation play a important role in the liquid structure and properties. The OxxxH average distance and the C-HxxxO angle obtained are characteristic of weak hydrogen bonds.

  5. High density hydrogen storage in nanocavities: Role of the electrostatic interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reguera, L. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada del IPN, Legaria 694, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana (Cuba); Roque, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada del IPN, Legaria 694, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Hernandez, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada del IPN, Legaria 694, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Universidad de Pinar del Rio, Pinar del Rio (Cuba); Reguera, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada del IPN, Legaria 694, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana (Cuba)

    2010-12-15

    High pressure H{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at N{sub 2} liquid temperature were recorded for the series of cubic nitroprussides, Ni{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}[Fe(CN){sub 5}NO] with x = 0, 0.5, 0.7, 1. The obtained data were interpreted according to the effective polarizing power for the metal found at the surface of the cavity. The cavity volume where the hydrogen molecules are accumulated was estimated from the amount of water molecules that are occupying that available space in the as-synthesized solids considering a water density of 1 g/cm{sup 3}. The calculated cavity volume was then used to obtain the density of H{sub 2} storage in the cavity. For the Ni-containing material the highest storage density was obtained, in a cavity volume of 448.5 A{sup 3} up to 10.4 hydrogen molecules are accumulated, for a local density of 77.6 g/L, above the density value corresponding to liquid hydrogen (71 g/L). Such high value of local density was interpreted as related to the electrostatic contribution to the adsorption potential for the hydrogen molecule within the cavity. (author)

  6. Hydrogen storage alloy for a battery; Denchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, N.; Takahashi, M.; Sasai, T. [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-18

    Cobalt contained in a hydrogen storage alloy has an effect to improve a cycle life, but it gives a problem of inferior discharge characteristics. Moreover, cobalt is a rather expensive constituent and therefore, it is desirable to suppress its use as far as possible. This invention aims to present a hydrogen storage alloy with a long service life and high discharge characteristics for a negative electrode of a hydrogen battery without containing a large amount of cobalt. The hydrogen storage alloy of this invention has a composition of a general formula: RNi(a)Co(b)Al(c)Mn(d)Fe(e), where R is a mixture of rare earth elements and La content in this alloy is 25 to 70wt%, 3.7{<=}a{<=}4.0, 0.1{<=}b{<=}0.4, 0.20{<=}c{<=}0.4, 0.30{<=}d{<=}0.45, 0.2{<=}e{<=}0.4, 0.5{<=}b+e{<=}0.7 and 5.0{<=}a+b+c+d+e{<=}5.1. 1 tab.

  7. Hydrogen storage in thin film magnesium-scandium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niessen, R.A. H.; Notten, P.H. L.

    2005-01-01

    Thorough electrochemical materials research has been performed on thin films of novel magnesium-scandium hydrogen storage alloys. It was found that palladium-capped thin films of Mg x Sc (1-x) with different compositions (ranging from x=0.50 -0.90) show an increase in hydrogen storage capacity of more than 5-20% as compared to their bulk equivalents using even higher discharge rates. The maximum reversible hydrogen storage capacity at the optimal composition (Mg 80 Sc 20 ) amounts to 1795-bar mAh/g corresponding to a hydrogen content of 2.05 H/M or 6.7-bar wt.%, which is close to five times that of the commonly used hydride-forming materials in commercial NiMH batteries. Galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) measurements show that the equilibrium pressure during discharge is lower than that of bulk powders by one order of magnitude (10 -7 -bar mbar versus 10 -6 -bar mbar, respectively)

  8. 76 FR 4338 - Research and Development Strategies for Compressed & Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Hydrogen Storage Workshops AGENCY: Fuel Cell Technologies Program, Office of Energy Efficiency and... the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with the Hydrogen Storage team of the EERE... hydrogen storage in the Washington, DC metro area. DATES: The workshops will be held on Monday, February 14...

  9. Liquid storage of miniature boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatsu, Yoshiki; Uchida, Masaki; Niki, Rikio; Imai, Hiroshi

    2002-04-01

    The effects of liquid storage at 15 degrees C on the fertilizing ability of miniature pig semen were investigated. Characterization of ejaculated semen from 3 miniature boars was carried out. Semen volume and pH were similar among these boars. In one of the boars, sperm motility was slightly low, and sperm concentration and total number of sperm were significantly lower than in the others (P semen was substituted with various extenders (Kiev, Androhep, BTS and Modena) by centrifugation and semen was stored for 7 days at 15 degrees C. Sperm motility was estimated daily at 37 degrees C. For complete substitution of seminal plasma, Modena was significantly more efficient than the other extenders (P Semen from each of the 3 miniature boars that had been stored for 5 to 7 days at 15 degrees C in Modena was used for artificial insemination of 15 miniature sows. The farrowing rates were 100, 100 and 60%, and litter sizes were 6.4 +/- 1.5, 5.8 +/- 0.8 and 5.0 +/- 1.0 for each boar semen, respectively. The boar that sired the smallest farrowing rate was the same one that showed lower seminal quality with respect to sperm motility, sperm concentration and total number of sperm. These results suggest that miniature boar semen can be stored for at least 5 days at 15 degrees C by the substitution of seminal plasma with Modena extender.

  10. Study of hydrogen vehicle storage in enclosed parking facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzile, M A [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles; Cook, S [Canadian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a coordinated research program between Transport Canada and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Canada that examines issues of hydrogen vehicle storage. The ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles (eTV) program focuses on the safety issues of operating and storing hydrogen fuelled vehicles in enclosed parking facilities. The aim of the program is to review existing research, current building standards applied in Canada, standards applied to natural gas vehicles, and standards and recommended practices for the design of fuel cell vehicles. Any potential gaps in safety will be considered in the design of CFD modeling scenarios. Considerations that extend beyond previously performed studies include the effect of Canadian climate on vehicle safety and leak detection equipment, fail-safe mechanism performance, as well as analyses of the frequency of hydrogen leak occurrences and the probability of ignition. The results of the study will facilitate policy makers and authorities in making decisions regarding the storage of hydrogen fuelled vehicles as they become more popular.

  11. Functional nanometers for hydrogen storage produced by ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czujko, T. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering]|[Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. of Advanced Materials and Technologies; Varin, R.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering; Wronski, Z.S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Transportation; Zaranski, Z. [Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. of Advanced Materials and Technologies

    2008-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to switch to cleaner alternative energy carriers such as hydrogen, as environmental concerns over greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuel increase. Specifically, there is a need for efficient on-board hydrogen storage technologies for vehicular applications. This paper discussed three different methods of hydrogen desorption temperature reduction and desorption kinetics of nanostructured hydrides. The first method was based on substantial hydride particle size refinement. The second method utilized catalytic effects of nanometric n-alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), n-yttrium oxide powder (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and n-nickel (Ni) additives. The third method was based on a composite of nanohydride mixtures. The composite approach was applied to the magnesium hydride (MgH{sub 2}) plus sodium tetrahydridoborate (NaBH{sub 4}) and lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH{sub 4}) systems. The paper presented the effects of nanostructuring and nanocatalytic additives on Mg hydride desorption properties as well as a composite behaviour of nanostructured complex hydrides. It was concluded that milling of commercial MgH{sub 2} with the nano-oxide additives had a limited effect on improving the hydrogen storage properties. The addition of specialty Inco nanometric Ni reduced the hydrogen desorption temperature considerably. 28 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  12. Hydrogen storage by reaction between metallic amides and imides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymery, J.B.; Cahen, S.; Tarascon, J.M.; Janot, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details the various metal-N-H systems reported in the literature as possible hydrogen storage materials. In a first part, we discuss the hydrogen storage performances of the Li-N-H system and the desorption mechanism of the LiH-LiNH 2 mixture is especially presented. The possibility of storing hydrogen using two other binary systems (Mg-N-H and Ca-N-H) is described in a second part. In the third part of the paper, we discuss about the performances of the highly promising Li-Mg-N-H system, for which a nice reversibility is obtained at 200 C with an experimental hydrogen capacity of about 5.0 wt.%. Other ternary systems, as Li-B-N-H and Li-Al-N-H, are presented in the last part of this review paper. We especially emphasize the performances obtained in our Laboratory at Amiens with a LiAl(NH 2 ) 4 -LiH mixture able to desorb around 6.0 wt.% of hydrogen at only 130 C. (authors)

  13. Ice XVII as a Novel Material for Hydrogen Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo del Rosso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen storage is one of the most addressed issues in the green-economy field. The latest-discovered form of ice (XVII, obtained by application of an annealing treatment to a H 2 -filled ice sample in the C 0 -phase, could be inserted in the energy-storage context due to its surprising capacity of hydrogen physisorption, when exposed to even modest pressure (few mbars at temperature below 40 K, and desorption, when a thermal treatment is applied. In this work, we investigate quantitatively the adsorption properties of this simple material by means of spectroscopic and volumetric data, deriving its gravimetric and volumetric capacities as a function of the thermodynamic parameters, and calculating the usable capacity in isothermal conditions. The comparison of ice XVII with materials with a similar mechanism of hydrogen adsorption like metal-organic frameworks shows interesting performances of ice XVII in terms of hydrogen content, operating temperature and kinetics of adsorption-desorption. Any application of this material to realistic hydrogen tanks should take into account the thermodynamic limit of metastability of ice XVII, i.e., temperatures below about 130 K.

  14. Hydrogen generator characteristics for storage of renewably-generated energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Węcel, Daniel; Dubiel, Klaudia

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for determining the efficiency of a hydrogen generator taking the power requirements of its auxiliary systems into account. Authors present results of laboratory experiments conducted on a hydrogen generator containing a PEM water electrolyzer for a wide range of device loads. On the basis of measurements, the efficiency characteristics of electrolyzers were determined, including that of an entire hydrogen generator using a monitored power supply for its auxiliary devices. Based on the results of the experimental tests, the authors have proposed generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency. These characteristics were used for analyses of a Power-to-Gas system cooperating with a 40 MW wind farm with a known yearly power distribution. It was assumed that nightly-produced hydrogen is injected into the natural gas transmission system. An algorithm for determining the thermodynamic and economic characteristics of a Power-to-Gas installation is proposed. These characteristics were determined as a function of the degree of storage of the energy produced in a Renewable Energy Sources (RES) installation, defined as the ratio of the amount of electricity directed to storage to the annual amount of electricity generated in the RES installation. Depending on the degree of storage, several quantities were determined. - Highlights: • The efficiency characteristics of PEM electrolyzer are determined. • Generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency are proposed. • Method of choice of electrolyser nominal power for Power-to-Gas system was proposed. • Development of Power-to-Gas systems requires implementation of support mechanisms.

  15. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  16. Multiply Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Peter [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gillespie, Andrew [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Stalla, David [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dohnke, Elmar [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-02-20

    The purpose of the project “Multiply Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage” is the development of materials that store hydrogen (H2) by adsorption in quantities and at conditions that outperform current compressed-gas H2 storage systems for electric power generation from hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs). Prominent areas of interest for HFCs are light-duty vehicles (“hydrogen cars”) and replacement of batteries with HFC systems in a wide spectrum of applications, ranging from forklifts to unmanned areal vehicles to portable power sources. State-of-the-art compressed H2 tanks operate at pressures between 350 and 700 bar at ambient temperature and store 3-4 percent of H2 by weight (wt%) and less than 25 grams of H2 per liter (g/L) of tank volume. Thus, the purpose of the project is to engineer adsorbents that achieve storage capacities better than compressed H2 at pressures less than 350 bar. Adsorption holds H2 molecules as a high-density film on the surface of a solid at low pressure, by virtue of attractive surface-gas interactions. At a given pressure, the density of the adsorbed film is the higher the stronger the binding of the molecules to the surface is (high binding energies). Thus, critical for high storage capacities are high surface areas, high binding energies, and low void fractions (high void fractions, such as in interstitial space between adsorbent particles, “waste” storage volume by holding hydrogen as non-adsorbed gas). Coexistence of high surface area and low void fraction makes the ideal adsorbent a nanoporous monolith, with pores wide enough to hold high-density hydrogen films, narrow enough to minimize storage as non-adsorbed gas, and thin walls between pores to minimize the volume occupied by solid instead of hydrogen. A monolith can be machined to fit into a rectangular tank (low pressure, conformable tank), cylindrical tank

  17. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, Paul A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-07-22

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  18. Tritiated hydrogen gas storage systems for a fusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramy, W.; Hircq, B.; Peyrat, M.; Leger, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that USSI INGENIERIE has carried out a study financed by European Communities Commission concerning the NET/ITER project, on tritium Fuel Management and Storage systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. A processing block diagram for hydrogen isotopes represents all interfaces and possible links between these systems and tritiated gas mixtures flowing through the Fusion plant. Large quantities of hydrogen isotopes (up to several thousand moles of protium, deuterium and tritium) in gaseous form associated with torus fuelling and exhaust pellet injection, and neutral beam injection, must be stored and managed in such a plant

  19. Hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides: the hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.P. da.

    1981-01-01

    The massive and common use of hydrogen as an energy carrier requires an adequate solution to the problem of storing it. High pressure or low temperatures are not entirely satisfactory, having each a limited range of applications. Reversible metal hydrides cover a range of applications intermediate to high pressure gas and low temperature liquid hydrogen, retaining very favorable safety and energy density characteristics, both for mobile and stationary applications. This work demonstrates the technical viability of storing hydrogen in metal hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys. Also, it shows that technology, a product of science, can be generated within an academic environment, of the goal is clear, the demand outstanding and the means available. We review briefly theoretical models relating to metal hydride properties, specially the thermodynamics properties relevant to this work. We report our experimental results on hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys of various compositions including data on structure, hydrogen storage capacities, reaction kinetics, pressure-composition isotherms. We selected a promising alloy for mass production, built and tested a modular storage tank based on the hydrides of the alloy, with a capacity for storing 10 Nm sup(3) of hydrogen of 1 atm and 20 sup(0)C. The tank weighs 46,3 Kg and has a volume of 21 l. (author)

  20. Fabrication characteristics and hydrogenation behavior of hydrogen storage alloys for sealed Ni-MH batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Sung; Kim, Jeon Min; Kim, Tae-Won; Oh, Ik-Hyun; Choi, Jeon; Park, Choong Nyeon

    2008-08-01

    Hydrogen storage alloys based on LmNi4.2Co0.2Mn0.3Al0.3 were fabricated to study the equilibrium hydrogen pressure and electrochemical performance. The surface morphology and structure of the alloys were analyzed by SEM and XRD, and then the hydrogenation behaviors of all alloys were evaluated by PCT and electrochemical half-cell. We studied the hydrogenation behavior of the Lm-based alloy with changes in composition elements such as Mn, Al, and Co and investigated the optimal design for Lm-based alloy in a sealed battery system. As a result of studying the hydrogenation characterization of alloys with the substitution elements, hydrogen storage alloys such as LmNi3.75Co0.15Mn0.5Al0.3 and LmNi3.5Co0.5Mn0.5Al0.5 were obtained to correspond with the characteristics of a sealed battery with a higher capacity, long life cycle, lower internal pressure, and lower battery cost. The capacity preservation rate of LmNi3.5Co0.5Mn0.5Al0.5 was greatly improved to 92.7% (255 mAh/g) at 60 cycles, indicating a low equilibrium hydrogen pressure of 0.03 atm in PCT devices.

  1. Hydrogen storage in nanoporous carbon materials: myth and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Hołyst, Robert; Terrones, Mauricio; Terrones, Humberto

    2007-04-21

    We used Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation to model the hydrogen storage in the primitive, gyroid, diamond, and quasi-periodic icosahedral nanoporous carbon materials and in carbon nanotubes. We found that none of the investigated nanoporous carbon materials satisfy the US Department of Energy goal of volumetric density and mass storage for automotive application (6 wt% and 45 kg H(2) m(-3)) at considered storage condition. Our calculations indicate that quasi-periodic icosahedral nanoporous carbon material can reach the 6 wt% at 3.8 MPa and 77 K, but the volumetric density does not exceed 24 kg H(2) m(-3). The bundle of single-walled carbon nanotubes can store only up to 4.5 wt%, but with high volumetric density of 42 kg H(2) m(-3). All investigated nanoporous carbon materials are not effective against compression above 20 MPa at 77 K because the adsorbed density approaches the density of the bulk fluid. It follows from this work that geometry of carbon surfaces can enhance the storage capacity only to a limited extent. Only a combination of the most effective structure with appropriate additives (metals) can provide an efficient storage medium for hydrogen in the quest for a source of "clean" energy.

  2. Novel catalysts for isotopic exchange between hydrogen and liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.P.; Rolston, J.H.; Stevens, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    Catalytic isotopic exchange between hydrogen and liquid water offers many inherent potential advantages for the separation of hydrogen isotopes which is of great importance in the Canadian nuclear program. Active catalysts for isotopic exchange between hydrogen and water vapor have long been available, but these catalysts are essentially inactive in the presence of liquid water. New, water-repellent platinum catalysts have been prepared by: (1) treating supported catalysts with silicone, (2) depositing platinum on inherently hydrophobic polymeric supports, and (3) treating platinized carbon with Teflon and bonding to a carrier. The activity of these catalysts for isotopic exchange between countercurrent streams of liquid water and hydrogen saturated with water vapor has been measured in a packed trickle bed integral reactor. The performance of these hydrophobic catalysts is compared with nonwetproofed catalysts. The mechanism of the overall exchange reaction is briefly discussed. 6 figures

  3. Ab initio calculations on hydrogen storage in porous carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maresca, O.; Marinelli, F.; Pellenq, R.J.M.; Duclaux, L.; Azais, Ph.; Conard, J.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated through ab initio computations the possible ways to achieve efficient hydrogen storage on carbons. Firstly, we have considered how the curvature of a carbon surface could affect the chemisorption of atomic H 0 Secondly, we show that electron donor elements such as Li and K, used as dopants for the carbon substrate, strongly enhance the physi-sorption energy of H 2 , allowing in principle its storage in this type of material at room temperature under mild conditions of pressure. (authors)

  4. Hydrogen Storage Needs for Early Motive Fuel Cell Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Simpson, L.; Caton, M.

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) objective for this project is to identify performance needs for onboard energy storage of early motive fuel cell markets by working with end users, manufacturers, and experts. The performance needs analysis is combined with a hydrogen storage technology gap analysis to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program with information about the needs and gaps that can be used to focus research and development activities that are capable of supporting market growth.

  5. Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence Metal Hydride Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-05-31

    The Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) was established in 2009 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to advance the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems for hydrogen-fueled light-duty vehicles. The overall objective of the HSECoE is to develop complete, integrated system concepts that utilize reversible metal hydrides, adsorbents, and chemical hydrogen storage materials through the use of advanced engineering concepts and designs that can simultaneously meet or exceed all the DOE targets. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during Phase 1 of the reversible metal hydride portion of the HSECoE, which lasted 30 months from February 2009 to August 2011. A complete list of all the HSECoE partners can be found later in this report but for the reversible metal hydride portion of the HSECoE work the major contributing organizations to this effort were the United Technology Research Center (UTRC), General Motors (GM), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Specific individuals from these and other institutions that supported this effort and the writing of this report are included in the list of contributors and in the acknowledgement sections of this report. The efforts of the HSECoE are organized into three phases each approximately 2 years in duration. In Phase I, comprehensive system engineering analyses and assessments were made of the three classes of storage media that included development of system level transport and thermal models of alternative conceptual storage configurations to permit detailed comparisons against the DOE performance targets for light-duty vehicles. Phase 1 tasks also included identification and technical justifications for candidate storage media and configurations that should be capable of reaching or exceeding the DOE targets. Phase 2 involved bench-level testing and

  6. The liquid hydrogen cell in the EL3 Saclay reactor; Cellule a hydrogene liquide dans la pile EL3 de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacrot, B; Lacaze, A; Weil, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; [Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France)

    1960-07-01

    Description and results in connection with the liquid hydrogen cell, for obtaining slow neutrons, in the EL3. (author) [French] Description et resultats concernant la cellule a hydrogene liquide de EL3 utilisee pour obtenir des neutrons lents. (auteur)

  7. Liquid waste processing from TRIGA spent fuel storage pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchtela, Karl

    1988-01-01

    At the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities and also at other facilities running TRIGA reactors, storage pits for spent fuel elements are installed. During the last revision procedure, the reactor group of the Atominstitute decided to refill the storage pits and to get rid of any contaminated storage pit water. The liquid radioactive waste had been pumped to polyethylene vessels for intermediate storage before decontamination and release. The activity concentration of the storage pit water at the Aominstitute after a storage period of several years was about 40 kBq/l, the total amount of liquid in the storage pits was about 0.25 m 3 . It was attempted to find a simple and inexpensive method to remove especially the radioactive Cesium from the waste solution. Different methods for decontamination like distillation, precipitation and ion exchange are discussed

  8. Acoustically Forced Coaxial Hydrogen / Liquid Oxygen Jet Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Conference Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 18 Mar 2016 – 15 May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acoustically Forced Coaxial Hydrogen / Liquid Oxygen Jet...perform, display, or disclose the work. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES For presentation at 28th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems...serious problems in the development of liquid rocket engines. In order to understand and predict them, it is necessary to understand how representative

  9. Liquid crystals for holographic optical data storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matharu, Avtar; Jeeva, S.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    to the information storage demands of the 21st century is detailed. Holography is a small subset of the much larger field of optical data storage and similarly, the diversity of materials used for optical data storage is enormous. The theory of polarisation holography which produces holograms of constant intensity...

  10. Materials for Hydrogen Storage in Nanocavities: Design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reguera, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada del IPN, Unidad Legaria, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion (Mexico)

    2009-11-15

    The adsorption potential for a given adsorbate depends of both, material surface and adsorbate properties. In this contribution the possible guest-host interactions for H{sub 2} within a cavity or on a surface are discussed considering the molecule physical properties. Five different interactions contribute to the adsorption forces for this molecule: 1) quadrupole moment interaction with the local electric field gradient; 1) electron cloud polarization by a charge center; 3) dispersive forces (van der Waals); 4) quadrupole moment versus quadrupole moment between neighboring H{sub 2} molecules, and, 5) H{sub 2} coordination to a metal center. The relative importance of these five interactions for the hydrogen storage in nanocavities is discussed from experimental evidences in order to extract materials design criteria for molecular hydrogen storage. (author)

  11. Hydrogen system (hydrogen fuels feasibility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarna, S.

    1991-07-01

    This feasibility study on the production and use of hydrogen fuels for industry and domestic purposes includes the following aspects: physical and chemical properties of hydrogen; production methods steam reforming of natural gas, hydrolysis of water; liquid and gaseous hydrogen transportation and storage (hydrogen-hydride technology); environmental impacts, safety and economics of hydrogen fuel cells for power generation and hydrogen automotive fuels; relevant international research programs

  12. Hydrogen storage and evolution catalysed by metal hydride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Suenobu, Tomoyoshi

    2013-01-07

    The storage and evolution of hydrogen are catalysed by appropriate metal hydride complexes. Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide by hydrogen is catalysed by a [C,N] cyclometalated organoiridium complex, [Ir(III)(Cp*)(4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl-κN(2))benzoic acid-κC(3))(OH(2))](2)SO(4) [Ir-OH(2)](2)SO(4), under atmospheric pressure of H(2) and CO(2) in weakly basic water (pH 7.5) at room temperature. The reverse reaction, i.e., hydrogen evolution from formate, is also catalysed by [Ir-OH(2)](+) in acidic water (pH 2.8) at room temperature. Thus, interconversion between hydrogen and formic acid in water at ambient temperature and pressure has been achieved by using [Ir-OH(2)](+) as an efficient catalyst in both directions depending on pH. The Ir complex [Ir-OH(2)](+) also catalyses regioselective hydrogenation of the oxidised form of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to produce the 1,4-reduced form (NADH) under atmospheric pressure of H(2) at room temperature in weakly basic water. In weakly acidic water, the complex [Ir-OH(2)](+) also catalyses the reverse reaction, i.e., hydrogen evolution from NADH to produce NAD(+) at room temperature. Thus, interconversion between NADH (and H(+)) and NAD(+) (and H(2)) has also been achieved by using [Ir-OH(2)](+) as an efficient catalyst and by changing pH. The iridium hydride complex formed by the reduction of [Ir-OH(2)](+) by H(2) and NADH is responsible for the hydrogen evolution. Photoirradiation (λ > 330 nm) of an aqueous solution of the Ir-hydride complex produced by the reduction of [Ir-OH(2)](+) with alcohols resulted in the quantitative conversion to a unique [C,C] cyclometalated Ir-hydride complex, which can catalyse hydrogen evolution from alcohols in a basic aqueous solution (pH 11.9). The catalytic mechanisms of the hydrogen storage and evolution are discussed by focusing on the reactivity of Ir-hydride complexes.

  13. Magnesium borohydride: from hydrogen storage to magnesium battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana; Matsui, Masaki; Arthur, Timothy S; Hwang, Son-Jong

    2012-09-24

    Beyond hydrogen storage: The first example of reversible magnesium deposition/stripping onto/from an inorganic salt was seen for a magnesium borohydride electrolyte. High coulombic efficiency of up to 94 % was achieved in dimethoxyethane solvent. This Mg(BH(4))(2) electrolyte was utilized in a rechargeable magnesium battery. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Design and Analysis of a Hydrogen Compression and Storage Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    standards relating to the production , transportation, handling, and storage of hydrogen gas. Four of CGAs standards were consulted during the design and...assessed as a low risk since the manufacturer had not experienced problems after several thousands of hours of work with their product . Future station...specified by their manufacturers . These pressure-temperature ratings are summarized for each tubing size in Table 6. A more rigorous design was

  15. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  16. Computational investigation of hydrogen storage on B5V3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chen; Wang, Chong

    2018-05-01

    Based on density functional theory method with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set, the structures, stability and hydrogen storage capacity of B5V3 have been theoretically investigated. It is found that a maximum of seven hydrogen molecules can be adsorbed on B5V3 with gravimetric uptake capacity of 6.39 wt%. The uptake capacity exceeds the target set by the US Department of Energy for vehicular application. Moreover, the average adsorption energy of B5V3 01 (7H2) is 0.60 eV/H2 in the desirable range of reversible hydrogen storage. The kinetic stability of H2 adsorbed on B5V3 01 is confirmed by using gap between highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). The gap value of B5V3 01 (7H2) is 2.81 eV, which indicates the compound with high stability. In addition, the thermochemistry calculation (Gibbs free energy corrected adsorption energy) is used to analyse if the adsorption is favourable or not at different temperatures. It can be found that the Gibbs corrected adsorption energy of B5V3 01 (7H2) is still positive at 400 K at 1 atm. It means that the adsorption of seven hydrogen molecules on B5V3 01 is energetically favourable in a fairly wide temperature range. All the results show that B5V3 01 can be considered as a promising material for hydrogen storage.

  17. Electric field enhanced hydrogen storage on polarizable materials substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Wang, Q.; Sun, Q.; Jena, P.; Chen, X. S.

    2010-01-01

    Using density functional theory, we show that an applied electric field can substantially improve the hydrogen storage properties of polarizable substrates. This new concept is demonstrated by adsorbing a layer of hydrogen molecules on a number of nanomaterials. When one layer of H2 molecules is adsorbed on a BN sheet, the binding energy per H2 molecule increases from 0.03 eV/H2 in the field-free case to 0.14 eV/H2 in the presence of an electric field of 0.045 a.u. The corresponding gravimetric density of 7.5 wt% is consistent with the 6 wt% system target set by Department of Energy for 2010. The strength of the electric field can be reduced if the substrate is more polarizable. For example, a hydrogen adsorption energy of 0.14 eV/H2 can be achieved by applying an electric field of 0.03 a.u. on an AlN substrate, 0.006 a.u. on a silsesquioxane molecule, and 0.007 a.u. on a silsesquioxane sheet. Thus, application of an electric field to a polarizable substrate provides a novel way to store hydrogen; once the applied electric field is removed, the stored H2 molecules can be easily released, thus making storage reversible with fast kinetics. In addition, we show that materials with rich low-coordinated nonmetal anions are highly polarizable and can serve as a guide in the design of new hydrogen storage materials. PMID:20133647

  18. Cloning single wall carbon nanotubes for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tour, James M [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Kittrell, Carter [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-08-30

    The purpose of this research is to development the technology required for producing 3-D nano-engineered frameworks for hydrogen storage based on sp2 carbon media, which will have high gravimetric and especially high volumetric uptake of hydrogen, and in an aligned fibrous array that will take advantage of the exceptionally high thermal conductivity of sp2 carbon materials to speed up the fueling process while minimizing or eliminating the need for internal cooling systems. A limitation for nearly all storage media using physisorption of the hydrogen molecule is the large amount of surface area (SA) occupied by each H2 molecule due to its large zero-point vibrational energy. This creates a conundrum that in order to maximize SA, the physisorption media is made more tenuous and the density is decreased, usually well below 1 kg/L, so that there comes a tradeoff between volumetric and gravimetric uptake. Our major goal was to develop a new type of media with high density H2 uptake, which favors volumetric storage and which, in turn, has the capability to meet the ultimate DoE H2 goals.

  19. Hydrogen Storage Enhancement Attained by Fixation of Ti on MWNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Pérez-Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hydrogen has a preponderant position among the potentially sustainable energy sources. Due to its power density, its storage is of main concern when considering a broad use in practical applications. Carbon nanotubes constitute promising candidates for the design and construction of hydrogen storage devices. This work explores the use of some procedures involving electrochemistry, aimed to bond atomic Ti on the outer surface of MWNTs. Each titanium atom has the potential of hosting two hydrogen molecules and relinquishing them by heating. Nevertheless, nanotubes are difficult to handle due to electrostatic charge and agglomeration, and in this context, two routes were tested as procedures to spread and stick nanotubes on an electrode: (1 a functionalization capable of attaching gold was tested in two forms, as either using 4 nm particles or a flat gold electrode. The fixation of Au particles was confirmed by HRTEM. (2 A simpler route that consisted on drying a CH2Cl2/nanotubes solution previously spread on a glassy carbon flat electrode. CH2Cl2 was selected as the medium and TiCl4 as the precursor for attaching atomic Ti to the nanotubes. The results revealed that hydrogen adsorption, estimated from voltamperometry, was five times higher on Ti-MWNTs than on bare nanotubes.

  20. Sodium hydrazinidoborane: a chemical hydrogen-storage material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moury, Romain; Demirci, Umit B; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Chiriac, Rodica; van der Lee, Arie; Miele, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Herein, we present the successful synthesis and full characterization (by (11) B magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction) of sodium hydrazinidoborane (NaN2 H3 BH3 , with a hydrogen content of 8.85 wt %), a new material for chemical hydrogen storage. Using lab-prepared pure hydrazine borane (N2 H4 BH3 ) and commercial sodium hydride as precursors, sodium hydrazinidoborane was synthesized by ball-milling at low temperature (-30 °C) under an argon atmosphere. Its thermal stability was assessed by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that under heating sodium hydrazinidoborane starts to liberate hydrogen below 60 °C. Within the range of 60-150 °C, the overall mass loss is as high as 7.6 wt %. Relative to the parent N2 H4 BH3 , sodium hydrazinidoborane shows improved dehydrogenation properties, further confirmed by dehydrogenation experiments under prolonged heating at constant temperatures of 80, 90, 95, 100, and 110 °C. Hence, sodium hydrazinidoborane appears to be more suitable for chemical hydrogen storage than N2 H4 BH3 . Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium-lead alloy by gas-liquid contact method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Weng Kuiping; Hou Jianping; Yang Guangling; Zeng Jun

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen extraction experiment from liquid lithium-lead alloy by gas-liquid contact method has been carried out in own liquid lithium-lead bubbler (LLLB). Experimental results show that, He is more suitable than Ar as carrier gas in the filler tower. The higher temperature the tower is, the greater hydrogen content the tower exports. Influence of carrier gas flow rate on the hydrogen content in the export is jagged, no obvious rule. Although the difference between experimental results and literature data, but it is feasible that hydrogen isotopes extraction experiment from liquid lithium-lead by gas-liquid contact method, and the higher extraction efficiency increases with the growth of the residence time of the alloy in tower. (authors)

  2. Detection of hydrogen buildup in initially pure nonhydrogenous liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeany, S.R.; Jenkins, J.D.

    1978-12-01

    A technique for monitoring hydrogen buildup in initially pure nonhydrogenous liquids is described in this report. The detection method is based upon the neutron-moderating properties of hydrogen. The analysis leading to the selection and design of a hydrogen-monitoring device is described. An experimental mockup of the device was then constructed and tested for hydrogen sensitivity. A hot cell was used for these tests. A device proved capable of measuring hydrogen concentrations in the range of 0 to 13.0 x 10 27 atoms/m 3 , with an accuracy of about 1.0 x 10 27 atoms/m 3 . A typical measurement can be made in 3 to 5 min. The experimental results confirmed the sensitivities predicted by the analysis and demonstrated that such a device would be practical for hydrogen concentration measurements for criticality control in an HTGR fuel refabrication plant

  3. Renewable energy carriers: Hydrogen or liquid air/nitrogen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongliang; Chen Haisheng; Zhang Xinjing; Tan Chunqing; Ding Yulong

    2010-01-01

    The world's energy demand is met mainly by the fossil fuels today. The use of such fuels, however, causes serious environmental issues, including global warming, ozone layer depletion and acid rains. A sustainable solution to the issues is to replace the fossil fuels with renewable ones. Implementing such a solution, however, requires overcoming a number of technological barriers including low energy density, intermittent supply and mobility of the renewable energy sources. A potential approach to overcoming these barriers is to use an appropriate energy carrier, which can store, transport and distribute energy. The work to be reported in this paper aims to assess and compare a chemical energy carrier, hydrogen, with a physical energy carrier, liquid air/nitrogen, and discuss potential applications of the physical carrier. The ocean energy is used as an example of the renewable energy sources in the work. The assessment and comparison are carried out in terms of the overall efficiency, including production, storage/transportation and energy extraction. The environmental impact, waste heat recovery and safety issues are also considered. It is found that the physical energy carrier may be a better alternative to the chemical energy carrier under some circumstances, particularly when there are waste heat sources.

  4. Hydrogen Storage using Metal Hydrides in a Stationary Cogeneration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botzung, Maxime; Chaudourne, Serge; Perret, Christian; Latroche, Michel; Percheron-Guegan, Annick; Marty Philippe

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of the development of a hydrogen production and storage unit to supply a 40 kW stationary fuel cell, a metal hydride storage tank was chosen according to its reliability and high energetic efficiency. The study of AB5 compounds led to the development of a composition adapted to the project needs. The absorption/desorption pressures of the hydride at 75 C (2 / 1.85 bar) are the most adapted to the specifications. The reversible storage capacity (0.95 %wt) has been optimized to our work conditions and chemical kinetics is fast. The design of the Combined Heat and Power CHP system requires 5 kg hydrogen storage but in a first phase, only a 0.1 kg prototype has been realised and tested. Rectangular design has been chosen to obtain good compactness with an integrated plate fin type heat exchanger designed to reach high absorption/desorption rates. In this paper, heat and mass transfer characteristics of the Metal Hydride tank (MH tank) during absorption/desorption cycles are given. (authors)

  5. Design and integration of a hydrogen storage on metallic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botzung, M.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a hydrogen storage system using metal hydrides for a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. Hydride storage technology has been chosen due to project specifications: high volumetric capacity, low pressures (≤ 3.5 bar) and low temperatures (≤ 75 C: fuel cell temperature). During absorption, heat from hydride generation is dissipated by fluid circulation. An integrated plate-fin type heat exchanger has been designed to obtain good compactness and to reach high absorption/desorption rates. At first, the storage system has been tested in accordance with project specifications (absorption 3.5 bar, desorption 1.5 bar). Then, the hydrogen charge/discharge times have been decreased to reach system limits. System design has been used to simulate thermal and mass comportment of the storage tank. The model is based on the software Fluent. We take in consideration heat and mass transfers in the porous media during absorption/desorption. The hydride thermal and mass behaviour has been integrated in the software. The heat and mass transfers experimentally obtained have been compared to results calculated by the model. The influence of experimental and numerical parameters on the model behaviour has also been explored. (author) [fr

  6. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  7. Efficient energy storage in liquid desiccant cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hublitz, Astrid

    2008-07-18

    Liquid Desiccant Cooling Systems (LDCS) are open loop sorption systems for air conditioning that use a liquid desiccant such as a concentrated salt solution to dehumidify the outside air and cool it by evaporative cooling. Thermochemical energy storage in the concentrated liquid desiccant can bridge power mismatches between demand and supply. Low-flow LDCS provide high energy storage capacities but are not a state-of-the-art technology yet. The key challenge remains the uniform distribution of the liquid desiccant on the heat and mass transfer surfaces. The present research analyzes the factors of influence on the energy storage capacity by simulation of the heat and mass transfer processes and specifies performance goals for the distribution of the process media. Consequently, a distribution device for the liquid desiccant is developed that reliably meets the performance goals. (orig.)

  8. Multi-functionalized naphthalene complexes for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalamse, Vijayanand; Wadnerkar, Nitin; Chaudhari, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    A density functional study of hydrogen uptake capacity of multi-functionalized naphthalene with Ti and Li metal atom has been carried out. It is observed that, the naphthalene functionalized with two Ti atoms can interact with total eight hydrogen molecules in which each Ti metal atom interacts with four hydrogen molecules. Naphthalene decorated with two Li atoms can interact with total three H 2 molecules only. First ( 19 Li) and second ( 20 Li) Li atom can interact with only one and two hydrogen molecule respectively. It is observed that, hydrogen molecules bind strongly to the C 10 H 8 Ti 2 complex than C 10 H 8 Li 2 complex. The gravimetric hydrogen uptake capacity of C 10 H 8 Ti 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 2 complex is found to be 6.72 and 3.73 wt% respectively. Moreover, after functionalizing naphthalene with four Li atoms, the uptake capacity is increased to 7.20 wt %. However, the thermochemistry result favors to Ti functionalized naphthalene complex (C 10 H 8 Ti 2 ) for hydrogen storage over Li functionalized naphthalene (both C 10 H 8 Li 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 4 ) complexes. Atom-centered density matrix propagation (ADMP) molecular dynamics simulations have been performed which showed that C 10 H 8 Li 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 4 complex cannot bind single hydrogen molecule at room temperature whereas C 10 H 8 Ti 2 can bind five hydrogen molecules. -- Highlights: ► The gravimetric H 2 uptake capacity of C 10 H 8 Ti 2 complex is 6.72 wt%. ► Uptake capacity of C 10 H 8 Li 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 4 complex is 3.73 and 7.20 wt% respectively. ► C 10 H 8 Ti is more promising material for hydrogen adsorption. ► C 10 H 8 Ti 2 can bind five hydrogen molecules as shown by ADMP-MD results.

  9. Hydrogen Car Cartridges: A New Strategy for Hydrogen Storage, Delivering and Refueling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosini, Pier Paolo

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the project is to introduce a sustainable model in the automotive field, guarantying the Kyoto agreements. The aim of the project is to develop an innovative hydrogen tank able to power an hydrogen fuel cell car with the same performance of liquid fuelled cars. Most of the system performance are expected to satisfy the Department of Energy (DOE) goals for 2015. The hydrogen releasing system is based on solid NaBH4 which is hydrolyzed with water or steam to obtain hydrogen. Sodium borate is obtained as by-product and it has to be recycled. Pure and humidified hydrogen, ready to be utilized in a fuel cell, is obtained by a simple and sure way. Hydrogen is produced only when it is requested and therefore there is never pressurized hydrogen or hydrogen overproduction The system works at atmospheric pressure avoiding the problems related to handling and storing pressurized gas. The car fuelling could be performed in area like the present service stations. The used cartridges can be removed and substituted by new cartridges. Contemporarily a water tank should be refilled. To improve the total energetic yield it was also proposed a NaBH4 regeneration process directly starting from the products of hydrolysis. (auth)

  10. 30 CFR 77.1103 - Flammable liquids; storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... storage tanks shall be mounted securely on firm foundations. Outlet piping shall be provided with flexible connections or other special fittings to prevent adverse effects from tank settling. (c) Fuel lines shall be... hazards. (d) Areas surrounding flammable-liquid storage tanks and electric substations and transformers...

  11. Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, Christian; Hvilsted, Søren

    1996-01-01

    and holographic storage in one particular polyester are described in detail and polarized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data complementing the optical data are presented. Optical and atomic force microscope investigations point to a laser-induced aggregation as responsible for permanent optical storage.......Azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyester structures suitable for permanent optical storage are described. The synthesis and characterization of the polyesters together with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray investigations are discussed. Optical anisotropic investigations...

  12. International Clean Energy System Using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). subtask 5. Development of hydrogen transport/storage technology (development of tanker for liquid hydrogen); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (ekitai suiso yuso tanker no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    As a part of the WE-NET project, the tanker for liquid hydrogen transport was studied. In fiscal 1996, some experiments and numerical analyses were proposed which are necessary to solve technological issues extracted in fiscal 1995 for heat insulation structure. The issue was roughly classified into vacuum and non-vacuum insulation, and their basic functions and required performance were arranged. Boil-off rate of 0.2-0.4%/d was targeted. The insulation system which applies polyurethane form (PUF) to tank surfaces and injects atmospheric N2 gas into the surrounding hold space, could achieve the targeted insulation performance by PUF of 1m in thickness. The system of vacuum panel insulation and atmospheric N2 gas injection into a hold space required the panel of 500mm in thickness because of the large effect of metallic outer panel material. The system of vacuum hold and PUF panels was faced with the essential issue for realizing and maintaining vacuum hold. The super insulation system featured by layered insulation materials and vacuum layer spaces was also strongly affected by degree of vacuum. 23 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. A manganese-hydrogen battery with potential for grid-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Guodong; Pei, Allen; Li, Yuzhang; Liao, Lei; Wang, Hongxia; Wan, Jiayu; Liang, Zheng; Chen, Guangxu; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Jiangyan; Cui, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Batteries including lithium-ion, lead-acid, redox-flow and liquid-metal batteries show promise for grid-scale storage, but they are still far from meeting the grid's storage needs such as low cost, long cycle life, reliable safety and reasonable energy density for cost and footprint reduction. Here, we report a rechargeable manganese-hydrogen battery, where the cathode is cycled between soluble Mn2+ and solid MnO2 with a two-electron reaction, and the anode is cycled between H2 gas and H2O through well-known catalytic reactions of hydrogen evolution and oxidation. This battery chemistry exhibits a discharge voltage of 1.3 V, a rate capability of 100 mA cm-2 (36 s of discharge) and a lifetime of more than 10,000 cycles without decay. We achieve a gravimetric energy density of 139 Wh kg-1 (volumetric energy density of 210 Wh l-1), with the theoretical gravimetric energy density of 174 Wh kg-1 (volumetric energy density of 263 Wh l-1) in a 4 M MnSO4 electrolyte. The manganese-hydrogen battery involves low-cost abundant materials and has the potential to be scaled up for large-scale energy storage.

  14. The kinetics of hydrogen removal from liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwyther, J.R.; Whittingham, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    The rates of hydrogen removal from liquid sodium-sodium hydride mixtures have been measured as a function of sodium stirring rate at temperatures up to 420 0 C. Two techniques have been employed - removal under continuous evacuation in which hydrogen flow rates were measured using a capillary flow technique and by argon purging in which hydrogen concentrations in the argon carrier gas were measured by gas chromatography. The results have been used to assess the feasibility of thermal decomposition of sodium hydride for the regeneration of hydride-laden LMFBR cold traps. Studies on the kinetics of desorption of hydrogen from solution in liquid sodium at temperatures up to 400 0 C are also presented and possible kinetic mechanisms discussed. (orig.)

  15. Liquid hydrogen production and economics for NASA Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, D. L.

    1985-12-01

    Detailed economic analyses for the production of liquid hydrogen used to power the Space Shuttle are presented. The hydrogen production and energy needs of the NASA Kennedy Space Center are reviewed, and steam reformation, polygeneration, and electrolysis for liquid hydrogen production are examined on an equal economic basis. The use of photovoltaics as an electrolysis power source is considered. The 1985 present worth is calculated based on life cycle costs over a 21-year period beginning with full operation in 1990. Two different sets of escalation, inflation, and discount rates are used, with revenue credit being given for energy or other products of the hydrogen production process. The results show that the economic analyses are very dependent on the escalation rates used. The least net present value is found for steam reformation of natural gas, while the best net present value is found for the electrolysis process which includes the phasing of photovoltaics.

  16. The reactions of oxygen and hydrogen with liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, H.

    1981-01-01

    Results so far available as to the reactions and chemical equilibrium of oxygen and hydrogen with liquid sodium have been analyzed critically. The enthalpy values of the reactions have been discussed and supplemented on the basis of corresponding BORN-HABER cycles. The concentration and temperature functions of the hydrogen equilibrium pressure were deduced from experimental results. In relation to the solubility data the solid phases coexisting with liquid sodium in the ternary system Na-O-H have been discussed. The reaction of oxygen with hydrogen in diluted solution in liquid sodium has been investigated in more detail. Interaction coefficients, and the temperature functions of the free energy of formation and the equilibrium constant have been determined. (orig.)

  17. Hydrogenation of liquid natural rubber via diimide reduction in hydrazine hydrate/hydrogen peroxide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, Muhammad Jefri Mohd; Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR) with molecular weight of lower than 10 5 and shorter polymeric chain than natural rubber was prepared. LNR was then hydrogenated via diimide reduction by oxidation of hydrazine hydrate with hydrogen peroxide. The unsaturated units of the rubber were converted into saturated hydrocarbon to strengthen the backbone of the polymer so it was able to resist thermal degradation. The results indicated that hydrogenation degree of the product (HLNR) could be extended to 91.2% conversion under appropriate conditions. The hydrogenated LNR (HLNR) was characterized using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of HLNR were analyzed with Termogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

  18. Hydrogenation of liquid natural rubber via diimide reduction in hydrazine hydrate/hydrogen peroxide system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Muhammad Jefri Mohd; Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2015-09-01

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR) with molecular weight of lower than 105 and shorter polymeric chain than natural rubber was prepared. LNR was then hydrogenated via diimide reduction by oxidation of hydrazine hydrate with hydrogen peroxide. The unsaturated units of the rubber were converted into saturated hydrocarbon to strengthen the backbone of the polymer so it was able to resist thermal degradation. The results indicated that hydrogenation degree of the product (HLNR) could be extended to 91.2% conversion under appropriate conditions. The hydrogenated LNR (HLNR) was characterized using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of HLNR were analyzed with Termogravimetric Analysis (TGA).

  19. Hydrogenation of liquid natural rubber via diimide reduction in hydrazine hydrate/hydrogen peroxide system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Muhammad Jefri Mohd; Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR) with molecular weight of lower than 10{sup 5} and shorter polymeric chain than natural rubber was prepared. LNR was then hydrogenated via diimide reduction by oxidation of hydrazine hydrate with hydrogen peroxide. The unsaturated units of the rubber were converted into saturated hydrocarbon to strengthen the backbone of the polymer so it was able to resist thermal degradation. The results indicated that hydrogenation degree of the product (HLNR) could be extended to 91.2% conversion under appropriate conditions. The hydrogenated LNR (HLNR) was characterized using Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of HLNR were analyzed with Termogravimetric Analysis (TGA)

  20. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  1. Hydrogen storage in lithium hydride: A theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Suman; Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.

    2018-04-01

    First principles calculations have been carried out to analyze structural stability of lithium hydride (LiH) in NaCl phase using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Calculations have been extended to physiosorbed H-atom compounds LiH·H2, LiH·3H2 and LiH·4H2. The obtained results are discussed in the paper. The results for LiH are in excellent agreement with earlier reported data. The obtained direct energy band gap of LiH is 3.0 eV which is in excellent agreement with earlier reported theoretical band gap. The electronic band structure plots of the hydrogen adsorbed compounds show metallic behavior. The elastic constants, anisotropy factor, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and cohesive energies of all the compounds are calculated. Calculation of the optical spectra such as the real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, optical reflectivity, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity, refractive index, extinction coefficient and electron energy loss are performed for the energy range 0-15 eV. The obtained results for LiH·H2, LiH·3H2 and LiH·4H2, are reported for the first time. This study has been made in search of materials for hydrogen storage. It is concluded that LiH is a promising material for hydrogen storage.

  2. Methyllithium-Doped Naphthyl-Containing Conjugated Microporous Polymer with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Sun, Lei; Li, Gang; Shang, Jin; Yang, Rui-Xia; Deng, Wei-Qiao

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen storage is a primary challenge for using hydrogen as a fuel. With ideal hydrogen storage kinetics, the weak binding strength of hydrogen to sorbents is the key barrier to obtain decent hydrogen storage performance. Here, we reported the rational synthesis of a methyllithium-doped naphthyl-containing conjugated microporous polymer with exceptional binding strength of hydrogen to the polymer guided by theoretical simulations. Meanwhile, the experimental results showed that isosteric heat can reach up to 8.4 kJ mol(-1) and the methyllithium-doped naphthyl-containing conjugated microporous polymer exhibited an enhanced hydrogen storage performance with 150 % enhancement compared with its counterpart naphthyl-containing conjugated microporous polymer. These results indicate that this strategy provides a direction for design and synthesis of new materials that meet the US Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen storage target. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Heat Analysis of Liquid piston Compressor for Hydrogen Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermani, Nasrin Arjomand; Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    A new hydrogen compression technology using liquid as the compression piston is investigated from heat transfer point of view. A thermodynamic model, simulating a single compression stroke, is developed to investigate the heat transfer phenomena inside the compression chamber. The model is develo......A new hydrogen compression technology using liquid as the compression piston is investigated from heat transfer point of view. A thermodynamic model, simulating a single compression stroke, is developed to investigate the heat transfer phenomena inside the compression chamber. The model...

  4. Track formation in a liquid hydrogen ultrasonic bubble chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, R C A; Jarman, P D

    1973-01-01

    Track sensitivity to minimum ionising particles has been demonstrated in liquid hydrogen using only an intense ultrasonic field. Carefully designed transducer systems are shown to be capable of producing pressure amplitudes >2.8 atm in a standing wave system in liquid hydrogen. The growth of bubbles to visible size (0.1 mm) in less than 0.2 ms, and their collapse in less than 15 ms, indicates that rapid cycling rates of 50-100 pulses per second may be feasible with this technique. (11 refs).

  5. Solubility of hydrogen isotopes in liquid LiPb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Noborio, K.; Calderoni, P.; Merrill, B.

    2014-01-01

    This research was performed mainly in the first half of the task 1-2 of TITAN project to investigate the interaction between hydrogen isotopes and liquid LiPb. Solubility of hydrogen in liquid LiPb was measured under a static condition. Kyoto University provided the first experimental apparatus shipped to Idaho, and Kyushu University succeeded the experiment and further improved. Obtained solubility generally agreed with some previous reports, but varied orders of magnitudes suggesting influence of impurity or other chemical processes. (author)

  6. Hydrogen permeation resistant layers for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1980-03-01

    Reviewing the literature in the tritium diffusion field one can readily see a wide divergence in results for both the response of permeation rate to pressure, and the effect of oxide layers on total permeation rates. The basic mechanism of protective oxide layers is discussed. Two coatings which are less hydrogen permeable than the best naturally occurring oxide are described. The work described is part of an HEDL-ANL cooperative research program on Tritium Permeation in Liquid Metal Cooled Reactors. This includes permeation work on hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium with the hydrogen-deuterium research leading to the developments presented

  7. Biological conversion of hydrogen to electricity for energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamanev, Dimitre; Pupkevich, Victor; Penev, Kalin; Glibin, Vassili; Gohil, Jay; Vajihinejad, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Energy storage is currently one of the most significant problems associated with mass-scale usage of renewable (i.e. wind and solar) power sources. The use of hydrogen as an energy storage medium is very promising, but is hampered by the lack of commercially available hydrogen-to-electricity (H2e) converters. Here we are presenting the first commercially viable, biologically based technology for H2e conversion named the BioGenerator. It is a microbial fuel cell based on electron consumption resulting from the respiration of chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms. The results obtained during the scale-up study of the BioGenerator showed a maximum specific current of 1.35 A/cm 2 , maximum power density of 1800 W/m 2 and stable electricity generation over a period spanning longer than four years. The largest unit studied so far has a volume of 600 L and a power output of 0.3 kW. - Highlights: • A commercially viable biological convertor of H 2 to electricity (BioGenerator) is proposed. • It has a short-term commercial potential and its economic analysis is quite promising. • The BioGenerator is the first commercially viable bio-technology for energy storage. • It is a power generation technology of which has a negative CO 2 emission.

  8. Hydriding properties of an Mg-Al-Ni-Nd hydrogen storage alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, G.I.; Bustamante, L.A.C.; Miranda, P.E.V. de

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the development of an Mg-Al-Ni-Nd alloy for hydrogen storage purposes. The hydrogen storage properties of the alloy were analyzed using pressure-composition isotherms and hydrogen desorption kinetic curves at different temperatures. The characterization of the microstructures, before and after hydrogenation, was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Hydrogenation caused significant changes in the alloy microstructure. Two pressure plateaus were observed. The maximum hydrogen storage reversible capacity measured was 4 wt.% at 573 K

  9. Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure container. Appendices; Lagring af brint i avancerede hoejtryksbeholdere. Appendiks 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentzen, J.J.; Lystrup, A. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-15

    The objective of the project has been to study barriers for a production of advanced high pressure containers especially suitable for hydrogen, in order to create a basis for a container production in Denmark. The project has primarily focused on future Danish need for hydrogen storage in the MWh area. One task has been to examine requirement specifications for pressure tanks that can be expected in connection with these stores. Six potential storage needs have been identified: (1) Buffer in connection with start-up/regulation on the power grid. (2) Hydrogen and oxygen production. (3) Buffer store in connection with VEnzin vision. (4) Storage tanks on hydrogen filling stations. (5) Hydrogen for the transport sector from 1 TWh surplus power. (6) Tanker transport of hydrogen. Requirements for pressure containers for the above mentioned use have been examined. The connection between stored energy amount, pressure and volume compared to liquid hydrogen and oil has been stated in tables. As starting point for production technological considerations and economic calculations of various container concepts, an estimation of laminate thickness in glass-fibre reinforced containers with different diameters and design print has been made, for a 'pure' fibre composite container and a metal/fibre composite container respectively. (BA)

  10. Review of theoretical calculations of hydrogen storage in carbon-based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meregalli, V.; Parrinello, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    In this paper we review the existing theoretical literature on hydrogen storage in single-walled nanotubes and carbon nanofibers. The reported calculations indicate a hydrogen uptake smaller than some of the more optimistic experimental results. Furthermore the calculations suggest that a variety of complex chemical processes could accompany hydrogen storage and release. (orig.)

  11. Atomistic Modelling of Materials for Clean Energy Applications : hydrogen generation, hydrogen storage, and Li-ion battery

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, a number of clean-energy materials for hydrogen generation, hydrogen storage, and Li-ion battery energy storage applications have been investigated through state-of-the-art density functional theory. As an alternative fuel, hydrogen has been regarded as one of the promising clean energies with the advantage of abundance (generated through water splitting) and pollution-free emission if used in fuel cell systems. However, some key problems such as finding efficient ways to prod...

  12. Corrosion behavior of construction materials for ionic liquid hydrogen compressor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arjomand Kermani, Nasrin; Petrushina, Irina; Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich

    2016-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of various commercially available stainless steels and nickel-based alloys as possible construction materials for components which are in direct contact with one of five different ionic liquids was evaluated. The ionic liquids, namely: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate, 1...... liquid hydrogen compressor. An electrochemical cell was specially designed, and steady-state cyclic voltammetry was used to measure the corrosion resistance of the alloys in the ionic liquids at 23 °C, under atmospheric pressure. The results showed a very high corrosion resistance and high stability...... for all the alloys tested. The two stainless steels, AISI 316L and AISI 347 showed higher corrosion resistance compared to AISI 321 in all the ionic liquids tested. It was observed that small addition of molybdenum, tantalum, and niobium to the alloys increased the corrosion stability in the ionic liquids...

  13. Sc-Decorated WS_2 Nanoribbons as Hydrogen Storage Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bin; Wang Yu-Sheng; Zhang Jing; Song Na-Hong; Li Meng; Yi Lin

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen storage behavior of Sc-decorated WS_2 monolayer and WS_2 nanoribbons is systematically studied by using first principles calculations based on the density functional theory. The present results indicate that an Sc-decorated WS_2 monolayer is not suitable for storing hydrogen due to the weak interaction between the monolayer WS_2 sheet and the Sc atoms. It is found that both the hybridization mechanism and the Coulomb attraction make the Sc atoms stably adsorb on the edges of WS_2 nanoribbons without clustering. The 2Sc/WS_2 NRs system can adsorb at most eight H_2 molecules with average adsorption energy of 0.20 eV/H_2. The results show that the desorption of H_2 is possible by lowering the pressure or by increasing the temperature. (paper)

  14. Kinetics with deactivation of methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation for hydrogen energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, G; Marin, A; Wyss, C; Mueller, S; Newson, E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation step to recycle toluene and release hydrogen is being studied as part of a hydrogen energy storage project. The reaction is performed catalytically in a fixed bed reactor, and the efficiency of this step significantly determines overall system economics. The fresh catalyst kinetics and the deactivation of the catalyst by coke play an important role in the process analysis. The main reaction kinetics were determined from isothermal experiments using a parameter sensitivity analysis for model discrimination. An activation energy for the main reaction of 220{+-}11 kJ/mol was obtained from a two-parameter model. From non-isothermal deactivation in PC-controlled integral reactors, an activation energy for deactivation of 160 kJ/mol was estimated. A model for catalyst coke content of 3-17 weight% was compared with experimental data. (author) 3 figs., 6 refs.

  15. Modeling liquid hydrogen cavitating flow with the full cavitation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.B.; Qiu, L.M.; Qi, H.; Zhang, X.J.; Gan, Z.H. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Cavitation is the formation of vapor bubbles within a liquid where flow dynamics cause the local static pressure to drop below the vapor pressure. This paper strives towards developing an effective computational strategy to simulate liquid hydrogen cavitation relevant to liquid rocket propulsion applications. The aims are realized by performing a steady state computational fluid dynamic (CFD) study of liquid hydrogen flow over a 2D hydrofoil and an axisymmetric ogive in Hord's reports with a so-called full cavitation model. The thermodynamic effect was demonstrated with the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the gas phase and liquid phase. Temperature-dependent fluid thermodynamic properties were specified along the saturation line from the ''Gaspak 3.2'' databank. Justifiable agreement between the computed surface pressure, temperature and experimental data of Hord was obtained. Specifically, a global sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the sensitivity of the turbulent computations to the wall grid resolution, wall treatments and changes in model parameters. A proper near-wall model and grid resolution were suggested. The full cavitation model with default model parameters provided solutions with comparable accuracy to sheet cavitation in liquid hydrogen for the two geometries. (author)

  16. Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery: Hydrogen Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-bromine chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-bromine reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.

  17. Complex metal hydrides for hydrogen, thermal and electrochemical energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper T.; Sheppard, Drew; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.

    2017-01-01

    field. This review illustrates that complex metal hydrides may store hydrogen in the solid state, act as novel battery materials, both as electrolytes and electrode materials, or store solar heat in a more efficient manner as compared to traditional heat storage materials. Furthermore, it is highlighted...... how complex metal hydrides may act in an integrated setup with a fuel cell. This review focuses on the unique properties of light element complex metal hydrides mainly based on boron, nitrogen and aluminum, e.g., metal borohydrides and metal alanates. Our hope is that this review can provide new...

  18. Inorganic Chemistry in Hydrogen Storage and Biomass Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorn, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-13

    Making or breaking C-H, B-H, C-C bonds has been at the core of catalysis for many years. Making or breaking these bonds to store or recover energy presents us with fresh challenges, including how to catalyze these transformations in molecular systems that are 'tuned' to minimize energy loss and in molecular and material systems present in biomass. This talk will discuss some challenging transformations in chemical hydrogen storage, and some aspects of the inorganic chemistry we are studying in the development of catalysts for biomass utilization.

  19. Seismic analysis of liquid storage container in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhengming; He Shuyan; Xu Ming

    2007-01-01

    Seismic analysis of liquid storage containers is always difficult in the seismic design of nuclear reactor equipment. The main reason is that the liquid will generate significant seismic loads under earthquake. These dynamic liquid loads usually form the main source of the stresses in the container. For this kind of structure-fluid coupling problem, some simplified theoretical methods were usually used previously. But this cannot satisfy the requirements of engineering design. The Finite Element Method, which is now full developed and very useful for the structural analysis, is still not mature for the structure-fluid coupling problem. This paper introduces a method suitable for engineering mechanical analysis. Combining theoretical analysis of the dynamic liquid loads and finite element analysis of the structure together, this method can give practical solutions in the seismic design of liquid storage containers

  20. FUNDAMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL REACTIVITY TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF THE HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIAL 2LIBH4 MGH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, C.; Anton, D.; Cortes-Concepcion, J.; Brinkman, K.; Gray, J.

    2012-01-10

    While the storage of hydrogen for portable and stationary applications is regarded as critical in bringing PEM fuel cells to commercial acceptance, little is known of the environmental exposure risks posed in utilizing condensed phase chemical storage options as in complex hydrides. It is thus important to understand the effect of environmental exposure of metal hydrides in the case of accident scenarios. Simulated tests were performed following the United Nations standards to test for flammability and water reactivity in air for a destabilized lithium borohydride and magnesium hydride system in a 2 to 1 molar ratio respectively. It was determined that the mixture acted similarly to the parent, lithium borohydride, but at slower rate of reaction seen in magnesium hydride. To quantify environmental exposure kinetics, isothermal calorimetry was utilized to measure the enthalpy of reaction as a function of exposure time to dry and humid air, and liquid water. The reaction with liquid water was found to increase the heat flow significantly during exposure compared to exposure in dry or humid air environments. Calorimetric results showed the maximum normalized heat flow the fully charged material was 6 mW/mg under liquid phase hydrolysis; and 14 mW/mg for the fully discharged material also occurring under liquid phase hydrolysis conditions.

  1. A liquid hydrogen target for the calibration of the MEG and MEG II liquid xenon calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signorelli, G., E-mail: giovanni.signorelli@pi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Baldini, A.M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Bemporad, C.; Cei, F.; Nicolò, D. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Galli, L.; Gallucci, G.; Grassi, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Papa, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Sergiampietri, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Venturini, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    We designed, built and operated a liquid hydrogen target for the calibration of the liquid xenon calorimeter of the MEG experiment. The target was used throughout the entire data taking period, from 2008 to 2013 and it is being refurbished and partly re-designed to be integrated and used in the MEG-II experiment.

  2. Liquid-vapour surface sensors for liquid nitrogen and hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwarth, J. D.; Voth, R. O.; Snyder, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper identifies devices to serve as liquid-vapor detectors in zero gravity. The testing in LH2 was done in a sealed glass Dewar system to eliminate any chance of mixing H2 and air. Most of the tests were performed with the leads to the sensor horizontal. Some results of rapid cycle testing of LVDG in LH2 are presented. Findings of rapid-cycle testing of LVDG in LH2 are discussed. The sensor crossed the liquid surface when the position sensor registered 1.9 V, which occurred at about 0.4075 s. The delay time was about 1.5 ms. From the estimated slope of the position sensor curve at 1.9 V, the velocity of the sensor through the liquid surface is over 3 m/s. Results of tests of optical sensors are presented as well.

  3. A system of hydrogen powered vehicles with liquid organic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.

    1981-07-01

    A motor car system based on the hydrogen produced by nuclear power stations during the night in the summer, and coupled with organic liquid hydride seems to be a feasible system in the near future. Such a system is discussed and the cost is compared with gasoline. (Auth.)

  4. Solubilities of hydrogen and methane in coal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ho-mu; Sebastian, H M; Simnick, J J; Chao, Kwang Chu

    1981-04-01

    The solubilities of hydrogen and methane in Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) and Solvent Refined Coal II (SRC-II) coal liquids are determined at 190 and 270 C and pressures to 250 atm. Two narrow boiling distillate cuts from EDS and three from SRC-II are studied.

  5. Annihilation of antiprotons stopped in liquid hydrogen and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalkarov, O.D.; Kerbikov, B.O.; Markushin, V.E.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed analysis is given of stopping antiproton annihilation in liquid hydrogen and deuterium. Connection between capture schedule and properties of bound states in nucleon-antinucleon system is established. The theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data which appeared in 1971-75

  6. Microcomputer-aided monitor for liquid hydrogen target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitami, T.; Watanabe, K.

    1983-03-01

    A microcomputer-aided monitor for a liquid hydrogen target system has been designed and tested. Various kinds of input data such as temperature, pressure, vacuum, etc. are scanned in a given time interval. Variation with time in any four items can be displayed on CRT and, if neccessary, printed out on a sheet of recording paper. (author)

  7. Predicted energy densitites for nickel-hydrogen and silver-hydrogen cells embodying metallic hydrides for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Simplified design concepts were used to estimate gravimetric and volumetric energy densities for metal hydrogen battery cells for assessing the characteristics of cells containing metal hydrides as compared to gaseous storage cells, and for comparing nickel cathode and silver cathode systems. The silver cathode was found to yield superior energy densities in all cases considered. The inclusion of hydride forming materials yields cells with very high volumetric energy densities that also retain gravimetric energy densities nearly as high as those of gaseous storage cells.

  8. Property changes of some hydrogen storage alloys upon hydrogen absorption-desorption cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.N.; Cho, S.W.; Choi, J.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen absorption-desorption cycling induced by pressure change in a closed system were carried out with LaNi 5 , La 0.7 Ce 0.3 Ni 4 Cu and TiFe 0.9 Ni 0.1 alloys. PC isotherms measured during the cycling showed some changes in hydrogen storage capacity, plateau pressure and hysteresis of the alloys. The half capacity life of LaNi 5 alloy can be projected as 70,000 cycles for room temperature pressure cycling. When La 0.7 Ce 0.3 Ni 4 Cu alloy was pressure cycled both of the plateau pressures were decreased significantly and continuously. TiFe 0.9 Ni 0.1 alloy showed a good resistance to cyclic degradation. Heat treatments of the degraded alloys under 1 atm of hydrogen gas recovered most of the hydrogen storage properties to the initial level even though they were degraded again more rapidly upon subsequent cycling. (orig.)

  9. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linehan, Suzanne W.; Chin, Arthur A.; Allen, Nathan T.; Butterick, Robert; Kendall, Nathan T.; Klawiter, I. Leo; Lipiecki, Francis J.; Millar, Dean M.; Molzahn, David C.; November, Samuel J.; Jain, Puja; Nadeau, Sara; Mancroni, Scott

    2010-01-01

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH 4 from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H 2 ) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH 4 as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH 4 is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH 4 in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This project utilized an engineering

  10. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

    2010-12-31

    From 2005 to 2010, The Dow Chemical Company (formerly Rohm and Haas Company) was a member of the Department of Energy Center of Excellence on Chemical Hydrogen Storage, which conducted research to identify and develop chemical hydrogen storage materials having the potential to achieve DOE performance targets established for on-board vehicular application. In collaboration with Center co-leads Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and other Center partners, Dow's efforts were directed towards defining and evaluating novel chemistries for producing chemical hydrides and processes for spent fuel regeneration. In Phase 1 of this project, emphasis was placed on sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}), long considered a strong candidate for hydrogen storage because of its high hydrogen storage capacity, well characterized hydrogen release chemistry, safety, and functionality. Various chemical pathways for regenerating NaBH{sub 4} from spent sodium borate solution were investigated, with the objective of meeting the 2010/2015 DOE targets of $2-3/gal gasoline equivalent at the pump ($2-3/kg H{sub 2}) for on-board hydrogen storage systems and an overall 60% energy efficiency. With the September 2007 No-Go decision for NaBH{sub 4} as an on-board hydrogen storage medium, focus was shifted to ammonia borane (AB) for on-board hydrogen storage and delivery. However, NaBH{sub 4} is a key building block to most boron-based fuels, and the ability to produce NaBH{sub 4} in an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound manner is critical to the viability of AB, as well as many leading materials under consideration by the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. Therefore, in Phase 2, research continued towards identifying and developing a single low-cost NaBH4 synthetic route for cost-efficient AB first fill, and conducting baseline cost estimates for first fill and regenerated AB using a variety of synthetic routes. This

  11. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy [Aiken, SC; Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Wang, Jun [Columbia, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  12. Discovery of Novel Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage through Molecular Modeling and Combinatorial Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesch, David A; Adriaan Sachtler, J.W. J.; Low, John J; Jensen, Craig M; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Siegel, Don; Harmon, Laurel

    2011-02-14

    alanate from alkali hydride, Al and hydrogen, was hampering reversibility. The reverse reaction was then studied for the same phase diagram, starting with LiH, NaH, and MgH2, and Al. The study was extended to phase diagrams including KH and CaH2 as well. The observed hydrogen storage capacity in the Al hexahydrides was less than 4 wt. %, well short of DOE targets. The HT assay came on line and after certification with studies on NaAlH4, was first applied to the LiNH2 - LiBH4 - MgH2 phase diagram. The 60-point study elucidated trends within the system locating an optimum material of 0.6 LiNH2 0.3 MgH2 0.1 LiBH4 that stored about 4 wt. % H2 reversibly and operated below 220 °C. Also present was the phase Li4(NH2)3BH4, which had been discovered in the LiNH2 -LiBH4 system. This new ternary formulation performed much better than the well-known 2 LiNH2MgH2 system by 50 °C in the HT assay. The Li4(NH2)3BH4 is a low melting ionic liquid under our test conditions and facilitates the phase transformations required in the hydrogen storage reaction, which no longer relies on a higher energy solid state reaction pathway. Further study showed that the 0.6 LiNH2 0.3 MgH2 0.1 LiBH4 formulation was very stable with respect to ammonia and diborane desorption, the observed desorption was from hydrogen. This result could not have been anticipated and was made possible by the efficiency of HT combinatorial methods. Investigation of the analogous LiNH2 LiBH4 CaH2 phase diagram revealed new reversible hydrogen storage materials 0.625 LiBH4 + 0.375 CaH2 and 0.375 LiNH2 + 0.25 LiBH4 + 0.375 CaH2 operating at 1 wt. % reversible hydrogen below 175 °C. Powder x-ray diffraction revealed a new structure for the spent materials which had not been previously observed. While the storage capacity was not impressive, an important aspect is that it boron appears to participate in a low temperature reversible reaction. The last major area of study also focused on activating boron-based materials in

  13. Hydrogen storage in Pd nanocrystals covered with a metal-organic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangqin; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Taylor, Jared M.; Ikeda, Ryuichi; Kubota, Yoshiki; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Toh, Shoichi; Matsumura, Syo; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Hydrogen is an essential component in many industrial processes. As a result of the recent increase in the development of shale gas, steam reforming of shale gas has received considerable attention as a major source of H2, and the more efficient use of hydrogen is strongly demanded. Palladium is well known as a hydrogen-storage metal and an effective catalyst for reactions related to hydrogen in a variety of industrial processes. Here, we present remarkably enhanced capacity and speed of hydrogen storage in Pd nanocrystals covered with the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 (copper(II) 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate). The Pd nanocrystals covered with the MOF have twice the storage capacity of the bare Pd nanocrystals. The significantly enhanced hydrogen storage capacity was confirmed by hydrogen pressure-composition isotherms and solid-state deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The speed of hydrogen absorption in the Pd nanocrystals is also enhanced by the MOF coating.

  14. Modeling hydrogen storage in boron-substituted graphene decorated with potassium metal atoms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tokarev, A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Boron-substituted graphene decorated with potassium metal atoms was considered as a novel material for hydrogen storage. Density functional theory calculations were used to model key properties of the material, such as geometry, hydrogen packing...

  15. Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-13

    412TW-PA-15560 Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...density storage of gases remains a major technological hurdle for many fields. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), for example, reduced their hydrogen

  16. The role of electricity storage and hydrogen technologies in enabling global low-carbon energy transitions

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, M.; Johnson, N.; Strubegger, M.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have noted the importance of electricity storage and hydrogen technologies for enabling large-scale variable renewable energy (VRE) deployment in long-term climate change mitigation scenarios. However, global studies, which typically use integrated assessment models, assume a fixed cost trajectory for storage and hydrogen technologies; thereby ignoring the sensitivity of VRE deployment and/or mitigation costs to uncertainties in future storage and hydrogen technology costs. Y...

  17. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    the system. The compression leads to a significant increase in temperature, and the heat generated is dumped into the ambient. This energy loss results in a low efficiency of the system, and when expanding the air, the expansion leads to a temperature drop reducing the mechanical output of the expansion......), but no such units are in operation at present. The CAES system investigated in this project uses a different approach to avoid compression heat loss. The system uses a pre-compressed pressure vessel full of air. A liquid is pumped into the bottom of the vessel when charging and the same liquid is withdrawn through......-CAES system is significantly higher than existing CAES systems due to a low or nearly absent compression heat loss. Furthermore, pumps/turbines, which use a liquid as a medium, are more efficient than air/gas compressors/turbines. In addition, the demand for fuel during expansion does not occur. •The energy...

  18. Moderate Temperature Dense Phase Hydrogen Storage Materials within the US Department of Energy (DOE H2 Storage Program: Trends toward Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott McWhorter

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen has many positive attributes that make it a viable choice to augment the current portfolio of combustion-based fuels, especially when considering reducing pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. However, conventional methods of storing H2 via high-pressure or liquid H2 do not provide long-term economic solutions for many applications, especially emerging applications such as man-portable or stationary power. Hydrogen storage in materials has the potential to meet the performance and cost demands, however, further developments are needed to address the thermodynamics and kinetics of H2 uptake and release. Therefore, the US Department of Energy (DOE initiated three Centers of Excellence focused on developing H2 storage materials that could meet the stringent performance requirements for on-board vehicular applications. In this review, we have summarized the developments that occurred as a result of the efforts of the Metal Hydride and Chemical Hydrogen Storage Centers of Excellence on materials that bind hydrogen through ionic and covalent linkages and thus could provide moderate temperature, dense phase H2 storage options for a wide range of emerging Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM FC applications.

  19. A novel method for producing magnesium based hydrogen storage alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, A.; Matthews, J.; Barlow, R.; Almamouri, M.M.; Speight, J.D.; Harris, I.R.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional melt casting techniques for producing Mg 2 Ni often result in no stoichiometric compositions due to the excess Mg which is added to the melt in order to counterbalance sublimation during processing. In this work a vapour phase process known as Low Pressure Pack Sublimation (LPPS) has been used to coat Ni substrates with Mg at 460-600 o C producing layers of single phase Mg 2 Ni. Ni substrates coated to date include powder, foils and wire. Using Ni-Fe substrates it has also been demonstrated that Fe can be distributed through the Mg 2 Ni alloy layer which could have a beneficial effect on the hydrogen storage characteristics. The alloy layers formed have been characterised by XRD and SEM equipped with EDX analysis. Hydrogen storage properties have been evaluated using an Intelligent Gravimetric Analyser (IGA). LPPS avoids most of the sintering of powder particles during processing which is observed in other vapour phase techniques while producing a stoichiometric composition of Mg 2 Ni. It is also a simple, low cost technique for producing these alloys. (author)

  20. Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid WaterMicrojets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2007-05-31

    We describe a method for generating molecular hydrogen directly from the charge separation effected via rapid flow of liquid water through a metal orifice, wherein the input energy is the hydrostatic pressure times the volume flow rate. Both electrokinetic currents and hydrogen production rates are shown to follow simple equations derived from the overlap of the fluid velocity gradient and the anisotropic charge distribution resulting from selective adsorption of hydroxide ions to the nozzle surface. Pressure-driven fluid flow shears away the charge balancing hydronium ions from the diffuse double layer and carries them out of the aperture. Downstream neutralization of the excess protons at a grounded target electrode produces gaseous hydrogen molecules. The hydrogen production efficiency is currently very low (ca. 10-6) for a single cylindrical jet, but can be improved with design changes.

  1. Method and system for hydrogen evolution and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, David L.; Tumas, William; Hay, P. Jeffrey; Schwarz, Daniel E.; Cameron, Thomas M.

    2012-12-11

    A method and system for storing and evolving hydrogen (H.sub.2) employ chemical compounds that can be hydrogenated to store hydrogen and dehydrogenated to evolve hydrogen. A catalyst lowers the energy required for storing and evolving hydrogen. The method and system can provide hydrogen for devices that consume hydrogen as fuel.

  2. Storage of Renewable Energy by Reduction of CO2 with Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Mauron, Philippe; Kato, Shunsuke; Callini, Elsa; Holzer, Marco; Huang, Jianmei

    2015-01-01

    The main difference between the past energy economy during the industrialization period which was mainly based on mining of fossil fuels, e.g. coal, oil and methane and the future energy economy based on renewable energy is the requirement for storage of the energy fluxes. Renewable energy, except biomass, appears in time- and location-dependent energy fluxes as heat or electricity upon conversion. Storage and transport of energy requires a high energy density and has to be realized in a closed materials cycle. The hydrogen cycle, i.e. production of hydrogen from water by renewable energy, storage and use of hydrogen in fuel cells, combustion engines or turbines, is a closed cycle. However, the hydrogen density in a storage system is limited to 20 mass% and 150 kg/m(3) which limits the energy density to about half of the energy density in fossil fuels. Introducing CO(2) into the cycle and storing hydrogen by the reduction of CO(2) to hydrocarbons allows renewable energy to be converted into synthetic fuels with the same energy density as fossil fuels. The resulting cycle is a closed cycle (CO(2) neutral) if CO(2) is extracted from the atmosphere. Today's technology allows CO(2) to be reduced either by the Sabatier reaction to methane, by the reversed water gas shift reaction to CO and further reduction of CO by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to hydrocarbons or over methanol to gasoline. The overall process can only be realized on a very large scale, because the large number of by-products of FTS requires the use of a refinery. Therefore, a well-controlled reaction to a specific product is required for the efficient conversion of renewable energy (electricity) into an easy to store liquid hydrocarbon (fuel). In order to realize a closed hydrocarbon cycle the two major challenges are to extract CO(2) from the atmosphere close to the thermodynamic limit and to reduce CO(2) with hydrogen in a controlled reaction to a specific hydrocarbon. Nanomaterials with

  3. Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in Facile Synthesized Co@N-Doped Carbon Nanoparticle Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lina; Qu, Xiaosheng; Zheng, Dong; Tang, Haolin; Liu, Dan; Qu, Deyang; Xie, ZhiZhong; Li, Junsheng; Qu, Deyu

    2017-11-29

    A Co@nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticle composite was synthesized via a facile molecular self-assembling procedure. The material was used as the host for the electrochemical storage of hydrogen. The hydrogen storage capacity of the material was over 300 mAh g -1 at a rate of 100 mAg -1 . It also exhibited superior stability for storage of hydrogen, high rate capability, and good cyclic life. Hybridizing metallic cobalt nanoparticle with nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon is found to be a good approach for the electrochemical storage of hydrogen.

  4. Theoretical study of molecular hydrogen and spiltover hydrogen storage on two-dimensional covalent-organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiu-Ying; He Jie; Yu Jing-Xin; Fan Zhi-Qin; Li Zheng-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen and spiltover hydrogen storages on five two-dimensional (2D) covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) (PPy-COF, TP-COF, BTP-COF, COF-18 Å, and HHTP-DPB COF) are investigated using the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations and the density functional theory (DFT), respectively. The GCMC simulated results show that HHTP-DPB COF has the best performance for hydrogen storage, followed by BTP-COF, TP-COF, COF-18 Å, and PPy-COF. However, their adsorption amounts at room temperature are all too low to meet the uptake target set by US Department of Energy (US-DOE) and enable practical applications. The effects of pore size, surface area, and isosteric heat of hydrogen on adsorption amount are considered, which indicate that these three factors are all the important factors for determining the H 2 adsorption amount. The chemisorptions of spiltover hydrogen atoms on these five COFs represented by the cluster models are investigated using the DFT method. The saturation cluster models are constructed by considering all possible adsorption sites for these cluster models. The average binding energy of a hydrogen atom and the saturation hydrogen storage density are calculated. The large average binding energy indicates that the spillover process may proceed smoothly and reversibly. The saturation hydrogen storage density is much larger than the physisorption uptake of H 2 molecules at 298 K and 100 bar (1 bar = 10 5 Pa), and is close to or exceeds the 2010 US-DOE target of 6 wt% for hydrogen storage. This suggests that the hydrogen storage capacities of these COFs by spillover may be significantly enhanced. Thus 2D COFs studied in this paper are suitable hydrogen storage media by spillover

  5. Low-Cost alpha Alane for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, Tibor [Ardica Technologies, San Francisco, CA (United States); Petrie, Mark [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Crouch-Baker, Steven [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fong, Henry [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-10-10

    This project was directed towards the further development of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) lab-scale electrochemical synthesis of the hydrogen storage material alpha-alane and Ardica Technologies-SRI International (SRI) chemical downstream processes that are necessary to meet DoE cost metrics and transition alpha-alane synthesis to an industrial scale. Ardica has demonstrated the use of alpha-alane in a fuel-cell system for the U.S. Army WFC20 20W soldier power system that has successfully passed initial field trials with individual soldiers. While alpha-alane has been clearly identified as a desirable hydrogen storage material, cost-effective means for its production and regeneration on a scale of use applicable to the industry have yet to be established. We focused on three, principal development areas: 1. The construction of a comprehensive engineering techno-economic model to establish the production costs of alpha-alane by both electrochemical and chemical routes at scale. 2. The identification of critical, cost-saving design elements of the electrochemical cell and the quantification of the product yields of the primary electrochemical process. A moving particle-bed reactor design was constructed and operated. 3. The experimental quantification of the product yields of candidate downstream chemical processes necessary to produce alpha-alane to complete the most cost-effective overall manufacturing process. Our techno-economic model shows that under key assumptions most 2015 and 2020 DOE hydrogen storage system cost targets for low and medium power can be achieved using the electrochemical alane synthesis process. To meet the most aggressive 2020 storage system cost target, $1/g, our model indicates that 420 metric tons per year (MT/y) production of alpha-alane is required. Laboratory-scale experimental work demonstrated that the yields of two of the three critical component steps within the overall “electrochemical process” were

  6. Hydrogen isotope separation in hydrophobic catalysts between hydrogen and liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Linsen, E-mail: yls2005@mail.ustc.edu.cn [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Luo, Deli [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Jiangyou 621907 (China); Tang, Tao; Yang, Wan; Yang, Yong [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Hydrogen isotope catalytic exchange between hydrogen and liquid water is a very effective process for deuterium-depleted potable water production and heavy water detritiation. To improve the characteristics of hydrophobic catalysts for this type of reaction, foamed and cellular structures of hydrophobic carbon-supported platinum catalysts were successfully prepared. Separation of deuterium or tritium from liquid water was carried out by liquid-phase catalytic exchange. At a gas–liquid ratio of 1.53 and exchange temperature of 70 °C, the theoretical plate height of the hydrophobic catalyst (HETP = 34.2 cm) was slightly lower than previously reported values. Changing the concentration of the exchange column outlet water yielded nonlinear changes in the height of the packing layer. Configurations of deuterium-depleted potable water and detritiation of heavy water provide references for practical applications.

  7. Storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Rita

    The increased utilization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as an alternative to internal combustion engines is expected to increase the demand for hydrogen, which is used as the energy source in these systems. The objective of this work is to develop and test new methods for the storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cells. Six ligand-stabilized hydrides were synthesized and tested as hydrogen storage media for use in portable fuel cells. These novel compounds are more stable than classical hydrides (e.g., NaBH4, LiAlH4) and react to release hydrogen less exothermically upon hydrolysis with water. Three of the compounds produced hydrogen in high yield (88 to 100 percent of the theoretical) and at significantly lower temperatures than those required for the hydrolysis of NaBH4 and LiAlH4. However, a large excess of water and acid were required to completely wet the hydride and keep the pH of the reaction medium neutral. The hydrolysis of the classical hydrides with steam can overcome these limitations. This reaction was studied in a flow reactor and the results indicate that classical hydrides can be hydrolyzed with steam in high yields at low temperatures (110 to 123°C) and in the absence of acid. Although excess steam was required, the pH of the condensed steam was neutral. Consequently, steam could be recycled back to the reactor. Production of hydrogen for large-scale transportation fuel cells is primarily achieved via the steam reforming, partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of natural gas or the steam reforming of methanol. However, in all of these processes CO is a by-product that must be subsequently removed because the Pt-based electrocatalyst used in the fuel cells is poisoned by its presence. The direct cracking of methane over a Ni/SiO2 catalyst can produce CO-free hydrogen. In addition to hydrogen, filamentous carbon is also produced. This material accumulates on the catalyst and eventually deactivates it. The Ni/SiO2 catalyst

  8. Shape-dependent hydrogen-storage properties in Pd nanocrystals: which does hydrogen prefer, octahedron (111) or cube (100)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangqin; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Dekura, Shun; Ikeda, Ryuichi; Kubota, Yoshiki; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-07-23

    Pd octahedrons and cubes enclosed by {111} and {100} facets, respectively, have been synthesized for investigation of the shape effect on hydrogen-absorption properties. Hydrogen-storage properties were investigated using in situ powder X-ray diffraction, in situ solid-state (2)H NMR and hydrogen pressure-composition isotherm measurements. With these measurements, it was found that the exposed facets do not affect hydrogen-storage capacity; however, they significantly affect the absorption speed, with octahedral nanocrystals showing the faster response. The heat of adsorption of hydrogen and the hydrogen diffusion pathway were suggested to be dominant factors for hydrogen-absorption speed. Furthermore, in situ solid-state (2)H NMR detected for the first time the state of (2)H in a solid-solution (Pd + H) phase of Pd nanocrystals at rt.

  9. Assessment of feasible strategies for seasonal underground hydrogen storage in a saline aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Rubí, Violeta; Grandia, Fidel

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energies are unsteady, which results in temporary mismatches between demand and supply. The conversion of surplus energy to hydrogen and its storage in geological formations is one option to balance this energy gap. This study evaluates the feasibility of seasonal storage of hydrogen produced from wind power in Castilla-León region (northern Spain). A 3D multiphase numerical model is used to test different extraction well configurations during three annual injection-production cycles in a saline aquifer. Results demonstrate that underground hydrogen storage in saline aquifers can be operated with reasonable recovery ratios. A maximum hydrogen recovery ratio of 78%, which represents a global energy efficiency of 30%, has been estimated. Hydrogen upconing emerges as the major risk on saline aquifer storage. However, shallow extraction wells can minimize its effects. Steeply dipping geological structures are key for an efficient hydrogen storage.

  10. Hydrogen storage in graphite nanofibers: effect of synthesis catalyst and pretreatment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueking, Angela D; Yang, Ralph T; Rodriguez, Nelly M; Baker, R Terry K

    2004-02-03

    A series of graphite nanofibers (GNFs) that were subjected to various pretreatments were used to determine how modifications in the carbon structure formed during either synthesis or pretreatment steps results in active or inactive materials for hydrogen storage. The nanofibers possessing a herringbone structure and a high degree of defects were found to exhibit the best performance for hydrogen storage. These materials were exposed to several pretreatment procedures, including oxidative, reductive, and inert environments. Significant hydrogen storage levels were found for several in situ pretreatments. Examination of the nanofibers by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after pretreatment and subsequent hydrogen storage revealed the existence of edge attack and an enhancement in the generation of structural defects. These findings suggest that pretreatment in certain environments results in the creation of catalytic sites that are favorable toward hydrogen storage. The best pretreatment resulted in a 3.8% hydrogen release after exposure at 69 bar and room temperature.

  11. Additive Manufacturing a Liquid Hydrogen Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carl P.; Robertson, Elizabeth H.; Koelbl, Mary Beth; Singer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Space Propulsion is a 5 day event being held from 2nd May to the 6th May 2016 at the Rome Marriott Park Hotel in Rome, Italy. This event showcases products like Propulsion sub-systems and components, Production and manufacturing issues, Liquid, Solid, Hybrid and Air-breathing Propulsion Systems for Launcher and Upper Stages, Overview of current programmes, AIV issues and tools, Flight testing and experience, Technology building blocks for Future Space Transportation Propulsion Systems : Launchers, Exploration platforms & Space Tourism, Green Propulsion for Space Transportation, New propellants, Rocket propulsion & global environment, Cost related aspects of Space Transportation propulsion, Modelling, Pressure-Thrust oscillations issues, Impact of new requirements and regulations on design etc. in the Automotive, Manufacturing, Fabrication, Repair & Maintenance industries.

  12. Warm Pressurant Gas Effects on the Liquid Hydrogen Bubble Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; McQuillen, John B.; Chato, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results for the liquid hydrogen bubble point tests using warm pressurant gases conducted at the Cryogenic Components Cell 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the test series was to determine the effect of elevating the temperature of the pressurant gas on the performance of a liquid acquisition device. Three fine mesh screen samples (325 x 2300, 450 x 2750, 510 x 3600) were tested in liquid hydrogen using cold and warm noncondensible (gaseous helium) and condensable (gaseous hydrogen) pressurization schemes. Gases were conditioned from 0 to 90 K above the liquid temperature. Results clearly indicate a degradation in bubble point pressure using warm gas, with a greater reduction in performance using condensable over noncondensible pressurization. Degradation in the bubble point pressure is inversely proportional to screen porosity, as the coarsest mesh demonstrated the highest degradation. Results here have implication on both pressurization and LAD system design for all future cryogenic propulsion systems. A detailed review of historical heated gas tests is also presented for comparison to current results.

  13. Systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliermans,; Carl, B [Augusta, GA

    2012-08-07

    Some or all of the needs above can be addressed by embodiments of the invention. According to embodiments of the invention, systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies can be implemented. In one embodiment, a method for storing hydrogen can be provided. The method can include providing diatoms comprising diatomaceous earth or diatoms from a predefined culture. In addition, the method can include heating the diatoms in a sealed environment in the presence of at least one of titanium, a transition metal, or a noble metal to provide a porous hydrogen storage medium. Furthermore, the method can include exposing the porous hydrogen storage medium to hydrogen. In addition, the method can include storing at least a portion of the hydrogen in the porous hydrogen storage medium.

  14. Prediction of hydrogen storage on Y-decorated graphene: A density functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Yang; Wang, Rongguo

    2014-01-01

    Highlight: • Rare earth metal Y has an excellent performance on hydrogen storage. • After decoration, each Y can attach six hydrogen molecules without dissociation. • The Y atoms disperse uniformly and stably on B/graphene. • The enhancement of H binding is caused by hybridization and electrostatic attraction. - Abstract: Yttrium decorated graphene has been investigated as a potential carrier for high density hydrogen storage. The adsorption energy and optimized geometry for yttrium on pristine and boron doped graphene have been studied by DFT calculations. The clustering and stability of isolated yttrium atoms on graphene has also been considered. For yttrium decorated boron doped graphene, each yttrium can attach six hydrogen molecules with average adsorption energy of −0.568 eV per hydrogen molecule and the hydrogen storage capacity of this material is 5.78 wt.%, indicating yttrium decorated boron doped graphene as a promising hydrogen storage candidate

  15. Electron microscopy studies of materials used for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, Carmen M.

    2004-07-01

    Concerns over global warming and air pollution have stimulated the concept of the ''Hydrogen Economy'' and the potential extensive use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. Hydrogen storage in a solid matrix has become one of the promising solutions for vehicular applications. In this study, several transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques such as high resolution (HR), electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFT EM) as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to study the microstructure of materials related to hydrogen storage applications. Some of the results are compared with powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) data. A TbNiAl compound processed by the hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR) route has been studied using a combination of SEM, TEM and PXD. Information about the variations in the composition and surface topography in both disproportionation and recombination stages is given by the SEM backscattered electrons and secondary electrons images. The crystallites that have undergone the recombination process were found smaller in size. The sodium alanate, NaAIH4 is one of the most promising candidate materials for hydrogen storage. Ti additives are effective at reducing the reaction temperatures and improving the efficiency of the kinetics. The microstructure of NaAlH4 with TiF3 additive has been examined after the initial ball milling and after 15 cycles, using TEM, SEM and EDS. The effect of the additive on particle morphology, grain size and distribution of the phases has been studied. The additive has uneven distribution in the sample after initial ball milling. After 15 cycles, EDS maps show some combination of Ti with the alanate phase. No significant change in grain size of the Na/Al rich particles between the ball milled and 15 cycled sample was observed. The LiAlD4

  16. Gas--liquid equilibria in mixtures of hydrogen and thianaphthene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, H M; Simnick, J J; Lin, H M; Chao, K C

    1978-12-01

    Gas--liquid equilibrium conditions in binary mixtures of hydrogen and thianaphthene were experimentally determined at temperature of 190 to 430/sup 0/C and pressures to 250 atm in a flow apparatus. The same apparatus was also employed to measure the vapor pressure of thianaphthene. Comparisons of the new mixture data with Chao--Seader and Grayson--Streed correlations show that both correlations predict the thianaphthene equilibrium ratios well but are in error by up to about 45 and 35% respectively for K-values of hydrogen. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Applied hydrogen storage research and development: A perspective from the U.S. Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Malley, Kathleen; Ordaz, Grace; Adams, Jesse; Randolph, Katie; Ahn, Channing C.; Stetson, Ned T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Overview of U.S. DOE-supported hydrogen storage technology development efforts. • Physical and materials-based strategy for developing hydrogen storage systems. • Materials requirements for automotive storage systems. • Key R&D developments. - Abstract: To enable the wide-spread commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies, the U.S. Department of Energy, through the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Fuel Cell Technology Office, maintains a comprehensive portfolio of R&D activities to develop advanced hydrogen storage technologies. The primary focus of the Hydrogen Storage Program is development of technologies to meet the challenging onboard storage requirements for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) to meet vehicle performance that consumers have come to expect. Performance targets have also been established for materials handling equipment (e.g., forklifts) and low-power, portable fuel cell applications. With the imminent release of commercial FCEVs by automobile manufacturers in regional markets, a dual strategy is being pursued to (a) lower the cost and improve performance of high-pressure compressed hydrogen storage systems while (b) continuing efforts on advanced storage technologies that have potential to surpass the performance of ambient compressed hydrogen storage

  18. Applied hydrogen storage research and development: A perspective from the U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Malley, Kathleen [SRA International, Inc., Fairfax, VA 22033 (United States); Ordaz, Grace; Adams, Jesse; Randolph, Katie [U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave., SW, EE-3F, Washington, DC 20585 (United States); Ahn, Channing C. [U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave., SW, EE-3F, Washington, DC 20585 (United States); California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stetson, Ned T., E-mail: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov [U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave., SW, EE-3F, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Overview of U.S. DOE-supported hydrogen storage technology development efforts. • Physical and materials-based strategy for developing hydrogen storage systems. • Materials requirements for automotive storage systems. • Key R&D developments. - Abstract: To enable the wide-spread commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies, the U.S. Department of Energy, through the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Fuel Cell Technology Office, maintains a comprehensive portfolio of R&D activities to develop advanced hydrogen storage technologies. The primary focus of the Hydrogen Storage Program is development of technologies to meet the challenging onboard storage requirements for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) to meet vehicle performance that consumers have come to expect. Performance targets have also been established for materials handling equipment (e.g., forklifts) and low-power, portable fuel cell applications. With the imminent release of commercial FCEVs by automobile manufacturers in regional markets, a dual strategy is being pursued to (a) lower the cost and improve performance of high-pressure compressed hydrogen storage systems while (b) continuing efforts on advanced storage technologies that have potential to surpass the performance of ambient compressed hydrogen storage.

  19. Hydrogen storage in clathrate hydrates: Current state of the art and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veluswamy, Hari Prakash; Kumar, Rajnish; Linga, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen is looked upon as the next generation clean energy carrier, search for an efficient material and method for storing hydrogen has been pursued relentlessly. Improving hydrogen storage capacity to meet DOE targets has been challenging and research efforts are continuously put forth to achieve the set targets and to make hydrogen storage a commercially realizable process. This review comprehensively summarizes the state of the art experimental work conducted on the storage of hydrogen as hydrogen clathrates both at the molecular level and macroscopic level. It identifies future directions and challenges for this exciting area of research. Hydrogen storage capacities of different clathrate structures – sI, sII, sH, sVI and semi clathrates have been compiled and presented. In addition, promising new approaches for increasing hydrogen storage capacity have been described. Future directions for achieving increased hydrogen storage and process scale up have been outlined. Despite few limitations in storing hydrogen in the form of clathrates, this domain receives prominent attention due to more environmental-friendly method of synthesis, easy recovery of molecular hydrogen with minimum energy requirement, and improved safety of the process

  20. Light Metal Decorated Graphdiyne (GDY) Nanosheets for Reversible Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, P; Dhinakaran, A K; Naqvi, S R; Rao, Sankara Gollu; Ahuja, Rajeev; Hussain, Tanveer

    2018-05-29

    The sensitive nature of molecular hydrogen (H2) interaction with the surfaces of pristine and functionalized nanostructures, especially two-dimensional materials (2D) has been a subject of debate for a while now. An accurate approximation of H2 adsorption mechanism has a vital significance for the specific fields like H2 storage applications. Owing to the importance of this issue, we have performed a comprehensive DFT study by means of several different approximations to investigate the structural, electronic, charge transfer and energy storage properties of pristine and functionalized graphdiyne (GDY) nano sheets. The dopants considered here include light-metals Li, Na, K, Ca, Sc and Ti, which make uniform distribution over GDY even at high doping concentration due to their strong binding and charge transfer mechanism. Upon 11% of metal functionalization, GDY changes into metallic state from being a small band gap semiconductor. Such situations turn the dopants to a partial positive state, which is favorable for adsorption of H2 molecules. The adsorption mechanism of H2 on GDY has been studied and compared by different methods like GGA, vdW-DF and DFT-D3 functionals. It has been established that each functionalized systems anchor multiple H2 molecules with adsorption energies that falls into a suitable range regardless of the functional used for approximations. A significantly high H2 storage capacity would guarantee that light metal-doped GDY nano sheets could serve the purpose of an efficient and reversible H2 storage material. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Presentation of a methodology for measuring social acceptance of three hydrogen storage technologies and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noirot, I.; Bigay, C. N.

    2005-07-01

    Hydrogen storage is a key technology for the extensive use of H2 as energy carrier. As none of the current technologies satisfies all of the hydrogen storage attributes required by manufacturers and end users, there is intense research works aiming at developing viable solutions. A broad objective of the StorHy European project is to provide technological storage solutions, which are attractive from an economical, environmental and safety point of view. A specific sub-project is dedicated to the comparison of three different potential storage technologies for transport applications (compressed gas, cryogenic liquid, solid media). This evaluation is carried out in a harmonised way, based on common tools and assessment strategies that could be useful for decision makers and stakeholders. The assessment is achieved in a 'sustainable development' spirit, taking into consideration the technical, environmental, economical, safety and social requirements. The latter ones have newly emerged in such evaluations, based on the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) approach, and would require to be further studied. Hydrogen acceptability studies have been conducted in previous projects. They have been reviewed by LBST in the AcceptH2 project Public acceptance of Hydrogen Transport Technologies : Analysis and comparisons of existing studies (www. accepth2. com - August 2003). During these hydrogen acceptance surveys, mainly fuel cell bus passengers from demonstration projects around the world have been questioned. The work presented in this paper goes further in the methodology refinement as it focuses on the evaluation of hydrogen storage solutions. It proposes a methodological tool for efficient social evaluation of new technologies and associated preliminary results concerning France. In a global approach to sustainable development, the CEA has developed a new methodology to evaluate its current research projects : Multicriteria Analysis for Sustainable Industrial

  2. Effect of liquid nitrogen storage time on the survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were undertaken on the effect of liquid nitrogen (LN) storage time on survival and regeneration of somatic embryos of cocoa (Theobroma cacao l.). Somatic embryos from different cocoa genotypes (AMAZ 3-2, AMAZ 10-1, AMAZ 12, SIAL 93, and IMC 14) at 15.45% moisture content were cryopreserved in LN ...

  3. Hydrogen Storage and Release Properties of Transition Metal-Added Magnesium Hydride Alloy Fabricated by Grinding in a Hydrogen Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sung Nam; Song, Myoung Youp [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hye Ryoung [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    90 wt% MgH{sub 2}+5 wt% Ni+2.5 wt% Fe+2.5 wt% Ti (called MgH{sub 2}+Ni+Fe+Ti), a hydrogen storage and release material, was fabricated by grinding in a hydrogen atmosphere, and then its quantities of stored and released hydrogen as a function of time were examined. A nanocrystalline MgH{sub 2}+Ni+Fe+Ti specimen was made by grinding in a hydrogen atmosphere and subsequent hydrogen storage-release cycling. The crystallite size of Mg and the strain of the Mg crystallite after ten hydrogen storage-release cycles, which were obtained using the Williamson-Hall method, were 38.6 (±1.4) nm and 0.025 (±0.0081) %, respectively. The MgH{sub 2}+Ni+Fe+Ti sample after the process of grinding in a hydrogen atmosphere was highly reactive with hydrogen. The sample exhibited an available storage capacity of hydrogen (the amount of hydrogen stored during 60 minutes) of about 5.7 wt%. At the first cycle, the MgH2+Ni+Fe+Ti sample stored hydrogen of 5.53 wt% in 5 minutes, 5.66 wt% in 10 minutes and 5.73 wt% in 60 minutes at 573 K and 12 bar of hydrogen. The MgH{sub 2}+Ni+Fe+Ti after activation released hydrogen of 0.56 wt% in 5 minutes, 1.26 wt% in 10 minutes, 2.64 wt% in 20 minutes, 3.82 wt% in 30 minutes, and 5.03 wt% in 60 minutes.

  4. Hydrogen Energy Storage: Grid and Transportation Services (Technical Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Proceedings of an expert workshop convened by the U.S. Department of Energy and Industry Canada, and hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Air Resources Board, May 14-15, 2014, in Sacramento, California, to address the topic of hydrogen energy storage (HES). HES systems provide multiple opportunities to increase the resilience and improve the economics of energy sup supply systems underlying the electric grid, gas pipeline systems, and transportation fuels. This is especially the case when considering particular social goals and market drivers, such as reducing carbon emissions, increasing reliability of supply, and reducing consumption of conventional petroleum fuels. This report compiles feedback collected during the workshop, which focused on policy and regulatory issues related to HES systems. Report sections include an introduction to HES pathways, market demand, and the "smart gas" concept; an overview of the workshop structure; and summary results from panel presentations and breakout groups.

  5. Deuterium isotope separation factor between hydrogen and liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolston, J.H.; den Hartog, J.; Butler, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The overall deuterium isotope separation factor between hydrogen and liquid water, α, has been measured directly for the first time between 280 and 370 0 K. The data are in good agreement with values of α calculated from literature data on the equilibrium constant for isotopic exchange between hydrogen and water vapor, K 1 , and the liquid-vapor separation factor, α/sub V/. The temperature dependence of α over the range 273-473 0 K based upon these new experimental results and existing literature data is given by the equation ln α = -0.2143 + (368.9/T) + (27,870/T 2 ). Measurements on α/sub V/ given in the literature have been surveyed and the results are summarized over the same temperature range by the equation ln α/sub V/ = 0.0592 - (80.3/T) +

  6. Fiscal 1975 Sunshine Project research report. Research on refining, transport and storage systems for hydrogen, and their safety technologies (Research on measurement/control system for safety management in low-temperature storage and refining processes of hydrogen); 1975 nendo suiso no seisei, yuso, chozo system oyobi hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso no teion chozo, seisei dankai no anzen no tame no keisoku seigyo system ni kansuru kenkyu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-05-28

    The following were selected as themes necessary and important for the safety of the forthcoming hydrogen energy system, based on the fiscal 1974 document survey result, and the fiscal 1975 research results. First as for low- temperature storage of hydrogen, since safe discharge of hydrogen gas generated in a storage tank is important, gas motor discharging usually used for such transport tanks as tank lorry, and burn bond discharging suitable for discharge of a large amount of hydrogen were selected as test items. Next as for storage and transport of low-temperature hydrogen such as liquid hydrogen, a low-temperature control valve to control the amount of liquid hydrogen for transport was selected as a test item. Under the assumption of the model tests on the above 3 items in fiscal 1976, various studies and trial designs were made on concrete test equipment. The test plans were also prepared for some ones among them. (NEDO)

  7. Development of Improved Composite Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, Norman L. [Hexagon Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Hexagon Lincoln started this DOE project as part of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) contract on 1 February 2009. The purpose of the HSECoE was the research and development of viable material based hydrogen storage systems for on-board vehicular applications to meet DOE performance and cost targets. A baseline design was established in Phase 1. Studies were then conducted to evaluate potential improvements, such as alternate fiber, resin, and boss materials. The most promising concepts were selected such that potential improvements, compared with the baseline Hexagon Lincoln tank, resulted in a projected weight reduction of 11 percent, volume increase of 4 percent, and cost reduction of 10 percent. The baseline design was updated in Phase 2 to reflect design improvements and changes in operating conditions specified by HSECoE Partners. Evaluation of potential improvements continued during Phase 2. Subscale prototype cylinders were designed and fabricated for HSECoE Partners’ use in demonstrating their components and systems. Risk mitigation studies were conducted in Phase 3 that focused on damage tolerance of the composite reinforcement. Updated subscale prototype cylinders were designed and manufactured to better address the HSECoE Partners’ requirements for system demonstration. Subscale Type 1, Type 3, and Type 4 tanks were designed, fabricated and tested. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate vacuum insulated systems for cooling the tanks during fill, and maintaining low temperatures during service. Full scale designs were prepared based on results from the studies of this program. The operating conditions that developed during the program addressed adsorbent systems operating at cold temperatures. A Type 4 tank would provide the lowest cost and lightest weight, particularly at higher pressures, as long as issues with liner compatibility and damage tolerance could be resolved. A Type 1 tank might be the choice if the

  8. Liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center, the single largest purchaser of liquid hydrogen (LH2) in the United States, evaluated current and anticipated hydrogen production and consumption in the government and commercial sectors. Specific objectives of the study are as follows: (1) identify LH2 producers in the United States and Canada during 1980-1989 period; (2) compile information in expected changes in LH2 production capabilities over the 1990-2000 period; (3) describe how hydrogen is used in each consuming industry and estimate U.S. LH2 consumption for the chemicals, metals, electronics, fats and oil, and glass industries, and report data on a regional basis; (4) estimate historical and future consumption; and (5) assess the influence of international demands on U.S. plants.

  9. Heat transfer analysis of liquid piston compressor for hydrogen applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermani, Nasrin Arjomand; Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    A hydrogen compression technology using liquid as the compression piston is investigated from heat transfer point of view. A thermodynamic model, simulating a single compression stroke, is developed to investigate the heat transfer phenomena inside the compression chamber. The model is developed...... and through the walls, is investigated and compared with the adiabatic case. The results show that depending on heat transfer correlation, the hydrogen temperature reduces slightly between 0.2% and 0.4% compared to the adiabatic case, at 500bar, due to the large wall resistance and small contact area...... at the interface. Moreover, the results of the sensitivity analysis illustrates that increasing the total heat transfer coefficients at the interface and the wall, together with compression time, play key roles in reducing the hydrogen temperature. Increasing the total heat transfer coefficient at the interface...

  10. CO2-based hydrogen storage - Hydrogen generation from formaldehyde/water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincado, Monica; Grützmacher, Hansjörg; Prechtl, Martin H. G.

    2018-04-01

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) is the simplest and most significant industrially produced aldehyde. The global demand is about 30 megatons annually. Industrially it is produced by oxidation of methanol under energy intensive conditions. More recently, new fields of application for the use of formaldehyde and its derivatives as, i.e. cross-linker for resins or disinfectant, have been suggested. Dialkoxymethane has been envisioned as a combustion fuel for conventional engines or aqueous formaldehyde and paraformaldehyde may act as a liquid organic hydrogen carrier molecule (LOHC) for hydrogen generation to be used for hydrogen fuel cells. For the realization of these processes, it requires less energy-intensive technologies for the synthesis of formaldehyde. This overview summarizes the recent developments in low-temperature reductive synthesis of formaldehyde and its derivatives and low-temperature formaldehyde reforming. These aspects are important for the future demands on modern societies' energy management, in the form of a methanol and hydrogen economy, and the required formaldehyde feedstock for the manufacture of many formaldehyde-based daily products.

  11. Sloshing analysis of viscous liquid storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.Z.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of viscosity on the sloshing response of tanks containing viscous liquids is studied using the in-house finite element computer code, FLUSTR-ANL. Two different tank sizes each filled at two levels, are modeled, and their dynamic responses under harmonic and seismic ground motions are simulated. The results are presented in terms of the wave height, and pressures at selected nodes and elements in the finite element mesh. The viscosity manifests itself as a damping effect, reducing the amplitudes. Under harmonic excitation, the dynamic response reaches the steady-state faster as the viscosity value becomes larger. The fundamental sloshing frequency for each study case stays virtually unaffected by an increase in viscosity. For the small tank case, a 5% difference is observed in the fundamental frequency of the smallest (1 cP) and the highest (1000 cP) viscosity cases considered in this study. The fundamental frequencies of the large tank are even less sensitive

  12. Electrospun zeolite-templated carbon composite fibres for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Annamalai, Perushini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available -defined hierarchical pore structure. The study involved encapsulation of highly porous zeolite-templated carbon (ZTC) into electrospun fibres and testing of the resulting composites for hydrogen storage. The hydrogen storage capacity of the composite fibres was 1...

  13. The impact of carbon materials on the hydrogen storage properties of light metal hydrides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adelhelm, P.A.; de Jongh, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The safe and efficient storage of hydrogen is still one of the remaining challenges towards fuel cell powered cars. Metal hydrides are a promising class of materials as they allow the storage of large amounts of hydrogen in a small volume at room temperature and low pressures. However, usually the

  14. Hydrogen storage material, electrochemically active material, electrochemical cell and electronic equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a hydrogen storage material comprising an alloy of magnesium. The invention further relates to an electrochemically active material and an electrochemical cell provided with at least one electrode comprising such a hydrogen storage material. Also, the invention relates to

  15. Performance of a hydrogen/deuterium polarized gas target in a storage ring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buuren, L.D.; Szczerba, D.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Klous, S.; Mul, F.A.; Poolman, H.R.; Simani, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a hydrogen/deuterium polarized gas target in a storage ring is presented. The target setup consisted of an atomic beam source, a cryogenic storage cell and a Breit-Rabi polarimeter. High frequency transition units were constructed to produce vector polarized hydrogen and

  16. Modulated synthesis of Cr-MOF (MIL 101) for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Segakweng, T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available as a fuel into fuel cell technologies is only possible when safe and effective hydrogen storage systems become available. Complete usage of hydrogen is only possible if proper and effective storage systems with fast kinetics becomes available. Porous...

  17. Improvement of hydrogen storage kinetics in ball-milled magnesium doped with antimony

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Král, Lubomír; Roupcová, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 9 (2017), s. 6144-6151 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Hydrogen * Hydrogen storage * Storage capacity * Magnesium alloys * Antimony Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2016

  18. Bavarian liquid hydrogen bus demonstration project - safety, licensing and acceptability aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurster, R.; Knorr, H.; Pruemm, W.

    1999-07-01

    A regular 12 m city bus of the MAN SL 202 type with an internal combustion engine adapted to hydrogen operation and auxiliary gasoline operation was demonstrated in the Bavarian cities of Erlangen and Munich between April 1996 and August 1998. Three bus operators, Erlanger Stadtwerke, Stadtwerke Muenchen and Autobus Oberbayern were testing the bus in three different operating schemes. In order to be able to perform this worldwide first public demonstration of a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) city bus in regular service, several requirements with respect to safety, licensing, training and acceptability had to be fulfilled. These activities were focusing mainly on the hydrogen specific issues such as (a) integration of onboard LH{sub 2} storage vessels, piping and instrumentation, (b) implementation of storage and refueling infrastructure in the operators' yards, (c) adaptation of the maintenance garages, (d) training of operating and maintenance personnel. During phase II of the demonstration activity a poll was performed on passengers traveling onboard the hydrogen-powered city bus in order to determined the level of acceptance among the users of the bus. The bus was designed and manufactured by MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Aktiengesellschaft. The cryogenic fuel storage and the refueling equipment were designed and manufactured by Linde AG. The realization of the hardware was financially supported by the European Commission (EC) within the Euro-Quebec Hydro-Hydrogen Pilot Project. The demonstration phase was financially supported by EC and the Bavarian State Government. Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik performed project monitoring for both funding organizations. The presentation will summarize the most important results of this demonstration phase and will address the measures undertaken in order to get the bus, the refueling infrastructure and the maintenance and operating procedures approved by the relevant authorities.

  19. The potential of organic polymer-based hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Peter M; Butler, Anna; Selbie, James; Mahmood, Khalid; McKeown, Neil B; Ghanem, Bader; Msayib, Kadhum; Book, David; Walton, Allan

    2007-04-21

    The challenge of storing hydrogen at high volumetric and gravimetric density for automotive applications has prompted investigations into the potential of cryo-adsorption on the internal surface area of microporous organic polymers. A range of Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity (PIMs) has been studied, the best PIM to date (a network-PIM incorporating a triptycene subunit) taking up 2.7% H(2) by mass at 10 bar/77 K. HyperCrosslinked Polymers (HCPs) also show promising performance as H(2) storage materials, particularly at pressures >10 bar. The N(2) and H(2) adsorption behaviour at 77 K of six PIMs and a HCP are compared. Surface areas based on Langmuir plots of H(2) adsorption at high pressure are shown to provide a useful guide to hydrogen capacity, but Langmuir plots based on low pressure data underestimate the potential H(2) uptake. The micropore distribution influences the form of the H(2) isotherm, a higher concentration of ultramicropores (pore size <0.7 nm) being associated with enhanced low pressure adsorption.

  20. Microscopic dynamics and relaxation processes in liquid hydrogen fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, R.; Giura, P.; Monaco, G.; Sette, F.; Fioretto, D.; Ruocco, G.

    2004-01-01

    Inelastic x-ray scattering and Brillouin light scattering measurements of the dynamic structure factor of liquid hydrogen fluoride have been performed in the temperature range T=214-283 K. The data, analyzed using a viscoelastic model with a two time-scale memory function, show a positive dispersion of the sound velocity c(Q) between the low frequency value c 0 (Q) and the high frequency value c ∞α (Q). This finding confirms the existence of a structural (α) relaxation directly related to the dynamical organization of the hydrogen bonds network of the system. The activation energy E a of the process has been extracted by the analysis of the temperature behavior of the relaxation time τ α (T) that follows an Arrhenius law. The obtained value for E a , when compared with that observed in another hydrogen bond liquid as water, suggests that the main parameter governing the α-relaxation process is the number of hydrogen bonds per molecule