WorldWideScience

Sample records for liquid energy carriers

  1. Renewable energy carriers: Hydrogen or liquid air/nitrogen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongliang; Chen Haisheng; Zhang Xinjing; Tan Chunqing; Ding Yulong

    2010-01-01

    The world's energy demand is met mainly by the fossil fuels today. The use of such fuels, however, causes serious environmental issues, including global warming, ozone layer depletion and acid rains. A sustainable solution to the issues is to replace the fossil fuels with renewable ones. Implementing such a solution, however, requires overcoming a number of technological barriers including low energy density, intermittent supply and mobility of the renewable energy sources. A potential approach to overcoming these barriers is to use an appropriate energy carrier, which can store, transport and distribute energy. The work to be reported in this paper aims to assess and compare a chemical energy carrier, hydrogen, with a physical energy carrier, liquid air/nitrogen, and discuss potential applications of the physical carrier. The ocean energy is used as an example of the renewable energy sources in the work. The assessment and comparison are carried out in terms of the overall efficiency, including production, storage/transportation and energy extraction. The environmental impact, waste heat recovery and safety issues are also considered. It is found that the physical energy carrier may be a better alternative to the chemical energy carrier under some circumstances, particularly when there are waste heat sources.

  2. Anaerobic biotechnological approaches for production of liquid energy carriers from biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Angelidaki, Irini

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the use of renewable biomass for energy production. Anaerobic biotechnological approaches for production of liquid energy carriers (ethanol and a mixture of acetone, butanol and ethanol) from biomass can be employed to decrease environmental...... pollution and reduce dependency on fossil fuels. There are two major biological processes that can convert biomass to liquid energy carriers via anaerobic biological breakdown of organic matter: ethanol fermentation and mixed acetone, butanol, ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The specific product formation...

  3. The energy carrier hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of hydrogen to be used as a clean fuel for the production of heat and power, as well as for the propulsion of aeroplanes and vehicles, is described, in particular for Germany. First, attention is paid to the application of hydrogen as a basic material for the (petro)chemical industry, as an indirect energy source for (petro)chemical processes, and as a direct energy source for several purposes. Than the importance of hydrogen as an energy carrier in a large-scale application of renewable energy sources is discussed. Next an overview is given of new and old hydrogen production techniques from fossil fuels, biomass, or the electrolysis of water. Energetic applications of hydrogen in the transportation sector and the production of electric power and heat are mentioned. Brief descriptions are given of techniques to store hydrogen safely. Finally attention is paid to hydrogen research in Germany. Two hydrogen projects, in which Germany participates, are briefly dealt with: the Euro-Quebec project (production of hydrogen by means of hydropower), and the HYSOLAR project (hydrogen production by means of solar energy). 18 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  4. The energy-carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rensburg, W.C.J.

    1975-01-01

    Mining, processing and transport of minerals use the major proportion of South Africas total energy in various forms. With the Republic committed to expand these activities very substantially, will the necessary energy in the right forms be available

  5. Technical and economic data biomass-based energy conversion systems for the production of gaseous and/or liquid energy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to give an indication of the expected development of the currently mainly fossil fuel based Dutch energy supply system to a future CO 2 -emission 'free' energy supply system, and (2) to present main technological, economic, and environmental characteristics of three promising renewable energy based technologies for the production of gaseous and/or liquid secondary energy carriers and/or electricity and/or heat, viz.: (a) biomass hydrogasification for SNG (synthetic natural gas) production; (b) trigeneration of methanol and CHP (combined heat and power) from biomass by integrating a 'once-through' LPMEOH (liquid phase methanol) process into a 'conventional BIG/CC (Biomass-Integrated-Gasifier/Combined Cycle) system; and (c) trigeneration of Fischer-Tropsch derived transportation fuels and CHP from biomass by integrating a 'once-through' FT-process (Fischer-Tropsch) into a 'conventional' BIG/CC-system. Biomass conversion systems, for the production of CHP, transportation fuels, and as biofeedstock for the petrochemical industry, will play a substantial role in meeting the future Dutch renewable energy policy goals. In case fossil fuel prices remain low, additional policies are needed to reach these goals. Biomass will also play a significant role in reaching significant CO 2 emission reduction in Western Europe. In which sector the limited amount of biomass available/contractable can be applied best is still unclear, and therefore needs further research. By biomass hydrogasification it is possible to produce SNG with more or less the same composition as Groningen natural gas. In case relatively cheap hydrogen-rich waste gas streams are used in the short-term, the SNG production costs will he in the same order of magnitude as the market price for Dutch natural gas for small consumers (fl 0.6/Nm 3 ). The calculated minimum production costs for the 'green' fuels (methanol: 15 Euroct/l or 9 Euro/GJ, and FT-fuels: 27 Euroct/l or 9 Euro

  6. Screening in crystalline liquids protects energetic carriers in hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiming; Miyata, Kiyoshi; Fu, Yongping; Wang, Jue; Joshi, Prakriti; Niesner, Daniel; Williams, Kristopher; Jin, Song; Zhu, Xiaoyang

    Hybrid lead halide perovskites exhibit carrier properties that resemble those of pristine nonpolar semiconductors despite static and dynamic disorder, but how carriers are protected from efficient scattering with charged defects and optical phonons is unknown. Here, we reveal the carrier protection mechanism by comparing three single-crystal lead bromide perovskites: CH3NH3PbBr3, CH(NH2)2PbBr3, and CsPbBr3. We observed hot fluorescence emission from energetic carriers with 102 picosecond lifetimes in CH3NH3PbBr3 or CH(NH,SUB>2)2PbBr3, but not in CsPbBr3. The hot fluorescence is correlated with liquid-like molecular reorientational motions, suggesting that dynamic screening protects energetic carriers via solvation or large polaron formation on time scales competitive with that of ultrafast cooling. Similar protections likely exist for band-edge carriers. The long-lived energetic carriers may enable hot-carrier solar cells with efficiencies exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit. This work was supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant ER46980, National Science Foundation, Grant DMR 1420634 (MRSEC), and Department of Energy Award DE-FG02-09ER46664.

  7. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A; Nueesch, P; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  8. Ionizable polyethers as specific metal ion carriers in liquid-liquid extraction and liquid membrane separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkowiak, W.; Charewicz, W.A.; Bartsch, R.A.; Ndip, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of investigations into competitive extraction and penetration through a liquid membrane of alkali and alkaline earth cations from aqueous solutions by a series of lipophilic and ionizable acyclic polyethers of various molecular structure. It is shown that specificity and selectiviy of cation carriers in liquid-liquid extraction and liquid membrane separation depend on molecular structure of acyclic polyethers

  9. Methanol as an energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, P.; Grube, T.; Hoehlein, B. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    For the future, a strongly growing energy demand is expected in the transport sector worldwide. Economically efficient oil production will run through a maximum in the next decade. Higher fuel prices and an environmentally desirable reduction of emissions will increase the pressure for reducing fuel consumption and emissions in road traffic. These criteria show the urgent necessity of structural changes in the fuel market. Due to its advantages concerning industrial-scale production, storage and global availability, methanol has the short- to medium-term potential for gaining increased significance as a substitution product in the energy market. Methanol can be produced both from fossil energy sources and from biomass or waste materials through the process steps of synthesis gas generation with subsequent methanol synthesis. Methanol has the potential to be used in an environmentally friendly manner in gasoline/methanol mixtures for flexible fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines and in diesel engines with pure methanol. Furthermore, it can be used in fuel cell vehicles with on-board hydrogen production in direct methanol fuel cell drives, and in stationary systems for electricity and heat generation as well as for hydrogen production. Finally, in portable applications it serves as an energy carrier for electric power generation. In this book, the processes for the production and use of methanol are presented and evaluated, markets and future options are discussed and issues of safety and environmental impacts are addressed by a team of well-known authors. (orig.)

  10. Poisoning of liquid membrane carriers in extraction of metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuchun; Wang, Dexian

    1992-01-01

    As means of effective separation and preconcentration, emulsion liquid membranes (ELMs) have found application in many fields including biochemical separation, wastewater treatment, hydrometallurgy, and preconcentration in analytical chemistry. In the extraction of desired metal (scandium, mixed rare earths) ions using chelating extractants (TTA, HDEHP) as liquid membrane carriers, the carriers will become poisoned owing to the presence of even minute quantity of certain high ionic potential ions in the feed solution. The reason for the poisoning of carriers is that those ions have so much greater affinity than the desired ions for the membrane carrier that the ion-carrier coordination compound cannot be stripped at the interior interface of the membrane and gradually no more free carrier transports any metal ions across the membrane. The calculated results are in agreement with the experiments, and methods to avoid the poisoning are given in the paper

  11. Research on energy efficiency design index for sea-going LNG carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Yu, Yanyun; Guan, Guan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers' reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

  12. Acid extraction by supported liquid membranes containing basic carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.; Cianetti, C.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The extraction of HNO 3 (nitric acid) from aqueous solutions by permeation through a number of supported liquid membranes containing basic carriers dissolved in diethylbenzene has been studied. The results have shown that the best permeations are obtained with long chain aliphatic amines (TLA, Primene JM-T) followed by TOPO (trioctylphosphine oxide) and then by other monofunctional and bifunctional organophosphorous basic carriers. The influence of an aliphatic diluent on the permeability of HNO 3 through a supported liquid membrane containing TLA as carrier was also investigated. In this case the permeability to HNO 3 decreases as a result of the lower diffusion coefficient of the acid-carrier complex in the more vicous aliphatic solvent. 4 figures

  13. Energy carriers in Norway; Energibaerere i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Within the Norwegian energy consumption, electricity is by far the most dominant energy carrier. In the last thirty years electricity has had an increased significance, while oil has been reduce. A trend that is likely to continue. Energy politics has among others these objectives: environment, reliability of supply and effective energy supply. These objectives are somewhat contradictory. In agreement with the environmental politic phasing out oil leads to a reduction in greenhouse gases. However this politic will have a local impact only effecting Norway, in a larger European connection it might lead to a larger net emission of CO{sub 2}. A political intervention in the energy market might also lead to a reduction in the energy markets effectiveness and flexibility. This report addresses this problem: If a total phase out of the stationary oil consumption is conducted, what energy carriers will this consumption convert to?

  14. Nuclear primary energy carriers. Short version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeck, W

    1978-04-01

    Basing on our present knowledge the following energy sources for energy supply must be taken into consideration in the long term: regenerative energy sources, fission energy gained by breeder reactors, nuclear fusion. While regenerative energy sources were treated at full length in the study 'Energy Sources for Tomorrow' the present study specifies the other two energy options. The availability and the reliability of nuclear primary energy carrier supply is described in detail and the conversion systems available or still being developed are investigated with regard to their specific consumption of primary energy. Topical questions concerning the proliferation stability of the fuel cycles and techniques are subject to the INFCE program. With reference to the nuclear energy documentation activities of the Federal Government this study is supposed to supply further fundamental material on nuclear primary energy carriers, consumption and readiness for application. Thus it will contribute to the question: 'Is nuclear energy an option which guarantees energy supply in the long term for the Federal Republic of Germany'. (orig.) 891 UA 892 ARA.

  15. Nuclear primary energy carriers. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    Basing on our present knowledge the following energy sources for energy supply must be taken into consideration in the long term: regenerative energy sources, fission energy gained by breeder reactors, nuclear fusion. While regenerative energy sources were treated at full length in the study 'Energy Sources for tomorrow' the present study specifies the other two energy options. The availability and the reliability of nuclear primary energy carrier supply is described in detail and the conversion systems available or still being developed are investigated with regard to their specific consumption of primary energy. Topical questions concerning the proliferation stability of the fuel cycles and techniques are subject to the INFCE programme. With reference to the nuclear energy documentation activities of the Federal Govenment this study is supposed to supply further fundamental material on nuclear primary energy carriers, consumption and readiness for application. Thus it will contribute to the question: 'Is nuclear energy an option which guarantees energy supply in the long term for the Federal Republic of Germany'. (orig.) [de

  16. Competitive position of energy carriers in trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suding, P.H.; Forsbach, H.H.

    Industrial consumers and public institutions, which are classed with the group of minor consumers, differ in their behaviour in energy consumption greatly from the structure of the whole group. Also the willingness to convert from fuel oil to natural gas in these trade groups is relatively high. Within the framework of 5 model enterprises, the profitability of energy carriers and economizing technology in trade is analysed. The model enterprises are a bakery, a meat purveyor, a restaurant, a laundry and a hospital. The basic data are compared with the data from 1985. The comparison shows that the competitive positions of energy carriers in business and public in the process heat sector here not changed dramatically. The competitiveness of natural gas has improved since 1985 through the changes in price. However, in the sectors in which it belongs to the group of economical alternatives (e.g. in the bakeries), electricity has not lost much ground. (BR)

  17. Hydrogen, an energy carrier with a future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, K.H.

    1975-01-01

    The inefficient use, associated with pollutants, of the fossil energy carriers coal, crude oil and natural gas, will deplete resources, if the energy demand increases exponentially, in the not-too-distant future. That is the reason why the hydrogen-energy concept gains in importance. This requires drastic changes in structure in a lot of technological fields. This task is only to be mastered if there is cooperation between all special fields, in order to facilitate the economical production, distribution and utilization of hydrogen. (orig.) [de

  18. Carrier density independent scattering rate in SrTiO3-based electron liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, Evgeny; Raghavan, Santosh; Zhang, Jack Y; Marshall, Patrick B; Kajdos, Adam P; Balents, Leon; Stemmer, Susanne

    2016-02-10

    We examine the carrier density dependence of the scattering rate in two- and three-dimensional electron liquids in SrTiO3 in the regime where it scales with T(n) (T is the temperature and n ≤ 2) in the cases when it is varied by electrostatic control and chemical doping, respectively. It is shown that the scattering rate is independent of the carrier density. This is contrary to the expectations from Landau Fermi liquid theory, where the scattering rate scales inversely with the Fermi energy (EF). We discuss that the behavior is very similar to systems traditionally identified as non-Fermi liquids (n density-independent scattering rates have been observed. The results indicate that the applicability of Fermi liquid theory should be questioned for a much broader range of correlated materials and point to the need for a unified theory.

  19. Formic Acid as a Hydrogen Energy Carrier

    KAUST Repository

    Eppinger, Jö rg; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The high volumetric capacity (S3 g H-2/L) and its low toxicity and flammability under ambient conditions make formic acid a promising hydrogen energy carrier. Particularly, in the past decade, significant advancements have been achieved in catalyst development for selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. This Perspective highlights the advantages of this approach with discussions focused on potential applications in the transportation sector together with analysis of technical requirements, limitations, and costs.

  20. Formic Acid as a Hydrogen Energy Carrier

    KAUST Repository

    Eppinger, Jorg

    2016-12-15

    The high volumetric capacity (S3 g H-2/L) and its low toxicity and flammability under ambient conditions make formic acid a promising hydrogen energy carrier. Particularly, in the past decade, significant advancements have been achieved in catalyst development for selective hydrogen generation from formic acid. This Perspective highlights the advantages of this approach with discussions focused on potential applications in the transportation sector together with analysis of technical requirements, limitations, and costs.

  1. A liquid organic carrier of hydrogen as a fuel for automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.; Taube, P.

    1979-09-01

    A system of storing energy in a hydrogen containing fuel for the motor car is discussed. The recyclable liquid chemical carrier is: (Methylcyclohexane (liquid)) dehydrogenation (Toluene (liquid)) + (hydrogen (gas)). The reverse reaction, the hydrogenation of toluene, occurs in a regional plant connected to a source of hydrogen (electrolysis of water) with a significant by-product being heat at 200 0 C for district heating. The system is able to store hydrogen in liquid form under ambient temperature and pressure even in a small motor car. The concentration of hydrogen is 6.1 % by weight. The release of gaseous hydrogen from the liquid methylcyclohexane needs a chemical catalytic reactor having a temperature of 300 0 C and a pressure of some bars. This reaction has been well studied. The thermal energy for the dehydrogenation is taken from the exhaust gases at 780 0 C. A layout of the most important processes of the system is given. (Auth.)

  2. Energy carriers within Europe: electricity and SNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, N J.D.

    1977-03-01

    The general aim of this paper is to make a case for substitute natural gas as an energy carrier with prospects for growth that are at least as good as those of electricity and a life expectancy as long as one can reasonably plan for. The bulk of the paper analyzes the determinants of commercial competition between SNG and electricity. Space heat is treated in detail because this is generally seen as the area in which rapid expansion of electricity sales is possible. The provision of process heat to industry is dealt with superficially. The principal conclusion is that, for space heating and some industrial process heating and over a wide range of future costs for fossil and nuclear fuels, SNG from the marginal source of bulk fuel will be of lower cost than electricity from an integrated system of nuclear generating stations and fossil-fired stations using the same marginal source of fossil fuel. This conclusion may be difficult to accept because it conflicts with intuition. In Europe now there is a good case for installing more nuclear plants if what is wanted is base-load power. There are also mines producing coal at higher cost than imported oil. The short-term economic pressure, therefore, is to install nuclear plants and retreat from coal. Moreover, natural gas from the North Sea and even LNG from distant sources is cheaper than SNG from indigenous coal is likely to be. If one believes that indigenous oil and gas will be available in large quantities, or if one believes it will be possible to import oil without difficulty or political risk, then it is right to ignore SNG as an energy carrier; but the fashionable perception of the future is that indigenous production and/or imports will be restricted by physical shortage or political constraint so that, at the margin, heat will be supplied from nuclear fuel. In these circumstances SNG appears a better carrier of energy for heat than electricity. (MCW)

  3. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved

  4. Hydrogen as an energy carrier. 2. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, C.J.; Nitsch, J.

    1991-01-01

    This book deals with the possibilities of an energetic utilisation of hydrogen. This energy carrier can be produced from the unlimited energy sources - solar energy, wind energy and hydropower - and from nuclear energy. It is also capable of one day supplementing or superseding the fossil energy carriers oil, coal and gas. What is special about the book is that it goes beyond a mere physical/technical description to discuss the economic and political aspects and ecological effects and requirements that are an essential part of sound energy planning today. Thus, the authors and editors outline the step-by-step development of a hydrogen economy, mainly based on solar energy, providing a solution to both the pollution problems caused by the use of fossil energy carriers and the energy requirements of the third world. (orig.) With 197 figs., 71 tabs

  5. Treatment of cyanide wastewater by bulk liquid membrane using tricaprylamine as a carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoping; Xue, Juanqin; Liu, Nina; Yu, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The transport of cyanide from wastewater through a bulk liquid membrane (BLM) containing tricaprylamine (TOA) as a carrier was studied. The effect of cyanide concentration in the feed solution, TOA concentration in the organic phase, the stirring speed, NaOH concentration in the stripping solution and temperature on cyanide transport was determined through BLM. Mass transfer of cyanide through BLM was analyzed by following the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions, and the kinetic parameters (k(1), k(2), R(m)(max), t(max), J(a)(max), J(d)(max)) were also calculated. Apparently, increase in membrane entrance (k(1)) and exit rate (k(2)) constants was accompanied by a rise in temperature. The values of activation energies were obtained as 35.6 kJ/mol and 18.2 kJ/mol for removal and recovery, respectively. These values showed that both removal and recovery steps in cyanide transport is controlled by the rate of the chemical complexation reaction. The optimal reaction conditions were determined by BLM using trioctylamine as the carrier: feed phase: pH 4, carrier TOA possession ratio in organic phase: 2% (V/V), stripping phase concentration of NaOH: 1% (W/V), reaction time: 60 min, stirring speed: 250 r/min. Under the above conditions, the removal rate was up to 92.96%. The experiments demonstrated that TOA was a good carrier for cyanide transport through BLM in this study.

  6. Overview of levies on energy carriers in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Gehrig, S.; Koenig, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    This short report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the situation with respect to levies and steering taxes on various forms of energy in European countries. Comparisons are made with the situation in Switzerland regarding energy prices for various consumer groups, taxation of energy carriers and exceptions for energy-intensive industries. Details are given on prices of energy and the levies imposed, in particular with respect to carbon taxes. Data are given for 11 European countries and detailed information on regulations concerning exceptions is presented for selected countries. Finally, fuel price differences between neighbouring countries are examined and the role of 'motor-fuel-tourism' is discussed

  7. The potential of (waste)water as energy carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frijns, Jos; Hofman, Jan; Nederlof, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Energy input and potential output of the Dutch communal water cycle. Highlights: ► Municipal wastewater is a large carrier of chemical and thermal energy. ► The recovery of chemical energy from wastewater can be maximised by digestion. ► The potential of thermal energy recovery from wastewater is huge. ► Underground thermal energy storage is a rapidly developing renewable energy source. - Abstract: Next to energy efficiency improvements in the water sector, there is a need for new concepts in which water is viewed as a carrier of energy. Municipal wastewater is a potential source of chemical energy, i.e. organic carbon that can be recovered as biogas in sludge digestion. The recovery of chemical energy can be maximised by up-concentration of organic carbon and maximised sludge digestion or by source separation and anaerobic treatment. Even more so, domestic wastewater is a source of thermal energy. Through warm water conservation and heat recovery, for example with shower heat exchangers, substantial amounts of energy can be saved and recovered from the water cycle. Water can also be an important renewable energy source, i.e. as underground thermal energy storage. These systems are developing rapidly in the Netherlands and their energy potential is large.

  8. Nuclear primary energy carriers. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    A very brief presentation of the elementary fusion reactions, the energies delivered by them and the most basic energy balances leading to Lawsontype diagrams are given. The reserves and cost of lithium and deuterium, gives estimates of the total available from DT fusion and comments on production technology, availability and handling of the fuels are outlined. A survey is given of the different concepts of magnetic confinement (stellarators, tokamaks, toroidal pinches, mirror machines, two-component plasmas), of confinement by walls, gas blankets and imploding liners and, finally, of the concepts of inertial confinement (laser fusion, beam fusion). The reactors designed or outlined on the basis of the tokamak, high-β, mirror, and laser fusion concepts are presented, which is followed by a discussion of the key problems of fusion power plants. The main reqirements on the superconducting magnet system for possible fusion reactors, particularly tokamak reactors, are discussed and compared with the present state of the superconducting magent technology. The present-day knowledge of the cost structure of fusion power plants and the sensitivity of this structure with respect to the physical and technical assumptions made is analysed. Finally the aspects of safety and environment are treated. The problems discussed include the hazard potentials of different designs (radiological, toxicological, and with respect to stored energies), release of radioactivity, possible kinds of malfunctioning, and the environmental impact of waste heat, radiation and radioactive waste. (orig.) [de

  9. Biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to study the technical and economic prerequisites to attain reduced carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector, and to study other environmental impacts resulting from an increased use of biomass-based energy carriers. CO 2 emission reduction per unit arable and forest land used for biomass production (kg CO 2 /ha,year) and costs for CO 2 emission reduction (SEK/kg CO 2 ) are estimated for the substitution of gasoline and diesel with rape methyl ester, biogas from lucerne, ethanol from wheat and ethanol, methanol, hydrogen and electricity from Salix and logging residues. Of the studied energy carriers, those based on Salix provide the largest CO 2 emission reduction. In a medium long perspective, the costs for CO 2 emission reduction seem to be lowest for methanol from Salix and logging residues. The use of fuel cell vehicles, using methanol or hydrogen as energy carriers, can in a longer perspective provide more energy efficient utilization of biomass for transportation than the use of internal combustion engine vehicles. 136 refs, 12 figs, 25 tabs

  10. Liquid Crystalline Perylene diimides : Architecture and Charge Carrier Mobilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, C.W.; Sieval, A.B.; Dakhorst, J.E.J.; Dijk, van M.; Kimkes, P.; Koehorst, R.B.M.; Donker, H.

    2000-01-01

    The phase behavior of three N-alkyl-substituted perylene diimide derivatives is examined by differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy. The occurrence of multiple phase transitions indicates several crystalline and several liquid crystalline phases. X-ray diffraction

  11. Triphenylene columnar liquid crystals: spectroscopic study of triplets states and charge carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondkowski, Jens

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of three oxygenated derivatives of triphenylene (two monomers, a symmetric one and an asymmetric one, and a tetramer) by using different experimental techniques: absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy in stationary regime, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (also said single photon counting). Moreover, the author adapted an existing experiment of transient absorption spectroscopy time-resolved at the microsecond level to obtain spectra of thin layers under electric field. A cyclic voltammetry experiment and a spectro-electrochemistry experiment have also been performed. The report first presents the studied materials, the characterisation of singlet states, and the study of the effect molecular symmetry decreasing have on molecular transitions. Then, the author reports the study of cationic species of the triphenylene derivatives. The next chapters address the characterisation of derivative triplet states, and the study of energy transfer within the meso phase of one of these derivatives. The last chapters address charge carriers of columnar liquid crystals, and the molecular nature of these charge carriers

  12. Method for calibration measurement in a liquid scintillation counter and carrier used in the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reunanen, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for use in liquid scintillation measurements to feed an accurately determined amount of radioactive substance to a fluid scintillation system for a calibration measurement. According to the invention an accurately determined amount of radioactive substance is adsorbed to a carrier, which is introduced into the fluid scintillation system. The invention also relates to a carrier for use in the method

  13. Simulation methods of rocket fuel refrigerating with liquid nitrogen and intermediate heat carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Denisov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature preparation of liquid propellant components (LPC before fueling the tanks of rocket and space technology is the one of the operations performed by ground technological complexes on cosmodromes. Refrigeration of high-boiling LPC is needed to increase its density and to create cold reserve for compensation of heat flows existing during fueling and prelaunch operations of space rockets.The method and results of simulation of LPC refrigeration in the recuperative heat exchangers with heat carrier which is refrigerated by-turn with liquid nitrogen sparging. The refrigerating system consists of two tanks (for the chilled coolant and LPC, LPC and heat carrier circulation loops with heat exchanger and system of heat carrier refrigeration in its tank with bubbler. Application of intermediate heat carrier between LPC and liquid nitrogen allows to avoid LPC crystallization on cold surfaces of the heat exchanger.Simulation of such systems performance is necessary to determine its basic design and functional parameters ensuring effective refrigerating of liquid propellant components, time and the amount of liquid nitrogen spent on refrigeration operation. Creating a simulator is quite complicated because of the need to take into consideration many different heat exchange processes occurring in the system. Also, to determine the influence of various parameters on occurring processes it is necessary to take into consideration the dependence of all heat exchange parameters on each other: heat emission coefficients, heat transfer coefficients, heat flow amounts, etc.The paper offers an overview of 10 references to foreign and Russian publications on separate issues and processes occurring in liquids refrigerating, including LPC refrigeration with liquid nitrogen. Concluded the need to define the LPC refrigerating conditions to minimize cost of liquid nitrogen. The experimental data presented in these publications is conformed with the application of

  14. Production of chemical energy carriers by non-expendable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, J

    1976-01-01

    The different forms of energy (radiation, high-temperature heat and electricity) arising from non-expendable energy sources like solar energy can be used for the production of chemical energy-carriers. Possible methods are the splitting of water by means of photolysis, thermochemical cycles and electrolysis, as well as the storage of energy in closed loop chemical systems. These methods are described and efficiencies and costs of the production of these energy carriers are specified. Special problems of the long-distance transportation of hydrogen produced by solar energy are described and the resulting costs are estimated.

  15. Carrier mediated transport through supported liquid membranes; determination of transport parameters from a single transport experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrisstoffels, L.A.J.; Struijk, Wilhelmina; de Jong, Feike; Reinhoudt, David

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a time-dependent transport model for carrier assisted cation transport through supported liquid membranes. The model describes the flux of salt as a function of time and two parameters viz. the diffusion coefficient of the cation complex (D), and the extraction constant (Kex).

  16. Dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 as a novel carrier in the liquid membrane permeation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Anil; Singh, R.K.; Bajpai, D.D.; Shukla, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The proven extractability and profound selectivity of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DC18C6) has been exploited by selecting this crown ether as the ionophore in liquid membrane transport. Macrocycle-facilitated transport of Pu(IV) and U(VI) against their concentration gradient from aqueous nitric acid solutions across organic bulk liquid membrane (BLM) and thin-sheet supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing DC18C6 as the mobile carrier and toluene as the membrane solvent was investigated. (author). 23 refs., 9 tabs., 7 figs

  17. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Meer, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Hoekstra, A.Y., Van der Meer, T.H., 2007. The water footprint of energy consumption: an assessment of water requirements of primary energy carriers. In: proceedings ‘First World Water Sustainability-Renewable Energy Congress and Exhibition’. 25-28 November 2007, Maastricht, the

  18. Substitute Energy Carriers from Refinement of Coal using HTR-Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, Heiko; Kugeler, Kurt; Will, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There is a revival of coal refinement in the world: a recent press article in Germany titled “The Renaissance of Coal Refinement”. It reports about a large number of conventional plans and plants for coal refinement in many countries in the world, and in particular in China. Nuclear energy can be of assistance, in particular the High Temperature Reactor-Module, because it offers all needed process energies. The status of the research, development, and demonstration, RDD, of technology is summarized, in particular of the former programs in Germany: The primary energy carriers were hard coal and lignite. The envisaged products were: Substitute Natural Gas, SNG, for the gas market, Hydrogen, H2, for a future H2-market, e.g. for airplane traffic, Liquid Fuels, as Substitute Gasoline, or as Energy Alcohol, e.g. Methanol CH3OH, in mixture with higher alcohols, for the car traffic and for home heating. (author)

  19. Carrier-carrier relaxation kinetics in quantum well semiconductor structures with nonparabolic energy bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dery, H.; Tromborg, Bjarne; Eisenstein, G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe carrier-carrier scattering dynamics in an inverted quantum well structure including the nonparabolic nature of the valance band. A solution of the semiconductor Bloch equations yields strong evidence to a large change in the temporal evolution of the carrier distributions compared to ...

  20. Recombination in liquid filled ionisation chambers with multiple charge carrier species: Theoretical and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, P.; González-Castaño, D.M.; Gómez, F.; Pardo-Montero, J.

    2014-01-01

    Liquid-filled ionisation chambers (LICs) are used in radiotherapy for dosimetry and quality assurance. Volume recombination can be quite important in LICs for moderate dose rates, causing non-linearities in the dose rate response of these detectors, and needs to be corrected for. This effect is usually described with Greening and Boag models for continuous and pulsed radiation respectively. Such models assume that the charge is carried by two different species, positive and negative ions, each of those species with a given mobility. However, LICs operating in non-ultrapure mode can contain different types of electronegative impurities with different mobilities, thus increasing the number of different charge carriers. If this is the case, Greening and Boag models can be no longer valid and need to be reformulated. In this work we present a theoretical and numerical study of volume recombination in parallel-plate LICs with multiple charge carrier species, extending Boag and Greening models. Results from a recent publication that reported three different mobilities in an isooctane-filled LIC have been used to study the effect of extra carrier species on recombination. We have found that in pulsed beams the inclusion of extra mobilities does not affect volume recombination much, a behaviour that was expected because Boag formula for charge collection efficiency does not depend on the mobilities of the charge carriers if the Debye relationship between mobilities and recombination constant holds. This is not the case in continuous radiation, where the presence of extra charge carrier species significantly affects the amount of volume recombination. - Highlights: • Analytical extension of Greening and Boag theories to multiple charge carriers. • Detailed numerical study of process of volume recombination in LICs. • Recombination in pulsed beams is independent of number and mobilities of carriers. • Multiple charge carriers have a significant effect in continuous

  1. The prospects for hydrogen as an energy carrier: an overview of hydrogen energy and hydrogen energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, Marc A.; Koohi-Fayegh, Seama [Ontario Univ., Oshawa, ON (Canada). Inst. of Technology

    2016-02-15

    Hydrogen is expected to play a key role as an energy carrier in future energy systems of the world. As fossil-fuel supplies become scarcer and environmental concerns increase, hydrogen is likely to become an increasingly important chemical energy carrier and eventually may become the principal chemical energy carrier. When most of the world's energy sources become non-fossil based, hydrogen and electricity are expected to be the two dominant energy carriers for the provision of end-use services. In such a ''hydrogen economy,'' the two complementary energy carriers, hydrogen and electricity, are used to satisfy most of the requirements of energy consumers. A transition era will bridge the gap between today's fossil-fuel economy and a hydrogen economy, in which non-fossil-derived hydrogen will be used to extend the lifetime of the world's fossil fuels - by upgrading heavy oils, for instance - and the infrastructure needed to support a hydrogen economy is gradually developed. In this paper, the role of hydrogen as an energy carrier and hydrogen energy systems' technologies and their economics are described. Also, the social and political implications of hydrogen energy are examined, and the questions of when and where hydrogen is likely to become important are addressed. Examples are provided to illustrate key points. (orig.)

  2. The prospects for hydrogen as an energy carrier: an overview of hydrogen energy and hydrogen energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Marc A.; Koohi-Fayegh, Seama

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen is expected to play a key role as an energy carrier in future energy systems of the world. As fossil-fuel supplies become scarcer and environmental concerns increase, hydrogen is likely to become an increasingly important chemical energy carrier and eventually may become the principal chemical energy carrier. When most of the world's energy sources become non-fossil based, hydrogen and electricity are expected to be the two dominant energy carriers for the provision of end-use services. In such a ''hydrogen economy,'' the two complementary energy carriers, hydrogen and electricity, are used to satisfy most of the requirements of energy consumers. A transition era will bridge the gap between today's fossil-fuel economy and a hydrogen economy, in which non-fossil-derived hydrogen will be used to extend the lifetime of the world's fossil fuels - by upgrading heavy oils, for instance - and the infrastructure needed to support a hydrogen economy is gradually developed. In this paper, the role of hydrogen as an energy carrier and hydrogen energy systems' technologies and their economics are described. Also, the social and political implications of hydrogen energy are examined, and the questions of when and where hydrogen is likely to become important are addressed. Examples are provided to illustrate key points. (orig.)

  3. Carrier-mediated transport of actinides and rare earth elements through liquid and plasticized membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopunec, R.; Ngo Manh, Th.

    1994-01-01

    The first works in this field were realized approximately 25 years ago, when BLOCK et al. reported their studies about carrier-mediated transport (also called pertraction or membrane extraction) of uranium through plasticized membranes with neutral esters derived from phosphoric acid. At this time, the methodical principles of selective pertraction of ionic compounds through so-called bulk liquid membranes containing carriers were known. However, these membranes, similarly as plasticized membranes, have not achieved a broader use. This is probably because bulk liquid membranes are from a technical point of view fairly distant from the idea of a typical membrane system, and plasticized membranes (sometimes also called gel membranes) present great resistance. By the end of the 1960's and at the beginning of the 1970's, LI and CUSSLER worked out the principles for two widely used pertraction techniques, called pertraction through emulsion liquid and supported liquid membranes (ELM and SLM). These two techniques not only have greatest significance in laboratory practice, but they also are interesting for technological aims because of the attainable large phase boundaries, e.g. 10 3 -10 4 m 2 /m 3 . Many ways to arrange membrane systems are described in papers. Recently, the significance of carrier-mediated transport through liquid membranes has grown to have (since 1980) separate section at the International Solvent Extraction Conference. This paper does not deal with mathematical models and the mechanism of pertraction in general, but it gives an overview of results obtained in publications referring to pertraction of two related element groups - actinoids and rare earth elements - using various membrane types. (author) 154 refs

  4. Critical success factors for biomass. Identification/specification of critical success factors in the development and market introduction of biomass conversion systems for the production of electricity and/or heat and/or gaseous/liquid secondary energy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ree, R.; Dinkelbach, L.; Van Doorn, J.; Hemmes, K.; Gerlagh, T.; Groenendaal, B.

    2000-06-01

    The Dutch government has set the policy target that in 2020 10% of the total energy consumption has to be provided by means of renewable energy sources. Biomass is expected to play a major role (25-30%) in this future renewable energy based energy supply system. However, it is still unclear if this biomass-based target will be reached. Although studies showed that success or failure of innovations and projects depend on a multitude of scientific, technical, economic and societal variables, a number of questions still remained unanswered. This information often concentrated exclusively on the cost price aspects. This study is conducted to identify the internal and external barriers or constraints other than cost aspects, which are of vital importance to a successful penetration of biomass in the Dutch energy market. Barriers with a decreasing influence on the market introduction of bioenergy in the Netherlands are: short-term contractability of biomass (organic waste streams) for energy purposes, applicable emission and waste policies, and unfamiliarity of bioenergy by the public and government. Barriers that potentially could play an important role on the market introduction of bioenergy in the Netherlands in the near future are: long-term contractability of biomass (organic waste streams and energy crops) for energy purposes, the 'new' emission constraints and their potential negative influence on the implementation of small-scale biomass-based combined-cycle plants, the rivalry of bioenergy with other renewable energy based technologies in a liberalising energy market, the social acceptance of bioenergy, the future European agriculture policy (energy crops), and the current status and development perspectives of biomass-based energy conversion technologies. 66 refs

  5. Ultrahigh energy gamma rays: carriers of cosmological information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonian, F.A.; Atoyan, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Observational data being the basis of contemporary cosmological models are not numerous: Hubble law of redshift for galaxies, element abundances, and observation of cosmic microwave background radiation (MBR). The significance of MBR discovery predicted in the Big-Band model is particularly stressed. Radio astronomical measurements give an information on MBR only near the Earth. Experimental confirmation of evolution of MBR, i.e., its probing in remote epochs, might obviously present a direct verification of the hypothesis of hot expanding Universe. The carriers of similar cosmological information should be particles which, firstly, effectively interact with MBR, and secondly, make it possible to identify unambiguously the epoch of interaction. A possibility to verify a number of cosmological hypotheses by searching the cutoffs in spectra of ultrahigh energy gamma-rays (UHEGR) from extragalactic sources is discussed

  6. Photo-generated carriers lose energy during extraction from polymer-fullerene solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Melianas, Armantas

    2015-11-05

    In photovoltaic devices, the photo-generated charge carriers are typically assumed to be in thermal equilibrium with the lattice. In conventional materials, this assumption is experimentally justified as carrier thermalization completes before any significant carrier transport has occurred. Here, we demonstrate by unifying time-resolved optical and electrical experiments and Monte Carlo simulations over an exceptionally wide dynamic range that in the case of organic photovoltaic devices, this assumption is invalid. As the photo-generated carriers are transported to the electrodes, a substantial amount of their energy is lost by continuous thermalization in the disorder broadened density of states. Since thermalization occurs downward in energy, carrier motion is boosted by this process, leading to a time-dependent carrier mobility as confirmed by direct experiments. We identify the time and distance scales relevant for carrier extraction and show that the photo-generated carriers are extracted from the operating device before reaching thermal equilibrium.

  7. Comparative study of hydrogen and methanol as energy carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Anna

    1998-06-01

    This report has been written with the purpose to compare hydrogen and methanol, with gasoline, as energy carriers for new energy systems in the future. This energy system must satisfy the demands for sustainable development. The report focuses on motor vehicle applications. A few different criteria has been developed to help form the characterisation method. The criteria proposed in this thesis are developed for an environmental comparison mainly based on emissions from combustion. The criteria concerns the following areas: Renewable resources, The ozone layer, The greenhouse effect, The acidification, and Toxic substances. In many ways, hydrogen may seem as a very good alternative compared with gasoline and diesel oil. Combustion of hydrogen in air results in water and small amounts of oxides of nitrogen. In this report, hydrogen produced from renewable resources is investigated. This is necessary to fulfill the demands for sustainable development. Today, however, steam reforming of fossil fuels represent 99% of the hydrogen production market. Problem areas connected with hydrogen use are for instance storage and distribution. Methanol has many advantages, while comparing methanol and gasoline, like lower emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, limited emissions of carbon dioxide and no sulphur content. Methanol can be produced from many different resources, for example natural gas, naphtha, oil, coal or peat, and biomass. To meet demands for sustainable production, methanol has to be produced from biomass Examination paper. 32 refs, 20 figs, 13 tabs

  8. Experimental study of temperature sensor for an ocean-going liquid hydrogen (LH2) carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, A.; Shimazaki, T.; Sekiya, M.; Shiozawa, H.; Aoyagi, A.; Ohtsuka, K.; Iwakiri, T.; Mikami, Z.; Sato, M.; Kinoshita, K.; Matsuoka, T.; Takayama, Y.; Yamamoto, K.

    2018-04-01

    The prototype temperature sensors for an ocean-going liquid hydrogen (LH2) carrier were manufactured by way of trial. All of the sensors adopted Platinum 1000 (PT-1000) resistance thermometer elements. Various configurations of preproduction temperature sensors were tested in AIST's LH2 test facility. In the experiments, a PT-1000 resistance thermometer, calibrated at the National Metrology Institute of Japan at AIST, was used as the standard thermometer. The temperatures measured by the preproduction sensors were compared with the temperatures measured by the standard thermometer, and the measurement accuracy of the temperature sensors in LH2 was investigated and discussed. It was confirmed that the measurement accuracies of the preproduction temperature sensors were within ±50 mK, which is the required measurement accuracy for a technical demonstration ocean-going LH2 carrier.

  9. Vibrational and Rotational Energy Relaxation in Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob

    Vibrational and rotational energy relaxation in liquids are studied by means of computer simulations. As a precursor for studying vibrational energy relaxation of a solute molecule subsequent to the formation of a chemical bond, the validity of the classical Bersohn-Zewail model for describing......, the vibrational energy relaxation of I2 subsequent to photodissociation and recombination in CCl4 is studied using classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. The vibrational relaxation times and the time-dependent I-I pair distribution function are compared to new experimental results, and a qualitative agreement...... is found in both cases. Furthermore, the rotational energy relaxation of H2O in liquid water is studied via simulations and a power-and-work analysis. The mechanism of the energy transfer from the rotationally excited H2O molecule to its water neighbors is elucidated, i.e. the energy-accepting degrees...

  10. Methanol as an energy source and/or energy carrier in membrane processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; Basile, A.; Drioli, E.

    2007-01-01

    Methanol is commonly considered a hydrogen source and/or hydrogen carrier. In fact, methanol can be produced by partial oxidation of biomass and in this case it is considered a source for hydrogen and therefore for energy. It can also be produced from carbon dioxide and hydrogen; in this case, it

  11. Energies of conduction bands in dielectric liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holroyd, R.

    1975-01-01

    The properties of excess electrons in non-polar liquids depend on the relative energies of the trapped and conducting states. We have measured the energies of the conducting states, denoted V 0 , for about twenty non-polar liquids. Two methods were used: In one the work functions of metals immersed in the liquid were measured. In the other, solutes (TMPD) were photoionized in the liquid and V 0 calculated from the wavelength at which ionization onsets occur. A wide variation in conduction state energies is observed from a high of +0.21 eV for tetradecane to a low of --0.60 eV for tetramethylsilane. In general V 0 shifts to more negative values with increasing molecular symmetry, and correlates well with electron mobility. The photoionization results indicate that V 0 decreases with increasing temperature. In mixtures V 0 is linearly dependent on mole fraction. It was found empirically for n-hexane-neopentane mixtures that μ = 0.34 exp [--15.2(V 0 )]. This equation relating V 0 to the electron mobility also applies approximately to pure hydrocarbons. Thus the role of the conduction state energy in influencing electron mobilities and photoionization onsets is established and recent evidence indicates V 0 also influences the rates of electron reactions in these liquids

  12. Study of the FeSO4 effectivity as a carrier for Sr 90 separation from liquid strontium waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko Sardjono.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of FeSO 4 as a carrier for removing Sr 90 from the strontium liquid waste is studied. This research is concerned with the study of the capacity of FeSO 4 as a carrier for removing Sr 90 from the strontium liquid waste. The method being used in the experiment is an application of the coprecipitation method to reduce the activity of the strontium liquid waste to a certain activity that is safe enough to be discharged in the environment. (author)

  13. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  14. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    the system. The compression leads to a significant increase in temperature, and the heat generated is dumped into the ambient. This energy loss results in a low efficiency of the system, and when expanding the air, the expansion leads to a temperature drop reducing the mechanical output of the expansion......), but no such units are in operation at present. The CAES system investigated in this project uses a different approach to avoid compression heat loss. The system uses a pre-compressed pressure vessel full of air. A liquid is pumped into the bottom of the vessel when charging and the same liquid is withdrawn through......-CAES system is significantly higher than existing CAES systems due to a low or nearly absent compression heat loss. Furthermore, pumps/turbines, which use a liquid as a medium, are more efficient than air/gas compressors/turbines. In addition, the demand for fuel during expansion does not occur. •The energy...

  15. Importance of liquid fragility for energy applications of ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Pit; Lunkenheimer, Peter; Krohns, Stephan; Thoms, Erik; Loidl, Alois

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts that are liquid at ambient temperatures. The strong electrostatic forces between their molecular ions result, e.g., in low volatility and high stability for many members of this huge material class. For this reason they bear a high potential for new advancements in applications, e.g., as electrolytes in energy-storage devices such as supercapacitors or batteries, where the ionic conductivity is an essential figure of merit. Most ILs show dynamic properties typical for glassy matter, which dominate many of their physical properties. An important method to study these dynamical glass-properties is dielectric spectroscopy that can access relaxation times of dynamic processes and the conductivity in a broad frequency and temperature range. In the present contribution, we present results on a large variety of ionic liquids showing that the conductivity of ILs depends in a systematic way not only on their glass temperature but also on the so-called fragility, characterizing the non-canonical super-Arrhenius temperature dependence of their ionic mobility. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via Research Unit FOR1394 and by the BMBF via ENREKON 03EK3015.

  16. Use of liquid chromatography for separation and determination of carrier species associated with the synthesis of no carrier-added sup(11)C labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emran, Ali M.; Boothe, Th.E.; Finn, R.D.; Vora, M.M.; Kothari, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical technique using reversed-phase liquid chromatography was developed for the determination of urea at quantities as low as 1 ng to quantitate the amount of non-labelled urea produced during the synthesis of no-carrier-added [sup(11)C] urea starting from sup(11)CNsup(-). As a result, the specific activity of the [sup(11)C] urea thus prepared was calculated to be as high as 3.5+-0.8 Ci/μmol. (author)

  17. Solid-liquid interfacial energy of aminomethylpropanediol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, Yavuz; Keslioglu, Kazim; Marasli, Necmettin; Akbulut, Sezen

    2008-01-01

    The grain boundary groove shapes for equilibrated solid aminomethylpropanediol, 2-amino-2 methyl-1.3 propanediol (AMPD) with its melt were directly observed by using a horizontal temperature gradient stage. From the observed grain boundary groove shapes, the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient (Γ), solid-liquid interfacial energy (σ SL ) and grain boundary energy (σ gb ) of AMPD have been determined to be (5.4 ± 0.5) x 10 -8 K m, (8.5 ± 1.3) x 10 -3 J m -2 and (16.5 ± 2.8) x 10 -3 J m -2 , respectively. The ratio of thermal conductivity of equilibrated liquid phase to solid phase for the AMPD has also been measured to be 1.12 at the melting temperature

  18. Solid-liquid interfacial energy of aminomethylpropanediol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, Yavuz; Keslioglu, Kazim; Marasli, Necmettin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Akbulut, Sezen [Department of Physics, Institute of Science and Technology, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: marasli@erciyes.edu.tr

    2008-03-21

    The grain boundary groove shapes for equilibrated solid aminomethylpropanediol, 2-amino-2 methyl-1.3 propanediol (AMPD) with its melt were directly observed by using a horizontal temperature gradient stage. From the observed grain boundary groove shapes, the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient ({gamma}), solid-liquid interfacial energy ({sigma}{sub SL}) and grain boundary energy ({sigma}{sub gb}) of AMPD have been determined to be (5.4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup -8} K m, (8.5 {+-} 1.3) x 10{sup -3} J m{sup -2} and (16.5 {+-} 2.8) x 10{sup -3} J m{sup -2}, respectively. The ratio of thermal conductivity of equilibrated liquid phase to solid phase for the AMPD has also been measured to be 1.12 at the melting temperature.

  19. Extraction of rare earth elements with organophosphorus extractants as carriers in supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopunec, R.; Benitez, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The membrane extraction of Y, Ce, Eu, Tm and their binary mixtures Ce-Y, Ce-Eu, Ce-Tm with supported liquid membranes containing TBP and HDEHP as carriers in decane-dodecane hydrocarbon solvent, has been studied. Upon extraction with TBP aqueous nitrate solutions of rare earth elements (REE) were used as feed phase. In some cases they also contained EDTA or DCTA. In most cases, the receiving phase was an aqueous solution of EDTA. Extraction with HDEHP was performed from nitrate and chloride solutions and the receiving phase was the corresponding dilute acid. Pertraction of an element through a membrane was studied as a function of time and of initial composition of phases. The results are presented in the following forms: flux of metal through membrane, coefficients of permeability, separation factors and effective diffusion coefficients. (author) 24 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Measurements of hydrogen concentration in liquid sodium by using an inert gas carrier method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funada, T.; Nihei, I.; Yuhara, S.; Nakasuji, T.

    1979-01-01

    A technique was developed to measure the hydrogen level in liquid sodium using an inert gas carrier method. Hydrogen was extracted into an inert gas from sodium through a thin nickel membrane in the form of a helically wound tube. The amount of hydrogen in the inert gas was analyzed by gas chromatography. The present method is unique in that it can be used over the wide range of sodium temperatures (150 to 700 0 C) and has no problems associated with vacuum systems. The partial pressure of hydrogen in sodium was determined as a function of cold-trap temperature (T/sub c/). Sieverts' constant (K/sub s/) was determined as a function of sodium temperature (T). From Sieverts' constant, the solubility of hydrogen in sodium is calculated. It was found that other impurities in sodium, such as (O) and (OH), have little effect on the hydrogen pressure in the sodium loop

  1. Copper recovery in a bench-scale carrier facilitated tubular supported liquid membrane system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makaka S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of copper ions in a tubular supported liquid membrane using LIX 984NC as a mobile carrier was studied, evaluating the effect of the feed characteristics (flowrate, density, viscosity on the feedside laminar layer of the membrane. A vertical countercurrent, double pipe perspex benchscale reactor consisting of a single hydrophobic PVDF tubular membrane mounted inside was used in all test work. The membrane was impregnated with LIX 984NC and became the support for this organic transport medium. Dilute Copper solution passed through the centre pipe and sulphuric acid as strippant passed through the shell side. Copper was successfully transported from the feedside to the stripside and from the data obtained, a relationship between Schmidt, Reynolds and Sherwood number was achieved of.

  2. Facilitated transport of HNO3 through a supported liquid membrane containing a tertiary amine as carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianetti, C.; Danesi, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The facilitated transport of HNO 3 through a supported liquid membrane consisting of a porous polypropylene film containing a solution of trilaurylamine in diethylbenzene as carrier was studied as a function of the stirring speed of the aqueous solutions and the membrane composition. A physico-chemical model which takes into account diffusion through an aqueous boundary layer, a fast interfacial chemical reaction leading to the formation of a membrane soluble alkylammonium salt and diffusion through the membrane was proposed. In this way, equations were derived which describe how composition changes, occurring in the course of the permeation process, influence the membrane permeability. The experimental data were quantitatively explained by the derived equations. The results indicate that the monomeric form of the trilaurylammonium nitrate salt is the species which is mainly responsible for the acid transport through the membrane. The diffusion coefficient of the permeating species and the order of magnitude of the thickness of the aqueous boundary layer were evaluated. 8 figures

  3. In-situ strain monitoring in liquid containers of LNG transporting carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Min-Cheol; Seo, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Myung-Hyun

    2008-08-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) transport carriers are exposed to a risk by the repeated bump in the LNG container during the vessel traveling over the wave in ocean. The liquid inside the container, especially when it was not fully contained, make a strong bump onto the insulation panel of the tank wall. The insulation panel consists of several layers of thick polyurethane foam (PUF) to maintain the LNG below the cryogenic temperature, -162°C. Due to the repeated shock on the PUF, a crack could be developed on the tank wall causing a tremendous disaster for LNG carriers. To prevent the accidental crack on the tank, a continuous monitoring of the strain imposed on the PUF is recommended. In this work, a fiber-optic Bragg grating was imbedded inside the PUF for monitoring the strain parallel to the impact direction. The optical fiber sensor with a small diameter of 125 μm was suitable to be inserted in the PUF through a small hole drilled after the PUF was cured. In-situ monitoring of the strain producing the change of Bragg reflection wavelength, a high speed wavelength interrogation method was employed by using an arrayed waveguide grating. By dropping a heavy mass on the PUF, we measured the strain imposed on the insulation panel.

  4. Novel macrocyclic carriers for proton-coupled liquid membrane transport. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, J.D.; Izatt, R.M.; Bradshaw, J.S.; Shirts, R.B.

    1996-08-24

    The objective of this research program is to elucidate the chemical principles which are responsible for the cation selectivity and permeability of liquid membranes containing macrocyclic carriers. Several new macrocyclic carriers were synthesized during the last three year period. In addition, new, more convenient synthetic routes were achieved for several nitrogen-containing bicyclic and tricyclic macrocycles. The cation binding properties of these macrocycles were investigated by potentiometric titration, calorimetric titration, solvent extraction and NMR techniques. In addition, hydrophobic macrocycles were incorporated into dual hollow fiber and other membrane systems to investigate their membrane performance, especially in the proton-coupled transport mode. A study of the effect of methoxyalkyl macrocycle substituents on metal ion transport was completed. A new calorimeter was constructed which made it possible to study the thermodynamics of macrocycle-cation binding to very high temperatures. Measurements of thermodynamic data for the interaction of crown ethers with alkali and alkaline earth cations were achieved to 473 K. Molecular modeling work was begun for the first time on this project and fundamental principles were identified and developed for the establishment of working models in the future.

  5. Liquid crystalline phase as a probe for crystal engineering of lactose: carrier for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sharvil S; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant R

    2015-02-20

    The current work was undertaken to assess suitability of liquid crystalline phase for engineering of lactose crystals and their utility as a carrier in dry powder inhalation formulations. Saturated lactose solution was poured in molten glyceryl monooleate which subsequently transformed into gel. The gel microstructure was analyzed by PPL microscopy and SAXS. Lactose particles recovered from gels after 48 h were analyzed for polymorphism using techniques such as FTIR, XRD, DSC and TGA. Particle size, morphology and aerosolisation properties of prepared lactose were analyzed using Anderson cascade impactor. In situ seeding followed by growth of lactose crystals took place in gels with cubic microstructure as revealed by PPL microscopy and SAXS. Elongated (size ∼ 71 μm) lactose particles with smooth surface containing mixture of α and β-lactose was recovered from gel, however percentage of α-lactose was more as compared to β-lactose. The aerosolisation parameters such as RD, ED, %FPF and % recovery of lactose recovered from gel (LPL) were found to be comparable to Respitose® ML001. Thus LC phase (cubic) can be used for engineering of lactose crystals so as to obtain particles with smooth surface, high elongation ratio and further they can be used as carrier in DPI formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Density Functional Theory Calculations of Activation Energies for Carrier Capture by Defects in Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modine, N. A.; Wright, A. F.; Lee, S. R.

    The rate of defect-induced carrier recombination is determined by both defect levels and carrier capture cross-sections. Density functional theory (DFT) has been widely and successfully used to predict defect levels, but only recently has work begun to focus on using DFT to determine carrier capture cross-sections. Lang and Henry developed the theory of carrier-capture by multiphonon emission in the 1970s and showed that carrier-capture cross-sections differ between defects primarily due to differences in their carrier capture activation energies. We present an approach to using DFT to calculate carrier capture activation energies that does not depend on an assumed configuration coordinate and that fully accounts for anharmonic effects, which can substantially modify carrier activation energies. We demonstrate our approach for intrinisic defects in GaAs and GaN and discuss how our results depend on the choice of exchange-correlation functional and the treatment of spin polarization. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Nuclear Energy and Synthetic Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2012-10-01

    This talk will propose a plan to combine nuclear reactors with the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process to produce synthetic carbon-neutral liquid transportation fuels from sea water. These fuels can be formed from the hydrogen and carbon dioxide in sea water and will burn to water and carbon dioxide in a cycle powered by nuclear reactors. The F-T process was developed nearly 100 years ago as a method of synthesizing liquid fuels from coal. This process presently provides commercial liquid fuels in South Africa, Malaysia, and Qatar, mainly using natural gas as a feedstock. Nuclear energy can be used to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen as well as to extract carbon dioxide from sea water using ion exchange technology. The carbon dioxide and hydrogen react to form synthesis gas, the mixture needed at the beginning of the F-T process. Following further refining, the products, typically diesel and Jet-A, can use existing infrastructure and can power conventional engines with little or no modification. We can then use these carbon-neutral liquid fuels conveniently long into the future with few adverse environmental impacts.

  8. Pyrophosphate as a central energy carrier in the hydrogen-producing extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielen, A.A.M.; Willquist, K.; Engman, J.; Oost, van der J.; Niel, van E.W.J.; Kengen, S.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    The role of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) as an energy carrier in the central metabolism of the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was investigated. In agreement with its annotated genome sequence, cell extracts were shown to exhibit PPi-dependent

  9. Liquid Scintillation Detectors for High Energy Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Stefanie N.; Learned, John G.

    2010-01-01

    Large open volume (not segmented) liquid scintillation detectors have been generally dedicated to low energy neutrino measurements, in the MeV energy region. We describe the potential employment of large detectors (>1 kiloton) for studies of higher energy neutrino interactions, such as cosmic rays and long-baseline experiments. When considering the physics potential of new large instruments the possibility of doing useful measurements with higher energy neutrino interactions has been overlooked. Here we take into account Fermat's principle, which states that the first light to reach each PMT will follow the shortest path between that PMT and the point of origin. We describe the geometry of this process, and the resulting wavefront, which we are calling the 'Fermat surface', and discuss methods of using this surface to extract directional track information and particle identification. This capability may be demonstrated in the new long-baseline neutrino beam from Jaeri accelerator to the KamLAND detector in Japan. Other exciting applications include the use of Hanohano as a movable long-baseline detector in this same beam, and LENA in Europe for future long-baseline neutrino beams from CERN. Also, this methodology opens up the question as to whether a large liquid scintillator detector should be given consideration for use in a future long-baseline experiment from Fermilab to the DUSEL underground laboratory at Homestake.

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENCY, ENERGY SAVING POTENTIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT RESEARCH OF LPG CARRIER REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. О. Bedrosov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays energy efficiency improvement and global warming are issues of current interest because of the natural resources depletion and extreme climate change. Thus, the problem of formation of strict regulations regarding emissions into the air arises. This paper presents the study of cascade refrigeration system for re-condensing of associated petroleum gas during sea transportation for LPG carrier. The structural optimization has been performed. LPG gas carriers with 266 000 m3 ethane capacity require 15 MW cascade refrigeration system for re-condensing if the temperature in the coastal LPG storage is -70°C, and the temperature for transported Ethan is maintained at  -75°C. For current storage conditions the required system cooling capacity is only 1,078 MW intended for the heat gain rejection from the environment during Ethane transportation. The replacement of ozone-depleting refrigerant R22 to alternative agents: R407C, R404A, R402A, R717, R290, R1270 was estimated. The results of analysis have shown that the proposed improvements can be used to optimize the LPG carrier cascade refrigeration system

  11. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering investigations of ferrofluids with different carrier liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasoiu, M.; Avdeev, M. V.; Hasegan, D.; Ghenescu, V.; Ghenescu, M.; Bica, D.; Vekas, L.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a method to investigate the properties of magnetic fluids by means of small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Ferrofluids are dispersions of small, single-domain magnetic particles suspended in a fluid carrier. The neutron scattering methods have been largely used the last two decades for the determination of structural properties of magnetic liquids at microscopic level. There can be investigated the structure of the particle, the aggregation phenomena, the magnetic liquid dynamics, particle-surfactant interaction, surfactant liquid-base interaction and structure and magnetic behavior of the samples. SANS is often used in structural studies of ferrofluids exploring two specific features of neutrons, the possibility of wide contrast variation using protonated/deuterated components and high magnetic scattering from ferromagnetics. This method can be effectively used for determination of the structural parameters of ferrofluids at the scale interval of 1-100 nm. In previous SANS experiments with ferrofluids of the same type it was shown that the nuclear scattering is described well by the spherical core-shell model (magnetite core plus surfactant shell) in a wide interval of momentum transfer (0.05 - 5 nm -1 ) and no significant effects of aggregation and interparticle interaction were observed in this interval for the magnetite concentration up to 5 vol. %. Experiments on small angle neutron scattering were carried out on SANS instrument YuMO in function at IBR-2 high pulsed reactor at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia. (authors)

  12. Optimal Scheduling of a Multi-Carrier Energy Hub Supplemented By Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a management model for optimal scheduling of a multi-carrier energy hub. In the proposed hub, three types of assets are considered: dispersed generating systems (DGs) such as micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units, storage devices such as battery-based electrical storage...... systems (ESSs), and heating/cooling devices such as electrical heater, heat-pumps and absorption chillers. The optimal scheduling and management of the examined energy hub assets in line with electrical transactions with distribution network is modeled as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem....... In this regard, optimal operating points of DG units as well as ESSs are calculated based on a cost-effective strategy. Degradation cost of ESSs is also taken into consideration for short-term scheduling. Simulation results demonstrate that including well-planned energy storage options together with optimal...

  13. Impact of energy filtering and carrier localization on the thermoelectric properties of granular semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narducci, Dario, E-mail: dario.narducci@unimib.it [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Selezneva, Ekaterina [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Cerofolini, Gianfranco [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Frabboni, Stefano; Ottaviani, Giampiero [Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Campi 213, 41100 Modena (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Energy filtering has been widely considered as a suitable tool to increase the thermoelectric performances of several classes of materials. In its essence, energy filtering provides a way to increase the Seebeck coefficient by introducing a strongly energy-dependent scattering mechanism. Under certain conditions, however, potential barriers may lead to carrier localization, that may also affect the thermoelectric properties of a material. A model is proposed, actually showing that randomly distributed potential barriers (as those found, e.g., in polycrystalline films) may lead to the simultaneous occurrence of energy filtering and carrier localization. Localization is shown to cause a decrease of the actual carrier density that, along with the quantum tunneling of carriers, may result in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. The model is corroborated toward experimental data gathered by several authors on degenerate polycrystalline silicon and lead telluride. - Graphical abstract: In heavily doped semiconductors potential barriers may lead to both carrier energy filtering and localization. This may lead to an enhancement of the thermoelectric properties of the material, resulting in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential barriers are shown to lead to carrier localization in thermoelectric materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence is put forward of the formation of a mobility edge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy filtering and localization may explain the enhancement of power factor in degenerate semiconductors.

  14. Optimal Scheduling of Biogas-Solar-Wind Renewable Portfolio for Multi-Carrier Energy Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Bin; Xu, Da; Li, Canbing

    2018-01-01

    the mitigation of renewable intermittency and the efficient utilization of batteries, and a multi-carrier generation scheduling scheme is further presented to dynamically optimize dispatch factors in the coupling matrix for energy-efficient con-version and storage, while different energy demands of end......This paper proposes a multi-source multi-product framework for coupled multi-carrier energy supplies with a biogas-solar-wind hybrid renewable system. In this framework, the biogas-solar-wind complementarities are fully exploited based on digesting thermodynamic effects for the synergetic...... interactions of electricity, gas and heating energy flows, and a coupling matrix is formulated for the modeling of production, conversion, storage, and consumption of different energy carriers. The multi-energy complementarity of biogas-solar-wind renewable portfolio can be utilized to facilitate...

  15. Sources and carriers of energy in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafele, W.

    1976-01-01

    This Dutch summary of a paper read in English has diagrams in English. Topics discussed include the basic materials - coal, lignite, oil and natural gas; world energy requirements; the saving of energy; long term energy supply; system problems; and the application of nuclear fission and the solar energy. Energy strategies being developed at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis at Laxenburg in Austria are described. (D.J.B.)

  16. Adsorption phenomena and anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Despite the large quantity of phenomenological information concerning the bulk properties of nematic phase liquid crystals, little is understood about the origin of the surface energy, particularly the surface, interfacial, and anchoring properties of liquid crystals that affect the performance of liquid crystal devices. Self-contained and unique, Adsorption Phenomena and Anchoring Energy in Nematic Liquid Crystals provides an account of new and established results spanning three decades of research into the problems of anchoring energy and adsorption phenomena in liquid crystals.The book contains a detailed discussion of the origin and possible sources of anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals, emphasizing the dielectric contribution to the anchoring energy in particular. Beginning with fundamental surface and anchoring properties of liquid crystals and the definition of the nematic phase, the authors explain how selective ion adsorption, dielectric energy density, thickness dependence, and bias voltage...

  17. Reducing consumption of electric current and energy carriers. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppo, A.S.; Gruzdev, Yu.M.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluates the energy conservation program developed by the Giproshakht research institute is evaluated. The program was used in the Afanas'evo hydraulic mine in the Tulaugol association (with annual coal output of 2.1 Mt). Energy conservation program consisted of 2 groups of tasks: reducing energy consumption of the mine, and reducing energy consumption during the maximum demand hours in the morning and evening. The following methods were used: reducing idle running of chain and belt conveyors, separate draining of mine water free of dust and rock particles (reducing range of water cleaning), use of automatic control systems for mine blowers, automatic control of the system for coal drying, more efficient use of coal and materials transport in the mine. Energy demand of the mine during peak demand hours was reduced by adjusting fluctuations of energy consumption of the mine to fluctuations of energy demand in the power system of the area, e.g. by reducing mine draining in the morning and evening and operating at full capacity during the time of reduced energy demand. Using the energy conservation measures economized 4,324,300 kWh electric energy annually.

  18. Some aspects of hydrogen as a long-term energy carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quakernaat, J.; De Jong, K.P.; Van Wechem, H.M.H.; Okken, P.A.; Lako, P.; Ybema, J.R.

    1994-11-01

    Hydrogen as a secondary energy carrier received extensive and worldwide attention some ten to fifteen years ago. The developments in the energy market since then have reduced the interest in hydrogen. However, the increased concern for the environment and new technical options have brought hydrogen to the centre of attention once again. These considerations led to the organization of the National Hydrogen Seminar, held on 19 November 1993 at ECN, Petten, Netherlands. Eight experts in the field of hydrogen illustrated the possibilities and prospects of the production, storage and use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. In this report three of these contributions are presented, for which separate abstracts have been prepared. The first paper is on hydrogen in a global long-term perspective, in the second paper carbon is considered as a hydrogen carrier or as a disappearing skeleton, and in the third paper attention is paid to the cost effective integration of hydrogen in energy systems with CO 2 constraints

  19. A comparative study of ammonia energy systems as a future energy carrier, with particular reference to vehicle use in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Daisuke; Tezuka, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The choice of secondary energy carriers, such as electricity, hydrogen and ammonia, influences not only economic and environmental performances but also the reliability of an entire energy system. This article focuses on ammonia because of its excellent property in energy storage, and assesses the relative advantages of several ammonia energy systems for vehicle use in Japan by estimating energy efficiency, CO 2 emissions, and the supply cost of several ammonia energy paths, which are then compared with alternative paths using different energy carriers including hydrogen and electricity. The article also discusses inherent merits and challenges of ammonia energy systems and identifies directions for future research and development. Using ammonia as an energy carrier was demonstrated to be competitive in terms of efficiency, CO 2 emissions and supply cost for energy systems requiring fairly large numbers of storage days. This assessment shows that the use of ammonia in an energy system can improve the continuity of the energy supply in a country or region with insecurity of supply. On the other hand, we argue that further technical improvements and cost reduction associated with both conventional and unconventional ammonia production is imperative for using ammonia in a normal energy system. - Highlights: • We assess merits of energy supply systems using ammonia as an energy carrier. • Comparison with hydrogen or electricity-based energy systems was carried out. • We find ammonia is competitive when requiring large numbers of storage days. • The use of ammonia in energy systems can improve the continuity of energy supply. • Technical improvements are needed to make ammonia attractive in normal systems

  20. Adiabatic liquid piston compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Tage [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Elmegaard, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Schroeder Pedersen, A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-01-15

    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting the mechanical energy into electricity at times of high electricity demand. Two such systems are currently in operation; one in Germany (Huntorf) and one in the USA (Macintosh, Alabama). In both cases, an underground cavern is used as a pressure vessel for the storage of the compressed air. Both systems are in the range of 100 MW electrical power output with several hours of production stored as compressed air. In this range, enormous volumes are required, which make underground caverns the only economical way to design the pressure vessel. Both systems use axial turbine compressors to compress air when charging the system. The compression leads to a significant increase in temperature, and the heat generated is dumped into the ambient. This energy loss results in a low efficiency of the system, and when expanding the air, the expansion leads to a temperature drop reducing the mechanical output of the expansion turbines. To overcome this, fuel is burned to heat up the air prior to expansion. The fuel consumption causes a significant cost for the storage. Several suggestions have been made to store compression heat for later use during expansion and thereby avoid the use of fuel (so called Adiabatic CAES units), but no such units are in operation at present. The CAES system investigated in this project uses a different approach to avoid compression heat loss. The system uses a pre-compressed pressure vessel full of air. A liquid is pumped into the bottom of the vessel when charging and the same liquid is withdrawn through a turbine when discharging. In this case, the liquid works effectively as a piston compressing the gas in the vessel, hence the name &apos

  1. Distribution of energy carriers and resulting CO2 emission caused by the use of energy in Norwegian buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enlid, Elin; Tokle, Trude

    1999-03-01

    This report calculates the primary energy used in heating and management of buildings in Norway and distributes it according to user category and energy carrier. It also calculates the emission of carbon dioxide caused by this energy use. The total amount of energy used for heating and management of buildings in Norway in 1997 was 84 TWh. The corresponding emission of carbon dioxide was 10.5 mill tonnes, about 25% of the total domestic emission of carbon dioxide, including transport

  2. Hydrogen and Biofuels - A Modeling Analysis of Competing Energy Carriers for Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guel, Timur; Kypreos, Socrates; Barreto, Leonardo

    2007-07-01

    This paper deals with the prospects of hydrogen and biofuels as energy carriers in the Western European transportation sector. The assessment is done by combining the US hydrogen analysis H2A models for the design of hydrogen production and delivery chains, and the Western European Hydrogen Markal Model EHM with a detailed representation of biofuels, and the European electricity and transportation sector. The paper derives policy recommendations to support the market penetration of hydrogen and biofuels, and investigates learning interactions between the different energy carriers. (auth)

  3. Methodology for the assessment of oxygen as an energy carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming Wei

    Due to the energy intensity of the oxygen generating process, the electric power grid would benefit if the oxygen generating process was consumed electric power only during low demand periods. Thus, the question to be addressed in this study is whether oxygen production and/or usage can be modified to achieve energy storage and/or transmission objectives at lower cost. The specific benefit to grid would be a leveling, over time, of the demand profile and thus would require less installation capacity. In order to track the availability of electricity, a compressed air storage unit is installed between the cryogenic distillation section and the main air compressor of air separation unit. A profit maximizing scheme for sizing storage inventory and related equipments is developed. The optimum scheme is capable of market responsiveness. Profits of steel maker, oxy-combustion, and IGCC plants with storage facilities can be higher than those plants without storage facilities, especially, at high-price market. Price tracking feature of air storage integration will certainly increase profit margins of the plants. The integration may push oxy-combustion and integrated gasification combined cycle process into economic viability. Since oxygen is used in consumer sites, it may generate at remote locations and transport to the place needed. Energy losses and costs analysis of oxygen transportation is conducted for various applications. Energy consumptions of large capacity and long distance GOX and LOX pipelines are lower than small capacity pipelines. However, transportation losses and costs of GOX and LOX pipelines are still higher than electricity transmission.

  4. Two-stage supported liquid membrane method for the separation of carrier-free {sup 90}Y from {sup 90}Sr using KSM-17 and CMPO as carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhami, P S; Naik, P W; Dudwadkar, N L; Kannan, R; Achuthan, P V; Dakshinamoorthy, A; Jambunathan, U; Munshi, S K; Dey, P K [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Pandey, Usha; Venkatesh, Meera [Radiopharmaceuticals Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2007-07-01

    A two stage supported liquid membrane system is developed for the separation of carrier free {sup 90}Y from {sup 90}Sr for therapeutic applications. The feed containing {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y in nitric acid solution at pH 2 is placed in the feed compartment and transported across a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane containing 2-ethyhexyl2ethylhexyl phosphonic acid to a 4M HNO{sub 3} receiver phase. This is then transported across another polytetrafluoroethylene membrane containing octyl phenyl N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl methylphosphene oxide to another receiving phase, 1 M acetic acid. This has been implemented on simultaneous and sequential modes with very good yield. The second stage will act as a barrier for {sup 90}Sr, and will improve the product purity. (author)

  5. Biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector; Biomassebaserade energibaerare foer transportsektorn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Bengt

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to study the technical and economic prerequisites to attain reduced carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector, and to study other environmental impacts resulting from an increased use of biomass-based energy carriers. CO{sub 2} emission reduction per unit arable and forest land used for biomass production (kg CO{sub 2}/ha,year) and costs for CO{sub 2} emission reduction (SEK/kg CO{sub 2}) are estimated for the substitution of gasoline and diesel with rape methyl ester, biogas from lucerne, ethanol from wheat and ethanol, methanol, hydrogen and electricity from Salix and logging residues. Of the studied energy carriers, those based on Salix provide the largest CO{sub 2} emission reduction. In a medium long perspective, the costs for CO{sub 2} emission reduction seem to be lowest for methanol from Salix and logging residues. The use of fuel cell vehicles, using methanol or hydrogen as energy carriers, can in a longer perspective provide more energy efficient utilization of biomass for transportation than the use of internal combustion engine vehicles. 136 refs, 12 figs, 25 tabs

  6. Sodium tetra-hydro-borate as energy/hydrogen carrier, its history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirci, U.B.; Miele, Ph.

    2009-01-01

    Sodium tetra-hydro-borate NaBH 4 is considered as being a promising energy/hydrogen carrier. NaBH 4 is not a new compound. It has been discovered in 1940's by Prof. H.C. Brown, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry in 1979. NaBH 4 has thus a history and this history distinguishes the NaBH 4 utilisation as hydrogen carrier from that as energy carrier. In fact, the history of NaBH 4 (for both utilizations) can be divided into three periods, each period being characterised by specific societal challenges. Whereas during the first period the challenges were military and political, the challenges in the third period (i.e. at present) are energetic, environmental, civilian, social and political. The second period was rather calm for NaBH 4 even if it was intensively used as a reducing agent in organic chemistry. (authors)

  7. Ionic Liquids in Polymer Design: From Energy to Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-19

    of Papers published in non peer- reviewed journals: Final Report: Ionic Liquids in Polymer Design: From Energy to Health Report Title ACS Symposium...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: ACS Symposium: Ionic Liquids in Polymer Design: From Energy to Health at Fall 2015 ACS Meeting in Boston, MA The...combination of ionic liquids and polymers has emerged as an active field of exploration in polymer science, where new materials have be realized for

  8. Energy absorption behaviors of nanoporous materials functionalized (NMF) liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Wan

    2011-01-01

    For many decades, people have been actively investigating high-performance energy absorption materials, so as to develop lightweight and small-sized protective and damping devices, such as blast mitigation helmets, vehicle armors, etc. Recently, the high energy absorption efficiency of nanoporous materials functionalized (NMF) liquids has drawn considerable attention. A NMF liquid is usually a liquid suspension of nanoporous particles with large nanopore surface areas (100 - 2,000 m²/g). The ...

  9. Methane and methanol as energy carriers. Economy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deipenau, H

    1977-12-01

    The objective of the study was to develop economic and technical means of supplying LNG and methanol to the industrial centers of Germany using natural gas from the Iranian area as the raw material. The available possibilities for the preparation, transport, and storage of LNG and methanol were clarified and examined. Cost estimates were made of transport from Kangan to Wilhelmshaven. Alternatives were compared from economic and technical viewpoints. Ways in which LNG and methanol could be used in Germany (motor cars, power plants, gas utilities) were evaluated. The evaluations showed that energy costs for LNG in Wilhelmshaven are lower than those for methanol. Large quantities of LNG and methanol from the Persian Gulf can be sold in the various branches of the German energy market on the condition that the crude gas price of the Iranian Gulf does not exceed 1.- to 3.-DM/Gcal. At present the natural gas exporting countries demand crude natural gas prices of about 5.-DM/Gcal.

  10. Development of a Practical Hydrogen Storage System Based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers and a Homogeneous Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Craig [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States); Brayton, Daniel [Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC, Honolulu, HI (United States); Jorgensen, Scott W. [General Motors, LLC, Warren, MI (United States). Research and Development Center. Chemical and Material Systems Lab.; Hou, Peter [General Motors, LLC, Warren, MI (United States). Research and Development Center. Chemical and Material Systems Lab.

    2017-03-24

    The objectives of this project were: 1) optimize a hydrogen storage media based on LOC/homogeneous pincer catalyst (carried out at Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC) and 2) develop space, mass and energy efficient tank and reactor system to house and release hydrogen from the media (carried out at General Motor Research Center).

  11. Towards Terabit Carrier Ethernet and Energy Efficient Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders

    This thesis focuses on the challenges of scaling current network node technology to support connection speeds of 100Gbps and beyond. Out of the many exiting aspects of reaching this goal, the main scope of this thesis is to investigate packet processing (address lookup and scheduling), forward....... The more advanced schemes also require more complex calculations to process each bit. This thesis will investigate how both the standard OTN FEC as well as more advanced FEC schemes can be implemented for 100G and above operation. As the networks are expanded to run at increasingly higher speeds...... error correction and energy efficiency. Scheduling and address lookup are key functions and potential bottle necks in high speed network nodes, as the minimum packet/frame sizes in both the popular Ethernet protocol, as well as the Internet Protocol (IP) still remains constant (84B and 40B, respectively...

  12. Efficiency analysis for the production of modern energy carriers from renewable resources and wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ptasinski, K.J.; Tiezzi, E.; Marques, J.C.; Brebbia, C.A.; Jorgensen, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Two global problems related to the use of fossil fuels are fast depletion and environmental damage. Biomass has a great potential as a clean renewable feedstock for producing modern energy carriers such as biodiesel, methanol, and hydrogen. However, the use of biomass is accompanied by possible

  13. Energy-loss return gate via liquid dielectric polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehun; Yong, Hyungseok; Kim, Banseok; Kim, Dongseob; Choi, Dukhyun; Park, Yong Tae; Lee, Sangmin

    2018-04-12

    There has been much research on renewable energy-harvesting techniques. However, owing to increasing energy demands, significant energy-related issues remain to be solved. Efforts aimed at reducing the amount of energy loss in electric/electronic systems are essential for reducing energy consumption and protecting the environment. Here, we design an energy-loss return gate system that reduces energy loss from electric/electronic systems by utilizing the polarization of liquid dielectrics. The use of a liquid dielectric material in the energy-loss return gate generates electrostatic potential energy while reducing the dielectric loss of the electric/electronic system. Hence, an energy-loss return gate can make breakthrough impacts possible by amplifying energy-harvesting efficiency, lowering the power consumption of electronics, and storing the returned energy. Our study indicates the potential for enhancing energy-harvesting technologies for electric/electronics systems, while increasing the widespread development of these systems.

  14. LTE UE Energy Saving by Applying Carrier Aggregation in a HetNet Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Wang, Hua; Mogensen, Preben

    2013-01-01

    In this work it is examined if downlink Carrier Aggregation (CA) can be used to save UE energy. A dual-receiver LTE release 10 UE is compared with a single-receiver LTE release 8 UE. The models are based on scaling of an existing LTE release 8 UE power model. The energy consumption of the UEs...... is examined in a Heterogeneous Network scenario consisting of macro and small cells. The unexpected conclusion is that CA UEs can save energy, compared to LTE release 8 UEs, if they, depending on cell load, experience a throughput gain of 20%. However if the UE throughput is unaltered the energy consumption...

  15. Direct Effect of Dielectric Surface Energy on Carrier Transport in Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shujun; Tang, Qingxin; Tian, Hongkun; Zhao, Xiaoli; Tong, Yanhong; Barlow, Stephen; Marder, Seth R; Liu, Yichun

    2018-05-09

    The understanding of the characteristics of gate dielectric that leads to optimized carrier transport remains controversial, and the conventional studies applied organic semiconductor thin films, which introduces the effect of dielectric on the growth of the deposited semiconductor thin films and hence only can explore the indirect effects. Here, we introduce pregrown organic single crystals to eliminate the indirect effect (semiconductor growth) in the conventional studies and to undertake an investigation of the direct effect of dielectric on carrier transport. It is shown that the matching of the polar and dispersive components of surface energy between semiconductor and dielectric is favorable for higher mobility. This new empirical finding may show the direct relationship between dielectric and carrier transport for the optimized mobility of organic field-effect transistors and hence show a promising potential for the development of next-generation high-performance organic electronic devices.

  16. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  17. Solitons as candidates for energy carriers in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yi; Ye, Liu; Chen, Han-Shuang; Mao, Shi-Feng; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun

    2018-01-01

    Currently, effective phonons (renormalized or interacting phonons) rather than solitary waves (for short, solitons) are regarded as the energy carriers in nonlinear lattices. In this work, by using the approximate soliton solutions of the corresponding equations of motion and adopting the Boltzmann distribution for these solitons, the average velocities of solitons are obtained and are compared with the sound velocities of energy transfer. Excellent agreements with the numerical results and the predictions of other existing theories are shown in both the symmetric Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-β lattices and the asymmetric Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-α β lattices. These clearly indicate that solitons are suitable candidates for energy carriers in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices. In addition, the root-mean-square velocity of solitons can be obtained from the effective phonons theory.

  18. Energy resolution in liquid argon doped with allene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, H.; Doke, T.; Masuda, K.; Shibamura, E.

    1989-01-01

    Studies have been made on liquid argon as detection medium with large volume and good energy and position resolution. It is advantageous to dope liquid argon with molecules with an ionization potential lower than the energy of scintillation light. In the present work, the energy resolution for 5.305MeV alpha particles is examined, and the effect of allene added to liquid argon is investigated. Some preliminary results for 976 KeV electrons are also presented. Allene is purified by two methods: (a) small-quantity purification and (b) mass purification. Three methods are tried for mixing allene with argon. Results concerning the allene purification methods, effect of allene concentration, and allene-argon mixing methods are presented. Discussion is made of the collected charge and energy resolution. It is concluded that the addition of allene to liquid argon greatly improves the energy resolution of 5.305 MeV alpha particles. The best intrinsic resolution is 1.4 percent FWHM obtained for 4 ppm allene doped liquid argon. In the case of 976 KeV electron radiation, energy resolution is not improved by adding allene to liquid argon. The best resolution is 31 KeV FWHM obtaiend for 65ppm allene doped liquid argon. (N.K.)

  19. Efficient energy storage in liquid desiccant cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hublitz, Astrid

    2008-07-18

    Liquid Desiccant Cooling Systems (LDCS) are open loop sorption systems for air conditioning that use a liquid desiccant such as a concentrated salt solution to dehumidify the outside air and cool it by evaporative cooling. Thermochemical energy storage in the concentrated liquid desiccant can bridge power mismatches between demand and supply. Low-flow LDCS provide high energy storage capacities but are not a state-of-the-art technology yet. The key challenge remains the uniform distribution of the liquid desiccant on the heat and mass transfer surfaces. The present research analyzes the factors of influence on the energy storage capacity by simulation of the heat and mass transfer processes and specifies performance goals for the distribution of the process media. Consequently, a distribution device for the liquid desiccant is developed that reliably meets the performance goals. (orig.)

  20. Raman imaging of carrier distribution in the channel of an ionic liquid-gated transistor fabricated with regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.; Enokida, I.; Yamamoto, J.; Furukawa, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Raman images of carriers (positive polarons) at the channel of an ionic liquid-gated transistor (ILGT) fabricated with regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) have been measured with excitation at 785 nm. The observed spectra indicate that carriers generated are positive polarons. The intensities of the 1415 cm-1 band attributed to polarons in the P3HT channel were plotted as Raman images; they showed the carrier density distribution. When the source-drain voltage VD is lower than the source-gate voltage VG (linear region), the carrier density was uniform. When VD is nearly equal to VG (saturation region), a negative carrier density gradient from the source electrode towards the drain electrode was observed. This carrier density distribution is associated with the observed current-voltage characteristics, which is not consistent with the "pinch-off" theory of inorganic semiconductor transistors.

  1. Low-energy properties of fractional helical Luttinger liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, T.; Fritz, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371569559; Schuricht, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369284690; Loss, D.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the low-energy properties of (quasi) helical and fractional helical Luttinger liquids. In particular, we calculate the Drude peak of the optical conductivity, the density of states, as well as charge transport properties of the interacting system with and without attached Fermi liquid

  2. Non-dissipative energy capture of confined liquid in nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Baoxing; Chen, Xi [Columbia Nanomechanics Research Center, Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Lu, Weiyi; Zhao, Cang [Department of Structural Engineering, University of California–San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0085 (United States); Qiao, Yu, E-mail: yqiao@ucsd.edu [Department of Structural Engineering, University of California–San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0085 (United States); Program of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California–San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2014-05-19

    In the past, energy absorption of protection/damping materials is mainly based on energy dissipation, which causes a fundamental conflict between the requirements of safety/comfort and efficiency. In the current study, a nanofluidic “energy capture” system is reported, which is based on nanoporous materials and nonwetting liquid. Both molecular dynamics simulations and experiments show that as the liquid overcomes the capillary effect and infiltrates into the nanopores, the mechanical energy of a stress wave could be temporarily stored by the confined liquid phase and isolated from the wave energy transmission path. Such a system can work under a relatively low pressure for mitigating high-pressure stress waves, not necessarily involved in any energy dissipation processes.

  3. Non-dissipative energy capture of confined liquid in nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Baoxing; Chen, Xi; Lu, Weiyi; Zhao, Cang; Qiao, Yu

    2014-01-01

    In the past, energy absorption of protection/damping materials is mainly based on energy dissipation, which causes a fundamental conflict between the requirements of safety/comfort and efficiency. In the current study, a nanofluidic “energy capture” system is reported, which is based on nanoporous materials and nonwetting liquid. Both molecular dynamics simulations and experiments show that as the liquid overcomes the capillary effect and infiltrates into the nanopores, the mechanical energy of a stress wave could be temporarily stored by the confined liquid phase and isolated from the wave energy transmission path. Such a system can work under a relatively low pressure for mitigating high-pressure stress waves, not necessarily involved in any energy dissipation processes.

  4. Recovery of salicylic acid from aqueous solution by solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane using TOMAC as carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouki, Noura; Tayeb, Rafik; Dhahbi, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    Conventional sewage treatment plants do not fully degrade residues of pharmaceuticals, so that they are introduced into the aquatic environment. On this basis, the demand for the development of efficient systems for removing these compounds from water has assumed a great research interest. Membrane operations are increasingly employed in many industrial sectors as important alternative technologies to the classical processes of separation. Among membrane-based separation processes, the use of supported liquid membranes (SLMs) has received growing attention during recent years. In our work we had tried to recover a pharmaceutical product, salicylic acid (S.A), from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane using an ionic liquid: the tri octylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC) as carrier. Ionic liquids has been revealed as interesting clean alternatives to classical solvents and their use as a liquid phase results in the stabilization of the SLMs duo to their negligible vapour pressure, the possibility of minimising their solubility in the surrounding phases by adequate selection of the cation and anion, and the greater capillary force associated with their high viscosity. For this reason we had studied the influence of different parameters which could affect the efficiency of the transport: pH of the feed phase, the nature of the strippant, the concentration of the strippant, the nature of the support and the initial concentration of the salicylic acid in the feed phase. We had noticed that the pH of the feed solution had no effect of the percentage extraction and after 24 hours we can extract completely our solute. TOMAC seemed to be a good extractant but we found difficult to strip salicylic acid from the TOMAC phase and this could be related to the formation of water micro environments in the ionic liquid membrane.

  5. Progress of liquid metal technology and application in energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Keiji; Kamei, Mitsuru; Nei, Hiromichi.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid metals are excellent energy transport media, and recently remarkable development has been observed in the technology of handling sodium and the machinery and equipment. In nuclear fusion, the development of the use of lithium as the coolant is advanced. For space technology, attention has been paid from the early stage to various liquid metals. For general industries, liquid metals have been used for high temperature heat pipes and the utilization of solar heat, and mercury vapor turbines were manufactured for trial. Besides, attention is paid anew to liquid metal MHD electric power generation. The development of the NaS batteries for electric cars and electric power storage and the interchange of liquid metal technology with the fields of iron and steel, metallurgy and so on advance. It is expected that liquid metal technology bears future advanced energy engineering while deepening the interchange with other advanced fields also in order to reactivate atomic energy technology. Liquid metals have the features of high electric and thermal conductivities, chemical activity and opaque property as metals, and fluidity and relatively high boiling point and melting point as liquids. FBRs, fusion reactors and the power sources for space use are described. (K.I.)

  6. An efficient energy response model for liquid scintillator detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebanowski, Logan; Wan, Linyan; Ji, Xiangpan; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shaomin

    2018-05-01

    Liquid scintillator detectors are playing an increasingly important role in low-energy neutrino experiments. In this article, we describe a generic energy response model of liquid scintillator detectors that provides energy estimations of sub-percent accuracy. This model fits a minimal set of physically-motivated parameters that capture the essential characteristics of scintillator response and that can naturally account for changes in scintillator over time, helping to avoid associated biases or systematic uncertainties. The model employs a one-step calculation and look-up tables, yielding an immediate estimation of energy and an efficient framework for quantifying systematic uncertainties and correlations.

  7. Hydrogen as an energy carrier and its production by nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The impact of power generation on environment is becoming an ever increasing concern in decision making when considering the energy options and power systems required by a country in order to sustain its economic growth and development. Hydrogen is a strong emerging candidate with a significant role as a clean, environmentally benign and safe to handle major energy carrier in the future. Its enhanced utilization in distributed power generation as well as in propulsion systems for mobile applications will help to significantly mitigate the strong negative effects on the environment. It ia also the nuclear power that will be of utmost importance in the energy supply of many countries over the next decades. The development of new, innovative reactor concepts utilizing passive safety features for process heat and electricity generation are considered by many to play a substantial role in the world`s energy future in helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report produced by IAEA documents past and current activities in Member States in the development of hydrogen production as an energy carrier and its corresponding production through the use of nuclear power. It provides an introduction to nuclear technology as a means of producing hydrogen or other upgraded fuels and to the energy carries hydrogen and its main fields of application. Emphasis is placed on high-temperature reactor technology which can achieve the simultaneous generation of electricity and the production of high-temperature process heat Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Hydrogen as an energy carrier and its production by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The impact of power generation on environment is becoming an ever increasing concern in decision making when considering the energy options and power systems required by a country in order to sustain its economic growth and development. Hydrogen is a strong emerging candidate with a significant role as a clean, environmentally benign and safe to handle major energy carrier in the future. Its enhanced utilization in distributed power generation as well as in propulsion systems for mobile applications will help to significantly mitigate the strong negative effects on the environment. It ia also the nuclear power that will be of utmost importance in the energy supply of many countries over the next decades. The development of new, innovative reactor concepts utilizing passive safety features for process heat and electricity generation are considered by many to play a substantial role in the world's energy future in helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report produced by IAEA documents past and current activities in Member States in the development of hydrogen production as an energy carrier and its corresponding production through the use of nuclear power. It provides an introduction to nuclear technology as a means of producing hydrogen or other upgraded fuels and to the energy carries hydrogen and its main fields of application. Emphasis is placed on high-temperature reactor technology which can achieve the simultaneous generation of electricity and the production of high-temperature process heat

  9. Assessment of the potential future market in Sweden for hydrogen as an energy carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleson, G.

    Future hydrogen markets for the period 1980-2025 are projected, the probable range of hydrogen production costs for various manufacturing methods is estimated, and expected market shares in competition with alternative energy carriers are evaluated. A general scenario for economic and industrial development in Sweden for the given period was evaluated, showing the average increase in gross national product to become 1.6% per year. Three different energy scenarios were then developed: alternatives were based on nuclear energy, renewable indigenous energy sources, and the present energy situation with free access to imported natural or synthetic fuels. An analysis was made within each scenario of the competitiveness of hydrogen on both the demand and the supply of the following sectors: chemical industry, steel industry, peak power production, residential and commercial heating, and transportation. Costs were calculated for the production, storage and transmission of hydrogen according to technically feasible methods and were compared to those of alternative energy carriers. Health, environmental and societal implications were also considered. The market penetration of hydrogen in each sector was estimated, and the required investment capital was shown to be less than 4% of the national gross investment sum.

  10. Micro-fabricated Liquid Encapsulated Energy Harvester with Polymer Barrier Layer as Liquid Electret Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu, L; Xu, H Y; Xu, B J; Song, L

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the electret discharge issue for liquid based electret energy harvesters. An interface structure of PDMS/PTFE polymer barrier layer between liquid and electrets is introduced, achieving 75% charge retain rate over 100h, compared with 0% without the proposed layer over 100h. Further, the PDMS/PTFE layer is introduced into liquid encapsulated energy harvester (LEEH) and is compatible with micro-fabrication process. The retain rate of device voltage is about 47%∼65% over 100h. At 100h after corona charging, the device generates maximally 3.7V, 0.55μW @1Hz rotation

  11. Single component, reversible ionic liquids for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittoria Blasucci; Ryan Hart; Veronica Llopis Mestre; Dominique Julia Hahne; Melissa Burlager; Hillary Huttenhower; Beng Joo Reginald Thio; Pamela Pollet; Charles L. Liotta; Charles A. Eckert [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering

    2010-06-15

    Single component, reversible ionic liquids have excellent potential as novel solvents for a variety of energy applications. Our energy industry is faced with many new challenges including increased energy consumption, depleting oil reserves, and increased environmental awareness. We report the use of reversible ionic liquids to solve two energy challenges: extraction of hydrocarbons from contaminated crude oil and carbon capture from power plant flue gas streams. Our reversible solvents are derived from silylated amine molecular liquids which react with carbon dioxide reversibly to form ionic liquids. Here we compare the properties of various silylated amine precursors and their corresponding ionic liquids. We show how the property changes are advantageous in the two aforementioned energy applications. In the case of hydrocarbon purification, we take advantage of the polarity switch between precursor and ionic liquid to enable separations. In carbon capture, our solvents act as dual physical and chemical capture agents for carbon dioxide. Finally, we show the potential economics of scale-up for both processes. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Liquid first walls for magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Liquids (∼7 neutron mean free paths thick) with certain restrictions can probably be used in magnetic fusion designs between the burning plasma and the structural materials of the plant. If this works there are a number of profound advantages: lower the cost of electricity by more than 35%; remove the need to develop first wall materials saving over 4B$ in development costs; reduce the amount and kind of wastes generated in the plant; and permit a wider choice of materials. Evaporated liquid must be efficiently ionized in an edge plasma to prevent penetrating into the burning plasma and diminishing the burn rate. The fraction of evaporated material ionized is estimated to be 0.993 for Li, 0.98 for Flibe and 0.9999 for Li 17 Pb 83 . This ionized vapor would be swept along open field lines into a remote burial chamber. The most practical systems would be those with topological open field lines on the outer surface as is the case of a field reversed configuration (FRC), a Spheromak, a Z-pinch, or a mirror machine. In a Tokamak, including the Spherical Tokamak, the field lines outside the separatrix are restricted to a small volume inside the toroidal coil making for difficulties in introducing the liquid and removing the ionized vapor

  13. Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Ichiki, Akihisa; Kusano, Yuya; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs

  14. Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko, E-mail: takeda@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Sugimoto, Noriaki [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Ichiki, Akihisa [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Kusano, Yuya [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Toyota Motor Corp., 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan); Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2015-09-28

    Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs.

  15. Current and future competitiveness of renewable energy carriers - Conceptions about competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, K.

    1998-01-01

    The dissertation draws attention to the fact that in the world today 80% of the resources that are used are limited - non renewable energy carriers - and because of the long time between planning and doing (carrying out) within the energy sector, it is worthwhile from the long-term perspective to steer early on towards more sustainable solutions, such as renewable energy carriers. The State and the market have begun to adjust to concepts such as 'competitiveness', which can be viewed as containing both feasibility and legitimacy aspects - the state through different regulations and environmental taxes and environmental fees, and actors on the market that marginally produce/choose renewable energy carriers. The overlying methodology in the dissertation is an actor's viewpoint. This viewpoint brings forth, in turn, two different views, the analytical and the interpretative. The dissertation presents different stances within the energy sector: commercial production logic, commercial sustainability logic, and the socio-economic sustainability logic. By drawing one's attention to how one has the possibility to create (enact) his own reality, it is possible to highlight how organisations can increase their competitiveness by being conscious of their own view and others, logic, which in turn forms their views about competitiveness, which in turn determines which projects will materialize. Enterprises and individuals create a description of reality together through a dialectic process, i.e. by developing an environmental management system that contains elements of environmental auditing, environmental performance indicators, and environmental labelling, which 'reveal' the production conditions that lie behind the actualization of the final product. An example is the product, 'green' electricity, which, in spite of the fact that the final product - electricity - is identical irrespective of the production method, just at the moment can be sold at different prices according

  16. Carrier-facilitated transport of Cd(II) through a supported liquid membrane containing thiacalix[4]arene derivatives as ionophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghbani, Asma; Tayeb, Rafik; Dhahbi, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of a facilitated transport process of cadmium ions through a SLM system incorporating new extractant agents, thiacalix[4]arenes, was studied. These molecules have sulfur atoms instead of usual methylene bridges. The chemical modification of the upper or the lower rim provides a great variety of supra molecules having different complexation ability and different conformational behaviour. The efficiency of the transport across the inner membrane organic liquid phase is shown to depend on the chemical (affinity) and structural (conformational states possible) parameters of these complexing molecules. In this work, two different thiacalix[4]arenes were selected as effective ionophore for the treatment of liquid media loaded in Cd(II). The results show that these thiacalix[4]arenes derivative ensure facilitated transport of cadmium cations through supported liquid membranes. Especially, the non-substituted thiacalix[4]arene can be considered as an effective extractant agent. The incidence of several parameters on transport efficiency such as pH of both aqueous solutions and carrier concentration was studied. The permeation of the species is due to a proton potential gradient (the driving force of the process) existing between the two opposite sides of the SLM. The initial flux, J, is found to be equal to 6.7.10 -7 mol.m -2 .s -1 , under optimal experimental conditions.

  17. Spin and energy transfer between magnetic ions and free carriers in diluted-magnetic semiconductor heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, D.R. [Experimental Physics 2, University of Dortmund, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kneip, M.; Bayer, M. [Experimental Physics 2, University of Dortmund, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Maksimov, A.A.; Tartakovskii, I.I. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Keller, D.; Ossau, W.; Molenkamp, L.W. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Wuerzburg, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Scherbakov, A.V.; Akimov, A.V. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Waag, A. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    In this paper we give a brief overview of our studies on dynamical processes in diluted-magnetic-semiconductor heterostructures based on (Zn,Mn)Se and (Cd,Mn)Te. Presence of free carriers is an important factor which determines the energy- and spin transfer in a coupled systems of magnetic ions, lattice (the phonon system) and carriers. We report also new data on dynamical response of magnetic ions interacting with photogenerated electron-hole plasma. (Zn,Mn)Se/(Zn,Be)Se structures with relatively high Mn content of 11% provide spin-lattice relaxation time of about 20 ns, which is considerably shorter then the characteristic times of nonequilibrium phonons ranging to 1 {mu}s. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. A volatile fluid assisted thermo-pneumatic liquid metal energy harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jianbo, E-mail: zhouyuan@mail.ipc.ac.cn, E-mail: jianbotang@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Junjie; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Yuan, E-mail: zhouyuan@mail.ipc.ac.cn, E-mail: jianbotang@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-01-11

    A close-cycle self-driving thermal energy harvester using liquid metal as energy carrier fluid has been proposed. The driving force that pushes the liquid metal against flow resistance and gravity is provided by a resistively heated volatile fluid based on thermo-pneumatic principle. The tested harvester prototype demonstrated its capability to extract thermal energy between small temperature gradient, at a scale of 10 °C. During a 5-h operation, it further demonstrated robust liquid metal recirculating performance at a time-average volume flow rate of 14 ml/min with a 12.25 W heating load. The prototype also managed to self-adjust to variable working conditions which indicated the reliability of this method. Advantages of this method include simple-structural design, rigid-motion free operation, and low-temperature actuation. These advantages make it uniquely suited for solar energy and low-grade heat harvesting, high heat flux electronics cooling, as well as autonomous machines actuating.

  19. Determination of hot carrier energy distributions from inversion of ultrafast pump-probe reflectivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilpern, Tal; Manjare, Manoj; Govorov, Alexander O; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Gray, Stephen K; Harutyunyan, Hayk

    2018-05-10

    Developing a fundamental understanding of ultrafast non-thermal processes in metallic nanosystems will lead to applications in photodetection, photochemistry and photonic circuitry. Typically, non-thermal and thermal carrier populations in plasmonic systems are inferred either by making assumptions about the functional form of the initial energy distribution or using indirect sensors like localized plasmon frequency shifts. Here we directly determine non-thermal and thermal distributions and dynamics in thin films by applying a double inversion procedure to optical pump-probe data that relates the reflectivity changes around Fermi energy to the changes in the dielectric function and in the single-electron energy band occupancies. When applied to normal incidence measurements our method uncovers the ultrafast excitation of a non-Fermi-Dirac distribution and its subsequent thermalization dynamics. Furthermore, when applied to the Kretschmann configuration, we show that the excitation of propagating plasmons leads to a broader energy distribution of electrons due to the enhanced Landau damping.

  20. Charge carrier transport in layers of discotic liquid crystals as studied by transient photocurrents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybak, A.; Pfleger, Jiří; Jung, J. Y.; Pavlík, Martin; Glowacki, I.; Ulanski, J.; Tomovic, Z.; Müllen, K.; Geerts, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 156, 2-4 (2006), s. 302-309 ISSN 0379-6779 Grant - others:NANOFUN-POLY(PL) 5709/R04/R05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic semiconductors * discotic liquid crystals * photoconductivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.685, year: 2006

  1. Solid/liquid interfacial free energies in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, D.; Tiller, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a semiquantitative technique for predicting the segregation characteristics of smooth interfaces between binary solid and liquid solutions in terms of readily available thermodynamic parameters of the bulk solutions. A lattice-liquid interfacial model and a pair-bonded regular solution model are employed in the treatment with an accommodation for liquid interfacial entropy. The method is used to calculate the interfacial segregation and the free energy of segregation for solid-liquid interfaces between binary solutions for the (111) boundary of fcc crystals. The zone of compositional transition across the interface is shown to be on the order of a few atomic layers in width, being moderately narrower for ideal solutions. The free energy of the segregated interface depends primarily upon the solid composition and the heats of fusion of the component atoms, the composition difference of the solutions, and the difference of the heats of mixing of the solutions.

  2. Carrier mediated hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction combined with HPLC-UV for preconcentration and determination of some tetracycline antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Shahab; Yamini, Yadollah; Esrafili, Ali

    2009-02-01

    In the present study, a simple and efficient preconcentration method was developed using carrier mediated three phase liquid phase microextraction prior to HPLC-UV for simultaneous extraction and determination of trace amounts of highly hydrophilic tetracycline antibiotics including tetracycline (TCN), oxytetracycline (OTCN) and doxycycline (DCN) in bovine milk, human plasma and water samples. For extraction, 11.0 mL of the aqueous sample containing TCNs and 0.05 M Na(2)HPO(4) (9.10.995). Finally, applicability of the proposed method was successfully confirmed by extraction and determination of the drugs in water and plasma samples as well as in bovine milk samples with low and high fat contents. Comparing to the traditional methods, the proposed method exhibits high sensitivity and high preconcentration factors as well as good precision. The extraction setup is simple and due to active transport of analytes, high cleanup effect and good selectivity are obtained in extraction process.

  3. Separation of Am(III) from SHLW using a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane containing TODGA as the carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, S.A.; Raut, D.R.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-01-01

    Facilitated transport of Am(III) from nitrate medium has been investigated through a hollow fibre supported liquid membrane using N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl diglycolamide (TODGA) as the carrier. The influence of aqueous feed composition on the permeability of Am(III) is reported. Quantitative transport of Am(III) was observed in 45 min from a feed solution containing 1g/l Nd(III) at 3.5M HNO 3 . Similarly, quantitative transport of Am(III) was observed in 30 min from a synthetic high level waste containing ∼0.6g/l total lanthanides, in addition to the other non-extractable metal ions. (author)

  4. Near-Infrared Resonance Energy Transfer Glucose Biosensors in Hybrid Microcapsule Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike McShane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence-based sensing systems offer potential for noninvasive monitoring with implantable devices, but require carrier technologies that provide suitable immobilization, accessibility, and biocompatibility. Recent developments towards this goal include a competitive binding assay for glucose that has been encapsulated in semipermeable microcapsule carriers. This paper describes an extension of this work to increase the applicability to in vivo monitoring, wherein two significant developments are described: (1 a near-infrared resonance energy transfer system for transducing glucose concentration, and (2 novel hybrid organic-inorganic crosslinked microcapsules as carriers. The quenching-based assay is a competitive binding (CB system based on apo-glucose oxidase (AG as the receptor and dextran as the competitive ligand. The encapsulated quencher-labeled dextran and near infrared donor-labeled glucose receptor showed a stable and reversible response with tunable sensitivity of 1–5%/mM over the physiological range, making these transducers attractive for continuous monitoring for biomedical applications.

  5. Production of Solid sustainable Energy Carriers from biomass by means of TORrefaction (SECTOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Janet; Bienert, Kathrin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme; Zwart, Robin; Kiel, Jaap; Englisch, Martin; Wojcik, Magdalena

    2012-07-01

    SECTOR is a large-scale European project with a strong consortium of over 20 partners from industry and science. The project is focussed on the further development of torrefaction-based technologies for the production of solid bioenergy carriers up to pilot-plant scale and beyond, and on supporting the market introduction of torrefaction-based bioenergy carriers as a commodity renewable solid fuel. The torrefaction of biomass materials is considered to be a very promising technology for the promotion of the large-scale implementation of bioenergy. During torrefaction biomass is heated up in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of 250-320 C. By combining torrefaction with pelletisation or briquetting, biomass materials can be converted into a high-energy-density commodity solid fuel or bioenergy carrier with improved behaviour in (long-distance) transport, handling and storage, and also with superior properties in many major end-use applications. Torrefaction has the potential to provide a significant contribution to an enlarged raw material portfolio for biomass fuel production inside Europe by including both agricultural and forestry biomass. In this way, the SECTOR project is expected to shorten the time-to-market of torrefaction technology and to promote market introduction within stringent sustainability boundary conditions. The European Union provides funding for this project within the Seventh Framework Programme. The project has a duration of 42 months and started in January 2012. (orig.)

  6. Environmental and energy aspects of liquid biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boo, W.

    1993-02-01

    When spending public money to reduce CO 2 emissions, it is necessary to establish which alternative energy source results in the largest reduction of CO 2 emission per unit cost. Comparison of different biofuels with other energy resources is therefore important. Bioethanol is compared with leadfree gasoline, and rapeseed oil methylester (RME) is compared with diesel. Subsequently, biofuel production as a method to reduce CO 2 emission will be compared with other sustainable energy resources. This comparison is based on the energy balance in chapter two and the final costs of biofuels in chapter six. The comparison of biofuels and current fossil fuels is based on emissions to the atmosphere of greenhouse gases and acidifying pollutants in chapter three. Pollution to soil and water by arable cropping is a specific characteristic of biofuel production and is difficult to compare with fossil fuels. On this subject biofuels are compared with other land uses in chapter four. This also applies to other adverse environmental aspects of agricultural production such as competition for land use with natural areas and recreation purposes. To explore future technological developments, a comparison is made in energy balances with estimated results after the year 2000. The overall conclusion is that there are far better options to achieve CO 2 reduction. 2 figs., 9 tabs., 14 appendices, 28 refs

  7. Laser energy tuning of carrier effective mass and thermopower in epitaxial oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2012-04-18

    The effect of the laser fluence on high temperature thermoelectric properties of the La doped SrTiO3 (SLTO) thin films epitaxially grown on LaAlO3 〈100〉 substrates by pulsed laser deposition is clarified. It is shown that oxygen vacancies that influence the effective mass of carriers in SLTO films can be tuned by varying the laser energy. The highest power factor of 0.433 W K−1 m−1 has been achieved at 636 K for a filmdeposited using the highest laser fluence of 7 J cm−2 pulse−1.

  8. Determination of Diffusion Coefficients and Activation Energy of Selected Organic Liquids using Reversed-Flow Gas Chromatographic Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalisanni Khalid; Rashid Atta Khan; Sharifuddin Mohd Zain

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation of vaporize organic liquid has ecological consequences when the compounds are introduced into both freshwater and marine environments through industrial effluents, or introduced directly into the air from industrial unit processes such as bioreactors and cooling towers. In such cases, a rapid and simple method are needed to measure physicochemical properties of the organic liquids. The Reversed-Flow Gas Chromatography (RF-GC) sampling technique is an easy, fast and accurate procedure. It was used to measure the diffusion coefficients of vapors from liquid into a carrier gas and at the same time to determine the rate coefficients for the evaporation of the respective liquid. The mathematical expression describing the elution curves of the samples peaks was derived and used to calculate the respective parameters for the selected liquid pollutants selected such as methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane and n-hexadecane, evaporating into the carrier gas of nitrogen. The values of diffusion coefficients found were compared with those calculated theoretically or reported in the literature. The values of evaporation rate were used to determine the activation energy of respective samples using Arrhenius equation. An interesting finding of this work is by using an alternative mathematical analysis based on equilibrium at the liquid-gas interphase, the comparison leads to profound agreement between theoretical values of diffusion coefficients and experimental evidence. (author)

  9. Inert carriers for column extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katykhin, G.S.

    1978-01-01

    Inert carriers used in column extraction chromatography are reviewed. Such carriers are devided into two large groups: hydrophilic carriers which possess high surface energy and are well wetted only with strongly polar liquids (kieselguhrs, silica gels, glasses, cellulose, Al 2 O 3 ) and water-repellent carriers which possess low surface energy and are well wetted with various organic solvents (polyethylene, polytetrafluorethylene polytrifluorochlorethylene). Properties of various carriers are presented: structure, chemical and radiation stability, adsorption properties, extracting agent capacity. The effect of structure and sizes of particles on the efficiency of chromatography columns is considered. Ways of immovable phase deposition on the carrier and the latter's regeneration. Peculiarities of column packing for preparative and continuous chromatography are discussed

  10. Signal yields, energy resolution, and recombination fluctuations in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bramante, R.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solmaz, M.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W. C.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Xu, J.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of monoenergetic electronic recoil peaks in the dark-matter-search and calibration data from the first underground science run of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) detector. Liquid xenon charge and light yields for electronic recoil energies between 5.2 and 661.7 keV are measured, as well as the energy resolution for the LUX detector at those same energies. Additionally, there is an interpretation of existing measurements and descriptions of electron-ion recombination fluctuations in liquid xenon as limiting cases of a more general liquid xenon recombination fluctuation model. Measurements of the standard deviation of these fluctuations at monoenergetic electronic recoil peaks exhibit a linear dependence on the number of ions for energy deposits up to 661.7 keV, consistent with previous LUX measurements between 2 and 16 keV with 3H. We highlight similarities in liquid xenon recombination for electronic and nuclear recoils with a comparison of recombination fluctuations measured with low-energy calibration data.

  11. Opportunistic Carrier Sensing for Energy-Efficient Information Retrieval in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qing

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider distributed information retrieval for sensor networks with cluster heads or mobile access points. The performance metric used in the design is energy efficiency defined as the ratio of the average number of bits reliably retrieved by the access point to the total amount of energy consumed. A distributed opportunistic transmission protocol is proposed using a combination of carrier sensing and backoff strategy that incorporates channel state information (CSI of individual sensors. By selecting a set of sensors with the best channel states to transmit, the proposed protocol achieves the upper bound on energy efficiency when the signal propagation delay is negligible. For networks with substantial propagation delays, a backoff function optimized for energy efficiency is proposed. The design of this backoff function utilizes properties of extreme statistics and is shown to have mild performance loss in practical scenarios. We also demonstrate that opportunistic strategies that use CSI may not be optimal when channel acquisition at individual sensors consumes substantial energy. We show further that there is an optimal sensor density for which the opportunistic information retrieval is the most energy efficient. This observation leads to the design of the optimal sensor duty cycle.

  12. Energy driven self-organization in nanoscale metallic liquid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, H; Shirato, N; Favazza, C; Kalyanaraman, R

    2009-10-01

    Nanometre thick metallic liquid films on inert substrates can spontaneously dewet and self-organize into complex nanomorphologies and nanostructures with well-defined length scales. Nanosecond pulses of an ultraviolet laser can capture the dewetting evolution and ensuing nanomorphologies, as well as introduce dramatic changes to dewetting length scales due to the nanoscopic nature of film heating. Here, we show theoretically that the self-organization principle, based on equating the rate of transfer of thermodynamic free energy to rate of loss in liquid flow, accurately describes the spontaneous dewetting. Experimental measurements of laser dewetting of Ag and Co liquid films on SiO(2) substrates confirm this principle. This energy transfer approach could be useful for analyzing the behavior of nanomaterials and chemical processes in which spontaneous changes are important.

  13. High energy gamma ray response of liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigyo, N.; Ishibashi, K.; Matsufuji, N.; Nakamoto, T.; Numajiri, M.

    1994-01-01

    We made the experiment on the spallation reaction. NE213 organic liquid scintillators were used for measuring neutrons and γ rays. To produce the γ ray emission cross section, we used the response functions by EGS4 code. The response functions look like uniform above γ ray energies of 60 MeV. The experimental data of the γ ray emission cross section are different from the data of High Energy Transport Code. (author)

  14. Exploring driving forces and liquid properties for electrokinetic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Trieu

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents an effort to understand electrokinetic energy conversion systems which are based on motion of ionic charges in micro- and nano-confinements. In particular, both experimentally and theoretically the utilization of different kind of liquids was investigated to convert mechanical

  15. Kinetic energy dependence of carrier diffusion in a GaAs epilayer studied by wavelength selective PL imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Providence High School, Charlotte, NC 28270 (United States); Su, L.Q.; Kon, J. [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Gfroerer, T. [Davidson College, Davidson, NC 28035 (United States); Wanlass, M.W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Zhang, Y., E-mail: yong.zhang@uncc.edu [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) imaging has been shown to be an efficient technique for investigating carrier diffusion in semiconductors. In the past, the measurement was typically carried out by measuring at one wavelength (e.g., at the band gap) or simply the whole emission band. At room temperature in a semiconductor like GaAs, the band-to-band PL emission may occur in a spectral range over 200 meV, vastly exceeding the average thermal energy of about 26 meV. To investigate the potential dependence of the carrier diffusion on the carrier kinetic energy, we performed wavelength selective PL imaging on a GaAs double hetero-structure in a spectral range from about 70 meV above to 50 meV below the bandgap, extracting the carrier diffusion lengths at different PL wavelengths by fitting the imaging data to a theoretical model. The results clearly show that the locally generated carriers of different kinetic energies mostly diffuse together, maintaining the same thermal distribution throughout the diffusion process. Potential effects related to carrier density, self-absorption, lateral wave-guiding, and local heating are also discussed.

  16. Asymmetric energy flow in liquid alkylbenzenes: A computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, David M.; Pandey, Hari Datt

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast IR-Raman experiments on substituted benzenes [B. C. Pein et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 10898–10904 (2013)] reveal that energy can flow more efficiently in one direction along a molecule than in others. We carry out a computational study of energy flow in the three alkyl benzenes, toluene, isopropylbenzene, and t-butylbenzene, studied in these experiments, and find an asymmetry in the flow of vibrational energy between the two chemical groups of the molecule due to quantum mechanical vibrational relaxation bottlenecks, which give rise to a preferred direction of energy flow. We compare energy flow computed for all modes of the three alkylbenzenes over the relaxation time into the liquid with energy flow through the subset of modes monitored in the time-resolved Raman experiments and find qualitatively similar results when using the subset compared to all the modes

  17. Photo-generated carriers lose energy during extraction from polymer-fullerene solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Melianas, Armantas; Etzold, Fabian; Savenije, Tom J.; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Inganä s, Olle; Kemerink, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    motion is boosted by this process, leading to a time-dependent carrier mobility as confirmed by direct experiments. We identify the time and distance scales relevant for carrier extraction and show that the photo-generated carriers are extracted from

  18. Vibrational energy transfer in hydrogen liquid and its isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, G.M.; Delalande, C.

    1978-01-01

    The transfer of vibrational energy (V-V) from H 2 to isotopic impurities (HD or D 2 ) has been studied in the liquid state, between 15 and 30 K. The subsequent ralaxation (V-T) of the excited impurity by the H 2 liquid host has also been measured and contrasted with the vibrational relaxation behaviour of pure H 2 and D 2 liquids. The isothermal density dependence of both V-V and V-T transfer has been investigated in the fluid state at 30 K. High density relaxation rates are also compared to the data in the pure gases and to other available gas phase results. Measurements in the solid, near the triple-point temperature, are equally reported for each process studied. (Auth.)

  19. Liquid neon heat intercept for superconducting energy storage magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.; McIntosh, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Previous analyses of heat intercept solutions are extended to include both insulation and strut heat leaks. The impact of using storable, boiling cryogens for heat intercept fluids, specifically liquid neon and nitrogen, is also examined. The selection of fluid for the heat intercepts is described. Refrigeration power for 1000 and 5000 MWhr SMES units is shown with optimum refrigeration power for each quantity shown in tables. Nitrogen and Neon cooled intercept location for minimum total refrigeration power for a 5000 MWhr SMES are each shown, as well as the location of nitrogen and neon cooled intercepts for minimum total refrigeration power for 5000 MWhr SMES. Cost comparisons are itemized and neon cost and availability discussed. For a large energy storage magnet system, liquid neon is a more effective heat intercept fluid than liquid nitrogen. Reasons and application of the conclusion are amplified

  20. Recovery of copper and cyanide from waste cyanide solutions using emulsion liquid membrane with LIX 7950 as the carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Wang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    The feasibility of using emulsion liquid membranes (ELMs) with the guanidine extractant LIX 7950 as the mobile carrier for detoxifying copper-containing waste cyanide solutions has been determined. Relatively stable ELMs can be maintained under suitable stirring speed during mixing ELMs and the external solution. Effective extraction of copper cyanides by ELMs only occurs at pH below 11. High copper concentration in the external phase and high volume ratio of the external phase to ELMs result in high transport rates of copper and cyanide. High molar ratio of cyanide to copper tends to suppress copper extraction. The presence of thiocyanate ion significantly depresses the transport of copper and cyanide through the membrane while the thiosulfate ion produces less impact on copper removal by ELMs. Zinc and nickel cyanides can also be effectively extracted by ELMs. More than 90% copper and cyanide can be effectively removed from alkaline cyanide solutions by ELMs under suitable experimental conditions, indicating the effectiveness of using the designed ELM for recovering copper and cyanide from waste cyanide solutions.

  1. Power-generating process of obtaining gas-energy carrier and reducer from coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tleugabulov, S.; Duncheva, E.; Zubkevich, M.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of power-generating gas has the important economic value for Kazakhstan having large territory, raw and fuel resources especially power coal and clean coal wastes. The technology of reception of gas-energy carrier and reducer from power coal is developed. The basic product of technological process is heated reducing gas. Reducing potential of the gas is characterized by a volumetric share of components (CO+H 2 )-RC in relation to volume of whole mix of gases received with gasification of coal. The value of parameter RC is regulated by a degree of enrichment of air by oxygen r 0 , and the temperature - by the charge of a parity of endothermic reaction in the chamber of gas regeneration. The dependence of the gas structure and temperature on the degree of enrichment of air by oxygen is shown and the circuit of the gas generator is given. (author)

  2. Optically Discriminating Carrier-Induced Quasiparticle Band Gap and Exciton Energy Renormalization in Monolayer MoS_{2}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kaiyuan; Yan, Aiming; Kahn, Salman; Suslu, Aslihan; Liang, Yufeng; Barnard, Edward S; Tongay, Sefaattin; Zettl, Alex; Borys, Nicholas J; Schuck, P James

    2017-08-25

    Optoelectronic excitations in monolayer MoS_{2} manifest from a hierarchy of electrically tunable, Coulombic free-carrier and excitonic many-body phenomena. Investigating the fundamental interactions underpinning these phenomena-critical to both many-body physics exploration and device applications-presents challenges, however, due to a complex balance of competing optoelectronic effects and interdependent properties. Here, optical detection of bound- and free-carrier photoexcitations is used to directly quantify carrier-induced changes of the quasiparticle band gap and exciton binding energies. The results explicitly disentangle the competing effects and highlight longstanding theoretical predictions of large carrier-induced band gap and exciton renormalization in two-dimensional semiconductors.

  3. Optically Discriminating Carrier-Induced Quasiparticle Band Gap and Exciton Energy Renormalization in Monolayer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kaiyuan; Yan, Aiming; Kahn, Salman; Suslu, Aslihan; Liang, Yufeng; Barnard, Edward S.; Tongay, Sefaattin; Zettl, Alex; Borys, Nicholas J.; Schuck, P. James

    2017-08-01

    Optoelectronic excitations in monolayer MoS2 manifest from a hierarchy of electrically tunable, Coulombic free-carrier and excitonic many-body phenomena. Investigating the fundamental interactions underpinning these phenomena—critical to both many-body physics exploration and device applications—presents challenges, however, due to a complex balance of competing optoelectronic effects and interdependent properties. Here, optical detection of bound- and free-carrier photoexcitations is used to directly quantify carrier-induced changes of the quasiparticle band gap and exciton binding energies. The results explicitly disentangle the competing effects and highlight longstanding theoretical predictions of large carrier-induced band gap and exciton renormalization in two-dimensional semiconductors.

  4. Energy Harvesting with a Liquid-Metal Microfluidic Influence Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Christopher; de Visser, Tim; Loessberg, Joshua; Sherman, Sam; Smith, Andrew; Ma, Shuo; Napoli, Maria Teresa; Pennathur, Sumita; Weld, David

    2018-04-01

    We describe and demonstrate an alternative energy-harvesting technology based on a microfluidic realization of a Wimshurst influence machine. The prototype device converts the mechanical energy of a pressure-driven flow into electrical energy, using a multiphase system composed of droplets of liquid mercury surrounded by insulating oil. Electrostatic induction between adjacent metal droplets drives charge through external electrode paths, resulting in continuous charge amplification and collection. We demonstrate a power output of 4 nW from the initial prototype and present calculations suggesting that straightforward device optimization could increase the power output by more than 3 orders of magnitude. At that level, the power efficiency of this energy-harvesting mechanism, limited by viscous dissipation, could exceed 90%. The microfluidic context enables straightforward scaling and parallelization, as well as hydraulic matching to a variety of ambient mechanical energy sources, such as human locomotion.

  5. Hydrogen as an energy carrier. Final report; Wasserstoff als Energietraeger. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebholz, H. [ed.

    1998-12-01

    This final report of the Special Field of Research 270 (SFB 270) documents the work and results of the four promotion phases from 1989 to 1998, presented in reports on 15 part-projects. From its inception, SFB 270, which bears the title ''Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier'', has been dedicated to two fields of work: in Project Area A to the production of hydrogen (7 part-projects) and in Project Area B to the transport and storage of hydrogen (8 part-projects). The scientific results of the part-projects have also been presented in detail in the progress reports and interim reports of 1991, 1994 and 1997. Some of them have also been presented at the colloquiums of SFB 270. Twelve part-projects have been abstracted individually for the ENERGY database. [German] Der vorliegende Abschlussbericht des Sonderforschungsbereichs 270 dokumentiert die Arbeiten und Ergebnisse der vier Foerderungsphasen von 1989 bis 1998. Sie sind in den Berichten von 15 Teilprojekten wiedergegeben. Der Sonderforschungsbereich 270 'Wasserstoff als Energietraeger' hat sich von Anfang an zwei Aufgabengebieten gewidmet: Im Projektbereich A der Herstellung von Wasserstoff (7 Teilprojekte) und im Projektbereich B dem Transport und der Speicherung von Wasserstoff (8 Teilprojekte). Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Teilprojekte sind ausfuehrlich auch in den Arbeits- und Ergebnisberichten 1991, 1994 und 1997 wiedergegeben. Sie wurden auch, in Teilen, in entsprechenden Kolloquien des SFB 270 praesentiert. Fuer die Datenbank ENERGY wurden 12 Teilprojekte separat aufgenommen. (orig.)

  6. Radiation processing of liquid with low energy electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2003-01-01

    Radiation induced emulsion polymerization, radiation vulcanization of NR latex (RVNRL) and radiation degradation of natural polymers were selected and reviewed as the radiation processing of liquid. The characteristic of high dose rate emulsion polymerization is the occurrence of cationic polymerization. Thus, it can be used for the production of new materials that cannot be obtained by radical polymerization. A potential application will be production of polymer emulsion that can be used as water-borne UV/EB curing resins. The technology of RVNRL by γ-ray has been commercialized. RVNRL with low energy electron accelerator is under development for further vulcanization cost reduction. Vessel type irradiator will be favorable for industrial application. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides is an emerging and promising area of radiation processing. However, strict cost comparison between liquid irradiation with low energy EB and state irradiation with γ-ray should be carried out. (author)

  7. Radiation processing of liquid with low energy electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Radiation induced emulsion polymerization, radiation vulcanization of NR latex (RVNRL) and radiation degradation of natural polymers were selected and reviewed as the radiation processing of liquid. The characteristic of high dose rate emulsion polymerization is the occurrence of cationic polymerization. Thus, it can be used for the production of new materials that cannot be obtained by radical polymerization. A potential application will be production of polymer emulsion that can be used as water-borne UV/EB curing resins. The technology of RVNRL by {gamma}-ray has been commercialized. RVNRL with low energy electron accelerator is under development for further vulcanization cost reduction. Vessel type irradiator will be favorable for industrial application. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides is an emerging and promising area of radiation processing. However, strict cost comparison between liquid irradiation with low energy EB and state irradiation with {gamma}-ray should be carried out. (author)

  8. High energy neutron recoil scattering from liquid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.S.; Needham, L.M.; Paoli, M.P.

    1987-10-01

    The neutron recoil scattering from liquid 4 He at 4.2 K and 1.6 K has been observed for a momentum transfer of 150 A -1 using the Electron Volt Spectrometer on the pulsed neutron source, ISIS. The experiment yielded mean atomic kinetic energy values = 14.8 +- 3 K at 4.2 K and = 14.6 +- 3.2 K at 1.6 K in good agreement with values obtained at lower momentum transfers. (author)

  9. Hydrogen as an energy carrier in substituting petroleum. Demonstration project: automobiles driven by nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donne, M.D.; Dorner, S.; Kessler, G.; Schretzmann, K.

    1983-01-01

    The substitution of oil in motor vehicles by means of coal upgrading is paid by a consumption of primary energy and the persistence of a high environmental impact as noise and off-gases. Alternative systems, based on electric traction by electricity from H 2 -fuel cells have a high development potential. The Karlsruhe Nuclear Center has endeavoured to demonstrate the feasibility of this traction system. In particular an assessment of the efficiency and costs of the H 2 -fuel cell for vehicle traction is given. The paper discusses the various possibilities of on-board H 2 storage. Finally the work being presently performed in Karlsruhe is briefly described. (author)

  10. Identification of deep trap energies and influences of oxygen plasma ashing on semiconductor carrier lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprowski, A; Humbel, O; Plappert, M; Krenn, H

    2015-01-01

    We have performed an analytical study of the effects of oxygen plasma ashing processes in semiconductor device fabrication and its impact on minority carrier lifetime in high voltage semiconductor devices. Our work includes a critical background study of life time killing mechanisms by deep traps imparted into the semiconductor by barrel plasma ashing. The Elymat technique provides the opportunity to measure lifetime and diffusion length of minority carriers and surface photo voltage (SPV) measurement was used to analyse influences of process parameters such as photoresist, time budget and positioning in the process chamber. It was shown that in microwave plasma processes the diffusion length changes severely with tempering at 200 °C, whereas RF-plasma processes show a significant process time-dependence. Batch tools in general suffer from a strong first wafer effect which could be correlated with the static electrical parameters of the semiconductor devices. The trap identities were detected by using deep level transient spectroscopy and the chemical species of the traps has been proven by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The deep-bandgap trap energies are reliable fingerprints of the chosen process parameters such as process time and of resist-influences. By microwave plasma processes intrinsic Fe and FeB-complex levels were identified and a good agreement with the SPV-measurement and electrical device characteristic was shown. RF-plasma processes impart levels attributed to Pt levels and an additional level, which could be identified as a trap level probably forming a complex of Pt and H. (paper)

  11. Economic impacts of hydrogen as an energy carrier in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wietschel, Martin; Seydel, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    The two objectives of this paper are to identify possible sectoral shifts and employment effects due to the application of hydrogen in the energy system for selected European countries till 2030. This is based on assumptions about the market penetration of hydrogen as an energy carrier, an analysis of the competitiveness of EU countries in this technology field and input-output model calculations. The analysis showed that the introduction of hydrogen leads to significant shifts between economic sectors and, as a policy recommendation, it is concluded that the required workforce skills in hydrogen technologies should be available in time in order to be properly prepared for this. Some employment gains are possible for the EU Member States analysed if the introduction of hydrogen does not result in significant changes in export/import flows. However, the lead market analysis also showed that the competitiveness of EU countries varies significantly and that, viewed as a whole, Europe is in danger of falling behind its main competitors. This may lead to job losses because the industry branches affected - automotive and plant manufacturers - represent key sectors for the EU. One policy goal, therefore, especially for countries with a large share of automobile and plant manufacturing, is to aim to be a lead market for hydrogen and fuel cells. (author)

  12. Femtosecond time-resolved hot carrier energy distributions of photoexcited semiconductor quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Chi-Hung; Burda, Clemens; Chen, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we investigated hot carrier distributions in semiconductor cadmium selenide quantum dots. The relaxation processes represent the behavior of an ensemble of QDs. This concept is applied for analysis with the Fermi-Dirac distribution and relaxation processes among different electron-hole pair states. By extracting the experimental hot carrier distribution and fitting with the Fermi-Dirac function, we resolved the rapid thermalization processes, such as carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon interactions was resolved within one picosecond upon photoexcitation. The analysis, using the Fermi-Dirac distribution modulated by the density of states, provides a general route to understanding the carrier cooling and heat dissipation processes in quantum dot-based systems. (copyright 2012 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Notre Dame Geothermal Ionic Liquids Research: Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennecke, Joan F. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2017-03-07

    The goal of this project was to develop ionic liquids for two geothermal energy related applications. The first goal was to design ionic liquids as high temperature heat transfer fluids. We identified appropriate compounds based on both experiments and molecular simulations. We synthesized the new ILs, and measured their thermal stability, measured storage density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. We found that the most promising compounds for this application are aminopyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide based ILs. We also performed some measurements of thermal stability of IL mixtures and used molecular simulations to better understand the thermal conductivity of nanofluids (i.e., mixtures of ILs and nanoparticles). We found that the mixtures do not follow ideal mixture theories and that the addition of nanoparticles to ILs may well have a beneficial influence on the thermal and transport properties of IL-based heat transfer fluids. The second goal was to use ionic liquids in geothermally driven absorption refrigeration systems. We performed copious thermodynamic measurements and modeling of ionic liquid/water systems, including modeling of the absorption refrigeration systems and the resulting coefficients of performance. We explored some IL/organic solvent mixtures as candidates for this application, both with experimentation and molecular simulations. We found that the COPs of all of the IL/water systems were higher than the conventional system – LiBr/H2O. Thus, IL/water systems appear very attractive for absorption refrigeration applications.

  14. Effect of Energy Polydispersity on the Nature of Lennard-Jones Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond S.; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    In the companion paper [T. S. Ingebrigtsen and H. Tanaka, J. Phys. Chem. B 119, 11052 (2015)] the effect of size polydispersity on the nature of Lennard-Jones (LJ) liquids, which represent most molecular liquids without hydrogen bonds, was studied. More specifically, it was shown that even highly size polydisperse LJ liquids are Roskilde-simple (RS) liquids. RS liquids are liquids with strong correlation between constant volume equilibrium fluctuations of virial and potential energy and are s...

  15. Energy of ground state of laminar electron-hole liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andryushin, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of a possible existence of metal electron-hole liquid in semiconductors is considered. The calculation has been carried out for the following model: two parallel planes are separated with the distance on one of the planes electrons moving, on the other holes doing. Transitions between the planes are forbidden. The density of particles for both planes is the same. The energy of the ground state and correlation functions for such electron-and hole system are calculated. It is shown that the state of a metal liquid is more advantageous against the exciton gas. For the mass ratio of electrons and holes, msub(e)/msub(h) → 0 a smooth rearrangement of the system into a state with ordered heavy particles is observed

  16. Hydrogen peroxide as a sustainable energy carrier: Electrocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide and the fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Karlin, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    This review describes homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reduction of dioxygen with metal complexes focusing on the catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. Whether two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide or four-electron O 2 -reduction to produce water occurs depends on the types of metals and ligands that are utilized. Those factors controlling the two processes are discussed in terms of metal–oxygen intermediates involved in the catalysis. Metal complexes acting as catalysts for selective two-electron reduction of oxygen can be utilized as metal complex-modified electrodes in the electrocatalytic reduction to produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced can be used as a fuel in a hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. A hydrogen peroxide fuel cell can be operated with a one-compartment structure without a membrane, which is certainly more promising for the development of low-cost fuel cells as compared with two compartment hydrogen fuel cells that require membranes. Hydrogen peroxide is regarded as an environmentally benign energy carrier because it can be produced by the electrocatalytic two-electron reduction of O 2 , which is abundant in air, using solar cells; the hydrogen peroxide thus produced could then be readily stored and then used as needed to generate electricity through the use of hydrogen peroxide fuel cells.

  17. Hydrogen Peroxide as a Sustainable Energy Carrier: Electrocatalytic Production of Hydrogen Peroxide and the Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2012-11-01

    This review describes homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reduction of dioxygen with metal complexes focusing on the catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. Whether two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide or four-electron O 2 -reduction to produce water occurs depends on the types of metals and ligands that are utilized. Those factors controlling the two processes are discussed in terms of metal-oxygen intermediates involved in the catalysis. Metal complexes acting as catalysts for selective two-electron reduction of oxygen can be utilized as metal complex-modified electrodes in the electrocatalytic reduction to produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced can be used as a fuel in a hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. A hydrogen peroxide fuel cell can be operated with a one-compartment structure without a membrane, which is certainly more promising for the development of low-cost fuel cells as compared with two compartment hydrogen fuel cells that require membranes. Hydrogen peroxide is regarded as an environmentally benign energy carrier because it can be produced by the electrocatalytic two-electron reduction of O 2 , which is abundant in air, using solar cells; the hydrogen peroxide thus produced could then be readily stored and then used as needed to generate electricity through the use of hydrogen peroxide fuel cells.

  18. Vapor phase epitaxial growth of FeS sub 2 pyrite and evaluation of the carrier collection in liquid-junction solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennaoui, A.; Schlichthoerl, G.; Fiechter, S.; Tributsch, H. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Photoactive epitaxial layers of FeS{sub 2} were grown using bromine as a transport agent and a simple closed ampoule technique. The substrates used were (100)-oriented slices of natural pyrite 1 mm thick. A vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism was elucidated by means of optical microscopy. Macrosteps, terrace surfaces and protuberances are often accompanied with the presence of liquid FeBr{sub 3} droplets. In the absence of a liquid phase growth hillocks are found. Localized photovoltaic response for the evaluation of carrier collection using a scanning laser spot system has been used to effectively locate and characterize non-uniformities present in the epitaxial thin films. (orig.).

  19. More Wind Power Integration with Adjusted Energy Carriers for Space Heating in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun He

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Northern China, due to the high penetration of coal-fired cogeneration facilities, which are generally equipped with extraction-condensing steam turbines, lots of wind power resources may be wasted during the heating season. In contrast, considerable coal is consumed in the power generation sector. In this article, firstly it is revealed that there exists a serious divergence in the ratio of electrical to thermal energy between end users’ demand and the cogenerations’ production during off-peak load at night, which may negate active power-balancing of the electric power grid. Secondly, with respect to this divergence only occurring during off-peak load at night, a temporary proposal is given so as to enable the integration of more wind power. The authors suggest that if the energy carrier for part of the end users’ space heating is switched from heating water to electricity (e.g., electric heat pumps (EHPs can provide space heating in the domestic sector, the ratio of electricity to heating water load should be adjusted to optimize the power dispatch between cogeneration units and wind turbines, resulting in fuel conservation. With this proposal, existing infrastructures are made full use of, and no additional ones are required. Finally a numerical simulation is performed in order to illustrate both the technical and economic feasibility of the aforementioned proposal, under ongoing infrastructures as well as electricity and space heating tariff conditions without changing participants’ benefits. The authors aim to persuade Chinese policy makers to enable EHPs to provide space heating to enable the integration of more wind power.

  20. Permeabilitas Membran Transpor Campuran Unsur Tanah Jarang (La, Nd, Gd, Lu Menggunakan Carrier (TBP : D2EHPA Melalui Supported Liquid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djabal Nur Basir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods that have been developed currently for the separation and purification of rare earth elements, REE’s are solvent extraction by through immobilization of an extracting agent in a porous polymeric membrane. This methods beside could increase the transport selectivity, also the amount of carrier was very few. This technique is known as supported liquid membrane, SLM. Research toward transport and separation of REE’s through SLM have been still relatively limited merely to single feed-binary mixture, and one type of carrier. The transport   membrane permeability was obtained in a mixture of REE’s (La,Nd,Gd,Lu using the carrier TBP : D2EHPA by SLM. In this SLM technique, supporting membrane PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene was soaked in a mixture of TBP carrier (tributilfosfat as a neutral ligand and D2EHPA (acid-2- etilheksilfosfat as anionic ligand with a particular concentration ratio in the solvent kerosene as membrane phase. HCl as receiver phase and solution mixture of REE’s as feed phase. Determination of the REE’s total concentration was carried out by UV-Vis spectrophotometry with NAS (sodium alizarin sulfonate as the colouring agent at pH 4,75 and the solution absorbance was determinated at 534 nm as maximum wavelength. Transport patterns of REE’s on the variation of the concentration of total mixed carrier composition, pH, and concentration  of the receiver phase were done for 300 minutes. The optimum conditions of transport mixture of REE’s (La, Nd, Gd, Lu were feed phase pH 3,0; carrier TBP: D2EHPA (0,3:0,7 M; and receiver phase HCl 3,0 M. In this condition, the transport membrane permeability in mixture of REE’s was 0,1077 cm.menit-1 with the percent of transport was 95,24%.

  1. Characterization of gelation process and drug release profile of thermosensitive liquid lecithin/poloxamer 407 based gels as carriers for percutaneous delivery of ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djekic, Ljiljana; Krajisnik, Danina; Martinovic, Martina; Djordjevic, Dragana; Primorac, Marija

    2015-07-25

    Suitability of liquid lecithin (i.e., solution of lecithin in soy bean oil with ∼ 60% w/w of phospholipids) for formation of gels, upon addition of water solution of poloxamer 407, was investigated, and formulated systems were evaluated as carriers for percutaneous delivery of ibuprofen. Formulation study of pseudo-ternary system liquid lecithin/poloxamer 407/water at constant liquid lecithin/poloxamer 407 mass ratio (2.0) revealed that minimum concentrations of liquid lecithin and poloxamer 407 required for formation of gel like systems were 15.75% w/w and 13.13% w/w, respectively, while the maximum content of water was 60.62% w/w. The systems comprising water concentrations in a range from 55 to 60.62% w/w were soft semisolids suitable for topical application, and they were selected for physicochemical and biopharmaceutical evaluation. Analysis of conductivity results and light microscopy examination revealed that investigated systems were water dilutable dispersions of spherical oligolamellar associates of phospholipids and triglyceride molecules in the copolymer water solution. Rheological behavior evaluation results indicated that the investigated gels were thermosensitive shear thinning systems. Ibuprofen (5% w/w) was incorporated by dispersing into the previously prepared carriers. Drug-loaded systems were physically stable at storage temperature from 5 ± 3°C to 40 ± 2°C, for 30 days. In vitro ibuprofen release was in accordance with the Higuchi model (rH>0.95) and sustained for 12h. The obtained results implicated that formulated LLPBGs, optimized regarding drug release and organoleptic properties, represent promising carriers for sustained percutaneous drug delivery of poorly soluble drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. What is required to make hydrogen a real energy carrier option?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, S.; Schindler, G.; Schwab, E.; Weck, A. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    The driver for the introduction of hydrogen as mobile energy-carrier is regulatory measures to avoid the CO{sub 2} emissions which are related to the current fossil carbon based situation. H{sub 2} is a large volume chemical product with an annual production of about 45 million tons, most of which currently is also derived from fossil sources. The German transport sector consumes 2,6.10{sup 12} MJ/a which in terms of energy is equivalent to nearly 50% of the current world hydrogen production. There is the proposal to start the ''hydrogen economy'' with ''excess H{sub 2}'' which is believed to be available as inadvertently occurring byproduct of chemical processes. A potential {proportional_to}2 million tons is estimated for this ''excess H{sub 2}'' in Europe; the proposal however does not take into account, that current uses of this H{sub 2} would have to be substituted. Therefore, an overall gain for the environment cannot be expected. Therefore, a sustainable hydrogen based energy scenario has to rely on new sources. Besides Biomass gasification which in terms of technology would resemble the conventional fossil based hydrogen production, the only other viable carbon-free hydrogen source is water, which has to be split into its constituting elements. The current paper is restricted to the latter path, the feasibility of the biomass approach needs to be discussed elsewhere. If hypothetically the above mentioned energy for the German transport sector would be provided by H{sub 2} from water electrolysis an electricity input of 4.10{sup 12} MJ would be needed. This number exceeds the currently installed German wind turbine capacity by a factor of 6 and even by a factor of 36, if the weather-based {proportional_to}16% year-round on-stream factor for onshore plants is taken into account. (orig.)

  3. Use of natural gas, methanol, and ethanol fuel emulsions as environmentally friendly energy carriers for mobile heat power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanov, V. A.; Lopatin, O. P.

    2017-12-01

    The need for using environmentally friendly energy carriers for mobile heat power plants (HPPs) is grounded. Ecologically friendly sources of energy, such as natural gas as well as renewable methyl and ethyl alcohols, are investigated. In order to develop, determine, and optimize the composition of environmentally friendly energy carriers for an HPP, the latter has been tested when working on diesel fuel (DF), compressed natural gas (CNG), and methanol and ethanol fuel emulsions (MFE, EFE). It has been experimentally established that, for the application of environmentally friendly energy carriers for a 4Ch 11.0/12.5 diesel engine of a mobile fuel and power plant, it is necessary to maintain the following ratio of components when working on CNG: 80% gas and 20% DF primer portion. When working on an alcohol mixture, emulsions of the following composition were used: 25% alcohol (methanol or ethanol), 0.5% detergent-dispersant additive succinimide C-5A, 7% water, and 67.5% DF. When this diesel passed from oil DF to environmentally friendly energy sources, it allowed for the reduction of the content of exhaust gases (EG) (1) when working on CNG with recirculation of exhaust gases (EGR) (recirculation was used to eliminate the increased amount of nitric oxides by using CNG): carbon black by 5.8 times, carbon dioxide by 45.9%, and carbon monoxide by 23.8%; (2) when working on MFE: carbon black by 6.4 times, nitrogen oxides by 29.6%, carbon dioxide by 10.1%, and carbon oxide by 47.6%; (3) when working on EFE: carbon black by 4.8 times; nitrogen oxides by 40.3%, carbon dioxide by 26.6%, and carbon monoxide by 28.6%. The prospects of use of environmentally friendly energy carriers in diesels of mobile HPPs, such as natural gas, ethanol, and methanol, has been determined.

  4. The potential of sugar cane juice as the liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry by in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermin Widjaja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the components of poultry feed (80% of grains and meal that contains phytic acid which has anti-nutritional factor because it can bind minerals and reduce its availability. Phytic acid can be hydrolyzed by the enzyme phytase. Phytase enzyme naturally found in sugar cane juice, but its use as poultry feed supplements have not been done. The study was conducted using sugar cane juice PS 851 from Jatiroto PTPN XI, Lumajang, East Java in order to get the information potential of sugar cane juice as a liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry viewed from the aspect of nutrient content of sugarcane juice and phytase activity in the release rate of phosphorus. Research conducted at the Faculty of Animal IPB for 10 months. The rate of hydrolysis of phytase on P was tested using rice bran as a substrate. Sugar cane juice is added to the 2.5% level, using 4-level incubation (1, 2, 3 and 4 hours, each level consisting of 37°C and 42°C; pH 2; pH 4.5 and pH 5 with three replications. Study using a Two Factors Experiments in Completely Randomized Design and it was continued by DMRT test. P release rate was measured by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the sugar cane juice has a phytase activity of 0.0766 U / ml, brix level of 22.15%, containing water 73.03%, protein 0.47%, crude fiber 6.43%, minerals Ca 0.03%, P 0,02%, Co 0.14 mg / l, Fe 1.8 mg/l, Mn 1.55 mg/l, Zn 1.37 mg/ l, Cu 0.19 mg/ l, Se 12.63 mcg/100 g, vitamins B3 5.26 mg/100 g, C 0.72 mg/100 g, E 0.08 mg/100 g, sucrose 32.42%, fructose 2.41%, galactose 2% and glucose 1.58%. Supplementation of 2.5% sugar cane juice can increase the P release rate of 112-235% at optimum conditions of pH 5, at 37°C with a long incubation period of 1-4 hours.

  5. Elastic energy of liquid crystals in convex polyhedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, A; Robbins, J M; Zyskin, M

    2004-01-01

    We consider nematic liquid crystals in a bounded, convex polyhedron described by a director field n(r) subject to tangent boundary conditions. We derive lower bounds for the one-constant elastic energy in terms of topological invariants. For a right rectangular prism and a large class of topologies, we derive upper bounds by introducing test configurations constructed from local conformal solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equation. The ratio of the upper and lower bounds depends only on the aspect ratios of the prism. As the aspect ratios are varied, the minimum-energy conformal state undergoes a sharp transition from being smooth to having singularities on the edges. (letter to the editor)

  6. Surface energies of metals in both liquid and solid states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqra, Fathi; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Although during the last years one has seen a number of systematic studies of the surface energies of metals, the aim and the scientific meaning of this research is to establish a simple and a straightforward theoretical model to calculate accurately the mechanical and the thermodynamic properties of metal surfaces due to their important application in materials processes and in the understanding of a wide range of surface phenomena. Through extensive theoretical calculations of the surface tension of most of the liquid metals, we found that the fraction of broken bonds in liquid metals (f) is constant which is equal to 0.287. Using our estimated f value, the surface tension (γ m ), surface energy (γ SV ), surface excess entropy (-dγ/dT), surface excess enthalpy (H s ), coefficient of thermal expansion (α m and α b ), sound velocity (c m ) and its temperature coefficient (-dc/dT) have been calculated for more than sixty metals. The results of the calculated quantities agree well with available experimental data.

  7. Thermoelectric energy recovery at ionic-liquid/electrode interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonetti, Marco; Nakamae, Sawako; Huang, Bo Tao; Wiertel-Gasquet, Cécile; Roger, Michel [Service de Physique de l’Etat Condensé, CEA-IRAMIS-SPEC, CNRS-UMR 3680, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Salez, Thomas J. [Service de Physique de l’Etat Condensé, CEA-IRAMIS-SPEC, CNRS-UMR 3680, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); École des Ponts ParisTech, 6 et 8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Champs-sur-Marne, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallée (France)

    2015-06-28

    A thermally chargeable capacitor containing a binary solution of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide in acetonitrile is electrically charged by applying a temperature gradient to two ideally polarisable electrodes. The corresponding thermoelectric coefficient is −1.7 mV/K for platinum foil electrodes and −0.3 mV/K for nanoporous carbon electrodes. Stored electrical energy is extracted by discharging the capacitor through a resistor. The measured capacitance of the electrode/ionic-liquid interface is 5 μF for each platinum electrode while it becomes four orders of magnitude larger, ≈36 mF, for a single nanoporous carbon electrode. Reproducibility of the effect through repeated charging-discharging cycles under a steady-state temperature gradient demonstrates the robustness of the electrical charging process at the liquid/electrode interface. The acceleration of the charging by convective flows is also observed. This offers the possibility to convert waste-heat into electric energy without exchanging electrons between ions and electrodes, in contrast to what occurs in most thermogalvanic cells.

  8. Recovery of synthetic dye from simulated wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane process containing tri-dodecyl amine as a mobile carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, N., E-mail: norasikin@cheme.utm.my [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Zailani, S.N.; Mili, N. [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The emulsion liquid membrane process for synthetic reactive dyes recovery was examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mobile carriers of tri-dodycylamine and salicyclic acid was used in formulation to remove the reactive dyes from simulated wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost 100% of dye was extracted and recovered in receiving phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An electrical field was used to breakdown the emulsion to separate the liquid membrane and receiving/recovery phase. - Abstract: The extraction of Red 3BS reactive dye from aqueous solution was studied using emulsion liquid membrane (ELM). ELM is one of the processes that have very high potential in treating industrial wastewater consisting of dyes. In this research, Red 3BS reactive dye was extracted from simulated wastewater using tridodecylamine (TDA) as the carrier agent, salicyclic acid (SA) to protonate TDA, sodium chloride as the stripping agent, kerosene as the diluent and SPAN 80 as emulsifier. Experimental parameters investigated were salicyclic acid concentration, extraction time, SPAN 80 concentration, sodium chloride concentration, TDA concentration, agitation speed, homogenizer speed, emulsifying time and treat ratio. The results show almost 100% of Red 3BS was removed and stripped in the receiving phase at the optimum condition in this ELM system. High voltage coalesce was applied to break the emulsion hence, enables recovery of Red 3BS in the receiving phase.

  9. Spatial correlation of energy deposition events in irradiated liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.N.; Wright, H.A.; Turner, J.E.; Ritchie, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    Monte Carlo electron transport computer code is used to study in detail the slowing down of electrons and all of their secondaries with initial energies up to 1.5 MeV in liquid water. The probability distributions for the number of ionizations and for the energy deposited in cubical volume elements from electron tracks in the water are analyzed. Both the electron energies and the sizes of the cubical cells are varied. Results are shown for electron energies between 100 eV and 10 keV and for cell sizes between 40 A and 1500 A. Good general agreement is found with results presented by Paretzke at the last symposium. The code can be used to obtain other basic distributions of importance in microdosimetry. As an example, microdosimetric single-event spectra for 500-eV electrons are computed in cubes with edges that range in size from 40 A to 200 A. The importance of correlations is shown explicitly in a comparison of secondary electrons produced by 60 Co and 50-keV photons

  10. Program energy research and energy technologies. Annual report 1987. Fossil energy carriers, renewable energy sources, efficient use of energy. Programm Energieforschung und Energietechnologien. Jahresbericht 1987. Fossile Energietraeger, erneuerbare Energiequellen, rationelle Energieverwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    After a general introduction and a short overview of financial contributions in 1987 there is a description of the projects sponsored. The main section contains project descriptions of the partial programmes Fossil Energy Carriers, Renewable Energy Sources and Efficient Use of Energy. The ordering of the wide-ranging material is carried out essentially via two indices: the index of project numbers and the index of companies. Then an overview is given of final reports published in 1987. A list of 1987 patents forms the final section.

  11. New energy carriers in vehicles and their impact on confined infrastructures Overview of previous research and research needs

    OpenAIRE

    Salvi , Olivier; Lonnermark , Anders; Ingason , Haukur; Truchot , Benjamin; Leucker , Roland; Amberg , Félix; Molenaar , Dirk-Jan; Hejny , Horst

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The global warming debate forces the vehicle industry to come up with new environmentally friendly solutions. In 10 years time, or even faster depending on the pressure from different governments in particular in Europe, vehicles will not only use gasoline, diesel and LPG, but also CNG, Hydrogen, ethanol, DME and other bio-fuels, as well as batteries and fuel cells. This quick development and the diversity of new energy carriers can jeopardize the safety in underground...

  12. Quantifying intermolecular interactions of ionic liquids using cohesive energy densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    For ionic liquids (ILs), both the large number of possible cation + anion combinations and their ionic nature provide a unique challenge for understanding intermolecular interactions. Cohesive energy density, ced, is used to quantify the strength of intermolecular interactions for molecular liquids, and is determined using the enthalpy of vaporization. A critical analysis of the experimental challenges and data to obtain ced for ILs is provided. For ILs there are two methods to judge the strength of intermolecular interactions, due to the presence of multiple constituents in the vapour phase of ILs. Firstly, cedIP, where the ionic vapour constituent is neutral ion pairs, the major constituent of the IL vapour. Secondly, cedC+A, where the ionic vapour constituents are isolated ions. A cedIP dataset is presented for 64 ILs. For the first time an experimental cedC+A, a measure of the strength of the total intermolecular interaction for an IL, is presented. cedC+A is significantly larger for ILs than ced for most molecular liquids, reflecting the need to break all of the relatively strong electrostatic interactions present in ILs. However, the van der Waals interactions contribute significantly to IL volatility due to the very strong electrostatic interaction in the neutral ion pair ionic vapour. An excellent linear correlation is found between cedIP and the inverse of the molecular volume. A good linear correlation is found between IL cedIP and IL Gordon parameter (which are dependent primarily on surface tension). ced values obtained through indirect methods gave similar magnitude values to cedIP. These findings show that cedIP is very important for understanding IL intermolecular interactions, in spite of cedIP not being a measure of the total intermolecular interactions of an IL. In the outlook section, remaining challenges for understanding IL intermolecular interactions are outlined. PMID:29308254

  13. Quantifying intermolecular interactions of ionic liquids using cohesive energy densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Kevin R J

    2017-12-01

    For ionic liquids (ILs), both the large number of possible cation + anion combinations and their ionic nature provide a unique challenge for understanding intermolecular interactions. Cohesive energy density, ced , is used to quantify the strength of intermolecular interactions for molecular liquids, and is determined using the enthalpy of vaporization. A critical analysis of the experimental challenges and data to obtain ced for ILs is provided. For ILs there are two methods to judge the strength of intermolecular interactions, due to the presence of multiple constituents in the vapour phase of ILs. Firstly, ced IP , where the ionic vapour constituent is neutral ion pairs, the major constituent of the IL vapour. Secondly, ced C+A , where the ionic vapour constituents are isolated ions. A ced IP dataset is presented for 64 ILs. For the first time an experimental ced C+A , a measure of the strength of the total intermolecular interaction for an IL, is presented. ced C+A is significantly larger for ILs than ced for most molecular liquids, reflecting the need to break all of the relatively strong electrostatic interactions present in ILs. However, the van der Waals interactions contribute significantly to IL volatility due to the very strong electrostatic interaction in the neutral ion pair ionic vapour. An excellent linear correlation is found between ced IP and the inverse of the molecular volume. A good linear correlation is found between IL ced IP and IL Gordon parameter (which are dependent primarily on surface tension). ced values obtained through indirect methods gave similar magnitude values to ced IP . These findings show that ced IP is very important for understanding IL intermolecular interactions, in spite of ced IP not being a measure of the total intermolecular interactions of an IL. In the outlook section, remaining challenges for understanding IL intermolecular interactions are outlined.

  14. Carbon: Hydrogen carrier or disappearing skeleton?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, K.P.; Van Wechem, H.M.H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of liquid hydrocarbons as energy carriers implies the use of carbon as a carrier for hydrogen to facilitate hydrogen transport and storage. The current trend for liquid energy carriers used in the transport sector is to maximize the load of hydrogen on the carbon carrier. The recently developed Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation process for the manufacture of high quality diesel from aromatic refinery streams fits this picture. In the future, the hydrogen required to raise the product H/C ratio will be increasingly produced via gasification of large amounts of heavy residues. In the light of the strong preference towards using liquid fuels in the transport sector, the Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis process to convert natural gas into diesel of very high quality is discussed. Finally, a few comments on the use of hydrogen without a carbon carrier are made. Long lead times and the likelihood of producing the 'first' hydrogen from fossil fuel are highlighted. 13 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs

  15. The preparation, physicochemical properties, and the cohesive energy of liquid sodium containing titanium nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Itami, Toshio; Ara, Kuniaki

    2012-01-01

    Liquid sodium containing titanium nanoparticles (LSnanop) of 10-nm diameter was prepared by dispersing titanium nanoparticles (2 at.% Ti) into liquid sodium with the addition of stirring and ultrasonic sound wave. The titanium nanoparticles themselves were prepared by the vapor deposition method. This new liquid metal, LSnanop, shows a remarkable stability due to the Brownian motion of nanoparticles in liquid sodium medium. In addition, the difference of measured heat of reaction to water between this LSnanop and liquid sodium indicates the existence of cohesive energy between the liquid sodium medium and dispersed titanium nanoparticles. The origin of the cohesive energy, which serves to stabilize this new liquid metal, was explained by the model of screened nanoparticles in liquid sodium. In this model, negatively charged nanoparticles with transferred electrons from liquid sodium are surrounded by the positively charged screening shell, which may inhibit the gathering of nanoparticles by the “Coulombic repulsion coating.” The atomic volume of LSnanop shows the shrinkage from the linear law, which also suggests the existence of cohesive energy. The viscosity of LSnanop is almost the same as that of liquid sodium. This behavior was explained by the Einstein equation. The surface tension of LSnanop is 17 % larger than that of liquid sodium. The cohesive energy and the negative adsorption may be responsible to this increase. Titanium nanoparticles in liquid sodium seem to be free from the Coulomb fission. This new liquid metal containing nanoparticles suggests the possibility to prepare various stable suspensions with new properties.

  16. Technology data for energy plants. Generation of electricity and district heating, energy storage and energy carrier generation and conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-15

    The Danish Energy Agency and Energinet.dk, the Danish electricity transmission and system operator, have at regular intervals published a catalogue of energy producing technologies. The previous edition was published in June 2010. This report presents the results of the most recent update. The primary objective of publishing a technology catalogue is to establish a uniform, commonly accepted and up-to-date basis for energy planning activities, such as future outlooks, evaluations of security of supply and environmental impacts, climate change evaluations, and technical and economic analyses, e.g. on the framework conditions for the development and deployment of certain classes of technologies. With this scope in mind, it has not been the intention to establish a comprehensive catalogue, including all main gasification technologies or all types of electric batteries. Only selected, representative, technologies are included, to enable generic comparisons of e.g. thermal gasification versus combustion of biomass and electricity storage in batteries versus hydro-pumped storage. It has finally been the intention to offer the catalogue for the international audience, as a contribution to similar initiatives aiming at forming a public and concerted knowledge base for international analyses and negotiations. A guiding principle for developing the catalogue has been to rely primarily on well-documented and public information, secondarily on invited expert advice. Since many experts are reluctant in estimating future quantitative performance data, the data tables are not complete, in the sense that most data tables show several blank spaces. This approach has been chosen in order to achieve data, which to some extent are equivalently reliable, rather than to risk a largely incoherent data set including unfounded guesstimates. The current update has been developed with an unbalanced focus, i.e. most attention to technologies which are most essential for current and short

  17. Energy efficient hotspot-targeted embedded liquid cooling of electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Chander Shekhar; Tiwari, Manish K.; Zimmermann, Severin; Brunschwiler, Thomas; Schlottig, Gerd; Michel, Bruno; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a novel concept for hotspot-targeted, energy efficient ELC for electronic chips. • Microchannel throttling zones distribute flow optimally without any external control. • Design is optimized for highly non-uniform multicore chip heat flux maps. • Optimized design minimizes chip temperature non-uniformity. • This is achieved with pumping power consumption less than 1% of total chip power. - Abstract: Large data centers today already account for nearly 1.31% of total electricity consumption with cooling responsible for roughly 33% of that energy consumption. This energy intensive cooling problem is exacerbated by the presence of hotspots in multicore microprocessors due to excess coolant flow requirement for thermal management. Here we present a novel liquid-cooling concept, for targeted, energy efficient cooling of hotspots through passively optimized microchannel structures etched into the backside of a chip (embedded liquid cooling or ELC architecture). We adopt an experimentally validated and computationally efficient modeling approach to predict the performance of our hotspot-targeted ELC design. The design is optimized for exemplar non-uniform chip power maps using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). For industrially acceptable limits of approximately 0.4 bar (40 kPa) on pressure drop and one percent of total chip power on pumping power, the optimized designs are computationally evaluated against a base, standard ELC design with uniform channel widths and uniform flow distribution. For an average steady-state heat flux of 150 W/cm 2 in core areas (hotspots) and 20 W/cm 2 over remaining chip area (background), the optimized design reduces the maximum chip temperature non-uniformity by 61% to 3.7 °C. For a higher average, steady-state hotspot heat flux of 300 W/cm 2 , the maximum temperature non-uniformity is reduced by 54% to 8.7 °C. It is shown that the base design requires a prohibitively high level of pumping power (about

  18. Separation and preconcentration of cadmium ions in natural water using a liquid membrane system with 2-acetylpyridine benzoylhydrazone as carrier by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granado-Castro, M.D.; Galindo-Riano, M.D. E-mail: dolores.galindo@uca.es; Garcia-Vargas, Manuel

    2004-04-30

    A method for the determination of Cd in natural water by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after separation and preconcentration with a bulk liquid membrane containing 2-acetylpyridine benzoylhydrazone as mobile carrier dissolved in toluene has been developed. Effects of carrier concentration, volume of organic phase and pH of feed and receiving solutions on the flux for Cd across the membrane have been studied, being optimized by the modified simplex method. Optimum values for these variables were: carrier concentration of 0.84 g l{sup -1}, 74 ml of toluene, pH 7.8 in the feed solution and 0.06 mol l{sup -1} of HNO{sub 3} in the receiving solution, allowing a preconcentration factor of 17.9. The preconcentration step required 7 h to be accomplished. The recovery of Cd at optimum conditions was 101.0{+-}2.7%, even with saline matrix, with good relative standard deviation (2.5%) at 95% confidence level. The detection limit of blank sample was 6 ng l{sup -1} of Cd. The method was validated using a certified reference material (TMDA-62) and also applied successfully to the analysis of Cd in four samples of seawater collected from the coast of Huelva (Spain). The relative errors of determinations were -7.6% for certified reference material and ranging between +2.4 and +7.1%, for samples of seawater (obtained between the results of the proposed and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry methods)

  19. Charge transport in organic transistors accounting for a wide distribution of carrier energies, Part I : Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torricelli, F.

    2012-01-01

    An extended theory of carrier hopping transport in organic transistors is proposed. According to many experimental studies, the density of localized states in organic thin-film transistors can be described by a double-exponential function. In this work, using a percolation model of hopping, the

  20. Biredox ionic liquids with solid-like redox density in the liquid state for high-energy supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Eléonore; Coustan, Laura; Lannelongue, Pierre; Zigah, Dodzi; Mehdi, Ahmad; Vioux, André; Freunberger, Stefan A; Favier, Frédéric; Fontaine, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Kinetics of electrochemical reactions are several orders of magnitude slower in solids than in liquids as a result of the much lower ion diffusivity. Yet, the solid state maximizes the density of redox species, which is at least two orders of magnitude lower in liquids because of solubility limitations. With regard to electrochemical energy storage devices, this leads to high-energy batteries with limited power and high-power supercapacitors with a well-known energy deficiency. For such devices the ideal system should endow the liquid state with a density of redox species close to the solid state. Here we report an approach based on biredox ionic liquids to achieve bulk-like redox density at liquid-like fast kinetics. The cation and anion of these biredox ionic liquids bear moieties that undergo very fast reversible redox reactions. As a first demonstration of their potential for high-capacity/high-rate charge storage, we used them in redox supercapacitors. These ionic liquids are able to decouple charge storage from an ion-accessible electrode surface, by storing significant charge in the pores of the electrodes, to minimize self-discharge and leakage current as a result of retaining the redox species in the pores, and to raise working voltage due to their wide electrochemical window.

  1. Current and future competitiveness of renewable energy carriers - Conceptions about competitiveness; Foernyelsebara energibaerares nuvarande och framtida konkurrenskraft - foerestaellningar om konkurrenskraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, K.

    1998-05-01

    The dissertation draws attention to the fact that in the world today 80% of the resources that are used are limited - non renewable energy carriers - and because of the long time between planning and doing (carrying out) within the energy sector, it is worthwhile from the long-term perspective to steer early on towards more sustainable solutions, such as renewable energy carriers. The State and the market have begun to adjust to concepts such as `competitiveness`, which can be viewed as containing both feasibility and legitimacy aspects - the state through different regulations and environmental taxes and environmental fees, and actors on the market that marginally produce/choose renewable energy carriers. The overlying methodology in the dissertation is an actor`s viewpoint. This viewpoint brings forth, in turn, two different views, the analytical and the interpretative. The dissertation presents different stances within the energy sector: commercial production logic, commercial sustainability logic, and the socio-economic sustainability logic. By drawing one`s attention to how one has the possibility to create (enact) his own reality, it is possible to highlight how organisations can increase their competitiveness by being conscious of their own view and others, logic, which in turn forms their views about competitiveness, which in turn determines which projects will materialize. Enterprises and individuals create a description of reality together through a dialectic process, i.e. by developing an environmental management system that contains elements of environmental auditing, environmental performance indicators, and environmental labelling, which `reveal` the production conditions that lie behind the actualization of the final product. An example is the product, `green` electricity, which, in spite of the fact that the final product - electricity - is identical irrespective of the production method, just at the moment can be sold at different prices according

  2. Determination of monoamine neurotransmitters in human urine by carrier-mediated liquid-phase microextraction based on solidification of stripping phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liwei; Chen, Yibang; Chen, Yejun; Ma, Ming; Tan, Yueming; Tang, Hao; Chen, Bo

    2015-11-01

    A novel method was developed for the analysis of monoamine neurotransmitters (MNTs) in human urine by carrier-mediated liquid-phase microextraction based on solidification of stripping phase method (CM-LPME-SSP) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD). By adding an appropriate carrier in organic phase, simultaneous extraction of hydrophilic analytes, MNTs, with high enrichment factors (22.6-36.1 folds) and excellent sample cleanup was achieved. A new strategy, solidifying the aqueous stripping phase in the back-extraction process, was developed to facilitate the collection of the stripping phase as small as a few microliters. Combined with HPLC-ECD analysis, the linear ranges of the established method were 0.015-2.0 μg/mL for NE, E, DA, and 0.020-2.0 μg/mL for 5-HT. The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 5.5-10.8 ng/mL and 15-20 ng/mL, respectively. The relative recoveries were in the range of 87-108%, with intraday and interday relative standard deviations lower than 13%. This method was successfully applied to analysis of MNTs in real urine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling and characterization of double resonant tunneling diodes for application as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehl, Zacharie; Suchet, Daniel; Julian, Anatole; Bernard, Cyril; Miyashita, Naoya; Gibelli, Francois; Okada, Yoshitaka; Guillemolles, Jean-Francois

    2017-02-01

    Double resonant tunneling barriers are considered for an application as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells. Experimental symmetric and asymmetric double resonant tunneling barriers are realized by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by temperature dependent current-voltage measurements. The negative differential resistance signal is enhanced for asymmetric heterostructures, and remains unchanged between low- and room-temperatures. Within Tsu-Esaki description of the tunnel current, this observation can be explained by the voltage dependence of the tunnel transmission amplitude, which presents a resonance under finite bias for asymmetric structures. This effect is notably discussed with respect to series resistance. Different parameters related to the electronic transmission of the structure and the influence of these parameters on the current voltage characteristic are investigated, bringing insights on critical processes to optimize in double resonant tunneling barriers applied to hot carrier solar cells.

  4. Redox Homeostasis in Plants under Abiotic Stress: Role of electron carriers, energy metabolism mediators and proteinaceous thiols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhriti Kapoor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporaneous presence of both oxidized and reduced forms of electron carriers is mandatory in efficient flux by plant electron transport cascades. This requirement is considered as redox poising that involves the movement of electron from multiple sites in respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport chains to molecular oxygen. This flux triggers the formation of superoxide, consequently give rise to other reactive oxygen species (ROS under adverse environmental conditions like drought, high or low temperature, heavy metal stress etc. that plants owing during their life span. Plant cells synthesize ascorbate, an additional hydrophilic redox buffer, which protect the plants against oxidative challenge. Large pools of antioxidants also preside over the redox homeostasis. Besides, tocopherol is a liposoluble redox buffer, which efficiently scavenges the ROS like singlet oxygen. In addition, proteinaceous thiol members such as thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin and glutaredoxin, electron carriers and energy metabolism mediators phosphorylated (NADP and non-phosphorylated (NAD+ coenzyme forms interact with ROS, metabolize and maintain redox homeostasis.

  5. Multi-Scale Simulation of High Energy Density Ionic Liquids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voth, Gregory A

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this AFOSR project was the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of ionic liquid structure, dynamics, and interfacial properties, as well as multi-scale descriptions of these novel liquids (e.g...

  6. Crystallization of glass-forming liquids: Specific surface energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, Jürn W. P.; Abyzov, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    A generalization of the Stefan-Skapski-Turnbull relation for the melt-crystal specific interfacial energy is developed in terms of the generalized Gibbs approach extending its standard formulation to thermodynamic non-equilibrium states. With respect to crystal nucleation, this relation is required in order to determine the parameters of the critical crystal clusters being a prerequisite for the computation of the work of critical cluster formation. As one of its consequences, a relation for the dependence of the specific surface energy of critical clusters on temperature and pressure is derived applicable for small and moderate deviations from liquid-crystal macroscopic equilibrium states. Employing the Stefan-Skapski-Turnbull relation, general expressions for the size and the work of formation of critical crystal clusters are formulated. The resulting expressions are much more complex as compared to the respective relations obtained via the classical Gibbs theory. Latter relations are retained as limiting cases of these more general expressions for moderate undercoolings. By this reason, the formulated, here, general relations for the specification of the critical cluster size and the work of critical cluster formation give a key for an appropriate interpretation of a variety of crystallization phenomena occurring at large undercoolings which cannot be understood in terms of the Gibbs’ classical treatment.

  7. Separation of alkali, alkaline earth and rare earth cations by liquid membranes containing macrocyclic carriers. Third progress report, September 1, 1980-April 1, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the use of liquid membrane systems employing macrocyclic ligand carriers in making separations among metal cations. During the third year of the project, work continued in the development of a mathematical model to describe cation transport. The model was originally developed to describe the relationship between cation transport rate (J/sub M/) and the cation-macrocycle stability constant (K). The model was tested by determining the rates of transport of alkali and alkaline earth cations through chloroform membranes containing carrier ligands where the stability constants for their reaction with cations in methanol were known. From the results, it is clear that the model correctly describes the dependence of J/sub M/ on log K. The model also correctly describes the effect of cation concentration and carrier concentration on cation transport rates, as detailed in the previous progress report. During the third year of the project, the transport model was expanded so as to apply to competitive transport of cations from mixtures of two cations in the source aqueous phase. Data were collected under these conditions and the ability of the model to predict the flux of each cation was tested. Representative data of this type are presented along with corresponding data which were obtained when each cation was transported by the same carrier from a source phase containing only that cation. Comparison of transport rates determined under the two experimental conditions indicates that the relationship between the two sets of data is complex. To date, a few of these data involving transport from binary cation mixtures have been tested against the transport model. It was found that the model correctly predicts the cation fluxes from cation mixtures. These preliminary results indicate that the transport model can successfully predict separation factors when cation mixtures are used

  8. Application of Liquid Hydrogen with SMES for Efficient Use of Renewable Energy in the Energy Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering that generally frequency instability problems occur due to abrupt variations in load demand growth and power variations generated by different renewable energy sources (RESs, the application of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES may become crucial due to its rapid response features. In this paper, liquid hydrogen with SMES (LIQHYSMES is proposed to play a role in the future energy internet in terms of its combination of the SMES and the liquid hydrogen storage unit, which can help to overcome the capacity limit and high investment cost disadvantages of SMES. The generalized predictive control (GPC algorithm is presented to be appreciatively used to eliminate the frequency deviations of the isolated micro energy grid including the LIQHYSMES and RESs. A benchmark micro energy grid with distributed generators (DGs, electrical vehicle (EV stations, smart loads and a LIQHYSMES unit is modeled in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The simulation results show that the proposed GPC strategy can reschedule the active power output of each component to maintain the stability of the grid. In addition, in order to improve the performance of the SMES, a detailed optimization design of the superconducting coil is conducted, and the optimized SMES unit can offer better technical advantages in damping the frequency fluctuations.

  9. Crystal–liquid interfacial free energy and thermophysical properties of pure liquid Ti using electrostatic levitation: Hypercooling limit, specific heat, total hemispherical emissivity, density, and interfacial free energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geun Woo; Jeon, Sangho; Park, Cheolmin; Kang, Dong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermophysical properties of liquid Ti are obtained by electrostatic levitation. • How to measure the thermophysical properties is shown with non-contact method. • Hypercooling limit of liquid Ti guarantying homogeneous nucleation is 341 K. • Accurate ratio C p /ε T of the liquid Ti is obtained with weak temperature dependence. • Interfacial free energy of Ti is estimated with the thermophysical parameters. -- Abstract: Thermophysical properties of liquid Ti are measured by a newly developed electrostatic levitation. In this study, we measure a hypercooling limit (ΔT hyp ), specific heat (C p ), total hemispherical emissivity (ε T ), and density (ρ) of liquid Ti. The ΔT hyp of the liquid Ti is 341 K. The C p of the liquid Ti shows very weak temperature dependence during supercooling. The ε T and ρ of the liquid Ti are given by 0.329 and ρ(T) (g/cm 3 ) = (4.16 − 2.36) · 10 −4 (T − T m ). Finally, the interfacial free energy is estimated with the measured thermophysical parameters. The interfacial free energy is 0.164 J/m 2 , and Turnbull’s coefficient is 0.48

  10. Magnetic particles as liquid carriers in the microfluidic lab-in-tube approach to detect phase change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenschein, Nicholas A; Han, Daewoo; Caggioni, Marco; Steckl, Andrew J

    2014-06-11

    Magnetic beads (MBs) with ∼1.9 μm average diameter were used to transport specific microliter-scale volumes of liquids between adjacent reservoirs within a closed tube under the influence of a magnetic field. The tube's inner surface is coated with a hydrophobic layer, enabling the formation of a surface tension valve by inserting an air gap between reservoirs. This transfer process was implemented by keeping the MBs stationary with a fixed external magnet while the liquid reservoirs were translated by a computer-controlled syringe pump system. The magnet induces the aggregation of MBs in a loosely packed cluster (void volume ∼90-95%) against the tube's inner wall. The liquid trapped in the MB cluster is transported across the air gap between reservoirs. Fluorescence intensity from a dye placed in one reservoir is used to measure the volume of liquid transferred between reservoirs. The carry-over liquid volume is controlled by the mass of the MBs within the device. The typical volume of liquid carried by the MB cluster is ∼2 to 3 μL/mg of beads, allowing the use of small samples. This technique can be used to study the effect of small compositional variation on the properties of fluid mixtures. The feasibility of this "lab-in-tube" approach for binary phase diagram determination in a water-surfactant (C12E5) system was demonstrated.

  11. Energy of formation for AgIn liquid binary alloys along the line of phase separation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuiyan, G M; Ziauddin-Ahmed, A Z

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the energy of formation for AgIn liquid binary alloys along the solid-liquid phase separation line. A microscopic theory based on the first order perturbation has been applied. The interionic interaction and a reference liquid are the fundamental components of the theory. These are described by a local pseudopotential and the hard sphere liquids, respectively. The results of calculations reveal a characteristic feature that the energy of formation becomes minimum at the equiatomic composition, and thus indicates maximal mix-ability at this concentration. The energy of formation at a particular thermodynamic state that is at T 1173 K predicts the experimental trends fairly well.

  12. Measuring the internal energy content of molecules transported across the liquid-gas interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maselli, Olivia J; Gascooke, Jason R; Buntine, Mark A [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Lawrance, Warren D, E-mail: m.buntine@curtin.edu.a [School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5000 (Australia)

    2009-09-01

    Many details concerning the mechanism associated with the liberation of molecules from a liquid surface remain to be elucidated. We use the liquid microjet technique coupled with laser spectroscopy to measure the rotational and vibrational energy content of benzene spontaneously evaporating from a water-ethanol solution. These measurements provide molecular level insight into the mass and energy transfer processes associated with evaporation.

  13. Measuring the internal energy content of molecules transported across the liquid-gas interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maselli, Olivia J; Gascooke, Jason R; Buntine, Mark A; Lawrance, Warren D

    2009-01-01

    Many details concerning the mechanism associated with the liberation of molecules from a liquid surface remain to be elucidated. We use the liquid microjet technique coupled with laser spectroscopy to measure the rotational and vibrational energy content of benzene spontaneously evaporating from a water-ethanol solution. These measurements provide molecular level insight into the mass and energy transfer processes associated with evaporation.

  14. Performance, Defect Behavior and Carrier Enhancement in Low Energy, Proton Irradiated p(+)nn(+) InP Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, I.; Rybicki, G. C.; Vargas-Aburto, C.; Jain, R. K.; Scheiman, D.

    1994-01-01

    InP p(+)nn(+) cells, processed by MOCVD, were irradiated by 0.2 MeV protons and their performance and defect behavior observed to a maximum fluence of 10(exp 13)/sq cm. Their radiation induced degradation, over this fluence range, was considerably+less than observed for similarly irradiated, diffused junction n p InP cells. Significant degradation occurred in both the cell's emitter and base regions the least degradation occurring in the depletion region. A significant increase in series resistance occurs at the highest fluenc.e. Two majority carrier defect levels, E7 and E10, are observed by DLTS with activation energies at (E(sub C) - 0.39)eV and (E(sub C) - 0.74)eV respectively. The relative concentration of these defects differs considerably from that observed after 1 MeV electron irradiation. An increased carrier concentration in the cell's n-region was observed at the highest proton fluence, the change in carrier concentration being insignificant at the lower fluences. In agreement with previous results, for 1 and 1.5 MeV electron irradiated InP p(+)n junctions, the defect level E10 is attributed to a complex between zinc, diffused into the n-region from the zinc doped emitter, and a radiation induced defect. The latter is assumed to be either a phosphorus vacancy or interstitial. The increased, or enhanced carrier concentration is attributed to this complex acting as a donor.

  15. Determination of energy band diagram and charge carrier mobility of white emitting polymer from optical, electrical and impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Sarjidan, M.A., E-mail: mohd.arif@um.edu.my; Mohd Mokhtar, H.A.; Abd Majid, W.H., E-mail: q3haliza@um.edu.my

    2015-03-15

    A single-layer white polymer light-emitting device (WPLED) has been fabricated using spin coating technique. The device was constructed as ITO/PEDOT:PSS(50 nm)/SPW-111(50 nm)/LiF(1 nm)/Al(100 nm). Indium tin oxide (ITO) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) are used as the transparent anode. SPW-111 is fabricated as a white emissive layer and lithium fluoride (LiF) and aluminum (Al) are used as reflecting cathode. Energy band diagram of the device was estimated from a combination of ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) and current–voltage (J–V) analyses. Charge carrier mobility (μ) of PLED was evaluated using negative differential susceptance (−ΔB) method from impedance spectroscopy (IS) analysis. The calculated μ of the SPW-111 device is in the magnitude of 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/V/s. - Highlights: • Single layer PLED has been fabricated with spin-coating technique and device performance has been evaluated. • Energy band diagram of the SPW-111 is estimated from optical and electrical analyses. • Charge carrier mobility of the SPW-111 materials is obtained by impedance spectroscopy.

  16. Rate and mechanism of facilitated americium(III) transport through a supported liquid membrane containing a bifunctional organophosphorus mobile carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danesi, P.R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Rickert, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    The facilitated transport of Am(III) from aqueous nitrate solutions to formic acid aqueous solutions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) is described. The supported liquid membrane consists of a solution of a new (carbamoylmethyl)phosphine oxide in diethylbenzene (DEB) absorbed into a 48 μm thick microporous polypropylene film. The transport mechanism consists of a diffusion process through an aqueous diffusion film, a fast interfacial chemical reaction, and diffusion through the membrane itself. Equations describing the rate of transport are derived. They correlate the membrane permeability coefficient to diffusional parameters and to the chemical composition of the system. Different rate-controlling processes are shown to control the membrane permeability when the composition of the system is varied and as long as the transport occurs. The experimental data are quantitatively explained with the derived equations. The diffusion coefficient of the permeating species and the equilibrium constant of the fast interfacial reactions are evaluated. 13 figures, 1 table

  17. The inherent dynamics of a molecular liquid: Geodesic pathways through the potential energy landscape of a liquid of linear molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Daniel; Stratt, Richard M.

    2014-05-01

    Because the geodesic pathways that a liquid follows through its potential energy landscape govern its slow, diffusive motion, we suggest that these pathways are logical candidates for the title of a liquid's "inherent dynamics." Like their namesake "inherent structures," these objects are simply features of the system's potential energy surface and thus provide views of the system's structural evolution unobstructed by thermal kinetic energy. This paper shows how these geodesic pathways can be computed for a liquid of linear molecules, allowing us to see precisely how such molecular liquids mix rotational and translational degrees of freedom into their dynamics. The ratio of translational to rotational components of the geodesic path lengths, for example, is significantly larger than would be expected on equipartition grounds, with a value that scales with the molecular aspect ratio. These and other features of the geodesics are consistent with a picture in which molecular reorientation adiabatically follows translation—molecules largely thread their way through narrow channels available in the potential energy landscape.

  18. Cold water for tyre production. Carrier: Intelligent solutions for optimal energy use; Kaltes Wasser fuer heisse Reifen. Carrier: Intelligente Loesungen zur optimalen Energienutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-01-15

    Especially when it comes to special solutions for specific applications, this will show how well man and machine are working together. In a production plant of Michelin Reifenwerke at Bad Kreuznach, Carrier installed two absorption refrigerators, in cooperation with further specialist partners. Instead of electric power, the machines utilize waste heat of the production process. (orig.)

  19. How High Local Charge Carrier Mobility and an Energy Cascade in a Three-Phase Bulk Heterojunction Enable >90% Quantum Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Burke, Timothy M.

    2013-12-27

    Charge generation in champion organic solar cells is highly efficient in spite of low bulk charge-carrier mobilities and short geminate-pair lifetimes. In this work, kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are used to understand efficient charge generation in terms of experimentally measured high local charge-carrier mobilities and energy cascades due to molecular mixing. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. How High Local Charge Carrier Mobility and an Energy Cascade in a Three-Phase Bulk Heterojunction Enable >90% Quantum Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Burke, Timothy M.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Charge generation in champion organic solar cells is highly efficient in spite of low bulk charge-carrier mobilities and short geminate-pair lifetimes. In this work, kinetic Monte Carlo simulations are used to understand efficient charge generation in terms of experimentally measured high local charge-carrier mobilities and energy cascades due to molecular mixing. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. High Voltage in Noble Liquids for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebel, B. [Fermilab; Bernard, E. [Yale U.; Faham, C. H. [LBL, Berkeley; Ito, T. M. [Los Alamos; Lundberg, B. [Maryland U.; Messina, M. [Columbia U.; Monrabal, F. [Valencia U., IFIC; Pereverzev, S. P. [LLNL, Livermore; Resnati, F. [Zurich, ETH; Rowson, P. C. [SLAC; Soderberg, M. [Fermilab; Strauss, T. [Bern U.; Tomas, A. [Imperial Coll., London; Va' vra, J. [SLAC; Wang, H. [UCLA

    2014-08-22

    A workshop was held at Fermilab November 8-9, 2013 to discuss the challenges of using high voltage in noble liquids. The participants spanned the fields of neutrino, dark matter, and electric dipole moment physics. All presentations at the workshop were made in plenary sessions. This document summarizes the experiences and lessons learned from experiments in these fields at developing high voltage systems in noble liquids.

  2. Mathematical Modeling and Optimization of Gaseous Fuel Processing as a Basic Technology for Long-distance Energy Transportation: The Use of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether as Energy Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurina, E. A.; Mednikov, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the results of studies on the perspective technologies of natural gas conversion to synthetic liquid fuel (SLF) at energy-technology installations for combined production of SLF and electricity based on their detailed mathematical models. The technologies of the long-distance transport of energy of natural gas from large fields to final consumers are compared in terms of their efficiency. This work was carried out at Melentiev Energy Systems Institute of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and supported by Russian Science Foundation via grant No 16-19-10174

  3. Local elastic expansion model for viscous-flow activation energies of glass-forming molecular liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Olsen, Niels Boye; Christensen, Tage Emil

    1996-01-01

    A model for the viscosity of glass-forming molecular liquids is proposed in which a "flow event" requires a local volume increase. The activation energy for a flow event is identified with the work done in shoving aside the surrounding liquid; this work is proportional to the high-frequency shear...

  4. Extraction of Lead through Supported Liquid Membrane Using Triethanolamine/Cyclohexanone Carrier and Na2SO4 strippant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Supported liquid membranes (SLM have proved to be effective not only for removing but also for recovery of heavy metals from waste water. This work includes the study of separation and transport of Pb+2 ions through liquid membrane based on triethanolamine (TEA in cyclohexanone supported in microporous polypropylene films. Therefore, this study aims to optimize the conditions for moving the Pb+2 ions against the concentration gradient, characterize the membrane by flux measurements, for their use in various industrial plants design to recover these ions. The effect of lead ion concentration, HNO3 in feed and TEA concentration in membrane has been studied. Optimized condition of transport of this metal ion is 1.0 M acid concentration in the feed phase and 0.1M Na2SO4 as the strippant when TEA concentration is 5.25 mol/dm3 in the membrane, as the rationale of this study is to optimize the condition for the movement of lead ions from feed phase to strip phase and to recover metal ions from any industrial effluent and finally to characterize the membrane by determining the mobility and permeability of the complexed heavy metal ion to extract their respective metal ions.

  5. Predictable Particle Engineering: Programming the Energy Level, Carrier Generation, and Conductivity of Core-Shell Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Conghui; Wu, Tong; Mao, Jie; Chen, Ting; Li, Yuntong; Li, Min; Xu, Yiting; Zeng, Birong; Luo, Weiang; Yu, Lingke; Zheng, Gaofeng; Dai, Lizong

    2018-06-20

    Core-shell structures are of particular interest in the development of advanced composite materials as they can efficiently bring different components together at nanoscale. The advantage of this structure greatly relies on the crucial design of both core and shell, thus achieving an intercomponent synergistic effect. In this report, we show that decorating semiconductor nanocrystals with a boronate polymer shell can easily achieve programmable core-shell interactions. Taking ZnO and anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals as inner core examples, the effective core-shell interactions can narrow the band gap of semiconductor nanocrystals, change the HOMO and LUMO levels of boronate polymer shell, and significantly improve the carrier density of core-shell particles. The hole mobility of core-shell particles can be improved by almost 9 orders of magnitude in comparison with net boronate polymer, while the conductivity of core-shell particles is at most 30-fold of nanocrystals. The particle engineering strategy is based on two driving forces: catechol-surface binding and B-N dative bonding and having a high ability to control and predict the shell thickness. Also, this approach is applicable to various inorganic nanoparticles with different components, sizes, and shapes.

  6. Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, J.E.; Qaisi, R.M.; Logan, B.E.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Micro-sized microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are miniature energy harvesters that use bacteria to convert biomass from liquids into usable power. The key challenge is transitioning laboratory test beds into devices capable of producing high power using

  7. Relation between bulk compressibility and surface energy of electron-hole liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singwi, K.S.; Tosi, M.P.

    1979-08-01

    Attention is drawn to the existence of an empirical relation chiσ/asup(*)sub(B) approximately 1 between the compressibility, the surface energy and the excitonic radius in electron-hole liquids. (author)

  8. Future of the gas industry. Energy carriers instead of power source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothe, David; Janssen, Matthias; Riechmann, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    For a long time, natural gas was considered as an ideal bridge technology for the energy transition because of the relatively low CO_2 content. With increasing decarbonisation of electricity generation by renewable energies and the associated political vision of a far-reaching electrification of energy applications, in particular in the heat sector, the gas sector is, however, threatened to be overtaken by the renewables. This creates increasing uncertainty for business models and investments in the natural gas sector itself, but also potentially high macroeconomic costs of the energy transition. It can be shown that such a development is not unavoidable if the gas sector succeeds in using the existing possibilities cleverly. Thereby the continued use of existing gas infrastructure plays a central role. For use of the opportunities, however, a paradigm shift in politics, regulation and natural gas sector is necessary, whose key points are developed in this article. [de

  9. Thermal and Optical Modulation of the Carrier Mobility in OTFTs Based on an Azo-anthracene Liquid Crystal Organic Semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yantong; Li, Chao; Xu, Xiuru; Liu, Ming; He, Yaowu; Murtaza, Imran; Zhang, Dongwei; Yao, Chao; Wang, Yongfeng; Meng, Hong

    2017-03-01

    One of the most striking features of organic semiconductors compared with their corresponding inorganic counterparts is their molecular diversity. The major challenge in organic semiconductor material technology is creating molecular structural motifs to develop multifunctional materials in order to achieve the desired functionalities yet to optimize the specific device performance. Azo-compounds, because of their special photoresponsive property, have attracted extensive interest in photonic and optoelectronic applications; if incorporated wisely in the organic semiconductor groups, they can be innovatively utilized in advanced smart electronic applications, where thermal and photo modulation is applied to tune the electronic properties. On the basis of this aspiration, a novel azo-functionalized liquid crystal semiconductor material, (E)-1-(4-(anthracen-2-yl)phenyl)-2-(4-(decyloxy)phenyl)diazene (APDPD), is designed and synthesized for application in organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). The UV-vis spectra of APDPD exhibit reversible photoisomerizaton upon photoexcitation, and the thin films of APDPD show a long-range orientational order based on its liquid crystal phase. The performance of OTFTs based on this material as well as the effects of thermal treatment and UV-irradiation on mobility are investigated. The molecular structure, stability of the material, and morphology of the thin films are characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), polarizing optical microscopy (POM), (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). This study reveals that our new material has the potential to be applied in optical sensors, memories, logic circuits, and functional switches.

  10. Derivation of Hamaker Dispersion Energy of Amorphous Carbon Surfaces in Contact with Liquids Using Photoelectron Energy-Loss Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godet, Christian; David, Denis

    2017-12-01

    Hamaker interaction energies and cutoff distances have been calculated for disordered carbon films, in contact with purely dispersive (diiodomethane) or polar (water) liquids, using their experimental dielectric functions ɛ ( q, ω) obtained over a broad energy range. In contrast with previous works, a q-averaged q is derived from photoelectron energy-loss spectroscopy (XPS-PEELS) where the energy loss function (ELF) q is a weighted average over allowed transferred wave vector values, q, given by the physics of bulk plasmon excitation. For microcrystalline diamond and amorphous carbon films with a wide range of (sp3/sp2 + sp3) hybridization, non-retarded Hamaker energies, A 132 ( L < 1 nm), were calculated in several configurations, and distance and wavenumber cutoff values were then calculated based on A 132 and the dispersive work of adhesion obtained from contact angles. A geometric average approximation, H 0 CVL = ( H 0 CVC H 0 LVL )1/2, holds for the cutoff separation distances obtained for carbon-vacuum-liquid (CVL), carbon-vacuum-carbon (CVC) and liquid-vacuum-liquid (LVL) equilibrium configurations. The linear dependence found for A CVL, A CLC and A CLV values as a function of A CVC, for each liquid, allows predictive relationships for Hamaker energies (in any configuration) using experimental determination of the dispersive component of the surface tension, {γ}_{CV}^d , and a guess value of the cutoff distance H 0 CVC of the solid. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Enhancement of energy performance in a boil-off gas re-liquefaction system of LNG carriers using ejectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Hongbo; Zhao, Qingxuan; Sun, Nannan; Li, Yanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An ejector-enhanced LNG boil-off gas (BOG) re-liquefaction system is proposed. • The new system has an improvement of 28% in COP over the existing system. • The specific energy consumption of the new system is reduced to 0.59 kW h/kg(BOG). • The power consumption of 754.1 kW is saved in the case study. - Abstract: An ejector-enhanced Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) boil-off gas (BOG) re-liquefaction system is proposed to improve the energy efficiency of the existing system. In the new system, two ejectors are respectively used to reduce the energy loss in the expansion of the pressurized BOG and inject a part of fuel BOG into the compression system, and a recuperator is employed to recover the cold energy of the BOG exited from LNG tank. The performance improvement of the proposed system is analysed on the basis of the simulation in Aspen HYSYS. In the case of the re-liquefaction capacity of 4557.6 kg/h, the coefficient of performance (COP) and exergy efficiency can be increased by 28%, and the specific energy consumption (SEC) reduced from 0.756 to 0.59 kW h/kg(BOG) compared to the conventional BOG re-liquefaction system. Correspondingly, the power consumption of 754.1 kW is saved. This means that applying ejectors can effectively improve the energy efficiency of the existing BOG re-liquefaction system for LNG carriers.

  12. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of beryllium from some transition metals produced in high energy proton irradiations of medium mass elements: measurement of (p,7Be) cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, M.; Spellerberg, S.; Qaim, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the separation of 7 Be formed in high energy proton irradiation of medium mass elements like Fe, Cu etc. The bulk of the target material was removed in a preseparation step. Thereafter beryllium was obtained in a high purity within a few minutes elution time using a mixture of 5 mM citric acid and 1.0 mM pyridinedicarboxylic acid as eluent and a SYKAM KO2 analytical cation-exchange column. The effect of Be-carrier on the quality of separation was investigated. The quality of separation deteriorated with the increasing Be-carrier column loading. A certain amount of Be-carrier was, however, necessary in order to quantitate the results. By using low Be-carrier amounts (∝100 μg) and determining the elution yield via a conductometric method, it was possible to obtain quantitative separation results. Besides the analytical column, a semi-preparative column was also used, and the Be separation yield determined gravimetrically. The cross sections for the (p, 7 Be) process on Cu obtained using the two separation columns (analytical and semipreparative) and the two separation yield determination methods agreed within 15%. (orig.)

  13. Ionic liquids and their solid-state analogues as materials for energy generation and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Douglas R.; Forsyth, Maria; Howlett, Patrick C.; Kar, Mega; Passerini, Stefano; Pringle, Jennifer M.; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Yan, Feng; Zheng, Wenjun; Zhang, Shiguo; Zhang, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Salts that are liquid at room temperature, now commonly called ionic liquids, have been known for more than 100 years; however, their unique properties have only come to light in the past two decades. In this Review, we examine recent work in which the properties of ionic liquids have enabled important advances to be made in sustainable energy generation and storage. We discuss the use of ionic liquids as media for synthesis of electromaterials, for example, in the preparation of doped carbons, conducting polymers and intercalation electrode materials. Focusing on their intrinsic ionic conductivity, we examine recent reports of ionic liquids used as electrolytes in emerging high-energy-density and low-cost batteries, including Li-ion, Li-O2, Li-S, Na-ion and Al-ion batteries. Similar developments in electrolyte applications in dye-sensitized solar cells, thermo-electrochemical cells, double-layer capacitors and CO2 reduction are also discussed.

  14. Hydrogen as Future Energy Carrier: The ENEA Point of View on Technology and Application Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ronchetti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen and fuel cells should reduce costs and increase reliability and durability to compete in the energy market. A considerable long term effort is necessary for research, development and demonstration of adequate solutions; important programs in this sense are carried out in the main industrialized countries, with the involvement of many industries, research structures and stakeholders. In such framework a relevant role is played in Italy by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment. In the paper the main aspects related to the possible hydrogen role in the future society are addressed, according to ENEA perspectives.

  15. Inlfuence of grants and taxes on the final energy costs from selected bioenergy carrier - case study for heat from large scale plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haerdtlein, M.; Kaltschmitt, M.; Braun, A.

    1996-01-01

    Biogenic fuels represent a promising possibility for the supply of the energy demand and thereby show many advantages. However, there is little use of solid bioenergy carriers in many countries of the EU. Mainly this is caused by the high costs of the provision of energy from organic material compared to the costs of the substitutable fossil energy carriers. Against this background the following paper investigates governmental possibilities to make biomass as a fuel economical competitive for a potential plant operator. For that purpose large scale biomass combustion plants only fired by energy crops are investigated exemplaryly for Germany. Firstly a detailed analysis of the energy provision costs from energy crops is carried out. The results are compared to similar fossil fired plants. Then the influence of governmental guiding instruments for a wider market access of biofuels on the heat production costs will be shown. Finally the results are summarised and the some conclusions are discussed. (Author)

  16. Balance of liquid-phase turbulence kinetic energy equation for bubble-train flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, Milica; Woerner, Martin; Cacuci, Dan Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the investigation of bubble-induced turbulence using direct numerical simulation (DNS) of bubbly two-phase flow is reported. DNS computations are performed for a bubble-driven liquid motion induced by a regular train of ellipsoidal bubbles rising through an initially stagnant liquid within a plane vertical channel. DNS data are used to evaluate balance terms in the balance equation for the liquid phase turbulence kinetic energy. The evaluation comprises single-phase-like terms (diffusion, dissipation and production) as well as the interfacial term. Special emphasis is placed on the procedure for evaluation of interfacial quantities. Quantitative analysis of the balance equation for the liquid phase turbulence kinetic energy shows the importance of the interfacial term which is the only source term. The DNS results are further used to validate closure assumptions employed in modelling of the liquid phase turbulence kinetic energy transport in gas-liquid bubbly flows. In this context, the performance of respective closure relations in the transport equation for liquid turbulence kinetic energy within the two-phase k-ε and the two-phase k-l model is evaluated. (author)

  17. Model-based predictive control applied to multi-carrier energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; Andersson, G.; De Schutter, B.

    2009-01-01

    The optimal operation of an integrated electricity and natural gas infrastructure is investigated. The couplings between the electricity system and the gas system are modeled by so-called energy hubs, which represent the interface between the loads on the one hand and the transmission

  18. Packaging and transportation of radioactive liquid at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.J.

    1995-02-01

    Beginning in the 1940's, radioactive liquid waste has been generated at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site as a result of defense material production. The liquid waste is currently stored in 177 underground storage tanks. As part of the tank remediation efforts, Type B quantity packagings for the transport of large volumes of radioactive liquids are required. There are very few Type B liquid packagings in existence because of the rarity of large-volume radioactive liquid payloads in the commercial nuclear industry. Development of aboveground transport systems for large volumes of radioactive liquids involves institutional, economic, and technical issues. Although liquid shipments have taken place under DOE-approved controlled conditions within the boundaries of the Hanford Site for many years, offsite shipment requires compliance with DOE, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and US Department of Transportation (DOT) directives and regulations. At the present time, no domestic DOE nor NRC-certified Type B packagings with the appropriate level of shielding are available for DOT-compliant transport of radioactive liquids in bulk volumes. This paper will provide technical details regarding current methods used to transport such liquids on and off the Hanford Site, and will provide a status of packaging development programs for future liquid shipments

  19. Wood as a raw commodity and energy carrier; Holz als Rohstoff und Energietraeger. Dynamisches Holzmarktmodell und Zukunftsszenarien - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauli, B.; Buergi, P.; Bruehlhard, S. [Schweizerische Hochschule fuer Landwirtschaft, Zollikofen (Switzerland); Thees, O.; Lemm, R.; Rosset, Ch. [Eidg. Forschungsanstalt fuer Wald, Schnee und Landschaft, WSL, Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a dynamic wood-market model and the future prospects for the use of wood as a raw commodity and energy carrier. As an introduction, an overview of Swiss and international wood markets is provided. Various sorts of timber - from whole tree-trunks to waste wood for use as an energy source - are discussed. The international wood market is looked at and future developments are discussed. The report goes on to deal with four project stages which help provide an information basis in order to be able to review the current situation and the future developments in the Swiss wood industry. The first stage of the project involved the elaboration of a material-flow matrix for the year 2005. The sources of the data are discussed. Inconsistencies in the data are looked at and the Swiss wood market is analysed. This material-flow matrix provided the basis for a second step, the development of a product-oriented, dynamic wood market model. Here, all sources of wood from forests to waste wood are looked at and their use for building and as an energy resource is considered. Model development, variants and modelling factors are discussed. An expert-aided model is looked at. The market models developed were used for the third step, the development of scenarios for future development. Five scenarios were developed, including higher energy costs, a large, heavy storm event, increased per capita wood use, increasing global timber prices as well as the installation of a new, large-scale sawmill. In a final step, based on knowledge gained from the previous steps, suggestions for further action to be taken by politics were elaborated. Here, measures that would have an effect on supply and demand are suggested that could help decrease the costs for the harvesting of wood resources and support changes in the market behaviour of forest owners.

  20. The impact of large-scale energy storage requirements on the choice between electricity and hydrogen as the major energy carrier in a non-fossil renewables-only scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Converse, Alvin O.

    2006-01-01

    The need for large-scale storage, when the energy source is subject to periods of low-energy generation, as it would be in a direct solar or wind energy system, could be the factor which justifies the choice of hydrogen, rather than electricity, as the principal energy carrier. It could also be the 'Achilles heel' of a solar-based sustainable energy system, tipping the choice to a nuclear breeder system

  1. Performance analysis of a novel energy storage system based on liquid carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mingkun; Zhao, Pan; Wu, Yi; Dai, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Due to the intermittence and fluctuation of wind resource, the increasing penetration level of wind power will bring huge challenges to maintain the stability of power system. Integrating compressed air energy storage (CAES) system with wind farms can weaken this negative effect. However CAES system needs large caverns or mines to store compressed air, which is restricted in application. In this paper, a novel energy storage system based on liquid carbon dioxide is presented. The mathematical models of compressed liquid-carbon dioxide energy storage system are developed. The parametric analysis is conducted to examine the effect of some key thermodynamic parameters on the system performance. Compared with AA-CAES, the liquid carbon dioxide energy storage system has advantages such as a high energy density, high EVR. Moreover, the round trip efficiency of this system can reach about 56.64%, which is acceptable in consideration of the storage volume. Therefore, this proposed system has a good potential for storing wind power in large scale and offers an attractive solution to the challenges of the increasing penetration level of wind power. - Highlights: • A novel energy storage system based on liquid carbon dioxide is presented. • The effects of some key parameters on the system performance are studied. • The operation optimization is conducted by genetic algorithm. • Comparative analysis of AA-CAES and liquid carbon dioxide system is studied.

  2. Iron liquid-argon and uranium liquid-argon calorimeters for hadron energy measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Lankford, A J; Rehak, P; Struczinski, W; Willis, W J

    1977-01-01

    The authors studied, with a specially designed hadron calorimeter, the contributions of different mechanisms affecting the energy resolution of such instruments. It is shown that in ordinary materials the resolution is dominated by 'nuclear fluctuations'. Measurements with a uranium calorimeter show that these fluctuations can be effectively compensated by the amplifying effect of nuclear fission in uranium. The resolution at low energies is good ( sigma =9.6% for 10 GeV/c pions) and improving with energy. (12 refs).

  3. Low energy neutrino astronomy with the large liquid-scintillation detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Feilitzsch, F von; Goeger-Neff, M; Hochmuth, K A; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Wurm, M

    2006-01-01

    The detection of low energy neutrinos in a large liquid scintillation detector may provide further important information on astrophysical processes as supernova physics, solar physics and elementary particle physics as well as geophysics. In this contribution, a new project for Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy (LENA) consisting of a 50 kt scintillation detector is presented

  4. Causality Between Market Liquidity and Depth for Energy and Grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Sari (Ramazan); S.M. Hammoudeh (Shawkat); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the roles of futures prices of crude oil, gasoline, ethanol, corn, soybeans and sugar in the energy-grain nexus. It also investigates the own- and cross-market impacts for lagged grain trading volume and open interest in the energy and grain markets. According to the

  5. Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, Peter; Dahl, Carl Eric

    2011-01-01

    We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.

  6. High energy-density liquid rocket fuel performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Douglas C.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel performance database of liquid hydrocarbons and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuels was compiled using engine parametrics from the Space Transportation Engine Program as a baseline. Propellant performance parameters are introduced. General hydrocarbon fuel performance trends are discussed with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and heat of formation. Aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is discussed with respect to aluminum metal loading. Hydrocarbon and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is presented with respect to fuel density, specific impulse and propellant density specific impulse.

  7. Energy, climate change and the opportunity for liquid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Edgardo Olivares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: egomez@energiabr.org.br, gomez@bioware.com.br; Castaneda Ayarza, Juan Arturo; Zainaghi, Gislaine [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: jcastaneda@energiabr.org.br, zainaghi@yahoo.com; Chohfi, Felipe Moreton; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: fmchohfi@yahoo.com, cortez@reitoria.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the proven influence between anthropogenic actions such as those related with energy production and use on the natural environment. With the adverse perspectives of continued chemical changes occurring worldwide the paper also presents opportunities that can continue to ensure a more sustainable growth in harmony with the environment. A transition for a more efficient and environmentally correct final use of energy is needed in future in such a way as to diminish the conflicts between development and environment. Different scenarios aiming to provide the ideal routes for development to occur addressing sustainability indicators are studied. Some typical options for a more sustainable future include improved energy efficiency, more renewable energy and advanced energy technologies. National programs undertaken in Brazil such as those of the ethanol and bio diesel have a proven impact in the search for a sustainable future worldwide and should be further emphasized in future by means of the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  8. Angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements with a gallium liquid metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriott, Philip

    1987-06-01

    Ionisation and energy broadening mechanisms relevant to liquid metal ion sources are discussed. A review of experimental results giving a picture of source operation and a discussion of the emission mechanisms thought to occur for the ionic species and droplets emitted is presented. Further work is suggested by this review and an analysis system for angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements of liquid metal ion source beams has been constructed. The energy analyser has been calibrated and a series of measurements, both on and off the beam axis, of 69 Ga + , Ga ++ and Ga 2 + ions emitted at various currents from a gallium source has been performed. A comparison is made between these results and published work where possible, and the results are discussed with the aim of determining the emission and energy spread mechanisms operating in the gallium liquid metal ion source. (author)

  9. Coral mucus functions as an energy carrier and particle trap in the reef ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, C.; Huettel, M.; Klueter, A.

    2004-01-01

    Zooxanthellae, endosymbiotic algae of reef-building corals, substantially contribute to the high gross primary production of coral reefs(1), but corals exude up to half of the carbon assimilated by their zooxanthellae as mucus(2,3). Here we show that released coral mucus efficiently traps organic...... matter from the water column and rapidly carries energy and nutrients to the reef lagoon sediment, which acts as a biocatalytic mineralizing filter. In the Great Barrier Reef, the dominant genus of hard corals, Acropora, exudes up to 4.8 litres of mucus per square metre of reef area per day. Between 56......% and 80% of this mucus dissolves in the reef water, which is filtered through the lagoon sands. Here, coral mucus is degraded at a turnover rate of at least 7% per hour. Detached undissolved mucus traps suspended particles, increasing its initial organic carbon and nitrogen content by three orders...

  10. Liquid contrabands classification based on energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and hybrid discriminant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YangDai, Tianyi; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) combined with hybrid discriminant analysis (HDA) has been utilized for classifying the liquid materials for the first time. The XRD spectra of 37 kinds of liquid contrabands and daily supplies were obtained using an EDXRD test bed facility. The unique spectra of different samples reveal XRD's capability to distinguish liquid contrabands from daily supplies. In order to create a system to detect liquid contrabands, the diffraction spectra were subjected to HDA which is the combination of principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Experiments based on the leave-one-out method demonstrate that HDA is a practical method with higher classification accuracy and lower noise sensitivity than the other methods in this application. The study shows the great capability and potential of the combination of XRD and HDA for liquid contrabands classification.

  11. Liquid contrabands classification based on energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and hybrid discriminant analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    YangDai, Tianyi [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education (China); Zhang, Li, E-mail: zhangli@nuctech.com [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education (China)

    2016-02-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) combined with hybrid discriminant analysis (HDA) has been utilized for classifying the liquid materials for the first time. The XRD spectra of 37 kinds of liquid contrabands and daily supplies were obtained using an EDXRD test bed facility. The unique spectra of different samples reveal XRD's capability to distinguish liquid contrabands from daily supplies. In order to create a system to detect liquid contrabands, the diffraction spectra were subjected to HDA which is the combination of principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Experiments based on the leave-one-out method demonstrate that HDA is a practical method with higher classification accuracy and lower noise sensitivity than the other methods in this application. The study shows the great capability and potential of the combination of XRD and HDA for liquid contrabands classification.

  12. Liquid contrabands classification based on energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and hybrid discriminant analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    YangDai, Tianyi; Zhang, Li

    2016-02-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) combined with hybrid discriminant analysis (HDA) has been utilized for classifying the liquid materials for the first time. The XRD spectra of 37 kinds of liquid contrabands and daily supplies were obtained using an EDXRD test bed facility. The unique spectra of different samples reveal XRD's capability to distinguish liquid contrabands from daily supplies. In order to create a system to detect liquid contrabands, the diffraction spectra were subjected to HDA which is the combination of principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Experiments based on the leave-one-out method demonstrate that HDA is a practical method with higher classification accuracy and lower noise sensitivity than the other methods in this application. The study shows the great capability and potential of the combination of XRD and HDA for liquid contrabands classification.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of a liquid air energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizzi, Giuseppe Leo; Manno, Michele; Tolomei, Ludovica Maria; Vitali, Ruggero Maria

    2015-01-01

    The rapid increase in the share of electricity generation from renewable energy sources is having a profound impact on the power sector; one of the most relevant effects of this trend is the increased importance of energy storage systems, which can be used to smooth out peaks and troughs of production from renewable energy sources. Besides their role in balancing the electric grid, energy storage systems may provide also several other useful services, such as price arbitrage, stabilizing conventional generation, etc.; therefore, it is not surprising that many research projects are under way in order to explore the potentials of new technologies for electric energy storage. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of a cryogenic energy storage system, based on air liquefaction and storage in an insulated vessel. This technology is attractive thanks to its independence from geographical constraints and because it can be scaled up easily to grid-scale ratings, but it is affected by a low round-trip efficiency due to the energy intensive process of air liquefaction. The present work aims to assess the efficiency of such a system and to identify if and how it can achieve an acceptable round-trip efficiency (in the order of 50–60%).

  14. DGEMP/CGP energy policy lecture cycle - technical and economical stakes of hydrogen as an energy carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleau, T.; Freund, E.; Coiffard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogen is attracting a lot a interest from energy specialists, in particular because supply safety issues are back on the agendas. One of the most promising applications seems to be the 'combustible cells', which changes hydrogen into electricity and heat in various applications: 'mobile', as an alternative to electric cells, for instance in telephones or lap-top computers, 'stationary' for producing electricity and heat, including small and medium voltage, and 'transport' with a high number of light vehicle and even bus prototypes. (authors)

  15. Liquid 4He: Modified LOCV ground-state energy calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjetne, B.; Ostgaard, E.

    1996-01-01

    The ground-state energetics of liquid 4 He is studied in a constrained variational approach, where the significance of neglecting terms beyond second order in the cluster expansion is estimated in a crude way. An adjustment to the conditions of healing on the two-body correlation function excludes from the global average field the effects of pairwise clustering to higher orders. To this end, open-quotes virtualclose quotes particles beyond nearest neighbors are included in the average correlation volume. Results within the scope of such modifications are consistent with GFMC and QDMC calculations, falling within the range -7.25 ± 0.05 K when recent interaction models are used

  16. A free energy study of the liquid-liquid phase transition of the Jagla ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Appendix” preliminary free energy surface calculations for select parameterizations of the generalized family of Jagla potentials spanning from the original (anomalous,water-like) Jagla model to the Lennard-Jones model. These calculations ...

  17. Invariance of the solid-liquid interfacial energy in electrowetting probed via capillary condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rohini; Olivier, Gloria K; Frechette, Joelle

    2010-07-20

    Capillary condensation is employed to probe the solid-liquid interfacial energy in electrowetting on dielectric. The height of an annular water meniscus formed via capillary condensation inside the surface force apparatus is measured as a function of the potential applied across the meniscus and the dielectric stack where the meniscus is formed. According to the Kelvin equation, a decrease in the solid-liquid interfacial energy at constant temperature and relative humidity should lead to an increase in the meniscus height. Our experimental results on nanometer-sized meniscus are in agreement with the work of Mugele [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2007, 19, 375112] and unequivocally demonstrate that the real contact angle (or the solid-liquid interfacial energy) remains unaltered in electrowetting on dielectric.

  18. Thermodynamic characteristics of a novel wind-solar-liquid air energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, W.; Zhou, Y.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, W.; Pan, C. Z.; Wang, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the nature of fluctuation and intermittency, the utilization of wind and solar power will bring a huge impact to the power grid management. Therefore a novel hybrid wind-solar-liquid air energy storage (WS-LAES) system was proposed. In this system, wind and solar power are stored in the form of liquid air by cryogenic liquefaction technology and thermal energy by solar thermal collector, respectively. Owing to the high density of liquid air, the system has a large storage capacity and no geographic constraints. The WS-LAES system can store unstable wind and solar power for a stable output of electric energy and hot water. Moreover, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to investigate the best system performance. The result shows that the increases of compressor adiabatic efficiency, turbine inlet pressure and inlet temperature all have a beneficial effect.

  19. Energy Efficient Hybrid Gas Separation with Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xinyan; Liang, Xiaodong; Gani, Rafiqul

    2017-01-01

    Shale gas, like natural gas, contains H2, CO2, CH4 and that light hydrocarbon gases needs processing to separate the gases for conversion to higher value products. Currently, distillation based separation is employed, which is energy intensive. Hybrid gas separation processes, combining absorption...... systems is established for process design-analysis. A strategy for hybrid gas separation process synthesis where distillation and IL-based absorption are employed for energy efficient gas processing is developed and its application is highlighted for a model shale gas processing case study....

  20. Synthesis, performance and regeneration of carbon membranes for biogas upgrading - a future energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, Jon Arvid

    2005-07-01

    was also seen on the surface of Ag-nitrate containing carbon. However, the Ag- and Cu-containing membranes showed a high H2 permeability. Adding metal oxides makes the carbon membranes retard the transport of easily condensable gases (e.g. CO2). This can be exploited for enhanced H2/CO{sub 2} separation efficiency. A simple, energy effective and rapid regeneration method for membranes that are conductors or semi-conductors has been developed: When a low voltage, direct current was applied on an iron-doped carbon, sorption of gases in the carbon decreased, while diffusivity increased to a larger degree, resulting in enhanced permeation rates. Electrothermal regeneration may also be applied online, and is especially suitable for separation in non-oxidizing atmospheres, like CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation. The method can be used for a continuous process, and not only for batchwise regeneration (e.g. activated carbon). The CO{sub 2} permeability increased with about 60%, while the CH{sub 4} permeability was unchanged (single gas tests). Mixed gas tests on the same type of iron-doped carbon (without current applied) resulted in a reduction of both the CO2 permeability and the selectivity, compared to single gas tests. High performance carbon membranes were also formed from the commercial polymer XP (cover name). The CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivity was typically larger than 100, with a CO2 permeability of about 200 Barrer (single gas tests). The applied precursor film thickness was in the range 50-70 micron, and was found to be crucial for the carbonization process. Films of 100 microns or more resulted in cracks during carbonization, probably because of low gas drainage, and were rendered useless. Carbon membranes from XP possess two important advantages: 1) The films produced at 500 C have some degree of flexibility, hence easy to handle and process. Masking and testing these carbons were not challenging, when a proper precursor film thickness was used. 2) Aging seems not

  1. Effect of liquid-to-solid lipid ratio on characterizations of flurbiprofen-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for transdermal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aihua; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Li, Yanting; Mao, Xinjuan; Han, Fei

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of liquid-to-solid lipid ratio on properties of flurbiprofen-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), and to clarify the superiority of NLCs over SLNs for transdermal administration. Particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro occlusion factor, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, in vitro percutaneous permeation profile, and stability of SLNs and NLCs were compared. Particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro occlusion factor, and in vitro percutaneous permeation amount of the developed NLCs were all 78%, >35, and >240 μg/cm(2), respectively, however, for SLNs were 280 nm, -29.11 mV, 63.2%, 32.54, and 225.9 μg/cm(2), respectively. After 3 months storage at 4 °C and 25 °C, almost no significant differences between the evaluated parameters of NLCs were observed. However, for SLNs, particle size was increased to higher than 300 nm (4 °C and 25 °C), drug encapsulation efficiency was decreased to 51.2 (25 °C), in vitro occlusion factor was also decreased to lower than 25 (4 °C and 25 °C), and the cumulative amount was decreased to 148.9 μg/cm(2) (25 °C) and 184.4 μg/cm(2) (4 °C), respectively. And DSC and XRD studies indicated that not only the crystalline peaks of the encapsulated flurbiprofen disappeared but also obvious difference between samples and bulk Compritol® ATO 888 was seen. It could be concluded that liquid-to-solid lipid ratio has significant impact on the properties of SLNs and NLCs, and NLCs showed better stability than SLNs. Therefore, NLCs might be a better option than SLNs for transdermal administration.

  2. Effect of high-energy radiation on the rheological characteristics and structure of liquid rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorkov, A.T.; Zaitseva, V.I.; Muryshkin, D.L.; Safonov, Yu.N.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of high-energy radiation (γ-radiation and accelerated electrons) on liquid polybutadiene and polyisoprene rubbers (SKD, SKD-KTR, SKN) and butyl rubber (BR) was studied by IR and EPR spectroscopy, rheoviscosimetry, and chemical analysis. Newtonian flow was conserved in the rubbers under irradiation. The activation energy of viscous flow was unchanged, evidence of an increase in the contour length of the macromolecules without significant branching and cross-linking at the initial stages of the irradiation. A quantitative relationship was established between the rubber's dynamic viscosity and the absorbed dose, and features of the structure-formation mechanism in the liquid rubbers were determined

  3. Quantification of breast density using dual-energy mammography with liquid phantom calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Alfonso R; Ding, Huanjun; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-01-01

    Breast density is a widely recognized potential risk factor for breast cancer. However, accurate quantification of breast density is a challenging task in mammography. The current use of plastic breast-equivalent phantoms for calibration provides limited accuracy in dual-energy mammography due to the chemical composition of the phantom. We implemented a breast-equivalent liquid phantom for dual-energy calibration in order to improve the accuracy of breast density measurement. To design these phantoms, three liquid compounds were chosen: water, isopropyl alcohol, and glycerol. Chemical compositions of glandular and adipose tissues, obtained from NIST database, were used as reference materials. Dual-energy signal of the liquid phantom at different breast densities (0% to 100%) and thicknesses (1 to 8 cm) were simulated. Glandular and adipose tissue thicknesses were estimated from a higher order polynomial of the signals. Our results indicated that the linear attenuation coefficients of the breast-equivalent liquid phantoms match those of the target material. Comparison between measured and known breast density data shows a linear correlation with a slope close to 1 and a non-zero intercept of 7%, while plastic phantoms showed a slope of 0.6 and a non-zero intercept of 8%. Breast density results derived from the liquid calibration phantoms showed higher accuracy than those derived from the plastic phantoms for different breast thicknesses and various tube voltages. We performed experimental phantom studies using liquid phantoms and then compared the computed breast density with those obtained using a bovine tissue model. The experimental data and the known values were in good correlation with a slope close to 1 (∼1.1). In conclusion, our results indicate that liquid phantoms are a reliable alternative for calibration in dual-energy mammography and better reproduce the chemical properties of the target material. (paper)

  4. A fermi liquid electric structure and the nature of the carriers in high-T/sub c/ cuprates: A photoemission study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arko, A.J.; List, R.S.; Bartlett, R.J.; Cheong, S.W.; Fisk, Z.; Thompson, J.D.; Olson, C.G.; Yang, A.B.; Liu, R.; Gu, C.; Veal, B.W.; Liu, J.Z.; Paulikas, A.P.; Vandervoort, K.; Claus, H.; Campuzano, J.C.; Schirber, J.E.; Shinn, N.D.

    1989-01-01

    We have performed angle-integrated and angle-resolved photoemission measurements at 20 K on well-characterized single crystals of high-T/sub c/ cuprates (both 1:2:3-type and 2:2:1:2-type) cleaved in situ, and find a relatively large, resolution limited Fermi edge which shows large amplitude variations with photon energy, indicative of band structure final state effects. The lineshapes of the spectra of the 1:2:3 materials as a function of photon energy are well reproduced by band structure predictions, indicating a correct mix of 2p and 3d orbitals on the calculations, while the energy positions of the peaks agree with calculated bands only to within /approx/0.5 eV. This may yet prove to reflect the effects of Coulomb correlation. We nevertheless conclude that a Fermi liquid approach to conductivity is appropriate. Angle-resolved data, while still incomplete, suggest agreement with the Fermi surface predicted by the LDA calculations. A BCS-like energy gap is observed in the 2:2:1:2 materials, whose magnitude is twice the weak coupling BCS value (i.e., 2/Delta/ = 7 KT/sub c/). 49 refs., 11 figs.

  5. High Energy Cutting and Stripping Utilizing Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Howard; Noah, Donald E.; Hayes, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    The Aerospace Industry has endeavored for decades to develop hybrid materials that withstand the rigors of mechanized flight both within our atmosphere and beyond. The development of these high performance materials has led to the need for environmentally friendly technologies for material re-work and removal. The NitroJet(TM) is a fluid jet technology that represents an evolution of the widely used, large-scale water jet fluid jet technology. It involves the amalgamation of fluid jet technology and cryogenics technology to create a new capability that is applicable where water jet or abrasive jet (water jet plus entrained abrasive) are not suitable or acceptable because of technical constraints such as process or materials compatibility, environmental concerns and aesthetic or legal requirements. The NitroJet(TM) uses ultra high-pressure nitrogen to cut materials, strip numerous types of coatings such as paint or powder coating, clean surfaces and profile metals. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is used as the feed stream and is pressurized in two stages. The first stage pressurizes sub cooled LN2 to an intermediate pressure of between 15,000 and 20,000 psi at which point the temperature of the LN2 is about -250 F. The discharge from this stage is then introduced as feed to a dual intensifier system, which boosts the pressure from 15,000 - 20,000 psi up to the maximum operating pressure of 55,000 psi. A temperature of about -220 F is achieved at which point the nitrogen is supercritical. In this condition the nitrogen cuts, strips and abrades much like ultra high-pressure water would but without any residual liquid to collect, remove or be contaminated. Once the nitrogen has performed its function it harmlessly flashes back into the atmosphere as pure nitrogen gas. The system uses heat exchangers to control and modify the temperature of the various intake and discharge nitrogen streams. Since the system is hydraulically operated, discharge pressures can be easily varied over

  6. Caffeine Concentrations in Coffee, Tea, Chocolate, and Energy Drink Flavored E-liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisko, Joseph G; Lee, Grace E; Kimbrell, J Brett; Rybak, Michael E; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Watson, Clifford H

    2017-04-01

    Most electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) contain a solution of propylene glycol/glycerin and nicotine, as well as flavors. E-cigarettes and their associated e-liquids are available in numerous flavor varieties. A subset of the flavor varieties include coffee, tea, chocolate, and energy drink, which, in beverage form, are commonly recognized sources of caffeine. Recently, some manufacturers have begun marketing e-liquid products as energy enhancers that contain caffeine as an additive. A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the quantitation of caffeine in e-liquids was developed, optimized and validated. The method was then applied to assess caffeine concentrations in 44 flavored e-liquids from cartridges, disposables, and refill solutions. Products chosen were flavors traditionally associated with caffeine (ie, coffee, tea, chocolate, and energy drink), marketed as energy boosters, or labeled as caffeine-containing by the manufacturer. Caffeine was detected in 42% of coffee-flavored products, 66% of tea-flavored products, and 50% of chocolate-flavored e-liquids (limit of detection [LOD] - 0.04 µg/g). Detectable caffeine concentrations ranged from 3.3 µg/g to 703 µg/g. Energy drink-flavored products did not contain detectable concentrations of caffeine. Eleven of 12 products marketed as energy enhancers contained caffeine, though in widely varying concentrations (31.7 µg/g to 9290 µg/g). E-liquid flavors commonly associated with caffeine content like coffee, tea, chocolate, and energy drink often contained caffeine, but at concentrations significantly lower than their dietary counterparts. Estimated daily exposures from all e-cigarette products containing caffeine were much less than ingestion of traditional caffeinated beverages like coffee. This study presents an optimized and validated method for the measurement of caffeine in e-liquids. The method is applicable to all e-liquid matrices and could potentially be used to ensure regulatory

  7. Kinetic energy and added mass of hydrodynamically interacting gas bubbles in liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jacobus B.W.

    1988-01-01

    By averaging the basic equations on microscale, expressions are derived for the effective added mass density and the kinetic energy density of a mixture of liquid and gas bubbles. Due to hydrodynamic interaction between the bubbles there appears to be a difference between the effective added mass

  8. Novel 2-Alkyl-1-Ethylpyridinium ionic liquids : synthesis, dissociation energies and volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilas, M.; Alves da Rocha, M.A.; Fernandes, A.M.; Tojo, E.; Santos, L.M.N.B.F.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the synthesis, volatility study and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with energy-variable collision induced dissociation of the isolated [(cation)2(anion)]+ of a novel series of 2-alkyl-1-ethyl pyridinium based ionic liquids, [2CN-21C2Py][NTf2]. Compared to the

  9. Potential energy landscape signatures of slow dynamics in glass forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sastry, S.; Debenedetti, P. G.; Stillinger, F. H.

    1999-01-01

    We study the properties of local potential energy minima (‘inherent structures’) sampled by liquids at low temperatures as an approach to elucidating the mechanisms of the observed dynamical slowing down observed as the glass transition temperature is approached. This onset of slow dynamics...

  10. Finite energy sum rules and instantons in the instanton liquid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, V.; Fang Shi; Steele, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    We obtain the imaginary part of the direct single-instanton contribution to the pseudoscalar correlator, as defined by the appropriate dispersion relation, in order to derive an explicit integral representation for the instanton contribution to finite energy sum rules in the instanton liquid model. (author)

  11. Energy consumption and commercial applications of liquid foam insulation technology for greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, J. [Environnement-MJ, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); De Halleux, D. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sols et de Genie Agroalimentaire; Aberkani, K. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Centre de Recherche en Horticulture; Vineberg, S. [Sunarc of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Sunarc of Canada has developed an energy saving system for commercial greenhouse growers. Large amounts of energy are needed to operate commercial greenhouses in northern latitudes, and as energy prices fluctuate, it is important to enable growers to control their microclimate. Sunarc's liquid foam insulating system was installed in 2007 at 2 sites in Ontario. The first site had an area of 14,700 ft{sup 2} while the other site had an area of 43,000 ft{sup 2}. Both facilities were monitored for energy use during the winter period. Night-time energy savings ranged from above 60 per cent to below 10 per cent depending on outdoor temperatures. The greater savings occurred during colder outdoor temperatures. Monthly average night-time energy savings from February, March and April were 46.6, 42, and 32.3 per cent respectively. After initial commercial testing, the liquid foam system was re-engineered to optimize operations, reduce fill time, and improve liquid foam formulas. The new system was installed at a third site in Quebec as a demonstration unit. The company is currently negotiating international distribution rights with several partners.

  12. Distribution of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chempath, Shaji [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pratt, Lawrence R [TULANE UNIV

    2008-01-01

    Distributions of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface are obtained on the basis of molecular simulation with the SPC/E model of water. These binding energies together with the observed interfacial density profile are used to test a minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical statistical thermodynamic theory. Binding energy distributions for water molecules in that interfacial region clearly exhibit a composite structure. A minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical model that is accurate for the free energy of bulk liquid water breaks down for water molecules in the liquid-vapor interfacial region. This breakdown is associated with the fact that this minimally conditioned Gaussian model would be inaccurate for the statistical thermodynamics of a dilute gas. Aggressive conditioning greatly improves the performance of that Gaussian quasi-chemical model. The analogy between the Gaussian quasi-chemical model and dielectric models of hydration free energies suggests that naive dielectric models without the conditioning features of quasi-chemical theory will be unreliable for these interfacial problems. Multi-Gaussian models that address the composite nature of the binding energy distributions observed in the interfacial region might provide a mechanism for correcting dielectric models for practical applications.

  13. Feasibility study of tuned liquid column damper for ocean wave energy extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yihong; King, Yeong-Jin; Lai, An-Chow; Chong, Kok-Keong; Lim, Boon-Han

    2017-04-01

    Intermittent nature and low efficiency are the major issues in renewable energy supply. To overcome these issues, one of the possible methods is through a hybrid system where multiple sources of renewable energy are combined to compensate each other's weaknesses. The hybrid of solar energy and wave energy becomes possible through the introduction of a stable floating platform which enables solar energy generation above it and wave energy harvesting underneath it. This paper is intended to study the feasibility of harnessing ocean wave energy using a tuned liquid column damper (TLCD), a type of passive damping device that is designed to suppress externally induced vibration force at a specific frequency range. The proposed TLCD is to be implemented within a floating offshore structure to serve as a vibration mitigating mechanism by reducing the dynamic response of the structure and simultaneously utilize the flowing motion of liquid within the TLCD for generating electricity. The constructed TLCD prototype is tuned according to theoretical study and tested using a shaking table with a predetermined frequency range. The oscillating motion of water within the TLCD and the potential of installation of hydro turbine generator in term of recoverable amount of energy are studied.

  14. Conjugate gradient filtering of instantaneous normal modes, saddles on the energy landscape, and diffusion in liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, J; Keyes, T

    2002-02-01

    Instantaneous normal modes (INM's) are calculated during a conjugate-gradient (CG) descent of the potential energy landscape, starting from an equilibrium configuration of a liquid or crystal. A small number (approximately equal to 4) of CG steps removes all the Im-omega modes in the crystal and leaves the liquid with diffusive Im-omega which accurately represent the self-diffusion constant D. Conjugate gradient filtering appears to be a promising method, applicable to any system, of obtaining diffusive modes and facilitating INM theory of D. The relation of the CG-step dependent INM quantities to the landscape and its saddles is discussed.

  15. Liquid Metals as Plasma-facing Materials for Fusion Energy Systems: From Atoms to Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Howard A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Koel, Bruce E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Bernasek, Steven L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Carter, Emily A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Debenedetti, Pablo G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2017-06-23

    The objective of our studies was to advance our fundamental understanding of liquid metals as plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems, with a broad scope: from atoms to tokamaks. The flow of liquid metals offers solutions to significant problems of the plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems. Candidate metals include lithium, tin, gallium, and their eutectic combinations. However, such liquid metal solutions can only be designed efficiently if a range of scientific and engineering issues are resolved that require advances in fundamental fluid dynamics, materials science and surface science. In our research we investigated a range of significant and timely problems relevant to current and proposed engineering designs for fusion reactors, including high-heat flux configurations that are being considered by leading fusion energy groups world-wide. Using experimental and theoretical tools spanning atomistic to continuum descriptions of liquid metals, and bridging surface chemistry, wetting/dewetting and flow, our research has advanced the science and engineering of fusion energy materials and systems. Specifically, we developed a combined experimental and theoretical program to investigate flows of liquid metals in fusion-relevant geometries, including equilibrium and stability of thin-film flows, e.g. wetting and dewetting, effects of electromagnetic and thermocapillary fields on liquid metal thin-film flows, and how chemical interactions and the properties of the surface are influenced by impurities and in turn affect the surface wetting characteristics, the surface tension, and its gradients. Because high-heat flux configurations produce evaporation and sputtering, which forces rearrangement of the liquid, and any dewetting exposes the substrate to damage from the plasma, our studies addressed such evaporatively driven liquid flows and measured and simulated properties of the different bulk phases and material interfaces. The range of our studies

  16. Characterization of Charge-Carrier Transport in Semicrystalline Polymers: Electronic Couplings, Site Energies, and Charge-Carrier Dynamics in Poly(bithiophene- alt -thienothiophene) [PBTTT

    KAUST Repository

    Poelking, Carl

    2013-01-31

    We establish a link between the microscopic ordering and the charge-transport parameters for a highly crystalline polymeric organic semiconductor, poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT). We find that the nematic and dynamic order parameters of the conjugated backbones, as well as their separation, evolve linearly with temperature, while the side-chain dynamic order parameter and backbone paracrystallinity change abruptly upon the (also experimentally observed) melting of the side chains around 400 K. The distribution of site energies follows the behavior of the backbone paracrystallinity and can be treated as static on the time scale of a single-charge transfer reaction. On the contrary, the electronic couplings between adjacent backbones are insensitive to side-chain melting and vary on a much faster time scale. The hole mobility, calculated after time-averaging of the electronic couplings, reproduces well the value measured in a short-channel thin-film transistor. The results underline that to secure efficient charge transport in lamellar arrangements of conjugated polymers: (i) the electronic couplings should present high average values and fast dynamics, and (ii) the energetic disorder (paracrystallinity) should be small. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Characterization of Charge-Carrier Transport in Semicrystalline Polymers: Electronic Couplings, Site Energies, and Charge-Carrier Dynamics in Poly(bithiophene- alt -thienothiophene) [PBTTT

    KAUST Repository

    Poelking, Carl; Cho, Eunkyung; Malafeev, Alexander; Ivanov, Viktor; Kremer, Kurt; Risko, Chad; Bré das, Jean-Luc; Andrienko, Denis

    2013-01-01

    We establish a link between the microscopic ordering and the charge-transport parameters for a highly crystalline polymeric organic semiconductor, poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT). We find that the nematic and dynamic order parameters of the conjugated backbones, as well as their separation, evolve linearly with temperature, while the side-chain dynamic order parameter and backbone paracrystallinity change abruptly upon the (also experimentally observed) melting of the side chains around 400 K. The distribution of site energies follows the behavior of the backbone paracrystallinity and can be treated as static on the time scale of a single-charge transfer reaction. On the contrary, the electronic couplings between adjacent backbones are insensitive to side-chain melting and vary on a much faster time scale. The hole mobility, calculated after time-averaging of the electronic couplings, reproduces well the value measured in a short-channel thin-film transistor. The results underline that to secure efficient charge transport in lamellar arrangements of conjugated polymers: (i) the electronic couplings should present high average values and fast dynamics, and (ii) the energetic disorder (paracrystallinity) should be small. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Gibbs free energy of formation of liquid lanthanide-bismuth alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Jiawei; Yamana, Hajimu; Moriyama, Hirotake

    2001-01-01

    The linear free energy relationship developed by Sverjensky and Molling provides a way to predict Gibbs free energies of liquid Ln-Bi alloys formation from the known thermodynamic properties of aqueous trivalent lanthanides (Ln 3(5(6+ ). The Ln-Bi alloys are divided into two isostructural families named as the LnBi 2 (Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Pm) and LnBi (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb). The calculated Gibbs free energy values are well agreed with experimental data

  19. Average energy expended per ion pair, exciton enhanced ionization (Jesse effect), electron drift velocity, average electron energy and scintillation in rare gas liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, T.; Hitachi, A.; Hoshi, Y.; Masuda, K.; Hamada, T.

    1977-01-01

    Precise measurements of W-values, the average energy expended per electron-hole pair in liquid Ar and Xe, were made by the electron-pulse method, and that in liquid Kr by the steady conduction current method. The results showed that the W-values were clearly smaller than those in gaseous Ar, Xe and Kr as predicted by Doke. The results can be explained by the conduction bands which exist in these rare gas liquids as well as in the solid state. The enhanced ionization yield was observed for Xe-doped liquid Ar, and it was attributed to the ionizing excitation transfer process from Ar excitons to doped Xe. This is very similar to the Jesse effect in the gas phase. The saturated value of the enhanced ionization was in good agreement with the theoretical value, and it provides strong evidence for the existence of the exciton states in liquid Ar. Fano factors in liquid Ar, Kr, Xe and Xe-doped liquid Ar have been estimated from the Fano Formula, and they were smaller than those in the gas phase. The drift velocity of electrons in liquid Ar, liquid Ar-gas mixtures and liquid Xe have been measured with gridded ionization chambers. The average electron energy in liquid Ar has been measured. The electron-induced scintillations of liquid Xe and Ar have been studied. (Kato, T.)

  20. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  1. Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How accurate is carrier screening? No test is perfect. In a small number of cases, test results ... in which an egg is removed from a woman’s ovary, fertilized in a laboratory with the man’s ...

  2. Use of orthonormal polynomial expansion method to the description of the energy spectra of biological liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanova, N.B.; Todorov, S.T.; Ososkov, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Orthonormal polynomial expansion method (OPEM) is applied to the data obtained by the method of energy spectra to the liquid of the biomass of wheat in the case when herbicides are used. Since the biomass of a biological object contains liquid composed mainly of water, the method of water spectra is applicable to this case as well. For comparison, the similar data obtained from control sample consisting of wheat liquid without the application of herbicides are shown. The total variance OPEM is involved including errors in both dependent and independent variables. Special criteria are used for evaluating the optimal polynomial degree and the number of iterations. The presented numerical results show good agreement with the experimental data. The developed analysis frame is of interest for future analysis in theoretical ecology.

  3. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  4. North American natural gas liquids pricing and convergence : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    A background on natural gas liquids (NGL) pricing was presented along with a discussion regarding the impact of energy price convergence. The high energy prices in the fall of 2000 were a result of many factors, including the high price of NGLs. All NGL components such as ethane, propane and butane can be used as petrochemical feedstock. In the winter of 2000/2001 the relationship between liquids and crude oil prices collapsed when high energy prices led to a situation where, for a short while, extraction of liquids from natural gas became uneconomic since producers got more value for NGLs left in the gas stream. As a result, when the supply and demand balances for NGL tightened in many regions of North America, NGL prices were reflecting the unprecedented high natural gas prices. This paper also explained how the four major North American NGL trading hubs in Alberta, Ontario, Kansas and Texas operate. The pricing events of 2000 have impacted on the NGL industry and energy prices remain an issue since both crude oil and natural gas price are forecasted to remain strong in the near future. 5 figs

  5. Range-energy relations and stopping powers of organic liquids and vapours for alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhavan-Rezayat, A.; Palmer, R.B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental range-energy relations are presented for alpha particles in methyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, dichloromethane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in both the liquid and vapour phases. Stopping power values for these materials and for oxygen gas over the energy range 1.0-8.0 MeV are also given. From these results stopping powers have been derived for the -CH 2 -group and for -Cl occurring in chemical combination in the liquid and vapour phases. The molecular stopping power in the vapour phase is shown to exceed that in the liquid phase by 2-6% below 2 MeV, reducing to negligible differences at about 5 MeV for the materials directly investigated and for the -Cl atom. No significant phase effect is observed for the -CH 2 -group, but it is noted that the uncertainties in the values of the derived stopping powers are much greater in this case. Comparison of the experimental molecular stopping powers with values calculated from elemental values using the Bragg additivity rule shows agreement for vapours but not for liquids. (author)

  6. Development of energy-efficient processes for natural gas liquids recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sekwang; Binns, Michael; Park, Sangmin; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2017-01-01

    A new NGL (natural gas liquids) recovery process configuration is proposed which can offer improved energy efficiency and hydrocarbon recovery. The new process configuration is an evolution of the conventional turboexpander processes with the introduction of a split stream transferring part of the feed to the demethanizer column. In this way additional heat recovery is possible which improves the energy efficiency of the process. To evaluate the new process configuration a number of different NGL recovery process configurations are optimized and compared using a process simulator linked interactively with external optimization methods. Process integration methodology is applied as part of the optimization to improve energy recovery during the optimization. Analysis of the new process configuration compared with conventional turbo-expander process designs demonstrates the benefits of the new process configuration. - Highlights: • Development of a new energy-efficient natural gas liquids recovery process. • Improving energy recovery with application of process integration techniques. • Considering multiple different structural changes lead to considerable energy savings.

  7. Deformed potential energy of $^{263}Db$ in a generalized liquid drop model

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Bao Qiu; Zhao Yao Lin; 10.1088/0256-307X/20/11/009

    2003-01-01

    The macroscopic deformed potential energy for super-heavy nuclei /sup 263/Db, which governs the entrance and alpha decay channels, is determined within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM). A quasi- molecular shape is assumed in the GLDM, which includes volume-, surface-, and Coulomb-energies, proximity effects, mass asymmetry, and an accurate nuclear radius. The microscopic single particle energies derived from a shell model in an axially deformed Woods- Saxon potential with a quasi-molecular shape. The shell correction is calculated by the Strutinsky method. The total deformed potential energy of a nucleus can be calculated by the macro-microscopic method as the summation of the liquid-drop energy and the Strutinsky shell correction. The theory is applied to predict the deformed potential energy of the experiment /sup 22/Ne+/sup 241/Am to /sup 263/Db* to /sup 259/Db+4 n, which was performed on the Heavy Ion Accelerator in Lanzhou. It is found that the neck in the quasi-molecular shape is responsible for t...

  8. Devulcanization of styrene butadiene rubber by microwave energy: Effect of the presence of ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Seghar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR was devulcanized using microwave irradiation. In particular, effect of ionic liquid (IL, pyrrolidinium hydrogen sulfate [Pyrr][HSO4], on the devulcanization performance was studied. It was observed that the evolution of the temperature reached by rubber powder exposed to microwave irradiation for different energy values was favored by the presence of ionic liquid [Pyrr][HSO4] significantly over the whole range of the microwave energy values. Beyond the threshold point of 220 Wh/kg, the soluble fraction after devulcanization sharply increased with increasing devulcanization microwave energy. For the powder mixed with [Pyrr][HSO4], the increase was more significant. Furthermore, the crosslink density was observed to decrease slowly with the microwave energy up to 220 Wh/kg, beyond which the crosslink density decreased significantly for the rubber impregnated with IL. For the rubber with IL, significant and continuous increase in Tg with microwave energy values was observed in comparison with the SBR where no change in transition temperature was observed. Mechanical shearing of rubber gums in the two-roll mill favored the devulcanization process, which indicated that the combination of mechanical loading with microwave energy and IL is an efficient procedure allowing an optimal devulcanization of rubbers.

  9. Temperature-Responsive Luminescent Solar Concentrators: Tuning Energy Transfer in a Liquid Crystalline Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol, Jeroen A H P; Dehm, Volker; Hecht, Reinhard; Würthner, Frank; Schenning, Albertus P H J; Debije, Michael G

    2018-01-22

    Temperature-responsive luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) have been fabricated in which the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a donor-acceptor pair in a liquid crystalline solvent can be tuned. At room temperatures, the perylene bisimide (PBI) acceptor is aggregated and FRET is inactive; while after heating to a temperature above the isotropic phase of the liquid crystal solvent, the acceptor PBI completely dissolves and FRET is activated. This unusual temperature control over FRET was used to design a color-tunable LSC. The device has been shown to be highly stable towards consecutive heating and cooling cycles, making it an appealing device for harvesting otherwise unused solar energy. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. Molar Surface Gibbs Energy of the Aqueous Solution of Ionic Liquid [C4mim][Oac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Jing; ZHENG Xu; TONG Jian; QU Ye; LIU Lu; LI Hui

    2017-01-01

    The values of density and surface tension for aqueous solution of ionic liquid(IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate([C4mim][OAc]) with various molalities were measured in the range of 288.15-318.15 K at intervals of 5 K.On the basis of thermodynamics,a semi-empirical model-molar surface Gibbs energy model of the ionic liquid solution that could be used to predict the surface tension or molar volume of solutions was put forward.The predicted values of the surface tension for aqueous [C4im][OAc] and the corresponding experimental ones were highly correlated and extremely similar.In terms of the concept of the molar Gibbs energy,a new E(o)tv(o)s equation was obtained and each parameter of the new equation has a clear physical meaning.

  11. Liquid metal mist cooling and MHD Ericsson cycle for fusion energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1989-01-01

    The combination of liquid metal mist coolant and a liquid metal MHD (LMMHD) energy conversion system (ECS) based on the Ericsson cycle is being proposed for high temperature fusion reactors. It is shown that the two technologies are highly matchable, both thermodynamically and physically. Thermodynamically, the author enables delivering the fusion energy to the cycle with probably the highest practical average temperature commensurate with a given maximum reactor design constraint. Physically, the mist cooling and LMMHD ECSs can be coupled directly, thus eliminating the need for primary heat exchangers and reheaters. The net result is expected to be a high efficiency, simple and reliable heat transport and ECS. It is concluded that the proposed match could increase the economic viability of fusion reactors, so that a thorough study of the two complementary technologies is recommended. 11 refs., 3 figs

  12. Vibration energy harvester with low resonant frequency based on flexible coil and liquid spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, L.; Tang, Y.; Shkel, A.; Kim, E. S.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports an electromagnetic vibration-energy harvester with low resonant frequency based on liquid spring composed of ferrofluid. Cylinder magnet array formed by four disc NdFeB magnets is suspended by ferrofluid in a laser-machined acrylic tube which is wrapped by flexible planar coil fabricated with microfabrication process. The magnet array and coil are aligned automatically by the ferrofluid. Restoring force when the magnet array is deviated from the balance position is proportional to the deviated distance, which makes the ferrofluid work as a liquid spring obeying Hook's law. Experimental results show that the electromagnetic energy harvester occupying 1.8 cc and weighing 5 g has a resonant frequency of 16 Hz and generates an induced electromotive force of Vrms = 2.58 mV (delivering 79 nW power into matched load of 21 Ω) from 3 g acceleration at 16 Hz.

  13. Ionic liquids in proton exchange membrane fuel cells: Efficient systems for energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilha, Janine C.; Basso, Juliana; da Trindade, Leticia G.; Martini, Emilse M.A.; de Souza, Michele O.; de Souza, Roberto F. [Institute of Chemistry, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970, P.O. Box 15003 (Brazil)

    2010-10-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are used in portable devices to generate electrical energy; however, the efficiency of the PEMFC is currently only 40%. This study demonstrates that the efficiency of a PEMFC can be increased to 61% when 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMI.BF{sub 4}) ionic liquid (IL) is used together with the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The results for ionic liquids (ILs) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMI.Cl) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMI.BF{sub 4}) in aqueous solutions are better than those obtained with pure water. The current and the power densities with IL are at least 50 times higher than those obtained for the PEMFC wetted with pure water. This increase in PEMFC performance can greatly facilitate the use of renewable energy sources. (author)

  14. The use of low energy electron accelerator for processing of liquid matter in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto

    2003-01-01

    Activities of radiation processing in Indonesia covering various fields are reviewed. The low and medium energy electron accelerator specially designed for radiation processing of liquid materials is introduced. P3TIR-BATAN is mostly engaged in radiation processing in general with Co-60 source and electron accelerators (300 keV, 50 mA and 2 MeV, 10 mA). A private company, Gajah Tunggal, has an accelerator of 500 keV, 20 mA. The use of low energy electron accelerator to irradiate liquid matter matter such as natural rubber latex, polysaccharides, starch, chitosan and other natural polymers in Indonesia are reported and future program of national research cooperation between government institutions and private companies are described. (S. Ohno)

  15. Binder-free three-dimensional high energy density electrodes for ionic-liquid supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Chau; Lawrence, Daniel; Richey, Francis W; Dillard, Caitlin; Elabd, Yossef A; Kalra, Vibha

    2015-09-18

    We demonstrate a facile methodology to fabricate binder-free porous carbon nanofiber electrodes for room temperature ionic-liquid supercapacitors. The device provides an energy density of 80 W h kg(-1) based on the mass of two electrodes while retaining the high rate capability of supercapacitors with near-ideal CV curves at a high scan rate of 200 mV s(-1).

  16. Experimental and numerical investigations of the impingement of an oblique liquid jet onto a superhydrophobic surface: energy transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibar, Ali, E-mail: alikibar@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical and Material Technologies, Kocaeli University, 41285, Arslanbey Campus, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    This study presents the theory of impinging an oblique liquid jet onto a vertical superhydrophobic surface based on both experimental and numerical results. A Brassica oleracea leaf with a 160° apparent contact angle was used for the superhydrophobic surface. Distilled water was sent onto the vertical superhydrophobic surface in the range of 1750–3050 Reynolds number, with an inclination angle of 20°−40°, using a circular glass tube with a 1.75 mm inner diameter. The impinging liquid jet spread onto the surface governed by the inertia of the liquid and then reflected off the superhydrophobic surface due to the surface energy of the spreading liquid. Two different energy approaches, which have time-scale and per-unit length, were performed to determine transformation of the energy. The kinetic energy of the impinging liquid jet was transformed into the surface energy with an increasing interfacial surface area between the liquid and air during spreading. Afterwards, this surface energy of the spreading liquid was transformed into the reflection kinetic energy. (paper)

  17. Energy and exergy analysis of the turbo-generators and steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive on LNG carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrzljak, Vedran; Poljak, Igor; Mrakovčić, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Two low-power steam turbines in the LNG carrier propulsion plant were investigated. • Energy and exergy efficiencies of both steam turbines vary between 46% and 62%. • The ambient temperature has a low impact on exergy efficiency of analyzed turbines. • The maximum efficiencies area of both turbines was investigated. • A method for increasing the turbo-generator efficiencies by 1–3% is presented. - Abstract: Nowadays, marine propulsion systems are mainly based on internal combustion diesel engines. Despite this fact, a number of LNG carriers have steam propulsion plants. In such plants, steam turbines are used not only for ship propulsion, but also for electrical power generation and main feed water pump drive. Marine turbo-generators and steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive were investigated on the analyzed LNG carrier with steam propulsion plant. The measurements of various operating parameters were performed and obtained data were used for energy and exergy analysis. All the measurements and calculations were performed during the ship acceleration. The analysis shows that the energy and exergy efficiencies of both analyzed low-power turbines vary between 46% and 62% what is significantly lower in comparison with the high-power steam turbines. The ambient temperature has a low impact on exergy efficiency of analyzed turbines (change in ambient temperature for 10 °C causes less than 1% change in exergy efficiency). The highest exergy efficiencies were achieved at the lowest observed ambient temperature. Also, the highest efficiencies were achieved at 71.5% of maximum developed turbo-generator power while the highest efficiencies of steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive were achieved at maximum turbine developed power. Replacing the existing steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive with an electric motor would increase the turbo-generator energy and exergy efficiencies for at least 1–3% in all analyzed

  18. Carrier concentration dependence of donor activation energy in n-type GaN epilayers grown on Si (1 1 1) by plasma-assisted MBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mahesh; Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.; Roul, Basanta; Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Kalghatgi, A.T.; Krupanidhi, S.B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The n-type GaN layers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. ► The optical characteristics of a donor level in Si-doped GaN were studied. ► Activation energy of a Si-related donor was estimated from temperature dependent PL measurements. ► PL peak positions, FWHM of PL and activation energies are found to be proportional to the cube root of carrier density. ► The involvement of donor levels is supported by the temperature-dependent electron concentration measurements. -- Abstract: The n-type GaN layers were grown by plasma-assisted MBE and either intentionally doped with Si or unintentionally doped. The optical characteristics of a donor level in Si-doped, GaN were studied in terms of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of electron concentration. Temperature dependent PL measurements allowed us to estimate the activation energy of a Si-related donor from temperature-induced decay of PL intensity. PL peak positions, full width at half maximum of PL and activation energies are found to be proportional to the cube root of carrier density. The involvement of donor levels is supported by the temperature-dependent electron concentration measurements.

  19. Crossover to potential energy landscape dominated dynamics in a model glass-forming liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Thomas; Sastry, S.; Dyre, Jeppe

    2000-01-01

    An equilibrated model glass-forming liquid is studied by mapping successive configurations produced by molecular dynamics simulation onto a time series of inherent structures (local minima in the potential energy). Using this "inherent dynamics" approach we find direct numerical evidence for the ......An equilibrated model glass-forming liquid is studied by mapping successive configurations produced by molecular dynamics simulation onto a time series of inherent structures (local minima in the potential energy). Using this "inherent dynamics" approach we find direct numerical evidence...... for the long held view that below a crossover temperature, Tx, the liquid's dynamics can be separated into (i) vibrations around inherent structures and (ii) transitions between inherent structures [M. Goldstein, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 3728 (1969)], i.e., the dynamics become "dominated" by the potential energy...... landscape. In agreement with previous proposals, we find that Tx is within the vicinity of the mode-coupling critical temperature Tc. We further find that near Tx, transitions between inherent structures occur via cooperative, stringlike rearrangements of groups of particles moving distances substantially...

  20. Liquid-drop model description of heavy ion fusion at sub-barrier energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, C E; Barbosa, V C; Canto, L F; Donangelo, R

    1987-10-05

    The enhancement of the heavy ion fusion cross section at sub-barrier energies is studied in the liquid-drop model approach. The shape of the system is described by two spheres smoothly connected by a neck, and the kinetic and potential energies are calculated within this parametrization. Underbarrier fusion cross sections for symmetric projectile-target combinations are calculated in the WKB approximation and a comparison with the available data is made. The agreement is quite satisfactory, except for those systems in which the reaction is strongly affected by the details of the nuclear structure of the collision partners.

  1. Field-dependent molecular ionization and excitation energies: Implications for electrically insulating liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Davari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular ionization potential has a relatively strong electric-field dependence as compared to the excitation energies which has implications for electrical insulation since the excited states work as an energy sink emitting light in the UV/VIS region. At some threshold field, all the excited states of the molecule have vanished and the molecule is a two-state system with the ground state and the ionized state, which has been hypothesized as a possible origin of different streamer propagation modes. Constrained density-functional theory is used to calculate the field-dependent ionization potential of different types of molecules relevant for electrically insulating liquids. The low singlet-singlet excitation energies of each molecule have also been calculated using time-dependent density functional theory. It is shown that low-energy singlet-singlet excitation of the type n → π* (lone pair to unoccupied π* orbital has the ability to survive at higher fields. This type of excitation can for example be found in esters, diketones and many color dyes. For alkanes (as for example n-tridecane and cyclohexane on the other hand, all the excited states, in particular the σ → σ* excitations vanish in electric fields higher than 10 MV/cm. Further implications for the design of electrically insulating dielectric liquids based on the molecular ionization potential and excitation energies are discussed.

  2. Risk-Based Radioactive Liquid Effluent Monitoring Requirements at the U. S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.

    2001-01-01

    For Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, clear regulatory guidance exists for structuring radiological air emissions monitoring programs. However, there are no parallel regulations for radiological liquid effluent monitoring programs. In order to bridge this gap and to technically justify liquid effluent monitoring decisions at DOE's Savannah River Site, a graded, risk-basked approach has been established to determine the monitoring and sampling criteria to be applied at each liquid discharge point

  3. Process configuration of Liquid-nitrogen Energy Storage System (LESS) for maximum turnaround efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rohan; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-12-01

    Diverse power generation sector requires energy storage due to penetration of variable renewable energy sources and use of CO2 capture plants with fossil fuel based power plants. Cryogenic energy storage being large-scale, decoupled system with capability of producing large power in the range of MWs is one of the options. The drawback of these systems is low turnaround efficiencies due to liquefaction processes being highly energy intensive. In this paper, the scopes of improving the turnaround efficiency of such a plant based on liquid Nitrogen were identified and some of them were addressed. A method using multiple stages of reheat and expansion was proposed for improved turnaround efficiency from 22% to 47% using four such stages in the cycle. The novelty here is the application of reheating in a cryogenic system and utilization of waste heat for that purpose. Based on the study, process conditions for a laboratory-scale setup were determined and presented here.

  4. Investigation of high-energy inelastic neutron scattering from liquid water confined in silica xerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelli-Cippo, E.; Andreani, C.; Casalboni, M.; Dire, S.; Fernandez-Canoto, D.; Gorini, G.; Imberti, S.; Pietropaolo, A.; Prosposito, P.; Schutzmann, S.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy inelastic neutron scattering (HINS) employing epithermal neutrons is a new technique under development at the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS, aiming to access the high-energy and low wave-vector transfer region in neutron scattering experiments at eV energies. New neutron detectors have been developed for HINS based on the resonant detector (RD). These make use of the detection of prompt gammas after neutron absorption in an analyzer foil. The RD is used in the very low angle detector (VLAD) bank, which will extend the explored kinematical region to momentum transfer -1 , whilst still keeping energy transfer >300 meV. The final VLAD will cover the scattering range 1-5 o and will be installed by the end of 2005. The results obtained with prototype VLAD detectors on polycrystalline ice and liquid water in silica xerogels provide a demonstration of the feasibility of the measurements under realistic conditions

  5. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  6. Determination of liquid's molecular interference function based on X-ray diffraction and dual-energy CT in security screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Li; YangDai, Tianyi

    2016-01-01

    A method for deriving the molecular interference function (MIF) of an unknown liquid for security screening is presented. Based on the effective atomic number reconstructed from dual-energy computed tomography (CT), equivalent molecular formula of the liquid is estimated. After a series of optimizations, the MIF and a new effective atomic number are finally obtained from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile. The proposed method generates more accurate results with less sensitivity to the noise and data deficiency of the XRD profile. - Highlights: • EDXRD combined with dual-energy CT has been utilized for deriving the molecular interference function of an unknown liquid. • The liquid's equivalent molecular formula is estimated based on the effective atomic number reconstructed from dual-energy CT. • The proposed method provides two ways to estimate the molecular interference function: the simplified way and accurate way. • A new effective atomic number of the liquid could be obtained.

  7. Temperature and compositional dependence of solid-liquid interfacial energy: application of the Cahn-Hilliard theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, I.; Takei, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A simple thermodynamic method to estimate the solid-liquid interfacial energy (or interfacial tension) is proposed, based on the Cahn-Hilliard theory. In the model, the liquid is treated as a regular solution, and the interfacial layers are assumed to have liquid-like thermodynamic properties. In eutectic systems, interfacial adsorption occurs within a few atomic layers, and interfacial energy monotonously increases with decreasing concentration of the solid species in the liquid phase. If non-ideal atomic interaction is strong and the liquid immiscibility region appears in the phase diagrams (this is the case of monotectic systems), the interfacial thickness drastically increases and the interfacial energy is reduced around the immiscibility gap

  8. Liquid scintillator for 2D dosimetry for high-energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenisch, Falk; Archambault, Louis; Briere, Tina Marie; Sahoo, Narayan; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam; Gillin, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Complex radiation therapy techniques require dosimetric verification of treatment planning and delivery. The authors investigated a liquid scintillator (LS) system for application for real-time high-energy photon beam dosimetry. The system was comprised of a transparent acrylic tank filled with liquid scintillating material, an opaque outer tank, and a CCD camera. A series of images was acquired when the tank with liquid scintillator was irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam, and the light data measured with the CCD camera were filtered to correct for scattering of the optical light inside the liquid scintillator. Depth-dose and lateral profiles as well as two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions were found to agree with results from the treatment planning system. Further, the corrected light output was found to be linear with dose, dose rate independent, and is robust for single or multiple acquisitions. The short time needed for image acquisition and processing could make this system ideal for fast verification of the beam characteristics of the treatment machine. This new detector system shows a potential usefulness of the LS for 2D QA.

  9. Liquid scintillator for 2D dosimetry for high-energy photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenisch, Falk; Archambault, Louis; Briere, Tina Marie; Sahoo, Narayan; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam; Gillin, Michael T. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard., Unit 94, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Complex radiation therapy techniques require dosimetric verification of treatment planning and delivery. The authors investigated a liquid scintillator (LS) system for application for real-time high-energy photon beam dosimetry. The system was comprised of a transparent acrylic tank filled with liquid scintillating material, an opaque outer tank, and a CCD camera. A series of images was acquired when the tank with liquid scintillator was irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam, and the light data measured with the CCD camera were filtered to correct for scattering of the optical light inside the liquid scintillator. Depth-dose and lateral profiles as well as two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions were found to agree with results from the treatment planning system. Further, the corrected light output was found to be linear with dose, dose rate independent, and is robust for single or multiple acquisitions. The short time needed for image acquisition and processing could make this system ideal for fast verification of the beam characteristics of the treatment machine. This new detector system shows a potential usefulness of the LS for 2D QA.

  10. Detection of high energy gamma radiations with liquid rare gases as scintillators; Detection des rayonnements Gamma de grande energie avec les gaz rares liquides comme scintillateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Phan Xuan

    1965-11-25

    This research thesis reports the study of a sensor based on a liquid scintillator for the detection of high energy (10 to 30 MeV) gamma radiations. The scintillator is a liquefied argon or xenon rare gas. The author first studies the process of energy transfer from the particle to the sensing medium. He addresses the different involved elements and phenomena: electromagnetic radiations (Compton Effect, photoelectric effect, pair production, and total gamma absorption), charged particles (braking radiation, collisions) and application to gamma spectrometry. He describes and discusses the scintillation mechanisms (scintillation of organic and inorganic materials), the general characteristics of scintillators (impurities, converters), and then reports the practical realisation of the sensor. Results are presented and discussed [French] Dans ce travail, nous nous proposons d'etudier une technique. Il s'agit d'un detecteur a scintillateur liquide pour la detection des rayonnements gamma energiques (10 a 30 MeV). Le scintillateur utilise est un gaz rare liquefie argon ou xenon. Nous examinerons d'abord les processus de transfert de l'energie de la particule au milieu detecteur puis les mecanismes de scintillation en general pour pouvoir exploiter au mieux les phenomenes favorables. Nous presenterons ensuite la realisation pratique du detecteur. Ses qualites (et defauts) trouveront leur place dans la fin de ce memoire. Bien qu'a l'heure actuelle, par la methode de Kyropoulos, on puisse faire pousser des gros cristaux d'iodure de sodium, l'utilisation des 'gaz rares' liquefies comme scintillateurs est, grace a la brievete de la scintillation, tres utile lorsqu'on recherche un fort taux de comptage (jusqu'a 10 impulsions par seconde) ou lorsqu'on veut resoudre certains problemes de coincidence. Les cristaux NaI(Tl) de grandes dimensions sont d'un montage facile mais leur manipulation requiert beaucoup de precautions du fait qu'ils supportent tres mal les chocs thermiques

  11. Development of a high energy pulsed plasma simulator for the study of liquid lithium trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S.; Christenson, M.; Curreli, D.; Bryniarski, C.; Andruczyk, D.; Ruzic, D.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A pulse device for a liquid lithium trench study is developed. • It consists of a coaxial plasma gun, a theta pinch, and guiding magnets. • A large energy enhancement is observed with the use of the plasma gun. • A further increase in energy and velocity is observed with the theta pinch. - Abstract: To simulate detrimental events in a tokamak and provide a test-stand for a liquid-lithium infused trench (LiMIT) device [1], a pulsed plasma source utilizing a theta pinch in conjunction with a coaxial plasma accelerator has been developed. The plasma is characterized using a triple Langmuir probe, optical methods, and a calorimeter. Clear advantages have been observed with the application of a coaxial plasma accelerator as a pre-ionization source. The experimental results of the plasma gun in conjunction with the existing theta pinch show a significant improvement from the previous energy deposition by a factor of 14 or higher, resulting in a maximum energy and heat flux of 0.065 ± 0.002 MJ/m 2 and 0.43 ± 0.01 GW/m 2 . A few ways to further increase the plasma heat flux for LiMIT experiments are discussed

  12. Eco-friendly Energy Storage System: Seawater and Ionic Liquid Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Kwang; Mueller, Franziska; Kim, Hyojin; Jeong, Sangsik; Park, Jeong-Sun; Passerini, Stefano; Kim, Youngsik

    2016-01-08

    As existing battery technologies struggle to meet the requirements for widespread use in the field of large-scale energy storage, novel concepts are urgently needed concerning batteries that have high energy densities, low costs, and high levels of safety. Here, a novel eco-friendly energy storage system (ESS) using seawater and an ionic liquid is proposed for the first time; this represents an intermediate system between a battery and a fuel cell, and is accordingly referred to as a hybrid rechargeable cell. Compared to conventional organic electrolytes, the ionic liquid electrolyte significantly enhances the cycle performance of the seawater hybrid rechargeable system, acting as a very stable interface layer between the Sn-C (Na storage) anode and the NASICON (Na3 Zr2 Si2 PO12) ceramic solid electrolyte, making this system extremely promising for cost-efficient and environmentally friendly large-scale energy storage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Development of a high energy pulsed plasma simulator for the study of liquid lithium trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, S., E-mail: jung73@illinois.edu [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States); Christenson, M.; Curreli, D. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States); Bryniarski, C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States); Andruczyk, D.; Ruzic, D.N. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A pulse device for a liquid lithium trench study is developed. • It consists of a coaxial plasma gun, a theta pinch, and guiding magnets. • A large energy enhancement is observed with the use of the plasma gun. • A further increase in energy and velocity is observed with the theta pinch. - Abstract: To simulate detrimental events in a tokamak and provide a test-stand for a liquid-lithium infused trench (LiMIT) device [1], a pulsed plasma source utilizing a theta pinch in conjunction with a coaxial plasma accelerator has been developed. The plasma is characterized using a triple Langmuir probe, optical methods, and a calorimeter. Clear advantages have been observed with the application of a coaxial plasma accelerator as a pre-ionization source. The experimental results of the plasma gun in conjunction with the existing theta pinch show a significant improvement from the previous energy deposition by a factor of 14 or higher, resulting in a maximum energy and heat flux of 0.065 ± 0.002 MJ/m{sup 2} and 0.43 ± 0.01 GW/m{sup 2}. A few ways to further increase the plasma heat flux for LiMIT experiments are discussed.

  14. Solvent effects in ionic liquids: empirical linear energy-density relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda-Monje, A; Aizman, A; Tapia, R A; Chiappe, C; Contreras, R

    2012-07-28

    Multiparameter linear energy-density relationships to model solvent effects in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are introduced and tested. The model incorporates two solvent dependent and two specific solute-solvent parameters represented by a set of electronic indexes derived from the conceptual density functional theory. The specific solute-solvent interactions are described in terms of the electronic chemical potential for proton migration between the anion or cation and the transition state structure of a specific reaction. These indexes provide a quantitative estimation of the hydrogen bond (HB) acceptor basicity and the hydrogen bond donor acidity of the ionic solvent, respectively. A sound quantitative scale of HB strength is thereby obtained. The solvent dependent contributions are described by the global electrophilicity of the cation and nucleophilicity of the anion forming the ionic liquid. The model is illustrated for the kinetics of cycloaddition of cyclopentadiene towards acrolein. In general, cation HB acidity outweighs the remaining parameters for this reaction.

  15. Physical measurements with a high-energy proton beam using liquid and solid tissue substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, C.; Kember, N.F.; Huxtable, G.; Whitehead, C.

    1980-01-01

    The measurement of the physical parameters of a high-energy proton beam, using a range of liquid and solid tissue substitutes, is described. The system, the detectors used and the experimental verification of the tissue equivalence of the new tissue substitutes is presented. The measurements with the scattered but uncollimated proton beam in muscle-and brain-equivalent liquids and in water are compared to similar data obtained from the scattered but collimated beam. The effect of lung, fat and bone on the dose distributions in composite phantoms is also investigated and the necessary corrections established. A simulated patient treatment indicated that the Bragg peak can be positioned with an error not exceeding +-0.5 mm. (author)

  16. Kinetic energy of solid and liquid para-hydrogen: a path integral Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Neumann, M.

    1992-01-01

    The translational (center of mass) kinetic energy of solid and liquid para-hydrogen have been recently measured by means of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering. We have evaluated the same quantity, in similar thermodynamic conditions, by means of Path Integral Monte Carlo computer simulation, modelling the system as composed of a set of spherical molecules interacting through a pairwise additive Lennard-Jones potential. In spite of the crude approximations on the interaction potential, the agreement is excellent. The pressure was also computed by means of the same simulations. This quantity, compared with the equation of state for solid para-hydrogen given by Driessen and Silvera, gives an agreement of a lesser quality and a negative value for the liquid state. We attribute this discrepancy to the limitations of the Lennard-Jones potential. (orig.)

  17. Capacitive Energy Storage from - 50o to 100o Using an Ionic Liquid Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Rongying [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.; Taberna, Pierre-Louis [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.; Santini, Sebastien [SOLVIONIC Company, Toulouse, France; Presser, Volker [ORNL; Perez, Carlos R. [Drexel University; Malbosc, Francois [SOLVIONIC Company, Toulouse, France; Rupesinghe, Nalin L. [AIXTRON, Cambridge, UK; Teo, Kenneth B. K. [AIXTRON, Cambridge, UK; Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel University; Simon, Patrice [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse Cedex, France.

    2011-01-01

    Relying on redox reactions, most batteries are limited in their ability to operate at very low or very high temperatures. While performance of electrochemical capacitors is less dependent on the temperature, present-day devices still cannot cover the entire range needed for automotive and electronics applications under a variety of environmental conditions. We show that the right combination of the exohedral nanostructured carbon (nanotubes and onions) electrode and a eutectic mixture of ionic liquids can dramatically extend the temperature range of electrical energy storage, thus defying the conventional wisdom that ionic liquids can only be used as electrolytes above room temperature. We demonstrate electrical double layer capacitors able to operate from 50 to 100 C over a wide voltage window (up to 3.7 V) and at very high charge/discharge rates of up to 20 V/s.

  18. Estimation of energy density of Li-S batteries with liquid and solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Zhang, Heng; Otaegui, Laida; Singh, Gurpreet; Armand, Michel; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M.

    2016-09-01

    With the exponential growth of technology in mobile devices and the rapid expansion of electric vehicles into the market, it appears that the energy density of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries (LIBs) cannot satisfy the practical requirements. Sulfur has been one of the best cathode material choices due to its high charge storage (1675 mAh g-1), natural abundance and easy accessibility. In this paper, calculations are performed for different cell design parameters such as the active material loading, the amount/thickness of electrolyte, the sulfur utilization, etc. to predict the energy density of Li-S cells based on liquid, polymeric and ceramic electrolytes. It demonstrates that Li-S battery is most likely to be competitive in gravimetric energy density, but not volumetric energy density, with current technology, when comparing with LIBs. Furthermore, the cells with polymer and thin ceramic electrolytes show promising potential in terms of high gravimetric energy density, especially the cells with the polymer electrolyte. This estimation study of Li-S energy density can be used as a good guidance for controlling the key design parameters in order to get desirable energy density at cell-level.

  19. Low energy neutrino astrophysics with the large liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, M.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodan; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Winter, J.

    2007-01-01

    The large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) will cover a broad field of physics. Apart from the detection of terrestrial and artificial neutrinos, and the search for proton decay, important contributions can be made to the astrophysics of stars by high-precision spectroscopy of low-energetic solar neutrinos and by the observation of neutrinos emitted by a galactic supernova. Moreover, the detection of the diffuse supernova neutrino background in LENA will offer the opportunity of studying both supernova core-collapse models and the supernova rate on cosmological timescales (z e events in an almost background-free energy window from ∼10 to 25 MeV. The search for such rare low-energetic events takes advantage of the high energy resolution and excellent background rejection possible in the LENA detector

  20. Calorimetric Studies and Structural Aspects of Ionic Liquids in Designing Sorption Materials for Thermal Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brünig, Thorge; Krekić, Kristijan; Bruhn, Clemens; Pietschnig, Rudolf

    2016-11-02

    The thermal properties of a series of twenty-four ionic liquids (ILs) have been determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) with the aim of simulating processes involving water sorption. For eleven water-free ILs, the molecular structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography in the solid state, which have been used to derive the molecular volumes of the ionic components of the ILs. Moreover, the structures reveal a high prevalence of hydrogen bonding in these compounds. A relationship between the molecular volumes and the experimentally determined energies of dilution could be established. The highest energies of dilution observed in this series were obtained for the acetate-based ILs, which underlines their potential as working fluids in sorption-based thermal energy storage systems. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Effects of the liquid-gas phase transition and cluster formation on the symmetry energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typel, S.; Wolter, H.H.; Roepke, G.; Blaschke, D.

    2014-01-01

    Various definitions of the symmetry energy are introduced for nuclei, dilute nuclear matter below saturation density and stellar matter, which is found in compact stars or core-collapse supernovae. The resulting differences are exemplified by calculations in a theoretical approach based on a generalized relativistic density functional for dense matter. It contains nucleonic clusters as explicit degrees of freedom with medium-dependent properties that are derived for light clusters from a quantum statistical approach. With such a model the dissolution of clusters at high densities can be described. The effects of the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter and of cluster formation in stellar matter on the density dependence of the symmetry energy are studied for different temperatures. It is observed that correlations and the formation of inhomogeneous matter at low densities and temperatures causes an increase of the symmetry energy as compared to calculations assuming a uniform uncorrelated spatial distribution of constituent baryons and leptons. (orig.)

  2. Hybrid Graphene-Polyoxometalates Nanofluids as Liquid Electrodes for Dual Energy Storage in Novel Flow Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, Deepak P; Rueda-Garcia, Daniel; Marchante, Carlos; Benages, Raul; Gomez-Romero, Pedro

    2018-02-22

    Solid Hybrid materials abound. But flowing versions of them are new actors in the materials science landscape and in particular for energy applications. This paper presents a new way to deliver nanostructured hybrid materials for energy storage, namely, in the form of nanofluids. We present here the first example of a hybrid electroactive nanofluid (HENFs) combining capacitive and faradaic energy storage mechanisms in a single fluid material. This liquid electrode is composed of reduced graphene oxide and polyoxometalates (rGO-POMs) forming a stable nanocomposite for electrochemical energy storage in novel Nanofluid Flow Cells. Two graphene based hybrid materials (rGO-phosphomolybdate, rGO-PMo 12 and rGO-phosphotungstate, rGO-PW 12 ) were synthesized and dispersed with the aid of a surfactant in 1 M H 2 SO 4 aqueous electrolyte to yield highly stable hybrid electroactive nanofluids (HENFs) of low viscosity which were tested in a home-made flow cell under static and continuous flowing conditions. Remarkably, even low concentration rGO-POMs HENFs (0.025 wt%) exhibited high specific capacitances of 273 F/g(rGO-PW 12 ) and 305 F/g(rGO-PMo 12 ) with high specific energy and specific power. Moreover, rGO-POM HENFs show excellent cycling stability (∼95 %) as well as Coulombic efficiency (∼77-79 %) after 2000 cycles. Thus, rGO-POM HENFs effectively behave as real liquid electrodes with excellent properties, demonstrating the possible future application of HENFs for dual energy storage in a new generation of Nanofluid Flow Cells. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Thermal Fluid Analysis of the Heat Sink and Chip Carrier Assembly for a US Army Research Laboratory Liquid-Fueled Thermophotovoltaic Power Source Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    temperatures above 500 °C.1 Figure 1 describes the primary components of a TPV system : a heat source, an emitter, and a photovoltaic converter. The heat...carrier surface not covered by the photovoltaic cell. 4. Mesh The mesh was set to level 3 with the minimum gap size manually set to 0.01 inch. A...heat sink to control the temperature of the photovoltaic cell while exposed to radiation from the emitter. 15. SUBJECT TERMS TPV

  4. Towards Cryogenic Liquid-Vapor Energy Storage Units for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Josiana Prado

    With the development of mechanical coolers and very sensitive cryogenic sensors, it could be interesting to use Energy Storage Units (ESU) and turn off the cryocooler to operate in a free micro vibration environment. An ESU would also avoid cryogenic systems oversized to attenuate temperature fluctuations due to thermal load variations which is useful particularly for space applications. In both cases, the temperature drift must remain limited to keep good detector performances. In this thesis, ESUs based on the high latent heat associated to liquid-vapor phase change to store energy have been studied. To limit temperature drifts while keeping small size cell at low temperature, a potential solution consists in splitting the ESU in two volumes: a low temperature cell coupled to a cryocooler cold finger through a thermal heat switch and an expansion volume at room temperature to reduce the temperature increase occurring during liquid evaporation. To obtain a vanishing temperature drift, a new improvement has been tested using two-phase nitrogen: a controlled valve was inserted between the two volumes in order to control the cold cell pressure. In addition, a porous material was used inside the cell to turn the ESU gravity independent and suitable for space applications. In this case, experiments reveal not fully understood results concerning both energy storage and liquid-wall temperature difference. To capture the thermal influence of the porous media, a dedicated cell with poorly conductive lateral wall was built and operated with two-phase helium. After its characterization outside the saturation conditions (conduction, convection), experiments were performed, with and without porous media, heating at the top or the bottom of the cell with various heat fluxes and for different saturation temperatures. In parallel, a model describing the thermal response for a cell containing liquid and vapor with a porous medium heated at the top ("against gravity") was developed

  5. Upgrading the Glycerol from Biodiesel Production as a Source of Energy Carriers and Chemicals—A Technological Review for Three Chemical Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Rodrigues

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel obtained from biomass, accounting for 10% of the biodiesel production. In the context of a green economy, aiming for a reduction of the emission of atmospheric greenhouse gases emissions, the demand of biodiesel is expected to increase vastly, in parallel with a side glut supply of glycerol. Given the high cost of biodiesel compared with its fossil congener, upgrading of glycerol into added-value products can represent a secondary income source and turn the production of such alternative fuels economically sustainable in the long term. The glycerol obtained as by-product of biodiesel from biomass is in a crude form and must be purified. Some industrial solutions and applications were therein geared. The survey presented in this work, based on a reviewing of the existing literature, examines three routes for the valuing glycerol into energy carriers and chemicals, namely, carbonation, acylation, and steam reforming to hydrogen. The latter is embodied of great interest and importance, insofar that hydrogen by itself is considered as straighforward clean fuel for transportation uses, due to its high calorific power and to recent advances in fuel cells. We also have focused on the chain value from biomass to energies carriers through these pathways.

  6. Solid-liquid interface free energies of pure bcc metals and B2 phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. R.; Gunawardana, K. G. S. H.; Mendelev, M. I.

    2015-04-01

    The solid-liquid interface (SLI) free energy was determined from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for several body centered cubic (bcc) metals and B2 metallic compounds (space group: P m 3 ¯ m ; prototype: CsCl). In order to include a bcc metal with a low melting temperature in our study, a semi-empirical potential was developed for Na. Two additional synthetic "Na" potentials were also developed to explore the effect of liquid structure and latent heat on the SLI free energy. The obtained MD data were compared with the empirical Turnbull, Laird, and Ewing relations. All three relations are found to predict the general trend observed in the MD data for bcc metals obtained within the present study. However, only the Laird and Ewing relations are able to predict the trend obtained within the sequence of "Na" potentials. The Laird relation provides the best prediction for our MD data and other MD data for bcc metals taken from the literature. Overall, the Laird relation also agrees well with our B2 data but requires a proportionality constant that is substantially different from the bcc case. It also fails to explain a considerable difference between the SLI free energies of some B2 phases which have nearly the same melting temperature. In contrast, this difference is satisfactorily described by the Ewing relation. Moreover, the Ewing relation obtained from the bcc dataset also provides a reasonable description of the B2 data.

  7. Radiobiological application of simulation of low-energy electron transport in liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eudaldo Puell, Teresa.

    1979-01-01

    A Monte-Carlo transport simulation method, so-called event-after-event method provide results about trajectories of low-energy electrons, slowing-down in liquid water. A radiosensitive target model constituted by water cylindrical volumes, like the ones which surround the DNA molecule, is taken into consideration. The results characterizing the primary physical stage of radiation action, such as, space ionization distributions, interionization distance distributions ..., are obtained in some configurations constituted by single or several targets, in order to approach the biological reality [fr

  8. A liquid He-3 target system for use at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassell, D.K.; Abegg, R.; Murdoch, B.T.; van Oers, W.J.H.; Soukup, J.

    1981-04-01

    A liquid 3 He target system with remote instrumentation and handling capabilities has been developed for experiments using the 180-525 MeV TRIUMF cyclotron. Helium-3 gas is liquefied by means of a 4 He cryostat into a cylindrical target cell (4.4 cm diameter, 1.6 cm thick) and maintained during operation at approximately 1.6 K. This provides an areal target density of approximately 2.7 x 10 22 He-3 nuclei/cm 2 (128 mg/cm 2 ), suitable for intermediate energy proton scattering. (author)

  9. Gas-liquid transition in the model of particles interacting at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, S.; Komoshvili, K.

    2013-01-01

    An application of the ideas of the inertial confinement fusion process in the case of particles interacting at high energy is investigated. A possibility of the gas-liquid transition in the gas is considered using different approaches. In particular, a shock wave description of interactions between particles is studied and a self-similar solution of Euler's equation is discussed. Additionally, the Boltzmann equation is solved for a self-consistent field (Vlasov's equation) in the linear approximation for the case of a gas under external pressure and the corresponding change of the Knudsen number of the system is calculated. (orig.)

  10. Communication: energy benchmarking with quantum Monte Carlo for water nano-droplets and bulk liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfè, D; Bartók, A P; Csányi, G; Gillan, M J

    2013-06-14

    We show the feasibility of using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) to compute benchmark energies for configuration samples of thermal-equilibrium water clusters and the bulk liquid containing up to 64 molecules. Evidence that the accuracy of these benchmarks approaches that of basis-set converged coupled-cluster calculations is noted. We illustrate the usefulness of the benchmarks by using them to analyze the errors of the popular BLYP approximation of density functional theory (DFT). The results indicate the possibility of using QMC as a routine tool for analyzing DFT errors for non-covalent bonding in many types of condensed-phase molecular system.

  11. Liquid natural gas occupies an increasing position in the energy mix of the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Although the profitability of using liquid natural gas (LNG) depends on the fluctuations of the gas price, LNG will play an increasing role in the ''energy mix'' of the USA. The amount of LNG imported by the USA rose by 175% from 1998 to 2001. There are at present four receiving stations for LNG in the USA and they will probably be extended. Plans to build gas-powered power stations in California will increase the demand for natural gas in the coming years. Several companies have announced their desire to build receiving stations for LNG. There is, however, some opposition from environmentalists

  12. Catalytic hydrotreatment of pyrolysis liquids and fractions : Catalyst Development and Process Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Wang

    2017-01-01

    The use of sustainable and renewable lignocellulosic biomass is of particular interest to (partly) replace fossil resources. Fast pyrolysis is a promising technology to convert lignocellulosic biomass to a liquid energy carrier. The products, also known as fast pyrolysis liquids (PLs), have a higher

  13. Designing molecular complexes using free-energy derivatives from liquid-state integral equation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrugalla, Florian; Kast, Stefan M

    2016-01-01

    Complex formation between molecules in solution is the key process by which molecular interactions are translated into functional systems. These processes are governed by the binding or free energy of association which depends on both direct molecular interactions and the solvation contribution. A design goal frequently addressed in pharmaceutical sciences is the optimization of chemical properties of the complex partners in the sense of minimizing their binding free energy with respect to a change in chemical structure. Here, we demonstrate that liquid-state theory in the form of the solute–solute equation of the reference interaction site model provides all necessary information for such a task with high efficiency. In particular, computing derivatives of the potential of mean force (PMF), which defines the free-energy surface of complex formation, with respect to potential parameters can be viewed as a means to define a direction in chemical space toward better binders. We illustrate the methodology in the benchmark case of alkali ion binding to the crown ether 18-crown-6 in aqueous solution. In order to examine the validity of the underlying solute–solute theory, we first compare PMFs computed by different approaches, including explicit free-energy molecular dynamics simulations as a reference. Predictions of an optimally binding ion radius based on free-energy derivatives are then shown to yield consistent results for different ion parameter sets and to compare well with earlier, orders-of-magnitude more costly explicit simulation results. This proof-of-principle study, therefore, demonstrates the potential of liquid-state theory for molecular design problems. (paper)

  14. Liquid Wall Options for Tritium-Lean Fast Ignition Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, S.; Schmitt, R.C.; Latkowski, J.F.; Durbin, S.G.' Sanz, J.

    2002-01-01

    In an inertial fusion energy (FE) thick-liquid chamber design such as HYLEE-II, a molten-salt is used to attenuate neutrons and protect the chamber structures from radiation damage. In the case of a fast ignition inertial fusion system, advanced targets have been proposed that may be self-sufficient in terms of tritium breeding (i.e., the amount of tritium bred in target exceeds the amount burned). This aspect allows for greater freedom when selecting a liquid for the protective blanket, given that lithium-bearing compounds are no longer required. The present work assesses the characteristics of many single, binary, and ternary molten-salts using the NIST Properties of Molten Salts Database. As an initial screening, salts were evaluated for their safety and environmental (S and E) characteristics, which included an assessment of waste disposal rating, contact dose, and radioactive afterheat. Salts that passed the S and E criteria were then evaluated for required pumping power. The pumping power was calculated using three components: velocity head losses, frictional losses, and lifting power. The results of the assessment are used to identify those molten-salts that are suitable for potential liquid-chamber fast-ignition IFE concepts, from both the S and E and pumping power perspective. Recommendations for further analysis are also made

  15. The Liquid Droplet Radiator - an Ultralightweight Heat Rejection System for Efficient Energy Conversion in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, A. T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat rejection system for space is described which uses a recirculating free stream of liquid droplets in place of a solid surface to radiate waste heat. By using sufficiently small droplets ( 100 micron diameter) of low vapor pressure liquids the radiating droplet sheet can be made many times lighter than the lightest solid surface radiators (heat pipes). The liquid droplet radiator (LDR) is less vulnerable to damage by micrometeoroids than solid surface radiators, and may be transported into space far more efficiently. Analyses are presented of LDR applications in thermal and photovoltaic energy conversion which indicate that fluid handling components (droplet generator, droplet collector, heat exchanger, and pump) may comprise most of the radiator system mass. Even the unoptimized models employed yield LDR system masses less than heat pipe radiator system masses, and significant improvement is expected using design approaches that incorporate fluid handling components more efficiently. Technical problems (e.g., spacecraft contamination and electrostatic deflection of droplets) unique to this method of heat rejectioon are discussed and solutions are suggested.

  16. Water-based synthesis of hydrophobic ionic liquids for high-energy electrochemical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanino, Maria; Alessandrini, Fabrizio; Passerini, Stefano; Appetecchi, Giovanni Battista

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Water-based synthesis of ionic liquids with high yield. ► Full recycling of reagents. ► High purity pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids with exceptional electrochemical stability window. ► Lithium plating from pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids. -- Abstract: In this work is described an innovative synthesis route for hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) composed of N-methyl-N-alkylpyrrolidinium (or piperidinium) or imidazolium or tetralkylammonium cations and (perfluoroalkylsulfonyl)imide, ((C n F 2n+1 SO 2 )(C m F 2m+1 SO 2 )N − ), anions. This synthesis does not require the use of any environmental unfriendly solvent such as acetone, acetonitrile or halogen-containing compounds, which is not welcome in industrial applications. Only water is used as the process solvent throughout the entire process. In addition, the commonly used iodine-containing reagents were replaced by the cheaper, more chemically stable and less toxic bromine-containing compounds. A particular care was devoted to the development of the purification route, which is especially important for ILs to be used in high-energy electrochemical devices such as high voltage supercapacitors and lithium batteries. The effect of the reaction temperature, the time and the stoichiometry in the various steps of the synthesis have been investigated in detail. This novel procedure allowed obtaining ultrapure (>99.9 wt.%), clear, colourless, inodorous ILs with an overall yield above 92 wt.% and moisture content below 1 ppm. NMR measurements were run to confirm the chemical structure whereas elemental analysis and electrochemical tests were performed to check the purity of the synthesized ILs

  17. The nuclear import of the human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1) tax protein is carrier- and energy-independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takahiro; Sheehy, Noreen; Gautier, Virginie W; Hayakawa, Hitoshi; Sawa, Hirofumi; Hall, William W

    2007-05-04

    HTLV-1 is the etiologic agent of the adult T cell leukemialymphoma (ATLL). The viral regulatory protein Tax plays a central role in leukemogenesis as a transcriptional transactivator of both viral and cellular gene expression, and this requires Tax activity in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In the present study, we have investigated the mechanisms involved in the nuclear localization of Tax. Employing a GFP fusion expression system and a range of Tax mutants, we could confirm that the N-terminal 60 amino acids, and specifically residues within the zinc finger motif in this region, are important for nuclear localization. Using an in vitro nuclear import assay, it could be demonstrated that the transportation of Tax to the nucleus required neither energy nor carrier proteins. Specific and direct binding between Tax and p62, a nucleoporin with which the importin beta family of proteins have been known to interact was also observed. The nuclear import activity of wild type Tax and its mutants and their binding affinity for p62 were also clearly correlated, suggesting that the entry of Tax into the nucleus involves a direct interaction with nucleoporins within the nuclear pore complex (NPC). The nuclear export of Tax was also shown to be carrier independent. It could be also demonstrated that Tax it self may have a carrier function and that the NF-kappaB subunit p65 could be imported into the nucleus by Tax. These studies suggest that Tax could alter the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of cellular proteins, and this could contribute to the deregulation of cellular processes observed in HTLV-1 infection.

  18. Transient performance of a thermal energy storage-based heat sink using a liquid metal as the phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Li-Wu; Wu, Yu-Yue; Xiao, Yu-Qi; Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Yi-Ling; Yu, Zi-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A liquid metal is adopted as the PCM in a thermal energy storage-based heat sink. • Transient performance of the heat sink is tested in comparison to an organic PCM. • The liquid metal has a similar volumetric latent heat of fusion to the organic PCM. • Outperformance of the liquid metal is found due to its higher thermal conductivity. • Liquid metals are preferred when the system weight is less important than volume. - Abstract: In this Technical Note, the use of a liquid metal, i.e., a low melting point Pb–Sn–In–Bi alloy, as the phase change material (PCM) in thermal energy storage-based heat sinks is tested in comparison to an organic PCM (1-octadecanol) having a similar melting point of ∼60 °C. The thermophysical properties of the two types of PCM are characterized, revealing that the liquid metal is much more conductive while both have nearly identical volumetric latent heat of fusion (∼215 MJ/m"3). By using at the same volume of 80 mL, i.e., the same energy storage capacity, the liquid metal is shown to outperform significantly over the organic PCM under the various heating powers up to 105.3 W/cm"2. During the heating period, the use of the liquid metal leads to a remarkable extension of the effective protection time to nearly twice longer as well as a reduction of the highest overheating temperature by up to 50 °C. The cool-down period can also be shortened significantly by taking advantage of the much higher thermal conductivity of the liquid metal. These findings suggest that liquid metals could serve as a promising PCM candidate for particular applications where the volume limit is very rigorous and the penalty in weight increment is acceptable.

  19. Learning about the energy density of liquid and semi-solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Stafleu, A; Mars, M; de Graaf, C

    2012-09-01

    People learn about a food's satiating capacity by exposure and consequently adjust their energy intake. To investigate the effect of energy density and texture on subsequent energy intake adjustments during repeated consumption. In a randomized crossover design, participants (n=27, age: 21±2.4 years, body mass index: 22.2±1.6 kg m(-2)) repeatedly consumed highly novel foods that were either low-energy-dense (LE: 30 kcal per 100 g) or high-energy-dense (HE: 130 kcal per 100 g), and either liquid or semi-solid, resulting in four product conditions. In each condition, a fixed portion of test food was consumed nine times as an obligatory part of breakfast, lunch and dinner on 3 consecutive days. All meals continued with an ad libitum buffet; food items for evening consumption were provided and the intake (kcal per day) was measured. Buffet intake depended on energy density and day of consumption of the test foods (day*energy interaction: P=0.02); daily buffet intake increased from day 1 (1745±577 kcal) to day 3 (1979±567 kcal) in the LE conditions; intake did not change in the HE conditions (day 1: 1523±429 kcal, day 3: 1589±424 kcal). Food texture did not affect the intake (P=0.56). Intake did depend on energy density of the test foods; participants increased their buffet intake over days in response to learning about the satiating capacity of the LE foods, but did not change buffet intake over days when repeatedly consuming a HE food as part of their meal. The adjustments in intake were made irrespective of the food texture.

  20. Electrochemical energy storage in montmorillonite K10 clay based composite as supercapacitor using ionic liquid electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Sandipan; Pramanik, Atin; Chattopadhyay, Shreyasi; De, Goutam; Mahanty, Sourindra

    2016-02-15

    Exploring new electrode materials is the key to realize high performance energy storage devices for effective utilization of renewable energy. Natural clays with layered structure and high surface area are prospective materials for electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC). In this work, a novel hybrid composite based on acid-leached montmorillonite (K10), multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and manganese dioxide (MnO2) was prepared and its electrochemical properties were investigated by fabricating two-electrode asymmetric supercapacitor cells against activated carbon (AC) using 1.0M tetraethylammonium tetrafluroborate (Et4NBF4) in acetonitrile (AN) as electrolyte. The asymmetric supercapacitors, capable of operating in a wide potential window of 0.0-2.7V, showed a high energy density of 171Whkg(-1) at a power density of ∼1.98kWkg(-1). Such high EDLC performance could possibly be linked to the acid-base interaction of K10 through its surface hydroxyl groups with the tetraethylammonium cation [(C2H5)4N(+) or TEA(+)] of the ionic liquid electrolyte. Even at a very high power density of 96.4kWkg(-1), the cells could still deliver an energy density of 91.1Whkg(-1) exhibiting an outstanding rate capability. The present study demonstrates for the first time, the excellent potential of clay-based composites for high power energy storage device applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Don M.; Dudey, Norman D.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then "boil off" or evaporate a neutron.

  2. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Dudey, N.D.

    1976-01-01

    The invention described provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then ''boil off'' or evaporate a neutron

  3. First Detection of Low Energy Electron Neutrinos in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Corey James [Yale U.

    2016-01-01

    Electron neutrino appearance is the signature channel to address the most pressing questions in neutrino oscillations physics, at both long and short baselines. This includes the search for CP violation in the neutrino sector, which the U.S. flagship neutrino experiment DUNE will address. In addition, the Short Baseline Neutrino Program at Fermilab (MicroBooNE, SBND, ICARUS-T600) searches for new physics, such as sterile neutrinos, through electron neutrino appearance. Liquid argon time projection chambers are the forefront of neutrino detection technology, and the detector of choice for both short and long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. This work presents the first experimental observation and study of electron neutrinos in the 1-10 GeV range, the essential oscillation energy regime for the above experiments. The systematic uncertainties for an electron neutrino appearance search for the Fermilab Short Baseline Neutrino Program are carefully quantified, and the characterization of separation between electrons and high energy photons is examined.

  4. Hot carrier degradation in semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with a variety of tools to address the challenges posed by hot carrier degradation, one of today’s most complicated reliability issues in semiconductor devices.  Coverage includes an explanation of carrier transport within devices and book-keeping of how they acquire energy (“become hot”), interaction of an ensemble of colder and hotter carriers with defect precursors, which eventually leads to the creation of a defect, and a description of how these defects interact with the device, degrading its performance. • Describes the intricacies of hot carrier degradation in modern semiconductor technologies; • Covers the entire hot carrier degradation phenomenon, including topics such as characterization, carrier transport, carrier-defect interaction, technological impact, circuit impact, etc.; • Enables detailed understanding of carrier transport, interaction of the carrier ensemble with the defect precursors, and an accurate assessment of how the newly created defects imp...

  5. Pyrolysis of plastic waste for liquid fuel production as prospective energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharuddin, S. D. A.; Abnisa, F.; Daud, W. M. A. W.; Aroua, M. K.

    2018-03-01

    The worldwide plastic generation expanded over years because of the variety applications of plastics in numerous sectors that caused the accumulation of plastic waste in the landfill. The growing of plastics demand definitely affected the petroleum resources availability as non-renewable fossil fuel since plastics were the petroleum-based material. A few options that have been considered for plastic waste management were recycling and energy recovery technique. Nevertheless, several obstacles of recycling technique such as the needs of sorting process that was labour intensive and water pollution that lessened the process sustainability. As a result, the plastic waste conversion into energy was developed through innovation advancement and extensive research. Since plastics were part of petroleum, the oil produced through the pyrolysis process was said to have high calorific value that could be used as an alternative fuel. This paper reviewed the thermal and catalytic degradation of plastics through pyrolysis process and the key factors that affected the final end product, for instance, oil, gaseous and char. Additionally, the liquid fuel properties and a discussion on several perspectives regarding the optimization of the liquid oil yield for every plastic were also included in this paper.

  6. Excitation of high energy levels under laser exposure of suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: shafeev@kapella.gpi.ru; Simakin, A.V. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bozon-Verduraz, F. [ITODYS, UMR CNRS 7086, Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, 2, place Jussieu, 75251 Paris cedex 05 (France); Robert, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie Moleculaire, UMR CNRS 7591, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, 2, place Jussieu, 75251 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2007-12-15

    Laser exposure of suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids leads to excitation of high energy levels in both liquid and nanoparticle material. The emission spectrum of the colloidal solution under exposure of a suspension metallic nanoparticles in water to radiation of a Nd:YAG laser of a picosecond range of pulse duration is discussed. Excitation of nuclear energy levels and neutron release is experimentally studied on the model system of transmutation of Hg into Au that occurs under exposure of Hg nanodrops suspended in D{sub 2}O. The proposed mechanism involves: (i) emission of X-ray photons by Hg nanoparticles upon laser exposure, leading to neutron release from D{sub 2}O, (ii) initiation of Hg {yields} Au transmutation by the capture of neutrons. The effect of transmutation is more pronounced using {sup 196}Hg isotope instead of Hg of natural isotope composition. The influence of laser pulse duration on the degree of transmutation (from fs through ns range) is discussed.

  7. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority......, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new...

  8. On the relation between the ratio of energy of vaporization to activation energy for flow and physical properties of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, N.V.K.; Ravikumar, Y.V.L.; Prasad, D.H.L.

    1993-01-01

    A relation between the ratio of energy of vaporization (Esub(vap) to the activation energy for flow (Esub(vis)) and the ratio of melting point (T m ) to the critical temperature (T c ) has been developed for liquid metals, and is shown to be superior to the examinations from Eyring theory. (author). 12 refs

  9. Heat conduction in chain polymer liquids: molecular dynamics study on the contributions of inter- and intramolecular energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Taku; Yuan, Tan Chia; Torii, Daichi; Kikugawa, Gota; Kosugi, Naohiro

    2011-07-21

    In this paper, the molecular mechanisms which determine the thermal conductivity of long chain polymer liquids are discussed, based on the results observed in molecular dynamics simulations. Linear n-alkanes, which are typical polymer molecules, were chosen as the target of our studies. Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of bulk liquid n-alkanes under a constant temperature gradient were performed. Saturated liquids of n-alkanes with six different chain lengths were examined at the same reduced temperature (0.7T(c)), and the contributions of inter- and intramolecular energy transfer to heat conduction flux, which were identified as components of heat flux by the authors' previous study [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 044504 (2008)], were observed. The present study compared n-alkane liquids with various molecular lengths at the same reduced temperature and corresponding saturated densities, and found that the contribution of intramolecular energy transfer to the total heat flux, relative to that of intermolecular energy transfer, increased with the molecular length. The study revealed that in long chain polymer liquids, thermal energy is mainly transferred in the space along the stiff intramolecular bonds. This finding implies a connection between anisotropic thermal conductivity and the orientation of molecules in various organized structures with long polymer molecules aligned in a certain direction, which includes confined polymer liquids and self-organized structures such as membranes of amphiphilic molecules in water.

  10. A G/NARRLI Effort. Measuring the Ionization Yield of Low-Energy Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Tenzing Henry Yatish [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Liquid argon has long been used for particle detection due to its attractive drift properties, ample abundance, and reasonable density. The response of liquid argon to lowenergy O(102 -1044 eV) interactions is, however, largely unexplored. Weakly interacting massive particles such as neutrinos and hypothetical dark-matter particles (WIMPs) are predicted to coherently scatter on atomic nuclei, leaving only an isolated low-energy nuclear recoil as evidence. The response of liquid argon to low-energy nuclear recoils must be studied to determine the sensitivity of liquid argon based detectors to these unobserved interactions. Detectors sensitive to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering may be used to monitor nuclear reactors from a distance, to detect neutrinos from supernova, and to test the predicted behavior of neutrinos. Additionally, direct detection of hypothetical weakly interacting dark matter would be a large step toward understanding the substance that accounts for nearly 27% of the universe. In this dissertation I discuss a small dual-phase (liquid-gas) argon proportional scintillation counter built to study the low-energy regime and several novel calibration and characterization techniques developed to study the response of liquid argon to low-energy O(102 -104 eV) interactions.

  11. High-Energy Laser Interaction with Gases, Droplets, and Bulk Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzembski, Maurice Anthony

    Breakdown threshold intensities (I_ {rm TH}) were measured as functions of wavelengths and pressure for air, He, Ar, and Xe using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Multiphoton absorption dominates in the UV and cascade collision ionization dominates in the IR; however, both can be affected by other electron gain and loss processes. Presence of droplets lowers breakdown of gases due to field enhancements. Breakdown is initiated either in the droplet material or in the gas. At lambda = 0.532mum for a 50 μm dia. water droplet in He, Ar, and air for p pressure. For droplet -in-Xe, at p pressure. For droplet-in-Xe, at p 140 Torr, breakdown occurs outside the droplet and is dependent on gas pressure. Pressure dependence of breakdown was observed for 120mum dia. water droplets in Ar at p > 400 Torr. The required intensity for breakdown of droplet depends on I_{ rm TH} of bulk liquid and the effective field enhancement created by the droplet. The I _{rm TH} of droplet-in-air provides an upper limit to the propagation of a high energy laser beam in the atmosphere containing particles. By geometrical optics approach, a significant field enhancement located at the critical ring region, encircling the axis of the sphere in the forward direction at angle theta_{c}, was discovered where nonlinear processes can occur. This was confirmed experimentally and by Mie theory. Field enhancements calculated at the critical ring for water droplets of different sizes agree well with measurements. For a droplet of given size and real refractive index, the effective field enhancement and the volume over which it occurs are two important factors governing the occurrence of breakdown in droplets for both off resonance and on resonance conditions. Measurements of wavelength dependence of breakdown showed that in the UV, I_{rm TH} for droplets and bulk liquids were comparable and lower by few orders of magnitude from that of air. Transmittance and reflectance of bulk liquids in the UV change with

  12. Zero Energy Communities with Central Solar Plants using Liquid Desiccants and Local Storage: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.; Boranian, A.

    2012-08-01

    The zero energy community considered here consists of tens to tens-of-thousands of residences coupled to a central solar plant that produces all the community's electrical and thermal needs. A distribution network carries fluids to meet the heating and cooling loads. Large central solar systems can significantly reduce cost of energy vs. single family systems, and they enable economical seasonal heat storage. However, the thermal distribution system is costly. Conventional district heating/cooling systems use a water/glycol solution to deliver sensible energy. Piping is sized to meet the peak instantaneous load. A new district system introduced here differs in two key ways: (i) it continuously distributes a hot liquid desiccant (LD) solution to LD-based heating and cooling equipment in each home; and (ii) it uses central and local storage of both LD and heat to reduce flow rates to meet average loads. Results for piping sizes in conventional and LD thermal communities show that the LD zero energy community reduces distribution piping diameters meeting heating loads by {approx}5X and meeting cooling loads by {approx}8X for cooling, depending on climate.

  13. The application of liquid air energy storage for large scale long duration solutions to grid balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES) provides large scale, long duration energy storage at the point of demand in the 5 MW/20 MWh to 100 MW/1,000 MWh range. LAES combines mature components from the industrial gas and electricity industries assembled in a novel process and is one of the few storage technologies that can be delivered at large scale, with no geographical constraints. The system uses no exotic materials or scarce resources and all major components have a proven lifetime of 25+ years. The system can also integrate low grade waste heat to increase power output. Founded in 2005, Highview Power Storage, is a UK based developer of LAES. The company has taken the concept from academic analysis, through laboratory testing, and in 2011 commissioned the world's first fully integrated system at pilot plant scale (300 kW/2.5 MWh) hosted at SSE's (Scottish & Southern Energy) 80 MW Biomass Plant in Greater London which was partly funded by a Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) grant. Highview is now working with commercial customers to deploy multi MW commercial reference plants in the UK and abroad.

  14. Scintillating liquid xenon calorimeter for precise electron/photon/jet physics at high energy high luminosity hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.; Luckey, D.; Pelly, D.; Shotkin, S.; Sumorok, K.; Wadsworth, B.; Yan, X.J.; You, C.; Zhang, X.; Chen, E.G.; Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Montgomery, D.B.; Sullivan, J.D.; Bolozdynya, A.; Chernyshev, V.; Goritchev, P.; Khovansky, V.; Kouchenkov, A.; Kovalenko, A.; Lebedenko, V.; Vinogradov, V.A.; Epstein, V.; Zeldovich, S.; Krasnokutsky, R.; Shuvalov, R.; Aprile, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Suzuki, M.; Moulsen, M.; Sugimoto, S.; Okada, K.; Fujino, T.; Matsuda, T.; Miyajima, M.; Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Hitachi, A.; Kashiwagi, T.; Nagasawa, Y.; Ichinose, H.; Ishida, N.; Nakasugi, T.; Ito, T.; Masuda, K.; Shibamura, E.; Wallraff, W.; Vivargent, M.; Mutterer, M.; Chen, H.S.; Tang, H.W.; Tung, K.L.; Ding, H.L.; Takahashi, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors use αs well as e, π, p, d and heavy ion beams to test prototype scintillating liquid xenon detectors, with large UV photodiodes and fast amplifiers submersed directly in liquid xenon. The data show very large photoelectron yields (10 7 /GeV) and high energy resolution (σ(E)/E 1.6 GeV). The α spectra are stable over long term and can be used to calibrate the detectors. Full size liquid xenon detectors have been constructed, to study cosmic μ's and heavy ions. The authors report the progress on the design and construction of the 5 x 5 and 11 x 11 cell liquid xenon detectors which will be tested in high energy beams to determine the e/π ratio. The authors describe the design and the unique properties of the proposed scintillating LXe calorimeter for the SSC

  15. The interfacial free energy of solid Sn on the boundary interface with liquid Cd-Sn eutectic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saatci, B; Cimen, S; Pamuk, H; Guenduez, M

    2007-01-01

    Equilibrated grain boundary groove shapes for solid Sn in equilibrium with Cd-Sn liquid were directly observed after annealing a sample at the eutectic temperature for about 8 days. The thermal conductivities of the solid phase, K S , and the liquid phase, K L , for the groove shapes were measured. From the observed groove shapes, the Gibbs-Thomson coefficients were obtained with a numerical method, using the measured G, K S and K L values. The solid-liquid interfacial energy of solid Sn in equilibrium with Cd-Sn liquid was determined from the Gibbs-Thomson equation. The grain boundary energy for solid Sn was also calculated from the observed groove shapes

  16. Utilization of urea/molasses liquid feed as a major source of nitrogen and energy for lactating cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjhan, S.K.; Krishna Mohan, D.V.G.; Pathak, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in which urea/molasses liquid feed along with a limited amount of intact protein and cereal forage was fed to lactating cows, and compared with another group receiving conventional concentrate and roughage-based rations. Voluntary consumption of liquid feed by cows was satisfactory. There was no significant difference in the milk yield between the two groups. The higher consumption of metabolizable energy and digestible crude protein by experimental cows from liquid feed was not reflected in their milk yields or body weights. Various other parameters such as digestibilities of nutrients, efficiency of energy and nitrogen utilization for milk production and N-balance have been presented in cows fed urea/molasses liquid diets and conventional diets. (author)

  17. Scenarios for total utilisation of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the future Danish energy system. Final report; Scenarier for samlet udnyttelse af brint som energibaerer i Danmarks fremtidige energisystem. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Petersen, A; Engberg Pedersen, T; Joergensen, K [and others

    2001-04-01

    This is the final report from a project performed for the Danish Energy Agency under its Hydrogen Programme. The project, which within the project group goes by the abbreviated title 'Hydrogen as an energy carrier', constructs and analyses different total energy scenarios for introducing hydrogen as an energy carrier, as energy storage medium and as a fuel in the future Danish energy system. The primary aim of the project is to study ways of handling the large deficits and surpluses of electricity from wind energy expected in the future Danish energy system. System-wide aspects of the choice of hydrogen production technologies, distribution methods, infrastructure requirements and conversion technologies are studied. Particularly, the possibility of using in the future the existing Danish natural gas distribution grid for carrying hydrogen will be assessed. For the year 2030, two scenarios are constructed: One using hydrogen primarily in the transportation sector, the other using it as a storage option for the centralised power plants still in operation by this year. For the year 2050, where the existing fossil power plants are expected to have been phased out completely, the scenarios for two possible developments are investigated: Either, there is a complete decentralisation of the use of hydrogen, converting and storing electricity surpluses into hydrogen in individual buildings, for later use in vehicles or regeneration of power and heat. Or, some centralised infrastructure is retained, such as hydrogen cavern stores and a network of vehicle hydrogen filling stations. The analysis is used to identify the components in an implementation strategy, for the most interesting scenarios, including a time sequence of necessary decisions and technology readiness. The report is in Danish, because it is part of the dissemination effort of the Hydrogen Committee, directed at the Danish population in general and the Danish professional community in particular. (au)

  18. Scenarios for total utilisation of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the future Danish energy system. Final report; Scenarier for samlet udnyttelse af brint som energibaerer i Danmarks fremtidige energisystem. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Petersen, A.; Engberg Pedersen, T.; Joergensen, K. (and others)

    2001-04-01

    This is the final report from a project performed for the Danish Energy Agency under its Hydrogen Programme. The project, which within the project group goes by the abbreviated title 'Hydrogen as an energy carrier', constructs and analyses different total energy scenarios for introducing hydrogen as an energy carrier, as energy storage medium and as a fuel in the future Danish energy system. The primary aim of the project is to study ways of handling the large deficits and surpluses of electricity from wind energy expected in the future Danish energy system. System-wide aspects of the choice of hydrogen production technologies, distribution methods, infrastructure requirements and conversion technologies are studied. Particularly, the possibility of using in the future the existing Danish natural gas distribution grid for carrying hydrogen will be assessed. For the year 2030, two scenarios are constructed: One using hydrogen primarily in the transportation sector, the other using it as a storage option for the centralised power plants still in operation by this year. For the year 2050, where the existing fossil power plants are expected to have been phased out completely, the scenarios for two possible developments are investigated: Either, there is a complete decentralisation of the use of hydrogen, converting and storing electricity surpluses into hydrogen in individual buildings, for later use in vehicles or regeneration of power and heat. Or, some centralised infrastructure is retained, such as hydrogen cavern stores and a network of vehicle hydrogen filling stations. The analysis is used to identify the components in an implementation strategy, for the most interesting scenarios, including a time sequence of necessary decisions and technology readiness. The report is in Danish, because it is part of the dissemination effort of the Hydrogen Committee, directed at the Danish population in general and the Danish professional community in particular. (au)

  19. Direct Analysis of Organic Compounds in Liquid Using a Miniature Photoionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer with Pulsed Carrier-Gas Capillary Inlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinqiong; Yu, Quan; Zhang, Qian; Ni, Kai; Qian, Xiang; Tang, Fei; Wang, Xiaohao

    2017-08-01

    A miniature ion trap mass spectrometer with capillary direct sampling and vacuum ultraviolet photoionization source was developed to conduct trace analysis of organic compounds in liquids. Self-aspiration sampling is available where the samples are drawn into the vacuum chamber through a capillary with an extremely low flow rate (less than 1 μL/min), which minimizes sample consumption in each analysis to tens of micrograms. A pulsed gas-assisted inlet was designed and optimized to promote sample transmission in the tube and facilitate the cooling of ions, thereby improving instrument sensitivity. A limit of detection of 2 ppb could be achieved for 2,4-dimethylaniline in a methanol solution. The sampling system described in the present study is specifically suitable for a miniature photoionization ion trap mass spectrometer that can perform rapid and online analysis for liquid samples. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. Correlation between Quantumchemically Calculated LUMO Energies and the Electrochemical Window of Ionic Liquids with Reduction-Resistant Anions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Buijs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum chemical calculations showed to be an excellent method to predict the electrochemical window of ionic liquids with reduction-resistant anions. A good correlation between the LUMO energy and the electrochemical window is observed. Surprisingly simple but very fast semiempirical calculations are in full record with density functional theory calculations and are a very attractive tool in the design and optimization of ionic liquids for specific purposes.

  1. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantitative method for the cellular analysis of varying structures of gemini surfactants designed as nanomaterial drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkuru, McDonald; Michel, Deborah; Awad, Hanan; Katselis, George; El-Aneed, Anas

    2016-05-13

    Diquaternary gemini surfactants have successfully been used to form lipid-based nanoparticles that are able to compact, protect, and deliver genetic materials into cells. However, what happens to the gemini surfactants after they have released their therapeutic cargo is unknown. Such knowledge is critical to assess the quality, safety, and efficacy of gemini surfactant nanoparticles. We have developed a simple and rapid liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantitative determination of various structures of gemini surfactants in cells. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was employed allowing for a short simple isocratic run of only 4min. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) was 3ng/mL. The method was valid to 18 structures of gemini surfactants belonging to two different structural families. A full method validation was performed for two lead compounds according to USFDA guidelines. The HILIC-MS/MS method was compatible with the physicochemical properties of gemini surfactants that bear a permanent positive charge with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic elements within their molecular structure. In addition, an effective liquid-liquid extraction method (98% recovery) was employed surpassing previously used extraction methods. The analysis of nanoparticle-treated cells showed an initial rise in the analyte intracellular concentration followed by a maximum and a somewhat more gradual decrease of the intracellular concentration. The observed intracellular depletion of the gemini surfactants may be attributable to their bio-transformation into metabolites and exocytosis from the host cells. Obtained cellular data showed a pattern that grants additional investigations, evaluating metabolite formation and assessing the subcellular distribution of tested compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on ion transport of Eu (III) and Gd (III) through supported liquid membranes containing Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate, as a carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, L.; Bolarin, A.M.; Sanchez, F.; Patino, F.; Rivera, I.; Salinas, E. [Area de Investigaciones en Materiales y Metalurgia, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42072 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. e-mail: hcruz@uaeh.reduaeh.mx

    2007-07-01

    In this work, permeation of Eu (III) and Gd (III) between aqueous oxide solutions through supported membrane containing di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate as a carrier and kerosene has been studied. Mass transfer of these cations has been determined in terms of permeability coefficients (P) by measurement of metal concentrations in strip solution. The permeability coefficient increases with increase in pH acidity of feed solution ranged from pH 0.5 to 2.5 while that of strip solution was kept constant at 0.1 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3}. Thus, the results obtained show that it is possible to get up to 93% of percentage of extraction. (Author)

  3. Studies on ion transport of Eu (III) and Gd (III) through supported liquid membranes containing Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate, as a carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, L.; Bolarin, A.M.; Sanchez, F.; Patino, F.; Rivera, I.; Salinas, E.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, permeation of Eu (III) and Gd (III) between aqueous oxide solutions through supported membrane containing di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate as a carrier and kerosene has been studied. Mass transfer of these cations has been determined in terms of permeability coefficients (P) by measurement of metal concentrations in strip solution. The permeability coefficient increases with increase in pH acidity of feed solution ranged from pH 0.5 to 2.5 while that of strip solution was kept constant at 0.1 mol L -1 HNO 3 . Thus, the results obtained show that it is possible to get up to 93% of percentage of extraction. (Author)

  4. Ionic Liquid-salt based aqueous biphasic system for quick separation of no-carrier-added 203Pb from proton irradiated natTl2CO3 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Dibyasree; Ghosh, Kaustab; Lahiri, Susanta; Sarkar, Kangkana; Naskar, Nabanita

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, no-carrier-added (NCA) 203 Pb was radiochemically separated from bulk Tl target applying the ABS composing of 4 M K 2 HPO 4 and 0.1 mL of different strengths of IL (bmim)Cl ranging from 40% to 80% (w/v). Bulk Tl was spiked with 200Tl (T 1/2 = 26.1 h). A separation condition was achieved with 70% IL concentration and with 10 min shaking and 10 min settling time, where ∼84% of NCA 203 Pb was extracted into the IL rich phase with ∼10% contamination from bulk Tl. Therefore, further studies, i.e. variation in shaking and settling time were carried out keeping the concentration of IL fixed at 70%

  5. Potential Energy Landscape of the Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition in Water and the transformation between Low-Density and High-Density Amorphous Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovambattista, N.; Sciortino, F.; Starr, F. W.; Poole, P. H.

    The potential energy landscape (PEL) formalism is a valuable approach within statistical mechanics for describing supercooled liquids and glasses. We use the PEL formalism and computer simulations to study the transformation between low-density (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL) water, and between low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). We employ the ST2 water model that exhibits a LDL-HDL first-order phase transition and a sharp LDA-HDA transformation, as observed in experiments. Our results are consistent with the view that LDA and HDA configurations are associated with two distinct regions (megabasins) of the PEL that are separated by a potential energy barrier. At higher temperature, we find that LDL configurations are located in the same megabasin as LDA, and that HDL configurations are located in the same megabasin as HDA. We show that the pressure-induced LDL-HDL and LDA-HDA transformations occur along paths that interconnect these two megabasins, but that the path followed by the liquid and the amorphous ice differ. We also study the liquid-to-ice-VII first-order phase transition. The PEL properties across this transition are qualitatively similar to the changes found during the LDA-HDA transformation, supporting the interpretation that the LDA-HDA transformation is a first-order-like phase transition between out-of-equilibrium states.

  6. Coupled energy-drift and force-balance equations for high-field hot-carrier transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Danhong; Alsing, P.M.; Apostolova, T.; Cardimona, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Coupled energy-drift and force-balance equations that contain a frictional force for the center-of-mass motion of electrons are derived for hot-electron transport under a strong dc electric field. The frictional force is found to be related to the net rate of phonon emission, which takes away the momentum of a phonon from an electron during each phonon-emission event. The net rate of phonon emission is determined by the Boltzmann scattering equation, which depends on the distribution of electrons interacting with phonons. The work done by the frictional force is included into the energy-drift equation for the electron-relative scattering motion and is found to increase the thermal energy of the electrons. The importance of the hot-electron effect in the energy-drift term under a strong dc field is demonstrated in reducing the field-dependent drift velocity and mobility. The Doppler shift in the energy conservation of scattering electrons interacting with impurities and phonons is found to lead to an anisotropic distribution of electrons in the momentum space along the field direction. The importance of this anisotropic distribution is demonstrated through a comparison with the isotropic energy-balance equation, from which we find that defining a state-independent electron temperature becomes impossible. To the leading order, the energy-drift equation is linearized with a distribution function by expanding it into a Fokker-Planck-type equation, along with the expansions of both the force-balance equation and the Boltzmann scattering equation for hot phonons

  7. SEPARATION OF Fe (III, Cr(III, Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II, AND Pb(II METAL IONS USING POLY(EUGENYL OXYACETIC ACID AS AN ION CARRIER BY A LIQUID MEMBRANE TRANSPORT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Harimu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fe (III, Cr(III, Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II, and Pb(II  metal ions had been separated using poly(eugenyl oxyacetic acid as an ion carrier by bulk liquid membrane transport method. The effect of pH, polyeugenyl oxyacetic acid ion carrier concentration, nitric acid concentration in the stripping solution, transport time, and metal concentration were optimized. The result showed that the optimum condition for transport of metal ions was at pH 4 for ion Fe(III and at pH 5 for Cr(III, Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II, and Pb(II ions. The carrier volumes were optimum with concentration of 1 x 10-3 M at 7.5 mL for Cr(III, Cu (II,  Ni(II, Co(II ions and at 8.5 mL for Fe(III and Pb(II ions. The concentration of HNO3 in stripping phase was optimum at 2 M for Fe(III and Cu(II ions, 1 M for Cr(III, Ni(II and Co(II ions, and 0.5 M for Pb(II ion. The optimum transport times were 36 h for Fe(III and Co(II ions, and 48 h for Cr(III, Cu (II, Ni(II, and Pb(II ions. The concentration of metal ions accurately transported were 2.5 x 10-4 M for Fe(III and Cr(III ions, and 1 M for Cu (II, Ni(II, Co(II, and Pb(II ions. Compared to other metal ions the transport of Fe(III was the highest with selectivity order of Fe(III > Cr(III > Pb(II > Cu(II > Ni(II > Co(II. At optimum condition, Fe(III ion was transported through the membrane at 46.46%.   Keywords: poly(eugenyl oxyacetic acid, transport, liquid membrane, Fe (III, Cr(III, Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II, and Pb(II ions

  8. Enhancing Wind Power Integration through Optimal Use of Flexibility in Multi-Carrier Energy Systems from the Danish Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Awadelrahman, M. A. Ahmed; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-01-01

    Denmark’ goal of being independent of fossil energy sources in 2050 puts forward great demands on all energy subsystems (electricity, heat, gas and transport, etc.) to be operated in a holistic manner. The Danish experience and challenges of wind power integration and the development of district...... heating systems are summarized in this paper. How to optimally use the cross-sectoral flexibility by intelligent control (model predictive control-based) of the key coupling components in an integrated heat and power system including electrical heat pumps in the demand side, and thermal storage...

  9. Liquid Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba A. Tawfic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future. Keywords: Liquid ventilation; perfluorochemicals; perfluorocarbon; respiratory distress; surfactant.

  10. Study of Thermally Responsive Ionic Liquids for Novel Water Desalination and Energy Conversion Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Yujiang

    2018-04-01

    The rapidly expanding of the global population in the 21st-century forces people facing two serious problems: water scarcity and energy shortage. Enormous continuous studies focus on providing enough fresh water and energy in a sustainable way. This thesis aims at exploring novel membrane processes based on thermally responsive ionic liquids with the upper critical solution temperature (UCST ILs) for water desalination and energy conversion from low-grade heat energy to electricity. A UCST IL protonated betaine bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Hbet][Tf2N]) was first experimentally studied as a novel draw solute in a thermal forward osmosis (FO). A 3.2 M [Hbet][Tf2N] solution can be obtained via spontaneous phase separation from an IL and water mixture at room temperature. By heating and maintaining the temperature above 56°C, this solution can draw water from high-salinity solution up to 3.0 M, 5 times salty as the sea water. The IL draw solution can be easily regenerated by phase separation. Conducting the FO process at higher temperatures can also increase the water flux. According to the different choices of the freshwater polishing step, the electric energy consumption in this novel process was estimated as 26.3% to 64.2% of conventional one-step sea water reverse osmosis. Two UCST ILs with better performance, [Hbet][Tf2N] and choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Choline][Tf2N]), were selected as the agents in a novel closed-loop thermally responsive IL osmotic heat engine (TRIL-OHE) to convert low-grade thermal energy to electricity. The specific energies of the [Hbet][Tf2N] system and the [Choline][Tf2N] system are 2500 kJ/t and 3700 kJ/t, which are 2.7 and 4.0 times of the seawater and river water system, respectively. The maximum power density measured from a commercial FO membrane is 1.5 W/m2 for the [Hbet][Tf2N] system and 2.3 W/m2 for the [Choline][Tf2N] system, leaving a big room to improve if highly permeable membranes are used. Another

  11. Best Available Technology (BAT) guidance for radiological liquid effluents at US Department of Energy Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallo, A. III; Peterson, H.T. Jr.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Baker, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in DOE Order 5400.5 (1990), directs operators of DOE facilities to apply the Best Available Technology (BAT) to control radiological liquid effluents from these facilities when specific conditions are present. DOE has published interim guidance to assist facility operators in knowing when a BAT analysis is needed and how such an analysis should be performed and documented. The purpose of the guidance is to provide a uniform basis in determining BAT throughout DOE and to assist in evaluating BAT determinations during programmatic audits. The BAT analysis process involves characterizing the effluent source; identifying and selecting candidate control technologies; evaluating the potential environmental, operational, resource, and economic impacts of the control technologies; developing an evaluation matrix for comparing the technologies; selecting the BAT; and documenting the evaluation process. The BAT analysis process provides a basis for consistent evaluation of liquid effluent releases, yet allows an individual site or facility the flexibility to address site-specific issues or concerns in the most appropriate manner

  12. Mixtures of glyme and aprotic-protic ionic liquids as electrolytes for energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettner, T.; Huang, P.; Goktas, M.; Adelhelm, P.; Balducci, A.

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been proven to be promising electrolytes for electrochemical energy storage devices such as supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In the last years, due to deficiency in storage of lithium on earth, innovative systems, such as sodium-based devices, attracted considerable attention. IL-based electrolytes have been proposed also as electrolytes for these devices. Nevertheless, in the case of these systems, the advantages and limits of IL-based electrolytes need to be further investigated. In this work we report an investigation about the chemical-physical properties of mixtures containing bis(2-methoxyethyl)ether diglyme (2G), which is presently considered as one of the most interesting solvents for sodium-based devices, and the ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI) and 1-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PyrH4TFSI). The conductivities, viscosities, and densities of several mixtures of 2G and these ILs have been investigated. Furthermore, their impact on the electrochemical behaviour of activated carbon composite electrodes has been considered. The results of this investigation indicate that these mixtures are promising electrolytes for the realization of advanced sodium-based devices.

  13. Low Energy Spectrum of Proximate Kitaev Spin Liquid α -RuCl3 by Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Arielle; Wu, Liang; Kelley, Paige; Banerjee, Arnab; Bridges, Craig; Yan, Jiaqiang; Nagler, Stephen; Mandrus, David; Orenstein, Joseph

    A Quantum Spin Liquid (QSL) is an ultra-quantum state of matter with no ordered ground state. Recently, a route to a QSL identified by Kitaev has received a great deal of attention. The compound α -RuCl3, in which Ru atoms form a honeycomb lattice, has been shown to possess Kitaev exchange interactions, although a smaller Heisenberg interaction exists and leads to a zig-zag antiferromagnetic state below 7 K. Because of proximity to the exactly-solvable Kitaev spin-liquid model, this material is considered a potential host for Majorana-like modes. In this work, we use time-domain terahertz (THz) Spectroscopy to probe the low-energy excitations of α -RuCl3. We observe the emergence of a sharp magnetic spin-wave absorption peak below the AFM ordering temperature at 7 K on top of a broad continuum that persists up to room temperature. Additionally we report the polarization dependence of the THz absorption, which reveals optical birefringence, indicating the presence of large monoclinic domains.

  14. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  15. Co marker determination in rumen liquid sample by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Eduardo de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Massoni, Paulo R. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN)]. E-mail: edualm@usp.br; Leite, Laudi C.; Lanna, Dante P.D. [Escola Superior de Agricultura ' Luiz de Queiroz' (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Zootecnia. Lab. de Anatomia e Fisiologia Animal (LAFA)]. E-mail: lcleite@ciagri.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The Co element is used in nutritional studies as marker. This paper describes an analytical methodology for Co determination in rumen liquid sample using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXRF). 200 {mu}L of the sample were dried at 60 deg C on 6.35 {mu}m Mylar film. Ga was used as internal standard. The excitation was carried out utilizing Mo target X-ray tube (Zr filter) at 30 kV / 20 mA. The acquisition time was 200 s. The accuracy of this methodology was assessed through standard addition method, the recovery obtained was 98.7 % for Co. The detection limit was 0.15 mg / L for this element. (author)

  16. Co marker determination in rumen liquid sample by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Eduardo de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Massoni, Paulo R.; Leite, Laudi C.; Lanna, Dante P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Co element is used in nutritional studies as marker. This paper describes an analytical methodology for Co determination in rumen liquid sample using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXRF). 200 μL of the sample were dried at 60 deg C on 6.35 μm Mylar film. Ga was used as internal standard. The excitation was carried out utilizing Mo target X-ray tube (Zr filter) at 30 kV / 20 mA. The acquisition time was 200 s. The accuracy of this methodology was assessed through standard addition method, the recovery obtained was 98.7 % for Co. The detection limit was 0.15 mg / L for this element. (author)

  17. Micro-generation dispatch in a smart residential multi-carrier energy system considering demand forecast error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjari, M.J.; Karami, H.; Gooi, H.B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Combination of day-ahead and hour-ahead optimizations to design online controller. • Investigating the effect of load forecast error on the system operating cost. • Proposing effective method for hour-ahead resource re-dispatch. • Using the HSS algorithm as a powerful and effective optimization method. • Combining long-term and short-term strategies for optimal dispatch of resources. - Abstract: This paper deals with a residential hybrid thermal/electrical grid-connected home energy system incorporating real data for the load demand. A day-ahead scheduling (DAS) algorithm for dispatching different resources has been developed in previous studies to determine the optimal operation scheduling for the distributed energy resources at each time interval so that the operational cost of a smart house is minimized. However, demand of houses may be changed in each hour and cannot be exactly predicted one day ahead. System complexity caused by nonlinear dynamics of the fuel cell, as a combined heat and power device, and battery charging and discharging time make it difficult to find the optimal operating point of the system by using the optimization algorithms quickly in online applications. In this paper, the demand forecast error is studied and a near-optimal dispatch strategy by using artificial neural network (ANN) is proposed for the residential energy system when the demand changes are known one hour ahead with respect to the predicted day-ahead values. The day-ahead and hour-ahead optimizations are combined and ANN training inputs are adjusted according to the problem such that the economic dispatch of different energy resources can be achieved by the proposed method compared with previous studies. Using the model of the fuel cell extracted from experimental measurement and real data for the load demand makes the results more applicable in real residential energy systems.

  18. Future of the gas industry. Energy carriers instead of power source?; Zukunft der Gaswirtschaft. Energietraeger statt Energiequelle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothe, David; Janssen, Matthias; Riechmann, Christoph [Frontier Economics, Koeln (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    For a long time, natural gas was considered as an ideal bridge technology for the energy transition because of the relatively low CO{sub 2} content. With increasing decarbonisation of electricity generation by renewable energies and the associated political vision of a far-reaching electrification of energy applications, in particular in the heat sector, the gas sector is, however, threatened to be overtaken by the renewables. This creates increasing uncertainty for business models and investments in the natural gas sector itself, but also potentially high macroeconomic costs of the energy transition. It can be shown that such a development is not unavoidable if the gas sector succeeds in using the existing possibilities cleverly. Thereby the continued use of existing gas infrastructure plays a central role. For use of the opportunities, however, a paradigm shift in politics, regulation and natural gas sector is necessary, whose key points are developed in this article. [German] Lange wurde Gas aufgrund des relativ geringen C0{sub 2}-Gehalts als ideale Brueckentechnologie fuer die Energiewende gehandelt. Mit zunehmender Dekarbonisierung der Stromerzeugung durch erneuerbare Energien und der damit verbundenen politischen Vision einer weitreichenden Elektrifizierung von Energieanwendungen insbesondere im Waermesektor droht die Gaswirtschaft allerdings von den Erneuerbaren ueberholt zu werden. Das schafft zunehmende Unsicherheit fuer Geschaeftsmodelle und Investitionen im Gassektor selbst, aber auch potenziell hohe gesamtwirtschaftliche Kosten der Energiewende. Es laesst sich zeigen, dass eine solche Entwicklung nicht unabwendbar ist, wenn es der Gaswirtschaft gelingt, die vorhandenen Moeglichkeiten clever zu nutzen. Dabei spielt der fortgesetzte Gebrauch der bereits vorhandenen Gasinfrastruktur die zentrale Rolle. Zur Nutzung der Chancen ist aber ein Paradigmenwechsel in Politik, Regulierung und Gaswirtschaft notwendig, dessen Eckpunkte in diesem Artikel entwickelt

  19. Nanotube liquid crystal elastomers: photomechanical response and flexible energy conversion of layered polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xiaoming; King, Benjamin C; Loomis, James; Panchapakesan, Balaji; Campo, Eva M; Hegseth, John; Cohn, Robert W; Terentjev, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Elastomeric composites based on nanotube liquid crystals (LCs) that preserve the internal orientation of nanotubes could lead to anisotropic physical properties and flexible energy conversion. Using a simple vacuum filtration technique of fabricating nanotube LC films and utilizing a transfer process to poly (dimethyl) siloxane wherein the LC arrangement is preserved, here we demonstrate unique and reversible photomechanical response of this layered composite to excitation by near infra-red (NIR) light at ultra-low nanotube mass fractions. On excitation by NIR photons, with application of small or large pre-strains, significant expansion or contraction of the sample occurs, respectively, that is continuously reversible and three orders of magnitude larger than in pristine polymer. Schlieren textures were noted in these LC composites confirming long range macroscopic nematic order of nanotubes within the composites. Order parameters of LC films ranged from S optical  = 0.51–0.58 from dichroic measurements. Film concentrations, elastic modulus and photomechanical stress were all seen to be related to the nematic order parameter. For the same nanotube concentration, the photomechanical stress was almost three times larger for the self-assembled LC nanotube actuator compared to actuator based on randomly oriented carbon nanotubes. Investigation into the kinetics of photomechanical actuation showed variation in stretching exponent β with pre-strains, concentration and orientation of nanotubes. Maximum photomechanical stress of ∼0.5 MPa W −1 and energy conversion of ∼0.0045% was achieved for these layered composites. The combination of properties, namely, optical anisotropy, reversible mechanical response to NIR excitation and flexible energy conversion all in one system accompanied with low cost makes nanotube LC elastomers important for soft photochromic actuation, energy conversion and photo-origami applications. (paper)

  20. Asymmetric polymerisation in liquid crystals and resultant electro-chiroptical effect: Structure organising polymerisation and chiral charge carrier ''chiralion''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiromasa

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical synthesis in liquid crystal (LC) affords conducting polymers having LC molecular order and electro-activity. The polymerisation method can be referred to as structure organising polymerisation (SOP). The optical textures of the polymers thus prepared appear very similar to that of the LC electrolyte solution used for the polymerisation. Especially, polymers prepared in cholesteric LC (chiral LC) having structural chirality show doping-dedoping (redox) driven change in chiroptical activity (controllable circular dichroism and optical rotation), as e lectro-chiroptical effect . The polymer films exhibit interference colour and electrochemically driven refractive index modulations. The chiroptical activity of the polymer prepared in cholesteric LC comes from axial chirality of the helical structure

  1. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J

    2008-01-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  2. A cavitation transition in the energy landscape of simple cohesive liquids and glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altabet, Y. Elia; Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Stillinger, Frank H.

    2016-01-01

    In particle systems with cohesive interactions, the pressure-density relationship of the mechanically stable inherent structures sampled along a liquid isotherm (i.e., the equation of state of an energy landscape) will display a minimum at the Sastry density ρ S . The tensile limit at ρ S is due to cavitation that occurs upon energy minimization, and previous characterizations of this behavior suggested that ρ S is a spinodal-like limit that separates all homogeneous and fractured inherent structures. Here, we revisit the phenomenology of Sastry behavior and find that it is subject to considerable finite-size effects, and the development of the inherent structure equation of state with system size is consistent with the finite-size rounding of an athermal phase transition. What appears to be a continuous spinodal-like point at finite system sizes becomes discontinuous in the thermodynamic limit, indicating behavior akin to a phase transition. We also study cavitation in glassy packings subjected to athermal expansion. Many individual expansion trajectories averaged together produce a smooth equation of state, which we find also exhibits features of finite-size rounding, and the examples studied in this work give rise to a larger limiting tension than for the corresponding landscape equation of state.

  3. Rate for energy transfer from excited cyclohexane to nitrous oxide in the liquid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, T.; Hatano, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Pure liquid cyclohexane and cyclohexane solutions of nitrous oxide have been photolyzed at 163 nm. The quantum yield of the product hydrogen in the photolysis of pure cyclohexane is found to be 1.0. The addition of nitrous oxide results in the reduction in the yield of hydrogen and in the formation of nitrogen. The decrement of the hydrogen yield is approximately equal to the increment of the nitrogen yield. About 40 percent of the hydrogen yield in pure cyclohexane is found to be produced through a path which is not affected by the addition of nitrous oxide. The effect of the addition of nitrous oxide is attributed to energy transfer from excited cyclohexane to nitrous oxide with the rate constant of k = 1.0 x 10 11 M -1 sec -1 (at 15 0 C). This value is about a factor of 10 larger than that expected as for diffusion-controlled rate. A contribution of the energy transfer process to the formation of nitrogen in the radiolysis of cyclohexane solutions of nitrous oxide has also been discussed. (auth)

  4. Microscopic distribution functions, structure, and kinetic energy of liquid and solid neon: Quantum Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, Martin; Zoppi, Marco

    2002-01-01

    We have performed extensive path integral Monte Carlo simulations of liquid and solid neon, in order to derive the kinetic energy as well as the single-particle and pair distribution functions of neon atoms in the condensed phases. From the single-particle distribution function n(r) one can derive the momentum distribution and thus obtain an independent estimate of the kinetic energy. The simulations have been carried out using mostly the semiempirical HFD-C2 pair potential by Aziz et al. [R. A. Aziz, W. J. Meath, and A. R. Allnatt, Chem. Phys. 79, 295 (1983)], but, in a few cases, we have also used the Lennard-Jones potential. The differences between the potentials, as measured by the properties investigated, are not very large, especially when compared with the actual precision of the experimental data. The simulation results have been compared with all the experimental information that is available from neutron scattering. The overall agreement with the experiments is very good

  5. Some rules to improve the energy resolution in alpha liquid scintillation with beta rejection

    CERN Document Server

    Aupiais, J; Dacheux, N

    2003-01-01

    Two common scintillating mixtures dedicated to alpha measurements by means of alpha liquid scintillation with pulse shape discrimination were tested: the di-isopropylnaphthalene - based and the toluene-based solvents containing the commercial cocktails Ultima Gold AB trademark and Alphaex trademark. We show the possibility to enhance the resolution up to 200% by using no-water miscible cocktails and by reducing the optical path. Under these conditions, the resolution of about 200 keV can be obtained either by the Tri Carb sup T sup M or by the Perals sup T sup M spectrometers. The time responses, e.g., the time required for a complete energy transfer between the initial interaction alpha particle-solvent and the final fluorescence of the organic scintillator, have been compared. Both cocktails present similar behavior. According to the Foerster theory, about 6-10 ns are required to complete the energy transfer. For both apparatus, the detection limits were determined for alpha emitters. The sensitivity of the...

  6. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J [E15 Chair for Astroparticle Physics, Technische Universitat Miinchen, Physik Department, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-11-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  7. Measurement of solid-liquid interfacial energy in the In-Bi eutectic alloy at low melting temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasli, N; Akbulut, S; Ocak, Y; Keslioglu, K; Boeyuek, U; Kaya, H; Cadirli, E

    2007-01-01

    The Gibbs-Thomson coefficient and solid-liquid interfacial energy of the solid In solution in equilibrium with In Bi eutectic liquid have been determined to be (1.46 ± 0.07) x 10 -7 K m and (40.4 ± 4.0) x 10 -3 J m -2 by observing the equilibrated grain boundary groove shapes. The grain boundary energy of the solid In solution phase has been calculated to be (79.0 ± 8.7) x 10 -3 J m -2 by considering force balance at the grain boundary grooves. The thermal conductivities of the In-12.4 at.% Bi eutectic liquid phase and the solid In solution phase and their ratio at the eutectic melting temperature (72 deg. C) have also been measured with radial heat flow apparatus and Bridgman-type growth apparatus

  8. Relation between heat of vaporization, ion transport, molar volume, and cation-anion binding energy for ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Oleg

    2009-09-10

    A number of correlations between heat of vaporization (H(vap)), cation-anion binding energy (E(+/-)), molar volume (V(m)), self-diffusion coefficient (D), and ionic conductivity for 29 ionic liquids have been investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that employed accurate and validated many-body polarizable force fields. A significant correlation between D and H(vap) has been found, while the best correlation was found for -log(DV(m)) vs H(vap) + 0.28E(+/-). A combination of enthalpy of vaporization and a fraction of the cation-anion binding energy was suggested as a measure of the effective cohesive energy for ionic liquids. A deviation of some ILs from the reported master curve is explained based upon ion packing and proposed diffusion pathways. No general correlations were found between the ion diffusion coefficient and molecular volume or the diffusion coefficient and cation/anion binding energy.

  9. Technical and economic aspects of thermo-chemical decomposition of biomass in the processes of transformation of it in power-consuming energy/carriers by the use of the concentrated gel of sun radiation, has been considered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultanova, K.D.; Mustafayeva, R.M.; Rzayev, P.F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The technical and economic assessment of process of thermo-chemical decomposition of biomass in the processes of transformation of it in power-consuming energy/carriers by the use of the concentrated gel of sun radiation, has been considered

  10. Liquid Scoping Study for Tritium-Lean, Fast Ignition Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R C; Latkowski, J F; Durbin, S G; Meier, W R; Reyes, S

    2001-08-14

    In a thick-liquid protected chamber design, such as HYLIFE-II, a molten-salt is used to attenuate neutrons and protect the chamber structures from radiation damage. The molten-salt absorbs some of the material and energy given off by the target explosion. In the case of a fast ignition inertial fusion system, advanced targets have been proposed that may be Self-sufficient in the tritium breeding (i.e., the amount of tritium bred in target exceeds the amount burned). These ''tritium-lean'' targets contain approximately 0.5% tritium and 99.5% deuterium, but require a large pr of 10-20 g/cm{sup 2}. Although most of the yield is provided by D-T reactions, the majority of fusion reactions are D-D, which produces a net surplus of tritium. This aspect allows for greater freedom when selecting a liquid for the protective blanket (lithium-bearing compounds are not required). This study assesses characteristics of many single, binary, and ternary molten-salts. Using the NIST Properties of Molten Salts Database, approximately 4300 molten-salts were included in the study [1]. As an initial screening, salts were evaluated for their safety and environmental (S&E) characteristics, which included an assessment of waste disposal rating, contact dose, and radioactive afterheat. Salts that passed the S&E criteria were then evaluated for neutron shielding ability and pumping power. The pumping power was calculated using three components: velocity head losses, frictional losses, and lift. This assessment left us with 57 molten-salts to recommend for further analysis. Many of these molten-salts contain elements such as sodium, lithium, beryllium, boron, fluorine, and oxygen. Recommendations for further analysis are also made.

  11. Liquid Scoping Study for Tritium-Lean, Fast Ignition Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R C; Latkowski, J F; Durbin, S G; Meier, W R; Reyes, S

    2001-01-01

    In a thick-liquid protected chamber design, such as HYLIFE-II, a molten-salt is used to attenuate neutrons and protect the chamber structures from radiation damage. The molten-salt absorbs some of the material and energy given off by the target explosion. In the case of a fast ignition inertial fusion system, advanced targets have been proposed that may be Self-sufficient in the tritium breeding (i.e., the amount of tritium bred in target exceeds the amount burned). These ''tritium-lean'' targets contain approximately 0.5% tritium and 99.5% deuterium, but require a large pr of 10-20 g/cm 2 . Although most of the yield is provided by D-T reactions, the majority of fusion reactions are D-D, which produces a net surplus of tritium. This aspect allows for greater freedom when selecting a liquid for the protective blanket (lithium-bearing compounds are not required). This study assesses characteristics of many single, binary, and ternary molten-salts. Using the NIST Properties of Molten Salts Database, approximately 4300 molten-salts were included in the study [1]. As an initial screening, salts were evaluated for their safety and environmental (SandE) characteristics, which included an assessment of waste disposal rating, contact dose, and radioactive afterheat. Salts that passed the SandE criteria were then evaluated for neutron shielding ability and pumping power. The pumping power was calculated using three components: velocity head losses, frictional losses, and lift. This assessment left us with 57 molten-salts to recommend for further analysis. Many of these molten-salts contain elements such as sodium, lithium, beryllium, boron, fluorine, and oxygen. Recommendations for further analysis are also made

  12. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED ENERGY CROPS GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic physico-chemical properties of solid (ash and liquid (tar waste products of the gasification process of the heavy metal contaminated energy crops. The gasification process has carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. Three types of energy crops: Miscanthus x giganteus, Sida hermaphrodita and Spartina Pectinata were used. The experimental plots were established on heavy metal contaminated arable land located in Bytom (southern part of Poland, Silesian Voivodship.

  13. Differential neutron spectrometry in the very low neutron energy range. Neutron cross sections for Zr, Al, polyethylene and liquid fluoropolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokotilovskij, Yu.N.; Novopol'tsev, M.I.; Geltenbort, P.; Brenner, T.

    2003-01-01

    Some results of the test of the time-of-flight neutron spectrometers in the energy range (0.05-2.5)μeV are described. The measurements of total and differential cross sections were performed for several substances relevant to the experiments in the physics of ultracold neutrons: Zr, Al, polyethylene and liquid fluoropolymers

  14. CGR MeV program for water and liquid sludges treatment with high-energy electron beams. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallien, C.L.; Icre, P.; Levaillant, C.; Montiel, A.

    1976-01-01

    Research on the application of high-energy electron beams treatment to water and liquid sludges is described. Topics discussed include limitations of conventional methods of water treatment, dosimetry, biological assays with Pleurodeles waltlii, radioactivity measurement, chemical and bacteriological analysis. (author)

  15. Simultaneous Determination of Caffeine and Vitamin B6 in Energy Drinks by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacock, Rachel E.; Stankus, John J.; Davis, Julian M.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography experiment to determine the concentration of caffeine and vitamin B6 in sports energy drinks has been developed. This laboratory activity, which is appropriate for an upper-level instrumental analysis course, illustrates the standard addition method and simultaneous determination of two species. (Contains 1…

  16. Role of energy exchange in vibrational dephasing processes in liquids and solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.

    1981-08-01

    Three theories which claim relevance to the dephasing of molecular vibrations in condensed phase matter are presented. All of these theories predict (in certain limiting cases) that the widths and shifts of molecular vibrations will obey an Arrhenius temperature dependence. The basic tenets of the theories are detailed so that the differences between them may be used in an experiment to distinguish between them. One model, based on intermolecular energy exchange of low-frequency modes, results in dephasing the high-frequency modes when anharmonic coupling is present. A computer analysis of temperature dependent experimental lineshapes can result in the extraction of various parameters such as the anharmonic shifts and the exchange rates. It is shown that, in order to properly assess the relative validity of the three models, other evidence must be obtained such as the spectral parameters of the low-frequency modes, the combination bands, and the isotopic dilution behavior. This evidence is presented for d 14 -durene (perdeutero-1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene) and compared to previous data obtained on pure h 14 -durene. An extension of the (HSC) intermolecular energy exchange model which allows for the possibility of partial delocalization of the low-frequency modes gives an adequate description of the experimental evidence. Isotopic dilution experiments, in particular, have resulted in a detailed picture of the energy transfer dynamics of the low-frequency modes. A section in which some spontaneous Raman spectra support a model of inhomogeneous broadening in liquids based on results of picosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy is presented. The model is that a distribution of environmental sites is created by a distribution in the local density and thus creates inhomogeneous broadening

  17. An ionic liquid-in-water microemulsion as a potential carrier for topical delivery of poorly water soluble drug: Development, ex-vivo and in-vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goindi, Shishu; Kaur, Ramanpreet; Kaur, Randeep

    2015-11-30

    In this paper, we report an ionic liquid-in-water (IL/w) microemulsion (ME) formulation which is able to solubilize etodolac (ETO), a poorly water soluble drug for topical delivery using BMIMPF6 (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) as IL, Tween 80 as surfactant and ethanol as co-surfactant. The prepared ME was characterized for physicochemical parameters, subjected to ex-vivo permeation studies as well as in-vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation. The ex-vivo drug permeation studies through rat skin was performed using Franz-diffusion cell and the IL/w based ME showed maximum mean cumulative percent permeation of 99.030±0.921% in comparison to oil-in-water (o/w) ME (61.548±1.875%) and oily solution (48.830±2.488%) of ETO. In-vivo anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activities of the prepared formulations were evaluated using different rodent models and the results revealed that ETO loaded IL/w based ME was found to be more effective in controlling inflammation than oily solution, o/w ME and marketed formulation of ETO. Histopathological studies also demonstrated that IL/w based ME caused no anatomical and pathological changes in the skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Motor carrier evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, James

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ), Transportation Management Program (TMP) has the overall responsibility to provide a well-managed transportation program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned materials. The DOE-TMP has established an excellent safety record in the transportation of hazardous materials including radioactive materials and radioactive wastes. This safety record can be maintained only through continued diligence and sustained effort on the part of the DOE-TMP, its field offices, and the contractors' organizations. Key elements in the DOE'S effective hazardous and radioactive materials shipping program are (1) integrity of packages, (2) strict adherence to regulations and procedures, (3) trained personnel, (4) complete management support, and (5) use of the best commercial carriers. The DOE Motor Carrier Evaluation Program was developed to better define the criteria and methodology needed to identify motor carriers for use in the transportation of Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ), Truck Load (TL) quantities of radioactive materials, hazardous materials and waste. (author)

  19. Motor carrier evaluation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.; Maxwell, J.E.; Boness, G.O.; Rice, L.E.

    1991-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Program (TMP) has established a program to assist the DOE field offices and their contractors in evaluating the motor carriers used to transport DOE-owned hazardous and radioactive materials. This program was initiated to provide the DOE field offices with the tools necessary to help ensure, during this period of motor carrier deregulation, that only highly qualified carriers transport radioactive and hazardous commodities for the DOE. This program will assist DOE in maintaining their excellent performance record in the safe transportation of hazardous commodities. The program was also developed in response to public concern surrounding the transportation of hazardous materials. Representatives of other federal agencies, states, and tribal governments, as well as the news media, have expressed concern about the selection and qualification of carriers engaged in the transportation of Highway Route-Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) and Truckload (TL) quantities of radioactive material for the DOE. 8 refs

  20. Use of carriers for to electrodeposited radium 226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe, J.L.

    1991-10-01

    The form of the energy distribution of a monoenergetic alpha particle starting from some emitting source of these particles, it depends on the quantity of material that its cross before being detected. Some authors deposit to the radium-226 by means of direct evaporation of the solution on metallic supports, on millipore paper and by electrodeposition. Some other ones place the radium solution in scintillation liquid, to quantify it by this technique. The objective of the present work is using carriers with the same oxidation state of the radium, that is to say of 2 + , for treating to be electrodeposited to the radium-226 with the biggest possible percentage for later use the alpha spectroscopy technique to quantify it. The carriers that have been used until its they are barium and zinc in form of barium chloride, zinc nitrate and zinc sulfate. The first results indicate that with the zinc solution a yield of 40% of electrodeposited radium has been reached. (Author)

  1. Catalytic hydrotreatment of pyrolysis liquids and fractions: Catalyst Development and Process Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Wang

    2017-01-01

    The use of sustainable and renewable lignocellulosic biomass is of particular interest to (partly) replace fossil resources. Fast pyrolysis is a promising technology to convert lignocellulosic biomass to a liquid energy carrier. The products, also known as fast pyrolysis liquids (PLs), have a higher energy density than solid biomass. The applications of PLs are limited due to a high water and oxygen content and limited storage stability. As such upgrading technologies are required to broaden ...

  2. Energy Band Gap, Intrinsic Carrier Concentration and Fermi Level of CdTe Bulk Crystal between 304 K and 1067 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Optical transmission measurements were performed on CdTe bulk single crystal. It was found that when a sliced and polished CdTe wafer was used, a white film started to develop when the sample was heated above 530 K and the sample became opaque. Therefore, a bulk crystal of CdTe was first grown in the window area by physical vapor transport; the optical transmission was then measured and from which the energy band gap was derived between 304 and 1067 K. The band gaps of CdTe can be fit well as a function of temperature using the Varshini expression: Eg (e V) = 1.5860 - 5.9117xl0(exp -4) T(sup 2)/(T + 160). Using the band gap data, the high temperature electron-hole equilibrium was calculated numerically by assuming the Kane's conduction band structure and a heavy-hole parabolic valance band. The calculated intrinsic carrier concentrations agree well with the experimental data reported previously. The calculated intrinsic Fermi levels between 270 and 1200 K were also presented.

  3. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 10: Liquid-metal MHD systems. [energy conversion efficiency of electric power plants using liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, R. R.; Lippert, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    Electric Power Plant costs and efficiencies are presented for two basic liquid-metal cycles corresponding to 922 and 1089 K (1200 and 1500 F) for a commercial applications using direct coal firing. Sixteen plant designs are considered for which major component equipment were sized and costed. The design basis for each major component is discussed. Also described is the overall systems computer model that was developed to analyze the thermodynamics of the various cycle configurations that were considered.

  4. An energy landscape based approach for studying supercooled liquid and glassy thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pooja; Mittal, Jeetain; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2004-03-01

    Materials in confined spaces are important in science and technology. Examples include biological fluids in membranes, liquids trapped in porous rocks, and thin-film materials used in high-resolution patterning technologies. However, few reliable rules exist to predict how the properties of materials will be affected by thin-film confinement. We have recently shown that the potential energy landscape formalism can be used to study, by both theory [1] and simulation [2], how the behavior of thin-film materials depends on sample dimensions and film-substrate interactions. Our landscape-based mean-field theory [1] can be used to study both the thermodynamic properties and the ideal glass transition of thin films. It predicts that, in the case of neutral or repulsive walls, the ideal glass transition temperature is lowered by decreasing film thickness. This is in qualitative agreement with experimental trends for the kinetic glass transition in confined fluids. Landscape-based approaches are also valuable for understanding the structural and mechanical properties of thin-film glasses. We demonstrate how the concept of an "equation of state of the energy landscape" [3] can be generalized to thin films [1, 2], where it gives insights into potential molecular mechanisms of tensile strength. [1] T. M. Truskett and V. Ganesan, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1897-1900(2003); J. Mittal, P. Shah and T. M. Truskett, to be submitted to Langmuir. [2] P. Shah and T. M. Truskett, to be submitted to J. Phys. Chem. B. [3] S. Sastry, P. G. Debenedetti and F. H. Stillinger, Phys. Rev. E 56, 5533 (1997)

  5. Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, J.E.

    2014-03-07

    Micro-sized microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are miniature energy harvesters that use bacteria to convert biomass from liquids into usable power. The key challenge is transitioning laboratory test beds into devices capable of producing high power using readily available fuel sources. Here, we present a pragmatic step toward advancing MFC applications through the fabrication of a uniquely mobile and inexpensive micro-sized device that can be fueled with human saliva. The 25-ll MFC was fabricated with graphene, a two-dimensional atomic crystal-structured material, as an anode for efficient current generation and with an air cathode for enabling the use of the oxygen present in air, making its operation completely mobile and free of the need for laboratory chemicals. With saliva as a fuel, the device produced higher current densities (1190 Am-3) than any previous aircathode micro-sized MFCs. The use of the graphene anode generated 40 times more power than that possible using a carbon cloth anode. Additional tests were performed using acetate, a conventional organic material, at high organic loadings that were comparable to those in saliva, and the results demonstrated a linear relationship between the organic loading and current. These findings open the door to saliva-powered applications of this fuel cell technology for Lab-on-a-Chip devices or portable point-of-care diagnostic devices. 2014 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved 1884-4057/14.

  6. Kinetic energy of He atoms in liquid 4He-3He mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senesi, R.; Andreani, C.; Fielding, A.L.; Mayers, J.; Stirling, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    Deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements on liquid 3 He- 4 He mixtures in the normal phase have been performed on the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron source at exchanged wave vectors of about q≅120.0 A -1 . The neutron Compton profiles J(y) of the mixtures were measured along the T=1.96 K isotherm for 3 He concentrations, x, ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 at saturated vapor pressures. Values of kinetic energies of 3 He and 4 He atoms as a function of x, (x), were extracted from the second moment of J(y). The present determinations of (x) confirm previous experimental findings for both isotopes and, in the case of 3 He, a substantial disagreement with theory is found. In particular (x) for the 3 He atoms is found to be independent of concentration yielding a value 3 (x=0.1)≅12 K, much lower than the value suggested by the most recent theoretical estimates of approximately 19 K

  7. Simultaneous design of ionic liquid entrainers and energy efficient azeotropic separation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roughton, Brock C.; Christian, Brianna; White, John

    2012-01-01

    A methodology and tool set for the simultaneous design of ionic liquid entrainers and azeotropic separation processes is presented. By adjusting the cation, anion, and alkyl chain length on the cation, the properties of the ionic liquid can be adjusted to design an entrainer for a given azeotropic...... mixture. Several group contribution property models available in literature have been used along with a newly developed group contribution solubility parameter model and UNIFAC model for ionic liquids (UNIFAC-IL). For a given azeotropic mixture, an ionic liquid is designed using a computer-aided molecular...... design (CAMD) method and the UNIFAC-IL model is used to screen design candidates based on minimum ionic liquid concentration needed to break the azeotrope. Once the ionic liquid has been designed, the extractive distillation column for the azeotropic mixture is designed using the driving force method...

  8. A State-Based Approach to Building a Liquid National Market for Renewable Energy Certificates: The REC-EX Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berendt, Christopher B.

    2006-01-01

    RECs are the currency driving the growth of renewable energy markets and the sale of RECs from renewable energy generation projects could promise a predictable return. But the existing REC markets in the U.S. sorely lack the liquidity needed to make good on that promise. The author proposes a Renewable Energy Certificate Exchange program rooted in the construction of a national trading platform for RECs in tandem with the execution of a new agreement among the states with REC-based renewable portfolio standards. (author)

  9. Energy dependence of the air kerma response of a liquid ionization chamber at photon energies between 8 keV and 1250 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilgers, G.; Bahar-Gogani, J.; Wickman, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In its recent reports on cardiovascular brachytherapy the DGMP recommends the source strength of brachytherapy sources being characterized in terms of absorbed dose to water at a distance of 2 mm from the central axis of the source. As a consequence, the response of a detector suitable for characterizing such sources with respect to absorbed dose to water should depend only to a small extent on radiation energy. Additionally, the detection volume of the detector has to be sufficiently small for the necessary spatial resolution to be obtained. The liquid ionization chamber as described in seems to be a promising means for this type of measurements. The two components of the ionization liquid (TMS and isooctane) can be mixed in a ratio which ensures that the mass-energy absorption coefficient of the resulting mixture deviates from that of water by less than ±15 % down to photon energies of 10 keV. Due to the high density of the ionization medium, the spacing between the two electrodes of the ionization chamber can be made as small as a few tenths of a millimeter and still the resulting ionization current is sufficiently large. The ionization chamber used in the present investigation is a plane parallel chamber 5 mm in diameter and of 0.3 mm electrode spacing. The ionization medium is a mixture of 40 % TMS and 60 % isooctane. The irradiations were carried out with the ISO wide spectra series with tube voltages between 10 kV and 300 kV and with 137 Cs and 60 Co γ-radiation. As a first step, the response of the liquid ionization chamber was investigated with respect to air kerma instead of absorbed dose to water. Although the mass-energy absorption coefficient of the liquid deviates from that of air by less than ±10 % over the photon energy range, the measured chamber response varies by a factor of about 3.5. Monte Carlo calculations carried out with EGSnrc show a variation of the chamber response smaller than ±20 %. Measurements of the ion yield of the

  10. An Assessment of Energy and Environmental Issues Related to the Use of Gas-to-Liquid Fuels in Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO2 emissions produced during the conversion process.

  11. An assessment of energy and environmental issues related to the use of gas-to-liquid fuels in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the conversion process.

  12. An assessment of energy and environmental issues related to the use of gas-to-liquid fuels in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO 2 emissions produced during the conversion process

  13. Operations of the LR56 radioactive liquid cask transport system at U.S. Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.S.; Hornstra, D.J.; Sazawal, V.K.; Clement, G.

    1996-01-01

    The LR56 cask system is licensed for use in France under Certificate of Compliance F/309/B(U)F for transport of 4,000-liter volumes of radioactive liquids. Three LR56 cask systems (with modifications for use at Department of Energy (DOE) sites) have been purchased for delivery at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The LR56 cask systems will be used for on-site transfers of Type B quantities of radioactive liquid waste. The ORNL unit will also be used as a Type A packaging for transfers of radioactive liquids between DOE sites. This paper discusses LR56 operating features and the use of the cask system at the three DOE sites

  14. Ionic Liquid (1-Butyl-3-Metylimidazolium Methane Sulphonate Corrosion and Energy Analysis for High Pressure CO2 Absorption Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeel Ahmad Taimoor

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the possible use of ionic liquids as a solvent in a commercial high-pressure CO2 removal process, to gain environmental and energy benefits. There are two main constraints in realizing this: ionic liquids can be corrosive, specifically when mixed with a water/amine solution with dissolved O2 & CO2; and CO2 absorption within this process is not very well understood. Therefore, scavenging CO2 to ppm levels from process gas comes with several risks. We used 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoium methane sulphonate [bmim][MS] as an ionic liquid because of its high corrosiveness (due to its acidic nature to estimate the ranges of expected corrosion in the process. TAFEL technique was used to determine these rates. Further, the process was simulated based on the conventional absorption–desorption process using ASPEN HYSYS v 8.6. After preliminary model validation with the amine solution, [bmim][MS] was modeled based on the properties found in the literature. The energy comparison was then provided and the optimum ratio of the ionic liquid/amine solution was calculated.

  15. YIELDS OF IONS AND EXCITED STATES IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS EXPOSED TO X-RAYS OF 1 TO 30 KEV ENERGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOLROYD, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    When x-rays from a synchrotron source are absorbed in a liquid, the x-ray energy (E x ) is converted by the photoelectric effect into the kinetic energy of the electrons released. For hydrocarbons, absorption by the K-electrons of carbon dominates. Thus the energy of the photoelectron (E pe ) is E x -E b , where E b is the K-shell binding energy of carbon. Additional electrons with energy equal to E b is released in the Auger process that fills the hole in the K-shell. These energetic electrons will produce many ionizations, excitations and products. The consequences of the high density of ionizations and excitations along the track of the photoelectron and special effects near the K-edge are examined here

  16. Gibbs free energy difference between the undercooled liquid and the beta phase of a Ti-Cr alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.; Holzer, J. C.; Johnson, W. L.

    1992-01-01

    The heat of fusion and the specific heats of the solid and liquid have been experimentally determined for a Ti60Cr40 alloy. The data are used to evaluate the Gibbs free energy difference, delta-G, between the liquid and the beta phase as a function of temperature to verify a reported spontaneous vitrification (SV) of the beta phase in Ti-Cr alloys. The results show that SV of an undistorted beta phase in the Ti60Cr40 alloy at 873 K is not feasible because delta-G is positive at the temperature. However, delta-G may become negative with additional excess free energy to the beta phase in the form of defects.

  17. The Enhanced Intramolecular Energy Transfer and Strengthened ff Luminescence of a Stable Helical Eu Complex in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Hasegawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The luminescence of a Eu complex (EuL is enhanced by stabilization of the coordination structure in highly viscous ionic liquids. The EuL was found to maintain a stable single helical structure both in organic solvents and in the ionic liquids [BMIM][PF6] and [EMIM][PF6]. A colorless solution of EuL dissolved in [BMIM][PF6] exhibits bright red luminescence with a quantum yield of 32.3%, a value that is much higher than that in acetonitrile (12%. Estimated rate constants for the energy relaxation pathway indicate that the energy transfer efficiency is enhanced in [BMIM][PF6] as a result of the suppression of molecular fluctuations in the ligands. Additionally, a highly luminescent helical structure is preserved in [EMIM][PF6] up to 120 °C.

  18. Coal/Biomass-to-Liquids Demonstration Testing for DLA Energy: Report on Project Tests, Evaluations, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Report January 2010-August 2015 Coal/ Biomass -to-Liquids Demonstration Testing for DLA Energy Report on Project Tests, Evaluations, and...produced commercially from coal and biomass mixtures while meeting the requirements of Section 526, which requires that GHG emissions from...gasification equipment, coals, and biomass used, and reports and analyzes the test results. Additionally, the team worked with DOE NETL to conduct

  19. Global low-energy weak solution and large-time behavior for the compressible flow of liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guochun; Tan, Zhong

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we consider the weak solution of the simplified Ericksen-Leslie system modeling compressible nematic liquid crystal flows in R3. When the initial data are of small energy and initial density is positive and essentially bounded, we prove the existence of a global weak solution in R3. The large-time behavior of a global weak solution is also established.

  20. Generalized linear solvation energy model applied to solute partition coefficients in ionic liquid-supercritical carbon dioxide systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Planeta, Josef; Karásek, Pavel; Hohnová, Barbora; Šťavíková, Lenka; Roth, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1250, SI (2012), s. 54-62 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522; GA ČR(CZ) GPP503/11/P523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : ionic liquid * supercritical carbon dioxide * solvation energy model Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 4.612, year: 2012

  1. Threat detection of liquid explosives and precursors from their x-ray scattering pattern using energy dispersive detector technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehres, Jan; Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Lyksborg, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) can be applied for identification of liquid threats in luggage scanning in security applications. To define the instrumental design, the framework for data reduction and analysis and test the performance of the threat detection in various scenarios....... Initial testing of the threat detection algorithms with this data set indicate the feasibility of detection levels of > 95 % true positive with

  2. Study of dielectric liquids at room temperature for high energy x ray Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepert, S.

    1989-09-01

    The detection of X rays by means of a dielectric liquid detector system, at room temperature, is discussed. The physico-chemical properties of a dielectric liquid, the construction of a cleaning device and of two electrode configurations, and the utilization of different amplifier models are studied. The results allowed the analysis and characterization of the behavior of the dielectric liquid under X ray irradiation. Data obtained is confirmed by computerized simulation. The choice of Tetramethyl-germanium for the X ray tomography, applied in nondestructive analysis, is explained. The investigation of the system parameters allowed the setting of the basis of a prototype project for a multi-detector [fr

  3. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Delgass, W. N. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Ribeiro, F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-08-31

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H2Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H2) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H2 is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H2Bioilprocess for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on

  4. Results of low energy background measurements with the Liquid Scintillation Detector (LSD) of the Mont Blanc Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglietta, M.; Badino, G.; Bologna, G. F.; Castagnoli, C.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G. C.; Vernetto, S.; Dadykin, V. L.

    1985-01-01

    The 90 tons liquid scintillation detector (LSD) is fully running since October 1984, at a depth of 5,200 hg/sq cm of standard rock underground. The main goal is to search for neutrino bursts from collapsing stars. The experiment is very sensitive to detect low energy particles and has a very good signature to gamma-rays from (n,p) reaction which follows the upsilon e + p yields n + e sup + neutrino capture. The analysis of data is presented and the preliminary results on low energy measurements are discussed.

  5. Results of low energy background measurements with the liquid scintillation detector (LSD) of the Mont Blanc Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglietta, M.; Badino, G.; Bologna, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    The 90 tons liquid scintillation detector (LSD) has been fully running since October 1984 at a depth of 5,200 hg/sq cm of standard rock underground. The main goal is to search for neutrino bursts from collapsing stars. The experiment is very sensitive to detect low energy particles and has a very good signature to gamma rays from (n,p) reactions which follows the upsilon e + p yields n + e sup + neutrino capture. The analysis of data is presented and the preliminary results on low energy measurements are discussed. 1 ref

  6. Extracting energy and structure properties of glass-forming liquids from structural relaxation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianwen

    2012-04-18

    A comprehensive examination of the kinetic liquid model (Wang et al 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 455104) is carried out by fitting the structural relaxation time of 26 different glass-forming liquids in a wide temperature range, including most of the well-studied materials. Careful analysis of the compiled reported data reveals that experimental inaccuracies should not be overlooked in any 'benchmark test' of relating theories or models (e.g. in Lunkenheimer et al 2010 Phys. Rev. E 81 051504). The procedure, accuracy, ability, and efficiency of the kinetic liquid model are discussed in detail and in comparison with other available fitting methods. In general, the kinetic liquid model could be verified by 17 of the 26 compiled data sets and can serve as a meaningful approximative method for analyzing these liquids. Nonetheless, further experimental examinations in a wide temperature range are needed and are called for. Through fitting, the microscopic details of these liquids are extracted, namely, the enthalpy, entropy, and cooperativity in structural relaxation, which may facilitate further quantitative analysis to both the liquidus and glassy states of these materials.

  7. Liquid-gas phase transition and isospin fractionation in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Yongzhong; Liu Jianye; Guo Wenjun

    2004-01-01

    The liquid-gas phase transition in the heavy ion collisions and nuclear matter has been an important topic and got achievements, such as, based on the studies by H.Q. Song et al the critical temperature of liquid-gas phase transition enhances with increasing the mass of system and reduces as the increase of the neutron proton ratio of system. As authors know that both the liquid-gas phase transition and the isospin fractionation occur in the spinodal instability region at the nuclear density below the normal nuclear density. In particular, these two dynamical processes lead to the separation of nuclear matter into the liquid phase and gas phase. In this case to compare their dynamical behaviors is interested. The authors investigate the dependence of isospin fractionation degree on the mass and neutron proton ratio of system by using the isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. The authors found that the degree of isospin fractionation (N/Z) n /(N/Z) imf decreases with increasing the mass of the system. This is just similar to the enhance of the critical temperature of liquid-gas phase transition T c as the increase of system mass. Because the enhance of T c is not favorable for the liquid-gas transition taking place, which reduces the isospin fractionation process and leads to decrease of (N/Z) n /(N/Z) imf . However the degree of isospin fractionation enhances with increasing the neutron proton ratio of the system. It is just corresponding to the reduce of T c of the liquid-gas phase transition as the increase of the isospin fractionation of the system. Because the reduce of T c enhances the liquid-gas phase transition process and also prompts the isospin fractionation process leading the increase of the isospin fractionation degree. To sum up, there are very similar dynamical behaviors for the degree of isospin fractionation and the critical temperature of the liquid-gas phase transition. So dynamical properties of the liquid-gas phase transition can

  8. Learning about the energy density of liquid and semi-solid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Stafleu, A.; Mars, M.; Graaf, de C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People learn about a food's satiating capacity by exposure and consequently adjust their energy intake. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of energy density and texture on subsequent energy intake adjustments during repeated consumption. DESIGN: In a randomized crossover design,

  9. Beamline electrostatic levitator for in situ high energy x-ray diffraction studies of levitated solids and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, A.K.; Lee, G.W.; Kelto, K.F.; Rogers, J.R.; Goldman, A.I.; Robinson, D.S.; Rathz, T.J.; Hyers, R.W. (WU); (UAB); (NASA); (UMASS, Amherst)

    2010-07-19

    Determinations of the phase formation sequence, crystal structures and the thermo-physical properties of materials at high temperatures are hampered by contamination from the sample container and environment. Containerless processing techniques, such as electrostatic (ESL), electromagnetic, aerodynamic, and acoustic levitation, are most suitable for these studies. An adaptation of ESL for in situ structural studies of a wide range of materials using high energy (30-130 keV) x rays at a synchrotron source is described here. This beamline ESL (BESL) allows the in situ determination of the atomic structures of equilibrium solid and liquid phases, undercooled liquids and time-resolved studies of solid-solid and liquid-solid phase transformations. The use of area detectors enables the rapid acquisition of complete diffraction patterns over a wide range (0.5-14 {angstrom}{sup -1}) of reciprocal space. The wide temperature range (300-2500 K), containerless processing environment under high vacuum (10{sup -7}-10{sup -8} Torr), and fast data acquisition capability, make BESL particularly well suited for phase stability studies of high temperature solids and liquids. An additional, but important, feature of BESL is the capability for simultaneous measurements of a host of thermo-physical properties including the specific heat, enthalpy of transformation, solidus and liquidus temperatures, density, viscosity, and surface tension, all on the same sample during the structural measurements.

  10. Effect of strontium on liquid structure of Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys using high-energy X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srirangam, P.; Kramer, M.J.; Shankar, S.

    2011-01-01

    High-energy X-ray diffraction experiments were performed using a synchrotron beam source to investigate the effect of strontium on the liquid atomic structure of Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys. The high-temperature liquid diffraction experiments were carried out on Al alloys with 3, 7, 10 and 12.5 (eutectic) wt.% Si, respectively, with 0 and 0.04 wt.% addition of Sr to each of the alloys. Further, the diffraction data for all the alloys were obtained at various melt temperatures (5-220 K) above the respective liquidus temperature. It was observed that the addition of 0.04 wt.% Sr results in significant change in the liquid structure parameters, such as structure factor, pair distribution function, radial distribution function, coordination number and packing density, at any given melt temperature of the alloy. Salient observations were that, for any specific alloy and temperature, addition of Sr significantly decreases coordination number and packing density. Further, with the addition of Sr in the liquid alloy, the atomic coordination number and packing density increases with decreasing temperature and decreasing Si content of the alloy. The results coupled with prior knowledge have enabled an in-depth understanding of the nucleation environment of the solidifying phases, specifically the role of Sr in delaying the clustering tendencies (nucleation) of the eutectic Si phase.

  11. Spreading law of non-Newtonian power-law liquids on a spherical substrate by an energy-balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Masao

    2017-07-01

    The spreading of a cap-shaped spherical droplet of non-Newtonian power-law liquids, both shear-thickening and shear-thinning liquids, that completely wet a spherical substrate is theoretically investigated in the capillary-controlled spreading regime. The crater-shaped droplet model with the wedge-shaped meniscus near the three-phase contact line is used to calculate the viscous dissipation near the contact line. Then the energy balance approach is adopted to derive the equation that governs the evolution of the contact line. The time evolution of the dynamic contact angle θ of a droplet obeys a power law θ∼t^{-α} with the spreading exponent α, which is different from Tanner's law for Newtonian liquids and those for non-Newtonian liquids on a flat substrate. Furthermore, the line-tension dominated spreading, which could be realized on a spherical substrate for late-stage of spreading when the contact angle becomes low and the curvature of the contact line becomes large, is also investigated.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel energy-efficient refrigeration system subcooled by liquid desiccant dehumidification and evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She, Xiaohui; Yin, Yonggao; Zhang, Xiaosong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An energy-efficient refrigeration system with a novel subcooling method is proposed. • Thermodynamic analysis is conducted to discuss the effects of operation parameters. • Two different utilization ways of condensation heat are compared. • The system achieves much higher COP, even higher than reverse Carnot cycle. • Suggested mass concentration for LiCl–H 2 O is around 32% at a typical case. - Abstract: A new energy-efficient refrigeration system subcooled by liquid desiccant dehumidification and evaporation was proposed in this paper. In the system, liquid desiccant system could produce very dry air for an indirect evaporative cooler, which would subcool the vapor compression refrigeration system to get higher COP than conventional refrigeration system. The desiccant cooling system can use the condensation heat for the desiccant regeneration. Thermodynamic analysis is made to discuss the effects of operation parameters (condensing temperature, liquid desiccant concentration, ambient air temperature and relative humidity) on the system performance. Results show that the proposed hybrid vapor compression refrigeration system achieves significantly higher COP than conventional vapor compression refrigeration system, and even higher than the reverse Carnot cycle at the same operation conditions. The maximum COPs of the hybrid systems using hot air and ambient air are 18.8% and 16.3% higher than that of the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system under varied conditions, respectively

  13. Energy performance of solar-assisted liquid desiccant air-conditioning system for commercial building in main climate zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Ronghui; Lu, Lin; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of solar liquid desiccant AC system in four climate regions was conducted. • System performance was determined by relationship of sensible and latent cooling load. • For humid area, saving amount is large by handling latent load with solar energy. • For dry area, electricity saving rate is considerable due to the high COP of chillers. • For buildings with mild SHR, the system performance was not as good as others. - Abstract: Liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) system, which consists of a liquid desiccant ventilation system for dehumidification and an air-handling unit for cooling, has become a promising alternative for conventional technology. To evaluate its feasibility and applicability, the simulation of solar-assisted LDAC (SLDAC) in commercial buildings in five cities of four main climate regions were conducted, including Singapore in Tropical, Houston and Beijing in Temperate, Boulder in Arid and Los Angeles in Mediterranean. Results showed that the system’s performance was seriously affected by the ratios of building’s sensible and latent cooling load. For buildings located in humid areas with low sensible-total heat ratio (SHR), the electricity energy reduction of SLDAC was high, about 450 MW h in Houston and Singapore, which accounted for 40% of the total energy consumption in cooling seasons. The cost payback period was as short as approximately 7 years. The main reason is that the energy required for handling the moisture could be saved by liquid desiccant dehumidification, and the regeneration heat could be covered by solar collectors. For buildings in dry climate with high SHR, the total cooling load was low, but up to 45% electricity of AC system could be saved in Boulder because the chiller COP could be significantly improved during more than 70% operation time. The cost payback period was around 22 years, which was acceptable. However, for the buildings with mild SHR, such as those in Beijing and Los

  14. Auto Carrier Transporter Loading and Unloading Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Brian

    2003-01-01

    .... Any reduction in time and energy will result in a significant savings of money. The intent of this research is to develop an algorithm to solve the Auto Carrier Transport Pickup and Delivery Problem...

  15. The fluorescence action spectra of some saturated hydrocarbon liquids for excitation energies above and below their ionization thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostafin, A.E.; Lipsky, S.

    1993-01-01

    Fluorescence action spectra have been obtained for the neat liquids, cis-decalin, trans-decalin, bicyclohexyl, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, isobutylcyclohexane, 2,3,4-trimethylpentane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, 3-methylhexane, 3-methylpentane, n-decane, n-dodecane, and n-pentadecane at excitation energies, ε, ranging from their absorption onsets (at ca. 7 eV) to 10.3 eV. For all compounds, with the exception of cis-decalin, the fluorescence quantum yield is observed to monotonically decline with increasing ε, reaching a minimum value at an energy, ε m (a few tenths of an eV above the liquid phase ionization threshold, ε l ) followed by a slow increase. In the case of cis-decalin, the fluorescence quantum yield remains constant over the entire range of excitation energies studied, permitting its use as a quantum counter replacing the standard sodium salicylate, at least over a spectral range from 185 to 120 nm. The recovery of the fluorescence quantum yield for ε>ε m is attributed to an increasing probability for electron ejection followed by e - +RH + geminate recombination, to produce an excited state of RH with energy less than ε l . From a simple analysis of the action spectrum, a lower bound estimate of the electron ejection probability, φ ± , is obtained as a function of ε. In the case of cyclohexane, where φ ± has been obtained by other techniques at ε congruent 10 eV, the lower bound estimate agrees with the experimental value. From this agreement, arguments are presented to make plausible the conjecture that in all these liquids, the initially produced e - +RH + geminate ion pair first rapidly internally converts to an ion-pair state ca

  16. Measurement of the energy spectrum with proportional counters with spherical cathodes between 20 keV and 2.5 MeV with the propagation of 14 MeV neutrons in liquid nitrogen and liquid air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider-Kuehnle, P.

    1974-01-01

    This work deals with the measurement of the energy spectrum of a 14 MeV neutron source in liquid nitrogen and liquid air in the energy region of 20 keV to 2.5 MeV as a function of the distance from the source. The measured results together with those of a scintispectrometer which measures the energies between 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV, are to serve as experimentally-supported input data for shielding calculations and are to enable the checking of transport theoretical calculations. (orig./LH) [de

  17. Low-energy excitations in a low-viscous glass-forming liquid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Polarized and depolarized low frequency Raman spectra of a liquid mixture, viz. 0·15LiCl–0·85H2O, has been analysed in detail in order to elucidate the temperature and polarization characteristics of quasi-elastic line and Boson peak. The employed fitting procedure shows more convincingly that the Boson peak ...

  18. An energy landscape model for glass-forming liquids in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Hecksher, Tina; Dyre, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    different densities at several temperatures. At high densities and low temperatures the model captures the important characteristics of viscous liquid dynamics. We thus observe non-exponential relaxation in the self part of the density auto-correlation function, and fragility plots of the self...

  19. First observation of low energy electron neutrinos in a liquid argon time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; Asaadi, J.; Baller, B.; Bolton, T.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; Church, E.; Edmunds, D.; Ereditato, A.; Farooq, S.; Fitzpatrick, R. S.; Fleming, B.; Hackenburg, A.; Horton-Smith, G.; James, C.; Lang, K.; Luo, X.; Mehdiyev, R.; Page, B.; Palamara, O.; Rebel, B.; Schukraft, A.; Scanavini, G.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Szelc, A. M.; Weber, M.; Yang, T.; Zeller, G. P.

    2017-04-06

    Liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) produce remarkable fidelity in the observation of neutrino interactions. The superior capabilities of such detectors to reconstruct the spatial and calorimetric information of neutrino events have made them the detectors of choice in a number of experiments, specifically those looking to observe electron neutrino ($\

  20. Extremely correlated Fermi liquid theory of the t-J model in 2 dimensions: low energy properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, B. Sriram; Mai, Peizhi

    2018-01-01

    Low energy properties of the metallic state of the two-dimensional t-J model are presented for second neighbor hopping with hole-doping (t\\prime ≤slant 0) and electron-doping (t\\prime > 0), with various superexchange energy J. We use a closed set of equations for the Greens functions obtained from the extremely correlated Fermi liquid theory. These equations reproduce the known low energies features of the large U Hubbard model in infinite dimensions. The density and temperature dependent quasiparticle weight, decay rate and the peak spectral heights over the Brillouin zone are calculated. We also calculate the resistivity, Hall conductivity, Hall number and cotangent Hall angle. The spectral features display high thermal sensitivity at modest T for density n≳ 0.8, implying a suppression of the effective Fermi-liquid temperature by two orders of magnitude relative to the bare bandwidth. The cotangent Hall angle exhibits a T 2 behavior at low T, followed by an interesting kink at higher T. The Hall number exhibits strong renormalization due to correlations. Flipping the sign of t\\prime changes the curvature of the resistivity versus T curves between convex and concave. Our results provide a natural route for understanding the observed difference in the temperature dependent resistivity of strongly correlated electron-doped and hole-doped matter.

  1. High-energy green supercapacitor driven by ionic liquid electrolytes as an ultra-high stable next-generation energy storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Ranjith; Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Ponraj, Rubha; Thangavel, Vigneysh; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Yun-Sung

    2018-04-01

    Development of supercapacitors with high energy density and long cycle life using sustainable materials for next-generation applications is of paramount importance. The ongoing challenge is to elevate the energy density of supercapacitors on par with batteries, while upholding the power and cyclability. In addition, attaining such superior performance with green and sustainable bio-mass derived compounds is very crucial to address the rising environmental concerns. Herein, we demonstrate the use of watermelon rind, a bio-waste from watermelons, towards high energy, and ultra-stable high temperature green supercapacitors with a high-voltage ionic liquid electrolyte. Supercapacitors assembled with ultra-high surface area, hierarchically porous carbon exhibits a remarkable performance both at room temperature and at high temperature (60 °C) with maximum energy densities of ∼174 Wh kg-1 (25 °C), and 177 Wh kg-1 (60 °C) - based on active mass of both electrodes. Furthermore, an ultra-high specific power of ∼20 kW kg-1 along with an ultra-stable cycling performance with 90% retention over 150,000 cycles has been achieved even at 60 °C, outperforming supercapacitors assembled with other carbon based materials. These results demonstrate the potential to develop high-performing, green energy storage devices using eco-friendly materials for next generation electric vehicles and other advanced energy storage systems.

  2. Study of Thermally Responsive Ionic Liquids for Novel Water Desalination and Energy Conversion Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Yujiang

    2018-01-01

    The rapidly expanding of the global population in the 21st-century forces people facing two serious problems: water scarcity and energy shortage. Enormous continuous studies focus on providing enough fresh water and energy in a sustainable way

  3. Learning about the energy density of liquid and semi-solid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Stafleu, A.; Mars, M.; Graaf C. de

    2012-01-01

    Background:People learn about a food's satiating capacity by exposure and consequently adjust their energy intake.Objective:To investigate the effect of energy density and texture on subsequent energy intake adjustments during repeated consumption.Design:In a randomized crossover design,

  4. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  5. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata-García, D.; Llauradó, M.; Rauret, G.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO 3 , produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: ► We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. ► The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. ► We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. ► HNO 3 produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. ► The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  6. State-of-the-art of liquid waste disposal for geothermal energy systems: 1979. Report PNL-2404

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defferding, L.J.

    1980-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of geothermal liquid waste disposal is reviewed and surface and subsurface disposal methods are evaluated with respect to technical, economic, legal, and environmental factors. Three disposal techniques are currently in use at numerous geothermal sites around the world: direct discharge into surface waters; deep-well injection; and ponding for evaporation. The review shows that effluents are directly discharged into surface waters at Wairakei, New Zealand; Larderello, Italy; and Ahuachapan, El Salvador. Ponding for evaporation is employed at Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Deep-well injection is being practiced at Larderello; Ahuachapan; Otake and Hatchobaru, Japan; and at The Geysers in California. All sites except Ahuachapan (which is injecting only 30% of total plant flow) have reported difficulties with their systems. Disposal techniques used in related industries are also reviewed. The oil industry's efforts at disposal of large quantities of liquid effluents have been quite successful as long as the effluents have been treated prior to injection. This study has determined that seven liquid disposal methods - four surface and three subsurface - are viable options for use in the geothermal energy industry. However, additional research and development is needed to reduce the uncertainties and to minimize the adverse environmental impacts of disposal. (MHR)

  7. Nonisothermal nematic liquid crystal flows with the Ball-Majumdar free energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Schimperna, G.; Rocca, E.; Zarnescu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 194, č. 5 (2015), s. 1269-1299 ISSN 0373-3114 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : nematic liquid crystal * Ball-Majumdar free theory * nonisothermal model * existence theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.861, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10231-014-0419-1

  8. Charge-carrier mobilities in disordered semiconducting polymers: effects of carrier density and electric field [refereed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisel, K.D.; Pasveer, W.F.; Cottaar, J.; Tanase, C.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P.A.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, de D.M.; Michels, M.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    We model charge transport in disordered semiconducting polymers by hopping of charge carriers on a square lattice of sites with Gaussian on-site energy disorder, using Fermi-Dirac statistics. From numerically exact solns. of the Master equation, we study the dependence of the charge-carrier mobility

  9. Charge-carrier mobilities in disordered semiconducting polymers : effects of carrier density and electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisel, K.D.; Pasveer, W.F.; Cottaar, J.; Tanase, C.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P.A.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de; Michels, M.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    We model charge transport in disordered semiconducting polymers by hopping of charge carriers on a square lattice of sites with Gaussian on-site energy disorder, using Fermi-Dirac statistics. From numerically exact solutions of the Master equation, we study the dependence of the charge-carrier

  10. Low-cost viscometer based on energy dissipation in viscous liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, C.; Cristobal, G.; Nicolas, A.; Panizza, P.; Rouch, J.; Ushiki, H.

    2001-04-01

    We describe a new type of low-cost easy-to-use viscometer based on the temperature elevation in a liquid under shear flow. After calibration, this instrument can be used to measure the apparent steady state viscosity for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids with no yield stress. We compute the rise in temperature due to viscous dissipation in a Couette cell and compare it to experimental results for different fluids. We show that the variation of the temperature with shear rate can be used to characterize the rheological behaviour of viscous fluids and to evaluate their viscosity in a large domain, from typically a few cP up to more than 10 P, with an accuracy of about ±5%. In contrast to simple viscometers, non-Newtonian fluids can be studied with this apparatus. We give experimental results for Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids and show that they are very similar to those given in the literature by using much more sophisticated instruments.

  11. Towards High-Frequency Shape Memory Alloy Actuators Incorporating Liquid Metal Energy Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Darren; Mingear, Jacob; Bielefeldt, Brent; Rohmer, John; Zamarripa, Jessica; Elwany, Alaa

    2017-12-01

    Large shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators are currently limited to applications with low cyclic actuation frequency requirements due to their generally poor heat transfer rates. This limitation can be overcome through the use of distributed body heating methods such as induction heating or by accelerated cooling methods such as forced convection in internal cooling channels. In this work, a monolithic SMA beam actuator containing liquid gallium-indium alloy-filled channels is fabricated through additive manufacturing. These liquid metal channels enable a novel multi-physical thermal control system, allowing for increased heating and cooling rates to facilitate an increased cyclic actuation frequency. Liquid metal flowing in the channels performs the dual tasks of inductively heating the surrounding SMA material and then actively cooling the SMA via forced internal fluid convection. A coupled thermoelectric model, implemented in COMSOL, predicts a possible fivefold increase in the cyclic actuation frequency due to these increased thermal transfer rates when compared to conventional SMA forms having external heating coils and being externally cooled via forced convection. The first ever experimental prototype SMA actuator of this type is described and, even at much lower flow rates, is shown to exhibit a decrease in cooling time of 40.9%.

  12. Energy deposition in liquid metals for D-T, D-D and T-T fusion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.M.H.; Zahakaylo, D.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear performance of candidate liquid metals: lithium, lead, sodium, potassiu, Na(22%) K(78%), Na(56%) K(44%), is estimated with respect to their neutron and gamma-ray heat deposition rates. Three different neutron sources are considered: DT, DD and TT fusion neutrons. This is intended for the cooling of inertial confinement cavities using fusion pellets with internal tritrium breeding that will possibly eliminate the need to breed tritium in a lithium blanket. Compared to lithium with respect to neutron and gamma energy generation, blanket multiplication and pumping power, it appears that the considered metals can be used only if the environmental and safety advantages from the reduction of the tritium inventory and the avoidance of lithium, outweight the lithium advantages in higher energy production and lower pumping requirement by one to two orders of magnitude. (orig.) [de

  13. Supporting the national energy needs for the early 21st century with the advanced liquid metal reactor system (ALMRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchins, B.A.; Quinn, J.E.; Thompson, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a cost effective approach to providing a major contribution to the electricity needs of the United States in the early 21st century through an integrated Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor System (ALMRS). This system has several synergistic components which are under development by the United States Department of Energy (DOE): the modular, passively safe ALMR reactor design; metal fuel recycle (aka IFR); and the processing of LWR spent fuel to use as startup fuel for the ALMR. Each of these components contributes to an overall system behavior that will be able to provide an important portion of the United States' electrical energy needs beginning about the year 2010, while at the same time translating some fuel wastes of the LWR spent fuel to an asset. This paper describes each of these components and their synergism. Economic projections and busbar costs for this system are also presented

  14. Incorporating Multiple Energy Relay Dyes in Liquid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho

    2011-01-05

    Panchromatic response is essential to increase the light-harvesting efficiency in solar conversion systems. Herein we show increased light harvesting from using multiple energy relay dyes inside dye-sensitized solar cells. Additional photoresponse from 400-590 nm matching the optical window of the zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer was observed due to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the two energy relay dyes to the sensitizing dye. The complementary absorption spectra of the energy relay dyes and high excitation transfer efficiencies result in a 35% increase in photovoltaic performance. © 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA.

  15. Vacancy formation energies in close-packed crystals correlated with melting temperature via thermodynamics and liquid structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, R.I.M.A.; March, N.H.

    1988-08-01

    In earlier work, the vacancy formation energy E v in close-packed crystals, in units of the thermal energy k B T m at the melting temperature T m , has been connected with compressibility and specific heats, plus terms dependent on the liquid structure at T m . Here, this connection has been examined quantitatively for (a) the insulating condensed rare gases Ne, Ar and Kr, and (b) a variety of close-packed metals. For case (a), E v /k B T m can be calculated directly from thermodynamic data to obtain agreement with experiment for Ar and Kr, though not for Ne. A 'residual' contribution is estimated for Ar and Kr from diffraction and computer experiments on the density dependence of the liquid pair correlation function and is shown to be very small. Agreement is less impressive for case (b) for the eight close-packed metals for which all data required is known, the thermodynamic formula giving an average value E v /k B T m =7.8+-1.1 whereas experiment yields 9.4+-1.8. However, for the body-centred cubic alkalis the thermodynamic average value of 4.5+-0.5 is much lower than the experimental value 11.5+-2.0 consistent with the known role of ionic relaxation round the vacancy in such open structures. (author). 16 refs, 2 tabs

  16. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) Removal Process, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard, S.; Lu, Yingzhong

    2012-08-10

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale and pilot-scale testing - so that it could be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization. The new process, known as the IROA process, is based on U.S. patent No. 6,553,784, which if commercialized, has the potential of achieving substantial energy savings compared to currently used cryogenic technology. When successfully developed, this technology will benefit the petrochemical industry, which uses NGL as feedstocks, and will also benefit other chemical industries that utilize gas-liquid separation and distillation under similar operating conditions. Specific goals and objectives of the overall program include: (i) collecting relevant physical property and Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for the design and evaluation of the new technology, (ii) solving critical R&D issues including the identification of suitable dehydration and NGL absorbing solvents, inhibiting corrosion, and specifying proper packing structure and materials, (iii) designing, construction and operation of bench and pilot-scale units to verify design performance, (iv) computer simulation of the process using commercial software simulation platforms such as Aspen-Plus and HYSYS, and (v) preparation of a commercialization plan and identification of industrial partners that are interested in utilizing the new technology. NGL is a collective term for C2+ hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. Historically, the commercial value of the separated NGL components has been greater than the thermal value of these liquids in the gas. The revenue derived from extracting NGLs is crucial to ensuring the overall profitability of the domestic natural gas production industry and therefore of ensuring a secure and reliable supply in the 48 contiguous states. However, rising natural gas prices have dramatically reduced

  17. Competitive and successive reactions in the position cluster and energy state of positronium in the liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didierjean, F.

    1991-10-01

    By combining two independent positron annihilation techniques, it is shown that, in polar solvents, the halogenated compounds inhibit positronium formation by quasi-free electron scavenging followed by positron capture. This sequence occurs before halide detachment intervenes. Studying mixtures of solutes allows both to confirm the existence of these successive reactions and to stress the influence, towards positronium formation, of the trap depth for the electron captured by nitrates, whether ion associated or not, in methanol. Finally, experiments in the presence of a magnetic field allow to conclude that the formed positronium is very rapidly thermalized, then localised in a potential well in the liquids, the so-called bubble [fr

  18. Systematic screening methodology and energy efficient design of ionic liquid-based separation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulajanpeng, Kusuma; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    in size of the target solute was investigated using the same separation process and IL entrainer to obtain the same product purity. The proposed methodology has been evaluated through a case study of binary alcoholic aqueous azeotropic separation: water+ethanol and water+isopropanol.......A systematic methodology for the screening of ionic liquids (ILs) as entrainers and for the design of ILs-based separation processes in various homogeneous binary azeotropic mixtures has been developed. The methodology focuses on the homogeneous binary aqueous azeotropic systems (for example, water...

  19. Solar energy storage via liquid filled cans - Test data and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, H.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a solar thermal storage test facility with water-filled metal cans as heat storage medium and also presents some preliminary tests results and analysis. This combination of solid and liquid mediums shows unique heat transfer and heat contents characteristics and will be well suited for use with solar air systems for space and hot water heating. The trends of the test results acquired thus far are representative of the test bed characteristics while operating in the various modes.

  20. Carrier concentration effects on radiation damage in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Ando, K.; Uemura, C.

    1984-01-01

    Minority carrier diffusion length and carrier concentration studies have been made on room-temperature 1-MeV electron irradiated liquid-encapsulated Czochralski grown Zn-doped p-InP. The damage rate for the diffusion length and carrier removal rate due to irradiation have been found to strongly decrease with an increase in the carrier concentration in InP. These phenomena suggest that the induced defects interact with impurities in InP. A preliminary study on the annealing behavior has also been performed

  1. Role of the Liquids From Coal process in the world energy picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, J.P.; Knottnerus, B.A. [ENCOAL Corp., Gillette, WY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly owned indirect subsidiary of Zeigler Coal Holding Company, has essentially completed the demonstration phase of a 1,000 Tons per day (TPD) Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) plant near Gillette, Wyoming. The plant has been in operation for 4{1/2} years and has delivered 15 unit trains of Process Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}), the low-sulfur, high-Btu solid product to five major utilities. Recent test burns have indicated the PDF{trademark} can offer the following benefits to utility customers: lower sulfur emissions, lower NO{sub x} emissions, lower utilized fuel costs to power plants, and long term stable fuel supply. More than three million gallons of Coal Derived Liquid (CDL{trademark}) have also been delivered to seven industrial fuel users and one steel mill blast furnace. Additionally, laboratory characteristics of CDL{trademark} and process development efforts have indicated that CDL{trademark} can be readily upgraded into higher value chemical feedstocks and transportation fuels. Commercialization of the LFC{trademark} is also progressing. Permit work for a large scale commercial ENCOAL{reg_sign} plant in Wyoming is now underway and domestic and international commercialization activity is in progress by TEK-KOL, a general partnership between SGI International and a Zeigler subsidiary. This paper covers the historical background of the project, describes the LFC{trademark} process and describes the worldwide outlook for commercialization.

  2. Analysis of energy and materials utilization for packaging liquid basic and luxury foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebersbach, K F

    1981-01-01

    By the help of the product 'packaging' the quantities of the energy and materials used are demonstrated analytically within the single stages of the production and utilization of these goods. Alternatives for a better utilization of energy and materials are to be demonstrated. - A methodology for setting up analyses and alternatives is to be introduced which a) is generally accepted in investigations of this kind and b) permits controlled measures for improving the energy and materials balances. Several considerations made the authors select the packagings for beer and soft drinks as the subjects of the project. The usual packagings for these beverages are dealt with.

  3. Background reduction at low energies with BEGe detector operated in liquid argon using the GERDA-LArGe facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjas, Dusan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    LArGe is a low background test facility used for proving innovative approaches to background reduction in support of the neutrinoless double beta decay experiment Gerda. These approaches include an anti-Compton veto using scintillation light detection from liquid argon, as well as a novel pulse shape discrimination method exploiting the characteristic electrical field distribution inside BEGe detectors. The latter technique can identify single-site events (typical for double beta decays) and efficiently reject multi-site events (typical for backgrounds from gamma-ray interactions), as well as different types of background events from detector surfaces. While the main focus of the LArGe facility is to assist with reaching the goal of Gerda - improving the sensitivity for {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double beta decay search, reducing the background at low energies and lowering the energy threshold is also of interest. In particular such efforts can be potentially relevant for search of dark matter or low energy neutrino interactions. In this talk I present the experimental measurement of the low energy region with a BEGe detector operated in LArGe with the application of powerful background suppression methods. The performance will be compared to that of some dedicated dark matter detection experiments.

  4. Report to the Congress: liquid metal fast breeder reactor program--past, present, and future, Energy Research and Development Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The past, present, and future of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) program, the Nation's highest priority energy program, are studied. ERDA anticipates that the operation of the first large commercial breeder will start in 1987, and that 186 commercial-size breeders will be in operation by the year 2000. The breeder program is made up of six major areas, each dealing with an important element of technology: reactor physics; fuels and materials; fuel recycle; safety; component development; plant experience; and facilities used in the LMFBR program. ERDA is implementing a new system for administering, managing, and controlling the breeder program that will provide increased program visibility and control. Federal funding for breeder development was $168 million in FY 1971, accounting for 40% of the total Federal R and D energy budget; in FY 1976 Federal funding for this program will be $474 million, only 26% of total Federal funding for energy research. Besides Federal funds, over half a billion dollars have been or will be invested by industry over the next 5 to 10 years to develop the breeder and to build a demonstration plant. Five other nations--the United Kingdom, France, Japan, West Germany, and the Soviet Union--have a high priority national energy program for developing the LMFBR. These foreign breeder programs could contribute important data and information to the U.S. program

  5. A combined molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation of the spatial distribution of energy deposition by proton beams in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Molina, Rafael [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion en Optica y Nanofisica (CIOyN), Universidad de Murcia, E-30100 Murcia (Spain); Abril, Isabel [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat d' Alacant, E-03080 Alacant (Spain); Heredia-Avalos, Santiago [Departament de Fisica, Enginyeria de Sistemes i Teoria del Senyal, Universitat d' Alacant, E-03080 Alacant (Spain); Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris, E-mail: rgm@um.es [Medical Physics Laboratory, University of Ioannina Medical School, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2011-10-07

    We have evaluated the spatial distribution of energy deposition by proton beams in liquid water using the simulation code SEICS (Simulation of Energetic Ions and Clusters through Solids), which combines molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo techniques and includes the main interaction phenomena between the projectile and the target constituents: (i) the electronic stopping force due to energy loss to target electronic excitations, including fluctuations due to the energy-loss straggling, (ii) the elastic scattering with the target nuclei, with their corresponding energy loss and (iii) the dynamical changes in projectile charge state due to electronic capture and loss processes. An important feature of SEICS is the accurate account of the excitation spectrum of liquid water, based on a consistent solid-state description of its energy-loss-function over the whole energy and momentum space. We analyse how the above-mentioned interactions affect the depth distribution of the energy delivered in liquid water by proton beams with incident energies of the order of several MeV. Our simulations show that the position of the Bragg peak is determined mainly by the stopping power, whereas its width can be attributed to the energy-loss straggling. Multiple elastic scattering processes contribute slightly only at the distal part of the Bragg peak. The charge state of the projectiles only changes when approaching the end of their trajectories, i.e. near the Bragg peak. We have also simulated the proton-beam energy distribution at several depths in the liquid water target, and found that it is determined mainly by the fluctuation in the energy loss of the projectile, evaluated through the energy-loss straggling. We conclude that a proper description of the target excitation spectrum as well as the inclusion of the energy-loss straggling is essential in the calculation of the proton beam depth-dose distribution.

  6. A combined molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation of the spatial distribution of energy deposition by proton beams in liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel; Heredia-Avalos, Santiago; Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    We have evaluated the spatial distribution of energy deposition by proton beams in liquid water using the simulation code SEICS (Simulation of Energetic Ions and Clusters through Solids), which combines molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo techniques and includes the main interaction phenomena between the projectile and the target constituents: (i) the electronic stopping force due to energy loss to target electronic excitations, including fluctuations due to the energy-loss straggling, (ii) the elastic scattering with the target nuclei, with their corresponding energy loss and (iii) the dynamical changes in projectile charge state due to electronic capture and loss processes. An important feature of SEICS is the accurate account of the excitation spectrum of liquid water, based on a consistent solid-state description of its energy-loss-function over the whole energy and momentum space. We analyse how the above-mentioned interactions affect the depth distribution of the energy delivered in liquid water by proton beams with incident energies of the order of several MeV. Our simulations show that the position of the Bragg peak is determined mainly by the stopping power, whereas its width can be attributed to the energy-loss straggling. Multiple elastic scattering processes contribute slightly only at the distal part of the Bragg peak. The charge state of the projectiles only changes when approaching the end of their trajectories, i.e. near the Bragg peak. We have also simulated the proton-beam energy distribution at several depths in the liquid water target, and found that it is determined mainly by the fluctuation in the energy loss of the projectile, evaluated through the energy-loss straggling. We conclude that a proper description of the target excitation spectrum as well as the inclusion of the energy-loss straggling is essential in the calculation of the proton beam depth-dose distribution.

  7. Calculation of liquid-liquid equilibrium of aqueous two-phase systems using a chemical-theory-based excess Gibbs energy model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessôa Filho P. A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures containing compounds that undergo hydrogen bonding show large deviations from ideal behavior. These deviations can be accounted for through chemical theory, according to which the formation of a hydrogen bond can be treated as a chemical reaction. This chemical equilibrium needs to be taken into account when applying stability criteria and carrying out phase equilibrium calculations. In this work, we illustrate the application of the stability criteria to establish the conditions under which a liquid-phase split may occur and the subsequent calculation of liquid-liquid equilibrium using a chemical-theory-modified Flory-Huggins equation to describe the non ideality of aqueous two-phase systems composed of poly(ethylene glycol and dextran. The model was found to be able to correlate ternary liquid-liquid diagrams reasonably well by simple adjustment of the polymer-polymer binary interaction parameter.

  8. Incorporating Multiple Energy Relay Dyes in Liquid Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yum, Jun-Ho; Hardin, Brian E.; Hoke, Eric T.; Baranoff, Etienne; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K.; Torres, Tomas; McGehee, Michael D.; Grä tzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Panchromatic response is essential to increase the light-harvesting efficiency in solar conversion systems. Herein we show increased light harvesting from using multiple energy relay dyes inside dye-sensitized solar cells. Additional photoresponse

  9. Peptide-Carrier Conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    To produce antibodies against synthetic peptides it is necessary to couple them to a protein carrier. This chapter provides a nonspecialist overview of peptide-carrier conjugation. Furthermore, a protocol for coupling cysteine-containing peptides to bovine serum albumin is outlined....

  10. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  11. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  12. Intermediate strength alloys for high temperature service in liquid-salt cooled energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane Francis; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2017-06-20

    An alloy consists essentially of, in terms of weight percent: 6 to 8.5 Cr, 5.5 to 13.5 Mo, 0.4 to 7.5 W, 1 to 2 Ti, 0.7 to 0.85 Mn, 0.05 to 0.3 Al, up to to 0.1 Co, 0.08 to 0.5 C, 1 to 5 Ta, 1 to 4 Nab, 1 to 3 Hf, balance Ni. The alloy is characterized by, at 850.degree. C., a yield strength of at least 36 Ksi, a tensile strength of at least 40 Ksi, a creep rupture life at 12 Ksi of at least 72.1 hours, and a corrosion rate, expressed in weight loss [g/(cm2sec)].times.10.sup.-11 during a 1000 hour immersion in liquid FLiNaK at 850.degree. C., in the range of 8 to 25.

  13. Thermodynamics of a Fermi liquid beyond the low-energy limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubukov, A.V.; Maslov, D.L.; Gangadharaiah, S.; Glazman, L.I.

    2005-05-01

    We consider the non-analytic temperature dependences of the specific heat coefficient, C(T)/T and spin susceptibility, X s (T), of 2D interacting fermions beyond the weak-coupling limit. We demonstrate within the Luttinger-Ward formalism that the leading temperature dependences of C(T)/T and X s (T) are linear in T, and are described by the Fermi liquid theory. We show that these temperature dependences are universally determined by the states near the Fermi level and, for a generic interaction, are expressed via the spin and charge components of the exact backscattering amplitude of quasi- particles. We compare our theory to recent experiments on monolayers of He 3 . (author)

  14. submitter Metabolomic Profile of Low–Copy Number Carriers at the Salivary α-Amylase Gene Suggests a Metabolic Shift Toward Lipid-Based Energy Production

    CERN Document Server

    Arredouani, Abdelilah; Culeddu, Nicola; Moustafa, Julia El-Sayed; Tichet, Jean; Balkau, Beverley; Brousseau, Thierry; Manca, Marco; Falchi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Low serum salivary amylase levels have been associated with a range of metabolic abnormalities, including obesity and insulin resistance. We recently suggested that a low copy number at the AMY1 gene, associated with lower enzyme levels, also increases susceptibility to obesity. To advance our understanding of the effect of AMY1 copy number variation on metabolism, we compared the metabolomic signatures of high– and low–copy number carriers. We analyzed, using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the sera of healthy normal-weight women carrying either low–AMY1 copies (LAs: four or fewer copies; n = 50) or high–AMY1 copies (HAs: eight or more copies; n = 50). Best-fitting multivariate models (empirical P < 1 × $10^{−3})$ of mass spectrometry and NMR data were concordant in showing differences in lipid metabolism between the two groups. In particular, LA carriers showed lower levels of long- and medium-chain fatty acids, and higher levels of dicarboxylic fatty acids and 2-hydrox...

  15. Highly Adaptive Solid-Liquid Interfacing Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Diverse Water Wave Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Jiao; Kuang, Shuang Yang; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhu, Guang

    2018-05-22

    Harvesting water wave energy presents a significantly practical route to energy supply for self-powered wireless sensing networks. Here we report a networked integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (NI-TENG) as a highly adaptive means of harvesting energy from interfacing interactions with various types of water waves. Having an arrayed networking structure, the NI-TENG can accommodate diverse water wave motions and generate stable electric output regardless of how random the water wave is. Nanoscaled surface morphology consisting of dense nanowire arrays is the key for obtaining high electric output. A NI-TENG having an area of 100 × 70 mm 2 can produce a stable short-circuit current of 13.5 μA and corresponding electric power of 1.03 mW at a water wave height of 12 cm. This merit promises practical applications of the NI-TENG in real circumstances, where water waves are highly variable and unpredictable. After energy storage, the generated electric energy can drive wireless sensing by autonomously transmitting data at a period less than 1 min. This work proposes a viable solution for powering individual standalone nodes in a wireless sensor network. Potential applications include but are not limited to long-term environment monitoring, marine surveillance, and off-shore navigation.

  16. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  17. Range-energy relations and stopping power of water, water vapour and tissue equivalent liquid for α particles over the energy range 0.5 to 8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.J.; Akhavan-Rezayat, Ahmad

    1978-01-01

    Experimental range-energy relations are presented for alpha particles in water, water vapour and tissue equivalent liquid at energies up to 8 MeV. From these relations differential stopping powers are derived at 0.25 MeV energy intervals. Consideration is given to sources of error in the range-energy measurements and to the uncertainties that these will introduce into the stopping power values. The ratio of the differential stopping power of muscle equivalent liquid to that of water over the energy range 0.5 to 7.5 MeV is discussed in relation to the specific gravity and chemical composition of the muscle equivalent liquid. Theoretical molecular stopping power calculations based upon the Bethe formula are also presented for water. The effect of phase upon the stopping power of water is discussed. The molecular stopping power of water vapour is shown to be significantly higher than that of water for energies below 1.25 MeV and above 2.5 MeV, the ratio of the two stopping powers rising to 1.39 at 0.5 MeV and to 1.13 at 7.0 MeV. Stopping power measurements for other liquids and vapours are compared with the results for water and water vapour and some are observed to have stopping power ratios in the vapour and liquid phases which vary with energy in a similar way to water. It is suggested that there may be several factors contributing to the increased stopping power of liquids. The need for further experimental results on a wider range of liquids is stressed

  18. Low energy recycling of ionic liquids via freeze crystallization during cellulose spinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yanrong; Meyer, Anne S.; Nie, Yi

    2018-01-01

    recycling method. EmimAc + 12.5 wt% H2O and EmimDep + 4 wt% H2O were selected for a quantitative mass and energy analysis of the cellulose spinning and IL recycling process (the maximal initial H2O levels in the ILs + H2O mixtures for cellulose dissolution were determined experimentally). The energy......Dep recycling. We also show that compared to a classical Lyocell fiber production method using N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) as solvent, use of ILs is energy saving in itself. Hence, significantly less H2O is required in the cellulose spinning process with ILs than with NMMO, and in turn less H2O has...

  19. Zero point energy leakage in condensed phase dynamics: An assessment of quantum simulation methods for liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habershon, Scott; Manolopoulos, David E.

    2009-12-01

    The approximate quantum mechanical ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and linearized semiclassical initial value representation (LSC-IVR) methods are compared and contrasted in a study of the dynamics of the flexible q-TIP4P/F water model at room temperature. For this water model, a RPMD simulation gives a diffusion coefficient that is only a few percent larger than the classical diffusion coefficient, whereas a LSC-IVR simulation gives a diffusion coefficient that is three times larger. We attribute this discrepancy to the unphysical leakage of initially quantized zero point energy (ZPE) from the intramolecular to the intermolecular modes of the liquid as the LSC-IVR simulation progresses. In spite of this problem, which is avoided by construction in RPMD, the LSC-IVR may still provide a useful approximation to certain short-time dynamical properties which are not so strongly affected by the ZPE leakage. We illustrate this with an application to the liquid water dipole absorption spectrum, for which the RPMD approximation breaks down at frequencies in the O-H stretching region owing to contamination from the internal modes of the ring polymer. The LSC-IVR does not suffer from this difficulty and it appears to provide quite a promising way to calculate condensed phase vibrational spectra.

  20. Zero point energy leakage in condensed phase dynamics: an assessment of quantum simulation methods for liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habershon, Scott; Manolopoulos, David E

    2009-12-28

    The approximate quantum mechanical ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and linearized semiclassical initial value representation (LSC-IVR) methods are compared and contrasted in a study of the dynamics of the flexible q-TIP4P/F water model at room temperature. For this water model, a RPMD simulation gives a diffusion coefficient that is only a few percent larger than the classical diffusion coefficient, whereas a LSC-IVR simulation gives a diffusion coefficient that is three times larger. We attribute this discrepancy to the unphysical leakage of initially quantized zero point energy (ZPE) from the intramolecular to the intermolecular modes of the liquid as the LSC-IVR simulation progresses. In spite of this problem, which is avoided by construction in RPMD, the LSC-IVR may still provide a useful approximation to certain short-time dynamical properties which are not so strongly affected by the ZPE leakage. We illustrate this with an application to the liquid water dipole absorption spectrum, for which the RPMD approximation breaks down at frequencies in the O-H stretching region owing to contamination from the internal modes of the ring polymer. The LSC-IVR does not suffer from this difficulty and it appears to provide quite a promising way to calculate condensed phase vibrational spectra.

  1. Analytic formula of stopping power for high energy electrons in liquid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.; Niculescu, V.I.R.

    1994-01-01

    This article is part of a series on the calculation of high energy electron dose using multiple scattering theory. In the current article we present an analytic formula obtained for the collision stopping power (S/ρ) c and the radiative stopping power (S/ρ) r for electrons with energy within 1 MeV - 35 MeV range. For that purpose we used data given for electrons in water in NBS-IR-2550A. The analytical formulae are approximating the data calculated by Berger and Seltzer within 1-2% limit. (Author)

  2. Liquid ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S

    2014-01-01

    Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported.

  3. Ultrafast carrier thermalization in lead iodide perovskite probed with two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Johannes M; Branchi, Federico; Valduga de Almeida Camargo, Franco; Zhao, Baodan; Friend, Richard H; Cerullo, Giulio; Deschler, Felix

    2017-08-29

    In band-like semiconductors, charge carriers form a thermal energy distribution rapidly after optical excitation. In hybrid perovskites, the cooling of such thermal carrier distributions occurs on timescales of about 300 fs via carrier-phonon scattering. However, the initial build-up of the thermal distribution proved difficult to resolve with pump-probe techniques due to the requirement of high resolution, both in time and pump energy. Here, we use two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with sub-10 fs resolution to directly observe the carrier interactions that lead to a thermal carrier distribution. We find that thermalization occurs dominantly via carrier-carrier scattering under the investigated fluences and report the dependence of carrier scattering rates on excess energy and carrier density. We extract characteristic carrier thermalization times from below 10 to 85 fs. These values allow for mobilities of 500 cm 2  V -1  s -1 at carrier densities lower than 2 × 10 19  cm -3 and limit the time for carrier extraction in hot carrier solar cells.Carrier-carrier scattering rates determine the fundamental limits of carrier transport and electronic coherence. Using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with sub-10 fs resolution, Richter and Branchi et al. extract carrier thermalization times of 10 to 85 fs in hybrid perovskites.

  4. Importance of polaron effects for charge carrier mobility above and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the scattering of polaronic charge carriers and bosonic Cooper pairs at acoustic and optical phonons are responsible for the charge carrier mobility above and below the PG temperature. We show that the energy scales of the binding energies of large polarons and polaronic Cooper pairs can be identified by ...

  5. Calculation of neutron and gamma-ray energy spectra in liquid air and liquid nitrogen due to 14-MeV neutron and californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straker, E.A.; Gritzner, M.L.; Harris, L. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations of neutron and gamma-ray fluences from 14-MeV neutron and 252 Cf sources in liquid air and liquid nitrogen have been performed. These calculations were made specifically for comparison with experimental data measured at Stohl, Federal Republic of Germany. The discrete-ordinates method was utilized with neutron and gamma-ray cross sections from ENDF/B-IV. One-dimensional calculational models were developed for the sources and tank. Limited comparisons are made with experimental data

  6. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass to liquid energy sources; Hydrothermale Konversion von Biomasse zu fluessigen Energietraegern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Michael; Peters, Mario; Klemm, Marco; Nelles, Michael [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Beside thermo-chemical processes like pyrolysis, torrefaction and gasification another process group called hydrothermal conversion of biomass comes into the focus of research and development. Especially for wet biomass this process has several advantages: as the reaction medium is water wet biomass not needs to be dried. Beside the reaction pathways, which are still not completely understood, it is important to investigate reactor concepts. That gives the possibility to continuously process the given biomass to deduce specific process conditions for the production of chemicals and fuels. Experiments were conducted in a newly developed tubular reactor at temperatures from 150 to 270 C and reaction times from 1 to 6 min. By studying the HPLC analysis of the liquid products the formation and degradation of several products which may be utilized as base materials for chemicals and fuels (furfural, 5-HMF etc.) was conducted. The experiments illustrate the possibility to influence product composition to a certain extend only by varying temperature and time of the hydrothermal process. That could result in an economic and feasible way to produce intermediate chemicals from biomass. In a second step these product analysis will be used to develop catalysts and investigate the possibilities of in-situ-hydrogenation and synthesis of further valuable chemicals and fuels. (orig.)

  7. High strength alloys for high temperature service in liquid-salt cooled energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2017-01-10

    An essentially cobalt-free alloy consists essentially of, in terms of weight percent: 6.3 to 7.2 Cr, 0.5 to 2 Al, 0 to 5 Fe, 0.7 to 0.8 Mn, 9 to 12.5 Mo, 0 to 6 Ta, 0.75 to 3.5 Ti, 0.01 to 0.25 Nb, 0.2 to 0.6 W, 0.02 to 0.04 C, 0 to 0.001 B, 0.0001 to 0.002 N, balance Ni. The alloy is characterized by a .gamma.' microstructural component in the range of 3 to 17.6 weight percent of the total composition. The alloy is further characterized by, at 850.degree. C., a yield strength of at least 60 Ksi, a tensile strength of at least 70 Ksi, a creep rupture life at 12 Ksi of at least 700 hours, and a corrosion rate, expressed in weight loss [g/(cm.sup.2sec)]10.sup.-11 during a 1000 hour immersion in liquid FLiNaK at 850.degree. C., in the range of 5.5 to 17.

  8. High strength alloys for high temperature service in liquid-salt cooled energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2017-01-10

    An essentially cobalt-free alloy consists essentially of, in terms of weight percent: 6.3 to 7.2 Cr, 0.5 to 2 Al, 0 to 5 Fe, 0.7 to 0.8 Mn, 9 to 12.5 Mo, 0 to 6 Ta, 0.75 to 3.5 Ti, 0.01 to 0.25 Nb, 0.2 to 0.6 W, 0.02 to 0.04 C, 0 to 0.001 B, 0.0001 to 0.002 N, balance Ni. The alloy is characterized by a .gamma.' microstructural component in the range of 3 to 17.6 weight percent of the total composition. The alloy is further characterized by, at 850.degree. C., a yield strength of at least 60 Ksi, a tensile strength of at least 70 Ksi, a creep rupture life at 12 Ksi of at least 700 hours, and a corrosion rate, expressed in weight loss [g/(cm.sup.2sec)]10.sup.-11 during a 1000 hour immersion in liquid FLiNaK at 850.degree. C., in the range of 5.5 to 17.

  9. Energy spectrum of charge carriers in TlIn{sub 1–x}Yb{sub x}Te{sub 2} solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, F. F., E-mail: farzali@physics.ab.az [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan); Agaeva, U. M.; Zarbaliev, M. M., E-mail: zarbalievmm51@mail.ru [Sumqayit State University (Azerbaijan)

    2016-10-15

    The temperature dependences of the electrical conductivity σ(T), the Hall coefficient R(T), and the thermoelectric coefficient α(T) are investigated in TlIn{sub 1–x}Yb{sub x}Te{sub 2} (0 < x < 0.10) solid solutions at 80–1000K. From the kinetic parameters, the effective masses of electrons and holes are determined. The obtained experimental data on σ(T) and α(T) are interpreted within the context of a model with one and two types of charge carriers. It is established that, since x = 0.05, the TlIn{sub 1–x}Yb{sub x}Te{sub 2} solid solutions belong to the class of narrow-gap semiconductors that have high matrix elements of interaction.

  10. Combination of biological treatment of waste air and liquid effluents in small and medium-sized businesses by using spherical carrier media in exchange with each other. Final report; Kombination der biologischen Behandlung von Abluft- und Abwasserreinigung in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen durch die Verwendung von kugeligen Traegermaterialien im gegenseitigen Austausch. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, P.M.; Brunk, M.; Bentz, P.; Bach, K.; Marcos del Rio, O.; Stahl, B.; Wolf, C.

    2002-05-08

    A combined system for biological treatment of solvent-contaminated liquid and gaseous effluents was to be constructed. The system was to be mobile for demonstration purposes in industrial processes and was to serve for dimensioning of full-scale systems. The system works by a combined process via exchange of spherical carriers with a growth of micro-organisms. Two pilot systems of the Institut fuer Biologische Verfahrenstechnik, one for liquid and one for gaseous effluents, were combined for this purpose, ensuring exchange of carrier materials between the two units. (orig.) [German] Aufgabe im Rahmen dieses F+E-Vorhabens war es gewesen, eine kombinierte biologische Abluft- und Abwasserreinigungsanlage - speziell fuer loesungsmittelhaltige Abluft und Abwaesser - zu untersuchen. Dazu sollte eine Anlage aufgebaut werden, die auch als Demonstrations- und Versuchsanlage zu Industriebetrieben gebracht und dort zur Dimensionierung von full-scale-Anlage eingesetzt werden kann. Idee fuer dieses Vorhaben war gewesen, die Kombination beider Behandlungssysteme ueber den Austausch von mit Mikroorganismen bewachsenem Traegermaterial herzustellen. Am Institut fuer Biologische Verfahrenstechnik existierte bereits eine Pilotanlage fuer die biologische Abwasserreinigung mit kugeligem Traegermaterial (Vario-Bio-Reaktor) und eine Pilotanlage fuer die biologische Behandlung von Abluft nach dem Trickling-Filter-Prinzip mit ebenfalls kugeligem Traegermaterial. Diese beiden Anlagen sollten miteinander kombiniert und der Austausch des Traegermaterials hergestellt werden. (orig.)

  11. Microscopic properties of ionic liquid/organic semiconductor interfaces revealed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yasuyuki; Miyamoto, Hiroo; Imanishi, Akihito; Takeya, Jun; Inagaki, Kouji; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Fukui, Ken-Ichi

    2018-05-09

    Electric double-layer transistors based on ionic liquid/organic semiconductor interfaces have been extensively studied during the past decade because of their high carrier densities at low operation voltages. Microscopic structures and the dynamics of ionic liquids likely determine the device performance; however, knowledge of these is limited by a lack of appropriate experimental tools. In this study, we investigated ionic liquid/organic semiconductor interfaces using molecular dynamics to reveal the microscopic properties of ionic liquids. The organic semiconductors include pentacene, rubrene, fullerene, and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). While ionic liquids close to the substrate always form the specific layered structures, the surface properties of organic semiconductors drastically alter the ionic dynamics. Ionic liquids at the fullerene interface behave as a two-dimensional ionic crystal because of the energy gain derived from the favorable electrostatic interaction on the corrugated periodic substrate.

  12. Developments in organic solid–liquid phase change materials and their applications in thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Ganesan, P.; Tyagi, V.V.; Metselaar, H.S.C.; Sandaran, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of organic phase change materials for thermal energy storage. • Review of the eutectic mixtures of organic PCMs. • Review of the techniques of PCM encapsulations and enhancing the thermal conductivity. • Applications of low and medium temperature organic PCMs are listed in detail. • Recommendations are made for future applications of organic PCMs. - Abstract: Thermal energy storage as sensible or latent heat is an efficient way to conserve the waste heat and excess energy available such as solar radiation. Storage of latent heat using organic phase change materials (PCMs) offers greater energy storage density over a marginal melting and freezing temperature difference in comparison to inorganic materials. These favorable characteristics of organic PCMs make them suitable in a wide range of applications. These materials and their eutectic mixtures have been successfully tested and implemented in many domestic and commercial applications such as, building, electronic devices, refrigeration and air-conditioning, solar air/water heating, textiles, automobiles, food, and space industries. This review focuses on three aspects: the materials, encapsulation and applications of organic PCMs, and provides an insight on the recent developments in applications of these materials. Organic PCMs have inherent characteristic of low thermal conductivity (0.15–0.35 W/m K), hence, a larger surface area is required to enhance the heat transfer rate. Therefore, attention is also given to the thermal conductivity enhancement of the materials, which helps to keep the area of the system to a minimum. Besides, various available techniques for material characterization have also been discussed. It has been found that a wide range of the applications of organic PCMs in buildings and other low and medium temperature solar energy applications are in abundant use but these materials are not yet popular among space applications and virtual data storage media. In

  13. Short-term outlook for natural gas and natural gas liquids to 2006 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, natural gas markets in North America have seen a close balance between supply and demand, resulting in high and volatile natural gas prices. The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This is the NEB's first energy market assessment report that presents a combined short-term analysis and outlook of natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGLs), such as ethane, propane and butane. It provides comprehensive information on the complexity of natural gas and NGL industries and highlights recent developments and topical issues. As a major producer of natural gas, western Canada has a correspondingly large natural gas processing capability that was developed specifically to extract NGLs. A world-scale petrochemical industry was developed in Alberta to convert NGLs into even higher valued products such as ethylene. Since NGLs in Canada are sourced mostly from natural gas, changes to the supply and demand for natural gas would impact NGL supply. This report addressed the issue of commodity prices with reference to crude oil, natural gas and NGL prices. Natural gas supply in terms of North American production and natural gas from coal (NGC) was also reviewed along with natural gas demand for residential and commercial heating, industrial use, power generation, and enhanced recovery for oil sand operations. There are about 692 gas plants in Canada that process raw natural gas into marketable gas and NGLs. Most are small field plants that process raw natural gas production to remove impurities such as sulphur, water and other contaminants. This report also discussed this infrastructure, with reference to field plants, straddle plants, pipelines, distribution and storage, including underground NGL storage. 3 tabs., 27 figs., 5 appendices

  14. Use of carriers for to electrodeposited radium 226; Utilizacion de portadores para electrodepositar radio 226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe, J.L

    1991-10-15

    The form of the energy distribution of a monoenergetic alpha particle starting from some emitting source of these particles, it depends on the quantity of material that its cross before being detected. Some authors deposit to the radium-226 by means of direct evaporation of the solution on metallic supports, on millipore paper and by electrodeposition. Some other ones place the radium solution in scintillation liquid, to quantify it by this technique. The objective of the present work is using carriers with the same oxidation state of the radium, that is to say of 2{sup +}, for treating to be electrodeposited to the radium-226 with the biggest possible percentage for later use the alpha spectroscopy technique to quantify it. The carriers that have been used until its they are barium and zinc in form of barium chloride, zinc nitrate and zinc sulfate. The first results indicate that with the zinc solution a yield of 40% of electrodeposited radium has been reached. (Author)

  15. Nuclear-deformation energies according to a liquid-drop model with a sharp surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1982-05-01

    We present an atlas of 665 deformation-energy maps and 150 maps of other properties of interest, relevant for nuclear systems idealized as uniformly charged drops endowed with a surface tension. The nuclear shapes are parametrized in terms of two spheres modified by a smoothly fitted quadratic surface of revolution and are specified by three variables: asymmetry, sphere separation, and a neck variable (that goes over into a fragment-deformation variable after scission). The maps and related tables should be useful for the study of macroscopic aspects of nuclear fission and of collisions between any two nuclei in the periodic table

  16. Efficiency of liquid flat-plate solar energy collector with solar tracking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekerovska Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive testing programme is performed on a solar collector experimental set-up, installed on a location in Shtip (Republic of Macedonia, latitude 41º 45’ and longitude 22º 12’, in order to investigate the effect of the sun tracking system implementation on the collector efficiency. The set-up consists of two flat plate solar collectors, one with a fixed surface tilted at 30о towards the South, and the other one equipped with dual-axis rotation system. The study includes development of a 3-D mathematical model of the collectors system and a numerical simulation programme, based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach. The main aim of the mathematical modelling is to provide information on conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer, so as to simulate the heat transfer performances and the energy capture capabilities of the fixed and moving collectors in various operating modes. The feasibility of the proposed method was confirmed by experimental verification, showing significant increase of the daily energy capture by the moving collector, compared to the immobile collector unit. The comparative analysis demonstrates a good agreement between the experimental and numerically predicted results at different running conditions, which is a proof that the presented CFD modelling approach can be used for further investigations of different solar collectors configurations and flow schemes.

  17. Energy intensity, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, and economic assessment of liquid biofuel pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strogen, Bret; Horvath, Arpad; Zilberman, David

    2013-12-01

    Petroleum fuels are predominantly transported domestically by pipelines, whereas biofuels are almost exclusively transported by rail, barge, and truck. As biofuel production increases, new pipelines may become economically attractive. Location-specific variables impacting pipeline viability include construction costs, availability and costs of alternative transportation modes, electricity prices and emissions (if priced), throughput, and subsurface temperature. When transporting alcohol or diesel-like fuels, pipelines have a lower direct energy intensity than rail, barge, and trucks if fluid velocity is under 1 m/s for 4-inch diameter pipelines and 2 m/s for 8-inch or larger pipelines. Across multiple hypothetical state-specific scenarios, profit-maximizing design velocities range from 1.2 to 1.9 m/s. In costs and GHG emissions, optimized pipelines outperform trucks in each state and rail and barge in most states, if projected throughput exceeds four billion liters/year. If emissions are priced, optimum design diameters typically increase to reduce pumping energy demands, increasing the cost-effectiveness of pipeline projects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermoelectric Generators Based on Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Edith; Uhl, Stefanie; Jeandupeux, Laure; López, Pilar Pérez; Sanglard, Pauline; Vanoli, Ennio; Marti, Roger; Keppner, Herbert

    2018-06-01

    Looking at energy harvesting using body or waste heat for portable electronic or on-board devices, Ionic liquids are interesting candidates as thermoactive materials in thermoelectric generators (TEGs) because of their outstanding properties. Two different kinds of ionic liquid, with alkylammonium and choline as cations, were studied, whereby different anions and redox couples were combined. This study focussed on the intention to find non-hazardous and environmentally friendly ionic liquids for TEGs to be selected among the thousands that can potentially be used. Seebeck coefficients (SEs) as high as - 15 mV/K were measured, in a particular case for an electrode temperature difference of 20 K. The bottleneck of our TEG device is still the abundance of negative SE liquids matching the internal resistance with the existing positive SE-liquids at series connections. In this paper, we show further progress in finding increased negative SE liquids. For current extraction from the TEG, the ionic liquid must be blended with a redox couple, allowing carrier exchange in a cyclic process under a voltage which is incuced by the asymmetry of the generator in terms of hot and cold electrodes. In our study, two types of redox pairs were tested. It was observed that a high SE of an ionic liquid/redox blend is not a sufficient condition for high power output. It appears that more complex effects between the ionic liquid and the electrode determine the magnitude of the final current/power output. The physico-chemical understanding of such a TEG cell is not yet available.

  19. Simulation of deterministic energy-balance particle agglomeration in turbulent liquid-solid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njobuenwu, Derrick O.; Fairweather, Michael

    2017-08-01

    An efficient technique to simulate turbulent particle-laden flow at high mass loadings within the four-way coupled simulation regime is presented. The technique implements large-eddy simulation, discrete particle simulation, a deterministic treatment of inter-particle collisions, and an energy-balanced particle agglomeration model. The algorithm to detect inter-particle collisions is such that the computational costs scale linearly with the number of particles present in the computational domain. On detection of a collision, particle agglomeration is tested based on the pre-collision kinetic energy, restitution coefficient, and van der Waals' interactions. The performance of the technique developed is tested by performing parametric studies on the influence of the restitution coefficient (en = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8), particle size (dp = 60, 120, 200, and 316 μm), Reynolds number (Reτ = 150, 300, and 590), and particle concentration (αp = 5.0 × 10-4, 1.0 × 10-3, and 5.0 × 10-3) on particle-particle interaction events (collision and agglomeration). The results demonstrate that the collision frequency shows a linear dependency on the restitution coefficient, while the agglomeration rate shows an inverse dependence. Collisions among smaller particles are more frequent and efficient in forming agglomerates than those of coarser particles. The particle-particle interaction events show a strong dependency on the shear Reynolds number Reτ, while increasing the particle concentration effectively enhances particle collision and agglomeration whilst having only a minor influence on the agglomeration rate. Overall, the sensitivity of the particle-particle interaction events to the selected simulation parameters is found to influence the population and distribution of the primary particles and agglomerates formed.

  20. Liquid argon as an electron/photon detector in the energy range of 50 MeV to 2 GeV: a Monte Carlo investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.S.; Denis, G.; Hall, M.; Karpovsky, A.; Wilson, R.; Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.

    1980-12-01

    Monte Carlo techniques which have been used to study the characteristics of a proposed electron/photon detector based on the total absorption of electromagnetic showers in liquid argon have been investigated. The energy range studied was 50 MeV to 2 GeV. Results are presented on the energy and angular resolution predicted for the device, along with the detailed predictions of the transverse and longitudinal shower distributions. Comparisons are made with other photon detectors, and possible applications are discussed

  1. Three-dimensional model of a liquid-cooled, low energy booster, radio-frequency cavity tuner at the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, R.; Propp, A.; Campbell, B.; Dao, B.

    1994-01-01

    A three-dimensional computational heat transfer and fluid flow model was developed to analyze a forced-flow, liquid-cooled, low energy booster (LEB), radio-frequency (RF) cavity, tuner concept. The results for a commercial dielectric heat transfer fluid indicated safe temperatures in the ferrite

  2. Three-dimensional model of a liquid-cooled, low energy booster radio- frequency cavity tuner at the Superconducting Super Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, R.; Propp, A.; Campbell, B.; Dao, B.

    1993-04-01

    A three-dimensional computational heat transfer and fluid flow model was developed to analyze a forced-flow, liquid-cooled, low energy booster (LEB) radio-frequency (RF) cavity tuner concept. The results for a commercial dielectric heat transfer fluid indicated safe temperatures in the ferrite.

  3. Three-dimensional model of a liquid-cooled, low energy booster radio- frequency cavity tuner at the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, R.; Propp, A.; Campbell, B.; Dao, B.

    1993-04-01

    A three-dimensional computational heat transfer and fluid flow model was developed to analyze a forced-flow, liquid-cooled, low energy booster (LEB) radio-frequency (RF) cavity tuner concept. The results for a commercial dielectric heat transfer fluid indicated safe temperatures in the ferrite

  4. Origin of the correlation between the standard Gibbs energies of ion transfer from water to a hydrophobic ionic liquid and to a molecular solvent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langmaier, Jan; Záliš, Stanislav; Samec, Zdeněk; Bovtun, Viktor; Kempa, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, JAN 2013 (2013), s. 591-598 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/0707 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : ionic liquid s * cyclic voltammetry * standard Gibbs energy of ion transfer Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.086, year: 2013

  5. Prospects for hydrogen in the German energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hake, J.-F.; Linssen, J.; Walbeck, M.

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the paper concerns the current discussion on the contribution of the hydrogen economy to a 'sustainable energy system'. It considers whether advantages for the environmental situation and energy carrier supply can be expected from the already visible future characteristics of hydrogen as a new secondary energy carrier. Possible production paths for hydrogen from hydrocarbon-based, renewable or carbon-reduced/-free primary energy carriers are evaluated with respect to primary energy use and CO 2 emissions from the fuel cycle. Hydrogen has to be packaged by compression or liquefaction, transported by surface vehicles or pipelines, stored and transferred to the end user. Whether generated by electrolysis or by reforming, and even if produced locally at filling stations, the gaseous or liquid hydrogen has to undergo these market processes before it can be used by the customer. In order to provide an idea of possible markets with special emphasis on the German energy sector, a technical systems analysis of possible hydrogen applications is performed for the stationary, mobile and portable sector. Furthermore, different 'business as usual' scenarios are analysed for Germany, Europe and the World concerning end energy use in different sectors. The very small assumed penetration of hydrogen in the analysed scenarios up to the year 2050 indicates that the hydrogen economy is a long-term option. With reference to the assumed supply paths and analysed application possibilities, hydrogen can be an option for clean energy use if hydrogen can be produced with carbon-reduced or -free primary energy carriers like renewable energy or biomass. However, the energetic use of hydrogen competes with the direct use of clean primary energy and/or with the use of electric energy based on renewable primary energy. As a substitution product for other secondary energy carriers hydrogen is therefore under pressure of costs and/or must have advantages in comparison to the use of

  6. Liquid versus solid energy intake in relation to body composition among Australian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, M; Allman-Farinelli, M; Heitmann, B L

    2014-01-01

    intake (1 MJ day(-1) ) was more closely associated with both △BMIz8-11.5y (β = 0.23, P = 0.02) and %BF11.5y (β = 2.31%, P = 0.01) than solid energy intake (△BMIz8-11.5y: β = 0.12, P = 0.01 and %BF11.5y : β = 0.80%, P = 0.07). SSB consumption (100 g day(-1) ) was directly associated with △BMIz8-11.5y (β...... = 0.08, P = 0.02) and %BF11.5y (β = 0.92%, P = 0.004),whereas diet drinks (100 g day(-1) ) were inversely associated with △BMIz8-11.5y (β = 0.18, P = 0.02). Substitution of 100 g of SSB by 100 g of water or diet drink, but not other beverages, was inversely associated with both △BMIz8-11.5y and %BF11.......5y (P water can have long-term beneficial effects on childhood adiposity....

  7. Measuring the Coefficient of Friction of a Small Floating Liquid Marble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Chin Hong; Nguyen, Anh Van; Evans, Geoffrey M; Dao, Dzung Viet; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-12-02

    This paper investigates the friction coefficient of a moving liquid marble, a small liquid droplet coated with hydrophobic powder and floating on another liquid surface. A floating marble can easily move across water surface due to the low friction, allowing for the transport of aqueous solutions with minimal energy input. However, the motion of a floating marble has yet to be systematically characterised due to the lack of insight into key parameters such as the coefficient of friction between the floating marble and the carrier liquid. We measured the coefficient of friction of a small floating marble using a novel experimental setup that exploits the non-wetting properties of a liquid marble. A floating liquid marble pair containing a minute amount magnetite particles were immobilised and then released in a controlled manner using permanent magnets. The capillarity-driven motion was analysed to determine the coefficient of friction of the liquid marbles. The "capillary charge" model was used to fit the experimental results. We varied the marble content and carrier liquid to establish a relationship between the friction correction factor and the meniscus angle.

  8. A preliminary study on the optimal configuration and operating range of a “microgrid scale” air liquefaction plant for Liquid Air Energy Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borri, E.; Tafone, A.; Romagnoli, A.; Comodi, G.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A liquefaction cycle for a microgrid scale Liquid Air Energy Storage is proposed. • Different liquefaction cycles are compared by means of parametric analysis. • The optimal configuration proposed is a Kapitza cycle with two stage compression. • The specific consumption of the optimal configuration is around 700 kW h/t. • Specific consumption reduces to 532 kW h/t if a pressurized phase separator is used. - Abstract: Liquid Air Energy Storage systems represent a sustainable solution to store energy. Although a lot of interest is dedicated to large scale systems (up to 300 tons per day), a small-scale Liquid Air Energy Storage can be used as energy storage as part of a microgrid and/or an energy distribution network. However, when scaling down the size of the system, the round trip efficiency decreases due to the low performance of the liquefaction process. In this paper a preliminary study on the optimal configuration for a microgrid scale liquefaction cycle (10 tons per 12 h) for a Liquid Air Energy Storage application is proposed in order to minimize the specific consumption. The Linde, Claude and Kapitza cycles are modelled and compared by means of a parametric analysis carried out with the software Aspen HYSYS. The results show that the two stages compression Kapitza cycle operating at 40 bar represents an optimal solution in terms of performance and cycle configuration resulting in a specific consumption of about 700 kW h/t. The analysis also shows that the implementation of a pressurized phase separator leads to a reduction of the specific consumption as high as 21% (≈550 kW h/t).

  9. Electric double-layer capacitance between an ionic liquid and few-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Eri; Goto, Hidenori; Eguchi, Ritsuko; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Kubozono, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Ionic-liquid gates have a high carrier density due to their atomically thin electric double layer (EDL) and extremely large geometrical capacitance Cg. However, a high carrier density in graphene has not been achieved even with ionic-liquid gates because the EDL capacitance CEDL between the ionic liquid and graphene involves the series connection of Cg and the quantum capacitance Cq, which is proportional to the density of states. We investigated the variables that determine CEDL at the molecular level by varying the number of graphene layers n and thereby optimising Cq. The CEDL value is governed by Cq at n 4. This transition with n indicates a composite nature for CEDL. Our finding clarifies a universal principle that determines capacitance on a microscopic scale, and provides nanotechnological perspectives on charge accumulation and energy storage using an ultimately thin capacitor.

  10. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  11. Development of carrier usage for the treatment of radioactive effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, A [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey)

    1997-02-01

    Low level radioactive liquid wastes are produced in many nuclear applications. Their physico-chemical characteristics may very considerably. Chemical precipitation is a convenient treatment method for the liquid streams of high salinity or solid content containing different radionuclide types. Generally, the concentrations of nuclides in liquid wastes are extremely low. For example, 1000 Bq of {sup 137}Cs makes about 3{center_dot}10{sup -10} g of caesium. Therefore conventional precipitation cannot be applied since the solubility product value is not exceeded. The carriers which are capable to adsorb the nuclides are used to achieve the nuclide removal. Stable isotopes of the nuclide are usually added as the carriers but any reagent which has similar chemical specifications with the nuclide can also be used as the carrier. Precipitation of these non-radioactive carriers ion together with the radionuclide is called co-precipitation. The operational steps of the chemical precipitation process should be established and applied in a treatment facility. Thus, the most suitable carrier for a particular nuclide and its usage conditions are required to be determined. In this study, the carriers for removal of {sup 137}Cs and uranium, their accurate amounts and usage conditions to achieve highest decontamination factors (DF) have been investigated. Residual sludge volumes were evaluated for cementation purposes. The cement composite samples were prepared for each set of experiments and hardening times were measured. 9 refs, 9 figs.

  12. Development of carrier usage for the treatment of radioactive effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahraman, A.

    1997-01-01

    Low level radioactive liquid wastes are produced in many nuclear applications. Their physico-chemical characteristics may very considerably. Chemical precipitation is a convenient treatment method for the liquid streams of high salinity or solid content containing different radionuclide types. Generally, the concentrations of nuclides in liquid wastes are extremely low. For example, 1000 Bq of 137 Cs makes about 3·10 -10 g of caesium. Therefore conventional precipitation cannot be applied since the solubility product value is not exceeded. The carriers which are capable to adsorb the nuclides are used to achieve the nuclide removal. Stable isotopes of the nuclide are usually added as the carriers but any reagent which has similar chemical specifications with the nuclide can also be used as the carrier. Precipitation of these non-radioactive carriers ion together with the radionuclide is called co-precipitation. The operational steps of the chemical precipitation process should be established and applied in a treatment facility. Thus, the most suitable carrier for a particular nuclide and its usage conditions are required to be determined. In this study, the carriers for removal of 137 Cs and uranium, their accurate amounts and usage conditions to achieve highest decontamination factors (DF) have been investigated. Residual sludge volumes were evaluated for cementation purposes. The cement composite samples were prepared for each set of experiments and hardening times were measured. 9 refs, 9 figs

  13. The effects of degeneracy of the carrier ensemble on the energy loss rate and the high field mobility characteristics under the conditions of low lattice temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.; Das, B.; Middya, T.R.; Bhattacharya, D.P.

    2017-01-01

    The rate of loss of energy of the non-equilibrium electrons to the acoustic mode lattice vibration in a degenerate semiconductor is obtained under the condition, when the lattice temperature is low enough, so that the traditional approximations like the elastic nature of the electron-phonon collisions and the truncation of the phonon distribution to the equipartition law are not valid any more. Using the results of the energy loss rate, the non-ohmic mobility is then calculated. Evaluating the loss rate and the non-ohmic mobility in degenerate samples of Si and Ge we find that significant changes in both the characteristics have been effected compared to that in the non-degenerate samples, in the regime of lower energy and for relatively lower fields. The effected changes are more significant the lower the lattice temperature is.

  14. What is the manner of gastric emptying after ingestion of liquids with differences in the volume under uniform glucose-based energy content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Tadashi; Terashima, Hideo; Sakamoto, Atsuhiro

    2017-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that the gastric emptying rate of liquids chiefly depended on the total amount of calories (energy content) in a uniform volume. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of different volumes of liquids with a uniform energy content on gastric emptying. Three types of test solutions were prepared with a uniform amount of calories (200 kcal provided by glucose) and step-wise increments in volume (200 ml, 400 ml, and 600 ml). The gastric volume of each solution was determined by ultrasound measurements of the gastric antral cross-sectional area after their ingestion by 8 healthy volunteers. The mean gastric volume decreased exponentially to nearly 0 ml 70 min after ingestion in the 200 ml group, 90 min in the 400 ml group, and 100 min in the 600 ml group. Each gastric emptying curve converged with identical slopes on the graph when the points at which the gastric emptying curves of the 200 ml and 400 ml groups reached the zero point on the Y-axis (mean gastric volume) were shifted toward 110 min on the X-axis (time scale). The volume of liquid ingested with a uniform glucose-based energy content is a critical determinant of liquid gastric emptying. The gastric emptying time may be predicted following the ingestion of an isocaloric liquid with any volume over a predefined range once a gastric emptying curve following the ingestion of a liquid has been plotted on a graph. UMIN000014930. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Arsenic Removal by Liquid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Marino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination with harmful arsenic compounds represents one of the most serious calamities of the last two centuries. Natural occurrence of the toxic metal has been revealed recently for 21 countries worldwide; the risk of arsenic intoxication is particularly high in Bangladesh and India but recently also Europe is facing similar problem. Liquid membranes (LMs look like a promising alternative to the existing removal processes, showing numerous advantages in terms of energy consumption, efficiency, selectivity, and operational costs. The development of different LM configurations has been a matter of investigation by several researching groups, especially for the removal of As(III and As(V from aqueous solutions. Most of these LM systems are based on the use of phosphine oxides as carriers, when the metal removal is from sulfuric acid media. Particularly promising for water treatment is the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM configuration, which offers high selectivity, easy transport of the targeted metal ions, large surface area, and non-stop flow process. The choice of organic extractant(s plays an essential role in the efficiency of the arsenic removal. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM systems have not been extensively investigated so far, although encouraging results have started to appear in the literature. For such LM configuration, the most relevant step toward efficiency is the choice of the surfactant type and its concentration.

  16. Duchenne muscular dystrophy carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, K.; Nakano, I.

    1989-01-01

    By means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 values) of the skeletal muscles were measured in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers and normal controls. The bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the T1 values obtained, according to the fast proton diffusion model. In the DMD carriers, T1 values of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris muscles were significantly higher, and BWFs of these muscles were significantly lower than in normal control. Degenerative muscular changes accompanied by interstitial edema were presumed responsible for this abnormality. No correlation was observed between the muscle T1 and serum creatine kinase values. The present study showed that MRI could be a useful method for studying the dynamic state of water in both normal and pathological skeletal muscles. Its possible utility for DMD carrier detection was discussed briefly. (orig.)

  17. Decorating Graphene Oxide with Ionic Liquid Nanodroplets: An Approach Leading to Energy-Dense, High-Voltage Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Zimin; Ghosh, Debasis; Pope, Michael A

    2017-10-24

    A major stumbling block in the development of high energy density graphene-based supercapacitors has been maintaining high ion-accessible surface area combined with high electrode density. Herein, we develop an ionic liquid (IL)-surfactant microemulsion system that is found to facilitate the spontaneous adsorption of IL-filled micelles onto graphene oxide (GO). This adsorption distributes the IL over all available surface area and provides an aqueous formulation that can be slurry cast onto current collectors, leaving behind a dense nanocomposite film of GO/IL/surfactant. By removing the surfactant and reducing the GO through a low-temperature (360 °C) heat treatment, the IL plays a dual role of spacer and electrolyte. We study the effect of IL content and operating temperature on the performance, demonstrating a record high gravimetric capacitance (302 F/g at 1 A/g) for 80 wt % IL composites. At 60 wt % IL, combined high capacitance and bulk density (0.76 g/cm 3 ), yields one of the highest volumetric capacitances (218 F/cm 3 , at 1 A/g) ever reported for a high-voltage IL-based supercapacitor. While achieving promising rate performance and cycle-life, the approach also eliminates the long and costly electrolyte imbibition step of cell assembly as the electrolyte is cast directly with the electrode material.

  18. Liquid scintillation systems and apparatus for measuring high-energy radiation emitted by samples in standard laboratory test tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenutti, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Liquid scintillation detection system employs improved sample holders in which the cap of a glass vial is provided with a well for receiving a standard laboratory test tube containing a radioactive sample. The well is immersed in a liquid scintillator in the vial, the scintillator containing lead acetate solution to enhance its efficiency. A commercially available beta-counting liquid scintillation apparatus is modified to provide gamma-counting with the improved sample holders

  19. European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) Futures Liquidity Effects: Evidence from the European Energy Exchange (EEX)

    OpenAIRE

    Ibikunle, Gbenga; Gregoriou, Andros

    2011-01-01

    We examine liquidity effects after the onset of trading in phase II of the EU-ETS for European Union Allowance (EUA) futures contracts. We obtain evidence of long-term improvement in liquidity of the EEX EUA December 2008 futures contract after the commencement of trading in phase II. Our results suggest the application of a new regime of trading rules in Phase II led to the improvements in liquidity.

  20. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    optical study. Film formation goes a step beyond adsorption; some surfactants form monolayers or multilayers at the interface. A polymer microfilm or a polymer-particle matrix can be synthesized at the liquid-liquid boundary. Such films exhibit unique adsorption and ion-intercalation properties of their own. Electrowetting refers broadly to the phenomenon in which an applied voltage modulates the shape of a liquid-liquid interface, essentially by altering the surface tension. Electric fields can be used to induce droplets on solid substrates to change shape, or to affect the structure of liquid-liquid emulsions. Various chemical reactions can be performed at the liquid-liquid boundary. Liquid-liquid microelectrodes allow detailed study of ion-transfer kinetics at the interface. Photochemical processes can also be used to control the conformations of molecules adsorbed at the interface. But how much precise control do we actually have on the state of the interfacial region? Several contributions to this issue address a system which has been studied for decades in electrochemistry, but remains essentially unfamilar to physicists. This is the interface between two immiscible electrolytic solutions (ITIES), a progressing interdisciplinary field in which condensed-matter physics and physical chemistry meet molecular electrochemistry. Why is it so exciting? The reason is simple. The ITIES is chargeable: when positioned between two electrodes it can be polarized, and back- to-back electrical double layers form on both sides of the liquid-liquid interface. Importantly, the term immiscible refers not only to oil and water but also to the electrolytes. Inorganic electrolytes, such as alkali halides, tend to stay in water, whereas organic electrolytes, such as tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate, stay in oil. This behaviour arises because energies of the order of 0.2-0.3 eV are needed to drive ions across the interface. As long as these free energies of transfer are not exceeded by