WorldWideScience

Sample records for liquid crystalline polyesters

  1. Bio-based liquid crystalline polyesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsens, Carolus; Rastogi, Sanjay; Dutch Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    The reported thin-film polymerization has been used as a screening method in order to find bio-based liquid crystalline polyesters with convenient melting temperatures for melt-processing purposes. An in depth study of the structural, morphological and chemical changes occurring during the ongoing polycondensation reactions of these polymers have been performed. Structural and conformational changes during polymerization for different compositions have been followed by time resolved X-ray and Infrared spectroscopy. In this study, bio-based monomers such as vanillic acid and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid are successfully incorporated in liquid crystalline polyesters and it is shown that bio-based liquid crystalline polymers with high aromatic content and convenient processing temperatures can be synthesized. Special thanks to the Dutch Polymer Institute for financial support

  2. Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, Christian; Hvilsted, Søren

    1996-01-01

    and holographic storage in one particular polyester are described in detail and polarized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data complementing the optical data are presented. Optical and atomic force microscope investigations point to a laser-induced aggregation as responsible for permanent optical storage.......Azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyester structures suitable for permanent optical storage are described. The synthesis and characterization of the polyesters together with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray investigations are discussed. Optical anisotropic investigations...

  3. Structural Analysis of Aromatic Liquid Crystalline Polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad Somogyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory preparations of liquid crystalline prepolymers, distillates accompanying prepolymers, final polymers, and sublimates accompanying final polymers were examined. NaOD/D2O depolymerization of prepolymers and polymers back to monomers with integration of the 1H NMR spectra showed up to 6% excess of carboxyls over phenol groups, caused partly by loss of the low-boiling comonomer hydroquinone through distillation during prepolymerization and leaving anhydride units in the polymer chain. ESI− MS and MS/MS of hexafluoroisopropanol extracts of the prepolymer detected small molecules including some containing anhydride groups; ESI+ MS showed the presence of small cyclic oligomers. 1H NMR (including TOCSY spectra provided more quantitative analyses of these oligomers. The final polymerization increases the length of the polymer chains and sublimes out the small oligomers. Anhydride linkages remaining in the polymer must make LCP’s more susceptible to degradation by nucleophilic reagents such as water, alkalis, and amines.

  4. Light-induced circular birefringence in cyanoazobenzene side-chain liquid-crystalline polyester films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naydenova, I; Nikolova, L; Ramanujam, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    We report the inducement of large circular birefringence (optical activity) in films of a cyanoazobenzene side-chain liquid-crystalline polyester on illumination with circularly polarized light. The polyester has no chiral groups and is initially isotropic. The induced optical rotation is up to 5...

  5. Novel side-chain liquid crystalline polyester architecture for reversible optical storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Andruzzi, Fulvio; Kulinna, Chrisian

    1995-01-01

    New side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters have been prepared by melt transesterification of diphenyl tetradecanedioate and a series of mesogenic 2-[omega-[4-[(4-cyanophenyl)azo]phenoxyl] alkyl]-1,3-propanediols, where the alkyl spacer is hexa-, octa-, and decamethylene in turn. The polyesters...... have molecular masses in the range 5000-89 000. Solution C-13 NMR spectroscopy has been employed to identify carbons of polyester repeat units and of both types of end groups. Polyester phases and phase transitions have been investigated in detail by polarizing optical microscopy and differential...... scanning calorimetry for the hexamethylene spacer architecture with different molecular masses. Using FTIR polarization spectroscopy, the segmental orientation in unoriented polyester films induced by argon ion laser irradiation has been followed and an irradiation-dependent order parameter...

  6. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyesters derived from 2-chloro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NAGESH MANURKAR

    2017-08-24

    Aug 24, 2017 ... extremely useful for various applications including fab- rication of numerous ... In another flask, sodium hydroxide (4.4 g, 0.11 mole) was dissolved in 50 ..... relationships of smectic liquid crystalline polyacrylates as revealed by ...

  7. High diffraction efficiency polarization gratings recorded by biphotonic holography in an azobenzene liquid crystalline polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, C; Alcalá, R; Hvilsted, Søren

    2001-01-01

    High diffraction efficiencies have been achieved with polarization gratings recorded in thin films of an azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyester by means of biphotonic processes. Efficiency values up to 30% have been reached after an induction period of 300 s and subsequent evolution...

  8. Novel biphotonic holographic storage in a side-chain liquid crystalline polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Hvilsted, S.; Andruzzi, F.

    1993-01-01

    We report novel biphotonic holographic storage of text and gratings on unoriented films of a side-chain liquid crystalline polyester capable of high density storage and complete erasure. The holograms have a typical size of 1 mm. The recording utilizes unusual photochemistry involving azo dye...

  9. Azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters with outstanding optical storage properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Pedersen, M; Holme, NCR

    1998-01-01

    A flexible azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline (SCLC) polyester architecture employed for reversible optical storage is described. The modular design allows four structural parameters to be individually modified. These parameters: i- the methylene side-chain spacer length, ii- the substituent......,000 are routinely obtained by melt transesterification of the novel diols and selected diacid precursors (parameter iii). Prominent storage features include no prealignment of thin SCLC polyester films prior to the writing process, and sensitivity in a broad laser wavelength window (415-532 nm). Additionally...... sign of fatigue. The non-destructive read out is performed with red light (600-750 nm). Finally, erasing the information can be achieved by heating the polyester film to 80 degrees C or irradiating it briefly with UV-light. In the latter case at least 10,000 write, read and erase cycles are possible...

  10. Side-chain liquid-crystalline polyesters for optical information storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Andruzzi, F.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    We report erasable holographic recording with a resolution of at least 2500 lines/mm on unoriented films of side-chain liquid-crystalline polyesters. Recording energies of approximately 1 J/cm2 have been used. We have obtained a diffraction efficiency of approximately 30% with polarization record...... recording of holograms. The holograms can be erased by heating them to approximately 80-degrees-C for approximately 2 min and are available for rerecording....

  11. 10,000 optical write, read, and erase cycles in an azobenzene sidechain liquid-crystalline polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, NCR; Ramanujam, P.S.; Hvilsted, Søren

    1996-01-01

    We show far what is believed to he the first time that it is possible tu generate 10,000 rapid write, read, and erase cycles optically in an azobenzene sidechain liquid-crystalline polyester. We do this by exposing the film alternately to visible light from an argon laser at 488 nm and ultraviolet...

  12. High diffraction efficiency polarization gratings recorded by biphotonic holography in an azobenzene liquid crystalline polyester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, C.; Alcala, R.; Hvilsted, S.; Ramanujam, P. S.

    2001-01-01

    High diffraction efficiencies have been achieved with polarization gratings recorded in thin films of an azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyester by means of biphotonic processes. Efficiency values up to 30% have been reached after an induction period of 300 s and subsequent evolution with the sample in darkness. These values are at least two orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported for biphotonic recording. The gratings can be erased with unpolarized blue light and partial recovery of the diffraction efficiency has been observed after the erasure process when the sample is kept in darkness. Red light illumination of the erased film increases the recovered efficiency value and the recovery rate. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  13. Unusual Photo-Induced Behaviour in a Side Chain Liquid Crystalline Azo-Polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, D; Rodríguez, F.J.; Sánchez, C.

    2006-01-01

    An unusual behaviour has been observed in the photo-indueed response of an azobenzene side chain liquid erystalline polyester (P6d4). Room temperature irradiation with linearly polarised 488 nm light does not induce any birefringence (An) in films of this polymer that have been quenehed from...... the isotropie state. However, using the same irradiation conditions An is indueed in quenehed films that have been kept in darkness for a few minutes. Besides, no photo-induced An is observed in films irradiated with 488 nm light that have been previously irradiated with UV light. In this ease, An can...... be reeorded if the UV irradiated films have been kept in darkness for several hours. In another set of experiments performed with the P6d4 polymer, irradiation with high intensity linearly polarised 488 nm light induces an initial increase of An and then it goes back to zero. Subsequent irradiation...

  14. Atomic force and optical near-field microscopic investigations of polarization holographic gratings in a liquid crystalline azobenzene side-chain polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, N.C.R.; Hvilsted, S.

    1996-01-01

    Atomic force and scanning near-field optical microscopic investigations have been carried out on a polarization holographic grating recorded in an azobenzene side-chain Liquid crystalline polyester. It has been found that immediately following laser irradiation, a topographic surface grating...

  15. Liquid-crystalline polyesters with end nitroxyl radical and their use in living free-radical polymerization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Razina, A B.; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Bouchal, Karel; Tenkovtsev, A. V.; Ilavský, Michal

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 9 (2002), s. 924-930 ISSN 0965-545X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : liquid crystal * polyesters * nitroxyl radical Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.627, year: 2002

  16. Selectively deuterated liquid crystalline cyanoazobenzene side-chain polyesters. 3. Investigations of laser induced segmental mobility by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulinna, Christian; Hvilsted, Søren; Hendann, Claudia

    1998-01-01

    The laser-induced anisotropy in thin films of an extensive number of cyanoazobenzene sidechain liquid crystalline polytetradecanedioates, -dodecanedioates, and -adipates selectively deuterated at different positions have been investigated with polarized FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis of the segm......The laser-induced anisotropy in thin films of an extensive number of cyanoazobenzene sidechain liquid crystalline polytetradecanedioates, -dodecanedioates, and -adipates selectively deuterated at different positions have been investigated with polarized FTIR spectroscopy. The analysis...... of the segmental orientation based on dichroic ratios of characteristic absorption bands shows that, in polyesters with long main-chain spacing (tetradecanedioates and dodecanedioates), not only the light sensitive azo chromophore but also the main-chain methylene segment and to a smaller extent the flexible...

  17. An analysis of the anisotropic and topographic gratings in a side-chain liquid crystalline azobenzene polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, N.C.R.; Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    We have examined in detail the formation of surface relief structures in azobenzene polyesters formed by polarization holography with orthogonally circularly polarized laser beams, We show that it is possible to separate the contribution to the diffraction efficiency into an anisotropic part...

  18. Photoorientation of a liquid-crystalline polyester with azobenzene side groups: Effects of irradiation with linearly polarized red light after photochemical pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebger, Ingo; Rutloh, Michael; Hoffmann, Uwe

    2003-01-01

    light. The polyester is characterized by smectic and nematic phases g24SX26SA34N46i and a strong tendency to form J-aggregates. The process requires a photochemical pretreatment by irradiation with UV light or an exposure to visible light of high power density to produce a certain concentration of the Z...

  19. Liquid crystalline dihydroazulene photoswitches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ugleholdt; Jevric, Martyn; Mandle, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    A large selection of photochromic dihydroazulene (DHA) molecules incorporating various substituents at position 2 of the DHA core was prepared and investigated for their ability to form liquid crystalline phases. Incorporation of an octyloxy-substituted biphenyl substituent resulted in nematic...... phase behavior and it was possible to convert one such compound partly into its vinylheptafulvene (VHF) isomer upon irradiation with light when in the liquid crystalline phase. This conversion resulted in an increase in the molecular alignment of the phase. In time, the meta-stable VHF returns...... to the DHA where the alignment is maintained. The systematic structural variation has revealed that a biaryl spacer between the DHA and the alkyl chain is needed for liquid crystallinity and that the one aromatic ring in the spacer cannot be substituted by a triazole. This work presents an important step...

  20. Liquid crystalline order in polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Blumstein, Alexandre

    1978-01-01

    Liquid Crystalline Order in Polymers examines the topic of liquid crystalline order in systems containing rigid synthetic macromolecular chains. Each chapter of the book provides a review of one important area of the field. Chapter 1 discusses scattering in polymer systems with liquid crystalline order. It also introduces the field of liquid crystals. Chapter 2 treats the origin of liquid crystalline order in macromolecules by describing the in-depth study of conformation of such macromolecules in their unassociated state. The chapters that follow describe successively the liquid crystalli

  1. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS) Resin with Polyester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    cobalt amine (accelerator), methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (catalyst) to develop two sets of ... shell liquid (CNSL) resin were comparable to those developed with polyester resin. ... permit diffusion of water, this function is often not adequately ... When designed ... blades in gas turbine engines, wing leading edges and flaps.

  2. Ferrofluids in liquid crystalline systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo Neto, A.M.; Liebert, L.

    1989-08-01

    It is a well-known fact that intermediate or mesomorphic phase may exist between the crystalline and the isotropic liquid phases. The symmetry properties of these mesophases are intermediate between those of a crystal and a liquid. In this paper, some aspects of the use of ferrofluids in thermotropic and lyotropic systems are studied both the experimental difficulties as well as the fundamental phypical phenomena involved. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  3. Liquid crystal polyester-carbon fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, T. S.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid crystal polymers (LCP) have been developed as a thermoplastic matrix for high performance composites. A successful melt impregnation method has been developed which results in the production of continuous carbon fiber (CF) reinforced LCP prepreg tape. Subsequent layup and molding of prepreg into laminates has yielded composites of good quality. Tensile and flexural properties of LCP/CF composites are comparable to those of epoxy/CF composites. The LCP/CF composites have better impact resistance than the latter, although epoxy/CF composites possess superior compression and shear strength. The LCP/CF composites have good property retention until 200 F (67 % of room temperature value). Above 200 F, mechanical properties decrease significantly. Experimental results indicate that the poor compression and shear strength may be due to the poor interfacial adhesion between the matrix and carbon fiber as adequate toughness of the LCP matrix. Low mechanical property retention at high temperatures may be attributable to the low beta-transition temperature (around 80 C) of the LCP matrix material.

  4. Propagation of polarized light through azobenzene polyester films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedelchev, L; Matharu, A; Nikolova, Ludmila

    2002-01-01

    When elliptically polarized light of appropriate wavelength Corresponding to trans-cis-trans isomerisation process is incident on thin films of azobenzene polyesters, a helical structure is induced. We investigate the propagation of the exciting light beam (self-induced) as well as a probe light...... beam outside the absorption band through the polyester films. Investigations are carried out in one amorphous and one liquid crystalline polyester. We show that amorphous polyester after irradiation behaves like classical helical material....

  5. Excimer fluorescence of liquid crystalline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhno, Tamara V.; Khakhel, Oleg A.; Barashkov, Nikolay N.; Korotkova, Irina V.

    1996-04-01

    The method of synchronous scanning fluorescence spectroscopy shows a presence of dimers of pyrene in a polymeric matrix. The results suggest that excimer formation takes place with dimers in liquid crystalline systems.

  6. Light scattering of thin azobenzene side-chain polyester layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Á.; Lörincz, E.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    Light scattering properties of liquid crystalline and amorphous azobenzene side-chain polyester layers used for optical data storage were examined by means of transmissive scatterometry. Comparative experiments show that the amorphous polyester has significantly lower light scattering...... characteristics than the liquid crystalline polyester. The amorphous samples have negligible polarization part orthogonal to the incident beam. the liquid crystalline samples have relative high orthogonal polarization part in light scattering, The light scattering results can be used to give a lower limit...... for the domain size in thin liquid crystalline polyester layers being responsible for the dominant light scattering. The characteristic domain Sizes obtained from the Fourier transformation of polarization microscopic Pictures confirm these values....

  7. Crystalline liquids: the blue phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David C.; Mermin, N. David

    1989-04-01

    The blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals are liquids that exhibit orientational order characterized by crystallographic space-group symmetries. We present here a pedagogical introduction to the current understanding of the equilibrium structure of these phases accompanied by a general overview of major experimental results. Using the Ginzburg-Landau free energy appropriate to the system, we first discuss in detail the character and stability of the usual helical phase of cholesterics, showing that for certain parameter ranges the helical phase is unstable to the appearance of one or more blue phases. The two principal models for the blue phases are two limiting cases of the Ginzburg-Landau theory. We explore each limit and conclude with some general considerations of defects in both models and an exact minimization of the free energy in a curved three-dimensional space.

  8. Photoorientation of a liquid crystalline polyester with azobenzene side groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebger, I; Rutloh, M; Hoffmann, U

    2002-01-01

    segments in the side- and main-chain. The very high values of the normalized linear dichroism up to 0.8 and the birefringence (above 0.3) are due to the interaction of photoorientation and thermotropic self-organization. The induction of anisotropy shows a pronounced dependence on the power density...

  9. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyesters derived from bis-(4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    industry, construction industry, food containers as well as .... fluid. Excess thionyl chloride was removed by normal dis- tillation. The crude acid chloride was purified by double ... with mechanical stirrer, nitrogen inlet, and calcium chlo-.

  10. Liquid crystalline order of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi; Ahlawat, Aditya; Mulkern, Brian; Doyle, Robert; Mongeau, Jennifer; Ogilvie, Alex

    2007-03-01

    Topological defects formed during phase transitions in liquid crystals provide a direct proof of the standard Cosmological model and are direct links to the Early Universe. On the other hand in Nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes can be manipulated and oriented directly by changing the liquid crystalline state of the nanotubes, in combination with organic liquid crystals. Currently there are no nano-assemblers, which makes the liquid crystal state of the nanotubes, one of the few ways of controlling them. We show the design of a fast and efficient polarized light ellipsometric system (a new modification of previous optical systems) that can provide fast quantitative real time measurements in two dimensions of the formation of topological defects in liquid crystals during phase transitions in lab settings. Our aim is to provide fundamental information about the formation of optically anisotropic structures in liquid crystals and the orientation of carbon nanotubes in electric field.

  11. Liquid Crystalline Semiconductors Materials, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Stephen; O'Neill, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This is an exciting stage in the development of organic electronics. It is no longer an area of purely academic interest as increasingly real applications are being developed, some of which are beginning to come on-stream. Areas that have already been commercially developed or which are under intensive development include organic light emitting diodes (for flat panel displays and solid state lighting), organic photovoltaic cells, organic thin film transistors (for smart tags and flat panel displays) and sensors. Within the family of organic electronic materials, liquid crystals are relative newcomers. The first electronically conducting liquid crystals were reported in 1988 but already a substantial literature has developed. The advantage of liquid crystalline semiconductors is that they have the easy processability of amorphous and polymeric semiconductors but they usually have higher charge carrier mobilities. Their mobilities do not reach the levels seen in crystalline organics but they circumvent all of t...

  12. Polarisation-sensitive optical elements in azobenzene polyesters and peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Berg, Rolf Henrik

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we describe fabrication of polarisation holographic optical elements in azobenzene polyesters. Both liquid crystalline and amorphous side-chain polyesters have been utilised. Diffractive optical elements such as lenses and gratings that are sensitive to the polarisation...... of the incident light have been fabricated with polarisation holography. Computer-generated optical elements and patterns have also been written with a single polarised laser beam. Recording of polarisation defects enabling easy visualisation is also shown to be feasible in azobenzene polyesters....

  13. Nonlinear optics of liquid crystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, Iam Choon

    2009-01-01

    Liquid crystals occupy an important niche in nonlinear optics as a result of their unique physical and optical properties. Besides their broadband birefringence and transparency, abilities to self-assemble into various crystalline phases and to conform to various flexible forms and shapes, liquid crystals are compatible with almost all other optoelectronic materials and technology platforms. In both isotropic and ordered phases, liquid crystals possess extraordinarily large optical nonlinearities that stretch over multiple time scales. To date, almost all conceivable nonlinear optical phenomena have been observed in a very broad spectrum spanning the entire visible to infrared and beyond. In this review, we present a self-contained complete discussion of the optical nonlinearities of liquid crystals, and a thorough review of a wide range of nonlinear optical processes and phenomena enabled by these unique properties. Starting with a brief historical account of the development of nonlinear optical studies of the mesophases of liquid crystals, we then review various liquid crystalline materials and structures, and their nonlinear optical properties. Emphasis is placed on the nematic phase, which best exemplifies the dual nature of liquid crystals, although frequent references to other phases are also made. We also delve into recent work on novel structures such as photonic crystals, metamaterials and nanostructures and their special characteristics and emergent properties. The mechanisms and complex nonlocal dynamics of optical nonlinearities associated with laser induced director axis reorientation, thermal, density, and order parameter fluctuations, space charge field formation and photorefractivity are critically reviewed as a foundation for the discussions of various nonlinear optical processes detailed in this paper

  14. Liquid crystalline biopolymers: A new arena for liquid crystal research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, Tasneem Zahra

    2001-07-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to liquid crystals on the basis of biopolymers and reviews literature on liquid crystalline behaviour of biopolymers both in vitro and in vivo in relation to their implications in the fields of biology, medicine and material science. Knowledge in the field of biological liquid crystals is crucial for understanding complex phenomena at supramolecular level which will give information about processes involved in biological organization and function. The understanding of the interaction of theses crystals with electric, magnetic, optical and thermal fields will uncover mechanisms of near quantum-energy detection capabilities of biosystems

  15. Holographic recording in thiophene-based polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matharu, Avtar Singh; Chambers-Asman, David; Jeeva, Shehzad

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and optical data storage properties of a side-chain thiophene-phenyl azopolyester ThPhAzoP.ol is reported. The polyester is derived from diphenyl tetradecanedioate and a thiophenebased liquid crystalline diol which exhibits a short-lived enantiotropic SmA phase (Cryst 177.7 SmA 180.......4 I). The polyester ThPhAzoPol exhibits amorphous (Tg, 78.6 DC), crystalline and liquid crystalline character as evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal polarising microscopy. A grainy texture, which is thermally reversible, with increasing birefringence on cooling from...... the isotropic melt is observed. The polyester is amenable to optical data storage, showing efficient induced anisotropy, which is stable at room temperature. Polarisation gratings can be inscribed using orthogonally.linear and circularly polarised light to good effect (>10/0) and surface relief gratings...

  16. Liquid Crystalline Perylene diimides : Architecture and Charge Carrier Mobilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, C.W.; Sieval, A.B.; Dakhorst, J.E.J.; Dijk, van M.; Kimkes, P.; Koehorst, R.B.M.; Donker, H.

    2000-01-01

    The phase behavior of three N-alkyl-substituted perylene diimide derivatives is examined by differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy. The occurrence of multiple phase transitions indicates several crystalline and several liquid crystalline phases. X-ray diffraction

  17. Liquid crystalline thermosetting polymers as protective coatings for aerospace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerriero, G.L.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental regulations are driving the development of new aerospace coating systems, mainly to eliminate chromates and reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Among the various potential options for new coating materials, liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) are attractive due to their

  18. Bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles for oral delivery of Doxorubicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swarnakar, Nitin K; Thanki, Kaushik; Jain, Sanyog

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study explores the potential of bicontinous cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) for improving therapeutic potential of doxorubicin. METHODS: Phytantriol based Dox-LCNPs were prepared using hydrotrope method, optimized for various formulation components, process...

  19. Liquid crystalline thermosetting polymers as protective coatings for aerospace

    OpenAIRE

    Guerriero, G.L.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental regulations are driving the development of new aerospace coating systems, mainly to eliminate chromates and reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Among the various potential options for new coating materials, liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) are attractive due to their unique combination of mechanical properties and chemical resistance. Their use, however, has been limited mainly due to poor adhesion properties. Thermotropic liquid crystalline thermosets displayed ...

  20. Solution processed nanogap organic diodes based on liquid crystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Fei; Iino, Hiroaki; Hanna, Jun-ichi

    2017-09-01

    Co-planar nanogap organic diodes were fabricated with smectic liquid crystalline materials of the benzothienobenzothiophene (BTBT) derivative by a spin-coating technique. A high rectification ratio of the order of 106 at ±3 V was achieved when a liquid crystalline material of 2,7-didecyl benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (10-BTBT-10) was used in a device configuration of Al/10-BTBT-10/pentafluorobenzenethiol-treated Au on a glass substrate, which was 4 orders higher than that of the device based on non-liquid crystalline materials of 2,7-dibutyl benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (4-BTBT-4) and BTBT. Similar results were also observed when another liquid crystalline material of ω, ω'-dioctylterthiophene (8-TTP-8) and a non-liquid crystalline material of terthiophene (TTP) were used. These improved rectifications can be ascribed to the self-assembly properties and controllable molecular orientation of liquid crystalline materials, which made uniform perpendicular oriented polycrystalline films favorable for superior charge transport in nano-channels.

  1. A metastable liquid melted from a crystalline solid under decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Kono, Yoshio; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Shen, Guoyin

    2017-01-01

    A metastable liquid may exist under supercooling, sustaining the liquid below the melting point such as supercooled water and silicon. It may also exist as a transient state in solid-solid transitions, as demonstrated in recent studies of colloidal particles and glass-forming metallic systems. One important question is whether a crystalline solid may directly melt into a sustainable metastable liquid. By thermal heating, a crystalline solid will always melt into a liquid above the melting point. Here we report that a high-pressure crystalline phase of bismuth can melt into a metastable liquid below the melting line through a decompression process. The decompression-induced metastable liquid can be maintained for hours in static conditions, and transform to crystalline phases when external perturbations, such as heating and cooling, are applied. It occurs in the pressure-temperature region similar to where the supercooled liquid Bi is observed. Akin to supercooled liquid, the pressure-induced metastable liquid may be more ubiquitous than we thought.

  2. Liquid crystallinity driven highly aligned large graphene oxide composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Oh, Jung Jae; Yun, Taeyeong [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Ouk, E-mail: sangouk.kim@kaist.ac.kr [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Graphene is an emerging graphitic carbon materials, consisting of sp{sup 2} hybridized two dimensinal honeycomb structure. It has been widely studied to incorporate graphene with polymer to utilize unique property of graphene and reinforce electrical, mechanical and thermal property of polymer. In composite materials, orientation control of graphene significantly influences the property of composite. Until now, a few method has been developed for orientation control of graphene within polymer matrix. Here, we demonstrate facile fabrication of high aligned large graphene oxide (LGO) composites in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix exploiting liquid crystallinity. Liquid crystalline aqueous dispersion of LGO is parallel oriented within flat confinement geometry. Freeze-drying of the aligned LGO dispersion and subsequent infiltration with PDMS produce highly aligned LGO/PDMS composites. Owing to the large shape anisotropy of LGO, liquid crystalline alignment occurred at low concentration of 2 mg/ml in aqueous dispersion, which leads to the 0.2 wt% LGO loaded composites. - Graphical abstract: Liquid crystalline LGO aqueous dispersions are spontaneous parallel aligned between geometric confinement for highly aligned LGO/polymer composite fabrication. - Highlights: • A simple fabrication method for highly aligned LGO/PDMS composites is proposed. • LGO aqueous dispersion shows nematic liquid crystalline phase at 0.8 mg/ml. • In nematic phase, LGO flakes are highly aligned by geometric confinement. • Infiltration of PDMS into freeze-dried LGO allows highly aligned LGO/PDMS composites.

  3. Liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite material for dental application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yun-Yuan; Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Su, Wei-Fang; Chen, Min-Huey

    2015-01-01

    Novel liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposites, which exhibit reduced polymerization shrinkage and effectively bond to tooth structures, can be applied in esthetic dentistry, including core and post systems, direct and indirect restorations, and dental brackets. The purposes of this study were to investigate the properties of liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposites including biocompatibility, microhardness, and frictional forces of bracket-like blocks with different filler contents for further clinical applications. In this study, we evaluated liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite materials that exhibited various filler contents, by assessing their cell activity performance using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and their microhardness with or without thermocycling. We also evaluated the frictional force between bracket-like duplicates and commercially available esthetic bracket systems using Instron 5566. The liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite materials showed good biocompatibility. The materials having high filler content demonstrated greater microhardness compared with commercially available bracket materials, before and after the thermocycling treatment. Thus, manufacturing processes are important to reduce frictional force experienced by orthodontic brackets. The microhardness of the bracket-like blocks made by our new material is superior to the commercially available brackets, even after thermocycling. Our results indicate that the evaluated liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite materials are of an appropriate quality for application in dental core and post systems and in various restorations. By applying technology to refine manufacturing processes, these new materials could also be used to fabricate esthetic brackets for orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Reactions and Interactions in Liquid Crystalline Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-30

    nematic lyophases of potassium laurate, myristyl tri methylammonium bromide or sodium decylsulfate with 1-decanol and 23 water. A strong retardation of the...crystalline polyacrylate crosslinked elastomers were synthesized. 198c 0 0 96 0 0 0O-(CH12 ) 2 -0O(k 97 Crosslinking, up to 10% of structural units produced...in their isotropic state and they work as the transporting phase for the azo-crown ether molecules. The permeation of K+ from a potassium p

  5. Stimuli-responsive liquid crystalline materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debije, M.G.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Hashmi, Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive materials which respond to triggers from the environment by changing their properties are one of the focal points in materials science. For precise functional properties, well-defined hierarchically ordered supramolecular materials are crucial. The self-assembly of liquid crystals

  6. Electrically Reconfigurable Liquid Crystalline Mirrors (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-24

    focus on dynamic reconfiguration of the reflection band gap of polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals (PSCLCs). Recent research has reported the...public release: distribution unlimited. © 2018 AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY (STINFO COPY) AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING...MONITORING AGENCY ACRONYM(S) Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH

  7. Controlling the morphology of side chain liquid crystalline block copolymer thin films through variations in liquid crystalline content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verploegen, Eric; Zhang, Tejia; Jung, Yeon Sik; Ross, Caroline; Hammond, Paula T

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, we describe methods for manipulating the morphology of side-chain liquid crystalline block copolymers through variations in the liquid crystalline content. By systematically controlling the covalent attachment of side chain liquid crystals to a block copolymer (BCP) backbone, the morphology of both the liquid crystalline (LC) mesophase and the phase-segregated BCP microstructures can be precisely manipulated. Increases in LC functionalization lead to stronger preferences for the anchoring of the LC mesophase relative to the substrate and the intermaterial dividing surface. By manipulating the strength of these interactions, the arrangement and ordering of the ultrathin film block copolymer nanostructures can be controlled, yielding a range of morphologies that includes perpendicular and parallel cylinders, as well as both perpendicular and parallel lamellae. Additionally, we demonstrate the utilization of selective etching to create a nanoporous liquid crystalline polymer thin film. The unique control over the orientation and order of the self-assembled morphologies with respect to the substrate will allow for the custom design of thin films for specific nanopatterning applications without manipulation of the surface chemistry or the application of external fields.

  8. Induction of Liquid Crystallinity by Self-Assembled Molecular Boxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piermattei, A.; Giesbers, M.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Mendes, E.; Picken, S.J.; Crego-Calama, M.; Reinhoudt, D.N.

    2006-01-01

    In a hierarchical process, three molecules of a calix[4]arene (blue) and six of barbituric or cyanuric acid (green) assemble into double-rosette boxes, which assemble into columns, which in turn assemble into columnar liquid-crystalline phases (see picture). The resulting mesophases have a

  9. Rotational reorganization of doped cholesteric liquid crystalline films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, R.; M. Pollard, M.; Katsonis, N.; Vicario, J.; J. Broer, D.; Feringa, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper an unprecedented rotational reorganization of cholesteric liquid crystalline films is described. This rotational reorganization results from the conversion of a chiral molecular motor dopant to an isomer with a different helical twisting power, leading to a change in the cholesteric

  10. Investigations on the liquid crystalline phases of cation-induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    liquid crystalline phases of Li–DNA system could be useful in the production of ... undergo unidirectional ordering (the solution starts to become birefringent under ... was spread over the glass slides with a cover slip and sealed with a neutral ...

  11. Liquid crystalline fiber optic colorimeter for hydrostatic pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Tomasz R.; Bajdecki, Waldemar K.; Domanski, Andrzej W.; Karpierz, Miroslaw A.; Konopka, Witold; Nasilowski, T.; Sierakowski, Marek W.; Swillo, Marcin; Dabrowski, Roman S.; Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, Edward; Wasowski, Janusz

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents results of tests performed on a fiber optic system of liquid crystalline transducer for hydrostatic pressure monitoring based on properties of colorimetry. The system employs pressure-induced deformations occurring in liquid crystalline (LC) cells configured in a homogeneous Frederiks geometry. The sensor is compared of a round LC cell placed inside a specially designed pressure chamber. As a light source we used a typical diode operating at red wavelength and modulated using standard techniques. The pressure transducer was connected to a computer with a specially designed interface built on the bas of advanced ADAM modules. Results indicate that the system offers high response to pressure with reduced temperature sensitivity and, depending on the LC cell used, can be adjusted for monitoring of low hydrostatic pressures up to 6 MPa. These studies have demonstrated the feasibility of fiber optic liquid crystal colorimeter for hydrostatic pressure sensing specially dedicated to pipe- lines, mining instrumentation, and process-control technologies.

  12. Electric properties of a liquid crystalline methacrylic polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Henriquez, C.M.; Soto Bustamante, E.A.; Haase, W.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of a liquid crystalline polymer called PM6R8 is reported. The polymers were obtained with different concentration of AIBN as initiator (0.25, 0.50, 1 and 2mg in 5ml solution) and time of reaction (24, 36 and 48 hours). The compounds were characterized by 1 H-NMR, differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffractometer and pyroelectric measurements. For the polymer a smectic C 2 phase occurs over broad temperature range, which is a possible explanation for the electric signal. The arrangement of the molecules within of the crystalline lattice is related with the kinetic of precipitation. (author)

  13. Molecular reorientations in a substance with liquid-crystalline and plastic-crystalline phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Xuan Phuc.

    1986-05-01

    Results of dielectric relaxation (DR), quasielastic neutron scattering (QNS), far infrared absorption (FIR), proton magnetic resonance (PMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and preliminary X-ray diffraction measurements on the di-n-pentyloxyazoxybenzene (5.OAOB) are presented. The measurements carried out by all these methods showed that 5.OAOB exhibits a nontypical for liquid-crystalline materials phase diagram. It has two mesophases: a nematic (N) and an ''intermediate'' crystalline phase just below it. A complex interpretation of results obtained is given. All suggestions concerning the character of reorientational motions of the molecule as a whole as well as of its segments in mesomorphic phases are analyzed. From comparison of the DR and QNS studies one can conclude that in the N phase the molecule as a whole performs rotational diffusion around the long axis (τ DR ∼ 100 ps) and at the same time the two moieties perform faster independent reorientations around N - benzene rings bonds withτ QNS ∼ 5 ps. On the basis of various experimental data it is shown that the CrI phase is a plastic-crystalline phase for which the molecule and its segments perform fast stochastic unaxial reorientations. This is the first case where the existence of such a phase in liquid-crystalline materials has been experimentally confirmed. (author)

  14. Liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite material for dental application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Yuan Tai

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The microhardness of the bracket-like blocks made by our new material is superior to the commercially available brackets, even after thermocycling. Our results indicate that the evaluated liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite materials are of an appropriate quality for application in dental core and post systems and in various restorations. By applying technology to refine manufacturing processes, these new materials could also be used to fabricate esthetic brackets for orthodontic treatment.

  15. Structural studies of different types of ferroelectric liquid crystalline substances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obadović, D.Ž.; Stojanović, M.; Bubnov, Alexej; Éber, N.; Cvetinov, M.; Vajda, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2011), s. 3-13 ISSN 1450-7404 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100911; GA AV ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0047; GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0723 Grant - others:RFASI(RU) 02.740.11.5166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectric liquid crystals * phase transition * structure of liquid crystalline phases * molecular parameters Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  16. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyazomethine nanocomposites via in situ interlayer polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Ungki; Chang, Jin-Hae

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nanocomposites of polyazomethine with the organoclay C 12 -MMT were synthesized by using the in situ interlayer polymerization method. → The thermal properties of the polyazomethine hybrids increase with the addition of the organoclay up to a critical content and then decrease with further organoclay loading. → Liquid crystalline compositions with 0-9 wt% organoclay have threaded Schlieren nematic textures. - Abstract: Nanocomposites of polyazomethine (PAM) with the organoclay C 12 -MMT were synthesized by using the in situ interlayer polymerization method. The variations with organoclay content of the thermal properties, morphology, and liquid crystalline mesophases of the hybrids were determined for concentrations from 0 to 9 wt% C 12 -MMT. The thermal properties and the morphologies of the PAM nanocomposites were examined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), wide angle X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). The XRD analysis and TEM micrographs show that the levels of nanosize dispersion can be controlled by varying the C 12 -MMT content. The clay particles are better dispersed in the matrix polymer at low clay contents than at high clay contents. With the exception of the glass transition temperature (T g ), the maximum enhancement in the thermal properties was found to arise at an organoclay content of 1 wt%. Further, the PAM hybrids were shown to exhibit a nematic liquid crystalline phase for organoclay contents in the range 0-9 wt%.

  17. Dry Powder Precursors of Cubic Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles (cubosomes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, Patrick T.; Small, William B.; Small, William B.; Lynch, Matthew L.; Burns, Janet L.

    2002-01-01

    Cubosomes are dispersed nanostructured particles of cubic phase liquid crystal that have stimulated significant research interest because of their potential for application in controlled-release and drug delivery. Despite the interest, cubosomes can be difficult to fabricate and stabilize with current methods. Most of the current work is limited to liquid phase processes involving high shear dispersion of bulk cubic liquid crystalline material into sub-micron particles, limiting application flexibility. In this work, two types of dry powder cubosome precursors are produced by spray-drying: (1) starch-encapsulated monoolein is produced by spray-drying a dispersion of cubic liquid crystalline particles in an aqueous starch solution and (2) dextran-encapsulated monoolein is produced by spray-drying an emulsion formed by the ethanol-dextran-monoolein-water system. The encapsulants are used to decrease powder cohesion during drying and to act as a soluble colloidal stabilizer upon hydration of the powders. Both powders are shown to form (on average) 0.6 μm colloidally-stable cubosomes upon addition to water. However, the starch powders have a broader particle size distribution than the dextran powders because of the relative ease of spraying emulsions versus dispersions. The developed processes enable the production of nanostructured cubosomes by end-users rather than just specialized researchers and allow tailoring of the surface state of the cubosomes for broader application

  18. Transport of Liquid Phase Organic Solutes in Liquid Crystalline Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Sangil

    2010-01-01

    Porous cellulose nitrate membranes were impregnated with 8CB and PCH5 LCs (liquid crystals) and separations of solutes dissolved in aqueous phases were performed while monitoring solute concentration via UV-VIS spectrometry. The diffusing organic solutes, which consist of one aromatic ring and various functional groups, were selected to exclude molecular size effects on the diffusion and sorption. We studied the effects on solute transport of solute intra-molecular hydrogen bonding and so...

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Matrine in Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed to quantitatively determine matrine in liquid crystal nanoparticles. The chromatographic method is carried out using an isocratic system. The mobile phase was composed of methanol-PBS(pH6.8-triethylamine (50 : 50 : 0.1% with a flow rate of 1 mL/min with SPD-20A UV/vis detector and the detection wavelength was at 220 nm. The linearity of matrine is in the range of 1.6 to 200.0 μg/mL. The regression equation is y=10706x-2959 (R2=1.0. The average recovery is 101.7%; RSD=2.22%  (n=9. This method provides a simple and accurate strategy to determine matrine in liquid crystalline nanoparticle.

  20. Polymer and Polymer Gel of Liquid Crystalline Semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teppei Shimakawa; Naoki Yoshimoto; Jun-ichi Hanna

    2004-01-01

    It prepared a polymer and polymer gel of a liquid crystalline (LC) semiconductor having a 2-phenylnaphthalene moiety and studied their charge carrier transport properties by the time-of-flight technique. It is found that polyacrylate having the mesogenic core moiety of 2-phenylnaphtalene (PNP-acrylate) exhibited a comparable mobility of 10-4cm2/Vs in smectic A phase to those in smectic A (SmA) phase of small molecular liquid crystals with the same core moiety, e.g., 6-(4'-octylphenyl)- 2-dodecyloxynaphthalene (8-PNP-O12), and an enhanced mobility up to 10-3cm2/Vs in the LC-glassy phase at room temperature, when mixed with a small amount of 8-PNP-O12. On the other hand, the polymer gel consisting of 20 wt %-hexamethylenediacrylate (HDA)-based cross-linked polymer and 8-PNP-O12 exhibited no degraded mobility when cross-linked at the mesophase. These results indicate that the polymer and polymer composite of liquid crystalline semiconductors provide us with an easy way to realize a quality organic semiconductor thin film for the immediate device applications.

  1. 21 CFR 524.2620 - Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2620 Liquid crystalline trypsin, Peru balsam, castor oil. (a)(1) Specifications... delivered to the wound site contains 0.12 milligram of crystalline trypsin, 87.0 milligrams of Peru balsam...

  2. Intestinal mucus and juice glycoproteins have a liquid crystalline structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisova, E.A.; Lazarev, P.I.; Vazina, A.A.; Zheleznaya, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns have been obtained from the following components of canine gastrointestinal tract: (1) native small intestine mucus layer; (2) the precipitate of the flocks formed in the duodenal juice with decreasing pH; (3) concentrated solutions of glycoproteins isolated from the duodenal juice. The X-ray patterns consist of a large number of sharp reflections of spacings between about 100 and 4 A. Some reflections are common for all components studied. All the patterns are interpreted as arising from the glycoprotein molecules ordered into a liquid crystalline structure. (author)

  3. Thermal degradation of polymer systems having liquid crystalline oligoester segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Matroniani

    Full Text Available Abstract Block copolymers and blends comprised by liquid crystalline oligoester and polystyrene were prepared and their thermal stability were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The samples have shown three main decomposition temperatures due to (1 lost of flexible chain and decomposition of mesogenic segment, (2 decomposition of polystyrene and (3 final decomposition of oligoester rigid segment. Both copolymers and polymer blends presented lower thermal stability compared to polystyrene and oligoester. The residual mass after heating at 600 °C in copolymers and polymer blends were lower than those found in the oligoesters. A degradative process of aromatic segments of oligoester induced by decomposition of polystyrene is suggested.

  4. New theories for smectic and nematic liquid crystalline polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, F.

    1987-01-01

    A summary of results from new statistical-physics theories for both backbone and side-chain liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) and for mixtures with LCPs is presented. Thermodynamic and molecular ordering properties (including odd-even effects) have been calculated as a function of pressure, density, temperature, and molecule chemical structures (including degree of polymerization and the following properties of the chemical structures of the repeat units: lengths and shapes, intra-chain rotation energies, dipole moments, site-site polarizabilities and Lennard-Jones potentials, etc.) in nematic and multiple smectic-A LC phases and in the isotropic liquid phase. These theories can also be applied to combined LCPs. Since these theories have no ad hoc or arbitrarily adjustable parameters, these theories have been used to design new LCPs and new solvents and to predict and explain properties

  5. Liquid crystallinity in flexible and rigid rod polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Galen T.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    We apply an anisotropic version of the polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) integral equation description of flexible polymers to analyze athermal liquid crystallinity. The polymers are characterized by a statistical segment length, σ o , and by a physical hard-core thickness, d, that prevents the overlap of monomers on different chains. At small segment densities, ρ, the microscopic length scale d is irrelevant (as it must be in the universal semidilute regime), but becomes important in concentrated solutions and melts. Under the influence of the excluded volume interactions alone, the chains undergo a lyotropic, first-order isotropic-nematic transition at a concentration dependent upon the dimensionless ''aspect ratio,'' σ o /d. The transition becomes weaker as d→0, becoming second order, as has been previously shown. We extend the theory to describe the transition of rigid, thin rods, and discuss the evolution of the anisotropic liquid structure in the ordered phase. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  6. Blending crystalline/liquid crystalline small molecule semiconductors: A strategy towards high performance organic thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; He, Yaowu; Li, Aiyuan; Zhang, Dongwei; Meng, Hong

    2016-10-01

    Solution processed small molecule polycrystalline thin films often suffer from the problems of inhomogeneity and discontinuity. Here, we describe a strategy to solve these problems through deposition of the active layer from a blended solution of crystalline (2-phenyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene, Ph-BTBT) and liquid crystalline (2-(4-dodecylphenyl) [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene, C12-Ph-BTBT) small molecule semiconductors with the hot spin-coating method. Organic thin film transistors with average hole mobility approaching 1 cm2/V s, much higher than that of single component devices, have been demonstrated, mainly due to the improved uniformity, continuity, crystallinity, and stronger intermolecular π-π stacking in blend thin films. Our results indicate that the crystalline/liquid crystalline semiconductor blend method is an effective way to enhance the performance of organic transistors.

  7. Liquid-like thermal conduction in intercalated layered crystalline solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Wang, H.; Kawakita, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Feygenson, M.; Yu, H. L.; Wu, D.; Ohara, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Shibata, K.; Yamada, T.; Ning, X. K.; Chen, Y.; He, J. Q.; Vaknin, D.; Wu, R. Q.; Nakajima, K.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2018-03-01

    As a generic property, all substances transfer heat through microscopic collisions of constituent particles1. A solid conducts heat through both transverse and longitudinal acoustic phonons, but a liquid employs only longitudinal vibrations2,3. As a result, a solid is usually thermally more conductive than a liquid. In canonical viewpoints, such a difference also serves as the dynamic signature distinguishing a solid from a liquid. Here, we report liquid-like thermal conduction observed in the crystalline AgCrSe2. The transverse acoustic phonons are completely suppressed by the ultrafast dynamic disorder while the longitudinal acoustic phonons are strongly scattered but survive, and are thus responsible for the intrinsically ultralow thermal conductivity. This scenario is applicable to a wide variety of layered compounds with heavy intercalants in the van der Waals gaps, manifesting a broad implication on suppressing thermal conduction. These microscopic insights might reshape the fundamental understanding on thermal transport properties of matter and open up a general opportunity to optimize performances of thermoelectrics.

  8. Liquid crystalline composites toward organic photovoltaic application (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yo; Sosa-Vargas, Lydia; Shin, Woong; Higuchi, Yumi; Itani, Hiromichi; Kawano, Koki; Dao, Quang Duy; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2017-02-01

    Liquid crystalline semiconductor is an interesting category of organic electronic materials and also has been extensively studied in terms of "Printed Electronics". For the wider diversity in research toward new applications, one can consider how to use a combination of miscibility and phase separation in liquid crystals. Here we report discotic liquid crystals in making a composite of which structural order is controlled in nano-scale toward photovoltaic applications. Discotic columnar LCs were studied on their resultant molecular order and carrier transport properties. Liquid crystals of phthalocyanine and its analogues which exhibit columnar mesomorphism with high carrier mobility (10-1 cm2/Vs) were examined with making binary phase diagrams and the correlation to carrier transport properties by TOF measurements was discussed. The shape-analogues in chemical structure shows a good miscibility even for the different lattice-type of columnar arrangement and the carrier mobility is mostly decrease except for a case of combination with a metal-free and the metal complex. For the mixtures with non-mesogenic C60 derivatives, one sees a phase-separated structure due to its immiscibility, though the columnar order is remained in a range of component ratio.Especially, in a range of the ratio, it was observed the phase separated C60 derivatives are fused into the matrix of columnar bundles, indicating C60 derivatives could be diffused in columnar arrays in molecular level.

  9. Liquid-Crystalline Ionic Liquids as Ordered Reaction Media for the Diels-Alder Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Duncan W; Gao, Yanan; Canongia Lopes, José Nuno; Shimizu, Karina; Slattery, John M

    2016-11-02

    Liquid-crystalline ionic liquids (LCILs) are ordered materials that have untapped potential to be used as reaction media for synthetic chemistry. This paper investigates the potential for the ordered structures of LCILs to influence the stereochemical outcome of the Diels-Alder reaction between cyclopentadiene and methyl acrylate. The ratio of endo- to exo-product from this reaction was monitored for a range of ionic liquids (ILs) and LCILs. Comparison of the endo:exo ratios in these reactions as a function of cation, anion and liquid crystallinity of the reaction media, allowed for the effects of liquid crystallinity to be distinguished from anion effects or cation alkyl chain length effects. These data strongly suggest that the proportion of exo-product increases as the reaction media is changed from an isotropic IL to a LCIL. A detailed molecular dynamics (MD) study suggests that this effect is related to different hydrogen bonding interactions between the reaction media and the exo- and endo-transition states in solvents with layered, smectic ordering compared to those that are isotropic. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Active Mesogenic Droplets: Impact of Liquid Crystallinity and Collective Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Christian

    Droplets of common mesogenic compounds show a self-propelled motion when immersed in aqueous solutions containing ionic surfactants at concentrations well above the critical micelle concentration. After introducing some general properties of this type of artificial microswimmer, we focus on two topics: the influence of liquid crystallinity on the swimming behavior and the collective behavior of ensembles of a larger number of droplets. The mesogenic properties are not essential for the basic mechanism of self-propulsion, nevertheless they considerably influence the swimming behavior of the droplets. For instance, the shape of the trajectories strongly depends on whether the droplets are in the nematic or isotropic state. The droplet swimmers are also ideally suited for the study of collective behavior: Microfluidics enables the generation of large numbers of identical swimmers and we can tune their buoyancy. We report on the collective behavior in three-dimensional environments. Supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SPP 1726 ``Microswimmers'').

  11. Volume phase transitions of cholesteric liquid crystalline gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Akihiko

    2015-05-07

    We present a mean field theory to describe anisotropic deformations of a cholesteric elastomer without solvent molecules and a cholesteric liquid crystalline gel immersed in isotropic solvents at a thermal equilibrium state. Based on the neoclassical rubber theory of nematic elastomers, we derive an elastic energy and a twist distortion energy, which are important to determine the shape of a cholesteric elastomer (or gel). We demonstrate that when the elastic energy dominates in the free energy, the cholesteric elastomer causes a spontaneous compression in the pitch axis and elongates along the director on the plane perpendicular to the pitch axis. Our theory can qualitatively describe the experimental results of a cholesteric elastomer. We also predict the first-order volume phase transitions and anisotropic deformations of a gel at the cholesteric-isotropic phase transition temperature. Depending on a chirality of a gel, we find a prolate or oblate shape of cholesteric gels.

  12. Volume phase transitions of cholesteric liquid crystalline gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Akihiko, E-mail: matuyama@bio.kyutech.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kawazu 680-4, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    We present a mean field theory to describe anisotropic deformations of a cholesteric elastomer without solvent molecules and a cholesteric liquid crystalline gel immersed in isotropic solvents at a thermal equilibrium state. Based on the neoclassical rubber theory of nematic elastomers, we derive an elastic energy and a twist distortion energy, which are important to determine the shape of a cholesteric elastomer (or gel). We demonstrate that when the elastic energy dominates in the free energy, the cholesteric elastomer causes a spontaneous compression in the pitch axis and elongates along the director on the plane perpendicular to the pitch axis. Our theory can qualitatively describe the experimental results of a cholesteric elastomer. We also predict the first-order volume phase transitions and anisotropic deformations of a gel at the cholesteric-isotropic phase transition temperature. Depending on a chirality of a gel, we find a prolate or oblate shape of cholesteric gels.

  13. LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYMERS FROM VANILLIC ACID: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES, AND APPLICATIONS.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilsens, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Thermotropic polyesters are an important class of materials for high erformance applications. Their low melt viscosities, low thermal expansion coefficients, high use temperatures, and ease in processing allow for the production of high strength and high modulus fibers, films, or compression-molded

  14. Printable, Degradable, and Biocompatible Ion Gels from a Renewable ABA Triblock Polyester and a Low Toxicity Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Boxin; Schneiderman, Deborah K.; Bidoky, Fazel Zare; Frisbie, C.Daniel; Lodge, Timothy P. (UMM)

    2017-09-15

    We have designed printable, biocompatible, and degradable ion gels by combining a novel ABA triblock aliphatic polyester, poly(ε-decalactone)-b-poly(dl-lactide)-b-poly(ε-decalactone), and a low toxicity ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluoromethanesulfonylimide ([P14][TFSI]). Due to the favorable compatibility between amorphous poly(dl-lactide) and [P14][TFSI] and the insolubility of the poly(ε-decalactone), the triblock polymer forms self-assembled micellar cross-links similar to thermoplastic elastomers, which ensures similar processing conditions and mechanical robustness during the fabrication of printed electrolyte-gated organic transistor devices. Additionally, the ester backbone in the polymer structure enables efficient hydrolytic degradation of these ion gels compared to those made previously using carbon-backbone polymers.

  15. Computer simulation of confined and flexoelectric liquid crystalline systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmes, F.

    2003-01-01

    In this Thesis, systems of confined and flexoelectric liquid crystal systems have been studied using molecular computer simulations. The aim of this work was to provide a molecular model of a bistable display cell in which switching is induced through the application of directional electric field pulses. In the first part of this Thesis, the study of confined systems of liquid crystalline particles has been addressed. Computation of the anchoring phase diagrams for three different surface interaction models showed that the hard needle wall and rod-surface potentials induce both planar and homeotropic alignment separated by a bistability region, this being stronger and wider for the rod-surface varant. The results obtained using the rod-sphere surface model, in contrast, showed that tilled surface arrangements can be induced by surface absorption mechanisms. Equivalent studies of hybrid anchored systems showed that a bend director structure can be obtained in a slab with monostable homeotropic anchoring at the top surface and bistable anchoring at the bottom, provided that the slab height is sufficiently large and the top homeotropic anchoring is not too strong. In the second part of the Thesis, the development of models for tapered (pear-shaped) mesogens has been addressed. The first model considered, the truncated Stone expansion model, proved to be unsuccessful in that it did not display liquid crystalline phases. This drawback was then overcome using the alternative parametric hard Gaussian overlap model which was found to display a much richer phase behaviour. With a molecular elongation k = 5, both nematic and interdigitated smectic A 2 phases were obtained. In the final part of this Thesis, the knowledge acquired from the two previous studies was united in an attempt to model a bistable display cell. Switching between the hybrid aligned nematic and vertical states of the cell was successfully performed using pear shaped particles with both dielectric and

  16. Autophobicity and layering behavior of thin liquid-crystalline polymer films.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielen, van der M.W.J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Fleer, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The stability against breaking-up of thin spin-coated films of liquid-crystalline polymers depends on the film thickness and annealing temperature. This study concerns side-chain liquid-crystalline polymers, based on alternating copolymers of maleic anhydride and mesogenic alkenes. The mesogenic

  17. Phosphoric acids as amplifiers of molecular chirality in liquid crystalline media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, R; Feringa, BL

    2006-01-01

    A new system for the double amplification of the molecular chirality of simple chiral amines in achiral liquid crystalline media is described. It involves a conformationally flexible phosphoric acid based receptor that by binding to chiral amines induces chirality in the liquid crystalline matrix.

  18. Liquid crystalline solutions of cellulose in phosphoric acid for preparing cellulose yarns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerstoel, H.

    2006-01-01

    The presen thesis describes a new process for manufacturing high tenacity and high modulus cellulose yarns. A new direct solvent for cellulose has been discovered, leading to liquid crystalline solutions. This new solvent, superphosphoric acid, rapidly dissolves cellulose. These liquid crystalline

  19. Drug Release and Skin Permeation from Lipid Liquid Crystalline Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Balogh, F. O.; Sparr, E.; Sousa, J. J. S.; Pais, A. A. C. C.

    We have studied drug release and skin permeation from several different liquid crystalline lipid formulations that may be used to control the respective release rates. We have studied the release and permeation through human skin of a water-soluble and amphiphilic drug, propranolol hydrochloride, from several formulations prepared with monoolein and phytantriol as permeation enhancers and controlled release excipients. Diolein and cineol were added to selected formulations. We observed that viscosity decreases with drug load, wich is compatible with the occurrence of phase changes. Diolein stabilizes the bicontinuous cubic phases leading to an increase in viscosity and sustained release of the drug. The slowest release was found for the cubic phases with higher viscosity. Studies on skin permeation showed that these latter formulations also presented lower permeability than the less viscous monoolein lamellar phases. Formulations containing cineol originated higher permeability with higher enhancement ratios. Thus, the various formulations are adapted to different circumstances and delivery routes. While a slow release is usually desired for drug sustained delivery, the transdermal route may require a faster release. Lamellar phases, which are less viscous, are more adapted to transdermal applications. Thus, systems involving lamellar phases of monoolein and cineol are good candidates to be used as skin permeation enhancers for propranolol hydrochloride.

  20. Effects of alkaline or liquid-ammonia treatment on crystalline cellulose: changes in crystalline structure and effects on enzymatic digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmel Michael E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In converting biomass to bioethanol, pretreatment is a key step intended to render cellulose more amenable and accessible to cellulase enzymes and thus increase glucose yields. In this study, four cellulose samples with different degrees of polymerization and crystallinity indexes were subjected to aqueous sodium hydroxide and anhydrous liquid ammonia treatments. The effects of the treatments on cellulose crystalline structure were studied, in addition to the effects on the digestibility of the celluloses by a cellulase complex. Results From X-ray diffractograms and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, it was revealed that treatment with liquid ammonia produced the cellulose IIII allomorph; however, crystallinity depended on treatment conditions. Treatment at a low temperature (25°C resulted in a less crystalline product, whereas treatment at elevated temperatures (130°C or 140°C gave a more crystalline product. Treatment of cellulose I with aqueous sodium hydroxide (16.5 percent by weight resulted in formation of cellulose II, but also produced a much less crystalline cellulose. The relative digestibilities of the different cellulose allomorphs were tested by exposing the treated and untreated cellulose samples to a commercial enzyme mixture (Genencor-Danisco; GC 220. The digestibility results showed that the starting cellulose I samples were the least digestible (except for corn stover cellulose, which had a high amorphous content. Treatment with sodium hydroxide produced the most digestible cellulose, followed by treatment with liquid ammonia at a low temperature. Factor analysis indicated that initial rates of digestion (up to 24 hours were most strongly correlated with amorphous content. Correlation of allomorph type with digestibility was weak, but was strongest with cellulose conversion at later times. The cellulose IIII samples produced at higher temperatures had comparable crystallinities to the initial cellulose I

  1. Self-assembly of azobenzene based side-chain liquid crystalline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The polymeric complexes acquitted as undivided liquid crystalline properties ... India) methanol and other solvents were purified by .... mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred ... Polymer is soluble in DMF, CHCl3, CH2Cl2 and.

  2. Functionalized Nanoporous Polymer Membranes with Well-Defined Pore Architectures via Lyotropic Liquid-Crystalline Monomers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gin, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    .... Two lyotropic liquid-crystalline monomer platforms have been synthesized. The interchannel separations in the polymerizable materials can be varied in the 30-40 A range by the choice of counterion on the ionic headgroup of the monomers...

  3. Synthesis and characterization of novel side-chain liquid crystalline polycarbonates, 4 - Synthesis of side-chain liquid crystalline polycarbonates with mesogenic groups having tails of different lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.C.; Addink, R.; Nijenhuis, K.T.; Mijs, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Side-chain liquid crystalline polycarbonates with alkoxyphenylbenzoate side groups, having a short spacer and tails ranging from 1 to 8 C-atoms, were synthesized. The polymers were prepared by an organo-zinc catalysed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and mesogenic 4-alkoxyphenyl

  4. Liquid Crystalline Thermosets from Ester, Ester-imide, and Ester-amide Oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Theodorus J. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St. Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Main chain thermotropic liquid crystal esters, ester-imides, and ester-amides were prepared from AA, BB, and AB type monomeric materials and end-capped with phenylacetylene, phenylmaleimide, or nadimide reactive end-groups. The end-capped liquid crystal oligomers are thermotropic and have, preferably, molecular weights in the range of approximately 1000-15,000 grams per mole. The end-capped liquid crystaloligomers have broad liquid crystalline melting ranges and exhibit high melt stability and very low melt viscosities at accessible temperatures. The end-capped liquid crystal oli-gomers are stable forup to an hour in the melt phase. They are highly processable by a variety of melt process shape forming and blending techniques. Once processed and shaped, the end-capped liquid crystal oigomers were heated to further polymerize and form liquid crystalline thermosets (LCT). The fully cured products are rubbers above their glass transition temperatures.

  5. Lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behaviour in amphiphile-protic ionic liquid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhengfei; Greaves, Tamar L; Fong, Celesta; Caruso, Rachel A; Drummond, Calum J

    2012-03-21

    Approximate partial phase diagrams for nine amphiphile-protic ionic liquid (PIL) systems have been determined by synchrotron source small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and cross polarised optical microscopy. The binary phase diagrams of some common cationic (hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, CTAC, and hexadecylpyridinium bromide, HDPB) and nonionic (polyoxyethylene (10) oleyl ether, Brij 97, and Pluronic block copolymer, P123) amphiphiles with the PILs, ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), ethanolammonium nitrate (EOAN) and diethanolammonium formate (DEOAF), have been studied. The phase diagrams were constructed for concentrations from 10 wt% to 80 wt% amphiphile, in the temperature range 25 °C to >100 °C. Lyotropic liquid crystalline phases (hexagonal, cubic and lamellar) were formed at high surfactant concentrations (typically >50 wt%), whereas at thermal stability of the phases formed by these surfactants persisted to temperatures above 100 °C. The phase behaviour of amphiphile-PIL systems was interpreted by considering the PIL cohesive energy, liquid nanoscale order, polarity and ionicity. For comparison the phase behaviour of the four amphiphiles was also studied in water.

  6. Cross-Linked Liquid Crystalline Systems From Rigid Polymer Networks to Elastomers

    CERN Document Server

    Broer, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    With rapidly expanding interest in liquid crystalline polymers and elastomers among the liquid crystal community, researchers are currently exploring the wide range of possible application areas for these unique materials, including optical elements on displays, tunable lasers, strain gauges, micro-structures, and artificial muscles. Written by respected scientists from academia and industry around the world, who are not only active in the field but also well-known in more traditional areas of research, "Cross-Linked Liquid Crystalline Systems: From Rigid Polymer Networks to Elastomers&qu

  7. Chirality under confinement - multidimensional constraints in liquid crystalline materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleczkowski, P.B.

    2014-01-01

    The first part of the thesis is devoted to studies of the self-assembled monolayers of discotic liquid crystals by the STM measurements at the liquid/solid interface. For the case of a model H5T molecule the self-assembled monolayers have evidenced both: point and organizational types of chirality,

  8. Phase behaviour of macromolecular liquid crystalline materials. Computational studies at the molecular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimson, Lorna M.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular simulations provide an increasingly useful insight into the static and dynamic characteristics of materials. In this thesis molecular simulations of macro-molecular liquid crystalline materials are reported. The first liquid crystalline material that has been investigated is a side chain liquid crystal polymer (SCLCP). In this study semi-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted at a range of temperatures and an aligning potential has been applied to mimic the effect of a magnetic field. In cooling the SCLCP from an isotropic melt, microphase separation was observed yielding a domain structure. The application of a magnetic field to this structure aligns the domains producing a stable smectic mesophase. This is the first study in which mesophases have been observed using an off-lattice model of a SCLCP. The second material that has been investigated is a dendrimer with terminal mesogenic functionalization. Here, a multi-scale approach has been taken with Monte Carlo studies of a single dendrimer molecule in the gas phase at the atomistic level, semi-atomistic molecular dynamics of a single molecule in liquid crystalline solvents and a coarse-grained molecular dynamics study of the dendrimer in the bulk. The coarse-grained model has been developed and parameterized using the results of the atomistic and semi-atomistic work. The single molecule studies showed that the liquid crystalline dendrimer was able to change its structure by conformational changes in the flexible chains that link the mesogenic groups to the core. Structural change was seen under the application of a mean field ordering potential in the gas phase, and in the presence of liquid crystalline solvents. No liquid crystalline phases were observed for the bulk phase studies of the coarse-grained model. However, when the length of the mesogenic units was increased there was some evidence for microphase separation in these systems. (author)

  9. Interest of neutron scattering for the investigation of liquid-crystalline polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noirez, L.

    1994-01-01

    Small-angle Neutron scattering is the unique method which allows the determination of polymer conformation in the bulk state. This method has been applied to several kinds of liquid crystalline polymers. Results concerning side-chain liquid-crystal polymer, main-chain liquid-crystal polymer and combined liquid-crystal polymers, are reported. It is shown that the polymer conformation is largely dependent on the insertion site of the liquid crystal molecule and of the structure of the meso-phase. (author). 11 refs

  10. Dicyanamide Salts that Adopt Smectic, Columnar, or Bicontinuous Cubic Liquid-Crystalline Mesophases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geonhui; Goossens, Karel; Shin, Tae Joo; Bielawski, Christopher W

    2018-04-25

    Although dicyanamide (i.e., [N(CN) 2 ] - ) has been commonly used to obtain low-viscosity, halogen-free, room-temperature ionic liquids, liquid-crystalline salts containing such anions have remained virtually unexplored. Here we report a series of amphiphilic dicyanamide salts that, depending on their structures and compositions, adopt smectic, columnar, or bicontinuous cubic thermotropic liquid-crystalline mesophases, even at room temperature in some cases. Their thermal properties were explored by polarized light optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (including evolved gas analysis), and variable-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Comparison of the thermal phase characteristics of these new liquid-crystalline salts featuring "V-shaped" [N(CN) 2 ] - anions with those of structural analogues containing [SCN] - , [BF 4 ] - , [PF 6 ] - , or [CF 3 SO 3 ] - anions indicated that not only the size of the counterion but also its shape should be considered in the development of mesomorphic salts. Collectively, these discoveries may be expected to facilitate the design of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals that form inverted-type bicontinuous cubic and other sophisticated liquid-crystalline phases. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. (Meth)acrylate liquid crystalline polymers for membrane applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rabie, F.; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Sheth, S.; Marand, E.; Martin, S. M.; Poláková, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 43 (2015), 42694_1-42694_8 ISSN 0021-8995 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : copolymers * liquid crystals * membranes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.866, year: 2015

  12. Observation of hairpin defects in a nematic main-chain polyester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. H.; Brûlet, A.; Davidson, P.; Keller, P.; Cotton, J. P.

    1993-04-01

    The conformation of a main-chain liquid crystalline polyester in its oriented nematic phase has been determined by small-angle neutron scattering. The data are fitted by a model of rigid cylinder with orientational fluctuations. For a low degree of polymerization (~9) the chain is almost completely elongated in the direction of the nematic field. For a polymer 3 times longer, the existence of two hairpins is shown at high temperature; this number decreases with decreasing temperature.

  13. Frustrated smectic liquid crystalline phases in lactic acid derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Glogarová, Milada; Novotná, Vladimíra

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 7-8 (2016), s. 829-839 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02843S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : field * liquid crystals * TGB phases Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2016

  14. Synthesis and Supramolecular Chemistry of Novel Liquid Crystalline Crown Ether-Substituted Phthalocyanines : Toward Molecular Wires and Molecular Ionoelectronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nostrum, Cornelus F. van; Picken, Stephen J.; Schouten, Arend-Jan; Nolte, Roeland J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis of the metal-free and the dihydroxysilicon derivatives of tetrakis[4’,5’-bis(decoxy)benzo-18-crown-6]phthalocyanine is described. The metal-free phthalocyanine is liquid crystalline and exhibits a crystalline phase to mesophase transition at 148 °C. The structures of the crystalline

  15. Electro-optics of novel polymer-liquid crystalline composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimov, T.D.; Bayramov, G.M.; Imamaliyev, A.R.; Bayramov, G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The polymer network liquid crystals based on the liquid crystals H37 and 5CB with PMVP and PEG have been developed. Mesogene substance HOBA is served for stabilization of obtaining composites. Kinetics of network formation is investigated by methods of polarization microscopy and integrated small-angle scattering. It is shown that gel-like states of the composite H-37+PMVP+HOBA and 5CB+PEG+HOBA are formed at polymer concentration above 7 percent and 9 percent, correspondingly. The basic electro-optic parameters of the obtained composites are determined at room temperature. Experimental results are explained by phase separation of the system, diminution of a working area of electro-optical effects and influence of areas with high polymer concentration on areas with their low concentration

  16. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of liquid crystalline fluids: active gels and blue phases

    OpenAIRE

    Cates, M. E.; Henrich, O.; Marenduzzo, D.; Stratford, K.

    2010-01-01

    Lattice Boltzmann simulations have become a method of choice to solve the hydrodynamic equations of motion of a number of complex fluids. Here we review some recent applications of lattice Boltzmann to study the hydrodynamics of liquid crystalline materials. In particular, we focus on the study of (a) the exotic blue phases of cholesteric liquid crystals, and (b) active gels - a model system for actin plus myosin solutions or bacterial suspensions. In both cases lattice Boltzmann studies have...

  17. Induction of liquid crystallinity of by self-assembled molecular boxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piermattei, A.; Giesbers, Marcel; Marcelis, Antonius T.M.; Mendes, Eduardo; Picken, Stephen J.; Crego Calama, Mercedes; Reinhoudt, David

    2006-01-01

    Jewel-box: In a hierarchical process, three molecules of a calix[4]arene (blue) and six of barbituric or cyanuric acid (green) assemble into double-rosette boxes, which assemble into columns, which in turn assemble into columnar liquid-crystalline phases (see picture). The resulting mesophases have

  18. Effect of Liquid Crystalline Systems Containing Antimicrobial Compounds on Infectious Skin Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carla; Watanabe, Evandro; Aires, Carolina Patrícia; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed (i) to prepare liquid crystalline systems (LCS) of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) and water containing antibacterial compounds and (ii) to evaluate their potential as drug delivery systems for topical treatment of bacterial infections. Therefore, LCS containing CPC (cetylpyridinium chloride) (LCS/CPC) and PHMB (poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride) (LCS/PHMB) were prepared and the liquid crystalline phases were identified by polarizing light microscopy 24 h and 7 days after preparation. The in vitro drug release profile and in vitro antibacterial activity of the systems were assessed using the double layer agar diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis. The interaction between GMO and the drugs was evaluated by a drug absorption study. Stable liquid crystalline systems containing CPC and PHMB were obtained. LCS/PHMB decreased the PHMB release rate and exerted strong antibacterial activity against all the investigated bacteria. In contrast, CPC interacted with GMO so strongly that it became attached to the system; the amount released was not sufficient to exert antibacterial activity. Therefore, the studied liquid crystalline systems were suitable to deliver PHMB, but not CPC. Accordingly, it was demonstrated that GMO interacts with each drug differently, which may interfere in the final efficiency of GMO/water LCS.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and photoinduction of optical anisotropy in liquid crystalline diblock azo-copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forcen, P.; Oriol, L.; Sanchez, S.; Alcala, R.; Hvilsted, S.; Jankova, K.; Loos, J.

    2007-01-01

    Diblock copolymers with polymethyl methacrylate and side chain liquid crystalline (LC) azopolymethacrylate blocks were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The azobenzene content in these copolymers ranges from 52 to 7 wt %. For an azo content down to 20% they exhibit a LC

  20. Electric-field triggered controlled release of bioactive volatiles from imine-based liquid crystalline phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Andreas; Giuseppone, Nicolas; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Application of an electric field to liquid crystalline film forming imines with negative dielectric anisotropy, such as N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline (MBBA, 1), results in the expulsion of compounds that do not participate in the formation of the liquid crystalline phase. Furthermore, amines and aromatic aldehydes undergo component exchange with the imine by generating constitutional dynamic libraries. The strength of the electric field and the duration of its application to the liquid crystalline film influence the release rate of the expelled compounds and, at the same time, modulate the equilibration of the dynamic libraries. The controlled release of volatile organic molecules with different chemical functionalities from the film was quantified by dynamic headspace analysis. In all cases, higher headspace concentrations were detected in the presence of an electric field. These results point to the possibility of using imine-based liquid crystalline films to build devices for the controlled release of a broad variety of bioactive volatiles as a direct response to an external electric signal.

  1. Gold nanoparticles in plastic columnar discotic liquid crystalline material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Mukesh, E-mail: mukeshphysics927@gmail.com [Center of Material Sciences, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Kumar, Sandeep [Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Dhar, Ravindra, E-mail: dr.ravindra.dhar@gmail.com [Center of Material Sciences, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India)

    2016-05-10

    Highlights: • Dispersion of Gold nanoparticles in a discotic liquid crystal has been studied. • σ{sub i} increases by seven orders of magnitude in the case of 1.2 wt% GNPs composites. • X-ray scattering results revel that a decrement in the core–core separation. • Study suggests that dispersion at low concentrations is uniform. • Band gap has decreased due to dispersion of GNPs in HAT4. - Abstract: We have studied the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the thermodynamical, optical and dielectrical parameters of a discotic liquid crystal (DLC) namely hexabutyloxytriphenylene (HAT4). It has been observed that with the increase of GNPs concentration in DLC, composites shows two different regions. In the first regions i.e. low concentrations (<1 wt%), columnar hexagonal-isotropic (Col{sub hp}-I{sub L}) transition temperature and enthalpy (ΔH) decrease rapidly while in the second region i.e. higher concentrations (>1 wt%) Col{sub hp}-I{sub L} transition temperature and ΔH are approximately constant. It has been observed that, in the case of composites having 0.2 and 0.6 wt% of GNPs, conductivity has enhanced but it is poor as compared to the composite having 1.2 wt% of GNPs. For 1.2 wt% of GNPs, conductivity has increased by seven orders of magnitude as compared to the DLC. Optical study suggests that band gap of nanocomposites has decreased due to dispersion of GNPs.

  2. Vapor-Liquid Sol-Gel Approach to Fabricating Highly Durable and Robust Superhydrophobic Polydimethylsiloxane@Silica Surface on Polyester Textile for Oil-Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Jing; Liao, Xiaofeng; Zeng, Xingrong

    2017-08-23

    Large-scale fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with excellent durability by simple techniques has been of considerable interest for its urgent practical application in oil-water separation in recent years. Herein, we proposed a facile vapor-liquid sol-gel approach to fabricating highly durable and robust superhydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane@silica surfaces on the cross-structure polyester textiles. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that the silica generated from the hydrolysis-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) gradually aggregated at microscale driven by the extreme nonpolar dihydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS(OH)). This led to construction of hierarchical roughness and micronano structures of the superhydrophobic textile surface. The as-fabricated superhydrophobic textile possessed outstanding durability in deionized water, various solvents, strong acid/base solutions, and boiling/ice water. Remarkably, the polyester textile still retained great water repellency and even after ultrasonic treatment for 18 h, 96 laundering cycles, and 600 abrasion cycles, exhibiting excellent mechanical robustness. Importantly, the superhydrophobic polyester textile was further applied for oil-water separation as absorption materials and/or filter pipes, presenting high separation efficiency and great reusability. Our method to construct superhydrophobic textiles is simple but highly efficient; no special equipment, chemicals, or atmosphere is required. Additionally, no fluorinated slianes and organic solvents are involved, which is very beneficial for environment safety and protection. Our findings conceivably stand out as a new tool to fabricate organic-inorganic superhydrophobic surfaces with strong durability and robustness for practical applications in oil spill accidents and industrial sewage emission.

  3. Iron Fibers Arrays Prepared by Electrodepositing in Reverse Liquid Crystalline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Suling; LIN Dong; GUAN Jianguo; ZHANG Lianmeng

    2006-01-01

    Ordered iron fiber arrays were electrodeposited on the surface of zinc foils using "FeSO4 solution-sodium caprylate-Decanol" 3-component reverse hexagonal liquid crystal as soft templates. The structure of the soft templates and the synthesized iron fibers were characterized by polarizing microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis etc. The experimental results show that the synthesized iron fibers with α crystal phase grew up in the form of fiber clusters of about 200 nm along the direction perpendicular to the cathode surface. Each cluster was composed of several tens of fibers. The fibers had almost the same length of more than 10 μm with a diameter of about 50 nm.

  4. Photo-responsive liquid crystalline epoxy networks with exchangeable disulfide bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuzhan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Zhang, Yuehong [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Rios, Orlando [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Keum, Jong K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kessler, Michael R. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2017-07-27

    The increasing demand for intelligent materials has driven the development of polymers with a variety of functionalities. However, combining multiple functionalities within one polymer is still challenging because of the difficulties encountered in coordinating different functional building blocks during fabrication. In this work, we demonstrate the fabrication of a multifunctional liquid crystalline epoxy network (LCEN) using the combination of thermotropic liquid crystals, photo-responsive azobenzene molecules, and exchangeable disulfide bonds. In addition to shape memory behavior enabled by the reversible liquid crystalline phase transition and photo-induced bending behavior resulting from the photo-responsive azobenzene molecules, the introduction of dynamic disulfide bonds into the LCEN resulted in a structurally dynamic network, allowing the reshaping, repairing, and recycling of the material.

  5. Biphenyl liquid crystalline epoxy resin as a low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chang, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Cheng, Kuo-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang

    2012-11-01

    Low-shrinkage resin-based photocurable liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite has been investigated with regard to its application as a dental restoration material. The nanocomposite consists of an organic matrix and an inorganic reinforcing filler. The organic matrix is made of liquid crystalline biphenyl epoxy resin (BP), an epoxy resin consisting of cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ECH), the photoinitiator 4-octylphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and the photosensitizer champhorquinone. The inorganic filler is silica nanoparticles (∼70-100 nm). The nanoparticles were modified by an epoxy silane of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to be compatible with the organic matrix and to chemically bond with the organic matrix after photo curing. By incorporating the BP liquid crystalline (LC) epoxy resin into conventional ECH epoxy resin, the nanocomposite has improved hardness, flexural modulus, water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion. Although the incorporation of silica filler may dilute the reinforcing effect of crystalline BP, a high silica filler content (∼42 vol.%) was found to increase the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite due to the formation of unique microstructures. The microstructure of nanoparticle embedded layers was observed in the nanocomposite using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This unique microstructure indicates that the crystalline BP and nanoparticles support each other and result in outstanding mechanical properties. The crystalline BP in the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite was partially melted during exothermic photopolymerization, and the resin expanded via an order-to-disorder transition. Thus, the post-gelation shrinkage of the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite is greatly reduced, ∼50.6% less than in commercialized methacrylate resin-based composites. This LC epoxy nanocomposite demonstrates good physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility

  6. Nonionic diethanolamide amphiphiles with isoprenoid-type hydrocarbon chains: thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagnella, Sharon M.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Krodkiewska, Irena; Drummond, Calum J. (CSIRO/MSE)

    2014-09-24

    The thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behaviour of a series of diethanolamide amphiphiles with isoprenoid-type hydrocarbon chains (geranoyl, H-farnesoyl, and phytanoyl) has been investigated. When neat, both H-farnesoyl and phytanoyl diethanolamide form a smectic liquid crystalline structure at sub-zero temperatures. In addition, all three diethanolamides exhibit a glass transition temperature at around -73 C. Geranoyl diethanolamide forms a lamellar crystalline phase with a lattice parameter of 17.4 {angstrom} following long term storage accompanied by the loss of the glass transition. In the presence of water, H-farnesoyl and phytanoyl diethanolamide form lyotropic liquid crystalline phases, whilst geranoyl diethanolamide forms an L{sub 2} phase. H-farnesoyl diethanolamide forms a fluid lamellar phase (L{sub {alpha}}) at room temperature and up to {approx} 40 C. Phytanoyl diethanolamide displays a rich mesomorphism forming the inverse diamond (Q{sub II}{sup D}) and gyroid (Q{sub II}{sup G}) bicontinuous cubic phases in addition to an L{sub {alpha}} phase.

  7. Elastic properties of crystalline and liquid gallium at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapin, A. G.; Gromnitskaya, E. L.; Yagafarov, O. F.; Stal'Gorova, O. V.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2008-11-01

    The elastic properties of gallium, such as the bulk modulus B, the shear modulus G, and the Poisson’s ratio σ, are investigated and the relative change in the volume is determined in the stability regions of the Ga I, Ga II, and liquid phases at pressures of up to 1.7 GPa. The observed lines of the Ga I-Ga II phase transition and the melting curves of the Ga I and Ga II phases are in good agreement with the known phase diagram of gallium; in this case, the coordinates of the Ga I-Ga II-melt triple point are determined to be 1.24 ± 0.40 GPa and 277 ± 2 K. It is shown that the Ga I-Ga II phase transition is accompanied by a considerable decrease in the moduli B (by 30%) and G (by 55%) and an increase in the density by 5.7%. The Poisson’s ratio exhibits a jump from typically covalent values of approximately 0.22-0.25 to values of approximately 0.32-0.33, which are characteristic of metals. The observed behavior of the elastic characteristics is described in the framework of the model of the phase transition from a “quasi-molecular” (partially covalent) metal state to a “normal” metal state. An increase in the Poisson’s ratio in the Ga I phase from 0.22 to 0.25 with an increase in the pressure can be interpreted as a decrease in the degree of covalence, i.e., the degree of spatial anisotropy of the electron density along the bonds, whereas the large value of the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus (equal to approximately 8) observed up to the transition to the Ga II phase or the melt is associated not only with the quasicovalent nature of the Ga I phase but also with the structural features. In view of the presence of seven neighbors for each gallium atom in the Ga I phase, the gallium lattice can be treated as a structure intermediate between typical open-packed and close-packed structures. Premelting effects, such as a flattening of the isothermal dependence of the shear modulus G( p) with increasing pressure and an increase in the slope of the

  8. Elastic properties of crystalline and liquid gallium at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyapin, A. G.; Gromnitskaya, E. L.; Yagafarov, O. F.; Stal'gorova, O. V.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2008-01-01

    The elastic properties of gallium, such as the bulk modulus B, the shear modulus G, and the Poisson's ratio σ, are investigated and the relative change in the volume is determined in the stability regions of the Ga I, Ga II, and liquid phases at pressures of up to 1.7 GPa. The observed lines of the Ga I-Ga II phase transition and the melting curves of the Ga I and Ga II phases are in good agreement with the known phase diagram of gallium; in this case, the coordinates of the Ga I-Ga II-melt triple point are determined to be 1.24 ± 0.40 GPa and 277 ± 2 K. It is shown that the Ga I-Ga II phase transition is accompanied by a considerable decrease in the moduli B (by 30%) and G (by 55%) and an increase in the density by 5.7%. The Poisson's ratio exhibits a jump from typically covalent values of approximately 0.22-0.25 to values of approximately 0.32-0.33, which are characteristic of metals. The observed behavior of the elastic characteristics is described in the framework of the model of the phase transition from a 'quasi-molecular' (partially covalent) metal state to a 'normal' metal state. An increase in the Poisson's ratio in the Ga I phase from 0.22 to 0.25 with an increase in the pressure can be interpreted as a decrease in the degree of covalence, i.e., the degree of spatial anisotropy of the electron density along the bonds, whereas the large value of the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus (equal to approximately 8) observed up to the transition to the Ga II phase or the melt is associated not only with the quasicovalent nature of the Ga I phase but also with the structural features. In view of the presence of seven neighbors for each gallium atom in the Ga I phase, the gallium lattice can be treated as a structure intermediate between typical open-packed and close-packed structures. Premelting effects, such as a flattening of the isothermal dependence of the shear modulus G(p) with increasing pressure and an increase in the slope of the isobaric

  9. Injectable biomimetic liquid crystalline scaffolds enhance muscle stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Eduard; McClendon, Mark T.; Preslar, Adam T.; Chen, Charlotte H.; Sangji, M. Hussain; Pérez, Charles M. Rubert; Haynes, Russell D.; Meade, Thomas J.; Blau, Helen M.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle stem cells are a potent cell population dedicated to efficacious skeletal muscle regeneration, but their therapeutic utility is currently limited by mode of delivery. We developed a cell delivery strategy based on a supramolecular liquid crystal formed by peptide amphiphiles (PAs) that encapsulates cells and growth factors within a muscle-like unidirectionally ordered environment of nanofibers. The stiffness of the PA scaffolds, dependent on amino acid sequence, was found to determine the macroscopic degree of cell alignment templated by the nanofibers in vitro. Furthermore, these PA scaffolds support myogenic progenitor cell survival and proliferation and they can be optimized to induce cell differentiation and maturation. We engineered an in vivo delivery system to assemble scaffolds by injection of a PA solution that enabled coalignment of scaffold nanofibers with endogenous myofibers. These scaffolds locally retained growth factors, displayed degradation rates matching the time course of muscle tissue regeneration, and markedly enhanced the engraftment of muscle stem cells in injured and noninjured muscles in mice. PMID:28874575

  10. Formation of crystalline telluridomercurates from ionic liquids near room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donsbach, Carsten; Dehnen, Stefanie [Fachbereich Chemie und Wissenschaftliches Zentrum fuer Materialwissenschaften, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Strasse 4, 35043, Marburg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    The ternary telluridomercurate Na{sub 2}[HgTe{sub 2}] (1) was formed by fusion of Na{sub 2}Te and HgTe at 600 C and further treated in the ionic liquid (C{sub 4}C{sub 1}Im)[BF{sub 4}] (C{sub 4}C{sub 1}Im = 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) at moderately elevated temperatures (60 C), leading to replacement of the Na{sup +} cations with (C{sub 4}C{sub 1}Im){sup +} and re-arrangement of the inorganic substructure. As a result, we obtained the telluridomercurate (C{sub 4}C{sub 1}Im){sub 2}[HgTe{sub 2}] (2) and the tellurido/ditelluridomercurate (C{sub 4}C{sub 1}Im){sub 2}[Hg{sub 2}Te{sub 4}] (3) besides polytellurides and HgTe as by-products. The heavy atom compositions of the compounds were confirmed by micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μ-XFS), and their structures were determined by single-crystal diffraction. The cation-exchanged salts were further investigated by UV/Vis spectroscopy, indicating narrow band-gap optical transitions at 2.80 eV (2) and 1.63 eV (3), in agreement with their visible yellow or reddish-black color, respectively. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Screening in crystalline liquids protects energetic carriers in hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiming; Miyata, Kiyoshi; Fu, Yongping; Wang, Jue; Joshi, Prakriti; Niesner, Daniel; Williams, Kristopher; Jin, Song; Zhu, Xiaoyang

    Hybrid lead halide perovskites exhibit carrier properties that resemble those of pristine nonpolar semiconductors despite static and dynamic disorder, but how carriers are protected from efficient scattering with charged defects and optical phonons is unknown. Here, we reveal the carrier protection mechanism by comparing three single-crystal lead bromide perovskites: CH3NH3PbBr3, CH(NH2)2PbBr3, and CsPbBr3. We observed hot fluorescence emission from energetic carriers with 102 picosecond lifetimes in CH3NH3PbBr3 or CH(NH,SUB>2)2PbBr3, but not in CsPbBr3. The hot fluorescence is correlated with liquid-like molecular reorientational motions, suggesting that dynamic screening protects energetic carriers via solvation or large polaron formation on time scales competitive with that of ultrafast cooling. Similar protections likely exist for band-edge carriers. The long-lived energetic carriers may enable hot-carrier solar cells with efficiencies exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit. This work was supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant ER46980, National Science Foundation, Grant DMR 1420634 (MRSEC), and Department of Energy Award DE-FG02-09ER46664.

  12. Liquid crystalline polymer nanocomposites reinforced with in-situ reduced graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pedrazzoli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work liquid-crystalline polymer (LCP nanocomposites reinforced with in-situ reduced graphene oxide are investigated. Graphene oxide (GO was first synthesized by the Hummers method, and the kinetics of its thermal reduction was assessed. GO layers were then homogeneously dispersed in a thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer matrix (Vectran®, and an in-situ thermal reduction of GO into reduced graphene oxide (rGO was performed. Even at low rGO amount, the resulting nanocomposites exhibited an enhancement of both the mechanical properties and the thermal stability. Improvements of the creep stability and of the thermo-mechanical behavior were also observed upon nanofiller incorporation. Furthermore, in-situ thermal reduction of the insulating GO into the more electrically conductive rGO led to an important surface resistivity decrease in the nanofilled samples.

  13. Langmuir-Blodgett films prepared from pre-formed cholestanic liquid-crystalline polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tundo, P.; Hodge, P.; Valli, L.; Davis, F. (Venice Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienze Ambientali Lecce Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienza dei Materiali Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dep. of Chemistry)

    1992-01-01

    A series of alternating copolymers of maleic anhydride and a-olefins functionalized through different alkyl chains with cholestanic groups were synthetised and derivatives prepared by reactions of the anhydride residues with methanol, water, dimethylamine and morpholine, respectively. The same starting functionalized a-olefins were used to prepare other suitable compounds in order to correlate the features of the liquid-crystalline behaviour of the mesogenic cholestanic group with the stability of the forthcoming polymeric or not polymeric Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. For some copolymers surface pressure against area per molecule isotherms are reported. In some multilayer (LB) films, the spacings between the layers were determined by the detection of BRAGG peaks by X-ray diffraction. The (LB) films of these polymers are closed packed, owing to either the polymeric skeleton or liquid-crystalline interaction.

  14. White emission from liquid-crystalline copolymers containing oxadiazole moieties in the side chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Masuki; Tsukamoto, Takuji; Kinoshita, Motoi; Ikeda, Tomiki

    2006-09-01

    A liquid-crystalline polymer in the side chain was synthesized through copolymerization of a bipolar carrier-transporting monomer with a liquid-crystalline monomer containing oxadiazole moieties substituted with trifluoromethyl groups. A single-layer light-emitting diode of indium tin oxide (ITO)/copolymer/MgAg emitted white light with a maximum luminous efficiency of 0.1cd/A. The origin of the white emission in the copolymer is the electroplex between bipolar carrier-transporting moieties and strong electron-withdrawing moieties. Furthermore, a simple multilayer device with configuration of ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonic acid)/copolymer/MgAg device showed white emission with CIE 1931 chromaticity coordinates (x,y): (0.30, 0.33).

  15. Shape-memory effect of nanocomposites based on liquid-crystalline elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, A.; Lama, G. C.; Gentile, G.; Cerruti, P.; Carfagna, C.; Ambrogi, V.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, nanocomposites based on liquid crystalline (LC) elastomers were prepared and characterized in their shape memory properties. For the synthesis of materials, p-bis(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-α-methylstilbene (DOMS) was used as mesogenic epoxy monomer, sebacic acid (SA) as curing agent and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene oxide (GO) as fillers. First, an effective compatibilization methodology was set up to improve the interfacial adhesion between the matrix and the carbonaceous nanofillers, thus obtaining homogeneous distribution and dispersion of the nanofillers within the polymer phase. Then, the obtained nanocomposite films were characterized in their morphological and thermal properties. In particular, the effect of the addition of the nanofillers on liquid crystalline behavior, as well as on shape-memory properties of the realized materials was investigated. It was found that both fillers were able to enhance the thermomechanical response of the LC elastomers, making them good candidates as shape memory materials.

  16. Enzymatic biofuel cell based on electrodes modified with lipid liquid-crystalline cubic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaruk, Ewa; Smoliński, Sławomir; Swatko-Ossor, Marta; Ginalska, Grażyna; Fiedurek, Jan; Rogalski, Jerzy; Bilewicz, Renata

    Two glassy carbon electrodes modified with enzymes embedded in lyotropic liquid-crystalline cubic phase were used for the biofuel cell construction. The monoolein liquid-crystalline film allowed to avoid separators in the biofuel cell. Glucose and oxygen as fuels, and glucose oxidase and laccase as anode and cathode biocatalysts, respectively were used. The biofuel cell parameters were examined in McIlvaine buffer, pH 7 solution containing 15 mM of glucose and saturated with dioxygen. A series of mediators were tested taking into account their formal potentials, stability in the cubic phase and efficiency of mediation. Most stable was the biofuel cell based on tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) as anode and cathode mediators, respectively. The open-circuit voltage was equal to 450 ± 40 mV. The power densities and current densities were measured for all the systems studied.

  17. Development and evaluation of exemestane-loaded lyotropic liquid crystalline gel formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Musa, Muhammad Nuh; David, Sheba Rani; Zulkipli, Ihsan Nazurah; Mahadi, Abdul Hanif; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Rajabalaya, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The use of liquid crystalline (LC) gel formulations for drug delivery has considerably improved the current delivery methods in terms of bioavailability and efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate LC gel formulations to deliver the anti-cancer drug exemestane through transdermal route. Methods: Two LC gel formulations were prepared by phase separation coacervation method using glyceryl monooleate (GMO), Tween 80 and Pluronic® F127 (F127). The formulations...

  18. Studies on the Synthesis,Characterization and Properties of the Reactive Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Four species of reactive thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (LCMC) with different relative molecular weight were synthesized in this work (see scheme 1, n=2, 6, 10, ∞.n means number of repeat structure unit). Their structure, morphology and properties were investigated systemically by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), polarizing opticalmicroscopy (POM) and ubb...

  19. Vehicles of inverted hexagonal liquid crystalline lipid phases self-assembled at room temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angelov, Borislav; Angelova, A.; Garamus, V. M.; Lesieur, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, 3/4 (2013), s. 211-215 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : liquid crystalline lipid nanoparticles * small angle X-ray scattering * cross-polarised light optical microscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2013 http://joam.inoe.ro/index.php?option=magazine&op=view&idu=3179&catid=76

  20. Liquid crystalline systems for transdermal delivery of celecoxib: in vitro drug release and skin permeation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estracanholli, Eder André; Praça, Fabíola Silva Garcia; Cintra, Ana Beatriz; Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Liquid crystalline systems of monoolein/water could be a promising approach for the delivery of celecoxib (CXB) to the skin because these systems can sustain drug release, improve drug penetration into the skin layers and minimize side effects. This study evaluated the potential of these systems for the delivery of CXB into the skin based on in vitro drug release and skin permeation studies. The amount of CXB that permeated into and/or was retained in the skin was assayed using an HPLC method. Polarizing light microscopy studies showed that liquid crystalline systems of monoolein/water were formed in the presence of CXB, without any changes in the mesophases. The liquid crystalline systems decreased drug release when compared to control solution. Drug release was independent of the initial water content of the systems and CXB was released from cubic phase systems, irrespective of the initial water content. The systems released the CXB following zero-order release kinetics. In vitro drug permeation studies showed that cubic phase systems allowed drug permeation and retention in the skin layers. Cubic phase systems of monoolein/water may be promising vehicles for the delivery of CXB in/through the skin because it improved CXB skin permeation compared with the control solution.

  1. From Cellulosic Based Liquid Crystalline Sheared Solutions to 1D and 2D Soft Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Godinho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystalline cellulosic-based solutions described by distinctive properties are at the origin of different kinds of multifunctional materials with unique characteristics. These solutions can form chiral nematic phases at rest, with tuneable photonic behavior, and exhibit a complex behavior associated with the onset of a network of director field defects under shear. Techniques, such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Rheology coupled with NMR (Rheo-NMR, rheology, optical methods, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, Wide Angle X-rays Scattering (WAXS, were extensively used to enlighten the liquid crystalline characteristics of these cellulosic solutions. Cellulosic films produced by shear casting and fibers by electrospinning, from these liquid crystalline solutions, have regained wider attention due to recognition of their innovative properties associated to their biocompatibility. Electrospun membranes composed by helical and spiral shape fibers allow the achievement of large surface areas, leading to the improvement of the performance of this kind of systems. The moisture response, light modulated, wettability and the capability of orienting protein and cellulose crystals, opened a wide range of new applications to the shear casted films. Characterization by NMR, X-rays, tensile tests, AFM, and optical methods allowed detailed characterization of those soft cellulosic materials. In this work, special attention will be given to recent developments, including, among others, a moisture driven cellulosic motor and electro-optical devices.

  2. Biodegradation of polyester. Polyester no bunkai sei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokiwa, Y. (Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Fermentation Research Inst.)

    1991-09-10

    Penicillium sp. 14-3 and penicillium sp. 26-1 can degrade various kinds of polyester. The results of studies made on hydrolysis of polyester by enzyme, hydrolysis of polyester by various kinds of lipase, and degradation of ester type polyurethane by microbes and lipase are introduced. For the improvement of physical properties of aliphatic polyester, aromatic-aliphatic polyester copolymers (CPE) have been synthesized to study the biodegradability. Copolymer in which a number of polyamide (nylon) are alternately introduced (CPAE) to aliphatic polyester has been developed. The result of studies made on the degradability of a blended body of PCL and natural high polymer, and on the collapsibility by lipase of high polymer materials including aliphatic polyamide are introduced. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A new series of two-ring-based side chain liquid crystalline polymers: synthesis and mesophase characterization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reddy, GSM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new series of side chain liquid crystalline polymers containing a core, a butamethylenoxy spacer, ester groups, and terminal alkoxy groups were synthesised and their structures were confirmed. The core was constructed with two phenyl rings...

  4. Understanding changes in cellulose crystalline structure of lignocellulosic biomass during ionic liquid pretreatment by XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiafu; Wang, Yixun; Zhang, Liye; Zhang, Ruihong; Liu, Guangqing; Cheng, Gang

    2014-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to understand the interactions of cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass with ionic liquids (ILs). The experiment was designed in such a way that the process of swelling and solubilization of crystalline cellulose in plant cell walls was followed by XRD. Three different feedstocks, switchgrass, corn stover and rice husk, were pretreated using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4mim][OAc]) at temperatures of 50-130°C for 6h. At a 5 wt.% biomass loading, increasing pretreatment temperature led to a drop in biomass crystallinity index (CrI), which was due to swelling of crystalline cellulose. After most of the crystalline cellulose was swollen with IL molecules, a low-order structure was found in the pretreated samples. Upon further increasing temperature, cellulose II structure started to form in the pretreated biomass samples as a result of solubilization of cellulose in [C4mim][OAc] and subsequent regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Highly tilted liquid crystalline materials possessing a direct phase transition from antiferroelectric to isotropic phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewska, K.; Drzewiński, W. [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Czerwiński, M., E-mail: mczerwinski@wat.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Dąbrowski, R. [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Piecek, W. [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-03-01

    Pure compounds and multicomponent mixtures with a broad temperature range of high tilted liquid crystalline antiferroelectric phase and a direct phase transition from antiferroelectric to isotropic phase, were obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms these kinds of materials form a high tilted anticlinic phase, with a fixed layer spacing and very weak dependency upon temperature, after the transition from the isotropic phase. Due to this, not only pure orthoconic antiferroelectric liquid crystals but also those with a moderate tilt should generate a good dark state. Furthermore, due to the increased potential for forming anticlinic forces, such materials could minimize a commonly observed asymmetry of a rise and fall switching times at a surface stabilized geometry. - Highlights: • The new class of liquid crystalline materials with the direct SmC{sub A}*. • Iso phase transition were obtained. • Materials possess the layer spacing fixed and very weak dependent upon temperature. • Smectic layers without shrinkage are observed. • A good dark state can be generate in SSAFLC.

  6. Probing the Texture of the Calamitic Liquid Crystalline Dimer of 4-(4-Pentenyloxybenzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A. Qaddoura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquid crystalline dimer of 4-(4-pentenyloxybenzoic acid, a member of the n-alkoxybenzoic acid homologous series, was synthesized using potassium carbonate supported on alumina as catalyst. The acid dimer complex exhibited three mesophases; identified as nematic, smectic X1 and smectic X2. Phase transition temperatures and the corresponding enthalpies were recorded using differential scanning calorimetry upon both heating and cooling. The mesophases were identified by detailed texture observations by variable temperature polarized light microscopy. The nematic phase was distinguished by a fluid Schlieren texture and defect points (four and two brushes while the smectic phases were distinguished by rigid marble and mosaic textures, respectively.

  7. Mean-field theory of photoinduced molecular reorientation in azobenzene liquid crystalline side-chain polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T.G.; Johansen, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    . The theory provides an explanation for the high long-term stability of the photoinduced anisotropy as well as a theoretical prediction of the temporal behavior of photoinduced birefringence. The theoretical results agree favorably with measurements in the entire range of writing intensities used......A novel mean-field theory of photoinduced reorientation and optical anisotropy in liquid crystalline side-chain polymers is presented and compared with experiments, The reorientation mechanism is based on photoinduced trans cis isomerization and a multidomain model of the material is introduced...

  8. Alignment engineering in liquid crystalline elastomers: Free-form microstructures with multiple functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Hao; Cerretti, Giacomo; Wiersma, Diederik S., E-mail: camilla.parmeggiani@lens.unifi.it, E-mail: wiersma@lens.unifi.it [European Laboratory for Non Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University of Florence, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Wasylczyk, Piotr [European Laboratory for Non Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University of Florence, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Faculty of Physics, Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, Warszawa 00-681 (Poland); Martella, Daniele [European Laboratory for Non Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University of Florence, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica “Ugo Schiff,” University of Florence, via della Lastruccia 3-13, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Parmeggiani, Camilla, E-mail: camilla.parmeggiani@lens.unifi.it, E-mail: wiersma@lens.unifi.it [European Laboratory for Non Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University of Florence, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR-INO, via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2015-03-16

    We report a method to fabricate polymer microstructures with local control over the molecular orientation. Alignment control is achieved on molecular level in a structure of arbitrary form that can be from 1 to 100 μm in size, by fixing the local boundary conditions with micro-grating patterns. The method makes use of two-photon polymerization (Direct Laser Writing) and is demonstrated specifically in liquid-crystalline elastomers. This concept allows for the realization of free-form polymeric structures with multiple functionalities which are not possible to realize with existing techniques and which can be locally controlled by light in the micrometer scale.

  9. Komposit Hibrid Polyester Berpenguat Serbuk Batang Dan Serat Sabut Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Lumintang, Romels C. A; Soenoko, Rudy; Wahyudi, Slamet

    2011-01-01

    Sawdust coconut trunks of palm trees and fiber coconut coir are two waste materials from the processing of coconuts and coconut tree trunks sawmill waste are plentiful materials can be utilized for producing composites using polyester resins. Both each properties materials as follow polyester resin: liquid in the open air conditions, sawdust coconut and coconut coir fiber properties is lightweight and fragile nature of the polyester adhesive used as a binder (binder) between fiber coconut coi...

  10. Evaluation of Microemulsion and Lamellar Liquid Crystalline Systems for Transdermal Zidovudine Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, André Luis Menezes; Silva, José Alexsandro da; Lira, Ana Amélia Moreira; Conceição, Tamara Matos Freire; Nunes, Rogéria de Souza; de Albuquerque Junior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Sarmento, Victor Hugo Vitorino; Leal, Leila Bastos; de Santana, Davi Pereira

    2016-07-01

    This study proposed to investigate and to compare colloidal carrier systems containing Zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine) (AZT) for transdermal administration and optimization of antiretroviral therapy. Microemulsion (ME) and lamellar phase (LP) liquid crystal were obtained and selected from pseudoternary diagrams previously developed. Small-angle X-ray scattering and rheology analysis confirmed the presence of typical ME and liquid crystalline structures with lamellar arrangement, respectively. Both colloidal carrier systems, ME, and LP remained stable, homogeneous, and isotropic after AZT addition. In vitro permeation study (using pig ear skin) showed that the amount of permeated drug was higher for ME compared to the control and LP, obtaining a permeation enhancing effect on the order of approximately 2-fold (p drug permeation without causing apparent skin irritation. On the order hand, LP functioned as a drug reservoir reducing AZT partitioning into the skin. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Temperature-Responsive Luminescent Solar Concentrators: Tuning Energy Transfer in a Liquid Crystalline Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sol, Jeroen A H P; Dehm, Volker; Hecht, Reinhard; Würthner, Frank; Schenning, Albertus P H J; Debije, Michael G

    2018-01-22

    Temperature-responsive luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) have been fabricated in which the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a donor-acceptor pair in a liquid crystalline solvent can be tuned. At room temperatures, the perylene bisimide (PBI) acceptor is aggregated and FRET is inactive; while after heating to a temperature above the isotropic phase of the liquid crystal solvent, the acceptor PBI completely dissolves and FRET is activated. This unusual temperature control over FRET was used to design a color-tunable LSC. The device has been shown to be highly stable towards consecutive heating and cooling cycles, making it an appealing device for harvesting otherwise unused solar energy. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  12. Liquid crystalline tactoids: ordered structure, defective coalescence and evolution in confined geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Xi; MacLachlan, Mark J.

    2017-12-01

    Tactoids are liquid crystalline microdroplets that spontaneously nucleate from isotropic dispersions, and transform into macroscopic anisotropic phases. These intermediate structures have been found in a range of molecular, polymeric and colloidal liquid crystals. Typically only studied by polarized optical microscopy, these ordered but easily deformable microdroplets are now emerging as interesting components for structural investigations and developing new materials. In this review, we highlight the structure, property and transformation of tactoids in different compositions, but especially cellulose nanocrystals. We have selected references that illustrate the diversity and most exciting developments in tactoid research, while capturing the historical development of this field. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'.

  13. Demixing by a Nematic Mean Field: Coarse-Grained Simulations of Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez-Hernández, Abelardo; Hur, Su-Mi; Armas-Pérez, Julio; Cruz, Monica; de Pablo, Juan

    2017-03-01

    Liquid crystalline polymers exhibit a particular richness of behaviors that stems from their rigidity and their macromolecular nature. On the one hand, the orientational interaction between liquid-crystalline motifs promotes their alignment, thereby leading to the emergence of nematic phases. On the other hand, the large number of configurations associated with polymer chains favors formation of isotropic phases, with chain stiffness becoming the factor that tips the balance. In this work, a soft coarse-grained model is introduced to explore the interplay of chain stiffness, molecular weight and orientational coupling, and their role on the isotropic-nematic transition in homopolymer melts. We also study the structure of polymer mixtures composed of stiff and flexible polymeric molecules. We consider the effects of blend composition, persistence length, molecular weight and orientational coupling strength on the melt structure at the nano-and mesoscopic levels. Conditions are found where the systems separate into two phases, one isotropic and the other nematic. We confirm the existence of non-equilibrium states that exhibit sought-after percolating nematic domains, which are of interest for applications in organic photovoltaic and electronic devices.

  14. Liquid crystalline systems containing Vitamin E TPGS for the controlled transdermal nicotine delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Neves Borgheti-Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Transdermal nicotine patches have been used in smoking cessation therapy, suggested for the treatment of skin disorders with eosinophilic infiltration and have been found to improve attention performance in patients with Alzheimer's disease and age-associated memory impairment. However, skin irritation with extended patch use is still a problem. The aim of this work was to develop a simple to prepare liquid crystalline system containing vitamin E TPGS that would be able to control nicotine delivery and reduce irritation and sensitization problems. The liquid crystalline phases were macroscopically characterized by visual analysis and examined microscopically under a polarized light microscope. Topical and transdermal delivery of nicotine were investigated in vitro using porcine ear skin mounted on a Franz diffusion cell. Nicotine skin permeation from the developed cubic phase followed zero-order kinetics (r = 0.993 and was significantly enhanced after 12 h when compared to the control formulation (nicotine solution (p < 0.05 (138.86 ± 20.44 and 64.91 ± 4.06 μg/cm2, respectively. Cubic phase was also able to target viable skin layers in comparison to control solution (8.18 ± 1.89 and 2.63 ± 2.51 μg/cm2, respectively. Further studies to evaluate skin sensitization and irritation are now necessary.

  15. Structural aspects of fish skin collagen which forms ordered arrays via liquid crystalline states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud-Guille, M M; Besseau, L; Chopin, C; Durand, P; Herbage, D

    2000-05-01

    The ability of acid-soluble type I collagen extracts from Soleidae flat fish to form ordered arrays in condensed phases has been compared with data for calf skin collagen. Liquid crystalline assemblies in vitro are optimized by preliminary treatment of the molecular population with ultrasounds. This treatment requires the stability of the fish collagen triple helicity to be controlled by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry and the effect of sonication to be evaluated by viscosity measurements and gel electrophoresis. The collagen solution in concentrations of at least 40 mg ml(-1) showed in polarized light microscopy birefringent patterns typical of precholesteric phases indicating long-range order within the fluid collagen phase. Ultrastructural data, obtained after stabilization of the liquid crystalline collagen into a gelated matrix, showed that neutralized acid-soluble fish collagen forms cross-striated fibrils, typical of type I collagen, following sine wave-like undulations in precholesteric domains. These ordered geometries, approximating in vivo situations, give interesting mechanical properties to the material.

  16. Polarized Emission of Wholly Aromatic Bio-Based Copolyesters of a Liquid Crystalline Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisaku Kaneko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers poly{3-benzylidene amino-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-BAHBA-co-trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4HCA: trans-coumaric acid} (Poly(3,4-BAHBA-co-4HCA, was synthesized by the thermal polycondensation of 4HCA and 3,4-BAHBA, which was synthesized by a reaction of 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-AHBA with benzaldehyde. When the 4HCA compositions of Poly(3,4-BAHBA-co-4HCAs were above 55 mol%, the copolymers showed a nematic, liquid crystalline phase. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurements of the copolymers showed a high glass transition temperature of more than 100 °C, sufficient for use in engineering plastics. Furthermore, the copolymers showed photoluminescence in an N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP solution under ultraviolet (UV light with a wavelength of 365 nm. Oriented film of Poly(3,4-BAHBA-co-4HCA with a 4HCA composition of 75 mol% emitted polarized light, which was confirmed by fluorescent spectroscopy equipped with parallel and crossed polarizers.

  17. Collagen films with stabilized liquid crystalline phases and concerns on osteoblast behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Minjian; Ding, Shan; Min, Xiang; Jiao, Yanpeng, E-mail: tjiaoyp@jnu.edu.cn; Li, Lihua; Li, Hong; Zhou, Changren, E-mail: tcrz9@jnu.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    To duplicate collagen's in vivo liquid crystalline (LC) phase and investigate the relationship between the morphology of LC collagen and osteoblast behavior, a self-assembly method was introduced for preparing collagen films with a stabilized LC phase. The LC texture and topological structure of the films before and after stabilization were observed with polarizing optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The relationship between the collagen films and osteoblast behavior was studied with the 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide method, proliferation index detection, alkaline phosphatase measurements, osteocalcin assay, inverted microscopy, SEM observation, AFM observation, and cytoskeleton fluorescence staining. The results showed that the LC collagen film had continuously twisting orientations in the cholesteric phase with a typical series of arced patterns. The collagen fibers assembled in a well-organized orientation in the LC film. Compared to the non-LC film, the LC collagen film can promote cell proliferation, and increase ALP and osteocalcin expression, revealing a contact guide effect on osteoblasts. - Highlights: • Collagen film with liquid crystalline (LC) phase was observed by POM, SEM and AFM. • The effect of LC collagen film on osteoblasts behaviors was studied in detail. • LC collagen film promoted osteoblast proliferation and osteogenesis activity.

  18. Synergy in lipofection by cationic lipid mixtures: superior activity at the gel-liquid crystalline phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koynova, Rumiana; Wang, Li; MacDonald, Robert C

    2007-07-12

    Some mixtures of two cationic lipids including phospholipid compounds (O-ethylphosphatidylcholines) as well as common, commercially available cationic lipids, such as dimethylammonium bromides and trimethylammonium propanes, deliver therapeutic DNA considerably more efficiently than do the separate molecules. In an effort to rationalize this widespread "mixture synergism", we examined the phase behavior of the cationic lipid mixtures and constructed their binary phase diagrams. Among a group of more than 50 formulations, the compositions with maximum delivery activity resided unambiguously in the solid-liquid crystalline two-phase region at physiological temperature. Thus, the transfection efficacy of formulations exhibiting solid-liquid crystalline phase coexistence is more than 5 times higher than that of formulations in the gel (solid) phase and over twice that of liquid crystalline formulations; phase coexistence occurring at physiological temperature thus appears to contribute significantly to mixture synergism. This relationship between delivery activity and physical property can be rationalized on the basis of the known consequences of lipid-phase transitions, namely, the accumulation of defects and increased disorder at solid-liquid crystalline phase boundaries. Packing defects at the borders of coexisting solid and liquid crystalline domains, as well as large local density fluctuations, could be responsible for the enhanced fusogenicity of mixtures. This study leads to the important conclusion that manipulating the composition of the lipid carriers so that their phase transition takes place at physiological temperature can enhance their delivery efficacy.

  19. On the molecular anisotropy of liquid crystalline and flexible polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Horn, Brett L.

    The demand for products of ever increasing quality or for novel applications has required increasing attention to or manipulation of the anisotropy of manufactured parts. Oriented plastics are used everywhere from recording film to automotive body parts to monofilament fishing line. Liquid crystals are also used in a wide array of applications including their dominance in the flat panel display industry, color changing temperature sensors, and woven bullet resistant fabrics. Anisotropy can also be detrimental, for instance sometimes leading to poor fracture resistance or low yield stress along specific directions. Controlling and measuring anisotropy of materials has become increasingly important, but doing so is wrought with challenges. Measuring physical properties of isotropic liquids, such as water or most oils can be done in a straightforward fashion. Their viscosities and densities, for example, have unique values under a given set of conditions. With anisotropic fluids, like liquid crystals, the viscosity, for instance, will not only depend upon temperature, concentration, etc. but also upon the direction of observation, degree of anisotropy, source of anisotropy, and so forth. This added degree of complexity complicates our ability to define the state of the material at which the measurements are made and generally necessitates the use of more sophisticated measurement strategies or techniques. This work presents techniques and tools for investigating anisotropy in liquid crystalline and stretched polymeric systems. Included are the use of conoscopy for the determination of birefringence and orientation of nematic liquid crystals and stretched polymers, the shear response of flow aligning nematic liquid crystal monodomains, and the design of a novel linear rheometer that allows for in situ optical or scattering investigations.

  20. Biphotonic holographic gratings in azobenzene polyesters: Surface relief phenomena and polarization effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, C.; Alcalá, R.; Hvilsted, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Biphotonic holographic gratings have been recorded in a side-chain azobenzene liquid crystalline polyester using a blue incoherent source and a He-Ne laser. Intensity gratings and the appearance of surface relief have been observed when two linearly polarized beams from a He-Ne laser are made...... to interfere on a film illuminated with blue light. Polarized holographic gratings are also created with two orthogonally circularly polarized He-Ne beams. All these gratings are stable in darkness but can be erased with blue light. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....

  1. Influence of UV irradiation on the blue and red light photoinduced processes in azobenzene polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, F.J.; Sánchez, C.; Villacampa, B.

    2004-01-01

    light that yields the films into the isotropic state at room temperature (RT) was compared with the quenching from temperatures above the isotropic transition temperature Ti. UV–visible spectra of the thermally quenched films show the presence of aggregates when measured at RT. We have found that UV......Birefringence induced in a series of liquid crystalline side-chain azobenzene polyesters with different substituent groups was investigated under irradiation with 488 and 633 nm linearly polarized lights. Two different initial conditions have been used: the effect of a previous irradiation with UV...

  2. (Citric acid–co–polycaprolactone triol) polyester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lynda V.; Nair, Prabha D.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering holds enormous challenges for materials science, wherein the ideal scaffold to be used is expected to be biocompatible, biodegradable and possess mechanical and physical properties that are suitable for target application. In this context, we have prepared degradable polyesters in different ratios by a simple polycondensation technique with citric acid and polycaprolactone triol. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the materials were amorphous based the absence of a crystalline melting peak and the presence of a glass transition temperature below 37°C. These polyesters were found to be hydrophilic and could be tailor-made into tubes and films. Porosity could also be introduced by addition of porogens. All the materials were non-cytotoxic in an in vitro cytotoxicity assay and may degrade via hydrolysis to non-toxic degradation products. These polyesters have potential implications in the field of soft tissue engineering on account of their similarity of properties. PMID:23507730

  3. Hydrogen Bond Induces Hierarchical Self-Assembly in Liquid-Crystalline Block Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuai; Pang, Linlin; Chen, Yuxuan; Zhou, Liming; Fang, Shaoming; Yu, Haifeng

    2018-03-01

    Microphase-separated structures of block copolymers (BCs) with a size of sub-10 nm are usually obtained by hydrogen-bond-induced self-assembly of BCs through doping with small molecules as functional additives. Here, fabrication of hierarchically self-assembled sub-10 nm structures upon microphase separation of amphiphilic liquid-crystalline BCs (LCBCs) at the existence of hydrogen bonds but without any dopants is reported. The newly introduced urethane groups in the side chain of the hydrophobic block of LCBCs interact with the ether groups of the hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) block, leading to imperfect crystallization of the PEO blocks. Both crystalline and amorphous domains coexist in the separated PEO phase, enabling a lamellar structure to appear inside the PEO nanocylinders. This provides an elegant method to fabricate controllable sub-10 nm microstructures in well-defined polymer systems without the introduction of any dopants. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Sandwich-cell-type bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing liquid crystalline phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yuya; Usui, Toshiki; Nishikawa, Yuki; Nekelson, Fabien; Shimizu, Yo; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2018-03-01

    Sandwich-cell-type bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing the liquid crystalline phthalocyanine, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2), have been fabricated and their photovoltaic properties have been studied. The short-circuit current (J SC) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) depended on the blend ratio of donor and acceptor molecules, and the maximum performance, such as J SC of 3.4 mA/cm2 and PCE of 0.67%, was demonstrated, when the blend ratio of the acceptor was 10 mol %. The photovoltaic properties were discussed by taking the relationship between the column axis direction of C6PcH2 and the carrier mobility in the active layer into consideration.

  5. LIQUID CRYSTALLINE BEHAVIOR OF HYDROXYPROPYL CELLULOSE ESTERIFIED WITH 4-ALKOXYBENZOIC ACID.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia Fahmy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of 4- alkyoxybenzoyloxypropyl cellulose (ABPC-n samples was synthesized via the esterification of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC with 4-alkoxybenzoic acid bearing different numbers of carbon atoms. The molecular structure of the ABPC-n was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid crystalline (LC phases and transitions behaviors were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, polarized light microscopy (PLM, and refractometry. It was found that the glass transition (Tg and clearing (Tc temperatures decrease with increase of the alkoxy chain length. It was observed that the derivatives with an odd number of carbon atoms are non-mesomorphic. This series of ABPC-n polymers exhibit characteristic features of cholesteric LC phases between their glass transition and isotropization temperatures.

  6. Nanostructured liquid crystalline particles as an alternative delivery vehicle for plant agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiminti, Pavani P; Dong, Yao D; Sayer, Chad; Hay, Phillip; Rookes, James E; Boyd, Ben J; Cahill, David M

    2013-03-13

    Agrochemical spray formulations applied to plants are often mixed with surfactants that facilitate delivery of the active ingredient. However, surfactants cause phytotoxicity and off-target effects in the environment. We propose the use of nanostructured liquid crystalline particles (NLCP) as an alternative to surfactant-based agrochemical delivery. For this, we have compared the application of commercial surfactants, di (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate and alkyl dimethyl betaine, with NLCP made from phytantriol, at concentrations of 0.1%, 1% and 5% on the adaxial surface of leaves of four plant species Ttriticum aestivum (wheat), Zea mays (maize), Lupinus angustifolius (lupin), and Arabidopsis thaliana. In comparison with the application of surfactants there was less phytotoxicity on leaves of each species following treatment with NLCP. Following treatment of leaves with NLCP analysis of cuticular wax micromorphology revealed less wax solubilization in the monocot species. The results clearly show that there are advantages in the use of NLCP rather than surfactants for agrochemical delivery.

  7. Synthesis, Characterization and Photoinduction of Optical Anisotropy in Liquid Crystalline Diblock Azo-Copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcén, P; Oriol, L; Sánchez, C

    2007-01-01

    Diblock copolymers with polymethyl methacrylate and side chain liquid crystalline WC) azopolymethacrylate blocks were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The azobeazene content in these copolymers ranges from 52 to 7 wt %. For an azo conteat dowri to 20% they exhibit a LC...... anisotropy induced in these films by illumination with linearly polarized 488 nm light was studied and the resuits compared with those of the azo homopolymer and of a random copolymer with a similar composition. The formation of azo aggregates inside the azo blocks is strongly reduced in going from...... the homopolymer to the copolymers. Photoinduced azo orientation perpendicular to the 488 nm light polarization was found in aH the polymers. The orientational order parameter is very similar in the homopolymer and in the block copolymers with an azo content down to 20 wt %, while it is much lower in the random...

  8. The influence of intraannular templates on the liquid crystallinity of shape-persistent macrocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joscha Vollmeyer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of shape-persistent phenylene–ethynylene–naphthylene–butadiynylene macrocycles with different extraannular alkyl groups and intraannular bridges is synthesized by oxidative Glaser-coupling of the appropriate precursors. The intraannular bridges serve in this case as templates that reduce the oligomerization even when the reaction is not performed under pseudo high-dilution conditions. The extraannular as well as the intraannular substituents have a strong influence on the thermal behavior of the compounds. With branched alkyl chains at the periphery, the macrocycles exhibit liquid crystalline (lc phases when the interior is empty or when the length of the alkyl bridge is just right to cross the ring. With a longer alkyl or an oligoethylene oxide bridge no lc phase is observed, most probably because the mesogene is no longer planar.

  9. New theory for competing interactions and microstructures in partially-ordered (liquid-crystalline) phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, F.

    1987-01-01

    A summary of results from a unique statistical-physics theory to predict and explain competing interactions and resulting microstructures in some partially-ordered [in this case, liquid-crystalline (LC)] phases is presented. The static aspects of both partial orientational and partial positional ordering of the molecules into various microstructures in these phases (including the incommensurate smectic-Ad phase) can be understood in terms of various competing interactions (both entropic and energetic) involved in the packing together of the different molecular sub-units at given pressures and temperatures. These microstructures are predicted and explained (using no ad hoc or arbitrarily adjustable parameter) as a function of molecule chemical structure [including lengths and shapes (from bond lengths and angles), intramolecular rotations, site-site polarizabilities and pair potentials, dipole moments, etc]. Theoretical results are presented for the nematic, re-entrant nematic, smectic-Ad, and smectic-Al LC phases and the isotropic phase

  10. New liquid crystalline materials based on two generations of dendronised cyclophosphazenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Josefina; Laguna, Antonio; Gascón, Elena; Sanz, José Antonio; Serrano, José Luis; Barberá, Joaquín; Oriol, Luis

    2012-12-21

    A divergent approach was used for the synthesis of dendritic structures based on a cyclotriphosphazene core with 12 or 24 hydroxyl groups, by starting from [N(3)P(3)(OC(6)H(4)OH-4)(6)] and using an acetal-protected 2,2-di(hydroxymethyl)propionic anhydride as the acylating agent. Hydroxyl groups in these first- and second-generation dendrimers, G1-(OH)(12) or G2-(OH)(24), were then condensed in turn with mono- or polycatenar pro-mesogenic acids to study their ability to promote self-assembly into liquid crystalline structures. Reactions were monitored by using (31)P{(1)H} and (1)H NMR spectroscopy and the chemical structure of the resulting materials was confirmed by using different spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The results were in accordance with monodisperse, fully functionalised cyclotriphosphazene dendrimers. Thermal and liquid crystalline properties were studied by using optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The dendrimer with 12 4-pentylbiphenyl mesogenic units gives rise to columnar rectangular organisation, whereas the one with 24 pentylbiphenyl units does not exhibit mesomorphic behaviour. In the case of materials that contain polycatenar pro-mesogenic units with two aromatic rings (A4 vs. A5), the incorporation of a short flexible spacer connected to the periphery of the dendron (acid A5) was needed to achieve mesomorphic organisation. In this case, both dendrimer generations G1 A5 and G2 A5 exhibit a hexagonal columnar mesophase. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles containing a polysaccharide from Ulva fasciata with potent antihyperlipidaemic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza A. Matloub

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves the preparation of cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubsomes for liver targeting to assess the potential of a formulated bioactive polysaccharide isolated from the hot aqueous extract of Ulva fasciata as an alternative natural agent with anti-hyperlipidaemic activity. Cubosomal nanoparticles were prepared by disrupting the cubic gel phase of the polysaccharide and water in the presence of a surfactant. Different lipid matrices and stabilizers were tested. All the formulations were in the nanosize range and showed sufficient negative charge to inhibit the aggregation of the cubosomes. Drug entrapment efficiencies (EEs% were determined and in vitro release studies were performed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and differential scanning calorimetry were used to analyze the loaded cubosomal nanoparticles containing glyceryl monostearate (GMO 2.25 g, poloxamer 407 (0.25 g and 50 mg of the polysaccharide. A preclinical study comparing the cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles containing polysaccharide to fluvastatin as a reference drug in hyperlipidaemic rats was conducted. The rats treated with the polysaccharide- loaded cubosomes showed significant decreases in total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG and total lipid (TL compared to the untreated HL rats. In addition, oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers were measured in the HL rats. Compared to the untreated HL rats, the cubosome treated rats showed a significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA, whereas insignificant changes were detected in nitric oxide (NO, glutathione (GSH levels and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Further, vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules (VCAM, ICAM, and myeloperoxidase were demonstrated. A histopathological examination was conducted to study the alterations in histopathological lesions and to document the biochemical results. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the superiority of using a natural lipid

  12. Liquid crystalline polymers from renewable resources: Synthesis, characterization, and applications in composites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilsens, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Thermotropic polyesters are an important class of materials for high erformance applications. Their low melt viscosities, low thermal expansion coefficients, high use temperatures, and ease in processing allow for the production of high strength and high modulus fibers, films, or compression-molded

  13. Macromolecular crowding-assisted fabrication of liquid-crystalline imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2015-04-01

    A macromolecular crowding-assisted liquid-crystalline molecularly imprinted monolith (LC-MIM) was prepared successfully for the first time. The imprinted stationary phase was synthesized with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or polystyrene (PS) as the crowding agent, 4-cyanophenyl dicyclohexyl propylene (CPCE) as the liquid-crystal monomer, and hydroquinidine as the pseudo-template for the chiral separation of cinchona alkaloids in HPLC. A low level of cross-linker (26%) has been found to be sufficient to achieve molecular recognition on the crowding-assisted LC-MIM due to the physical cross-linking of mesogenic groups in place of chemical cross-linking, and baseline separation of quinidine and quinine could be achieved with good resolution (R(s) = 2.96), selectivity factor (α = 2.16), and column efficiency (N = 2650 plates/m). In contrast, the LC-MIM prepared without crowding agents displayed the smallest diastereoselectivity (α = 1.90), while the crowding-assisted MIM with high level of cross-linker (80%) obtained the greatest selectivity factor (α = 7.65), but the lowest column efficiency (N = 177 plates/m).

  14. Droplet snap-off in fluids with nematic liquid crystalline ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeff, A A; Lekkerkerker, H N W

    2012-01-01

    We studied the snap-off of nematic liquid crystalline droplets originating from the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the isotropic-nematic interface in suspensions of charged gibbsite in water and sterically stabilized gibbsite in bromotoluene. We found that droplet snap-off strongly depends on the director field structure inside the thinning neck, which is determined by the ratio of the splay elastic constant and the anchoring strength of the nematic phase to the droplet interface relative to the thickness of the thinning neck. If anchoring is weak, which is the case for aqueous gibbsite, this ratio is comparable to the thickness of the breaking thread. As a result, the thinning neck and pending drop have a uniform director field and droplet snap-off is determined by the viscous properties of the liquid crystal as well as by thermal fluctuations of the interface. On the other hand, in sterically stabilized gibbsite where anchoring is strong, this ratio is significantly smaller than the neck thickness. In this case, the neck has an escaped radial director field and the neck thinning is retarded close to snap-off due to a topological energy barrier involved in the separation of the droplet from the thread. (paper)

  15. The effect of glassfibre, graphite and MoS2 on the tribological performance of a liquid crystalline polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufour, P.R.; de Gee, A.W.J.; Kingma, J.A.; Mens, J.W.M.

    1992-01-01

    A thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) with a high melting point of approximately 400 °C, unfilled and filled with glassfibre, MoS2 or graphitic carbon was tested in dry sliding contact with steel. Three different test methods were applied, i.e. measurement of coefficient of friction and

  16. Novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nanogels for enhanced cutaneous targeting of terconazole: development, in vitro and in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaggar, Yosra SR; Talaat, Sara M; Bahey-El-Din, Mohammed; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2016-01-01

    Terconazole (Tr) is the first marketed, most active triazole for vaginal candidiasis. Owing to poor skin permeation and challenging physicochemical properties, Tr was not employed for the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis. This is the first study to investigate the relevance of novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nano-organogels (LCGs) to improve physicochemical characteristics of Tr in order to enable its dermal application in skin candidiasis. Ternary phase diagram was constructed using lecithin/capryol 90/water to identify the region of liquid crystalline organogel. The selected organogel possessed promising physicochemical characteristics based on particle size, rheological behavior, pH, loading efficiency, and in vitro antifungal activity. Microstructure of the selected organogel was confirmed by polarized light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ex vivo and in vivo skin permeation studies revealed a significant 4.7- and 2.7-fold increase in the permeability of Tr-loaded LCG when compared to conventional hydrogel. Moreover, acute irritation study indicated safety and compatibility of liquid crystalline organogel to the skin. The in vivo antifungal activity confirmed the superiority of LCG over the conventional hydrogel for the eradication of Candida infection. Overall, lecithin-based liquid crystalline organogel confirmed its potential as an interesting dermal nanocarrier for skin targeting purpose. PMID:27822033

  17. Novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nanogels for enhanced cutaneous targeting of terconazole: development, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaggar, Yosra Sr; Talaat, Sara M; Bahey-El-Din, Mohammed; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    Terconazole (Tr) is the first marketed, most active triazole for vaginal candidiasis. Owing to poor skin permeation and challenging physicochemical properties, Tr was not employed for the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis. This is the first study to investigate the relevance of novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nano-organogels (LCGs) to improve physicochemical characteristics of Tr in order to enable its dermal application in skin candidiasis. Ternary phase diagram was constructed using lecithin/capryol 90/water to identify the region of liquid crystalline organogel. The selected organogel possessed promising physicochemical characteristics based on particle size, rheological behavior, pH, loading efficiency, and in vitro antifungal activity. Microstructure of the selected organogel was confirmed by polarized light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ex vivo and in vivo skin permeation studies revealed a significant 4.7- and 2.7-fold increase in the permeability of Tr-loaded LCG when compared to conventional hydrogel. Moreover, acute irritation study indicated safety and compatibility of liquid crystalline organogel to the skin. The in vivo antifungal activity confirmed the superiority of LCG over the conventional hydrogel for the eradication of Candida infection. Overall, lecithin-based liquid crystalline organogel confirmed its potential as an interesting dermal nanocarrier for skin targeting purpose.

  18. The effect of calcining temperature on the properties of 0-3 piezoelectric composites of PZT and a liquid crystalline thermosetting polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2011-01-01

    We report on the optimisation of a recently developed high performance 0-3 piezoelectric composite comprising of the piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) powder and a liquid crystalline thermosetting matrix polymer (LCT). The matrix polymer is a liquid crystalline polymer comprising of an

  19. Novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nanogels for enhanced cutaneous targeting of terconazole: development, in vitro and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaggar YSR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yosra SR Elnaggar,1,2 Sara M Talaat,1 Mohammed Bahey-El-Din,3 Ossama Y Abdallah1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Drug Manufacturing, Pharos University in Alexandria, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: Terconazole (Tr is the first marketed, most active triazole for vaginal candidiasis. Owing to poor skin permeation and challenging physicochemical properties, Tr was not employed for the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis. This is the first study to investigate the relevance of novel lecithin-integrated liquid crystalline nano-organogels (LCGs to improve physicochemical characteristics of Tr in order to enable its dermal application in skin candidiasis. Ternary phase diagram was constructed using lecithin/capryol 90/water to identify the region of liquid crystalline organogel. The selected organogel possessed promising physicochemical characteristics based on particle size, rheological behavior, pH, loading efficiency, and in vitro antifungal activity. Microstructure of the selected organogel was confirmed by polarized light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ex vivo and in vivo skin permeation studies revealed a significant 4.7- and 2.7-fold increase in the permeability of Tr-loaded LCG when compared to conventional hydrogel. Moreover, acute irritation study indicated safety and compatibility of liquid crystalline organogel to the skin. The in vivo antifungal activity confirmed the superiority of LCG over the conventional hydrogel for the eradication of Candida infection. Overall, lecithin-based liquid crystalline organogel confirmed its potential as an interesting dermal nanocarrier for skin targeting purpose. Keywords: terconazole, liquid crystalline, organogel, skin targeting, skin mycosis

  20. PH-Induced Nanosegregation of Ritonavir to Lyotropic Liquid Crystal of Higher Solubility Than Crystalline Polymorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Spong, B.; Acciacca, A.; Fleisher, D.; Rodriguez-Hornedo, N.

    2009-01-01

    Birefringent spherical vesicles of ritonavir (RTV) are formed by increasing the pH of aqueous solutions from 1 to 3 or to 7 and by addition of water to ethanol solutions at room temperature. Increasing the pH creates supersaturation levels of 30--400. Upon this change in pH, the solutions become translucent, implying that some kind of RTV assembly was formed. Small spherical vesicles of narrow size distribution are detectable only after a few hours by optical microscopy. The vesicles show similar X-ray diffraction patterns and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) behavior to amorphous RTV prepared by melt-quenching crystalline RTV. Examination by polarized optical microscopy suggests that these are lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) assemblies. Small-angle X-ray scattering and synchrotron X-ray diffraction further support the presence of orientational order that is associated with a nematic structure. RTV self-organizes into various phases as a result of the supersaturation created in aqueous solutions. The LLC vesicles do not fuse but slowly transform to the polymorphs of RTV (in days), Form I and finally Form II. Amorphous RTV in aqueous suspension also undergoes a transformation to a mesophase of similar morphology. Transformation pathways are consistent with measured dissolution rates and solubilities: amorphous > LLC >> Form I > Form II. The dissolution and solubility of LLC is slightly lower than that of the amorphous phase and about 20 times higher than that of Form II. RTV also self-assembles at the air/water interface as indicated by the decrease in surface tension of aqueous solutions. This behavior is similar to that of amphiphilic molecules that induce LLC formation.

  1. Emergence of liquid crystalline order in the lowest Landau level of a quantum Hall system with internal anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftja, Orion

    2018-05-01

    It has now become evident that interplay between internal anisotropy parameters (such as electron mass anisotropy and/or anisotropic coupling of electrons to the substrate) and electron-electron correlation effects can create a rich variety of possibilities especially in quantum Hall systems. The electron mass anisotropy or material substrate effects (for example, the piezoelectric effect in GaAs) can lead to an effective anisotropic interaction potential between electrons. For lack of knowledge of realistic ab-initio potentials that may describe such effects, we adopt a phenomenological approach and assume that an anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential mimics the internal anisotropy of the system. In this work we investigate the emergence of liquid crystalline order at filling factor ν = 1/6 of the lowest Landau level, a state very close to the point where a transition from the liquid to the Wigner solid happens. We consider small finite systems of electrons interacting with an anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential and study the energy stability of an anisotropic liquid crystalline state relative to its isotropic Fermi-liquid counterpart. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation results in disk geometry show stabilization of liquid crystalline order driven by an anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential at all values of the interaction anisotropy parameter studied.

  2. Homogeneous alignment of liquid crystalline dendrimers confined in a slit-pore. A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workineh, Zerihun G; Vanakaras, Alexandros G

    2016-03-23

    In this work we present results from isobaric-isothermal (NPT) Monte Carlo simulation studies of model liquid crystalline dendrimer (LCDr) systems confined in a slit-pore made of two parallel flat walls. The dendrimers are modelled as a collection of spherical and ellipsoidal particles corresponding to the junction points of the dendritic core and to the mesogenic units respectively. Assuming planar uniform (unidirectional) soft anchoring of the mesogenic units on the substrates we investigate the conformational and alignment properties of the LCDr system at different thermodynamic state points. Tractable coarse grained force fields have been used from our previous work. At low pressures the interior of the pore is almost empty, since almost all LCDrs are anchored to the substrates forming two-dimensional smectic-like structures with the mesogens aligned along the aligning direction of the substrates. As the pressure grows the LCDrs occupy the whole pore. However, even at low temperatures, the smectic organization does not transmit in the interior of the pore and is preserved for distances of 2-3 mesogenic diameters from the walls. For this reason, the global orientational order decreases with increasing pressure (density). In the vicinity (2-3 mesogenic diameters) of the pore walls, mesogenic units preserve the smectic structure whose layers are separated by layers of spherical beads. In this region individual LCDrs possess a rod like shape.

  3. Direct Visualisation of the Structural Transformation between the Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Lamellar and Bicontinuous Cubic Mesophase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhiem; Zhai, Jiali; Conn, Charlotte E; Mulet, Xavier; Waddington, Lynne J; Drummond, Calum J

    2018-05-29

    The transition between the lyotropic liquid crystalline lamellar and the bicontinuous cubic mesophase drives multiple fundamental cellular processes involving changes in cell membrane topology including endocytosis and membrane budding. While several theoretical models have been proposed to explain this dynamic transformation, experimental validation of these models has been challenging due to the short lived nature of the intermediates present during the phase transition. Herein, we report the direct observation of a lamellar to bicontinuous cubic phase transition in nanoscale dispersions using a combination of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and static small angle X-ray scattering. The results represent the first experimental confirmation of a theoretical model which proposed that the bicontinuous cubic phase originates from the centre of a lamellar vesicle, then propagates outward via the formation of inter-lamellar attachments and stalks. The observation was possible due to the precise control of the lipid composition to place the dispersion systems at the phase boundary of a lamellar and a cubic phase, allowing for the creation of long-lived structural intermediates. By surveying the nanoparticles using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, a complete phase transition sequence was established.

  4. Lipid-Based Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles Facilitate Cytosolic Delivery of siRNA via Structural Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shufang; Fan, Weiwei; Wu, Na; Zhu, Jingjing; Miao, Yunqiu; Miao, Xiaran; Li, Feifei; Zhang, Xinxin; Gan, Yong

    2018-04-11

    RNA interference (RNAi) technology has shown great promise for the treatment of cancer and other genetic disorders. Despite the efforts to increase the target tissue distribution, the safe and effective delivery of siRNA to the diseased cells with sufficient cytosolic transport is another critical factor for successful RNAi clinical application. Here, the constructed lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles, called nano-Transformers, can transform thestructure in the intracellular acidic environment and perform high-efficient siRNA delivery for cancer treatment. The developed nano-Transformers have satisfactory siRNA loading efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Different from the traditional cationic nanocarriers, the endosomal membrane fusion induced by the conformational transition of lipids contributes to the easy dissociation of siRNA from nanocarriers and direct release of free siRNA into cytoplasm. We show that transfection with cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)-siRNA-loaded nano-Transformers causes up to 95% reduction of relevant mRNA in vitro and greatly inhibits the tumor growth without causing any immunogenic response in vivo. This work highlights that the lipid-based nano-Transformers may become the next generation of siRNA delivery system with higher efficacy and improved safety profiles.

  5. Liquid crystalline phase as a probe for crystal engineering of lactose: carrier for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sharvil S; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant R

    2015-02-20

    The current work was undertaken to assess suitability of liquid crystalline phase for engineering of lactose crystals and their utility as a carrier in dry powder inhalation formulations. Saturated lactose solution was poured in molten glyceryl monooleate which subsequently transformed into gel. The gel microstructure was analyzed by PPL microscopy and SAXS. Lactose particles recovered from gels after 48 h were analyzed for polymorphism using techniques such as FTIR, XRD, DSC and TGA. Particle size, morphology and aerosolisation properties of prepared lactose were analyzed using Anderson cascade impactor. In situ seeding followed by growth of lactose crystals took place in gels with cubic microstructure as revealed by PPL microscopy and SAXS. Elongated (size ∼ 71 μm) lactose particles with smooth surface containing mixture of α and β-lactose was recovered from gel, however percentage of α-lactose was more as compared to β-lactose. The aerosolisation parameters such as RD, ED, %FPF and % recovery of lactose recovered from gel (LPL) were found to be comparable to Respitose® ML001. Thus LC phase (cubic) can be used for engineering of lactose crystals so as to obtain particles with smooth surface, high elongation ratio and further they can be used as carrier in DPI formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mesophase and size manipulation of itraconazole liquid crystalline nanoparticles produced via quasi nanoemulsion precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugheirbi, Naila A; Tajber, Lidia

    2015-10-01

    The fabrication of drug nanoparticles (NPs) with process-mediated tunable properties and performances continues to grow rapidly during the last decades. This study investigates the synthesis and phase tuning of nanoparticulate itraconazole (ITR) mesophases using quasi nanoemulsion precipitation from acetone/water systems to seek out an alternative pathway to the nucleation-based NP formation. ITR liquid crystalline (LC) phases were formed and nematic-smectic mesomorphism was achieved via controlling solvent:antisolvent temperature difference (ΔTS:AS). The use of ΔTS:AS=49.5°C was associated with a nematic assembly, while intercalated smectic A layering was observed at ΔTS:AS=0°C, with both phases confined in the nanospheres at room temperature. The quasi emulsion system has not been investigated at the nanoscale to date and in contrary to the microscale, quasi nanoemulsion was observed over the solvent:antisolvent viscosity ratios of 1:7-1:1.4. Poly(acrylic acid) in the solvent phase exhibited a concentration dependent interaction when ITR formed NPs. This nanodroplet-based approach enabled the preparation of a stable ITR nanodispersion using Poloxamer 407 at 80°C, which was unachievable before using precipitation via nucleation. Findings of this work lay groundwork in terms of rationalised molecular assembly as a tool in designing pharmaceutical LC NPs with tailored properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Distance-dependent metal enhanced fluorescence by flowerlike silver nanostructures fabricated in liquid crystalline phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yang, Chengliang; Zhang, Guiyang; Peng, Zenghui; Yao, Lishuang; Wang, Qidong; Cao, Zhaoliang; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li

    2017-10-01

    Flowerlike silver nanostructure substrates were fabricated in liquid crystalline phase and the distance dependent property of metal enhanced fluorescence for such substrate was studied for the first time. The distance between silver nanostructures and fluorophore was controlled by the well-established layer-by-layer (LbL) technique constructing alternate layers of poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules were electrostatically attached to the outmost negative charged PSS layer. The fluorescence enhancement factor of flowerlike nanostructure substrate increased firstly and then decreased with the distance increasing. The best enhanced fluorescence intensity of 71 fold was obtained at a distance of 5.2 nm from the surface of flowerlike silver nanostructure. The distance for best enhancement effect is an instructive parameter for the applications of such substrates and could be used in the practical MEF applications with the flowerlike nanostructure substrates fabricated in such way which is simple, controllable and cost-effective.

  8. Homogeneous alignment of liquid crystalline dendrimers confined in a slit-pore. A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workineh, Zerihun G.; Vanakaras, Alexandros G.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present results from isobaric-isothermal (NPT) Monte Carlo simulation studies of model liquid crystalline dendrimer (LCDr) systems confined in a slit-pore made of two parallel flat walls. The dendrimers are modelled as a collection of spherical and ellipsoidal particles corresponding to the junction points of the dendritic core and to the mesogenic units respectively. Assuming planar uniform (unidirectional) soft anchoring of the mesogenic units on the substrates we investigate the conformational and alignment properties of the LCDr system at different thermodynamic state points. Tractable coarse grained force fields have been used from our previous work. At low pressures the interior of the pore is almost empty, since almost all LCDrs are anchored to the substrates forming two-dimensional smectic-like structures with the mesogens aligned along the aligning direction of the substrates. As the pressure grows the LCDrs occupy the whole pore. However, even at low temperatures, the smectic organization does not transmit in the interior of the pore and is preserved for distances of 2-3 mesogenic diameters from the walls. For this reason, the global orientational order decreases with increasing pressure (density). In the vicinity (2-3 mesogenic diameters) of the pore walls, mesogenic units preserve the smectic structure whose layers are separated by layers of spherical beads. In this region individual LCDrs possess a rod like shape.

  9. Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles of Amphotericin B: Implication of Phytantriol and Glyceryl Monooleate on Bioavailability Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanyog; Yadav, Pooja; Swami, Rajan; Swarnakar, Nitin Kumar; Kushwah, Varun; Katiyar, Sameer S

    2018-05-01

    Implication of different dietary specific lipids such as phytantriol (PT) and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) on enhancing the oral bioavailability of amphotericin B (AmB) was examined. Liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) were prepared using hydrotrope method, followed by in vitro characterization, Caco-2 cell monolayer uptake, and in vivo pharmacokinetic and toxicity evaluation. Optimized AmB-LCNPs displayed small particle size (< 210 nm) with a narrow distribution (~ 0.2), sustained drug release and high gastrointestinal stability, and reduced hemolytic toxicity. PLCNPs presented slower release, i.e., ~ 80% as compared to ~ 90% release in case of GLCNPs after 120 h. Significantly higher uptake in Caco-2 monolayer substantiated the role of LCNPs in increasing the intestinal permeability followed by increased drug titer in plasma. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated potential of PT in enhancing the bioavailability (approximately sixfold) w.r.t. of its native counterpart with reduced nephrotoxicity as presented by reduced nephrotoxicity biomarkers and histology studies. These studies established usefulness of PLCNPs over GLCNPs and plain drug. It can be concluded that acid-resistant lipid, PT, can be utilized efficiently as an alternate lipid for the preparation of LCNPs to enhance bioavailability and to reduce nephrotoxicity of the drug as compared to other frequently used lipid, i.e., GMO.

  10. Lanthanide Phytanates: Liquid-Crystalline Phase Behavior, Colloidal Particle Dispersions, and Potential as Medical Imaging Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conn, Charlotte E.; Panchagnula, Venkateswarlu; Weerawardena, Asoka; Waddington, Lynne J.; Kennedy, Danielle F.; Drummond, Calum J. (CSIRO/MHT); (CSIRO/MSE)

    2010-08-23

    Lanthanide salts of phytanic acid, an isoprenoid-type amphiphile, have been synthesized and characterized. Elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy were used to confirm the formed product and showed that three phytanate anions are complexed with one lanthanide cation. The physicochemical properties of the lanthanide phytanates were investigated using DSC, XRD, SAXS, and cross-polarized optical microscopy. Several of the hydrated salts form a liquid-crystalline hexagonal columnar mesophase at room temperature, and samarium(III) phytanate forms this phase even in the absence of water. Select lanthanide phytanates were dispersed in water, and cryo-TEM images indicate that some structure has been retained in the dispersed phase. NMR relaxivity measurements were conducted on these systems. It has been shown that a particulate dispersion of gadolinium(III) phytanate displays proton relaxivity values comparable to those of a commercial contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging and a colloidal dispersion of europium(III) phytanate exhibits the characteristics of a fluorescence imaging agent.

  11. Lanthanide Phytanates: Liquid-Crystalline Phase Behavior, Colloidal Particle Dispersions, and Potential as Medical Imaging Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, Charlotte E.; Panchagnula, Venkateswarlu; Weerawardena, Asoka; Waddington, Lynne J.; Kennedy, Danielle F.; Drummond, Calum J.

    2010-01-01

    Lanthanide salts of phytanic acid, an isoprenoid-type amphiphile, have been synthesized and characterized. Elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy were used to confirm the formed product and showed that three phytanate anions are complexed with one lanthanide cation. The physicochemical properties of the lanthanide phytanates were investigated using DSC, XRD, SAXS, and cross-polarized optical microscopy. Several of the hydrated salts form a liquid-crystalline hexagonal columnar mesophase at room temperature, and samarium(III) phytanate forms this phase even in the absence of water. Select lanthanide phytanates were dispersed in water, and cryo-TEM images indicate that some structure has been retained in the dispersed phase. NMR relaxivity measurements were conducted on these systems. It has been shown that a particulate dispersion of gadolinium(III) phytanate displays proton relaxivity values comparable to those of a commercial contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging and a colloidal dispersion of europium(III) phytanate exhibits the characteristics of a fluorescence imaging agent.

  12. Homogeneous alignment of liquid crystalline dendrimers confined in a slit-pore. A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workineh, Zerihun G; Vanakaras, Alexandros G

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present results from isobaric-isothermal (NPT) Monte Carlo simulation studies of model liquid crystalline dendrimer (LCDr) systems confined in a slit-pore made of two parallel flat walls. The dendrimers are modelled as a collection of spherical and ellipsoidal particles corresponding to the junction points of the dendritic core and to the mesogenic units respectively. Assuming planar uniform (unidirectional) soft anchoring of the mesogenic units on the substrates we investigate the conformational and alignment properties of the LCDr system at different thermodynamic state points. Tractable coarse grained force fields have been used from our previous work. At low pressures the interior of the pore is almost empty, since almost all LCDrs are anchored to the substrates forming two-dimensional smectic-like structures with the mesogens aligned along the aligning direction of the substrates. As the pressure grows the LCDrs occupy the whole pore. However, even at low temperatures, the smectic organization does not transmit in the interior of the pore and is preserved for distances of 2–3 mesogenic diameters from the walls. For this reason, the global orientational order decreases with increasing pressure (density). In the vicinity (2–3 mesogenic diameters) of the pore walls, mesogenic units preserve the smectic structure whose layers are separated by layers of spherical beads. In this region individual LCDrs possess a rod like shape. (paper)

  13. Thermoresponsive Membrane Based on Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Cholesteryl - (L-lacticacidn System: Study of Its Drug Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoumeh Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing interest in functional materials with reversibly switchable physico- chemical properties has led to significant work on the development of stimuli responsive membranes. Thermotropic liquid crystals with their exceptional properties have potentials for drug-delivery applications. Thermoresponsive liquid-crystal-embedded membranes were investigated for the purpose of developing the drug delivery systems with thermal stimuli response. Drug release occurs at temperatures above the phase transition temperature of thermotropic liquid crystals. Therefore, they can control drug release in response to small temperature changes. In this work, the biocompatible and thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer cholesteryl-(L-lactic acidn ,CLAn (n=30, was synthesized with accurate control of molecular weight via ring opening polymerization method. Polymerization of L-lactide was carried out in the presence of cholesterol as an initiator and catalytic amount of tin (II octoate (Sn(Oct2 at 150°C in 5 h. The number-average degree of polymerization of CLA 30 was obtained from 1H NMR spectroscopy. The phase transition behavior of liquid crystalline CLA30 was established by differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing optical microscopy. The resulting liquid crystalline CLA30 was subsequently utilized to prepare CLA30 -embedded cellulose nitrate membrane by adsorption method. The CLA30-embedded cellulose nitrate membrane was used by an in-vitro drug penetration studies. Acetaminophen was used as a model drug. The permeation study was carried out at different temperatures around glass transition temperature of polymer CLA30 (37, 45 and 40°C, respectively. The results show that the CLA30 -embedded cellulose nitrate membranes exhibit thermo-responsive sensitivity with controlled drug permeation.

  14. Synthesis of Programmable Main-chain Liquid-crystalline Elastomers Using a Two-stage Thiol-acrylate Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Saed, Mohand O.; Torbati, Amir H.; Nair, Devatha P.; Yakacki, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a novel two-stage thiol-acrylate Michael addition-photopolymerization (TAMAP) reaction to prepare main-chain liquid-crystalline elastomers (LCEs) with facile control over network structure and programming of an aligned monodomain. Tailored LCE networks were synthesized using routine mixing of commercially available starting materials and pouring monomer solutions into molds to cure. An initial polydomain LCE network is formed via a self-limiting thiol-acrylate Michael-addi...

  15. Numerical evidence of liquid crystalline mesophases of a lollipop shaped model in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lemus, G. R.; Armas-Pérez, J. C.; Chapela, G. A.; Quintana-H., J.

    2017-12-01

    Small alterations in the molecular details may produce noticeable changes in the symmetry of the resulting phase behavior. It is possible to produce morphologies having different n-fold symmetries by manipulating molecular features such as chirality, polarity or anisotropy. In this paper, a two dimensional hard molecular model is introduced to study the formation of liquid crystalline phases in low dimensionality. The model is similar to that reported by Julio C. Armas-Pérez and Jacqueline Quintana-H., Phys. Rev. E 83, 051709 (2011). The main difference is the lack of chirality in the model proposed, although they share some characteristics like the geometrical polarity. Our model is called a lollipop model, because its shape is constructed by a rounded section attached to the end of a stick. Contrary to what happens in three dimensions where chiral nematogens produce interesting and complex phases such as blue phases, the lack of molecular chirality of our model generates a richer phase diagram compared to the chiral system. We show numerical and some geometrical evidences that the lack of laterality of the non chiral model seems to provide more routes of molecular self-assembly, producing triatic, a random cluster and possibly a tetratic phase behavior which were not presented in the previous work. We support our conclusions using results obtained from isobaric and isochoric Monte Carlo simulations. Properties as the n-fold order parameters such as the nematic, tetratic and triatic as well as their correlation functions were used to characterize the phases. We also provide the Fourier transform of equilibrium configurations to analyze the n-fold symmetry characteristic of each phase.

  16. Modelling charge transport of discotic liquid-crystalline triindoles: the role of peripheral substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Riccardo; Camilo, Ana Claudia Santos; Filho, Demetrio A da Silva; Navarrete, Juan T López; Gómez-Lor, Berta; Delgado, M Carmen Ruiz; Linares, Mathieu

    2017-09-13

    We have performed a multiscale approach to study the influence of peripheral substitution in the semiconducting properties of discotic liquid-crystalline triindoles. Charge carrier mobility as high as 1.4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 was experimentally reported for triindoles substituted with alkynyl chains on the periphery (Gómez-Lor et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2011, 50, 7399-7402). In this work, our goal is to get a deeper understanding of both the molecular electronic structure and microscopic factors affecting the charge transport properties in triindoles as a function of the spacer group connecting the central cores with the external alkyl chains (i.e., alkyne or phenyl spacers groups). To this end, we first perform Quantum Mechanical (QM) calculations to assess how the peripheral substitution affects the electronic structure and the internal reorganization energy. Secondly, boxes of stacked molecules were built and relaxed through molecular dynamics to obtain realistic structures. Conformational analysis and calculations of transfer integrals for closed neighbours were performed. Our results show that the insertion of ethynyl spacers between the central aromatic core and the flexible peripheral chains results in lower reorganization energies and enhanced intermolecular order within the stacks with a preferred cofacial 60° staggered conformation, which would result in high charge-carrier mobilities in good agreement with the experimental data. This work allows a deeper understanding of charge carrier mobility in columnar phases, linking the structural order at the molecular level to the property of interest, i.e. the charge carrier mobility. We hope that this understanding will improve the design of systems at the supramolecular level aiming at obtaining a more defined conducting channel, higher mobility and smaller fluctuations within the column.

  17. Development and evaluation of exemestane-loaded lyotropic liquid crystalline gel formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Muhammad Nuh; David, Sheba Rani; Zulkipli, Ihsan Nazurah; Mahadi, Abdul Hanif; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Rajabalaya, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The use of liquid crystalline (LC) gel formulations for drug delivery has considerably improved the current delivery methods in terms of bioavailability and efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate LC gel formulations to deliver the anti-cancer drug exemestane through transdermal route. Methods: Two LC gel formulations were prepared by phase separation coacervation method using glyceryl monooleate (GMO), Tween 80 and Pluronic® F127 (F127). The formulations were characterized with regard to encapsulation efficiency (EE), vesicle size, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, surface morphology (using light and fluorescence microscopy), in vitro release, ex vivo permeation, in vitro effectiveness test on MDA-MB231 cancer cell lines and histopathological analysis. Results: Results exhibited that the EE was 85%-92%, vesicle size was 119.9-466.2 nm while morphology showed spherical vesicles after hydration. An FTIR result also revealed that there was no significant shift in peaks corresponding to Exemestane and excipients. LC formulations release the drug from cellulose acetate and Strat-MTM membrane from 15%-88.95%, whereas ex vivo permeation ranges from 37.09-63%. The in vitro effectiveness study indicated that even at low exemestane concentrations (12.5 and 25 μg/mL) the formulations were able to induce cancer cell death, regardless of the surfactant used. Histopathological analysis thinning of the epidermis as the formulations penetrate into the intercellular regions of squamous cells. Conclusion: The results conjectured that exemestane could be incorporated into LC gels for the transdermal delivery system and further preclinical studies such as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies will be carried out with suitable animal models.

  18. Transient molecular orientation and rheology in flow aligning thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugaz, Victor M.; Burghardt, Wesley R.; Zhou, Weijun; Kornfield, Julia A.

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of molecular orientation and rheology are reported for various transient shear flows of a nematic semiflexible copolyether. Unlike the case of lyotropic liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs), whose structure and rheology in shear are dominated by director tumbling, this material exhibits flow aligning behavior. The observed behavior is quite similar to that seen in a copolyester that we have recently studied [Ugaz and Burghardt (1998)], suggesting that flow aligning dynamics may predominate in main-chain thermotropes that incorporate significant chain flexibility. Since the flow aligning regime has received little attention in previous attempts to model the rheology of textured, polydomain LCPs, we attempt to determine whether available models are capable of predicting the orientation and stress response of this class of LCP. We first examine the predictions of the polydomain Ericksen model, an adaptation of Ericksen's transversely isotropic fluid model which accounts for the polydomain distribution of director orientation while neglecting distortional elasticity. This simple model captures a number of qualitative and quantitative features associated with the evolution of orientation and stress during shear flow inception, but cannot cope with reversing flows. To consider the possible role of distortional elasticity in the re-orientation dynamics upon reversal, we evaluate the mesoscopically averaged domain theory of Larson and Doi [Larson and Doi (1991)], which incorporates a phenomenological description of distortional elastic effects. To date, their approach to account for polydomain structure has only been applied to describe tumbling LCPs. We find that it captures the qualitative transient orientation response to flow reversals, but is less successful in describing the evolution of stresses. This is linked to the decoupling approximation adopted during the model's development. Finally, a modified polydomain Ericksen model is introduced

  19. Solvation Dynamics in Different Phases of the Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Bibhisan; Satpathi, Sagar; Gavvala, Krishna; Koninti, Raj Kumar; Hazra, Partha

    2015-09-03

    Reverse hexagonal (HII) liquid crystalline material based on glycerol monooleate (GMO) is considered as a potential carrier for drugs and other important biomolecules due to its thermotropic phase change and excellent morphology. In this work, the dynamics of encapsulated water, which plays important role in stabilization and formation of reverse hexagonal mesophase, has been investigated by time dependent Stokes shift method using Coumarin-343 as a solvation probe. The formation of the reverse hexagonal mesophase (HII) and transformation to the L2 phase have been monitored using small-angle X-ray scattering and polarized light microscopy experiments. REES studies suggest the existence of different polar regions in both HII and L2 systems. The solvation dynamics study inside the reverse hexagonal (HII) phase reveals the existence of two different types of water molecules exhibiting dynamics on a 120-900 ps time scale. The estimated diffusion coefficients of both types of water molecules obtained from the observed dynamics are in good agreement with the measured diffusion coefficient collected from the NMR study. The calculated activation energy is found to be 2.05 kcal/mol, which is associated with coupled rotational-translational water relaxation dynamics upon the transition from "bound" to "quasi-free" state. The observed ∼2 ns faster dynamics of the L2 phase compared to the HII phase may be associated with both the phase transformation as well as thermotropic effect on the relaxation process. Microviscosities calculated from time-resolved anisotropy studies infer that the interface is almost ∼22 times higher viscous than the central part of the cylinder. Overall, our results reveal the unique dynamical features of water inside the cylinder of reverse hexagonal and inverse micellar phases.

  20. Prediction and design of first super-strong liquid-crystalline polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the details of the theoretical prediction and design (atom by atom, bond by bond) of the molecule chemical structures of the first candidate super-strong liquid-crystalline polymers (SS LCPs). These LCPs are the first LCPs designed to have good compressive strengths, as well as to have tensile strengths and tensile moduli significantly larger than those of existing strong LCPs (such as Kevlar). The key feature of this new class of LCPs is that the exceptional strength is three dimensional on a microscopic, molecular level (thus, on a macroscopic level), in contrast to present LCPs (such as Kevlar) with their one-dimensional exceptional strength. These SS LCPs also have some solubility and processing advantages over existing strong LCPs. These SS LCPs are specially-designed combined LCPs such that the side chains of a molecule interdigitate with the side chains of other molecules. This paper also presents other essential general and specific features required for SS LCPs. Considerations in the design of SS LCPs include the spacing distance between side chains along the backbone, the need for rigid sections in the backbone and side chains, the degree of polymerization, the length of the side chains, the regularity of spacing of the side chains along the backbone, the interdigitation of side chains in submolecular strips, the packing of the side chains on one or two sides of the backbone, the symmetry of the side chains, the points of attachment of the side chains to the backbone, the flexibility and size of the chemical group connecting each side chain to the backbone, the effect of semiflexible sections in the backbone and side chains, and the choice of types of dipolar and/or hydrogen bonding forces in the backbones and side chains for easy alignment

  1. Magneto-responsive liquid crystalline elastomer nanocomposites as potential candidates for dynamic cell culture substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Posada, Stephany; Mora-Navarro, Camilo; Ortiz-Bermudez, Patricia; Torres-Lugo, Madeline; McElhinny, Kyle M.; Evans, Paul G.; Calcagno, Barbara O.; Acevedo, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) have been proposed as active substrates for cell culture due to their potential to attach and orient cells, and impose dynamic mechanical signals through the application of external stimuli. In this report, the preparation of anisotropic and oriented nematic magnetic-sensitized LCEs with iron oxide nanoparticles, and the evaluation of the effect of particle addition at low concentrations on the resultant structural, thermal, thermo-mechanical, and mechanical properties is presented. Phase transformations produced by heating in alternating magnetic fields were investigated in LCEs in contact with air, water, and a common liquid cell culture medium was also evaluated. The inclusion of nanoparticles into the elastomers displaced the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition, without affecting the nematic structure as evidenced by similar values of the order parameter, while reducing the maximum thermomechanical deformations. Remote and reversible deformations of the magnetic LCEs were achieved through the application of alternating magnetic fields, which induces the nematic–isotropic phase transition through nanoparticle heat generation. Formulation parameters can be modified to allow for remote actuation at values closer to the human physiological temperature range and within the range of deformations that can affect the cellular behavior of fibroblasts. Finally, a collagen surface treatment was performed to improve compatibility with NIH-3T3 fibroblast cultures, which enabled the attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts on substrates with and without magnetic particles under quiescent conditions. The LCEs developed in this work, which are able to deform and experience stress changes by remote contact-less magnetic stimulation, may allow for further studies on the effect of substrate morphology changes and dynamic mechanical properties during in vitro cell culture. - Highlights: • Magnetic LCE nanocomposites were

  2. Magneto-responsive liquid crystalline elastomer nanocomposites as potential candidates for dynamic cell culture substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Posada, Stephany; Mora-Navarro, Camilo; Ortiz-Bermudez, Patricia; Torres-Lugo, Madeline [Department of Chemical Engineering, Call Box 9000, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); McElhinny, Kyle M.; Evans, Paul G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 1509 University Avenue, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Calcagno, Barbara O. [Department of General Engineering, Call Box 9000, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez PR 00681 (Puerto Rico); Acevedo, Aldo, E-mail: aldo.acevedo@upr.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Call Box 9000, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez PR 00681 (Puerto Rico)

    2016-08-01

    Recently, liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) have been proposed as active substrates for cell culture due to their potential to attach and orient cells, and impose dynamic mechanical signals through the application of external stimuli. In this report, the preparation of anisotropic and oriented nematic magnetic-sensitized LCEs with iron oxide nanoparticles, and the evaluation of the effect of particle addition at low concentrations on the resultant structural, thermal, thermo-mechanical, and mechanical properties is presented. Phase transformations produced by heating in alternating magnetic fields were investigated in LCEs in contact with air, water, and a common liquid cell culture medium was also evaluated. The inclusion of nanoparticles into the elastomers displaced the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition, without affecting the nematic structure as evidenced by similar values of the order parameter, while reducing the maximum thermomechanical deformations. Remote and reversible deformations of the magnetic LCEs were achieved through the application of alternating magnetic fields, which induces the nematic–isotropic phase transition through nanoparticle heat generation. Formulation parameters can be modified to allow for remote actuation at values closer to the human physiological temperature range and within the range of deformations that can affect the cellular behavior of fibroblasts. Finally, a collagen surface treatment was performed to improve compatibility with NIH-3T3 fibroblast cultures, which enabled the attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts on substrates with and without magnetic particles under quiescent conditions. The LCEs developed in this work, which are able to deform and experience stress changes by remote contact-less magnetic stimulation, may allow for further studies on the effect of substrate morphology changes and dynamic mechanical properties during in vitro cell culture. - Highlights: • Magnetic LCE nanocomposites were

  3. Formulation and development of bicontinuous nanostructured liquid crystalline particles of efavirenz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avachat, Amelia M; Parpani, Shreekrishna S

    2015-02-01

    Efavirenz is a lipophilic non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in the first-line pediatric therapeutic cocktail. Due to its high lipophilicity (logP = 5.4) and poor aqueous solubility (intrinsic water solubility = 8.3 μg/mL) efavirenz has low bioavailability. A 30 mg/mL solution in a medium-chain triglyceride vehicle is the only pediatric formulation available with an oral bioavailability 20% lower than the solid form. The current work was aimed at formulating and characterizing liquid crystal nanoparticles for oral delivery of efavirenz to improve oral bioavailability, provide sustained release, minimize side effects and drug resistance. Formulation of cubosomes was done by two methods; sonication and spray drying. Sonication gave highest entrapment efficiency and least particle size. Further, monoolein was substituted with phytantriol as monoolein gets degraded in the presence of lipase when administered orally with consequent loss of liquid crystalline structure. It was confirmed that there was no difference in particle size, entrapment efficiency and nature of product formed by using monoolein or phytantriol. The best formulation was found to be F9, having particle size 104.19 ± 0.21 nm and entrapment efficiency 91.40 ± 0.10%. In vitro release at the end of 12h was found to be 56.45% and zeta potential to be -23.14 mV which stabilized the cubic phase dispersions. It was further characterized for TEM, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), DSC and stability studies. SAXS revealed Pn3m space group, indicating a diamond cubic phase which was further confirmed by TEM. Pharmacokinetics of EFV was studied in male Wistar rats. EFV-loaded cubosome dispersions exhibited 1.93 and 1.62-fold increase in peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and 1.48 and 1.42-fold increase in AUC in comparison to that of a suspension prepared with the contents of EFV capsules suspended in 1.5% carboxymethylcellulose PBS solution (pH 5.0), and an EFV solution in medium

  4. Effect of doxorubicin on the order and dynamics of the acyl chains of anionic and zwitterionic phospholipids in liquid-crystalline mixed model membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de F.A.; Nicolaij, K.; Kruijff, de B.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the antineoplastic drug doxorubicin on the order of the acyl chains in liquid-crystalline mixed bilayers consisting of dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) or -phosphatidic acid (DOPA), and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) or - hosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). Previous

  5. The orientation-enhancing effect of diphenyl aluminium phosphate nanorods in a liquid-crystalline epoxy matrix ordered by magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mossety-Leszczak, B.; Strachota, Beata; Strachota, Adam; Steinhart, Miloš; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 72, November (2015), s. 238-255 ISSN 0014-3057 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : liquid-crystalline epoxy resins * magnetic field orientation * nanocomposites Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.485, year: 2015

  6. Solvent-free directed patterning of a highly ordered liquid crystalline organic semiconductor via template-assisted self-assembly for organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Aryeon; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Kim, Jinsoo; Won, Jong Chan; Yi, Mi Hye; Kim, Hanim; Yoon, Dong Ki; Shin, Tae Joo; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Ka, Jae-Won; Kim, Yun Ho

    2013-11-20

    Highly ordered organic semiconductor micropatterns of the liquid-crystalline small molecule 2,7-didecylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C10 -BTBT) are fabricated using a simple method based on template-assisted self-assembly (TASA). The liquid crystallinity of C10 -BTBT allows solvent-free fabrication of high-performance printed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Liquid crystalline polymers IX Main chain thermotropic poly (azomethine – ethers containing thiazole moiety linked with polymethylene spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A new homologous series of thermally stable thermotropic liquid crystalline poly(azomethine-ethers based on thiazole moiety were synthesized by solution polycondensation of 4,4`-diformyl-α,ω-diphenoxyalkanes, I–IV or 4,4`-diformyl-2,2`-dimethoxy-α,ω-diphenoxyalkanes V–VIII with the new bis(2-aminothiazole monomer X. A model compound XI was synthesized from X with benzaldehyde and characterized by elemental and spectral analyses. The inherent viscosities of the resulting polymers were in the range 0.43–1.34 dI/g. All the poly(azomethine-ethers were insoluble in common organic solvents but dissolved completely in concentrated H2SO4 and formic acid. The mesomorphic properties of these polymers were studied as a function of the diphenoxyalkane space length. Their thermotropic liquid crystalline properties were examined by DSC and optical polarizing microscopy and demonstrated that the resulting polymers form nematic mesophases over wide temperature ranges. The thermogravimetric analyses of those polymers were evaluated by TGA and DSC measurements and correlated to their structural units. X-ray analysis showed that polymers having some degree of crystallinity in the region 2θ = 5–60°. In addition, the morphological properties of selected examples were tested by scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Processing-microstructure relationships in thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers: Experimental and numerical modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun

    Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) are a class of promising engineering materials for high-demanding structural applications. Their excellent mechanical properties are highly correlated to the underlying molecular orientation states, which may be affected by complex flow fields during melt processing. Thus, understanding and eventually predicting how processing flows impact molecular orientation is a critical step towards rational design work in order to achieve favorable, balanced physical properties in finished products. This thesis aims to develop deeper understanding of orientation development in commercial TLCPs during processing by coordinating extensive experimental measurements with numerical computations. In situ measurements of orientation development of LCPs during processing are a focal point of this thesis. An x-ray capable injection molding apparatus is enhanced and utilized for time-resolved measurements of orientation development in multiple commercial TLCPs during injection molding. Ex situ wide angle x-ray scattering is also employed for more thorough characterization of molecular orientation distributions in molded plaques. Incompletely injection molded plaques ("short shots") are studied to gain further insights into the intermediate orientation states during mold filling. Finally, two surface orientation characterization techniques, near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) are combined to investigate the surface orientation distribution of injection molded plaques. Surface orientation states are found to be vastly different from their bulk counterparts due to different kinematics involved in mold filling. In general, complex distributions of orientation in molded plaques reflect the spatially varying competition between shear and extension during mold filling. To complement these experimental measurements, numerical calculations based on the Larson-Doi polydomain model

  9. Induced liquid-crystalline ordering in solutions of stiff and flexible amphiphilic macromolecules: Effect of mixture composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glagolev, Mikhail K.; Vasilevskaya, Valentina V.; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    2016-01-01

    Impact of mixture composition on self-organization in concentrated solutions of stiff helical and flexible macromolecules was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulation. The macromolecules were composed of identical amphiphilic monomer units but a fraction f of macromolecules had stiff helical backbones and the remaining chains were flexible. In poor solvents the compacted flexible macromolecules coexist with bundles or filament clusters from few intertwined stiff helical macromolecules. The increase of relative content f of helical macromolecules leads to increase of the length of helical clusters, to alignment of clusters with each other, and then to liquid-crystalline-like ordering along a single direction. The formation of filament clusters causes segregation of helical and flexible macromolecules and the alignment of the filaments induces effective liquid-like ordering of flexible macromolecules. A visual analysis and calculation of order parameter relaying the anisotropy of diffraction allow concluding that transition from disordered to liquid-crystalline state proceeds sharply at relatively low content of stiff components.

  10. Comparison of alignment tensors generated for native tRNAVal using magnetic fields and liquid crystalline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, Michael P.; Hanson, Paul; Brown, Darin J.; Pardi, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    Residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) complement standard NOE distance and J-coupling torsion angle data to improve the local and global structure of biomolecules in solution. One powerful application of RDCs is for domain orientation studies, which are especially valuable for structural studies of nucleic acids, where the local structure of a double helix is readily modeled and the orientations of the helical domains can then be determined from RDC data. However, RDCs obtained from only one alignment media generally result in degenerate solutions for the orientation of multiple domains. In protein systems, different alignment media are typically used to eliminate this orientational degeneracy, where the combination of RDCs from two (or more) independent alignment tensors can be used to overcome this degeneracy. It is demonstrated here for native E. coli tRNA Val that many of the commonly used liquid crystalline alignment media result in very similar alignment tensors, which do not eliminate the 4-fold degeneracy for orienting the two helical domains in tRNA. The intrinsic magnetic susceptibility anisotropy (MSA) of the nucleobases in tRNA Val was also used to obtain RDCs for magnetic alignment at 800 and 900 MHz. While these RDCs yield a different alignment tensor, the specific orientation of this tensor combined with the high rhombicity for the tensors in the liquid crystalline media only eliminates two of the four degenerate orientations for tRNA Val . Simulations are used to show that, in optimal cases, the combination of RDCs obtained from liquid crystalline medium and MSA-induced alignment can be used to obtain a unique orientation for the two helical domains in tRNA Val

  11. Polyester polymer concrete overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Polyester polymer concrete (PPC) was used in a trial application on a section of pavement that suffers from extensive studded tire wear. The purpose of the trial section is to determine if PPC is a possible repair strategy for this type of pavement d...

  12. THERMAL DEGRADATION OF THERMOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALLINE TERPOLYESTERS BASED ON VANILLIC ACID, p-HYDROXYBENZOIC ACID AND POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingui; HUANG Meirong; GUAN Guihe; SUN Tong

    1993-01-01

    Nine thermotropic liquid crystalline terpolyesters based on vanillic acid(V), p-hydroxybenzoic acid(H) and poly(ethylene terephthalate)(E) were investigated by thermogravimetry to ascertain their thermostability and the kinetic parameters for thermal degradation. Overall activation energy data of the degradation had been calculated over the range 5~70% weight loss. The temperatures and the activation energy of the degradation lie in the ranges of 384~394 ℃ at a heating rate of 1 ℃/min and 176~205 KJ/mol at the weight loss of 5%, respectively, which suggests that the terpolyesters have good thermostability.

  13. Smectic order and backbone anisotropy of a side-chain liquid crystalline polymer by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirez, L.; Pépy, G.; Keller, P.; Benguigui, L.

    1991-07-01

    We have simultaneously measured, for the first time, the extension of the polymer backbone of a side-chain liquid crystalline polymer and the intensity of the 001 Bragg reflection, which gives the smectic order parameter Psi as a function of temperature in the smectic phase. We have qualitatively demonstrated that the more the smectic phase is ordered, the more the polymer backbone is localized between the mesogenic layers. It is shown that the Landau theory allows us to relate the radius of gyration parallel to the magnetic field of the polymer backbone to the smectic order parameter. We also show that the Renz-Warner theory is suitable at low temperatures.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Liquid Crystalline Polyurethane/Al2O3/Epoxy Resin Composites for Electronic Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaorong Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystalline polyurethane (LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites were prepared by using LCPU as modifier. The mechanical properties, thermal stability, and electrical properties of the LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites were investigated systematically. The thermal oxidation analysis indicated that LCPU/Al2O3/epoxy resin composites can sustain higher thermal decomposition temperature. Meanwhile, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE was also found to decrease with addition of LCPU and nano-Al2O3.

  15. Synthesis of Isothianaphthene (ITN and 3,4-Ethylenedioxy-Thiophene (EDOT-Based Low-Bandgap Liquid Crystalline Conjugated Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromasa Goto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Copolymers, consisting of isothianaphthene and phenylene derivatives with liquid crystal groups, were synthesized via Migita-Kosugi-Stille polycondensation reaction. IR absorption, UV-vis optical absorption, and PL spectroscopy measurements were carried out. Thermotropic liquid crystallinity of the polymers with bandgap of ~2.5 eV was confirmed.

  16. The Distribution of Crystalline Hematite on Mars from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: Evidence for Liquid Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P. R.; Malin, M.; Morris, D.; Bandfield, J.; Lane, M.; Edgett, K.

    2000-01-01

    Crystalline hematite on Mars has been mapped using the MGS TES. Two major, and several minor areas of significant accumulation are identified. We favor precipitation models involving Fe-rich water, providing direct mineralogic evidence for large-scale water interactions.

  17. Effect of organoclay on the orientation and thermal properties of liquid-crystalline polymers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bandyopadhyay, J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available in the pure LCP; in the nanocomposites, the polymer chains tended to orient in the direction of the dispersed clay layers. According to the DSC results, during first heating, the first melting peak represents the crystalline to nematic transition and, after...

  18. Small Angle Neutron Scattering Studies on Blends of Poly (Styrene-ran-Vinyl Phenol) with Liquid Crystalline Polyurethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rujul

    2005-03-01

    Molecular composites, composed of uniformly dispersed rigid-rod liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) molecules in a flexible amorphous polymer matrix, have remained hitherto elusive due to a scarcity of miscible systems containing a LCP and an amorphous polymer. The production of such a blend, with an experimentally accessible miscibility window, has become possible by modifying the architecture of the flexible polymer, so as to induce favorable intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Specifically, liquid crystalline polyurethanes (LCPU) are found to be miscible with a copolymer of styrene and vinyl phenol; with optimum hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl groups of the urethane linkages and the hydroxyl groups present in the styrenic matrix. Availability of a truly miscible molecular composite presents a unique opportunity of studying the confirmation of polymer chains containing rigid-rods that are uniformly dispersed in a flexible coil matrix. A system consisting of the LCPU and the deuterated styrenic copolymer containing 20% vinyl phenol is examined by Small Angle Neutron Scattering at the National Center for Neutron Research at Gaithersburg and Technology, and the Institute of Solid State Research (IFF) at Jülich. Scattering curves for neat dPS-VPh did not fit the Debye-Bueche model; indicating complex structure. A two correlation length Debye-Bueche model was considered to accommodate for this nonlinear behavior. This model utilizes four fitting parameters, including two correlation lengths a1 and a2, corresponding to a Debye-Bueche model and Guinier model.

  19. Magnetic Field Alignment of PS-P4VP: a Non-Liquid Crystalline Coil-Coil Block Copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Zhang, Kai; Larson, Steven; Gopalan, Padma; O'Hern, Corey; Osuji, Chinedum

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic fields provide the ability to control alignment of self-assembled soft materials such as block copolymers. Most prior work in this area has relied on the presence of ordered assemblies of anisotropic liquid crystalline species to ensure sufficient magnetic anisotropy to drive alignment. Recent experiments with poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine), a non-liquid crystalline BCP, however, show field-induced alignment of a lamellar microstructure during cooling across the order-disorder transition. Using in situ x-ray scattering, we examine the roles of field strength and cooling rate on the alignment response of this low MW coil-coil BCP. Alignment is first observed at field strengths as low as 1 Tesla and improves markedly with both increasing field strength and slower cooling. We present a geometric argument to illustrate the origin of a finite, non-trivial magnetic susceptibility anisotropy for highly stretched surface-tethered polymer chains and corroborate this using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. We rationalize the magnetic field response of the system in terms of the mobility afforded by the absence of entanglements, the intrinsic anisotropy resulting from the stretched polymer chains and sterically constrained conjugated rings, and the large grain size in these low molecular weight materials.

  20. Self-assembled liquid crystalline nanoparticles as a novel ophthalmic delivery system for dexamethasone: Improving preocular retention and ocular bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Li; Han, Shun; Shen, Jinqiu; Zhu, Jiabi; Zhu, Chunliu; Zhang, Xinxin; Gan, Yong

    2010-08-30

    The object of this study was to design novel self-assembled liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubosomes) as an ophthalmic delivery system for dexamethasone (DEX) to improve its preocular retention and ocular bioavailability. DEX cubosome particles were produced by fragmenting a cubic crystalline phase of monoolein and water in the presence of stabilizer Poloxamer 407. Small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXR) profiles revealed its internal structure as Pn3m space group, indicating the diamond cubic phase. In vitro, the apparent permeability coefficient of DEX administered in cubosomes exhibited a 4.5-fold (F1) and 3.5-fold (F2) increase compared to that of Dex-Na phosphate eye drops. Preocular retention studies revealed that the retention of cubosomes was significantly longer than that of solution and carbopol gel, with AUC(0-->180min) of Rh B cubosomes being 2-3-fold higher than that of the other two formulations. In vivo pharmacokinetics in aqueous humor was evaluated by microdialysis, which indicated a 1.8-fold (F1) increase in AUC(0-->240min) of DEX administered in cubosomes relative to that of Dex-Na phosphate eye drops, with about an 8-fold increase compared to that of DEX suspension. Corneal cross-sections after incubation with DEX cubosomes demonstrated an unaffected corneal structure and tissue integrity, which indicated the good biocompatibility of DEX cubosomes. In conclusion, self-assembled liquid crystalline nanoparticles might represent a promising vehicle for effective ocular drug delivery. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Minimalistic Liquid-Assisted Route to Highly Crystalline α-Zirconium Phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Wang, Xiaodong Tony; Jaenicke, Stephan; Chuah, Gaik-Khuan

    2017-08-24

    Zirconium phosphates have potential applications in areas of ion exchange, catalysis, photochemistry, and biotechnology. However, synthesis methodologies to form crystalline α-zirconium phosphate (Zr(HPO 4 ) 2 ⋅H 2 O) typically involve the use of excess phosphoric acid, addition of HF or oxalic acid and long reflux times or hydrothermal conditions. A minimalistic sustainable route to its synthesis has been developed by using only zirconium oxychloride and concentrated phosphoric acid to form highly crystalline α-zirconium phosphate within hours. The morphology can be changed from platelets to rod-shaped particles by fluoride addition. By varying the temperature and time, α-zirconium phosphate with particle sizes from nanometers to microns can be obtained. Key features of this minimal solvent synthesis are the excellent yields obtained with high atom economy under mild conditions and ease of scalability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Thermal Analysis, Mechanical and Rheological Behaviour of Melt Manufactured Polyethylene/Liquid Crystal Polymer Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze ELKSNITE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Modification of properties of conventional thermoplastics with thermotropic liquid crystal polymers, from one hand, allows decrease their viscosities, substantially facilitating processing conditions, and, from another hand, allows increase their exploitation properties. Orientation of the labile structure of liquid crystal polymer in extrusion or injection moulding causes specific reinforcement (so-called self-reinforcement to occur in the blends containing liquid crystal polymer. Up to now the effect of self-reinforcement is mostly investigated in the blends, containing considerable amount of liquid crystal polymer. In this research the effect of minor amounts of liquid crystalline co-polyester modifier on the properties of polyethylene is investigated. Various compositions of laboratory synthesized hydroxybenzoic acid /polyethylene terephtalate copolymer containing polyethylene composites have been manufactured by thermoplastic blending. It has been observed that 1 modulus of elasticity, yield strength and ultimate strength increase with raising the content of liquid crystalline modifier; 2 void content in the investigated polyethylene/liquid crystal copolymer composites is not greater that 1 %; 3 addition of liquid crystalline co-polyester modifier improves arrangement of PE crystalline phase.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.483

  3. New theories for smectic and nematic liquid-crystal polymers: Backbone LCPs [liquid crystalline polymers] and their mixtures and side-chain LCPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, F.

    1987-01-01

    A summary of predictions and explanations from statistical-physics theories for both backbone and side-chain liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) and for mixtures with backbone LCPs are presented. Trends in the thermodynamic and molecular ordering properties have been calculated as a function of pressure, density, temperature, and molecule chemical structures (including degree of polymerization and the following properties of the chemical structures of the repeat units: lengths and shapes, intra-chain rotation energies, dipole moments, site-site polarizabilities and Lennard-Jones potentials, etc.) in nematic and multiple smectic-A LC phases and in the isotropic liquid phase. The theoretical results are found to be in good agreement with existing experimental data. These theories can also be applied to combined LCPs. Since these theories have no ad hoc or arbitrarily adjustable parameters, these theories can be used to design new LCPs and new solvents as well as to predict and explain properties. 27 refs., 4 tabs

  4. Degradation of microbial polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P

    2004-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), one of the largest groups of thermoplastic polyesters are receiving much attention as biodegradable substitutes for non-degradable plastics. Poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and most intensively studied PHA. Microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various PHB-degrading microorganisms and PHB depolymerases have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. Distributions of PHB-degrading microorganisms, factors affecting the biodegradability of PHB, and microbial and enzymatic degradation of PHB are discussed in this review. We also propose an application of a new isolated, thermophilic PHB-degrading microorganism, Streptomyces strain MG, for producing pure monomers of PHA and useful chemicals, including D-3-hydroxycarboxylic acids such as D-3-hydroxybutyric acid, by enzymatic degradation of PHB.

  5. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Computational Methods for Polymers and Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Pasini, Paolo; Žumer, Slobodan; Computer Simulations of Liquid Crystals and Polymers

    2005-01-01

    Liquid crystals, polymers and polymer liquid crystals are soft condensed matter systems of major technological and scientific interest. An understanding of the macroscopic properties of these complex systems and of their many and interesting peculiarities at the molecular level can nowadays only be attained using computer simulations and statistical mechanical theories. Both in the Liquid Crystal and Polymer fields a considerable amount of simulation work has been done in the last few years with various classes of models at different special resolutions, ranging from atomistic to molecular and coarse-grained lattice models. Each of the two fields has developed its own set of tools and specialized procedures and the book aims to provide a state of the art review of the computer simulation studies of polymers and liquid crystals. This is of great importance in view of a potential cross-fertilization between these connected areas which is particularly apparent for a number of experimental systems like, e.g. poly...

  6. Effect of multilactate chiral part of liquid crystalline molecule on mesomorphic behaviour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubnov, Alexej M.; Novotná, Vladimíra; Hamplová, Věra; Kašpar, Miroslav; Glogarová, Milada

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 892, 1-3 (2008), 151-157 ISSN 0022-2860 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 175; GA AV ČR IAA100100710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : lactic acid derivative * liquid crystal * ferroelectric liquid crystal * antiferroelectric phase * hexatic phase * keto group * lactate group Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.594, year: 2008

  7. Polyamine structural effects on the induction and stabilization of liquid crystalline DNA: potential applications to DNA packaging, gene therapy and polyamine therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, M; Thomas, Thresia; Shirahata, Akira; Pillai, C K S; Thomas, T J

    2002-09-01

    DNA undergoes condensation, conformational transitions, aggregation and resolubilization in the presence of polyamines, positively charged organic molecules present in all cells. Under carefully controlled environmental conditions, DNA can also transform to a liquid crystalline state in vitro. We undertook the present work to examine the ability of spermidine, N4-methylspermidine, spermine, N1-acetylspermine and a group of tetramine, pentamine and hexamine analogs of spermine to induce and stabilize liquid crystalline DNA. Liquid crystalline textures were identified under a polarizing microscope. In the absence of polyamines, calf thymus DNA assumed a diffused, planar cholesteric phase with entrapped bubbles when incubated on a glass slide at 37 degrees C. In the presence of spermidine and spermine, the characteristic fingerprint textures of the cholesteric phase, adopting a hexagonal order, were obtained. The helical pitch was 2.5 micro m. The final structures were dendrimeric and crystalline when DNA was treated with spermine homologs and bis(ethyl) derivatives. A cholesteric structure was observed when DNA was treated with a hexamine at 37 degrees C. This structure changed to a hexagonal dendrimer with fluidity on prolonged incubation. These data show a structural specificity effect of polyamines on liquid crystalline phase transitions of DNA and suggest a possible physiological function of natural polyamines.

  8. Enhanced thermal and mechanical properties of epoxy composites by mixing thermotropic liquid crystalline epoxy grafted graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Qi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO sheets were chemically grafted with thermotropic liquid crystalline epoxy (TLCP. Then we fabricated composites using TLCP-g-GO as reinforcing filler. The mechanical properties and thermal properties of composites were systematically investigated. It is found that the thermal and mechanical properties of the composites are enhanced effectively by the addition of fillers. For instance, the composites containing 1.0 wt% of TLCP-g-GO present impact strength of 51.43 kJ/m2, the tensile strength of composites increase from 55.43 to 80.85 MPa, the flexural modulus of the composites increase by more than 48%. Furthermore, the incorporation of fillers is effective to improve the glass transition temperature and thermal stability of the composites. Therefore, the presence of the TLCP-g-GO in the epoxy matrix could make epoxy not only stronger but also tougher.

  9. Entrapment of curcumin into monoolein-based liquid crystalline nanoparticle dispersion for enhancement of stability and anticancer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rengarajan Baskaran,1 Thiagarajan Madheswaran,2 Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy,1 Hwan Mook Kim,1 Bong Kyu Yoo1 1College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, Incheon, South Korea; 2College of Pharmacy Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, South Korea Abstract: Despite the promising anticancer potential of curcumin, its therapeutic application has been limited, owing to its poor solubility, bioavailability, and chemical fragility. Therefore, various formulation approaches have been attempted to address these problems. In this study, we entrapped curcumin into monoolein (MO-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNs and evaluated the physicochemical properties and anticancer activity of the LCN dispersion. The results revealed that particles in the curcumin-loaded LCN dispersion were discrete and monodispersed, and that the entrapment efficiency was almost 100%. The stability of curcumin in the dispersion was surprisingly enhanced (about 75% of the curcumin survived after 45 days of storage at 40°C, and the in vitro release of curcumin was sustained (10% or less over 15 days. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS analysis using a human colon cancer cell line (HCT116 exhibited 99.1% fluorescence gating for 5 µM curcumin-loaded LCN dispersion compared to 1.36% for the same concentration of the drug in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, indicating markedly enhanced cellular uptake. Consistent with the enhanced cellular uptake of curcumin-loaded LCNs, anticancer activity and cell cycle studies demonstrated apoptosis induction when the cells were treated with the LCN dispersion; however, there was neither noticeable cell death nor significant changes in the cell cycle for the same concentration of the drug in DMSO. In conclusion, entrapping curcumin into MO-based LCNs may provide, in the future, a strategy for overcoming the hurdles associated with both the stability and cellular uptake issues of the drug in the treatment of various cancers. Keywords: liquid

  10. Phase diagrams in blends of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid with various aliphatic polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Phase behavior with immiscibility, miscibility, crystalline morphology, and kinetic analysis in blends of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB with aliphatic polyesters such as poly(butylene adipate (PBA, poly(ethylene adipate (PEA, poly(trimethylene adipate (PTA, or poly(ethylene succinate (PESu, respectively, were explored mainly using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and polarized-light optical microscopy (POM. Immiscibility phase behavior with reversible upper-critical-solution-temperature (UCST is common in the PHB/polyester blends. The polyester/polyester blend of PHB/PTA is partially miscible with no UCST in melt and amorphous glassy states within a composition range of PTA less than 50 wt%. The miscible crystalline/crystalline blend exhibits ring-banded spherulites at Tc = 50~100°C, with inter-ring spacing dependent on Tc. All immiscible or partially miscible PHB/polyester blends, by contrast, exhibit disrupted ringbanded spherulites or discrete spherical phase domains upon cooling from UCST to crystallization. The blends of PHB with all other aliphatic polyesters, such as PESu, PEA, PBA, etc. are only partially miscible or immiscible with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST at 180~221°C depending on blend composition. UCST with reversibility was verified.

  11. Beyer's non-linearity parameter (B/A) in benzylidene aniline Schiff base liquid crystalline systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagi Reddy, M.V.V.; Pisipati, V.G.K.M.; Madhavi Latha, D.; Datta Prasad, P.V.

    2011-01-01

    The non-linearity parameter B/A is estimated for a number of liquid crystal materials of the type N-(p-n-alkoxy benzylidene)-p-n-alkyl anilines, popularly known as nO.m, where n and m are the aliphatic chains on either side of the rigid core, which can be varied from 1 to 18 to realize a number of LC materials with a variety LC phase variants. The B/A values are computed from both density and sound velocity data following standard relations reported in literature. This systematic study in a homologous series provides an opportunity to study how this parameter behaves with (1) either the alkoxy and/or alkyl chain number, (2) with the total chain number (n+m), (3) with increase in molecular weight and (4) whether the linear relations reported in literature either with αT [thermal expansion coefficient (α) and temperature (T)] and sound velocity (u) will hold good or not and if so to what extent. The results are discussed with the body of data available in literature on liquids, liquid mixtures and other LC materials. -- Research highlights: → The Bayer's non-linearity parameter (B/A) is estimated for the first time for a number liquid crystal materials of the type N-(p-n-alkoxy benzylidene)-p-nalkyl anilines. → The magnitude of B/A estimated from sound velocity data is higher compared to that estimated thermal expansion data. → The B/A value decreases with increase in molecular weight with an even odd fashion and reaches a minimum value and saturates. → These studies reveal that both the thermal expansion coefficient and sound velocity are the tools to estimate the non-linear parameter B/A in the case of liquid crystals.

  12. Directed self-assembly of liquid crystalline blue-phases into ideal single-crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Jose A.; Li, Xiao; Sadati, Monirosadat; Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Rui; Nealey, Paul F.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2017-06-01

    Chiral nematic liquid crystals are known to form blue phases--liquid states of matter that exhibit ordered cubic arrangements of topological defects. Blue-phase specimens, however, are generally polycrystalline, consisting of randomly oriented domains that limit their performance in applications. A strategy that relies on nano-patterned substrates is presented here for preparation of stable, macroscopic single-crystal blue-phase materials. Different template designs are conceived to exert control over different planes of the blue-phase lattice orientation with respect to the underlying substrate. Experiments are then used to demonstrate that it is indeed possible to create stable single-crystal blue-phase domains with the desired orientation over large regions. These results provide a potential avenue to fully exploit the electro-optical properties of blue phases, which have been hindered by the existence of grain boundaries.

  13. Effect of chiral photosensitive liquid crystalline dopants on theperformance of organic solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iwan, A.; Boharewicz, B.; Tazbir, I.; Hamplová, Věra; Bubnov, Alexej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 104, Feb (2015), s. 53-60 ISSN 0038-1101 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13PL041; GA ČR GA13-14133S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14007 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101204 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : organic solar cell * composite with liquid crystal Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2015

  14. Molecular tilt near nanoparticles in the smectic A phase of de Vries liquid-crystalline compound

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Lubor; Novotná, Vladimíra; Glogarová, Milada

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2014), "012505-1"-"012505-6" ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0723 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : liquid crystals * smectic phases * nanoparticles * deVries behaviour Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2014 http://pre. aps .org/abstract/PRE/v89/i1/e012505

  15. Unique effect of the electric field on a new liquid crystalline lactic acid derivative

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, Vladimíra; Glogarová, Milada; Kašpar, Miroslav; Hamplová, Věra; Lejček, Lubor; Pociecha, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 23 (2015), s. 4649-4657 ISSN 1744-683X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14133S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02986S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100101211 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : liquid crystals * TGBA phase * Frederiks transition Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 3.798, year: 2015

  16. Molecular structure of the discotic liquid crystalline phase of hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene/oligothiophene hybrid and their charge transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bag, Saientan; Maingi, Vishal; Maiti, Prabal K.; Yelk, Joe; Glaser, Matthew A.; Clark, Noel A.; Walba, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulation, we study the discotic columnar liquid crystalline (LC) phases formed by a new organic compound having hexa-peri-Hexabenzocoronene (HBC) core with six pendant oligothiophene units recently synthesized by Nan Hu et al. [Adv. Mater. 26, 2066 (2014)]. This HBC core based LC phase was shown to have electric field responsive behavior and has important applications in organic electronics. Our simulation results confirm the hexagonal arrangement of columnar LC phase with a lattice spacing consistent with that obtained from small angle X-ray diffraction data. We have also calculated various positional and orientational correlation functions to characterize the ordering of the molecules in the columnar arrangement. The molecules in a column are arranged with an average twist of 25° having an average inter-molecular separation of ∼5 Å. Interestingly, we find an overall tilt angle of 43° between the columnar axis and HBC core. We also simulate the charge transport through this columnar phase and report the numerical value of charge carrier mobility for this liquid crystal phase. The charge carrier mobility is strongly influenced by the twist angle and average spacing of the molecules in the column

  17. PEGylation of Phytantriol-Based Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Particles-The Effect of Lipid Composition, PEG Chain Length, and Temperature on the Internal Nanostructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Christa; Ostergaard, Jesper; Larsen, Susan Weng

    2014-01-01

    of these lipidic nonlamellar liquid crystalline particles by using DSPE-mPEGs with three different block lengths of the hydrophilic PEG segment. The effects of lipid composition, PEG chain length, and temperature on the morphology and internal nanostructure of these self-assembled lipidic aqueous dispersions based...

  18. On the “Tertiary Structure” of Poly-Carbenes; Self-Assembly of sp3-Carbon-Based Polymers into Liquid-Crystalline Aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, N.G.M.; Ensing, B.; Hegde, M.; Dingemans, T.J.; Norder, B.; Picken, S.J.; Alberda van Ekenstein, G.O.R.; van Eck, E.R.H.; Elemans, J.A.A.W; Vis, M.; Reek, J.N.H.; de Bruin, B.

    2013-01-01

    The self-assembly of poly(ethylidene acetate) (st-PEA) into van der Waals-stabilized liquid-crystalline (LC) aggregates is reported. The LC behavior of these materials is unexpected, and unusual for flexible sp(3)-carbon backbone polymers. Although the dense packing of polar ester functionalities

  19. Design of advanced multicomponent ferroelectric liquid crystalline mixtures with submicrometre helical pitch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurp, K.; Czerwiński, M.; Tykarska, M.; Bubnov, Alexej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2017), s. 748-756 ISSN 0267-8292 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13PL041; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14007; GA ČR GA15-02843S Grant - others:COST Association EU(XE) COST Action IC1208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferroelectric liquid crystal * self-assembling materials * submicrometre helical pitch * room temperature mixture * switching time Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties) Impact factor: 2.661, year: 2016

  20. Electro-optic and dielectric properties of new binary ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid crystalline mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fitas, J.; Marzec, M.; Kurp, K.; Żurowska, M.; Tykarska, M.; Bubnov, Alexej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 9 (2017), s. 1468-1476 ISSN 0267-8292 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14007; GA ČR GA15-02843S Grant - others:EU - ICT(XE) COST Action IC1208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : liquid crystals * ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phase * binary mixture * dielectric spectroscopy * switching time * tilt angle Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties) Impact factor: 2.661, year: 2016

  1. Dielectric behaviour of the composite system: multiwall carbon nanotubes dispersed in ferroelectric liquid crystalline material

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shukla, R.K.; Raina, K.K.; Hamplová, Věra; Kašpar, Miroslav; Bubnov, Alexej

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, 9-10 (2011), 850-857 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100911; GA AV ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0047; GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0723 Grant - others:RFASI(RU) 02.740.11.5166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectric liquid crystal * multiwall carbon nanotube * composite * mesomorphic property * dielectric spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.006, year: 2011

  2. Antiferroelectric phase in liquid crystalline compounds with azo group in their molecular core

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpar, Miroslav; Novotná, Vladimíra; Hamplová, Věra; Podoliak, Natalia; Nonnenmacher, D.; Giesselmann, F.; Glogarová, Milada

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 3 (2011), s. 309-315 ISSN 0267-8292 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100911; GA AV ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0047 Grant - others:German Czech bilateral program(DE) D4-CZ5/2010-2011; GA UK(CZ) SVV-2011-263303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : liquid crystals * antiferroelectricity * azo linkage group * photosensitivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.858, year: 2011

  3. Structure/Property Relationships of Siloxane-Based Liquid Crystalline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    1974). (6) Goossens , N.J.,., Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 12,237-244(1971). (7) Gray, G.W. and Goodby, J.W.G., Smectic Liquid Crystals- Textures and...pp 30-105, (1989). 42 (59) Richards , R.D.C., Hawthorne, W.D., Hill, J.S., White, M.S., Lacey, D., Semlyen, J.A., Gray, G.W., and Kendrick, T.C., J...946(1985). (30) Davidson, P. and Levelut, A.M., J. Phys., 49, 689-695(1988). (31) Richards , R.D.C., Hawthorne, W.D., Hill, J.S., White, M.S., Lacey

  4. Liquid crystalline phases in suspensions of pigments in non-polar solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susanne; Richardson, Robert M.; Eremin, Alexey

    We will discuss colloid suspensions of pigments and compare their electro-optic properties with those of traditional dyed low molecular weight liquid crystal systems. There are several potential advantages of colloidal suspensions over low molecular weight liquid crystal systems: a very high contrast because of the high orientational order parameter of suspensions of rod shaped nano-particles, the excellent light fastness of pigments as compared to dyes and high colour saturations resulting from the high loading of the colour stuff. Although a weak `single-particle' electro-optic response can be observed in dilute suspensions, the response is very much enhanced when the concentration of the particles is sufficient to lead to a nematic phase. Excellent stability of suspensions is beneficial for experimental observation and reproducibility, but it is a fundamental necessity for display applications. We therefore discuss a method to achieve long term stability of dispersed pigments and the reasons for its success. Small angle X-ray scattering was used to determine the orientational order parameter of the suspensions as a function of concentration and the dynamic response to an applied electric field. Optical properties were investigated for a wide range of pigment concentrations. Electro-optical phenomena, such as field-induced birefringence and switching, were characterised. In addition, mixtures of pigment suspensions with small amounts of ferrofluids show promise as future magneto-optical materials.

  5. Dual quantification of dapivirine and maraviroc in cervicovaginal secretions from ophthalmic tear strips and polyester-based swabs via liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Teresa L; Emory, Joshua F; Seserko, Lauren A; Aung, Wutyi S; Marzinke, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    Topical microbicidal agents are being actively pursued as a modality to prevent HIV viral transmission during sexual intercourse. Quantification of antiretroviral agents in specimen sources where antiviral activity is elicited is critical, and drug measurements in cervicovaginal fluid can provide key information on local drug concentrations. Two antiretroviral drugs, dapivirine and maraviroc, have gained interest as vaginal microbicidal agents, and rugged methods are required for their quantification in cervicovaginal secretions. Cervicovaginal fluid spiked with dapivirine and maraviroc were applied to ophthalmic tear strips or polyester-based swabs to mimic collection procedures used in clinical studies. Following sample extraction and the addition of isotopically labeled internal standards, samples were subjected to liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis using a Waters BEH C8, 50mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm particle size column, on an API 4000 mass analyzer operated in selective reaction monitoring mode. The method was validated according to FDA Bioanalytical Method Validation guidelines. Due to the disparate saturation capacity of the tested collection devices, the analytical measuring ranges for dapivirine and maravirocin cervicovaginal fluid on the ophthalmic tear strip were 0.05-25ng/tear strip, and 0.025-25ng/tear strip, respectively. As for the polyester-based swab, the analytical measuring ranges were 0.25-125ng/swab for dapivirine and 0.125-125ng/swab for maraviroc. Dilutional studies were performed for both analytes to extended ranges of 25,000ng/tear strip and 11,250ng/swab. Standard curves were generated via weighted (1/x(2)) linear or quadratic regression of calibrators. Precision, accuracy, stability and matrix effects studies were all performed and deemed acceptable according to the recommendations of the FDA Bioanalytical Method Validation guidelines. A rugged LC-MS/MS method for the dual quantification of dapivirine and

  6. Effect of Structure Change on Radiation Crosslinking of Unsaturated Polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranogajec, F.

    2006-01-01

    During the course of crosslinking of unsaturated polyesters reacting system, that was liquid prior to reaction, gels, and becomes solid. Crosslinking reaction begins to be controlled by the change of the physical state of the system at an early stage of reaction. The kinetics can not be studied by the usual kinetical methods. In-source 60 C o gamma rays induced crosslinking of unsaturated polyester with styrene was followed directly and continuously by measuring electrical conductivity change. The results of extraction analysis proved good correlation between the change of electrical conductivity and the extent of curing. The gel content was inversely proportional to conductivity and free styrene content directly proportional to conductivity. DC-electrical conductivity has shown high sensitivity toward structural changes and enabled us to detect liquid-liquid transitions in unsaturated polyester. The upper liquid-liquid transition (T l ρ) is less known transition caused by a stepwise decrease of intramolecular short-range local order that remains above the glass and lower liquid-liquid transitions. The local order is based on secondary valent interactions and is enhanced by hydrogen bonding. The linear temperature dependence of the viscosity and dc electrical conductivity of unsaturated polyesters showed a change of slope caused by the (T l ρ). Those changes were the result of the diminishing of the local order (which includes several bond lengths) caused by breaking of the intramolecular interactions. The intramolecular nature of the (T l ρ) in the polyesters under consideration was proved by its insensitivity to crosslinking and dilution with solvents. In the corresponding temperature range, DSC thermograms shoved expected endothermic changes. The structure changes related to the (T l ρ) in the investigated polyesters were determined by 1 H NMR and NIR spectroscopy. The proton NMR indicated that the stepwise change in hydrogen bonding occurred in the

  7. Investigation of the liquid crystalline phase transitions using the new modified Pople Karasz model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazıcı, Mustafa; Özgan, Şükrü; Keskin, Mustafa

    2005-09-01

    Thermodynamics of solid nematic and nematic isotropic liquid transitions are studied by using a new modified model that combines the modified theories of Chandrasekhar et al. with those Keskin and Özgan which are based on the Pople Karasz theory. The thermodynamic properties of the disordered system are evaluated relative to those of the perfectly ordered one within the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method which is identical to the mean-field approximation. The results are compared with the some available experimental data, the predictions of the original Pople Karasz (PK) theory and its previous modified theories. For nematic isotropic and s(nematic) at the transition temperatures, the agreement is very good and much better than the predictions of the PK theory and its previous modified theories. For the solid nematic transition, all theories give very nearly the same results, but the values are significantly lower than the observed data. Moreover, one of the theoretical phase diagrams is also qualitatively similar to the experimental phase diagram for p-azoxyphenetole (PAA).

  8. Investigation of the liquid crystalline phase transitions using the new modified Pople-Karasz model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazici, Mustafa; Oezgan, Suekrue; Keskin, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    Thermodynamics of solid-nematic and nematic-isotropic liquid transitions are studied by using a new modified model that combines the modified theories of Chandrasekhar et al. with those Keskin and Oezgan which are based on the Pople-Karasz theory. The thermodynamic properties of the disordered system are evaluated relative to those of the perfectly ordered one within the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method which is identical to the mean-field approximation. The results are compared with the some available experimental data, the predictions of the original Pople-Karasz (PK) theory and its previous modified theories. For nematic-isotropic and s(nematic) at the transition temperatures, the agreement is very good and much better than the predictions of the PK theory and its previous modified theories. For the solid-nematic transition, all theories give very nearly the same results, but the values are significantly lower than the observed data. Moreover, one of the theoretical phase diagrams is also qualitatively similar to the experimental phase diagram for p-azoxyphenetole (PAA)

  9. Effects of molecular elongation on liquid crystalline phase behaviour: isotropic-nematic transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram Chandra; Ram, Jokhan

    2003-08-01

    We present the density-functional approach to study the isotropic-nematic transitions and calculate the values of freezing parameters of the Gay-Berne liquid crystal model, concentrating on the effects of varying the molecular elongation, x0. For this, we have solved the Percus-Yevick integral equation theory to calculate the pair-correlation functions of a fluid the molecules of which interact via a Gay-Berne pair potential. These results have been used in the density-functional theory as an input to locate the isotropic-nematic transition and calculate freezing parameters for a range of length-to-width parameters 3.0⩽ x0⩽4.0 at reduced temperatures 0.95 and 1.25. We observed that as x0 is increased, the isotropic-nematic transition is seen to move to lower density at a given temperature. We find that the density-functional theory is good to study the freezing transitions in such fluids. We have also compared our results with computer simulation results wherever they are available.

  10. A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G.; Krishna Prasad, S.; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4–5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.

  11. A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G.; Krishna Prasad, S.; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.

    2014-10-01

    We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4-5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.

  12. Electrospinning of microbial polyester for cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Oh Hyeong [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, 1 Yangho-dong, Gumi, Gyeongbuk 730-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ik Sang [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, 1 Yangho-dong, Gumi, Gyeongbuk 730-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Young-Gwang [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, 1 Yangho-dong, Gumi, Gyeongbuk 730-701 (Korea, Republic of); Meng, Wan [Department of Polymer Science, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung-Hye [Department of Polymer Science, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Inn-Kyu [Department of Polymer Science, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ito, Yoshihiro [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, KSP East 309, Sakado 3-2-1, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)

    2007-03-01

    Biodegradable and biocompatible poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), a copolymer of microbial polyester, was fabricated as a nanofibrous mat by electrospinning. The specific surface area and the porosity of electrospun PHBV nanofibrous mat were determined. When the mechanical properties of flat film and electrospun PHBV nanofibrous mats were investigated, both the tensile modulus and strength of electrospun PHBV were less than those of cast PHBV film. However, the elongation ratio of nanofiber mat was higher than that of the cast film. The structure of electrospun nanofibers using PHBV-trifluoroethanol solutions depended on the solution concentrations. When x-ray diffraction patterns of bulk PHBV before and after electrospinning were compared, the crystallinity of PHBV was not significantly affected by the electrospinning process. Chondrocytes adhered and grew on the electrospun PHBV nanofibrous mat better than on the cast PHBV film. Therefore, the electrospun PHBV was considered to be suitable for cell culture.

  13. Competitive concurrence of surface wrinkling and dewetting of liquid crystalline polymer films on non-wettable substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung E; Choi, Gwan H; Yi, Gi-Ra; Yoo, Pil J

    2017-11-01

    Polymeric thin films coated on non-wettable substrates undergo film-instabilities, which are usually manifested as surface deformation in the form of dewetting or wrinkling. The former takes place in fluidic films, whereas the latter occurs in solid films. Therefore, there have rarely been reports of systems involving simultaneous deformations of dewetting and wrinkling. In this study, we propose polymeric thin films of liquid crystalline (LC) mesogens prepared on a non-wettable Si substrate and apply a treatment of plasma irradiation to form a thin polymerized layer at the surface. The resulting compressive stress generated in the surface region drives the formation of wrinkles, while at the same time, dipolar attraction between LC molecules induces competitive cohesive dewetting. Intriguing surface structures were obtained whereby dewetting-like hole arrays are nested inside the randomly propagated wrinkles. The structural features are readily controlled by the degree of surface cross-linking, hydrophilicity of the substrates, and the LC film thickness. In particular, dewetting of LC mesogens is observed to be restricted to occur at the trough regions of wrinkles, exhibiting the typical behavior of geometrically confined dewetting. Finally, wrinkling-dewetting mixed structures are separated from the substrate in the form of free standing films to demonstrate the potential applicability as membranes.

  14. Ericksen number and Deborah number cascade predictions of a model for liquid crystalline polymers for simple shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D. Harley; Leal, L. Gary; García-Cervera, Carlos J.; Ceniceros, Hector D.

    2007-02-01

    We consider the behavior of the Doi-Marrucci-Greco (DMG) model for nematic liquid crystalline polymers in planar shear flow. We found the DMG model to exhibit dynamics in both qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental observations reported by Larson and Mead [Liq. Cryst. 15, 151 (1993)] for the Ericksen number and Deborah number cascades. For increasing shear rates within the Ericksen number cascade, the DMG model displays three distinct regimes: stable simple shear, stable roll cells, and irregular structure accompanied by disclination formation. In accordance with experimental observations, the model predicts both ±1 and ±1/2 disclinations. Although ±1 defects form via the ridge-splitting mechanism first identified by Feng, Tao, and Leal [J. Fluid Mech. 449, 179 (2001)], a new mechanism is identified for the formation of ±1/2 defects. Within the Deborah number cascade, with increasing Deborah number, the DMG model exhibits a streamwise banded texture, in the absence of disclinations and roll cells, followed by a monodomain wherein the mean orientation lies within the shear plane throughout the domain.

  15. Electrostatic Effects in Phase Transitions of Biomembranes between Cubic Phases and Lamellar Liquid-Crystalline (Lα) phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Shah Md.; Li, Shu Jie; Tamba, Yukihiro; Yamashita, Yuko; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2004-04-01

    Elucidation of the mechanisms of transitions between cubic phase and liquid-crystalline (Lα) phase, and between different IPMS cubic phases, are essential for understanding of dynamics of biomembranes and topological transformation of lipid membranes. Recently, we found that electrostatic interactions due to surface charges of lipid membranes induce transition between cubic phase and Lα phase, and between different IPMS cubic phases. As electrostatic interactions increase, the most stable phase of a monoolein (MO) membrane changes: Q224 ⇒ Q229 ⇒ Lα. We also found that a de novo designed peptide partitioning into electrically neutral lipid membrane changed the phase stability of the MO membranes. As peptide-1 concentration increased, the most stable phase of a MO membrane changes: Q224 ⇒ Q229 ⇒Lα. In both cases, the increase in the electrostatic repulsive interaction greatly reduced the absolute value of spontaneous curvature of the MO monolayer membrane. We also investigated factors such as poly (L-lysine) and osmotic stress to control structure and phase stability of DOPA/MO membranes. Based on these results, we discuss the mechanism of the effect of electrostatic interactions on the stability of cubic phase.

  16. Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles as an Ophthalmic Delivery System for Tetrandrine: Development, Characterization, and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Shuangshuang; Fang, Shiming; Wang, Jialu; Chen, Jingjing; Huang, Xingguo; He, Xin; Liu, Changxiao

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) that display improved pre-ocular residence time and ocular bioavailability and that can be used as an ophthalmic delivery system for tetrandrine (TET). The delivery system consisted of three primary components, including glyceryl monoolein, poloxamer 407, and water, and two secondary components, including Gelucire 44/14 and amphipathic octadecyl-quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan. The amount of TET, the amount of glyceryl monoolein, and the ratio of poloxamer 407 to glyceryl monoolein were selected as the factors that were used to optimize the dependent variables, which included encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. A three-factor, five-level central composite design was constructed to optimize the formulation. TET-loaded LCNPs (TET-LCNPs) were characterized to determine their particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, drug loading capacity, particle morphology, inner crystalline structure, and in vitro drug release profile. Corneal permeation in excised rabbit corneas was evaluated. Pre-ocular retention was determined using a noninvasive fluorescence imaging system. Finally, pharmacokinetic study in the aqueous humor was performed by microdialysis technique. The optimal formulation had a mean particle size of 170.0 ± 13.34 nm, a homogeneous distribution with polydispersity index of 0.166 ± 0.02, a positive surface charge with a zeta potential of 29.3 ± 1.25 mV, a high entrapment efficiency of 95.46 ± 4.13 %, and a drug loading rate of 1.63 ± 0.07 %. Transmission electron microscopy showed spherical particles that had smooth surfaces. Small-angle X-ray scattering profiles revealed an inverted hexagonal phase. The in vitro release assays showed a sustained drug release profile. A corneal permeation study showed that the apparent permeability coefficient of the optimal formulation was 2.03-fold higher than that of the TET solution. Pre-ocular retention

  17. Degradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Bacterial Polyester Hydrolases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Schmidt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes (PU are widely used synthetic polymers. The growing amount of PU used industrially has resulted in a worldwide increase of plastic wastes. The related environmental pollution as well as the limited availability of the raw materials based on petrochemicals requires novel solutions for their efficient degradation and recycling. The degradation of the polyester PU Impranil DLN by the polyester hydrolases LC cutinase (LCC, TfCut2, Tcur1278 and Tcur0390 was analyzed using a turbidimetric assay. The highest hydrolysis rates were obtained with TfCut2 and Tcur0390. TfCut2 also showed a significantly higher substrate affinity for Impranil DLN than the other three enzymes, indicated by a higher adsorption constant K. Significant weight losses of the solid thermoplastic polyester PU (TPU Elastollan B85A-10 and C85A-10 were detected as a result of the enzymatic degradation by all four polyester hydrolases. Within a reaction time of 200 h at 70 °C, LCC caused weight losses of up to 4.9% and 4.1% of Elastollan B85A-10 and C85A-10, respectively. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed a preferential degradation of the larger polymer chains. Scanning electron microscopy revealed cracks at the surface of the TPU cubes as a result of enzymatic surface erosion. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the observed weight losses were a result of the cleavage of ester bonds of the polyester TPU.

  18. The importance of orientation in proton transport of a polymer film based on an oriented self-organized columnar liquid-crystalline polyether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylkowski, Bartosz; Castelao, Nuria [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans, 26, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Giamberini, Marta, E-mail: marta.giamberini@urv.net [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans, 26, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Garcia-Valls, Ricard [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans, 26, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Reina, Jose Antonio [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Carrer Marcel.li Domingo s/n, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Gumi, Tania [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans, 26, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain)

    2012-02-01

    We prepared membranes based on a liquid-crystalline side-chain polyether obtained by chemical modification of commercial poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) with dendrons. This polymer exhibited a columnar structure, which could form an ion channel in the inner part. The columns were successfully oriented by taking advantage of surface interactions between the polymer and hydrophilic substrates, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and optical microscopy between crossed polars (POM). Column orientation was found to be crucial for effective transport: the oriented membranes exhibited proton transport comparable to that of Nafion Registered-Sign N117 and no water uptake. An increase in sodium ion concentration in the feed phase suggested a proton/cation antiport. On the contrary, no proton transport was detected on unoriented membranes based on the same liquid-crystalline side-chain polyether or on unmodified PECH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared oriented membranes based on a liquid crystalline columnar polyether. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this structure, the inner polyether chain could work as an ion channel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained membranes by casting a chloroform solution in the presence of water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membranes showed good proton permeability due to the presence of oriented channels.

  19. The importance of orientation in proton transport of a polymer film based on an oriented self-organized columnar liquid-crystalline polyether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylkowski, Bartosz; Castelao, Nuria; Giamberini, Marta; Garcia-Valls, Ricard; Reina, José Antonio; Gumí, Tània

    2012-01-01

    We prepared membranes based on a liquid-crystalline side-chain polyether obtained by chemical modification of commercial poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) with dendrons. This polymer exhibited a columnar structure, which could form an ion channel in the inner part. The columns were successfully oriented by taking advantage of surface interactions between the polymer and hydrophilic substrates, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and optical microscopy between crossed polars (POM). Column orientation was found to be crucial for effective transport: the oriented membranes exhibited proton transport comparable to that of Nafion® N117 and no water uptake. An increase in sodium ion concentration in the feed phase suggested a proton/cation antiport. On the contrary, no proton transport was detected on unoriented membranes based on the same liquid-crystalline side-chain polyether or on unmodified PECH. - Highlights: ► We prepared oriented membranes based on a liquid crystalline columnar polyether. ► In this structure, the inner polyether chain could work as an ion channel. ► We obtained membranes by casting a chloroform solution in the presence of water. ► Membranes showed good proton permeability due to the presence of oriented channels.

  20. Entrapment of curcumin into monoolein-based liquid crystalline nanoparticle dispersion for enhancement of stability and anticancer activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Rengarajan; Madheswaran, Thiagarajan; Sundaramoorthy, Pasupathi; Kim, Hwan Mook; Yoo, Bong Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Despite the promising anticancer potential of curcumin, its therapeutic application has been limited, owing to its poor solubility, bioavailability, and chemical fragility. Therefore, various formulation approaches have been attempted to address these problems. In this study, we entrapped curcumin into monoolein (MO)-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNs) and evaluated the physicochemical properties and anticancer activity of the LCN dispersion. The results revealed that particles in the curcumin-loaded LCN dispersion were discrete and monodispersed, and that the entrapment efficiency was almost 100%. The stability of curcumin in the dispersion was surprisingly enhanced (about 75% of the curcumin survived after 45 days of storage at 40°C), and the in vitro release of curcumin was sustained (10% or less over 15 days). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis using a human colon cancer cell line (HCT116) exhibited 99.1% fluorescence gating for 5 μM curcumin-loaded LCN dispersion compared to 1.36% for the same concentration of the drug in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), indicating markedly enhanced cellular uptake. Consistent with the enhanced cellular uptake of curcumin-loaded LCNs, anticancer activity and cell cycle studies demonstrated apoptosis induction when the cells were treated with the LCN dispersion; however, there was neither noticeable cell death nor significant changes in the cell cycle for the same concentration of the drug in DMSO. In conclusion, entrapping curcumin into MO-based LCNs may provide, in the future, a strategy for overcoming the hurdles associated with both the stability and cellular uptake issues of the drug in the treatment of various cancers. PMID:25061290

  1. Glyceryl monooleyl ether-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles as a transdermal delivery system of flurbiprofen: characterization and in vitro transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Tomonobu; Murata, Akiko; Miyazaki, Yasunori; Oka, Toshihiko; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNs) were prepared using glyceryl monooleyl ether (GME) by the modified film rehydration method. Hydrogenated lecithin (HL), 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-BG), and Poloxamer 407 were used as additives. The prepared LCN formulations were evaluated based on particle size, small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS) analysis, (1)H- and (19)F-NMR spectra, and in vitro skin permeation across Yucatan micropig skin. The composition (weight percent) of the LCN formulations were GME-HL-1,3-BG (4 : 1 : 15), 4% GME-based LCN and GME-HL-1,3-BG (8 : 1 : 15), 8% GME-based LCN and their mean particle sizes were 130-175 nm. Flurbiprofen 5 and 10 mg was loaded into 4% GME-based LCN and 8% GME-based LCN systems, respectively. The results of SAXS and NMR suggested that both flurbiprofen-loaded formulations consist of particles with reverse type hexagonal phase (formation of hexosome) and flurbiprofen molecules were localized in the lipid domain through interaction of flurbiprofen with the lipid components. Flurbiprofen transport from the LCN systems across the Yucatan micropig skin was increased compared to flurbiprofen in citric buffer (pH=3.0). The 8% GME-based LCN systems was superior to the 4% GME-based LCN for flurbiprofen transport. Since the internal hexagonal phase in the 8% GME-based LCN systems had a higher degree of order compared to the 4% GME-based LCN in SAXS patterns, the 8% GME-based LCN system had a larger surface area, which might influence flurbiprofen permeation. These results indicated that the GME-based LCN system is effective in improving the skin permeation of flurbiprofen across the skin.

  2. Synthesis of Programmable Main-chain Liquid-crystalline Elastomers Using a Two-stage Thiol-acrylate Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saed, Mohand O; Torbati, Amir H; Nair, Devatha P; Yakacki, Christopher M

    2016-01-19

    This study presents a novel two-stage thiol-acrylate Michael addition-photopolymerization (TAMAP) reaction to prepare main-chain liquid-crystalline elastomers (LCEs) with facile control over network structure and programming of an aligned monodomain. Tailored LCE networks were synthesized using routine mixing of commercially available starting materials and pouring monomer solutions into molds to cure. An initial polydomain LCE network is formed via a self-limiting thiol-acrylate Michael-addition reaction. Strain-to-failure and glass transition behavior were investigated as a function of crosslinking monomer, pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP). An example non-stoichiometric system of 15 mol% PETMP thiol groups and an excess of 15 mol% acrylate groups was used to demonstrate the robust nature of the material. The LCE formed an aligned and transparent monodomain when stretched, with a maximum failure strain over 600%. Stretched LCE samples were able to demonstrate both stress-driven thermal actuation when held under a constant bias stress or the shape-memory effect when stretched and unloaded. A permanently programmed monodomain was achieved via a second-stage photopolymerization reaction of the excess acrylate groups when the sample was in the stretched state. LCE samples were photo-cured and programmed at 100%, 200%, 300%, and 400% strain, with all samples demonstrating over 90% shape fixity when unloaded. The magnitude of total stress-free actuation increased from 35% to 115% with increased programming strain. Overall, the two-stage TAMAP methodology is presented as a powerful tool to prepare main-chain LCE systems and explore structure-property-performance relationships in these fascinating stimuli-sensitive materials.

  3. Polyester projects for India, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, R.

    1993-01-01

    India's Indo Rama Synthetics (Bombay) is planning a $186-million integrated polyester fiber and filament complex at Nagpur, Maharashtra. The complex will have annual capacities for 38,000 m.t. of polyester chips by polycondensation, 25,000 m.t. of polyester staple fiber, and 12,000 m.t. of polyester blended yarn. The company is negotiating with the main world suppliers of polycondensation technology. The first stage of the project is slated to begin production by the end of this year and be fully completed by 1994. In Pakistan, National Fibers Ltd. (PNF; Karachi) has signed a deal with Zimmer (Frankfurt) for technology, procurement, construction, and support work to expand polyester staple fiber capacity from 14,000 m.t./year to 52,000 m.t./year. The technology involves a continuous polymerization process. The project also calls for improvements to PNF's existing batch plant. It is scheduled for completion by the end of 1994. Total cost of the project is estimated at Rs1.745 billion ($70 million), out of which the foreign exchange component is Rs1.05 billion. The Islamic Development Bank (Jeddah; Saudi Arabia) has already approved a $27-million slice of the financing, while the balance of the foreign exchange loan is being arranged through suppliers credit. Local currency loans will be provided by other financial institutions in Pakistan

  4. Development and characterization of p1025-loaded bioadhesive liquid-crystalline system for the prevention of Streptococcus mutans biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calixto GMF

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Giovana Maria Fioramonti Calixto,1 Cristiane Duque,2 Kelly Limi Aida,2 Vanessa Rodrigues dos Santos,2 Loiane Massunari,2 Marlus Chorilli1 1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP, Araraquara, Brazil; 2School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP, Araçatuba, Brazil Abstract: Formation of a dental biofilm by Streptococcus mutans can cause dental caries, and remains a costly health problem worldwide. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of peptidic drugs, such as peptide p1025, analogous to the fragments 1025–1044 of S. mutans cellular adhesin, responsible for the adhesion and formation of dental biofilm. However, peptides have physicochemical characteristics that may affect their biological action, limiting their clinical performance. Therefore, drug-delivery systems, such as a bioadhesive liquid-crystalline system (LCS, may be attractive strategies for peptide delivery. Potentiation of the action of LCS can be achieved with the use of bioadhesive polymers to prolong their residence on the teeth. In line with this, three formulations – polyoxypropylene-(5-polyoxyethylene-(20-cetyl alcohol, oleic acid, and Carbopol C974P in different combinations (F1C, F2C, and F3C were developed to observe the influence of water in the LCS, with the aim of achieving in situ gelling in the oral environment. These formulations were assessed by polarized light microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, rheological analysis, and in vitro bioadhesion analysis. Then, p1025 and a control (chlorhexidine were incorporated into the aqueous phase of the formulation (F + p1025 and F + chlorhexidine, to determine their antibiofilm effect and toxicity on epithelial cells. Polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering showed that F1C and F2C were LCS, whereas F3C was a microemulsion. F1C and F2C showed pseudoplastic behavior and F3C Newtonian behavior. F1C showed the highest elastic and bioadhesive

  5. Photoinduced changes of surface topography in amorphous, liquid-crystalline, and crystalline films of bent-core azobenzene-containing substance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bobrovsky, A.; Mochalov, K.; Oleinikov, V.; Solovyeva, D.; Shibaev, V.; Bogdanova, Y.; Hamplová, Věra; Kašpar, Miroslav; Bubnov, Alexej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 22 (2016), 5073-5082 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-12150S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15305 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : liquid crystals * azo group * bent-shaped material * nematic * photo-optical behaviour Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 3.177, year: 2016

  6. Liquid Crystalline Symposium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mather, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    .... Talks spanned a very diverse set of LC-related topics, ranging from reports on the latest hot research areas, including flexoelectrooptics, V-shaped switching, chiral discotics, and banana phases...

  7. Biodegradation of Halloysite Nanotubes-Polyester Nanocomposites Exposed to Short Term Seawater Immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shahneel Saharudin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs-polyester nanocomposites with four different concentrations were produced using solution casting technique and the biodegradation effect of short-term seawater exposure (120 h was studied. Monolithic polyester was observed to have the highest seawater absorption with 1.37%. At 0.3 wt % HNTs reinforcement, the seawater absorption dropped significantly to the lowest value of 0.77% due to increase of liquid diffusion path. For samples tested in dry conditions, the Tg, storage modulus, tensile properties and flexural properties were improved. The highest improvement of Tg was from 79.3 to 82.4 °C (increase 3.1 °C in the case of 0.3 wt % HNTs. This can be associated with the exfoliated HNTs particles, which restrict the mobility of polymer chains and thus raised the Tg. After seawater exposure, the Tg, storage modulus, tensile properties and flexural properties of polyester and its nanocomposites were decreased. The Young’s modulus of 0.3 wt % HNTs-polyester dropped 20% while monolithic polyester dropped up to 24% compared to their values in dry condition. Apart from that, 29% flexural modulus reduction was observed, which was 18% higher than monolithic polyester. In contrast, fracture toughness and surface roughness increased due to plasticization effect. The presence of various microbial communities caused gradual biodegradation on the microstructure of the polyester matrix as also evidently shown by SEM images.

  8. The microwave heating mechanism of N-(4-methoxybenzyliden)-4-butylaniline in liquid crystalline and isotropic phases as determined using in situ microwave irradiation NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasei, Yugo; Tanigawa, Fumikazu; Kawamura, Izuru; Fujito, Teruaki; Sato, Motoyasu; Naito, Akira

    2015-04-14

    Microwave heating effects are widely used in the acceleration of organic, polymerization and enzymatic reactions. These effects are primarily caused by the local heating induced by microwave irradiation. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms associated with microwave heating effects on the chemical reactions are not yet well understood. This study investigated the microwave heating effect of N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline (MBBA) in liquid crystalline and isotropic phases using in situ microwave irradiation nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, by obtaining (1)H NMR spectra of MBBA under microwave irradiation. When heated simply using the temperature control unit of the NMR instrument, the liquid crystalline MBBA was converted to the isotropic phase exactly at its phase transition temperature (Tc) of 41 °C. The application of microwave irradiation at 130 W for 90 s while maintaining the instrument temperature at 20 °C generated a small amount of isotropic phase within the bulk liquid crystal. The sample temperature of the liquid crystalline state obtained during microwave irradiation was estimated to be 35 °C by assessing the linewidths of the (1)H NMR spectrum. This partial transition to the isotropic phase can be attributed to a non-equilibrium local heating state induced by the microwave irradiation. The application of microwave at 195 W for 5 min to isotropic MBBA while maintaining an instrument temperature of 50 °C raised the sample temperature to 160 °C. In this study, the MBBA temperature during microwave irradiation was estimated by measuring the temperature dependent chemical shifts of individual protons in the sample, and the different protons were found to indicate significantly different temperatures in the molecule. These results suggest that microwave heating polarizes bonds in polar functional groups, and this effect may partly explain the attendant acceleration of organic reactions.

  9. Influence of the nematic order on the rheology and conformation of stretched comb-like liquid crystalline polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmaux-Demange, V.; Brûlet, A.; Boué, F.; Davidson, P.; Keller, P.; Cotton, J. P.

    2000-04-01

    We have studied the rheology and the conformation of stretched comb-like liquid-crystalline polymers. Both the influence of the comb-like structure and the specific effect of the nematic interaction on the dynamics are investigated. For this purpose, two isomers of a comb-like polymetacrylate polymer, of well-defined molecular weights, were synthesized: one displays a nematic phase over a wide range of temperature, the other one has only an isotropic phase. Even with high degrees of polymerization N, between 40 and 1000, the polymer chains studied were not entangled. The stress-strain curves during the stretching and relaxation processes show differences between the isotropic and nematic comb-like polymers. They suggest that, in the nematic phase, the chain dynamics is more cooperative than for a usual linear polymer. Small-angle neutron scattering has been used in order to determine the evolution of the chain conformation after stretching, as a function of the duration of relaxation t_r. The conformation can be described with two parameters only: λ_p, the global deformation of the polymer chain, and p, the number of statistical units of locally relaxed sub-chains. For the comb-like polymer, the chain deformation is pseudo-affine: λ_p is always smaller than λ (the deformation ratio of the whole sample). In the isotropic phase, λ_p has a constant value, while p increases as t_r. This latter behavior is not that expected for non-entangled chains, in which p varies as {t_r}^{1/2} (Rouse model). In the nematic phase, λ_p decreases as a stretched exponential function of t_r, while p remains constant. The dynamics of the comb-like polymers is discussed in terms of living clusters from which junctions are produced by interactions between side chains. The nematic interaction increases the lifetime of these junctions and, strikingly, the relaxation is the same at all scales of the whole polymer chain.

  10. Development and characterization of p1025-loaded bioadhesive liquid-crystalline system for the prevention of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Duque, Cristiane; Aida, Kelly Limi; Dos Santos, Vanessa Rodrigues; Massunari, Loiane; Chorilli, Marlus

    2018-01-01

    Formation of a dental biofilm by Streptococcus mutans can cause dental caries, and remains a costly health problem worldwide. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of peptidic drugs, such as peptide p1025, analogous to the fragments 1025-1044 of S. mutans cellular adhesin, responsible for the adhesion and formation of dental biofilm. However, peptides have physicochemical characteristics that may affect their biological action, limiting their clinical performance. Therefore, drug-delivery systems, such as a bioadhesive liquid-crystalline system (LCS), may be attractive strategies for peptide delivery. Potentiation of the action of LCS can be achieved with the use of bioadhesive polymers to prolong their residence on the teeth. In line with this, three formulations - polyoxypropylene-(5)-polyoxyethylene-(20)-cetyl alcohol, oleic acid, and Carbopol C974P in different combinations (F1C, F2C, and F3C) were developed to observe the influence of water in the LCS, with the aim of achieving in situ gelling in the oral environment. These formulations were assessed by polarized light microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, rheological analysis, and in vitro bioadhesion analysis. Then, p1025 and a control (chlorhexidine) were incorporated into the aqueous phase of the formulation (F + p1025 and F + chlorhexidine), to determine their antibiofilm effect and toxicity on epithelial cells. Polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering showed that F1C and F2C were LCS, whereas F3C was a microemulsion. F1C and F2C showed pseudoplastic behavior and F3C Newtonian behavior. F1C showed the highest elastic and bioadhesive characteristics compared to other formulations. Antibiofilm effects were observed for F + p1025 when applied in the surface-bound salivary phase. The p1025-loaded nanostructured LCS presented limited cytotoxicity and effectively reduced S. mutans biofilm formation, and could be a promising p1025-delivery strategy to prevent the formation

  11. Enhanced antitumor efficacy and counterfeited cardiotoxicity of combinatorial oral therapy using Doxorubicin- and Coenzyme Q10-liquid crystalline nanoparticles in comparison with intravenous Adriamycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swarnakar, Nitin K; Thanki, Kaushik; Jain, Sanyog

    2014-01-01

    and strong synergism for combination at 1:10 dose ratio owing to higher cellular uptake, nuclear colocalization, higher apoptotic index and 8-OHdG levels. The prophylactic antitumor efficacy of the CoQ10-LCNPs was also established using tumor induction and progression studies. Finally, therapeutic antitumor......, with Dox-induced-cardiotoxicity was completely counterfeited in combination. In nutshell, LCNPs pose great potential in improving the therapeutic efficacy of drugs by oral route of administration. FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR: This study describes the use of liquid crystalline nanoparticles containing coenzyme...

  12. Polyesters production from the mixture of phthalic acid, terephthalic and glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.L.S.; Oliveira, J.C.; Miranda, C.S.; Boaventura, J.S.; Jose, N.M.; Carvalho, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Glycerin, a byproduct of biodiesel is currently an environmental and economic problem for producers of this renewable fuel in Brazil and in others parts of the world. In order to offer new proposals for recovery, it is used for the manufacture of polyesters used in applications in diverse areas such as construction and automobile industry. This work reports the production of polymer from the mixture of terephthalic and phthalic acid in three different proportions. The polyesters showed good thermal stability, analyzed by TGA and DSC, with an increase proportional to the terephthalic acid content. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the samples are semi crystalline polymers. The micrographs indicated the presence of a smoother surface in the polyester that has a larger amount of phthalic acid, as reported in the literature. Therefore, the materials showed good thermal properties and morphological characteristics, so it consists in a new alternative to use glycerin. (author)

  13. Polyester Apparel Cutting Waste as Insulation Material

    OpenAIRE

    Trajković, Dušan; Jordeva, Sonja; Tomovska, Elena; Zafirova, Koleta

    2017-01-01

    Polyester waste is the dominant component of the clothing industry waste stream, yet its recycling in this industry is rarely addressed. This paper proposes using polyester cutting waste as an insulation blanket for roofing and buildings’ internal walls in order to reduce environmental pollution. The designed textile structures used waste cuttings from different polyester fabrics without opening the fabric to fibre. Thermal insulation, acoustic insulation, fire resistance and biodegradation o...

  14. Synthesis of Improved Polyester Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-05

    of this page) 21. No. of Pages 22. Price* Unclassified Unclassified 83 For sale by the National Technical Information Service, Springfield. Virginia...low sensitivity .... ........... 68 B2B C-scan of carbon fiber reinforced polyester Laminate #2 at high sensitivity ..... .......... 68 B3A C-scan of...right corner, but it is obscured by the delamination. Figure B2B shows the same composite at a 12 decibel increase in sensitivity. The image now shows

  15. Radiation effects on biodegradable polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Mitomo; Darmawan Darwis; Fumio Yoshii; Keizo Makuuchi

    1999-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] and its copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] are microbial biodegradable polyesters produced by many types of bacteria. Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(E-caprolactone) (PCL) are also biodegradable synthetic polyesters which have been commercialized. These thermoplastics are expected for wide usage in environmental protection and blocompatible applications. Radiation grafting of hydrophilic monomers onto many polymers, e.g., polyethylene and polypropylene has been studied mainly for biomedical applications. In the present study, radiation-induced graft polymerization of vinyl monomers onto PHB and P(3HB-co-3HV) was carried out and improvement of their properties was studied. Changes in the properties and biodegradability were compared with the degree of grafting. Radiation-induced crosslinking of PBS and PCL which relatively show thermal and irradiation stability was also carried out to improve their thermal stability or processability. Irradiation to PBS and PCL mainly resulted in crosslinking and characterization of these crosslinked polyesters was investigated

  16. Luminescent properties of LuAG:Yb and YAG:Yb single crystalline films grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu; Zorenko, T.; Gorbenko, V.; Voznyak, T.; Popielarski, P.; Batentschuk, M.; Osvet, A.; Brabec, Ch; Kolobanov, V.; Spasky, D.; Fedorov, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, investigation of the spectroscopic parameters of the luminescence of Yb"3"+ ions in single crystalline films of Lu_3Al_5O_1_2 and Y_3Al_5O_1_2 garnets was performed using the synchrotron radiation excitation with the energy in the range of Yb"3"+ charge transitions (CT), exciton range and the onset of interband transitions of these garnets. The basic spectroscopic parameters of the Yb"3"+ CT luminescence in LuAG and YAG hosts were determined and summarized with taking into account the differences in the band gap structure of these garnets. - Highlights: • Single crystalline films of Yb doped LuAG and YAG garnets were grown by LPE method. • Yb"3"+ luminescence of LuAG:Yb and YAG:Yb film were studied using synchrotron radiation. • Basic parameters of Yb"3"+ charge transfer luminescence in LuAG and YAG were determined.

  17. Supramolecular liquid crystalline π-conjugates: the role of aromatic π-stacking and van der Waals forces on the molecular self-assembly of oligophenylenevinylenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Mahima; Jayakannan, M

    2010-10-07

    Here, we report a unique design strategy to trace the role of aromatic π-stacking and van der Waals interactions on the molecular self-organization of π-conjugated building blocks in a single system. A new series of bulky oligophenylenevinylenes (OPVs) bearing a tricyclodecanemethylene (TCD) unit in the aromatic π-core with flexible long methylene chains (n = 0-12 and 16) in the longitudinal position were designed and synthesized. The OPVs were found to be liquid crystalline, and their enthalpies of phase transitions (also entropies) showed odd-even oscillation with respect to the number of carbon atoms in alkyl chains. OPVs with an even number of methylene units in the side chains showed higher enthalpies with respect to their highly packed solid structures compared to odd-numbered ones. Polarized light microscopic analysis confirmed the formation of cholesteric liquid crystalline (LC) phases of fan shaped textures with focal conics in OPVs with 5 ≤ n ≤ 9. OPVs with longer alkyl chains (OPV-10 to OPV-12) produced a birefringence pattern consisting of dark and bright ring-banded suprastructures. The melting temperature followed a sigmoidal trend, indicating the transformation of molecular self-organization in OPVs from solid to ring-banded suprastructures via cholesteric LC intermediates. At longer alkyl chain lengths, the van der Waals interactions among the alkyl chains became predominant and translated the mesogenic effect across the lamellae; as a consequence, the lamellae underwent twisted self-organization along the radial growth direction of the spherulites to produce bright and dark bands. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of cholesteric LC and ring-banded textures strongly supported the existence of twisted lamellae in the OPVs with ring-banded textures. Variable temperature X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the reversibility of the molecular self-organization in the solid state and also showed the existence of the higher ordered

  18. Improving the thermal stability and electrical parameters of a liquid crystalline material 4-n-(nonyloxy) benzoic acid by using Li ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satendra; Verma, Rohit; Dwivedi, Aanchal; Dhar, R.; Tripathi, Ambuj

    2018-05-01

    Li ion beam irradiation studies on a liquid crystalline material 4-n-(nonyloxy) benzoic acid (NOBA) have been carried out. The material has phase sequence of I-N-SmC-Cr. Thermodynamic studies demonstrate that an irradiation fluence of 1×1013 ions-cm-2 results in the increased thermal stability of the smectic C (SmC) phase of the material. Dielectric measurements illustrate that the transverse component of the dielectric permittivity and hence the dielectric anisotropy of the material in the nematic (N) and SmC phases are increased as compared to those of the pure material due to irradiation. UV-Visible spectrum of the irradiated material shows an additional peak along with the peak of the pure material. The observed change in the thermodynamic and electrical parameters is attributed to the conversion of some of the dimers of NOBA to monomers of NOBA due to irradiation.

  19. Intensification of polyester synthesis by continuous reactive distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The thesis starts with a brief overview of unsaturated polyesters. In particular, the usage of raw materials, the application of unsaturated polyester resins, and, the worldwide supply and demand of the unsaturated polyester resins are discussed. Unsaturated polyester is traditionally produced in a

  20. Vapor-deposited non-crystalline phase vs ordinary glasses and supercooled liquids: Subtle thermodynamic and kinetic differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Deepanjan; Sadtchenko, Vlad

    2015-01-01

    Vapor deposition of molecules on a substrate often results in glassy materials of high kinetic stability and low enthalpy. The extraordinary properties of such glasses are attributed to high rates of surface diffusion during sample deposition, which makes it possible for constituents to find a configuration of much lower energy on a typical laboratory time scale. However, the exact nature of the resulting phase and the mechanism of its formation are not completely understood. Using fast scanning calorimetry technique, we show that out-of-equilibrium relaxation kinetics and possibly the enthalpy of vapor-deposited films of toluene and ethylbenzene, archetypical fragile glass formers, are distinct from those of ordinary supercooled phase even when the deposition takes place at temperatures above the ordinary glass softening transition temperatures. These observations along with the absolute enthalpy dependences on deposition temperatures support the conjecture that the vapor-deposition may result in formation of non-crystalline phase of unique structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties

  1. Controlling the color of cholesteric liquid-crystalline films by photoirradiation of a chiroptical molecular switch used as dopant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, RA; Huck, NPM; Feringa, BL; Delden, Richard A. van; Gelder, Marc B. van; Huck, Nina P.M.

    Using thin films of a cholesteric mixture of acrylates 2 and 3 doped with the chiroptical molecular switch (M)-trans-1, photo-control of the reflection color between red and green is possible. This doped liquid-crystal (LC) film can be used for photoinduced writing, color reading, and photoinduced

  2. Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jonathan R.; Huang, Jeffrey; Anand, Pria; Kucera, Kaury; Sandoval, Amanda G.; Dantzler, Kathleen W.; Hickman, DaShawn; Jee, Justin; Kimovec, Farrah M.; Koppstein, David; Marks, Daniel H.; Mittermiller, Paul A.; Núñez, Salvador Joel; Santiago, Marina; Townes, Maria A.; Vishnevetsky, Michael; Williams, Neely E.; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Bascom-Slack, Carol; Strobel, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Bioremediation is an important approach to waste reduction that relies on biological processes to break down a variety of pollutants. This is made possible by the vast metabolic diversity of the microbial world. To explore this diversity for the breakdown of plastic, we screened several dozen endophytic fungi for their ability to degrade the synthetic polymer polyester polyurethane (PUR). Several organisms demonstrated the ability to efficiently degrade PUR in both solid and liquid suspensions. Particularly robust activity was observed among several isolates in the genus Pestalotiopsis, although it was not a universal feature of this genus. Two Pestalotiopsis microspora isolates were uniquely able to grow on PUR as the sole carbon source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Molecular characterization of this activity suggests that a serine hydrolase is responsible for degradation of PUR. The broad distribution of activity observed and the unprecedented case of anaerobic growth using PUR as the sole carbon source suggest that endophytes are a promising source of biodiversity from which to screen for metabolic properties useful for bioremediation. PMID:21764951

  3. Photoorientation phenomena and structural properties of photochromic liquid crystalline azobenzene-containing polymethacrylate films with different spacer lengths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bobrovsky, A.; Shibaev, V.; Piryazev, A.; Anokhin, D.V.; Ivanov, D.A.; Sinitsyna, O.; Hamplová, Věra; Kašpar, Miroslav; Bubnov, Alexej M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 218, č. 16 (2017), s. 1-10, č. článku 1700127. ISSN 1022-1352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-12150S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15305 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : photoorientation phenomena * azobenzene * photo-optical properties * liquid crystal * photochromic materials Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties) Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2016

  4. Effect of co-monomers’ relative concentration on self-assembling behaviour of side-chain liquid crystalline elastomers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Domenici, V.; Milavec, J.; Bubnov, Alexej; Pociecha, D.; Zupančič, B.; Rešetič, A.; Hamplová, Věra; Gorecka, E.; Zalar, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 83 (2014), s. 44056-44064 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14133S Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101204; AVČR(CZ) M100101211 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : liquid crystal elastomers * nematic * smectic A * NMR * X-ray diffraction * DSC * thermo-mechanic properties * elastic properties * phase diagram Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2014

  5. First photoresponsive liquid crystalline materials with small layer shrinkage at the phase transition to the ferroelectric phase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, Vladimíra; Hamplová, Věra; Bubnov, Alexej; Kašpar, Miroslav; Glogarová, Milada; Kapernaum, N.; Bezner, S.; Giesselmann, F.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 23 (2009), s. 3992-3997 ISSN 0959-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk MEB050818; GA AV ČR IAA100100710; GA MŠk OC 175; GA AV ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : photosensitive * liquid crystals * De Vries behaviour * layer shrinkage Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.795, year: 2009

  6. Chiral HPLC for a study of the optical purity of new liquid crystalline materials derived from lactic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtylová, Terézia; Kašpar, Miroslav; Hamplová, Věra; Novotná, Vladimíra; Sýkora, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 8 (2014), s. 758-769 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14133S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : lactic acid derivative * smectic phase * high performance liquid chromatography * chiral separation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2014 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01411594.2014.893344#.VGxWfVeNrcs

  7. Synthesis and characterization of polyesters derived from glycerol and phthalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Hansen Guimarães

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of polyester via polycondensation between glycerol and phthalic acid using dibutyltin dilaurate is reported. Three glycerol:phthalic acid molar ratio used for the bulk polymerization were: 2:2; 2:3 and 2:4. FTIR confirmed the esterification of glycerol by the acid for all the polymers. DSC indicated no crystallinity, although the XRD plots indicate a very incipient crystallinity for the polymers containing higher amounts of phthalic anhydride. Scanning electron microscopy results indicates high homogeneity for all the polymers prepared.

  8. Castor Oil-Based Biodegradable Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Basu, Arijit; Haim Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-09-14

    This Review compiles the synthesis, physical properties, and biomedical applications for the polyesters based on castor oil and ricinoleic acid. Castor oil has been known for its medicinal value since ancient times. It contains ∼90% ricinoleic acid, which enables direct chemical transformation into polyesters without interference of other fatty acids. The presence of ricinoleic acid (hydroxyl containing fatty acid) enables synthesis of various polyester/anhydrides. In addition, castor oil contains a cis-double bond that can be hydrogenated, oxidized, halogenated, and polymerized. Castor oil is obtained pure in large quantities from natural sources; it is safe and biocompatible.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated polyesters derived from glycerol; Sintese e caracterizacao de poliesteres sulfonados obtidos a partir do glicerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, R.A.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Fiuza, R.P. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Quimica

    2010-07-01

    In this work were synthesized polyesters from glycerol and acid sulfonated phthalic previously. The materials were characterized by DSC, TGA, FTIR, SEM, XRD and XRF. The results showed effective sulfonation of phthalic acid. The presence of sulfonic groups promoted strong changes in the crystallinity of the new material makes the lens. The polyesters made from phthalic acid sulfonated combine characteristics such as heat resistance and groups that drivers potentiate the electrolyte for application in fuel cells proton exchange membrane and also for gas separation. (author)

  10. Polystyrene/Hyperbranched Polyester Blends and Reactive Polystyrene/Hyperbranched Polyester Blends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulkern, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    .... In this work, the incorporation of HBPs in thermoplastic blends was investigated. Several volume fractions of hydroxyl functionalized hyperbranched polyesters were melt blended with nonreactive polystyrene (PS...

  11. 3D nanoporous graphene films converted from liquid-crystalline holey graphene oxide for thin and high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Jinzhang; Zhao, Yi; Zheng, Dezhi; Li, Yan; Sha, Jiangbo

    2018-01-01

    Holey graphene oxide (HGO) is prepared and its liquid crystal (LC) formation in water is investigated. The blade-coated LC-HGO hydrogel is hydrothermally reduced to form 3D nanoporous films used as supercapacitor electrodes. Holey graphene sheets are rumpled and interconnected to form a cellular structure with pore size around 100 nm during the reduction process. Reduced HGO films with different thicknesses are integrated into solid-state symmetric supercapacitors and their electrochemical performances are studied. High specific capacitance up to 304 F g-1 and high volumetric capacitance around 400 F cm-3 are achieved from our thin and flexible devices.

  12. Coupled effects of director orientations and boundary conditions on light induced bending of monodomain nematic liquid crystalline polymer plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Yue; Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong; Xu, Changwei

    2012-01-01

    A photo-chromic liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) is a smart material for large light-activated variation or bending to transfer luminous energy into mechanical energy. We study the light induced behavior by modeling planar and homeotropic nematic network polymer plates. We effectively illustrate some reported experimental outcomes and theoretically predict some possible bending patterns. This paper constructs an understanding between the bending behaviors and interactions among the alignments, aspect ratios and boundary conditions, etc. Our work provides information on optimizing light induced bending in the process of micro-opto-mechanical system (MOMS) design. (paper)

  13. Effect of metallic silver nanoparticles on the alignment and relaxation behaviour of liquid crystalline material in smectic C* phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, Tripti; Kumar Gupta, Swadesh; Katiyar, Rohit; Srivastava, Atul; Czerwinski, Michal; Krup, Katarzyna; Kumar, Sandeep; Manohar, Rajiv

    2017-09-01

    The influence of silver nanoparticles dispersed in a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal (FLC) on the properties of the resultant composite system has been investigated by thermal, electro-optical, and dielectric methods. We show that the concentration of thiol capped silver nanoparticles is a critical factor in governing the alignment of nanoparticles (NPs) in the host FLC. The orientation of NPs in composite samples affects the ordering of the LC (Liquid Crystal) phase and consequently changes the various phase transition temperatures of the host LC. Formation of self-assembled 2D (two dimensional) arrays of nanoparticles is observed for high concentration of dopant in the LC, oriented perpendicular to the direction of rubbing. We propose that the molecular interaction between the thiol capped NPs and LC molecules is the key factor behind such an arrangement of NPs. Orientation of NPs has affected the relaxation behaviour and various other material parameters, significantly. A noteworthy change in DC conductivity articulates our proposed idea of the formation of 2D array of NPs perpendicular to the direction of rubbing. This comprehensive study endorses the importance of dopant concentration in modifying the properties of the host LC material.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and electro-optic properties of novel siloxane liquid crystalline with a large tilt angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Chien-Tung; Lee, Jiunn-Yih; Lai, Chiu-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this study we report the synthesis and characterization of new ferroelectric liquid crystal material. → We examined the influence of the addition of a trisiloxane end-group on one side-chain of an achiral alkyl chain on the phase transition. → Finally, the properties of the chiral smectic C (SmC*) phase were measured for target compounds. - Abstract: This paper presents a study of the ferroelectric behavior in low molar mass organosiloxane liquid crystal materials. A few novel series of compounds with a large tilt angle were synthesized, and the mesophases exhibited were compared. The mesophases under discussion were investigated by means of polarizing microscopy (POM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electro-optical experiments. The influence of the molecular structure on the occurrence of the chiral smectic C (SmC*) phase was investigated. Finally, the electro-optical properties of the SmC* phase, such as tilt angle, dielectric permittivity and switching behavior were also measured. As a consequence, the correlation between the electro-optical properties and chemical structures of these compounds was investigated.

  15. Symmetric bi-pyridyl banana-shaped molecule and its intermolecular hydrogen bonding liquid-crystalline complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Dan; Hou, Qiufei; Chai, Jia; Ye, Ling; Zhao, Liyan; Li, Min; Jiang, Shimei

    2008-11-01

    A new symmetric bi-pyridyl banana-shaped molecule 1,3-phenylene diisonicotinate (PDI) was designed and synthesized. Its molecular structure was confirmed by FTIR, Elemental analysis and 1H NMR. X-ray crystallographic study reveals that there is an angle of approximate 118° among the centroids of the three rings (pyridyl-phenyl-pyridyl) in each PDI molecule indicating a desired banana shape. In addition, a series of liquid crystal complexes nBA:PDI:nBA induced by intermolecular hydrogen bonding between PDI (proton acceptor) and 4-alkoxybenzoic acids (nBA, proton donor) were synthesized and characterized. The mesomorphism properties and optical textures of the complex of nBA:PDI:nBA were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing optical microscope and X-ray diffraction.

  16. Design and Applications of Biodegradable Polyester Tissue Scaffolds Based on Endogenous Monomers Found in Human Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin G. Barrett

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic polyesters have deeply impacted various biomedical and engineering fields, such as tissue scaffolding and therapeutic delivery. Currently, many applications involving polyesters are being explored with polymers derived from monomers that are endogenous to the human metabolism. Examples of these monomers include glycerol, xylitol, sorbitol, and lactic, sebacic, citric, succinic, α-ketoglutaric, and fumaric acids. In terms of mechanical versatility, crystallinity, hydrophobicity, and biocompatibility, polyesters synthesized partially or completely from these monomers can display a wide range of properties. The flexibility in these macromolecular properties allows for materials to be tailored according to the needs of a particular application. Along with the presence of natural monomers that allows for a high probability of biocompatibility, there is also an added benefit that this class of polyesters is more environmentally friendly than many other materials used in biomedical engineering. While the selection of monomers may be limited by nature, these polymers have produced or have the potential to produce an enormous number of successes in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Crystalline phase, microstructure, and aqueous stability of zirconolite-barium borosilicate glass-ceramics for immobilization of simulated sulfate bearing high-level liquid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lang; Xiao, Jizong; Wang, Xin; Teng, Yuancheng; Li, Yuxiang; Liao, Qilong

    2018-01-01

    The crystalline phase, microstructure, and aqueous stability of zirconolite-barium borosilicate glass-ceramics with different content (0-30 wt %) of simulated sulfate bearing high-level liquid waste (HLLW) were evaluated. The sulfate phase segregation in vitrification process was also investigated. The results show that the glass-ceramics with 0-20 wt% of HLLW possess mainly zirconolite phase along with a small amount baddeleyite phase. The amount of perovskite crystals increases while the amount of zirconolite crystals decreases when the HLLW content increases from 20 to 30 wt%. For the samples with 20-30 wt% HLLW, yellow phase was observed during the vitrification process and it disappeared after melting at 1150 °C for 2 h. The viscosity of the sample with 16 wt% HLLW (HLLW-16) is about 27 dPa·s at 1150 °C. The addition of a certain amount (≤20 wt %) of HLLW has no significant change on the aqueous stability of glass-ceramic waste forms. After 28 days, the 90 °C PCT-type normalized leaching rates of Na, B, Si, and La of the sample HLLW-16 are 7.23 × 10-3, 1.57 × 10-3, 8.06 × 10-4, and 1.23 × 10-4 g·m-2·d-1, respectively.

  18. Studies on the feasibility of using crystalline silicotitanates for the separation of cesium-137 from fast reactor high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, K.A.; Sukumaran, V.; Antony, M.P.; Srinivasan, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    The commercially available crystalline silicotitanate inorganic ion xchanger, IONSIV IE-911, and its parent precursor, TAM-5, have been valuated for the removal of 137 Cs from nitric acid medium and simulated high-level liquid waste. The distribution coefficient (K d ) of cesium ecreased with increasing nitric acid concentration and at 3.0 M nitric acid, distribution coefficient of 1150 mL/g and 2600 mL/g were obtained for ONSIV IE-911 and TAM-5, respectively. Rapid uptake of cesium followed by the establishment of equilibrium occurring within three hours. Loading of cesium n ion exchangers increased with the increase in the concentration of cesium n aqueous phase and from Langmuir adsorption model the apparent capacity of cesium was 69 mg/g and 82 mg/g for IONSIV IE-911 and TAM-5, respectively. The performance of the sorbent under dynamic conditions was assessed by following breakthrough (BT) curve up to C/C o = 1, where C and C o are the concentrations of cesium in the effluent and feed, respectively. (author)

  19. Polyether/Polyester Graft Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Vernon L., Jr.; Wakelyn, N.; Stoakley, D. M.; Proctor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    Higher solvent resistance achieved along with lower melting temperature. New technique provides method of preparing copolymers with polypivalolactone segments grafted onto poly (2,6-dimethyl-phenylene oxide) backbone. Process makes strong materials with improved solvent resistance and crystalline, thermally-reversible crosslinks. Resulting graft copolymers easier to fabricate into useful articles, including thin films, sheets, fibers, foams, laminates, and moldings.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of polyesters from renewable cardol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... The preparation and thermal characteristics of new polyesters from cardol, a renewable monomer ... All prepared polyesters were insoluble in common laboratory solvents at room temperature.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of poly(ester amide from remewable resources through melt polycondensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable poly(ester amides (PEAs were synthesized from lactic acid and 11-aminoundecanoic acid via melt polycondensation. Molecular weights, chemical structures and thermal properties of the poly(ester amides were characterized in terms of gel permeation chromatography (GPC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, respectively. The PEAs have low molecular weights and display a lower cold crystallization temperature as well as smaller crystallinity by comparison with the pure poly(lactic acid (PLA. The incorporation of the 11-aminoundecanoic acid into the PLA chain not only improved the thermal stability but changed the decomposition process.

  2. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane acrylate...

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Liquid Crystalline Copolymethacrylates, Copolyacrylates and Copolysiloxanes Containing 4-Methoxy-4’-Hydroxy-alpha-Methylstilbene and 4-Hydroxy-4’-Methoxy-alpha-Methylstilbene Constitutional Isomers as Side Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    10*C, concentrated sulfuric acid (31.0 g, 0.32 mole ) was added dropwise during 1.5 hr. The reaction mixture was stirred at this temperature for 2...characterization of the polymethacrylates . Indifferent of the thermal history and - ., .. _%,, n -x,, ; *> ;.. ’ . ,..... *p.****, * . - _. .. ... .~ • ’ -18...followed by a liquid crystalline mesophase, and the isotropization transition. Only the polymethacrylate containing eleven methylenic units in the

  4. Functional disubstituted polyacetylenes: Synthesis, liquid crystallinity, light emission, and fluorescent photopatterning of biphenyl-containing poly(1-phenyl-octyne)s with different functional bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jacky W Y; Qin, Anjun; Dong, Yuping; Lai, Lo Ming; Häussler, Matthias; Dong, Yongqiang; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2006-11-02

    Biphenyl (Biph)-containing 1-phenyl-1-octynes and their polymers are synthesized, and the effects of functional bridge groups on the mesomorphic and optical properties of the polymers are studied. The nonmesomorphic disubstituted acetylene monomers (C6H13)C[triple bond]C(C6H4)O(CH2)12O-Biph-OC7H15 (1), (C6H13)C[triple bond]C(C6H4)O(CH2)11OOC-Biph-OC7H15 (2), and (C6H13)C[triple bond]C(C6H4)CO2(CH2)12OOC-Biph-OC7H15 (3) are prepared by multistep reaction routes and converted into their corresponding polymers P1-P3 by a WCl6-Ph4Sn catalyst. The structures and properties of the polymers are characterized and evaluated by NMR, TGA, DSC, POM, XRD, UV, and PL analyses. The mesogenic pendants have endowed the polymers with high thermal stability (> or =400 degrees C). While P1 exhibits no liquid crystallinity, P2 and P3 form enantiotropic S(A) phase with a monolayer structure. Upon photoexcitation, the polymers emit blue and blue-green lights of 460 and 480 nm, respectively, in THF with quantum efficiencies larger than 30%. UV irradiation of a thin film of P2 through a mask oxidizes and quenches the light emission of the exposed regions, generating a two-dimensional luminescent photoimage.

  5. Phospholipids chiral at phosphorus. Dramatic effects of phosphorus chirality on the deuterium NMR properties of the choline head group of phospholipids in the liquid crystalline phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffredo, W.M.; Jiang, Rutai; Tsai, Mingdaw

    1990-01-01

    To probe the motional and conformational propertis of the choline head group of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-thiophosphocholine (DPPsC), the R p , S p , and R p + S p isomers of [α-D 2 ]DPPsC, [β-D 2 ]DPPsC, and [δ-D 9 ]DPPsC in the subgel, gel, and liquid crystalline phases were investigated with deuterium NMR, and the results were compared with those of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) labeled at the same positions. In the subgel phase (5 degree C) all isomers of [α-D 2 ]DPPsC and [β-D 2 ]DPPsC displayed amorphous line shapes characteristic of a restricted and disordered motional environment, whereas [δ-D 9 ]DPPsC showed narrower and symmetric line shapes indicating substantial motions. For all three labeled positions the apparent line width of the R p isomer is larger than those of S p and R p + S p isomers, and the amorphous line shape of the R p isomer also persists at 25 and 35 degree C. These results indicate that the motional and conformational properties of the C α -C β segment of DPPsC is very sensitive to the configuration at phosphorus. Structurally, this provides strong support for noncovalent interactions between the quaternary ammonium group of choline and the phosphate group of a neighboring molecule in the bilayers of phosphatidylcholine and suggests that such interactions are important to the motion of the choline chain

  6. Liquid-crystalline dendrimer Cu(II) complexes and Cu(0) nanoclusters based on the Cu(II) complexes: An electron paramagnetic resonance investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domracheva, N. E.; Mirea, A.; Schwoerer, M.; Torre-Lorente, L.; Lattermann, G.

    2007-07-01

    New nanostructured materials, namely, the liquid-crystalline copper(II) complexes that contain poly(propylene imine) dendrimer ligands of the first (ligand 1) and second (ligand 2) generations and which have a columnar mesophase and different copper contents (x = Cu/L), are investigated by EPR spectroscopy. The influence of water molecules and nitrate counterions on the magnetic properties of complex 2 (x = 7.3) is studied. It is demonstrated that water molecules can extract some of the copper ions from dendrimer complexes and form hexaaqua copper complexes with free ions. The dimer spectra of fully hydrated complex 2 (x = 7.3) are observed at temperatures T dendrimer copper(II) complex. The temperature-induced valence tautomerism attended by electron transport is revealed for the first time in blue dendrimer complexes 1 (x = 1.9) with a dimer structure. The activation energy for electron transport is estimated to be 0.35 meV. The coordination of the copper ion site (NO4) and the structural arrangement of green complexes 1 (x = 1.9) in the columnar mesophase are determined. Complexes of this type form linear chains in which nitrate counterions serve as bridges between copper centers. It is revealed that green complexes 1 (x = 1.9) dissolved in isotropic inert solvents can be oriented in the magnetic field (B 0 = 8000 G). The degree of orientation of these complexes is rather high (S z = 0.76) and close to that of systems with a complete ordering (S z = 1) in the magnetic field. Copper(0) nanoclusters prepared by reduction of complex 2 (x = 7.3) in two reducing agents (NaBH4, N2H4 · H2O) are examined. A model is proposed for a possible location of Cu(0) nanoclusters in a dendrimer matrix.

  7. Test procedures for polyester immobilized salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    These test procedures are written to meet the procedural needs of the Test Plan for immobilization of salt containing surrogate mixed waste using polymer resins, HNF-SD-RE-TP-026 and to ensure adequacy of conduct and collection of samples and data. This testing will demonstrate the use of four different polyester vinyl ester resins in the solidification of surrogate liquid and dry wastes, similar to some mixed wastes generated by DOE operations

  8. Polyether-polyester graft copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Vernon L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Described is a polyether graft polymer having improved solvent resistance and crystalline thermally reversible crosslinks. The copolymer is prepared by a novel process of anionic copolymerization. These polymers exhibit good solvent resistance and are well suited for aircraft parts. Previous aromatic polyethers, also known as polyphenylene oxides, have certain deficiencies which detract from their usefulness. These commercial polymers are often soluble in common solvents including the halocarbon and aromatic hydrocarbon types of paint thinners and removers. This limitation prevents the use of these polyethers in structural articles requiring frequent painting. In addition, the most popular commercially available polyether is a very high melting plastic. This makes it considerably more difficult to fabricate finished parts from this material. These problems are solved by providing an aromatic polyether graft copolymer with improved solvent resistance and crystalline thermally reversible crosslinks. The graft copolymer is formed by converting the carboxyl groups of a carboxylated polyphenylene oxide polymer to ionic carbonyl groups in a suitable solvent, reacting pivalolactone with the dissolved polymer, and adding acid to the solution to produce the graft copolymer.

  9. Micro-thermal analysis of polyester coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.

    2010-01-01

    The application and suitability of micro-thermal analysis to detect changes in the chemical and physical properties of coating due to ageing and especially photo-degradation is demonstrated using a model polyester coating based on neopentyl glycol isophthalic acid. The changes in chemical structure

  10. Photoinduced Deformation of Azobenzene Polyester Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bublitz, D.; Helgert, M.; Fleck, B.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate two types of azobenzene side-chain polyesters which have shown opposite behaviour in light-induced surface grating formation experiments. Thin films of these polymers prepared on a water surface undergo opposite changes of shape under the influence of polarized light. We propose...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of saturated polyester and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    but which can actually be used for processes, which pro- duce interesting ... ing the synthesis of saturated polyester (from GPET waste). This has been done for the .... The solid product obtained from the glycolysis of PET was bis(hydroxy ethyl ...

  12. Rheological Behavior of Bentonite-Polyester Dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Omari, Salah Addin

    2013-07-01

    The rheological behavior of a bentonite clay dispersed in unsaturated polyester was investigated. The effects of the solid content and particle size on the steady and transient rheological properties of the dispersions were studied. In addition, two types of bentonite with different Na+/Ca+2 ratio were used in this study. The Herschel-Bulkley and the Weltman models were used to describe the apparent viscosity of the bentonite-polyester composite in relation to the shear rate and shearing time. The bentonite-polyester dispersions were found to exhibit both Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior. The transition from a Newtonian to a Bingham plastic and then to a shear-thinning material with a yield stress was found to depend on the solid concentration, the particle size, and the type of bentonite. At a low solid content, the apparent viscosity of the bentonite dispersion increased linearly with solid concentration. But a dramatic increase in the apparent viscosity beyond a solid content of 20 wt.% was observed. On the other hand, a thixotropic behavior was detected in bentonite-polyester dispersions with a high solid content and a low particle size. However, this behavior was more pronounced in dispersions with a high Na+/Ca+2 ratio.

  13. Carboxylated Polyurethanes Containing Hyperbranched Polyester Soft Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigon, M.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available hyperbranched polyester soft segments (HB PU with functional carboxylic groups in order to enable the preparation of stable HB PU dispersions. Carboxylated hyperbranched polyurethanes were synthesized using a hyperbranched polyester based on 2,2-bis(methylolpropionic acid of the fourth pseudo-generation (Boltorn H40 and hexamethylene (HDI or isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI. The reactivity of hyperbranched polyester with HDI was lower than expected, possibly due to the presence of less reactive hydroxyl groups in the linear repeat units. A gel was formed at mole ratios rNCO/OH = 1:2 or 1:4. The synthesis of HB PU was performed with partly esterified hyperbranched polyester with lowered hydroxyl functionality. The carboxyl groups were incorporated in the HB PU backbone by reaction of residual hydroxyl groups with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride. HB PU aqueous dispersions were stable at least for two months, although their films were brittle. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of blends of linear and HB PU decreased with increasing content of HB PU whereas elongation at break remained nearly constant, which was explained in terms of looser chain packing due to more open tree-like hyperbranched structures.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystalline Organosiloxanes Containing 4-(4-undecanyloxy bi-phenyl-1-carboxyloxyphenyl (2S,3S-2-chloro-3-methylvalerate and 4-(4-undecanyloxybenzoyloxybiphenyl (2S,3S-2-chloro-3-methylvalerate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Lin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of new organosiloxane ferroelectric liquid crystalline (FLC materials have been synthesized, and their mesomorphic and physical properties have been characterized. Four new disiloxanes and trisiloxanes, containing biphenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate and phenyl 4-hydroxybiphenylcarboxylate as mesogenic units and eleven methylene unit as spacers and (2S,3S-2-chloro-3-methylvalerate unit as chiral end groups. The molecule, using three phenyl ring as a mesogenic unit, formulates much wider liquid crystalline phase temperature ranges than that of a two phenyl ring unit. The phenyl arrangement differences of mesogenic unit result in the greater differences of the liquid crystal phase formation. The siloxane molecule induction is helpful to the more regular smectic phase formation and smectic phase stabilization, such as chiral SC (SC* and SB phases. The siloxane molecule is helpful to reduce the phase transition temperature and broaden the liquid crystal temperature range of the SC* phase and, simultaneously, it will not induce chain crystallization phenomenon and dilute the Ps value. The synthesis and characterization of the new FLCs materials, which exhibit a room temperature SC* phase and higher spontaneous polarization are presented.

  15. Preparation and properties of aromatic polyester/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites from polyethylene terephthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Leonardo Moreira dos; Carone, Carlos Leonardo Pandolfo; Einloft, Sandra Mara Oliveira; Ligabue, Rosane Angelica, E-mail: rligabue@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Graduacao em Engenharia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2016-01-15

    The development of polyester based materials with enhanced properties as well as the use of post- consumer plastics as raw material has been an increasing market demand. This work aims the synthesis and characterization of aromatic polyesters/titanium dioxide nanocomposites from PET and using TiO{sub 2} (0, 1, 3 and 5% w/w) as filler by in situ polymerization. The results obtained by DSC, XRD and FTIR analyzes evidenced an interaction between the OH groups on the TiO{sub 2} surface with the ester groups of the polymer leading to decrease of the polymer crystallinity and of hydrophilicity. By SEM images was possible to note a homogeneous distribution of the filler into polymer matrix with 1%w/w TiO{sub 2} (average particle size of 199 nm), however for larger amounts of filler (3 and 5% TiO{sub 2}) revealed the aggregates formation. The results showed an improvement of thermal properties and hardness of the nanocomposites containing TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles compared to pristine polyester. (author)

  16. Molecular Design for Preparation of Hexagonal-Ordered Porous Films Based on Side-chain Type Liquid-Crystalline Star Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naka, Yumiko; Takayama, Hiromu; Koyama, Teruhisa; Le, Khoa V; Sasaki, Takeo

    2018-05-02

    Fabrication of regularly porous films by the breath-figure method has attracted much attention. The simple, low-cost technique uses the condensation of water droplets to produce these structures, but the phenomenon itself is complex, requiring control over many interacting parameters that change throughout the process. Developing a unified understanding for the molecular design of polymers to prepare ordered porous films is challenging, but required for further advancements. In this article, the effects of the chemical structure of polymers in the breath-figure technique were systematically explored using side-chain type liquid-crystalline (LC) star polymers. The formation of porous films was affected by the structure of the polymers. Although the entire film surface of poly(11-[4-(4-cyanobiphenyl)oxy]undecyl methacrylate) (P11CB) had a hexagonal ordered porous structure over a certain Mn value, regularly arranged holes did not easily form in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), even though the main chain of PMMA is similar to that of P11CB. Comparing P11CB and poly(11-[(1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yloxy]undecyl methacrylate) (P11B) (P11CB without cyano groups) showed that the local polar groups in hydrophobic polymers promoted the formation of ordered porous films. No holes formed in poly(4-cyanobiphenyl methacrylate) (P0CB) (P11CB without alkyl spacers) films due to its hydrophilicity. The introduction of alkyl chains in P0CB allowed the preparation of honeycomb-structured films by increasing the internal tension. However, alkyl chains in the side chain alone did not result in a porous structure, as in the case of poly(11-[(1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yloxy]undecyl methacrylate) (P11). Aromatic rings are also required to increase the Tg and improve film formability. In the present study, suitable molecular designs of polymers were found, specifically hydrophobic polymers with local polar groups, to form a regularly porous structure. Development of clear guidelines for the molecular

  17. Polyesters production from the mixture of phthalic acid, terephthalic and glycerol; Producao de poliesteres a partir da mistura de acido ftalico, tereftalico e glicerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, A.L.S.; Oliveira, J.C.; Miranda, C.S.; Boaventura, J.S.; Jose, N.M., E-mail: adrianaequfba@gmail.co [Universidade Federal da Bahia (GECIM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Grupo de Energia e Ciencias dos Materiais; Carvalho, R.F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Ambiental Urbana

    2010-07-01

    Glycerin, a byproduct of biodiesel is currently an environmental and economic problem for producers of this renewable fuel in Brazil and in others parts of the world. In order to offer new proposals for recovery, it is used for the manufacture of polyesters used in applications in diverse areas such as construction and automobile industry. This work reports the production of polymer from the mixture of terephthalic and phthalic acid in three different proportions. The polyesters showed good thermal stability, analyzed by TGA and DSC, with an increase proportional to the terephthalic acid content. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the samples are semi crystalline polymers. The micrographs indicated the presence of a smoother surface in the polyester that has a larger amount of phthalic acid, as reported in the literature. Therefore, the materials showed good thermal properties and morphological characteristics, so it consists in a new alternative to use glycerin. (author)

  18. The radiation chemistry of symmetric aliphatic polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babanalbandi, A.; Hill, D.J.T.; Pomery, P.J.; Whittaker, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring, symmetric polyesters, including polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid and polyhydroxybutyrate, have found biomedical applications in areas as diverse as the controlled release of pharmaceuticals and the manufacture of surgical sutures. As biomedical products, the materials require sterilization by high energy radiation. This has provided the motivation for the present work. D'Alelio et al. have reported that linear, asymmetric polyesters undergo scission on irradiation, but that branched polyesters containing a methyl group in the diol segments undergo crosslinking. However, for the symmetric polyhydroxybutyrate, Carswell-Pomerantz et al. have reported that only scission occurs on radiolysis, with the evolution of CO and CO 2 as a result of the loss of ester linkages. These workers also found that G(CO + CO 2 ) was approximately equal to G(S) for this polyester. By contrast, Collett et al. have reported that G(S) = 1.26 and G(X) = 0.53 for polylactic acid, which indicates that the polymer undergoes nett crosslinking on radiolysis to form a gel. They have also reported that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) should form a gel on radiolysis, since G(S) = 1.66 and G(X) = 0.65 for a 1:1 copolymer composition. In the present work the radiolysis of polylactic acid and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) have been reinvestigated in order to resolve the differences between the work of Collett et al. and that of Carswell-Pomerantz et al. In these studies, ESR has been used to study the radicals formed, GPC has been used to investigate scission and crosslinking, GC has been used to study the small molecule volatile products and NMR spectroscopy has been used to identify and measure the new chemical structures formed in the polymers

  19. Novel organometallic aromatic polyester based on ferrocene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei

    2010-01-01

    A novel polyester containing ferrocenyl was prepared by low-temperature interface polycondensation of 1,1'-ferrocenedi-carboxylic acid chloride with 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-phthalazin-l-one(DHPZ), which is a twisted non-coplanar heterocyclic bisphenol-like monomer. The newly generated polymer was evaluated based on characterization of its solubility, viscosity measurements, elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetric and thermogravimetric studies.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of Polyester and Epoxy–Polyester Powder Coatings in Aggressive Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stojanović

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Protective coatings are the most widely used corrosion protection method for construction materials in different environmental conditions. They isolate metals from aggressive media, making the structure more durable. Today, alongside good anti-corrosive properties, coatings need to be safe for the environment and harmless to those who apply them. The high volatile organic compound (VOC content in conventional solvent-borne coatings presents a huge ecological problem. A solution for indispensable solvent emission reduction is the application of powder coatings. This study evaluates the corrosion performance and surface morphology of polyester and epoxy–polyester powder coatings. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, open circuit potential (OCP measurement, salt spray chamber and humidity chamber testing followed by adhesion testing were used to investigate the protective properties of powder coatings. Scanning electron microscope (SEM with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX was used to analyse the surface morphology and chemical composition, whereas the microstructure and coating uniformity were determined by optical microscope examination. The research revealed a negative influence of coating surface texture on coating thickness and consequently a lack of barrier and adhesion properties. The epoxy–polyester powder coating showed a better performance than the polyester coating. All tested coatings showed uniform structure.

  1. Air-drying paint compositions comprising carbohydrate-based polyesters and polyester preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, E.A.; Weijnen, J.; Haveren, van J.; Gillard, M.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to a polyester obtainable by transesterification or interesterification of:(i) a carbohydrate or an acyl ester thereof, (ii) an alkyl ester of a drying fatty acid, semi-drying fatty acid or mixture thereof; and (iii) an alkyl ester of a non aromatic polycarboxylic acid. The

  2. Surface modification of polyester biomaterials for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yanpeng; Cui Fuzhai

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces play an important role in a biological system for most biological reactions occurring at surfaces and interfaces. The development of biomaterials for tissue engineering is to create perfect surfaces which can provoke specific cellular responses and direct new tissue regeneration. The improvement in biocompatibility of biomaterials for tissue engineering by directed surface modification is an important contribution to biomaterials development. Among many biomaterials used for tissue engineering, polyesters have been well documented for their excellent biodegradability, biocompatibility and nontoxicity. However, poor hydrophilicity and the lack of natural recognition sites on the surface of polyesters have greatly limited their further application in the tissue engineering field. Therefore, how to introduce functional groups or molecules to polyester surfaces, which ideally adjust cell/tissue biological functions, becomes more and more important. In this review, recent advances in polyester surface modification and their applications are reviewed. The development of new technologies or methods used to modify polyester surfaces for developing their biocompatibility is introduced. The results of polyester surface modifications by surface morphological modification, surface chemical group/charge modification, surface biomacromolecule modification and so on are reported in detail. Modified surface properties of polyesters directly related to in vitro/vivo biological performances are presented as well, such as protein adsorption, cell attachment and growth and tissue response. Lastly, the prospect of polyester surface modification is discussed, especially the current conception of biomimetic and molecular recognition. (topical review)

  3. Process for the production of a dianhydrohexitol based polyester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Process for the production of a polyester by the polycondensation of a mixture comprising isoidide, and a dicarboxylic acid or dicarboxylic acid anhydride, wherein the reaction is performed in the melt of the monomers and wherein these monomers are not activated. The polyesters based on one or more

  4. Biobased functional polyesters for coating applications: Synthesis, characterization and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordover, B.A.J.; Duchateau, R.; Koning, C.E.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.; Ming, W.; Haveren, van J.; Es, van D.S.

    2007-01-01

    Thermosetting coating systems contain polyesters as binders. A crucial property of these polymers is their functionality. During coating application, the polyesters are cross-linked in situ, which means that each polymer chain needs a sufficient no. of reactive end-groups. Renewable monomers are

  5. Microbial degradation of polyurethane, polyester polyurethanes and polyether polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima-Kambe, T; Shigeno-Akutsu, Y; Nomura, N; Onuma, F; Nakahara, T

    1999-02-01

    Polyurethane (PUR) is a polymer derived from the condensation of polyisocyanate and polyol and it is widely used as a base material in various industries. PUR, in particular, polyester PUR, is known to be vulnerable to microbial attack. Recently, environmental pollution by plastic wastes has become a serious issue and polyester PUR had attracted attention because of its biodegradability. There are many reports on the degradation of polyester PUR by microorganisms, especially by fungi. Microbial degradation of polyester PUR is thought to be mainly due to the hydrolysis of ester bonds by esterases. Recently, polyester-PUR-degrading enzymes have been purified and their characteristics reported. Among them, a solid-polyester-PUR-degrading enzyme (PUR esterase) derived from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35 had unique characteristics. This enzyme has a hydrophobic PUR-surface-binding domain and a catalytic domain, and the surface-binding domain was considered as being essential for PUR degradation. This hydrophobic surface-binding domain is also observed in other solid-polyester-degrading enzymes such as poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) depolymerases. There was no significant homology between the amino acid sequence of PUR esterase and that of PHA depolymerases, except in the hydrophobic surface-binding region. Thus, PUR esterase and PHA depolymerase are probably different in terms of their evolutionary origin and it is possible that PUR esterases come to be classified as a new solid-polyester-degrading enzyme family.

  6. Functional bio-based polyesters by enzymatic polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hoffmann, Christian; Andersen, Christian

    During recent years enzymatic polymerization has become increasingly popular as an alternative to classical polyesterification processes. The high regioselectivity observed for lipases permits preparation of novel polyesters with a high number of functional groups.1 This is particularly interesting...... polymerization was applied to prepare functional water soluble polyesters based on dimethyl itaconate and poly(ethyleneglycol).2 The monomer permits postfunctionalization using thiol-ene chemistry or aza-michael additions, which was used to illustrate the possibilites of preparing functional hydrogels. Hydrogels...... based on the polyesters were shown to be degradable and could be prepared either from the pure polyester or from prefunctionalized polyesters, though the thiol-ene reactions were found to be less effective. Since then a new monomer, trans-2,5-dihydroxy-3-pentenoic acid methyl ester (DPM) has been...

  7. Radiation processed composite materials of wood and elastic polyester resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapolcai, I.; Czvikovszky, T.

    1983-01-01

    The radiation polymerization of multifunctional unsaturated polyester-monomer mixtures in wood forms interpenetrating network system. The mechanical resistance (compression, abrasion, hardness, etc.) of these composite materials are generally well over the original wood, however the impact strength is almost the same or even reduced, in comparison to the wood itself. An attempt is made using elastic polyester resins to produced wood-polyester composite materials with improved modulus of elasticity and impact properties. For the impregnation of European beech wood two types of elastic unsaturated polyester resins were used. The exothermic effect of radiation copolymerization of these resins in wood has been measured and the dose rate effects as well as hardening dose was determined. Felxural strength and impact properties were examined. Elastic unsaturated polyester resins improved the impact strength of wood composite materials. (author)

  8. Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chen

    2004-12-01

    As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring

  9. Micro-thermal analysis of polyester coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Hartmut R.

    2010-04-01

    The application and suitability of micro-thermal analysis to detect changes in the chemical and physical properties of coating due to ageing and especially photo-degradation is demonstrated using a model polyester coating based on neopentyl glycol isophthalic acid. The changes in chemical structure like chain scission and cross-linking are manifested by a shift of the LTA detectable Tg and by a change of the slope of the part of the LTA graph responsible for the penetration of the hot sensor into the material after passing the glass transition temperature. As such LTA is a valuable tool to have a quick look into coating surfaces and especially their ageing. The photo-degradation of polyester in air leads to the formation of a cross-linked network at a surface layer of about 3-4 μm coupled with an increase in hardness and of the glass transition temperature by ˜90 K, the effect is less drastic for a photo-degradation in a nitrogen environment. Moreover, the presence of a non-equilibrium dense surface layer with a higher Tg formed during the drying of the coating formulation and the film solidification can be shown.

  10. Protoenzymes: the case of hyperbranched polyesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamajanov, Irena; Cody, George D.

    2017-11-01

    Enzymes are biopolymeric complexes that catalyse biochemical reactions and shape metabolic pathways. Enzymes usually work with small molecule cofactors that actively participate in reaction mechanisms and complex, usually globular, polymeric structures capable of specific substrate binding, encapsulation and orientation. Moreover, the globular structures of enzymes possess cavities with modulated microenvironments, facilitating the progression of reaction(s). The globular structure is ensured by long folded protein or RNA strands. Synthesis of such elaborate complexes has proven difficult under prebiotically plausible conditions. We explore here that catalysis may have been performed by alternative polymeric structures, namely hyperbranched polymers. Hyperbranched polymers are relatively complex structures that can be synthesized under prebiotically plausible conditions; their globular structure is ensured by virtue of their architecture rather than folding. In this study, we probe the ability of tertiary amine-bearing hyperbranched polyesters to form hydrophobic pockets as a reaction-promoting medium for the Kemp elimination reaction. Our results show that polyesters formed upon reaction between glycerol, triethanolamine and organic acid containing hydrophobic groups, i.e. adipic and methylsuccinic acid, are capable of increasing the rate of Kemp elimination by a factor of up to 3 over monomeric triethanolamine. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on poly(butylene naphthalate) based polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavasi, I.; Consolati, G.; Quasso, F.; Soccio, M.; Gigli, M.; Negrin, M.; Macerata, E.; Giacobbo, F.; Lotti, N.; Munari, A.; Mariani, M.

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the effect of gamma radiation on the properties of three naphthalate-based polyesters, i.e. poly(butylene naphthalate) (PBN), poly(diethylene naphthalate) (PDEN) and poly(thiodiethylene naphthalate) (PTDEN). In addition, the analogous terephthalate-based polymers of PDEN and PTDEN, i.e. poly(diethylene terephthalate) (PDET) and poly(thiodiethylene terephthalate) (PTDET), are also investigated, in order to check the effect of a lower number of aromatic rings. All the polymers, irradiated in air at different absorbed doses, were characterized by several techniques. The data obtained indicate that all the polymers, except PBN, show a decrease of molecular weight with the dose increase. The thermal behavior and the morphology confirm the previous results and show that the higher the crystallinity degree and number of aromatic rings, the higher the radiation resistance. The introduction of heteroatoms decreases the ability of a polymer to crystallize due to a reduction of polymer chain symmetry, thus worsening their radiation resistance. - Highlights: • Gamma irradiation of polyesters with different number of aromatic rings was studied. • Effect of gamma radiation on PBN, PDEN, PTDEN, PDET, and PTDET was investigated. • Irradiated polymers were studied by GPC, DSC and PALS. • Introduction of heteroatoms decreases polymers radiation resistance. • Presence of double aromatic ring confers a higher stability with increasing doses.

  12. Electromagnetic shielding mechanisms using soft magnetic stainless steel fiber enabled polyester textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyr, Tien-Wei; Shie, Jing-Wen

    2012-11-01

    This work studied the effects of conductivity, magnetic loss, and complex permittivity when using blended textiles (SSF/PET) of polyester fibers (PET) with stainless steel fibers (SSF) on electromagnetic wave shielding mechanisms at electromagnetic wave frequencies ranging from 30 MHz to 1500 MHz. The 316L stainless steel fiber used in this study had 38 vol% γ austenite and 62 vol% α' martensite crystalline phases, which was characterized by an x-ray diffractometer. Due to the magnetic and dielectric loss of soft metallic magnetic stainless steel fiber enabled polyester textiles, the relationship between the reflection/absorption/transmission behaviors of the electromagnetic wave and the electrical/magnetic/dielectric properties of the SSF and SSF/PET fabrics was analyzed. Our results showed that the electromagnetic interference shielding of the SSF/PET textiles show an absorption-dominant mechanism, which attributed to the dielectric loss and the magnetic loss at a lower frequency and attributed to the magnetic loss at a higher frequency, respectively.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of polyester copolymers based on poly(butylene succinate) and poly(ethylene glycol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiao-Ming

    2012-01-01

    A series of polyester copolymers was synthesized from 1,4-succinic acid with 1,4-butanediol and poly(ethylene glycol) through a two-step process of esterification and polycondensation in this article. The composition and physical properties of copolyesters were investigated via GPC, 1 HNMR, DSC and PLM. The copolymer composition was in good agreement with that expected from the feed composition of the reactants. The melting temperature (T m ), crystallization temperature (T c ), and crystallinity (X c ) of these copolyesters decreased gradually as the content of PEG unit increased. Otherwise, experimental results also showed that the contents of PEG in copolymers had an effect on the molecular weight, distribution, thermal properties, hydrolysis degradation properties, and crystalline morphology of polyester copolymers. - Graphical abstract: The composition of polyester copolymer was determined from the 1 H NMR spectra using the relative intensities of the proton peaks. As a sample, the 1 H NMR spectrum of polyester copolymer with 10 mol% of PEG is shown in Fig. 2: CO-(CH 2 ) 2 -CO; O-CH 2 - and C-(CH 2 ) 2 -C from the SA and BD unit at δ2.59; δ 4.08 and δ1.67; O-(CH 2 CH 2 ) n -O from the PEG unit at δ 3.61. The molar composition of polyester copolymer was measured as the area ratio of δ3.61/(δ4.08 + δ1.67) peak. The PEG unit is incorporated into the copolymers in an amount of about 9.12mol% less than that of the feed proportion. These results showed that the composition of the copolymers is in good agreement with that expected from the feed proportion. Highlights: ► The introduction of PEG unit changed the flexibility of PBS main chain. ► PEG unit did not alter the crystal form of PBS in copolymers. ► PEG unit hindered the formation of ring-banded spherulite morphology in copolymers. ► The copolyesters had good in vitro degradation performance. ► The composition ratio of PEG unit can adjust the in vitro degradation performance.

  14. Single crystalline growth of a soluble organic semiconductor in a parallel aligned liquid crystal solvent using rubbing-treated polyimide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Tomoya; Shibata, Yosei; Takeda, Risa; Ishinabe, Takahiro; Fujikake, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    For directional control of organic single crystals, we propose a crystal growth method using liquid crystal as the solvent. In this study, we examined the formation of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) single crystals using a parallel aligned liquid crystal (LC) cell and rubbing-treated polyimide films in order to clarify the effects of LC alignment on anisotropic C8-BTBT crystal growth. Based on the results, we found that the crystal growth direction of C8-BTBT single crystals was related to the direction of the aligned LC molecules because of rubbing treatment. Moreover, by optical evaluation, we found that the C8-BTBT single crystals have a aligned molecular structure.

  15. Characterization of material composite marble-polyester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corpas, F. A.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we characterize a new material composite, formed with a polyester and crushed white marble mixture. The final purpose is double: to obtain a material for applications sufficiently competitive after an economic viability study, increasing the yield of the main commodity, using waste marble and improving the jobs in the quarries area. From the results obtained, we deduce then that this material could be used to inside and outside adornment.

    En este trabajo, caracterizamos un nuevo material compuesto, formado con una mezcla de poliéster y de mármol blanco triturado. El propósito final es doble: por un lado obtener un material para aplicaciones lo suficientemente competitivas como para que se pueda iniciar un estudio económico de viabilidad, aumentando el rendimiento de la materia prima y mejorando las salidas laborales de las comarcas extractoras. Para la caracterización del material se ha determinado el porcentaje adecuado de poliéster. Así como las propiedades mecánicas (flexión, compresión y dureza, químicas, fatiga térmica y su influencia a la exposición solar In order to characterized of material, we have determined the suitable porcentage of polyester Also we have carried out a study of the mechanical (stretching, resistance to traction, hardeness and thermal fatigue chemicals properties and solar radiation influence. De los resultados obtenidos, este material podría ser utilizado para ornamentación tanto de interior como de exterior.

  16. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  17. Nano-biocomposites based on synthetic aliphatic polyesters and nanoclay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojijo, Vincent O

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the recent developments in the preparation, characterisation, properties, crystallisation behaviour, and melt rheology of clay-containing composites of biodegradable synthetic aliphatic polyesters such as poly...

  18. Synthetic polyester-hydrolyzing enzymes from thermophilic actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ren; Oeser, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Thermophilic actinomycetes produce enzymes capable of hydrolyzing synthetic polyesters such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET). In addition to carboxylesterases, which have hydrolytic activity predominantly against PET oligomers, esterases related to cutinases also hydrolyze synthetic polymers. The production of these enzymes by actinomycetes as well as their recombinant expression in heterologous hosts is described and their catalytic activity against polyester substrates is compared. Assays to analyze the enzymatic hydrolysis of synthetic polyesters are evaluated, and a kinetic model describing the enzymatic heterogeneous hydrolysis process is discussed. Structure-function and structure-stability relationships of actinomycete polyester hydrolases are compared based on molecular dynamics simulations and recently solved protein structures. In addition, recent progress in enhancing their activity and thermal stability by random or site-directed mutagenesis is presented. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation and applications of wood-polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.

    1982-01-01

    Optimum processing parameters were searched for the pilot-scale production of wood-polyester composites by irradiation of resin-impregnated wood material. The radiation initiation of the following systems were examined in wood and without wood matrix: methyl methacrylate, mixture of styrene and acrylonitryle, and their combination with unsaturated polyester. In the most cases the over-all rate of the complete polymerization process in wood matrix is proportional to the square root of the initiation rate. The parameters of the radiation technology of wood-polyester composites have been determined, using 260 TBq (7 kCi) 60 Co radiation source. A pilot plant has been constructed using an underwater irradiation system of 1.85 PBq (50 kCi) 60 Co. The successful production rate of 200 kg wood-polyester composite per day, as well as the application tests have demonstrated the technical feasibility of this new structural material. (author)

  20. Hyperbranched polyester polyol plasticized tapioca starch/low density polyethylene blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, Manuel; Giraldo, Diego; Murillo, Edwin, E-mail: edwinalbertomurillo@gmail.com [Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, San Jose de Cucuta (Colombia)

    2017-01-15

    n this work, low density polyethylene (LDPE)/plasticised starch (TPS) blends were prepared. The TPS employed in this study was obtained by plasticization of tapioca starch with a hyperbranched polyester polyol. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the melting temperature increased with the TPS content. The opposite effect was exhibited in the crystallization temperature and additional changes were not observed during the heating. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a reduction in intensity of the peak at Bragg’s angle 17.5°, proving a diminution on A type crystallinity with the increasing amount of LDPE. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy exhibited starch granules without destructure. TPS acted as a filler to LDPE, since the mechanical properties (Young's modulus and tensile strength) improved ostensibly. The Young' modulus and tensile strength decreased with the amount of LDPE, however, the elongation at break exhibited an opposite behavior. (author)

  1. Influence of Carbon Nano Tubes on the Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, A K M Moshiul; Beg, M D H; Yunus, Rosli Mohd

    2015-01-01

    To date nano fillers are renowned reinforcing agent for polymer materials. In this work, unsaturated polyester (UPR) nanocomposites were fabricated by 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 wt% multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through solution dispersion and casting method. The influence of MWCNT content was investigated by thermo-mechanical properties. Dispersion of nanotubes was observed by fracture morphology. The strength of nanocomposites rose with raising the CNT content. Moreover, DSC thermograms of nanocomposites represent noticeable improvement of glass transition temperature (T g ), melting temperature (T m ) and enthalpy (ΔH m ). Micro-crystallinity of nanocomposites increased with increasing the CNT content. Moreover, the stiffness increased with increasing the CNT content. (paper)

  2. Hyperbranched polyester polyol plasticized tapioca starch/low density polyethylene blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Guzmán

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, low density polyethylene (LDPE/plasticized starch (TPS blends were prepared. The TPS employed in this study was obtained by plasticization of tapioca starch with a hyperbranched polyester polyol. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the melting temperature increased with the TPS content. The opposite effect was exhibited in the crystallization temperature and additional changes were not observed during the heating. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a reduction in intensity of the peak at Bragg’s angle 17.5°, proving a diminution on A type crystallinity with the increasing amount of LDPE. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy exhibited starch granules without destructure. TPS acted as a filler to LDPE, since the mechanical properties (Young’s modulus and tensile strength improved ostensibly. The Young’ modulus and tensile strength decreased with the amount of LDPE, however, the elongation at break exhibited an opposite behavior.

  3. Hyperbranched polyester polyol plasticized tapioca starch/low density polyethylene blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, Manuel; Giraldo, Diego; Murillo, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    n this work, low density polyethylene (LDPE)/plasticised starch (TPS) blends were prepared. The TPS employed in this study was obtained by plasticization of tapioca starch with a hyperbranched polyester polyol. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the melting temperature increased with the TPS content. The opposite effect was exhibited in the crystallization temperature and additional changes were not observed during the heating. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a reduction in intensity of the peak at Bragg’s angle 17.5°, proving a diminution on A type crystallinity with the increasing amount of LDPE. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy exhibited starch granules without destructure. TPS acted as a filler to LDPE, since the mechanical properties (Young's modulus and tensile strength) improved ostensibly. The Young' modulus and tensile strength decreased with the amount of LDPE, however, the elongation at break exhibited an opposite behavior. (author)

  4. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    OpenAIRE

    A.E. Ismail; M.A. Che Abdul Aziz

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that...

  5. Polyester Polyols from Waste PET Bottles for Polyurethane Rigid Foams

    OpenAIRE

    Evtimova, Rozeta; Lozeva, Yordanka; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Wotzka, Michael; Wagner, Peter; Behrendt, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a modified process to produce polyester polyols from PET wastes derived from the “bottle fraction residue” of the German Dual System (DSD) [11] employing a waste oligoester condensate of the polyesterification process with the addition of some glycols of longer chain and occasional modification with further dicarboxylic acids to produce polyester polyols of a broad range of properties which are further reacted to form polyurethane or polyisocyanurate rigid foams for insul...

  6. AFM study of advanced composite materials for organic photovoltaic cells with active layer based on P3HT:PCBM and chiral photosensitive liquid crystalline dopants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iwan, A.; Sikora, A.; Hamplová, Věra; Bubnov, Alexej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 7 (2015), s. 964-972 ISSN 0267-8292 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13PL041; GA ČR GA13-14133S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14007; GA MŠk 7AMB13PL038 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101204 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : AFM * chiral liquid crystal * organic solar cells * azo compounds * photovoltaic s Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.244, year: 2015

  7. Glycation precedes lens crystallin aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamy, M.S.; Perry, R.E.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) seems to have the potential to alter the structure of crystallins and make them susceptible to thiol oxidation leading to disulfide-linked high molecular weight (HMW) aggregate formation. They used streptozotocin diabetic rats during precataract and cataract stages and long-term cell-free glycation of bovine lens crystallins to study the relationship between glycation and lens crystallin aggregation. HMW aggregates and other protein components of the water-soluble (WS) and urea-soluble (US) fractions were separated by molecular sieve high performance liquid chromatography. Glycation was estimated by both [ 3 H]NaBH 4 reduction and phenylboronate agarose affinity chromatography. Levels of total glycated protein (GP) in the US fractions were about 2-fold higher than in the WS fractions and there was a linear increase in GP in both WS and US fractions. This increase was parallelled by a corresponding increase in HMW aggregates. Total GP extracted by the affinity method from the US fraction showed a predominance of HMW aggregates and vice versa. Cell-free glycation studies with bovine crystallins confirmed the results of the animals studies. Increasing glycation caused a corresponding increase in protein insolubilization and the insoluble fraction thus formed also contained more glycated protein. It appears that lens protein glycation, HMW aggregate formation, and protein insolubilization are interrelated

  8. Conductivity of Langmuir-Blodgett films of a disk-shaped liquid-crystalline molecule-DNA complex studied by current-sensing atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Alpana; Suresh, K. A.

    2008-08-01

    We have studied the electrical conductivity in monolayer films of an ionic disk-shaped liquid-crystal molecule, pyridinium tethered with hexaalkoxytriphenylene (PyTp), and its complex with DNA by current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CS-AFM). The pure PyTp and PyTp-DNA complex monolayer films were first formed at the air-water interface and then transferred onto conducting substrates by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique to study the nanoscale electron transport through these films. The conductive tip of CS-AFM, the LB film, and the metal substrate form a nanoscopic metal-LB film-metal (M-LB-M) junction. We have measured the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for the M-LB-M junction using CS-AFM and have analyzed the data quantitatively. We find that the I-V curves fit well to the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) model, suggesting electron tunneling to be a possible mechanism for electron transport in our system. Further, analysis of the I-V curves based on the FN model yields the barrier heights of PyTp-DNA complex and pure PyTp films. Electron transport studies of films of ionic disk-shaped liquid-crystal molecules and their complex with DNA are important from the point of view of their applications in organic electronics.

  9. Application of eco-friendly antimicrobial finish butea monosperma leaves on fabric properties of polyester and cotton/polyester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaf, S.; Saeed, M.; Kalsoom, S.; Saeed, M.

    2017-01-01

    The study was aimed to check the effect of eco-friendly antimicrobial finish on 100% polyester and 50/50 cotton/polyester woven fabrics. The leaves' extract of Butea monosperma was used as an eco-friendly antimicrobial finish. The fabric was first desized, scoured, bleached and washed then antimicrobial finish was applied by using pad dry cure method. The aesthetic, comfort and mechanical fabrics properties were checked before and after applying antimicrobial finish. Under aesthetic property stiffness and smoothness appearance was checked, under comfort related property absorbency and air permeability was checked and under mechanical property tear and tensile strength was checked. The antimicrobial finish was checked by using ASTEM E2149 Shake Flask method. The AATCC and ISO standard testing methods were used for checking fabric properties. One way ANOVA statistical test was applied for analysis of results. Antimicrobial finish has increased aesthetic (stiffness, smoothness appearance), comfort (absorbency, air permeability) and mechanical (tensile and tear strengths) properties of polyester and cotton/polyester fabrics. The antimicrobial finish was effective on both 100% polyester and 50/50 cotton/polyester fabrics up to 25 washes. This study is beneficial to medical industry, paramedical staff, sports wears, home furnishing as well as common people. (author)

  10. Novel Biodegradable Polyesters. Synthesis and Application as Drug Carriers for the Preparation of Raloxifene HCl Loaded Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Karavas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Raloxifene HCl is a drug with poor bioavailability and poor water solubility. Furthermore nο pharmaceutically acceptable organic solvent has been reported before to dilute the drug. It was observed that Raloxifene HCl can be diluted in a solvent mixture of acetone/water or ethanol/water. The aim of this study was to use biodegradable polymers in order to prepare Raloxifene HCl nanoparticles. For this purpose a series of novel biodegradable poly(ethylene succinate-co-propylene adipate P(ESu-co-PAd polyesters were synthesized following the polycondensation method and further, poly(ethylene succinate (PESu and poly(propylene adipate (PPAd were used. The prepared polyesters were characterized by intrinsic viscosity measurements, end group analysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1Η-NMR and 13C-NMR and Wide-angle X-ray Diffractometry (WAXD. The drug nanoparticles have been prepared by a variation of the co-precipitation method and were studied by Wide-angle X-ray Diffractometry (WAXD, FTIR spectrometry, light scattering size distribution, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and release behavior measurements. The interactions between the polymers and the drug seem to be limited, so the drug occurs in crystalline form in all nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles seems to be in the range of 150-350 nm, depending on the polymer that was used. The drug release depends on the melting point and degree of crystallinity of the polyesters used. An initial high release rate was recorded followed by very slow rates of controlled release.

  11. Structural and dynamical properties of the Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 54} alloy in crystalline, amorphous and liquid state: A molecular dynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia-Balvin, Camilo, E-mail: cavalen@fisica.udea.edu.c [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia); ITM Institucion Universitaria, A.A 54959 Medellin (Colombia); Loyola, Claudia [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Osorio-Guillen, Jorge [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Gutierrez, Gonzalo [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-12-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations for the crystal, amorphous and liquid Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 54} alloy were carried out on a system with up to 2000 particles, using a pairwise potential of the Rosato-Guillope-Legrand type. All simulations were done in the microcanonical ensemble, for a initial density of 5.76 g/cm{sup 3}, at different temperatures. A detailed analysis has been made by means of the pair-correlation function, coordination number, angle distribution, diffusion coefficient and vibrational density of states. We compared the main peaks of the amorphous phase with experimental data, obtaining a good agreement. The analysis of coordination number for the amorphous phase shows that the main building block of this phase are distorted icosahedron.

  12. Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on a Liquid-Crystalline Polymeric Semiconductor using SU-8 Gate Dielectrics on Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzner, Kornelius; Bose, Indranil R.; Bock, Karlheinz

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the insulating properties of poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) and SU-8 (MicroChem, Westborough, MA, USA) dielectrics are analyzed and compared with each other. We further investigate the performance behavior of organic field-effect transistors based on a semiconducting liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) using both dielectric materials and evaluate the results regarding the processability. Due to the lower process temperature needed for the SU-8 deposition, the realization of organic transistors on flexible substrates is demonstrated showing comparable charge carrier mobilities to devices using PVP on glass. In addition, a µ-dispensing procedure of the LCP on SU-8 is presented, improving the switching behavior of the organic transistors, and the promising stability data of the SU-8/LCP stack are verified after storing the structures for 60 days in ambient air showing negligible irreversible degradation of the organic semiconductor. PMID:28788243

  13. Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on a Liquid-Crystalline Polymeric Semiconductor using SU-8 Gate Dielectrics onFlexible Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelius Tetzner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the insulating properties of poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP and SU-8 (MicroChem, Westborough, MA, USA dielectrics are analyzed and compared with each other. We further investigate the performance behavior of organic field-effect transistors based on a semiconducting liquid-crystal polymer (LCP using both dielectric materials and evaluate the results regarding the processability. Due to the lower process temperature needed for the SU-8 deposition, the realization of organic transistors on flexible substrates is demonstrated showing comparable charge carrier mobilities to devices using PVP on glass. In addition, a µ-dispensing procedure of the LCP on SU-8 is presented, improving the switching behavior of the organic transistors, and the promising stability data of the SU-8/LCP stack are verified after storing the structures for 60 days in ambient air showing negligible irreversible degradation of the organic semiconductor.

  14. Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on a Liquid-Crystalline Polymeric Semiconductor using SU-8 Gate Dielectrics onFlexible Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzner, Kornelius; Bose, Indranil R; Bock, Karlheinz

    2014-10-29

    In this work, the insulating properties of poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) and SU-8 (MicroChem, Westborough, MA, USA) dielectrics are analyzed and compared with each other. We further investigate the performance behavior of organic field-effect transistors based on a semiconducting liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) using both dielectric materials and evaluate the results regarding the processability. Due to the lower process temperature needed for the SU-8 deposition, the realization of organic transistors on flexible substrates is demonstrated showing comparable charge carrier mobilities to devices using PVP on glass. In addition, a µ-dispensing procedure of the LCP on SU-8 is presented, improving the switching behavior of the organic transistors, and the promising stability data of the SU-8/LCP stack are verified after storing the structures for 60 days in ambient air showing negligible irreversible degradation of the organic semiconductor.

  15. Synthesis, properties and applications of biodegradable polymers derived from diols and dicarboxylic acids: from polyesters to poly(ester amide)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Angélica; Katsarava, Ramaz; Puiggalí, Jordi

    2014-04-25

    Poly(alkylene dicarboxylate)s constitute a family of biodegradable polymers with increasing interest for both commodity and speciality applications. Most of these polymers can be prepared from biobased diols and dicarboxylic acids such as 1,4-butanediol, succinic acid and carbohydrates. This review provides a current status report concerning synthesis, biodegradation and applications of a series of polymers that cover a wide range of properties, namely, materials from elastomeric to rigid characteristics that are suitable for applications such as hydrogels, soft tissue engineering, drug delivery systems and liquid crystals. Finally, the incorporation of aromatic units and α-amino acids is considered since stiffness of molecular chains and intermolecular interactions can be drastically changed. In fact, poly(ester amide)s derived from naturally occurring amino acids offer great possibilities as biodegradable materials for biomedical applications which are also extensively discussed.

  16. Analysis of structural changes influence on radiation crosslinking of unsaturated polyester resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucic, I.; Ranogajec, F.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. DC-electrical conductivity has shown high sensitivity toward structural changes, especially to some low intensity transitions such as liquid-liquid transitions that are difficult to observe. It also showed favorable properties for monitoring of crosslinking of unsaturated polyester resins. However, when the rates were calculated using commonly applied formula: k lnσ =ln[(ln σ t - ln σ o )/(ln σ ∞ - ln σ o )] the sensitivity decreased. The extents of the reaction were shifted on time axis compared to non-logarithmic conductivity data and extraction analysis results. The logarithmic data had pronounced scattering at the end of the reaction so it was very difficult to determine end point of reaction and almost impossible to detect vitrification point. Some other features that can be seen on conductivity plot were lost. Therefore the results of DC-electrical conductivity monitoring of radiation and thermally initiated crosslinking of unsaturated polyester resins were interpreted in the same manner as the data collected by other non-electrical methods, using 'raw' data instead of its logarithmic form: k σ = ln [(σ t - σ o )/(σ ∞ - σ o )]. By this modification of data analysis the full sensitivity of electrical conductivity method to structural changes in reacting system was proven. Lower data scattering allowed observation of dose rate influences. The apparent rate constants calculated from conductivity itself showed the influence of upper liquid-liquid transition on the rate of radiation induced reaction that could not be seen if the logarithm of conductivity was used

  17. COMPOSITE FRIEND SISAL / POLYESTER TREATED IN SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayna K. Dionisio Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of composites in manufacturing equipment and products is taking a very important space in the industry in general. Moreover these materials have unique characteristics when analyzed separately from constituents who are part of them. However it is know that cares must be taken in their manufacture, as the use of appropriate process and the composition of each element, in addition to adherence fiber / matrix, which is a major factor in obtaining of the final mechanical strength of the product. One should also take into account whether the composites are environmentally friendly. For this reason, in this work, a composite partially ecological was made, using as reinforcement, a sisal woven and, as matrix, the polyester resin. Seeking to improve the adherence fiber / matrix, a treatment in sisal woven was performed with aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH at a concentration of 3%. The composite subjected to this treatment presented, in bending test, a better mechanical performance, with an increase of 27% in the flexion strength and of 54% in maximum strain, but there was a reduction of about 15% in its flexural modulus.

  18. An Undergraduate Experiment in Polyester (PET) Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammidge, Andrew N.

    1999-02-01

    The most important polyester manufactured industrially is PET (polyethyleneterephthalate). We describe an experiment that conveniently mimics the industrial synthesis in the undergraduate laboratory. The first step of the reaction is a base-catalyzed transesterification between ethane diol and dimethylterephthalate. Methanol is distilled off to drive the reaction to completion. Excess ethane diol is employed to suppress formation of higher oligomers. The intermediate (bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)terephthalate) is isolated by crystallization and filtration and characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy. In the second step the monomer is heated (with and without acid catalyst) to form polymer. Samples are removed at intervals and their physical properties are recorded as they cool. These properties are used to qualitatively monitor polymerization. This experiment reinforces some fundamental chemical concepts and introduces the students to new laboratory procedures. The students perform a distillation and apply their knowledge of the reaction equilibrium to calculate the volume of distillate (methanol) expected. The reversible nature of esterification reactions is emphasized during the polymerization step (acid-catalyzed), where the process is driven towards polymer formation by the removal (evaporation) of ethane diol.

  19. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaoyi, E-mail: yangxiaoyi@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, BeiHang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  20. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  1. Wettability and Impact Performance of Wood Veneer/Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayesteh Haghdan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites have been of interest since the 1940s due to their ease of use in processing, fast curing times, and high specific stiffness and strength. While the use of plant fibers in a polyester matrix has been thoroughly studied, only limited information is available regarding using wood as reinforcement. In this study, composites of thin wood veneer and a polyester matrix were made and the difficulties in the lamination and curing processes were investigated. Sheets of Douglas fir, maple, and oak veneers using a catalyzed polyester resin were assembled as unidirectional, balanced, and unbalanced cross-ply laminates. These were compared to control specimens using glass fiber as reinforcement. The impact properties of the samples, with respect to the laminate thicknesses, were characterized using a drop-weight impact tester. The wettability and surface roughness of unsanded and sanded wood veneers were also investigated. Results showed that Douglas fir cross-ply laminates had an impact energy equivalent to glass fiber laminates, making them an interesting alternative to synthetic fiber composites. Wood/polyester laminates absorbed a considerable amount of energy through a higher number of fracture modes. The balanced lay-up limited twisting of the wood/polyester composites. The lowest contact angle and highest wettability were observed in unsanded Douglas fir veneers.

  2. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  3. Aliphatic polyesters for medical imaging and theranostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottelet, Benjamin; Darcos, Vincent; Coudane, Jean

    2015-11-01

    Medical imaging is a cornerstone of modern medicine. In that context the development of innovative imaging systems combining biomaterials and contrast agents (CAs)/imaging probes (IPs) for improved diagnostic and theranostic applications focuses intense research efforts. In particular, the classical aliphatic (co)polyesters poly(lactide) (PLA), poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), attract much attention due to their long track record in the medical field. This review aims therefore at providing a state-of-the-art of polyester-based imaging systems. In a first section a rapid description of the various imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US) and radionuclide imaging (SPECT, PET) will be given. Then, the two main strategies used to combine the CAs/IPs and the polyesters will be discussed. In more detail we will first present the strategies relying on CAs/IPs encapsulation in nanoparticles, micelles, dendrimers or capsules. We will then present chemical modifications of polyesters backbones and/or polyester surfaces to yield macromolecular imaging agents. Finally, opportunities offered by these innovative systems will be illustrated with some recent examples in the fields of cell labeling, diagnostic or theranostic applications and medical devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hierarchical self-assembly, coassembly, and self-organization of novel liquid crystalline lattices and superlattices from a twin-tapered dendritic benzamide and its four-cylinder-bundle supramolecular polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percec, Virgil; Bera, Tushar K; Glodde, Martin; Fu, Qiongying; Balagurusamy, Venkatachalapathy S K; Heiney, Paul A

    2003-02-17

    The synthesis and structural analysis of the twin-dendritic benzamide 10, based on the first-generation, self-assembling, tapered dendrons 3,4,5-tris(4'-dodecyloxybenzyloxy)benzoic acid and 3,4,5-tris(4'-dodecyloxybenzyloxy)-1-aminobenzene, and the polymethacrylate, 20, which contains 10 as side groups, are presented. Benzamide 10 self-assembles into a supramolecular cylindrical dendrimer that self-organizes into a columnar hexagonal (Phi(h)) liquid crystalline (LC) phase. Polymer 20 self-assembles into an imperfect four-cylinder-bundle supramolecular dendrimer, and creates a giant vesicular supercylinder that self-organizes into a columnar nematic (N(c)) LC phase which displays short-range hexagonal order. In mixtures of 20 and 10, 10 acts as a guest and 20 as a host to create a perfect four-cylinder-bundle host-guest supramolecular dendrimer that coorganizes with 10. A diversity of Phi(h), simple rectangular columnar (Phi(r-s)) and centered rectangular columnar (Phi(r-c)), superlattices are produced at different ratios between 20 and 10. This diversity of LC lattices and superlattices is facilitated by the architecture of the twin-dendritic building block, polymethacrylate, the host-guest supramolecular assembly, and by hydrogen bonding along the center of the supramolecular cylinders generated from 10 and 20.

  5. Magnetically robust non-fermi liquid behavior due to the competition between crystalline-electric field singlet and Kondo-Yosida singlet in f2-based heavy fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Shinya; Matsuura, Hiroyasu; Miyake, Kazumasa

    2011-01-01

    In f 2 -based heavy fermion systems with a tetragonal symmetry, we investigate the magnetic field dependence of a non-fermi liquid (NFL) which arises related to the quantum critical point (QCP) due to the competition between the crystalline-electric field (CEF) singlet and the Kondo-Yosida singlet states. On the basis of the Wilson numerical renormalization group method, we find that the magnetic field less than a characteristic magnetic field H z * does not affect the characteristic temperature T F * at which the specific heat takes a maximum value. Since such H z * increases as the deviation from the QCP increases, slightly off the QCP, there are parameter regions where NFL behaviors are robust at an observable temperature range T > T F *against a magnetic field of up to H z * which is far larger than T F *. Our result suggests that such robust NFL behaviors can arise also in systems with other CEF symmetries; e.g., magnetically robust NFL behaviors observed in UBe 13 may be understood on this basis.

  6. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2015 and July 2016 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program. Los Alamos focused on two main activities during this period: Discrete fracture network (DFN) modeling to describe flow and radionuclide transport in complex fracture networks that are typical of crystalline rock environments, and a comprehensive interpretation of three different colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport experiments conducted in a fractured granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland between 2002 and 2013. Chapter 1 presents the results of the DFN work and is divided into three main sections: (1) we show results of our recent study on the correlation between fracture size and fracture transmissivity (2) we present an analysis and visualization prototype using the concept of a flow topology graph for characterization of discrete fracture networks, and (3) we describe the Crystalline International work in support of the Swedish Task Force. Chapter 2 presents interpretation of the colloidfacilitated radionuclide transport experiments in the crystalline rock at the Grimsel Test Site.

  7. Effective Interfacially Polymerized Polyester Solvent Resistant Nanofiltration Membrane from Bioderived Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Abdellah, Mohamed H.

    2018-05-18

    Utilization of sustainable and environmentally friendly solvents for the preparation of membranes has attracted growing interest in recent years. In this work, a polyester thin film composite solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) membrane is prepared by interfacial polymerization on a cellulose support. The cellulose support is prepared by nonsolvent‐induced phase separation from a dope solution containing an ionic liquid as an environmentally friendly solvent (negligible vapor pressure). The polyester film is formed via the interfacial reaction between quercetin, a plant‐derived polyphenol, and terephthaloyl chloride. Alpha‐pinene is used as a green alternative solvent to dissolve terephthaloyl chloride (TPC) while quercetin is dissolved in a 0.2 m NaOH solution. The interfacial polymerization reaction is successfully confirmed by Fourier transform infrared and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy while scanning electron and atomic force microscopy are used to characterize the membrane structure. The composite membrane shows an outstanding performance with a molecular weight cut‐off around 330 Da combined with a dimethylformamide (DMF) permeance up to 2.8 L m−2 bar−1 h−1. The membrane is stable in strong aprotic solvents such as DMF offering potential application in the pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries.

  8. Crystalline Silica Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1992-01-01

    Crystalline silica is the scientific name for a group of minerals composed of silicon and oxygen. The term crystalline refers to the fact that the oxygen and silicon atoms are arranged in a threedimensional repeating pattern. This group of minerals has shaped human history since the beginning of civilization. From the sand used for making glass to the piezoelectric quartz crystals used in advanced communication systems, crystalline silica has been a part of our technological development. Crystalline silica's pervasiveness in our technology is matched only by its abundance in nature. It's found in samples from every geologic era and from every location around the globe. Scientists have known for decades that prolonged and excessive exposure to crystalline silica dust in mining environments can cause silicosis, a noncancerous lung disease. During the 1980's, studies were conducted that suggested that crystalline silica also was a carcinogen. As a result of these findings, crystalline silica has been regulated under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard (HCS). Under HCS, OSHAregulated businesses that use materials containing 0.1% or more crystalline silica must follow Federal guidelines concerning hazard communication and worker training. Although the HCS does not require that samples be analyzed for crystalline silica, mineral suppliers or OSHAregulated

  9. What Is Crystalline Silica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and ceramic manufacturing and the tool and die, steel and foundry industries. Crystalline silica is used in manufacturing, household abrasives, adhesives, paints, soaps, and glass. Additionally, ...

  10. Obtaining polyester from glycerin for synthesis of polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breves, Rodolfo A.; Ghesti, Grace F.; Sales, Maria J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of renewable resources has been increasing, due to the development of materials that have viable applications that are environmentally friendly. In this paper, a polyester was synthesized from glycerin, with the addition of adipic acid in a molar ratio of 1: 1.5, with dilauryl tin catalyst, which was added in proportions of 1 to 3% obtained PUs from castor oil (Ricinus communis) and MDI (diphenyl methane diisocyanate). The materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance "1H NMR, thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG). The reaction for obtaining the polyester was confirmed by FTIR, the absorption band between 1708-1730 cm"-"1 and "1H NMR, in the region 1.4 to 1.8 ppm and 2.2 to 2.6 ppm. The thermal decomposition of polyester occurred with temperature above 300 ° C. PUs showed similar thermal stability. (author)

  11. Radiation flame proofing of polyester/cotton blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liepins, R.; Surles, J.R.; Morosoff, N.; Stannett, V.T.; Barker, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Methodology has been developed for the grafting of vinyl functional organobromide and organophosphorus compounds on polyester fibers and 50/50 PET/cotton fabric. Procedures were developed for localized grafting of vinyl bromide (VBr) and diethylvinylphosphonate (DEVP) upon PET fibers. Oxygen index was used to evaluate the effect of the location of VBr and DEVP within the filament upon their flame retardance efficiencies. For the various bromine homopolymer grafts the apparent thermal stability of the graft and its flame retardance efficiency may be related to the alpha aliphatic hydrogen to bromine ratio. Using results from the polyester studies, techniques were devised for the treatment of 50/50 polyester/ cotton fabrics. Both homopolymer and copolymer grafts were evaluated but the greatest degree of success was attained using mixtures of phosphorus and bromine containing monomers. The results of these studies will be reviewed and their implications for development as commercial textile treatments discussed. (author)

  12. Isothermal relaxation current and microstructure changes of thermally aged polyester films impregnated by epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiongwei; Sun, Potao; Peng, Qingjun; Sima, Wenxia

    2018-01-01

    In this study, to understand the effect of thermal aging on polymer films degradation, specimens of polyester films impregnated by epoxy resin with different thermal aging temperatures (80 and 130 °C) and aging times (500, 1600, 2400 and 3000 h) are prepared, then charge de-trapping properties of specimens are investigated via the isothermal relaxation current (IRC) measurement, the distributions of trap level and its corresponding density are obtained based on the modified IRC model. It is found that the deep trap density increases remarkably at the beginning of thermal aging (before 1600 h), but it decreases obviously as the aging degree increases. At elevated aging temperature and, in particular considering the presence of air gap between two-layer insulation, the peak densities of deep traps decrease more significant in the late period of aging. It can be concluded that it is the released energy from de-trapping process leads to the fast degradation of insulation. Moreover, after thermal aging, the microstructure changes of crystallinity and molecular structures are analyzed via the x-ray diffraction experiment and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The results indicate that the variation of the deep trap density is closely linked with the changes of microstructure, a larger interface of crystalline/amorphous phase, more defects and broken chains caused by thermal aging form higher deep trap density stored in the samples.

  13. Properties and performance of flax yarn/thermoplastic polyester composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Mehmood, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at demonstrating the potential of unidirectional natural fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites in structural applications, textile flax yarn/thermoplastic polyester composites with variable fiber volume fractions have been manufactured by a filament-winding process followed by a vacuum......-assisted compression molding process. The microstructure of the composites shows that the flax fiber yarns are well impregnated by the polyester matrix, and this supports the measured low porosity content of the composites. The experimental tensile modulus and ultimate tensile stress of the composites in the axial...

  14. Radiation cured polyester compositions containing metal-properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalińska, H.; Pietrzak, M.; Gonerski, A.

    The subject of the studies was unsaturated polyester resin, Polimal-109 and its compositions containing acrylates of: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, barium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and acrylic acid. Polyester resin modified with acrylic acid salts was cured with 60Co gamma radiation. Measurements of Vicat softening temperature, water absorption, creep current resistance, volume and surface resistivity, the tangent of dielectric loss angle and permittivity of radiation cured compositions were carried out. The results of the studies presented testify to the fact that the properties of cross-linked polymers alter after ionogenic compounds have been introduced into them.

  15. Radiation cured polyester compositions containing metal-properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalinska, H.; Pietrzak, M.; Gonerski, A.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of the studies was unsaturated polyester resin, Polimal-109 and its compositions containing acrylates of: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, barium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and acrylic acid. Polyester resin modified with acrylic acid salts was cured with 60 Co gamma radiation. Measurements of Vicat softening temperature, water absorption, creep current resistance, volume and surface resistivity, the tangent of dielectric loss angle and permittivity of radiation cured compositions were carried out. The results of the studies presented testify to the fact that the properties of cross-linked polymers alter after ionogenic compounds have been introduced into them. (author)

  16. Rewritable azobenzene polyester for polarization holographic data storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, A; Sajti, Sz.; Loerincz, Emoeke

    2000-01-01

    Optical storage properties of thin azobenzene side-chain polyester films were examined by polarization holographic measurements. The new amorphous polyester film is the candidate material for the purpose of rewritable holographic memory system. Temporal formation of anisotropic and topographic...... gratings was studied in case of films with and without a hard protective layer. We showed that the dominant contribution to the diffraction efficiency comes from the anisotropy in case of expositions below 1 sec even for high incident intensity. The usage of the same wavelength for writing, reading...

  17. Corrosion Protection Performance of Polyester-Melamine Coating with Natural Wood Fiber Using EIS Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, PyongHwa; Shon, MinYoung [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, DuHwan [POSCO, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, polyester-melamine coating systems with natural wood fiber (NWF) were prepared and the effects of NWF on the corrosion protectiveness of the polyester-melamine coating were examined using EIS analysis. From the results, higher average surface roughness was observed with increase of NWF content. Water diffusivity and water uptake into the polyester-melamine coatings with NWF were much higher than that into the pure polyester-melamine coating. The decrease in the impedance modulus |Z| was associated with the localized corrosion on carbon steel, confirming that corrosion protection of the polyester-melamine coatings with NWF well agrees with its water transport behavior.

  18. Chemical and enzymatic catalytic routes to polyesters and oligopeptides biobased materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianhui

    and physico-mechanical properties for two series of linear polyurethane elastomers built from polyol polyesters which contain bio-based o-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (o-HOC14) repeat units. Varied quantities of o-HOC14 was converted by a condensation polymerization catalyzed by titanium tetraisopropoxide (Ti[OiPr]4) to polyester polyol with Mn around 2K. By end-cap the polyols with excess amount of 1,4-butanediol, low number of carbonyl end group can be achieved so that the polyols can be further used as soft segment of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU). We have studied the thermo-mechanical properties of two-series polyurethanes with different polyester polyols or polyester polyols mixtures. With increasing amount of o-HOC14 content in the soft segment polyols of polyurethanes, tensile strength of the polyurethanes kept increasing from 30MPa to 470MPa while at the same time their elongation ratio decreased from 900% to 300%. Their mechanical behavior shifted from elastomer to semi-crystalline plastic. In the second section about polyether polyurethanes, PC14-OH and poly(tetrahydrofuran) mixtures were used as soft segment in linear polyurethane elastomer synthesis. Similar thermal and mechanical property changing trends were observed with increasing amount of PC14-OH up to 30 wt% of total soft segments. In this study, the functions of PC14-OH in thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers were identified, and there are several benefits of incorporating this long chain fatty acid. In the third study, seven amphiphilic alternating oligopeptides were synthesized via chemo-enzymatic routes. Four proteases (papain, bromelain, alpha-chymotrypsin, and trypsin) were evaluated to determine their efficiency in synthesizing alternating peptides. The first series is hydrophobic-anionic alternating oligopeptides targeting for self assembly smart material design. So far, beta-sheet secondary structure of the anionic alternating oligopeptides was not observed very clearly at low p

  19. The effect of peptides and ions interacting with an electrically neutral membrane interface on the structure and stability of lipid membranes in the liquid-crystalline phase and in the liquid-ordered phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Ryoko; Masum, Shah Md; Tanaka, Tomoki; Yamashita, Yuko; Levadny, Victor; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the effects of a de novo designed peptide, WLFLLKKK (peptide-1) and La3+, which can bind with the electrically neutral lipid membrane interface, on the stability of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) membrane in the Lα phase and that of the liquid-ordered (lo) phase membranes. The results of spacing of the multilamellar vesicle and shape changes of the giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) indicate that the peptide-1 can be partitioned into the membrane interface in the Lα phase but not into that in the lo phase. La3+ induced shape changes of GUVs of the lo phase membrane, which are the same as those of GUVs in the Lα phase. This indicates that the binding of La3+ induced an increase in the lateral compression pressure of the membrane, which decreased the surface area of the membrane in the lo phase. The difference of the membrane interface between the Lα phase and the lo phase is discussed.

  20. Effect of expanded graphite and PEI-co-Silicon Rubber on the thermo mechanical, morphological as well as rheological properties of in situ composites based on poly (ether imide) and liquid crystalline polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatui, Goutam, E-mail: hatui.goutam@gmail.com; Malas, Asish, E-mail: malasasish@gmail.com; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Dhibar, Saptarshi, E-mail: saptaaus2007@gmail.com; Kundu, Mrinal Kanti, E-mail: kanti.mrinal19@gmail.com; Kumar Das, Chapal, E-mail: chapal12@yahoo.co.in

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • PEI/LCP/ PEI-co-Silicon Rubber/EG and PEI/LCP/MWCNT nano composites are prepared by melt blending method. • The dispersions of acid modified expanded graphite were improved in presence of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. • Thermal stability was found to be highest for PLGC composite. • Storage modulus and Young’s modulus showed an upward trend with incorporation of only EG and EG in presence of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. • Among the nano composites PLGC has highest viscosity. - Abstract: Nanocomposites of polyether imide (PEI) and liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) with either MWCNT, Expanded Graphite (EG) or in combination of both EG and PEI-co-Silicon Rubber were prepared by melt blending process. The compatibility between the polymeric phases (PEI and LCP) was observed to be increased by the addition of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber while the only MWCNT added system (PLC) resulted in smaller LCP droplets. A continuous morphology was produced in presence of both PEI-co-Silicon Rubber and EG both added system (PLGR). This was due to the compatibilizing effect of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. FTIR analysis revealed interaction between PEI and LCP in presence of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. Remarkable increment of storage modulus was observed with the addition of EG and PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed better dispersion of multiple graphene layers of EG in presence of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber compatibilized system. Tensile and Young’s modulus both were highest for EG/ PEI-co-Silicon Rubber added system. This is due to flexible compatibilizing effect of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber which delayed the detachment of LCP domain from the PEI matrix and thus detains the fracture.

  1. Effect of expanded graphite and PEI-co-Silicon Rubber on the thermo mechanical, morphological as well as rheological properties of in situ composites based on poly (ether imide) and liquid crystalline polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatui, Goutam; Malas, Asish; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Dhibar, Saptarshi; Kundu, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar Das, Chapal

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PEI/LCP/ PEI-co-Silicon Rubber/EG and PEI/LCP/MWCNT nano composites are prepared by melt blending method. • The dispersions of acid modified expanded graphite were improved in presence of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. • Thermal stability was found to be highest for PLGC composite. • Storage modulus and Young’s modulus showed an upward trend with incorporation of only EG and EG in presence of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. • Among the nano composites PLGC has highest viscosity. - Abstract: Nanocomposites of polyether imide (PEI) and liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) with either MWCNT, Expanded Graphite (EG) or in combination of both EG and PEI-co-Silicon Rubber were prepared by melt blending process. The compatibility between the polymeric phases (PEI and LCP) was observed to be increased by the addition of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber while the only MWCNT added system (PLC) resulted in smaller LCP droplets. A continuous morphology was produced in presence of both PEI-co-Silicon Rubber and EG both added system (PLGR). This was due to the compatibilizing effect of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. FTIR analysis revealed interaction between PEI and LCP in presence of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. Remarkable increment of storage modulus was observed with the addition of EG and PEI-co-Silicon Rubber. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed better dispersion of multiple graphene layers of EG in presence of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber compatibilized system. Tensile and Young’s modulus both were highest for EG/ PEI-co-Silicon Rubber added system. This is due to flexible compatibilizing effect of PEI-co-Silicon Rubber which delayed the detachment of LCP domain from the PEI matrix and thus detains the fracture

  2. Scanning electron microscope investigations of nuclear pore filters in polyester foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopfe, J.

    1980-01-01

    In order to understand and characterize the action of nuclear pore filters it is necessary to know their surface, as well as their bulk, structure. In the present work, investigations of the surface structure (pore size, pore density, pore distribution) and of the pore geometry, especially in the bulk of the filters, are carried out by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies. The preparation technique needed is liquid-nitrogen freeze-fracturing followed by a conductive-coating step. Nuclear pore filters studied in this paper were produced by a track etching technique. Laboratory specimens were obtained by bombarding 10 μm thick polyester foils with Xe-ions and a subsequent etching with 20% NaOH. The SEM results are shown and discussed. (author)

  3. Plasma treatment of polyester fabric to impart the water repellency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    test method 39 (1971). ... pilot production line [7]. It is found that prior .... experiment was set up for testing the absorbancy of modified polyester fabric as in case of .... New Delhi for providing the research grant under TAPTEC scheme. We are ...

  4. Modification of unsaturated polyester resins using nano-size core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modification of unsaturated polyester resins using nano-size core-shell particles. MO Munyati, PA Lovell. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Science and Technology Special Edition 2004: 24-31. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. Photoinduced Circular Anisotropy in Side-Chain Azobenzene Polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Todorov, T.; Ivanov, M.

    1997-01-01

    We report for the first time the inducing of large circular anisotropy in previously unoriented films of side-chain azobenzene polyesters on illumination with circularly polarized light at a wavelength of 488 nm. The circular dichroism and optical activity are measured simultaneously in real time...

  6. Design of Functional Polyesters for Electronic and Biological Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Ashley Marie

    2015-01-01

    Melt polymerization and novel monomers enabled the synthesis of polyesters for electronic and biological applications. Inspiration from nature and a passion for environmental preservation instigated an emphasis on the incorporation of renewable resources into polymeric materials. Critical analysis of current research surrounding bisphenol-A replacements and ioncontaining segmented polyurethanes aided in identifying benchmark polymers, including limitations, challenges, and future needs. Struc...

  7. Highly Branched Bio-Based Unsaturated Polyesters by Enzymatic Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiep Dinh Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A one-pot, enzyme-catalyzed bulk polymerization method for direct production of highly branched polyesters has been developed as an alternative to currently used industrial procedures. Bio-based feed components in the form of glycerol, pentaerythritol, azelaic acid, and tall oil fatty acid (TOFA were polymerized using an immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB and the potential for an enzymatic synthesis of alkyds was investigated. The developed method enables the use of both glycerol and also pentaerythritol (for the first time as the alcohol source and was found to be very robust. This allows simple variations in the molar mass and structure of the polyester without premature gelation, thus enabling easy tailoring of the branched polyester structure. The postpolymerization crosslinking of the polyesters illustrates their potential as binders in alkyds. The formed films had good UV stability, very high water contact angles of up to 141° and a glass transition temperature that could be controlled through the feed composition.

  8. Liquid crystalline networks for electroluminescent displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contoret, A.E.A.

    2001-09-01

    This work presents the first low molar mass organic electroluminescent (EL) material to form a nematic glass and then emit plane-polarised light from the vitrified state on application of an electric field. Photocrosslinkable molecules are also discussed which form insoluble films on illumination with ultra-violet light. This approach combines the ease of deposition of small molecules with the robustness and stability of polymers, allowing simple fabrication of multi-layer EL devices and photo-patterning. A range of conjugated low molar-mass molecules are considered, containing the anthracene, perylene and fluorene cores, with the aims of producing a general recipe for efficient EL, based on ordered, stable nematics at room temperature. Many physical properties are compared and molecular mechanics modeling is used to represent molecular geometries. An acrylate and several diene photo-polymerisable derivatives of the fluorenes undergo photo-crosslinking. Infrared and photoluminescence spectroscopy is used to examine crosslinking in detail and to optimise exposure conditions. The diene shows no significant degradation for an optimal exposure, but requires a high fluence of 100 Jcm -2 to form an insoluble film. A doped photo-alignment layer is used for the first time to obtain polarised El with ratio 11:1 and 80 cdm -2 brightness from the crosslinked diene. The insoluble crosslinked network allows spin coating of an electron transporting over-layer, resulting in increased brightness. Complex impedance spectroscopy and time of flight measurements confirm good material properties with complete depletion of the crosslinkable diene molecule and non-dispersive conduction. Finally, a novel deposition technique, pulsed laser deposition (PLD), is presented, as an alternative to spin coating or vapour deposition. Minimal degradation is observed for optimised deposition conditions and a PLD film is successfully demonstrated in an EL device. (author)

  9. Synthesis and characterization of thermotropic liquid crystalline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, due to the absence of branching in diamine-based mesogen, the structure has—rigidity inversely ... (Model: Spectrum GX and serial number: 69229). Number ..... logical applications, micro-rheological study on fully exfoli-.

  10. Molecular Engineering of Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-27

    Szasz , N. Sheppard and D. H. Rank, J. Chem. Phys., 1948, 16..704 119. P. B. Woller and E. W. Garbisch, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1972, 94, 53 10 120. A. L...schematic representation of a sanidic (from Greek for boardlike) mesophase.202 Figure 15. a) Layer spacing d calculated according to Bragg’s law

  11. The effect of peptides and ions interacting with an electrically neutral membrane interface on the structure and stability of lipid membranes in the liquid-crystalline phase and in the liquid-ordered phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Ryoko [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Masum, Shah Md [Material Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shizuoka University, 422-8529 (Japan); Tanaka, Tomoki [Material Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shizuoka University, 422-8529 (Japan); Yamashita, Yuko [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Levadny, Victor [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Scientific Council for Cybernetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov street 34, 333117, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yamazaki, Masahito [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Material Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shizuoka University, 422-8529 (Japan)

    2005-08-10

    We investigated the effects of a de novo designed peptide, WLFLLKKK (peptide-1) and La{sup 3+}, which can bind with the electrically neutral lipid membrane interface, on the stability of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) membrane in the L{sub {alpha}} phase and that of the liquid-ordered (lo) phase membranes. The results of spacing of the multilamellar vesicle and shape changes of the giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) indicate that the peptide-1 can be partitioned into the membrane interface in the L{sub {alpha}} phase but not into that in the lo phase. La{sup 3+} induced shape changes of GUVs of the lo phase membrane, which are the same as those of GUVs in the L{sub {alpha}} phase. This indicates that the binding of La{sup 3+} induced an increase in the lateral compression pressure of the membrane, which decreased the surface area of the membrane in the lo phase. The difference of the membrane interface between the L{sub {alpha}} phase and the lo phase is discussed.

  12. The effect of peptides and ions interacting with an electrically neutral membrane interface on the structure and stability of lipid membranes in the liquid-crystalline phase and in the liquid-ordered phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Ryoko; Masum, Shah Md; Tanaka, Tomoki; Yamashita, Yuko; Levadny, Victor; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a de novo designed peptide, WLFLLKKK (peptide-1) and La 3+ , which can bind with the electrically neutral lipid membrane interface, on the stability of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) membrane in the L α phase and that of the liquid-ordered (lo) phase membranes. The results of spacing of the multilamellar vesicle and shape changes of the giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) indicate that the peptide-1 can be partitioned into the membrane interface in the L α phase but not into that in the lo phase. La 3+ induced shape changes of GUVs of the lo phase membrane, which are the same as those of GUVs in the L α phase. This indicates that the binding of La 3+ induced an increase in the lateral compression pressure of the membrane, which decreased the surface area of the membrane in the lo phase. The difference of the membrane interface between the L α phase and the lo phase is discussed

  13. Dyeing of Polyester with Disperse Dyes: Part 2. Synthesis and Dyeing Characteristics of Some Azo Disperse Dyes for Polyester Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alya M. Al-Etaibi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to utilize carrier for accelerating the rate of dyeing not only to enhance dyeing of polyester fabrics dyed with disperse dyes 3a,b, but also to save energy. Both the color strength expressed as dye uptake and the fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were evaluated.

  14. Polyester textile functionalization through incorporation of pH/thermo-responsive microgels. Part II: polyester functionalization and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glampedaki, P.; Calvimontes, A.; Dutschk, Victoria; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2012-01-01

    A new approach to functionalize the surface of polyester textiles is described in this study. Functionalization was achieved by incorporating pH/temperature-responsive polyelectrolyte microgels into the textile surface layer using UV irradiation. The aim of functionalization was to regulate

  15. Crystalline color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Bowers, Jeffrey A.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2001-01-01

    In any context in which color superconductivity arises in nature, it is likely to involve pairing between species of quarks with differing chemical potentials. For suitable values of the differences between chemical potentials, Cooper pairs with nonzero total momentum are favored, as was first realized by Larkin, Ovchinnikov, Fulde, and Ferrell (LOFF). Condensates of this sort spontaneously break translational and rotational invariance, leading to gaps which vary periodically in a crystalline pattern. Unlike the original LOFF state, these crystalline quark matter condensates include both spin-zero and spin-one Cooper pairs. We explore the range of parameters for which crystalline color superconductivity arises in the QCD phase diagram. If in some shell within the quark matter core of a neutron star (or within a strange quark star) the quark number densities are such that crystalline color superconductivity arises, rotational vortices may be pinned in this shell, making it a locus for glitch phenomena

  16. Assessment of the radiation resistance of some aromatic polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.J.; Hill, D.J.T.; Kim, K.Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: For many applications, polyesters have more useful properties than vinyl polymers, and they can be degraded to their monomer components and recycled. In addition, aromatic polyesters are known to display a resistance to high temperatures and high-energy ionizing radiation. Recently, we have reported the γ-radiolysis for some aromatic polyesters at low radiation dose; The G-values of radical formation at 77 K were determined to be in the range 0.38∼0.46 for the polyesters of bisphenol A with fluorine substitution at isopropylidene units and in the range 0.71∼1.18 for the polyesters of halogenated bisphenol A with decamethylene segments. While the radiation sensitivities of the latter polymers were dependent on the position and content of halogen substitution, those of the former polymers were slightly dependent on these factors as assessed by the G-values at 77 K. We also have studied the radiolysis of the commercial aromatic polyesters (UP) and polycarbonate (PC). UP has been found to be more radiation stable than PC with respect to the total yield of radicals formed. The G-values for radical formation at 77K was determined to be 0.31 and 0.5 for UP and PC, respectively. In this work, we have prepared poly(ethylene-, butylene- or decalene-terephthalate)s (PET, PBT or PDT) and poly(ethylene-, buthylene- or decalene-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate)s (PEN, PBN or PDN) by standard melt polymerization methods, and have examined their γ-radiolysis at 77 K or room temperature, and in vacuum or air, through the applications of ESR spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Inherent viscosities of the polyesters used for the radiation studies were in the range of 0.16∼0.69 dL/g. The values of G(R) indicates that PEN-related polymers have more radiation stable than PET-related polymers and the E, B and D order is one of decreasing stability as one might expect. The significant decrease in the G(R)-values of the polyester being in the range of 0.1∼0.41 at 77 K by

  17. Effects of Alkali Treatment and Polyisocyanate Crosslinking on the Mechanical Properties of Kraft Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Gao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of alkali treatment and polyisocyanate crosslinking on the mechanical properties of kraft fiber-reinforced UPE composites were investigated by means of tensile evaluation, SEM analysis, and XRD analysis. The results indicated that the alkali treatment decreased the tensile strength of the prepared composite before aging from 121 MPa to 97 MPa due to the decreased degree of crystallinity of the alkali-treated kraft fiber. Polyisocyanate crosslinking could apparently improve the mechanical properties and stability in terms of a 43% increase of non-aged tensile strength and 52% increase of hydrothermal-aged tensile strength compared with the controlled composite without crosslinking modification, which was attributable to the formation of strong chemical bonding between the interfaces of kraft fiber and polyester.

  18. Isohexide and Sorbitol-Derived, Enzymatically Synthesized Renewable Polyesters with Enhanced Tg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustini, Liliana; Lavilla, Cristina; de Ilarduya, Antxon Martínez; Muñoz-Guerra, Sebastián; Koning, Cor E

    2016-10-10

    Sugar-based polyesters derived from sorbitol and isohexides were obtained via solvent-free enzymatic catalysis. Pendant hydroxyl groups, coming from the sorbitol units, were present along the polyester backbone, whereas the two isohexides, namely, isomannide and isoidide dimethyl ester monomers, were selected to introduce rigidity into the polyester chains. The feasibility of incorporating isomannide as a diol compared to the isoidide dimethyl ester as acyl-donor via lipase-catalyzed polycondensation was investigated. The presence of bicyclic units resulted in enhanced T g with respect to the parent sorbitol-containing polyester lacking isohexides. The different capability of the two isohexides to boost the thermal properties confirmed the more flexible character provided by the isoidide diester derivative. Solvent-borne coatings were prepared by cross-linking the sugar-based polyester polyols with polyisocyanates. The increased rigidity of the obtained sugar-based polyester polyols led to an enhancement in hardness of the resulting coatings.

  19. Dissolution of crystalline ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    The present program objectives are to lay out the fundamentals of crystalline waste form dissolution. Nuclear waste ceramics are polycrystalline. An assumption of the work is that to the first order, the release rate of a particular radionuclide is the surface-weighted sum of the release rates of the radionuclide from each crystalline form that contains it. In the second order, of course, there will be synergistic effects. There will be also grain boundary and other microstructural influences. As a first approximation, we have selected crystalline phases one at a time. The sequence of investigations and measurements is: (i) Identification of the actual chemical reactions of dissolution including identification of the solid reaction products if such occur. (ii) The rates of these reactions are then determined empirically to give what may be called macroscopic kinetics. (iii) Determination of the rate-controlling mechanisms. (iv) If the rate is controlled by surface reactions, the final step would be to determine the atomic kinetics, that is the specific atomic reactions that occur at the dissolving interface. Our concern with the crystalline forms are in two areas: The crystalline components of the reference ceramic waste form and related ceramics and the alumino-silicate phases that appear in some experimental waste forms and as waste-rock interaction products. Specific compounds are: (1) Reference Ceramic Phases (zirconolite, magnetoplumbite, spinel, Tc-bearing spinel and perovskite); (2) Aluminosilicate phases (nepheline, pollucite, CsAlSi 5 O 12 , Sr-feldspar). 5 figures, 1 table

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance structure investigations on crosslinked polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobelny, J.

    1999-01-01

    Styrene-crosslinked mixed polyesters derived from maleic anhydride, 2,2-di(4-hydroxypropoxyphenyl)propane, oligo(propylene oxide) and 1,2-propylene glycol were investigated by high-resolution solid-state 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The structural modifications accompanying crosslinking were characterized in terms of spin-lattice relaxation times as a function of unsaturated polyester composition. Copolymerization and crosslinking effects were individually evaluated and the latter effect was related to variations in crosslinking density associated with the chemical structure of the unsaturated prepolymer. As the crosslinking effect is suppressed, the mechanical properties undergo expected changes, e.g., impact strength is increased and modulus of elasticity in tension is decreased. (author)

  1. Neutron shielding performance of water-extended polyester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega Carrillo, H.R.; Manzanares-Acuna, E.; Hernandez-Davila, V.M.; Vega Carrillo, H.R.; Hernandez-Davila, V.M.; Gallego, E.; Lorente, A.

    2006-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study to determine the shielding features to neutrons of water-extended polyester (WEP) was carried out. Materials with low atomic number are predominantly used for neutron shielding because these materials effectively attenuate neutrons, mainly through elastic and inelastic collisions. In addition to neutron attenuation properties, other desirable properties for neutron shielding materials include mechanical strength, stability, low cost, and ease of handling. During the selection of materials to design a neutron shield, prompt gamma production as well as radionuclide induced by neutron activation must be considered. In this investigation the Monte Carlo method (MCNP code) was used to evaluate the performance of a water-extended polyester shield designed for the transportation, storage, and use of a 252 Cf isotopic neutron source, for comparison the calculations were extended to water shielding, the bare source in vacuum and in air. (authors)

  2. Neutron shielding performance of water-extended polyester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega Carrillo, H.R.; Manzanares-Acuna, E.; Hernandez-Davila, V.M.; Vega Carrillo, H.R.; Gallegoc, E.; Lorentec, A.; Hernandez-Davila, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study to determine the shielding features to neutrons of water-extended polyester was carried out. Materials with low atomic number are predominantly used for neutron shielding because these materials effectively attenuate neutrons, mainly through elastic and inelastic collisions. In addition to neutron attenuation properties, other desirable properties for neutron shielding materials include mechanical strength, stability, low cost, and ease of handling. During the selection of materials to design a neutron shield, prompt gamma production as well as radionuclide induced by neutron activation must be considered. In this investigation the Monte Carlo method (M.C.N.P. code) was used to evaluate the performance of a water-extended polyester shield designed for the transportation, storage, and use of a 252 Cf isotopic neutron source, for comparison the calculations were extended to water shielding, the bare source in vacuum and in air. (authors)

  3. Neutron shielding performance of water-extended polyester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Carrillo, H.R.; Manzanares-Acuna, E.; Hernandez-Davila, V.M. [Zacatecas Univ. Autonoma, Nuclear Studies (Mexico); Vega Carrillo, H.R.; Hernandez-Davila, V.M. [Zacatecas Univ. Autonoma, Electric Engineering Academic Units (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A. [Madrid Univ. Politecnica, cNuclear Engineering Department (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    A Monte Carlo study to determine the shielding features to neutrons of water-extended polyester (WEP) was carried out. Materials with low atomic number are predominantly used for neutron shielding because these materials effectively attenuate neutrons, mainly through elastic and inelastic collisions. In addition to neutron attenuation properties, other desirable properties for neutron shielding materials include mechanical strength, stability, low cost, and ease of handling. During the selection of materials to design a neutron shield, prompt gamma production as well as radionuclide induced by neutron activation must be considered. In this investigation the Monte Carlo method (MCNP code) was used to evaluate the performance of a water-extended polyester shield designed for the transportation, storage, and use of a {sup 252}Cf isotopic neutron source, for comparison the calculations were extended to water shielding, the bare source in vacuum and in air. (authors)

  4. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that fiber orientations greatly affected the ultimate tensile strength but it is not for modulus of elasticity for both types of layers. It is estimated that the reductions of both ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus are in the range of 27.7-30.9% and 2.4-3.7% respectively, if the inclined fibers are used with respect to the principal axis.

  5. Procedure for the fabrication of a cross-linked polyester material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alelio, G.F.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures are described for the production of a cross-linked polyester material by means of the irradiation of a radiosensitive polyester with a dose of over 0.5 megarad and under 8 megarads high energy, ionising radiation, corresponding to at least 100,000 ev. The polyester is of the telomerised diacrylpolyester type, and may be in a mixture containing about 1% of a coplymerisable aliphatic monomer, or about 30-90% of an unsaturated aliphatic alkyd resin. (JIW)

  6. Highly Branched Bio-Based Unsaturated Polyesters by Enzymatic Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hiep Dinh; Löf, David; Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    A one-pot, enzyme-catalyzed bulk polymerization method for direct production of highly branched polyesters has been developed as an alternative to currently used industrial procedures. Bio-based feed components in the form of glycerol, pentaerythritol, azelaic acid, and tall oil fatty acid (TOFA)...... stability, very high water contact angles of up to 141° and a glass transition temperature that could be controlled through the feed composition....

  7. A study on influence of borax to polyester insulators

    OpenAIRE

    ERSOY, Aysel; KUNTMAN, Ayten

    2014-01-01

    In this study the effect of borax on polyester insulators is investigated by evaluating the tracking and erosion resistance using the inclined plane test. The test procedure follows the ASTM D2303 standard. During the test, 50 Hz current was acquired from the ground electrode allowing a sampling rate of 48000 samples per second. The effect of borax concentration on the glass transition and the degradation temperature is studied by employing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) an...

  8. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattices, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. This book is divided into three parts. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. In the third part, the multi-electron system is discussed theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for the superconducting state in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and examined in-depth. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States is an introductory treatise and textbook on meso...

  9. Structure, mechanical and thermal behaviour of mixtures of polyester resin and dental ceramic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Rodríguez, G.; Martínez Maldonado, L.; Dulce Moreno, H. J.

    2016-02-01

    The tensile strength and bending strength, structure and thermal behaviour of mixtures of polyester resin (P-2000) and powders (ASTM sieve 200, dental ceramic wastes (dentals impressions, alginate and gypsum) was reported. The samples consisted of mixtures with percentage weights of 50-50%, 60-40%, 70-30%, 80-20%, 90-10%, where the resin was the majority phase, the Mekc (4% wt) was used as catalyst. The structure was studied using SEM and XRD, the thermal behaviour using DSC, TGA and DMA, while the mechanical strength was tested using standards ASTM D790 and D638. Irregular morphology and presence of small agglomerations was observed, with particle sizes between 29.63 and 38.67μm, the presence of different phases of calcium sulphate was found, and that to the increasing the concentration of the powder, the materials becomes more crystalline, increasing its density. An average service temperature of 69.15±4.60°C was found. Vickers hardness values are reported in ranges from 18.65 to 27.96. Considering the elastic modules was established that the materials become more rigid by having more powder concentration.

  10. Improvement of interaction between pre-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes and unsaturated polyester resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, M. D. H., E-mail: dhbeg@yahoo.com; Moshiul Alam, A. K. M., E-mail: akmmalam@gmail.com; Yunus, R. M. [Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering (Malaysia); Mina, M. F. [Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Department of Physics (Bangladesh)

    2015-01-15

    Efforts are being given to the development of well-dispersed nanoparticle-reinforced polymer nanocomposites in order to tailor the material properties. In this perspective, well dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) was prepared using pre-dispersed MWCNTs in tetrahydrofuran solvent with ultrasonication method. Then the well-dispersed MWCNTs reinforced UPR nanocomposites were fabricated through solvent evaporation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicates a good interaction between matrix and MWCNTs. This along with homogeneous dispersion of nanotubes in matrix has been confirmed by the field emission scanning electron microscopy. At low shear rate, the value of viscosity of UPR is 8,593 mPa s and that of pre-dispersed MWCNT–UPR suspension is 43,491 mPa s, showing implicitly a good dispersion of nanotubes. A notable improvement in the crystallinity of UPR from 14 to 21 % after MWCNTs inclusion was observed by X-ray diffractometry. The mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, impact strength, and elongation-at-break, of nanocomposite were found to be increased to 22, 20, 28, and 87 %, respectively. The estimated melting enthalpy per gram for composites as analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry is higher than that of UPR. The onset temperature of thermal decomposition in the nanocomposites as monitored by thermogravimetric analysis is found higher than that of UPR. Correlations among MWCNTs dispersion, nucleation, fracture morphology, and various properties were measured and reported.

  11. Magnesium Coated Bioresorbable Phosphate Glass Fibres: Investigation of the Interface between Fibre and Polyester Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioresorbable phosphate glass fibre reinforced polyester composites have been investigated as replacement for some traditional metallic orthopaedic implants, such as bone fracture fixation plates. However, composites tested revealed loss of the interfacial integrity after immersion within aqueous media which resulted in rapid loss of mechanical properties. Physical modification of fibres to change fibre surface morphology has been shown to be an effective method to improve fibre and matrix adhesion in composites. In this study, biodegradable magnesium which would gradually degrade to Mg2+ in the human body was deposited via magnetron sputtering onto bioresorbable phosphate glass fibres to obtain roughened fibre surfaces. Fibre surface morphology after coating was observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The roughness profile and crystalline texture of the coatings were determined via atomic force microscope (AFM and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, respectively. The roughness of the coatings was seen to increase from 40±1 nm to 80±1 nm. The mechanical properties (tensile strength and modulus of fibre with coatings decreased with increased magnesium coating thickness.

  12. Acetalised Galactarate Polyesters: Interplay between Chemical Structure and Polymerisation Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Gavrila

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the progress that has made so far in the recent years regarding the synthesis of bio-based polymers and in particular polyesters, only few references address the optimisation of these new reactions with respect to conversion and reaction time. Related to this aspect, we here describe the transesterification reaction of two different acetalised galactarate esters with a model aliphatic diol, 1,6-hexanediol. The kinetics of these two apparently similar reactions is compared, with a focus on the conversion while varying the concentration of a di-butyltin oxide catalyst (DBTO, respectively, the used N2 flow-rate. During the first stage of polymerisation, the molecular weight of the end-products is more than doubled when using a 250 mL/min flow as opposed to an almost static N2 pressure. Additionally, the resulted pre-polymers are subjected to further polycondensation and the comparison between the obtained polyesters is extended to their thermal, mechanical and dielectrical characterisation. The influence of the acetal groups on the stability of the polyesters in acidic conditions concludes the study.

  13. Mechanical Characterization of Cotton Fiber/Polyester Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Hussain Rajper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of composite from natural fiber for lower structural application is growing for long-term sustainable perspective. Cotton fiber composite material has the added advantages of high specific strength, corrosion resistance, low cost and low weight compared to glass fiber on the expense of internal components of IC engines. The primary aim of the research study is to examine the effect of the cotton fiber on mechanical properties of lower structural applications when added with the polyester resin. In this paper composite material sample has been prepared by hand Lay-Up process. A mould is locally developed in the laboratory for test sample preparation. Initially samples of polyester resin with appropriate ratio of the hardener were developed and tested. At the second stage yarns of cotton fiber were mixed with the polyester resin and sample specimens were developed and tested. Relative effect of the cotton as reinforcing agent was examined and observed that developed composite specimen possess significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile strength was improved as 19.78 % and modulus of elasticity was increased up to 24.81%. Through this research it was also observed that developed composite material was of ductile nature and its density decreases up to 2.6%. Results from this study were compared with relevant available advanced composite materials and found improved mechanical properties of developed composite material

  14. Effect of nanomodified polyester resin on hybrid sandwich laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbusagar, NRR.; Giridharan, P.K.; Palanikumar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of nanomodified polyester resin on hybrid sandwich laminates is evaluated. • The hybrid sandwich laminates are fabricated with varying wt% of nanoclay. • Flexural, impact and moisture absorbtion properties are evaluated for hybrid composites. • Scanning electron microscopy is utilized to analyze the dispersion of clay and fractured surfaces of the nanocomposites. - Abstract: Effect of nanoclay modified polyester resin on flexural, impact, hardness and water absorption properties of untreated woven jute and glass fabric hybrid sandwich laminates have been investigated experimentally. The hybrid sandwich laminates are prepared by hand lay-up manufacturing technique (HL) for investigation. All hybrid sandwich laminates are fabricated with a total of 10 layers, by varying the extreme layers and wt% of nanoclay in polyester resin so as to obtain four different combinations of hybrid sandwich laminates. For comparison of the composite with hybrid composite, jute fiber reinforced composite laminate also fabricated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results obtained from samples with nanoclay indicated that intergallery spacing of the layered clay increases with matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a morphological picture of the cross-sections and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) allowed investigating the elemental composition of matrix in composites. The testing results indicated that the flexural properties are greatly increased at 4% of nanoclay loading while impact, hardness and water absorption properties are increased at 6% of nanoclay loading. A plausible explanation for high increase of properties has also been discussed

  15. Thermal Degradation Mechanism of a Thermostable Polyester Stabilized with an Open-Cage Oligomeric Silsesquioxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Bautista

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A polyester composite was prepared through the polymerization of an unsaturated ester resin with styrene and an open-cage oligomeric silsesquioxane with methacrylate groups. The effect of the open-cage oligomeric silsesquioxane on the thermal stability of the thermostable polyester was studied using both thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. The results showed that the methacryl oligomeric silsesquioxane improved the thermal stability of the polyester. The decomposition mechanism of the polyester/oligomer silsesquioxane composite was proposed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis of the volatiles.

  16. Blends of polyester ionomers with polar polymers: Interactions, reactions, and compatibilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Timothy Lamar

    The compatibility of amorphous and semicrystalline polyester ionomers with various polar polymers (i.e., polyesters and polyamides) has been investigated for their potential use as minor component compatibilizers. The degree of compatibility (i.e., ranging from incompatible to miscible) between the polyester ionomers and the polar polymers was determined by evaluating the effect of blend composition on the melting behavior and phase behavior of binary blends. In addition, the origin of compatibility and/or incompatibility for each of the binary blends (i.e., polyamide/ionomer and polyester/ionomer) was determined by evaluating blends prepared by both solution and melt mixed methods. Subsequent to investigation of the binary blends, the effect of polyester ionomer addition on the compatibility of polyamide/polyester blends was investigated by evaluating the mechanical properties and phase morphology of ionomer compatibilized polyamide/polyester blends. Polyester ionomers (amorphous and semicrystalline) were shown to exhibit a high degree of compatibility (even miscibility) with polyamides, such as nylon 6,6 (N66). Compatibility was attributed to specific interactions between the metal counterion of the polyester ionomer and the amide groups of N66. The degree of compatibility (or miscibility) was shown to be dependent on the counterion type of the ionomer, with the highest degree exhibited by blends containing the divalent form of the polyester ionomers. Although polyester ionomers were shown to exhibit incompatibility with both poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), increasing the time of melt processing significantly enhanced the compatibility of the polyester ionomers with both PET and PBT. The observed enhancement in compatibility was attributed to ester-ester interchange between the polyester blend components, which was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. The addition of polyester ionomers as a minor component compatibilizer (i

  17. Characterizing the sorption of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to cotton and polyester fabrics under controlled conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Amandeep [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Rauert, Cassandra [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Simpson, Myrna J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Harrad, Stuart [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Diamond, Miriam L., E-mail: miriam.diamond@utoronto.ca [Department of Earth Sciences, 22 Russell Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3B1 (Canada); Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-09-01

    Cotton and polyester, physically and chemically different fabrics, were characterized for sorption of gas-phase polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images and BET specific surface area (BET-SSA) analysis showed cotton's high microsurface area; NMR analysis showed richness of hexose- and aromatic-carbon in cotton and polyester, respectively. Cotton and polyester sorbed similar concentrations of gas-phase PBDEs in chamber studies, when normalized to planar surface area. However, polyester concentrations were 20–50 times greater than cotton when normalized to BET-SSA, greater than the 10 times difference in BET-SSA. The difference in sorption between cotton and polyester is hypothesized to be due to ‘dilution’ due to cotton's large BET-SSA and/or greater affinity of PBDEs for aromatic-rich polyester. Similar fabric-air area normalized distribution coefficients (K'{sub D}, 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m) for cotton and polyester support air-side controlled uptake under non-equilibrium conditions. K'{sub D} values imply that 1 m{sup 2} of cotton or polyester fabrics would sorb gas-phase PBDEs present in 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of equivalent air volume at room temperature over one week, assuming similar air flow conditions. Sorption of PBDEs to fabrics has implications for their fate indoors and human exposure. - Highlights: • Sorption of gas-phase PBDEs by cotton and polyester fabrics • Similar sorption to cotton and polyester per unit planar surface area • Greater sorption by polyester/BET-SSA; cotton's dilution or polyester’s affinity • 1 m{sup 2} fabric sorbs PBDEs in 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of equivalent air volume • Clothing likely a large indoor sink of PBDEs and influence human exposure.

  18. Attenuation of Thermal Neutrons by Crystalline Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Habib, N.; Ashry, A.; Fathalla, M.

    2002-01-01

    A simple formula is given which allows to calculate the contribution of the total neutron cross - section including the Bragg scattering from different (hkt) planes to the neutron * transmission through a solid crystalline silicon. The formula takes into account the silicon form of poly or mono crystals and its parameters. A computer program DSIC was developed to provide the required calculations. The calculated values of the total neutron cross-section of perfect silicon crystal at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures were compared with the experimental ones. The obtained agreement shows that the simple formula fits the experimental data with sufficient accuracy .A good agreement was also obtained between the calculated and measured values of polycrystalline silicon in the energy range from 5 eV to 500μ eV. The feasibility study on using a poly-crystalline silicon as a cold neutron filter and mono-crystalline as a thermal neutron one is given. The optimum crystal thickness, mosaic spread, temperature and cutting plane for efficiently transmitting the thermal reactor neutrons, while rejecting both fast neutrons and gamma rays accompanying the thermal ones for the mono crystalline silicon are also given

  19. Reactive distillation: an attractive alternative for the synthesis of unsaturated polyester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, M.R.; Zondervan, E.; Oudshoorn, M.L.; Haan, de A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Unsaturated polyester is traditionally produced in a batch wise operating reaction vessel connected to a distillation unit. An attractive alternative for the synthesis of unsaturated polyester is a reactive distillation. To value such alternative synthesis route reliable process models need to be

  20. Prevention of primary vascular graft infection with silver-coated polyester graft in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, H; Sandermann, J; Prag, J

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model.......To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model....

  1. Sustainable coatings from bio-based, enzymatically synthesized polyesters with enhanced functionalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustini, L.; Lavilla, C.; Finzel, L.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Hendrix, M.M.R.M.; Koning, C.E.

    2016-01-01

    Bio-based sorbitol-containing polyester polyols were synthesized via enzymatic polycondensation. The selectivity of the biocatalyst for primary vs. secondary hydroxyl groups allowed for the preparation of close to linear renewable polyester polyols with enhanced hydroxyl functionalities, both as

  2. Life-cycle assessment of textiles manufacture of polyester shirt (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman, Samer; Peter, Oduro Justice; Hassan, Osama

    1998-01-01

    According to the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products), It is made possible to perform resource and environmental profile analysis of the 100% polyester shirt. In order to understand the true life-cycle consequences, life-cycle analysis of a typical 100% polyester shirt was carried out...

  3. 76 FR 58040 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably...

  4. 76 FR 11268 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... Korea and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews pursuant to... the antidumping duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan would be likely to...

  5. Crystalline structure of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holas, A.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt is made to find the crystalline structure of metals on the basis of the existing theory of metals. The considerations are limited to the case of free crystals, that is, not subjected to any stresses and with T=0. The energy of the crystal lattice has been defined and the dependence of each term on structures and other properties of metals has been described. The energy has been used to find the values of crystalline structure parameters as the values at which the energy has an absolute minimum. The stability of the structure has been considered in cases of volume changes and shearing deformations. A semiqualitative description has been obtained which explains characteristic properties of one-electron metals. (S.B.)

  6. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattice, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. New to this edition is the examination of magnetic crystals, where magnetic symmetry is essential for magnetic phase transitions. The multi-electron system is also discussed  theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for superconductivity in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and studied in-depth. Thermod...

  7. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ molecular dynamics (MD) methods, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations using MD methods has been performed to obtain the equilibrium crystalline beam structure. The effect of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Schiffer et al. depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  8. Effect of the concentration of magnetite on the structure, electrical and magnetic properties of a polyester resin-based composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Peña-Rodriguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effect of the concentration of magnetite powders (Fe3O4 on the electrical and magnetic properties of a resin-based composite of thermoset polyester. The samples were prepared by the casting method at different concentrations: 60-40, 70-30, 80-20, 90-10 and 100-0 (% in weight, where the primary phase was resin and the secondary, Fe3O4 powders. The crystalline structure was studied using X-ray diffraction and surface characterization was carried out applying the scanning electron microscopy technique. The electrical response was measured by electric polarization curves as a function of the electric field; and the volumetric electrical resistivity, by an electrometer. The magnetic response was determined by magnetization curves as a function of temperature and intensity of the applied magnetic field. The structural analysis indicates that crystallinity increases as higher concentrations of Fe3O4 are added to the samples. The electrical characterization of the material reveals that the volumetric resistivity decreases as the content of magnetite increases. These reactions indicate an insulation-conductor transition with increasing dielectric constant values. The magnetic characterization presents a linear increase of the saturation of magnetization and magnetic moment as a function of the amount of magnetite added to the polymer matrix, whereas the coercivity shows behaviors of soft magnetic materials for T ˃ Tv and for T < Tv, where Tv represents the temperature of Verwey.

  9. Hyperbranched polyester polyol modified with polylactic acid as a compatibilizer for plasticized tapioca starch/polylactic acid blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mesias

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A hyperbranched polyester polyol of the second generation (HBP2 was modified with polylactic acid (HBP2-g-PLA and employed as a compatibilizer for plasticized tapioca starch (TPS/polylactic acid (PLA blends. The effect of the compatibilizer HBP2- g-PLA was evaluated in comparison to the control sample (TPS/PLA blend without HBP2-g-PLA. The torque value of the TPS/PLA blends with HBP2- g-PLA was lower than that of the control sample, while thermal stability and crystallinity followed opposite behavior. The glass transition temperature (Tg and degree of crystallinity of the TPS/PLA blends with HBP2-g-PLA decreased with increasing mass fraction of HBP2-g-PLA. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM, it was observed that the morphology of the TPS/PLA blends with HBP2-g -PLA was more homogeneous than that of the control sample, confirming that HBP2- g-PLA acted as a compatibilizer and plasticizing agent to the TPS/PLA blends. Rheological analysis of the compatibilized TPS/PLA blends indicated the presence of microstructure.

  10. Flame Retardance and Physical Properties of Novel Cured Blends of Unsaturated Polyester and Furan Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder Kaur Kandola

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel blends of two furan resins with an unsaturated polyester have been prepared and cured by parallel free radical (for the unsaturated polyester and acid-catalysed crosslinking (for the furan resin to give co-cured composite materials. Although these materials have inferior physical properties, such as low Tg and low storage modulus compared with those of unsaturated polyester and furan resins alone, they show markedly improved flame retardance compared with that of the normally highly flammable unsaturated polyester. This increased flame retardance arises from a condensed phase mechanism in which the furanic component forms a semi-protective char, reducing rates of thermal degradation and total heat release and heat of combustion. The blends also burn with reduced smoke output compared with that from unsaturated polyester alone.

  11. Oleic Acid Based Polyesters of Trimethylolpropane and Pentaerythritol for Bio lubricant Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamizah Ammarah Mahmud; Nadia Salih; Jumat Salimon

    2015-01-01

    The production of polyesters based on oleic acid and trimethylolpropane (TMP) or pentaerythritol (PE) as potential bio lubricant were carried out. The esterification processes between oleic acid with TMP or PE were carried out using sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The esterification process produced high yield between 92 %-94 % w/w respectively. The formation of polyesters was confirmed using gas chromatography (GC-FID), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The polyesters were analyzed for basic lubrication physicochemical properties. The results showed that polyesters of both TMP and PE having high viscosity index between 200-309, good pour points ranging from -42 to -59 degree Celsius and high flash points of 280 - 300 degree Celsius respectively. The polyesters also showed good thermal oxidative stability with TGA onset temperatures above 180 degree Celsius. In general both products are plausible to be used as bio lubricant for industrial application. (author)

  12. Karakterstik Serapan Suara Komposit Polyester Berpenguat Serat Tapis Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Astika, I Made; Dwijana, I Gusti Komang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate of sound absorption of coconut filter fiber composites. The research material made with coconut filter fiber as reinforcement and matrix resin unsaturated polyester (UPRs) type Yukalac BQTN 157 with 1% hardener types MEKPO (Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide) and fiber treatment by  0,5% KMnO4. Production methods is poltrusion and the variations of fiber volume fraction are 20, 25 and 30% and fiber length are 5, 10 and 15 mm. Testing of sound absorpt...

  13. UV-irradiation effects on polyester nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Chhavi; Kalsi, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of UV irradiation (λ=254 nm) on polyester nuclear track detector have been investigated employing bulk-etch technique, UV-visible spectrophotometry and infra-red spectrometry (FTIR). The activation energy values for bulk-etching were found to decrease with the UV-irradiation time indicating the scission of the polymer. Not much shift in the absorption edge due to UV irradiation was seen in the UV-visible spectra. FTIR studies also indicate the scission of the chemical bonds, thereby further validating the bulk-etch rate results.

  14. Atmospheric pressure H20 plasma treatment of polyester cord threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simor, M.; Krump, H.; Hudec, I.; Rahel, J.; Brablec, A.; Cernak, M.

    2004-01-01

    Polyester cord threads, which are used as a reinforcing materials of rubber blend, have been treated in atmospheric-pressure H 2 0 plasma in order to enhance their adhesion to rubber. The atmospheric-pressure H 2 0 plasma was generated in an underwater diaphragm discharge. The plasma treatment resulted in approximately 100% improvement in the adhesion. Scanning electron microscopy investigation indicates that not only introduced surface polar groups but also increased surface area of the fibres due to a fibre surface roughening are responsible for the improved adhesive strength (Authors)

  15. The influence of solvent processing on polyester bioabsorbable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joanne; Dixon, Dorian

    2012-01-01

    Solvent-based methods are commonly employed for the production of polyester-based samples and coatings in both medical device production and research. The influence of solvent casting and subsequent drying time was studied using thermal analysis, spectroscopy and weight measurement for four grades of 50 : 50 poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) produced by using chloroform, dichloromethane, and acetone. The results demonstrate that solvent choice and PLGA molecular weight are critical factors in terms of solvent removal rate and maintaining sample integrity, respectively. The protocols widely employed result in high levels of residual solvent and a new protocol is presented together with solutions to commonly encountered problems.

  16. Development of Multifunctional Ultra-Nonlinear Liquids and Liquid Crystals for Sensor Protection Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khoo, I. C

    2008-01-01

    .... Significant breakthroughs have been achieved in developing supra-nonlinear liquid crystalline films that possess extraordinarily large photorefractive responses, low switching thresholds and useful...

  17. Unsaturated polyester resin composition curable with ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tsutomu; Murata, Koichiro.

    1971-01-01

    An unsaturated polyester resin composition curable with ionizing radiations and excellent in weather resistance is provided. The composition is obtained by reacting 10-12 moles of a polyhydric alcohol (e.g. ethylene glycol) with 10 moles of an acid mixture (25.45% by mole of endo-cis-bicyclo (2,2,1)-5-heptene-2-3-dicarboxylic acid (A), 20-40% of unsaturated dibasic acid and 15-55% of saturated dibasic acid) so that the acid value reaches 4-11. The composition is useful as coating, laminating and molding materials. As a coating material it is excellent in surface hardening property. The ionizing radiation used is preferably β-, α-rays or electron beams. In one example, and unsaturated polyester was prepared by reacting 3 moles of fumaric acid, 2 moles of phthalic anhydride, 3 moles of adipic acid 3, moles of (A), 10 moles of neopentyl glycol and 1 mole of trimethylolpropane. The resin was dissolved into a mixture of styrene, methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate (50:8:42) and incorporated with titanium white. An ABS plate was coated with the enamel thus obtained and irradiated with electron beams (12 Mrad). In exposure test at 60 0 C, luster of the film was 92 before exposure and 83 after 30 months. In a comparative run in which (A) was not used, luster of the film decreased from 90 to 45 in 30 months. (Sakaichi, S.)

  18. Glass fibres reinforced polyester composites degradation monitoring by surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croitoru, Catalin [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Materials Engineering and Welding Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Patachia, Silvia, E-mail: st.patachia@unitbv.ro [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design Environment and Mechatronics Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Papancea, Adina [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design Environment and Mechatronics Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Baltes, Liana; Tierean, Mircea [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Materials Engineering and Welding Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites surface analysis by photographic method. • The composites are submitted to accelerated ageing by UV irradiation at 254 nm. • The UV irradiation promotes differences in the surface chemistry of the composites. • MB dye is differently adsorbed on surfaces with different degradation degrees. • Good correlation between the colouring degree and surface chemistry. - Abstract: The paper presents a novel method for quantification of the modifications that occur on the surface of different types of gel-coated glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites under artificial UV-ageing at 254 nm. The method implies the adsorption of an ionic dye, namely methylene blue, on the UV-aged composite, and computing the CIELab colour space parameters from the photographic image of the coloured composite's surface. The method significantly enhances the colour differences between the irradiated composites and the reference, in contrast with the non-coloured ones. The colour modifications that occur represent a good indicative of the surface degradation, alteration of surface hydrophily and roughness of the composite and are in good correlation with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy results. The proposed method is easier, faster and cheaper than the traditional ones.

  19. Complications of transvaginal silicone-coated polyester synthetic mesh sling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govier, F E; Kobashi, K C; Kuznetsov, D D; Comiter, C; Jones, P; Dakil, S E; James, R

    2005-10-01

    To report a premarket multicenter trial to test the feasibility of a transvaginal silicone-coated polyester synthetic mesh sling in women with anatomic incontinence. Fifty-one patients in four centers underwent transvaginal placement of a silicone-coated polyester synthetic mesh sling (American Medical Systems) during an 8-month period. Of the 51 patients, 31 were part of a prospective institutional review board-approved feasibility trial in three centers funded by American Medical Systems (group 1) and 20 underwent implantation by a single surgeon and their data were retrospectively reviewed (group 2). The studies were done concomitantly, and all slings were fixed transvaginally with bone anchors. All patients in group 1 were followed up at 4 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year (as applicable) with repeat questionnaires, physical examinations, and pad tests. In group 1, 20 patients completed 6 months of follow-up. Ten patients (32%) required a second surgical procedure at an average of 183 days (range 68 to 343) postoperatively. Eight patients (26%) had vaginal extrusion of the mesh, one (3%) required sling lysis, and one (3%) required sling removal because of infection. In group 2, 8 patients (40%) underwent sling removal for vaginal extrusion at a mean of 160 days (range 83 to 214). Transvaginally placed silicone-coated mesh slings used for the treatment of urinary incontinence demonstrated an unacceptably high vaginal extrusion rate in this study. Once identified, this study was immediately terminated, and this product was not marketed for this application in the United States.

  20. WORKSHOP: Crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Following pioneer work by specialists at the Soviet Novosibirsk Laboratory some ten years ago, interest developed in the possibility of 'freezing' ion beams in storage rings by pushing cooling (to smooth out beam behaviour) to its limits, the final goal being to lock the ions into a neat crystal pattern. After advances by groups working on laser cooled ions in traps, and with several cooling rings now in operation, a workshop on crystalline ion beams was organized recently by the GSI (Darmstadt) Laboratory and held at Wertheim in Germany

  1. Thermal, crystallinity and morphological studies of the filled RBD palm kernel oil polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairiah Badri; Sahrim Ahmad; Sarani Zakaria

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of RBD palm kernel oil (PKO) polyurethane polyol and the polyurethane foam has well been documented. However, less study has been put in discovering the thermal properties and crystallinity of the foam. It is also an initiative to investigate the effect of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and sorbitol as fillers in the polyurethane (PU) foam to these properties. Thermogravimetric (TGA) investigation of the PKO PU foam was performed to study their decompositions. The semi-crystalline nature of EFB-filled PU was confirmed by x-ray diffratogram and DSC thermogram of glass transition temperature, T g . The x-ray diffraction (XRD) study of the unfilled PU showed a broad amorphous halo, indicative of absence of crystallinity in the polymer, which has been explained as due to strong hydrogen bonding in the hard phase. Overall crystallinity decreases with an increase in the polyester content in agreement with the XRD results. The crystallinity however, increases with the inclusion of EFB in the polyurethane system. This study was followed by the observation of the surface morphologies of the PKO PU foam with and without fillers. The scanning electron micrographs verified the finding on the improved k-factor values. (Author)

  2. Some problems of the statistical theory of polymeric lyotropic liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosberg, A.Yu.; Khokhlov, A.R.

    1980-06-01

    In this article we consider some topics of the statistical physics of liquid-crystalline phase in the solutions of stiff chain macromolecules. Among these topics are: the problem of the phase diagram for the liquid-crystalline transition in the solutions of completely stiff macromolecules (rigid rods); conditions of formation of the liquid-crystalline phase in the solutions of semiflexible macromolecules; possibility of the intramolecular liquid-crystalline ordering in semiflexible macromolecules; structure of intramolecular liquid crystals and dependence of the properties of the liquid-crystalline phase on the microstructure of the polymer chain. (author)

  3. Mesomorphous versus traces of crystallinity: The itraconazole example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atassi, Faraj, E-mail: fatassi@yahoo.com; Behme, Robert J.; Patel, Phenil J.

    2013-12-20

    Highlights: • Characterizing partially disordered pharmaceuticals is very challenging due to the fact that more than one discrete disordered phase can be present. • Dynamic mechanical analysis and dielectric analysis are extremely helpful in characterizing pharmaceutical mesophases (liquid crystals). • Thermotropic pharmaceutical mesophases, often mistaken as amorphous or partially crystalline, can show different phases of liquid crystallinity at different temperature. • Liquid crystalline pharmaceutical materials often show amorphous behavior along with other characteristics specific to mesomorphous materials. • The thermal and mechanical history of pharmaceutical disordered samples has a significant effect on their phase composition. - Abstract: Characterizing disordered pharmaceutical materials can be challenging, especially materials with partially disordered structures that lose one or two directional order (mesophases) and do not fit the traditional characterization categories of amorphous, crystalline or a combination of the two. Itraconazole, an antifungal agent, was chosen as a model compound that, when quench cooled, exhibits atypical disordered structure. Five different analytical tools were used to map out the molecular structure of this material and how it changes with changing temperature. X-ray diffraction showed some remnant crystallinity while dielectric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, DSC and hot stage microscopy gave more detailed molecular structure of the disordered material and explained all temperature related structural changes. The characterization of mesomorphous Itraconazole described here will help characterize a wide range of pharmaceuticals that exhibit thermotropic (temperature induced) mesomorphism at the molecular level.

  4. Mesomorphous versus traces of crystallinity: The itraconazole example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atassi, Faraj; Behme, Robert J.; Patel, Phenil J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterizing partially disordered pharmaceuticals is very challenging due to the fact that more than one discrete disordered phase can be present. • Dynamic mechanical analysis and dielectric analysis are extremely helpful in characterizing pharmaceutical mesophases (liquid crystals). • Thermotropic pharmaceutical mesophases, often mistaken as amorphous or partially crystalline, can show different phases of liquid crystallinity at different temperature. • Liquid crystalline pharmaceutical materials often show amorphous behavior along with other characteristics specific to mesomorphous materials. • The thermal and mechanical history of pharmaceutical disordered samples has a significant effect on their phase composition. - Abstract: Characterizing disordered pharmaceutical materials can be challenging, especially materials with partially disordered structures that lose one or two directional order (mesophases) and do not fit the traditional characterization categories of amorphous, crystalline or a combination of the two. Itraconazole, an antifungal agent, was chosen as a model compound that, when quench cooled, exhibits atypical disordered structure. Five different analytical tools were used to map out the molecular structure of this material and how it changes with changing temperature. X-ray diffraction showed some remnant crystallinity while dielectric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, DSC and hot stage microscopy gave more detailed molecular structure of the disordered material and explained all temperature related structural changes. The characterization of mesomorphous Itraconazole described here will help characterize a wide range of pharmaceuticals that exhibit thermotropic (temperature induced) mesomorphism at the molecular level

  5. Microbial degradation of aliphatic and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aamer Ali; Kato, Satoshi; Shintani, Noboru; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki

    2014-04-01

    Biodegradable plastics (BPs) have attracted much attention since more than a decade because they can easily be degraded by microorganisms in the environment. The development of aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has combined excellent mechanical properties with biodegradability and an ideal replacement for the conventional nondegradable thermoplastics. The microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various aliphatic, aromatic, and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyester-degrading microorganisms and their enzymes have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. In this review, we have reported some new microorganisms and their enzymes which could degrade various aliphatic, aromatic, as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters like poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), poly(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate) (PBSA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene succinate) (PES), poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydoxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalterate) (PHB/PHBV), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT), poly(butylene succinate-co-terephthalate) (PBST), and poly(butylene succinate/terephthalate/isophthalate)-co-(lactate) (PBSTIL). The mechanism of degradation of aliphatic as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has also been discussed. The degradation ability of microorganisms against various polyesters might be useful for the treatment and recycling of biodegradable wastes or bioremediation of the polyester-contaminated environments.

  6. Synthesis and Properties of Some polyurethane/ Partially Aromatic Polyester Casting Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, E.M.; Mazroua, A.M.; Emam, A.S.; Motawie, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A series of partially aromatic terephthalate polyesters were synthesized by melt transesterification of dimethyl terephthalate with various types of aliphatic diol compounds in 1:1.1 molar ratio. Ethylene-, di-, tri-, tetra ethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol with different molecular weights 1000, 4000, 6000 as well as the prepared dihydroxy natural rubber were used. Another series of partially aromatic adipate and sebacate polyesters based on the prepared bisphenol A and its tetrabromo derivative were also synthesized by direct polycondensation esterification with adipic and sebacic acid. Polyurethane with NCO/OH ratio equal 4 was prepared from the reaction of 2,4 toluene diisocyanate with polyethylene glycol 1000. The prepared polyurethane was mixed with different weight percentages (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 or 12 % w/w) of the prepared partially aromatic polyesters to give polyurethane/polyester compositions. Mechanical and electrical properties as well as water and chemical resistance of the prepared film samples with thickness 3-4 mm were determined and compared with those of polyurethane film sample without polyester. The data indicate that 10 % w/w of the added partially aromatic polyester increases polyurethane tensile strength, improves its insulation properties and hydrolytic stability as well as its chemical resistance. Film samples based on bisphenol A impart excellent properties as compared with those based on aliphatic glycol species and dihydroxy natural rubber. Keywords: Partially aromatic polyesters, Dimethyl terephthalate, Glycols, Bisphenol A, Tetrabromo bisphenol A, Natural rubber, Adipic acid, Sebacic acid, Polyurethane, Casting

  7. The biomechanical evaluation of polyester as a tension band for the internal fixation of patellar fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGreal, G

    2012-02-03

    We use a braided polyester suture in place of cerclage wire in tension band fixations. The objective of this study was to test the biomechanical properties of this technique. Sixteen cadaveric patellae were fractured and repaired by modified tension band fixation. Eight were fixed using eighteen gauge stainless steel wire as a tension band and eight using braided polyester. All specimens were subjected to tensile testing. Polyester was 75.0% as strong as wire. For dynamic testing, the patellae of seven cadaveric knees were fractured and then fixed with polyester tension bands. These were mounted in a device capable of extending the knees from 90 degrees to neutral against an applied force. None of the fixations failed. Three of the specimens fixed using 18 gauge stainless steel wire were compared with three fixed using polyester over 2000 cycles of knee flexion and extension. Polyester performed as well as wire. We conclude that polyester is an acceptable alternative to wire in tension band fixation.

  8. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  9. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Li, X.P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ the Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, the authors have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. They include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  10. Recent Advances in the Design of Water Based-Flame Retardant Coatings for Polyester and Polyester-Cotton Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Alongi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last ten years a new trend of research activities regarding the flame retardancy of polymeric materials has arisen. Indeed, the continuous search for new flame retardant systems able to replace the traditional approaches has encouraged alternative solutions, mainly centred on nanotechnology. In this context, the deposition of nanostructured coatings on fabrics appears to be the most appealing and performance suitable approach. To this aim, different strategies can be exploited: from the deposition of a single monolayer consisting of inorganic nanoparticles (single-step adsorption to the building-up of more complex architectures derived from layer by layer assembly (multi-step adsorption. The present paper aims to review the application of such systems in the field of polyester and polyester-cotton blend fabrics. The results collated by the authors are discussed and compared with those published in the literature on the basis of the different deposition methods adopted. A critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages exhibited by these approaches is also presented.

  11. Isosorbide as the structural component of bio-based unsaturated polyesters for use as thermosetting resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Joshua M; Toulan, Faye R; Nguyen, Anh-Phuong T; Kayea, Ronald V; Ziaee, Saeed; Palmese, Giuseppe R; La Scala, John J

    2014-01-16

    In recent years, the development of renewable bio-based resins has gained interest as potential replacements for petroleum based resins. Modified carbohydrate-based derivatives have favorable structural features such as fused bicyclic rings that offer promising candidates for the development of novel renewable polymers with improved thermomechanical properties when compared to early bio-based resins. Isosorbide is one such compound and has been utilized as the stiffness component for the synthesis of novel unsaturated polyesters (UPE) resins. Resin blends of BioUPE systems with styrene were shown to possess viscosities (120-2200 cP) amenable to a variety of liquid molding techniques, and after cure had Tgs (53-107 °C) and storage moduli (430-1650 MPa) that are in the desired range for composite materials. These investigations show that BioUPEs containing isosorbide can be tailored during synthesis of the prepolymer to meet the needs of different property profiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The catalytic microwave synthesis of biodegradable polyester polyols based on castor oil and l-lactide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojić, D.; Erceg, T.; Vukić, N.; Teofilović, V.; Ristić, I.; Budinski-Simendić, J.; Aleksić, V.

    2017-01-01

    Various strategies for achieving a functional poly(lactic acid) (PLA) have been developed such as ring-opening copolymerization with a functional monomer, the use of functional initiator and various post polymerization modifications. It is possible to obtain the star shaped polymer using natural oil with at least three OH groups as an initiator. It was estimated that despite of low-molecular mass of star-shaped PLA, the hydrophobic castor oil central core influenced the slow degradation rate in the case of injectable biomedical application. The star-shaped polymers with low-molecular-mass have a lower melt viscosity correlated with linear counterparts. In soft tissue reparation the polymer viscosity increases with fluid body contact and the solid implant can be formed. To ensure liquid state at injection temperature the low molar mass polymer is favorable. There is a particular size for each macromolecular chains at which chain entanglement occurs. In this work the influence of the l-lactide (LA) and the castor oil (CO) contents on the size of biodegradable branched polyester polyols was studied. The average molecular masses of synthesized polymers were estimated by GPC procedure. In sample formulations the [LA]/[CO] ratios were from to 113 to 533. Mn values for obtained polymers were from 5000 to 20000 Da. The molecular mass distribution for the resulting polymers was between 1.09 and 1.37.

  13. Study on the improvement of hydrophilic character on polyvinylalcohol treated polyester fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pitchai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyester fabric was treated with polyvinyl alcohol in alkaline medium. The moisture regain, water retention and wettability of the PVA treated polyester fabric were tested. The PVA treated PET fabric was dyed with disperse dye. The presence of PVA in the treated PET fabric was assessed by spot test. The treated fabric was also characterized by scanning electron microscope, FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry. The PVA treated polyester fabric showed improved hydrophilic character over intact and sodium hydroxide treated PET fabrics.

  14. Study of the properties and biodegradability of polyester/starch blends submitted to microbial attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinhas, Gloria M.; Almeida, Yeda M.B. de; Lima, Maria Alice Gomes de Andrade; Santos, Livia Almeida

    2007-01-01

    This work deals with the biodegradation of blends of poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate)/starch and poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-cohydroxyvalerate)/ starch. The blends were obtained by evaporation of the solvent in the mixture of the polymers in chloroform. Tests were carried out in presence of micro-organisms which acted as biodegradation agents. The blends were consumed as carbon substrate and the production of CO 2 was evaluated in the process. In addition, the polyesters' mechanical properties were reduced by the incorporation of starch in its structure. ( 1 H) NMR and infrared spectroscopy detected some characteristic polyester degradation groups in the polyesters' chemical structure, thus confirming the alteration suffered by it. (author)

  15. Radiation-induced changes affecting polyester based polyurethane binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpoint, Sujita Basi

    The application of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers as binders in the high energy explosives particularly when used in weapons presents a significantly complex and challenging problem due to the impact of the aging of this polymer on the useful service life of the explosive. In this work, the effects of radiation on the aging of the polyester based polyurethane were investigated using both electron beam and gamma irradiation at various dose rates in the presence and absence of oxygen. It was found by means of GPC that, in the presence and absence of oxygen, the poly (ester urethane) primarily undergoes cross-linking, by means of a carbon-centered secondary alkyl radical. It was also concluded that the polymer partially undergoes scission of the backbone of the main chain at C-O, N-C, and C-C bonds. Substantial changes in the conditions of irradiation and in dose levels did not affect the cross-linking and scission yields. Experiments were also performed with EPR spectroscopy for the purpose of identifying the initial carbon-centered free radicals and for studying the decay mechanisms of these radicals. It was found that the carbon-centered radical which is produced via C-C scission (primary alkyl radical) is rapidly converted to a long-lived allylic species at higher temperatures; more than 80% radicals are converted to allyl species in 2.5 hours. In the presence of oxygen, the allyl radical undergoes a fast reaction to produce a peroxyl radical; this radical decays with a 1.7 hour half-life by pseudo first-order kinetics to negligible levels in 13 hours. FTIR measurements were conducted to identify the radiation-induced changes to the functional groups in the polyester polyurethane. These measurements show an increase in carbonyl, amine and carboxylic groups as a result of reaction of H atoms with R-C-O·, ·NH-R and R-COO·. The FTIR results also demonstrate the production of the unsaturation resulting from hydrogen atom transfer during intrachain conversion

  16. Crystalline lens radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkacemi, Y.; Pasquier, D.; Castelain, B.; Lartigau, E.; Warnet, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    During more than a half of century, numerous compounds have been tested in different models against radiation-induced cataract. In this report, we will review the radioprotectors that have been already tested for non-human crystalline lens protection. We will focus on the most important published studies in this topic and the mechanisms of cyto-protection reported in. vitro and in. vivo from animals. The most frequent mechanisms incriminated in the cyto-protective effect are: free radical scavenging, limitation of lipid peroxidation, modulation of cycle progression increase of intracellular reduced glutathione pool, reduction of DNA strand breaks and limitation of apoptotic cell death. Arnifostine (or Ethyol) and anethole dithiolethione (or Sulfarlem), already used clinically as chemo- and radio-protectants, could be further test?r for ocular radioprotection particularly for radiation-induced cataract. (author)

  17. Groundwater in crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmqvist, K.

    1990-06-01

    The aim of this project was to make detailed descriptions of the geological conditions and the different kinds of leakage in some tunnels in Sweden, to be able to describe the presence of ground water in crystalline bedrock. The studies were carried out in TBM tunnels as well as in conventionally drilled and blasted tunnels. Thanks to this, it has been possible to compare the pattern and appearance of ground water leakage in TBM tunnels and in blasted tunnels. On the basis of some experiments in a TBM tunnel, it has been confirmed that a detailed mapping of leakage gives a good picture of the flow paths and their aquiferous qualities in the bedrock. The same picture is found to apply even in cautious blasted tunnels. It is shown that the ground water flow paths in crystalline bedrock are usually restricted to small channels along only small parts of the fractures. This is also true for fracture zones. It has also been found that the number of flow paths generally increases with the degree of tectonisation, up to a given point. With further tectonisation the bedrock is more or less crushed which, along with mineral alteration, leaves only a little space left for the formation of water channels. The largest individual flow paths are usually found in fracture zones. The total amount of ground water leakage per m tunnel is also greater in fracture zones than in the bedrock between the fracture zones. In mapping visible leakage, five classes have been distinguished according to size. Where possible, the individual leak inflow has been measured during the mapping process. The quantification of the leakage classes made in different tunnels are compared, and some quantification standards suggested. A comparison of leakage in different rock types, tectonic zones, fractures etc is also presented. (author)

  18. Method of processing radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Kuribayashi, Hiroshi; Soda, Kenzo; Mihara, Shigeru.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain satisfactory plastic solidification products rapidly and smoothly by adding oxidizers to radioactive liquid wastes. Method: Sulfuric acid, etc. are added to radioactive liquid wastes to adjust the pH value of the liquid wastes to less than 3.0. Then, ferrous sulfates are added such that the iron concentration in the liquid wastes is 100 mg/l. Then, after adjusting pH suitably to the drying powderization by adding alkali such as hydroxide, the liquid wastes are dried and powderized. The resultant powder is subjected to plastic solidification by using polymerizable liquid unsaturated polyester resins as the solidifying agent. The thus obtained solidification products are stable in view of the physical property such as strength or water proofness, as well as stable operation is possible even for those radioactive liquid wastes in which the content ingredients are unknown. (Takahashi, M.)

  19. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIO-BASED POLYESTER POLYOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MİTHAT ÇELEBİ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes are versatile polymeric materials and are usually synthesised by isocyanate reactions with polyols. Due to the variety of isocyanates and polyols, particularly polyols, polyurethanes can be easily tailored for wide applications, such as rigid and flexible foams, coatings, adhesives, and elastomers. Considerable efforts have been recently devoted to developing bio-based substitutes for petroleum-based polyuretahanes due to increasing concerns over the depletion of petroleum resources, environment, and sustainability. Polyester polyols based on aliphatic and aromatic dicarboxylic acids are one of the most important materials in polymer technologies. Large volume of plants oils are used as renewable resources to produce various chemicals which are industrially important to make soaps, cosmetic products, surfactants, lubricants, diluents, plasticizers, inks, agrochemicals, composite materials, food industry. This study introduces synthesis and properties of bio-based polyols from different renewable feedstocks including vegetable oils and derivatives. A comparison of bio-based polyol properties with their petroleum-based analogues were investigated.

  20. Polyester Sulphonic Acid Interstitial Nanocomposite Platform for Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel I. Iwuoha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel enzyme immobilization platform was prepared on a platinum disk working electrode by polymerizing aniline inside the interstitial pores of polyester sulphonic acid sodium salt (PESA. Scanning electron microscopy study showed the formation of homogeneous sulphonated polyaniline (PANI nanotubes (~90 nm and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA confirmed that the nanotubes were stable up to 230 °C. The PANI:PESA nanocomposite showed a quasi-reversible redox behaviour in phosphate buffer saline. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP was immobilized on to this modified electrode for hydrogen peroxide detection. The biosensor gave a sensitivity of 1.33 μA (μM-1 and a detection limit of 0.185 μM for H2O2. Stability experiments showed that the biosensor retained more than 64% of its initial sensitivity over four days of storage at 4 °C.

  1. Preparation of polyester /Calcium sulfate/ composites using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajji, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Different composites have been prepared using various doses of gamma radiation. Two polyesters, Super Mastics and General, and calcium sulfate or natural gypsum have been used for preparing the composites. Some physical properties of the composites and the influence of Gamma rays on it has been studied as: compression, hardness, thermal decomposition temperature in nitrogen or oxygen, and change in weight in aqua solutions with different pH. Our results show that the glass transition temperature increases by increasing the absorbed dose up to a plateau. Further, the composites show a good thermal stability, and the absorbed dose does not affect the thermal decomposition temperature or the oxidation induction time for the prepared composites. Compression strength of the prepared composites decreases by increasing the filler ratios, and the absorbed does not seem to influence this property significantly. (author)

  2. Preparation of polyester /Calcium sulfate/ composites using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajji, Z.

    2003-04-01

    Different composites have been prepared using various doses of gamma radiation. Two polyesters, Super Mastics and General, and calcium sulfate or natural gypsum have been used for preparing the composites. Some physical properties of the composites and the influence of Gamma rays on it has been studied as: compression, hardness, thermal decomposition temperature in nitrogen or oxygen, and change in weight in aqua solutions with different pH. Our results show that the glass transition temperature increases by increasing the absorbed dose up to a plateau. Further, the composites show a good thermal stability, and the absorbed dose does not affect the thermal decomposition temperature or the oxidation induction time for the prepared composites. Compression strength of the prepared composites decreases by increasing the filler ratios, and the absorbed does not seem to influence this property significantly. (author)

  3. Application of polyester derived from biomass in petroleum asphalt cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the effects of the incorporation of a new additive to asphalt cement oil (CAP. A polyol product was obtained through the oxypropylation reaction of sugarcane bagasse. This polyol was polymerised with pyromellitic anhydride in order to obtain a polyester (BCP to test its suitability in terms of the material properties to be applied as additives. FTIR spectra of the polymerised material (BCP confirmed the occurrence of chemical modification due to the appearance of a new band at 1750 cm-1, characteristic of ester groups. The TGA data showed that the BCP product had higher thermal stability than the polyol. According to the softening point and elastic recovery tests, the incorporation of 11% and 16% w/w BCP in conventional CAP met the specifications of regulatory standards.

  4. Radiation curable coatings from palm oil acrylated polyester prepolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam Ali, M.; Ooi, T.L.; Salmiah, A.; Ishiaku, U.S.; Mohd Ishak, Z.A.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation (ultra-violet, UV) curable coatings were prepared by using palm oil acrylated polyester prepolymer (PEPP-1) in combination with different reactive diluents in the presence of photoinitiator Irgacure 184 (Irg184). The effects of viscosity of coating materials, radiation dose and curing behavior were investigated. The UV cured polymeric films properties such as pendulum hardness, wettability (contact angle), gel ,content, swelling character, tensile strength, elongation at break, and deformation stability were then determined. The optimum formulations were also coated on wood substrates after which the gloss and hardness of the cured film on the wood substrate were measured. Some formulations showed promising coatings properties and has a good potential application for the wood coating industry. (Author)

  5. Degradation Mechanisms of Poly(ester urethane) Elastomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, Alexander S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-30

    This report describes literature regarding the degradation mechanisms associated with a poly(ester urethane) block copolymer, Estane® 5703 (Estane), used in conjunction with Nitroplasticizer (NP), and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane, also known as high molecular weight explosive (HMX) to produce polymer bonded explosive PBX 9501. Two principal degradation mechanisms are reported: NO2 oxidative reaction with the urethane linkage resulting in crosslinking and chain scission events, and acid catalyzed hydrolysis of the ester linkage. This report details future work regarding this PBX support system, to be conducted in late 2017 and 2018 at Engineered Materials Group (MST-7), Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory. This is the first of a series of three reports on the degradation processes and trends of the support materials of PBX 9501.

  6. Kekuatan Lentur Komposit Polyester Berpenguat Serat Tapis Kelapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Astika

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyelidiki sifat mekanis yaitu kekuatan lentur dari kompositpolyester yang diperkuat dengan serat tapis kelapa. Di masa depan komposit ini dapatdigunakan untuk menggantikan kayu, bambu dan gipsun yang harganya mahal dan tidaktahan air. Komposit dibuat dengan memanfaatkan serat sabut kelapa dan matriks resinUnsaturated-Polyester (UPRs jenis Yucalac 157 BQTN, campuran 1% hardener jenis MEKPO(Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide dan perendaman serat dalam larutan alkali KMnO4 0,5%.Metode produksi yang digunakan adalah press hand lay up dengan orientasi serat acak.Desain komposit dengan variasi fraksi volume serat 20, 25 dan 30% dan variasi panjang serat5, 10 dan 15 mm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin besar fraksi volume danpanjang serat dalam komposit maka kekuatan lentur semakin tinggi. Mode patahan yangteramati adalah patah getas, debonding, pullout dan crack deflection.Kata kunci: komposit, serat tapis kelapa, kekuatan lentur, mode patahan The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical properties i.e. flexural strength ofcomposites coconut filter fiber. In the future this material can be used to replace the wood,bamboo and gipsun which are high price and lower water resistance.The research material made with coconut filter fiber as reinforcement and matrix resinunsaturated polyester (UPRs type Yukalac BQTN 157, with 1% hardener types MEKPO(Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide and fiber treatment by 0.5% KMnO4. Production methods arepress hand lay-up and the variations of fiber volume fraction are 20, 25 and 30% and fiberlength are 5, 10 and 15 mm. Testing of mechanical properties is flexural test (ASTM - D790The results of research show that the longer of fiber and the bigger of fiber volume fraction,the higher of flexural strength are obtained. The fracture mode are overload, debonding ,pullout and crack deflectionKeywords : composites, coconut filter fiber, flexural strength, fracture mode

  7. Influence of the molecular structure on hydrolysability of unsaturated polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pays, M.F.; Denis, V.

    1993-09-01

    EDF has decided to replace conventional materials by glass reinforced plastics for certain PWR water distribution systems (raw water system, essential service water system, firefighting water distribution system, etc...). Since steel corrodes rapidly in these pipings, introducing composite materials will be economically beneficial if the long-term resistance of these materials can be guaranteed. However, due to hydrolysis of the resin or of the fiber-matrix interface, composite materials deteriorations may occur during service life. This paper reports on the hydrolysis resistance of polyester and vinylester resins. - Model monomers were studied to relate the molecular structure to the hydrolysis resistance. Two ester categories were determined, the diacids and the diols. For the diacids, we obtained the following classification in increasing order of resistance: < maleates < ethoxysuccinates < succinates < fumerates < terephtalates < orthophtalates < isophtalates and for the diols: trioxyethylene glycol << butane diol ∼ ethylene glycol < neopentyl glycol < bisphenol A. The positions obtained for neopentyl glycol and isophtalic acid on this scale justify their inclusion in the formulation of hydrolysis-resistant resins. Since aliphatic unsaturated esters are highly sensitive to hydrolysis, the cross linking procedures for these materials, notably the post-cure stages, must be the subject of particular care. - The hydrolytic degradation of cross linked materials was studied. It was shown that hydrolysis could be monitored by a simple gravimetric method. Used in association with accelerated aging tests, it predicts the time lapse to initiation of the phenomenon. The better hydrolysis resistance of vinylester resins as compared with unsaturated polyesters has been demonstrated. However, forecasting over a 30-year life span is difficult to guarantee in that this involves indicating in the resin specifications the in-service stress which it will be required to

  8. H-Bond stabilized columnar discotic liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paraschiv, I.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1977, more than 2300 publications on discotic (disk-like) liquid crystalline materials have appeared. Discotic liquid crystals, which usually consist of polyaromatic molecules surrounded by long peripheral alkyl tails, can form liquid crystalline mesophases in a wide temperature range. Within

  9. Effective Interfacially Polymerized Polyester Solvent Resistant Nanofiltration Membrane from Bioderived Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Abdellah, Mohamed H.; Perez Manriquez, Liliana; Puspasari, Tiara; Scholes, Colin A.; Kentish, Sandra E.; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2018-01-01

    Utilization of sustainable and environmentally friendly solvents for the preparation of membranes has attracted growing interest in recent years. In this work, a polyester thin film composite solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) membrane

  10. Filler Fraction Effect on Creep Response of Crosslinked Polyester Matrix with Mineral Filler

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hristova, J.; Minster, Jiří

    Vol. 89, - (2003), s. 3329-3335 ISSN 0021-8995 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : polyester composites * creep * ageing Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2003

  11. 78 FR 17637 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-833] Polyester Staple Fiber From... Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce.../CVD Operations, Office 1, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department...

  12. Effect of structural parameters on burning behavior of polyester fabrics having flame retardancy property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeven, E. K.; Günaydın, G. K.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is filling the gap in the literature about investigating the effect of yarn and fabric structural parameters on burning behavior of polyester fabrics. According to the experimental design three different fabric types, three different weft densities and two different weave types were selected and a total of eighteen different polyester drapery fabrics were produced. All statistical procedures were conducted using the SPSS Statistical software package. The results of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests indicated that; there were statistically significant (5% significance level) differences between the mass loss ratios (%) in weft and mass loss ratios (%) in warp direction of different fabrics calculated after the flammability test. The Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) results for mass loss ratios (%) both in weft and warp directions revealed that the mass loss ratios (%) of fabrics containing Trevira CS type polyester were lower than the mass loss ratios of polyester fabrics subjected to washing treatment and flame retardancy treatment.

  13. [Analysis of anatomical pieces preservation with polyester resin for human anatomy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ítalo Martins; Mindêllo, Marcela Maria Aguiar; Martins, Yasmin de Oliveira; da Silva Filho, Antônio Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the use of polyester resin in preserving anatomical specimens for the study of human anatomy. We used 150 anatomical specimens, comprised of unfixed (fresh), fixed in 10% formalin and vascular casts of organs injected with vinyl acetate and polyester resin. The solution used consisted of polyester resin with the diluent styrene monomer and catalyst (peroxol). After embedding in this solution, models in transparent resin were obtained, allowing full observation of structures and conservation of the specimens used. upon evaluation of the specimens, we observed a high degree of transparency, which promoted a complete visualization of structures with perfect preservation of the anatomy. The average time for the completion of the embedding was 48 hours. Only 14 specimens (9.3%) were lost during the preparation. Polyester resin can be used for preserving anatomical specimens for teaching human anatomy in a practical, aesthetic and durable way.

  14. Dynamic mechanical and dielectric behavior of banana–glass hybrid fiber reinforced polyester composites.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pothan, LA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid composites of glass and banana fiber (obtained from the pseudo stem of Musa sapientum) in polyester matrix, are subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis over a range of temperature and three different frequencies. The effect of temperature...

  15. Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Unidirectional Steel Fiber/Polyester Composites: Experiments and Micromechanical Predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Bech, Jakob Ilsted

    2016-01-01

    the role of material and process parameters on material properties. Two types of SFRP were studied: polyester resin reinforced by both steel fabric containing unidirectional fibers and steel fibers wound on a metal frame with 0° orientations. The effects of the fiber volume fraction and the role of polymer......The article introduces steel fiber reinforced polymer composites, which is considered new for composite product developments. These composites consist of steel fibers or filaments of 0.21 mm diameter embedded in a polyester resin. The goal of this investigation is to characterize the mechanical...... performance of steel fiber reinforced polyester composites at room temperature. The mechanical properties of unidirectional steel fiber reinforced polyester composites (SFRP) are evaluated experimentally and compared with the predicted values by micro-mechanical models. These predictions help to understand...

  16. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters from polyester and polypropylene fibre nonwovens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Boguslavsky, L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available filtration efficiency. Glass fibres are more harmful to human, compared to polypropylene and polyester fibre which are chemically inert. Hydroentanglement and chemical bonding techniques were utilised in manufacturing nonwovens for dry filtration. Acrylic...

  17. Effect of Argon Plasma Treatment Variables on Wettability and Antibacterial Properties of Polyester Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Pandurangan; Karthik, Thangavelu

    2016-04-01

    In this research work, the effect of argon plasma treatment variables on the comfort and antibacterial properties of polyester fabric has been investigated. The SEM micrographs and FTIR analysis confirms the modification of fabric surface. The Box-Behnken design was used for the optimization of plasma process variables and to evaluate the effects and interactions of the process variables, i.e. operating power, treatment time and distance between the electrodes on the characteristics of polyester fabrics. The optimum conditions of operating power 600 W, treatment time 30 s, and the distance between the electrodes of 2.8 mm was arrived using numerical prediction tool in Design-Expert software. The plasma treated polyester fabrics showed better fabric characteristics particularly in terms of water vapour permeability, wickability and antibacterial activity compared to untreated fabrics, which confirms that the modified structure of polyester fabric.

  18. Fully Biobased Unsaturated Aliphatic Polyesters from Renewable Resources : Enzymatic Synthesis, Characterization, and Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Yi; Alberda van Ekenstein, Gerhard; Woortman, Albert J. J.; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Fully biobased saturated and unsaturated aliphatic polyesters and oligoesters are successfully prepared by Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)-catalyzed polycondensations of succinate, itaconate, and 1,4-butanediol. The effects of monomer substrates and polymerization methods on enzymatic

  19. Effect of polyester fiber reinforcement on the mechanical properties of interim fixed partial dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gopichander

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, polyester fiber reinforcements improved the mechanical properties of heat-polymerized PMMA, cold-polymerized PMMA, and bis-acrylic provisional FPD materials.

  20. Bicontinuous liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Mathew L

    2005-01-01

    PrefaceIntroduction AcknowledgmentsBicontinuous Cubic Liquid Crystalline Materials: A Historical Perspective and Modern Assessment; Kr̄e LarssonIntermediate Phases; Michael C. Holmes and Marc S. LeaverCubic Phases and Human Skin: Theory and Practice; Steven Hoath and Lars NorlňThe Relationship between Bicontinuous Inverted Cubic Phases and Membrane Fusion; D.P. SiegelAspects of the Differential Geometry and Topology of Bicontinuous Liquid-Crystalline Phases; Robert W. CorkeryNovel L3 Phases and Their Macroscopic Properties; R. Beck and H. HoffmannBicontinuous Cubic Phases of Lipids with Entra

  1. Polyester-Based (Bio)degradable Polymers as Environmentally Friendly Materials for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydz, Joanna; Sikorska, Wanda; Kyulavska, Mariya; Christova, Darinka

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (bio)degradable polymers. Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications) of these attractive polymer families are outlined. Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in view of the potential applications in various fields. PMID:25551604

  2. Influence of the substituent on azobenzene side-chain polyester optical storage materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M; Hvilsted, Søren; Holme, NCR

    1999-01-01

    , chloro, and bromo. C-13 NMR spectroscopic and molecular mass investigations substantiate good film forming characteristics. The optical storage performance of thin polyester films are investigated through polarization holography. The resulting diffraction efficiency is mapped and discussed as a function...... of irradiation power and exposure time. Polytetradecanedioates with cyano-, nitro-, methyl-, fluoro-, or trinuoromethyl-azobenzene reach more than 50% diffraction efficiency. Investigations of anisotropy induced at different temperatures reveal that the polyesters are only photosensitive in a narrow temperature...

  3. Clinical outcomes after parastomal hernia repair with a polyester monofilament composite mesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oma, E; Pilsgaard, B; Jorgensen, L N

    2018-01-01

    with intraperitoneal placement of a polyester monofilament macroporous composite mesh. METHODS: Data on all patients undergoing parastomal hernia repair with Parietex™ Composite Parastomal Mesh at our institution during a 4-year period were examined. Patients with urostomy were excluded. A team of three experienced...... chronic pain. CONCLUSION: In this study, we found low rates of recurrence and chronic pain following parastomal hernia repair using intraperitoneal reinforcement with a polyester monofilament composite mesh....

  4. New UV-curable acrylated polyester prepolymers from palm oil based products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azam Ali; Ooi, T.L.; Salmiah Ahmad; Umaru, S.I.; Mohd Ishak, Z.A.

    1999-01-01

    Acrylated polyester prepolymers (PEPP-1 and PEPP-2) were synthesized from palm oil and its products. UV-curing and characteristic properties of UV-cured films of synthesized polyester resins were studied. The characteristic properties studied include pendulum hardness, gel content, FT-IR analysis, tensile strength and elongation at break. The materials have good potential for the production of radiation curable coating applications

  5. Crystalline Bioceramic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Aza, P. N.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A strong interest in the use of ceramics for biomedical engineering applications developed in the late 1960´s. Used initially as alternatives to metallic materials in order to increase the biocompatibility of implants, bioceramics have become a diverse class of biomaterials, presently including three basic types: relatively bioinert ceramics; bioactive or surface reactive bioceramics and bioresorbable ceramics. This review will only refer to bioceramics “sensus stricto”, it is to say, those ceramic materials constituted for nonmetallic inorganic compounds, crystallines and consolidated by thermal treatments of powders to high temperatures. Leaving bioglasses, glass-ceramics and biocements apart, since, although all of them are obtained by thermal treatments to high temperatures, the first are amorphous, the second are obtained by desvitrification of a glass and in them vitreous phase normally prevails on the crystalline phases and the third are consolidated by means of a hydraulic or chemical reaction to room temperature. A review of the composition, physiochemical properties and biological behaviour of the principal types of crystalline bioceramics is given, based on the literature data and on the own experience of the authors.

    A finales de los años sesenta se despertó un gran interés por el uso de los materiales cerámicos para aplicaciones biomédicas. Inicialmente utilizados como una alternativa a los materiales metálicos, con el propósito de incrementar la biocompatibilidad de los implantes, las biocerámicas se han convertido en una clase diversa de biomateriales, incluyendo actualmente tres tipos: cerámicas cuasi inertes; cerámicas bioactivas o reactivas superficialmente y cerámicas reabsorbibles o biodegradables. En la presente revisión se hace referencia a las biocerámicas en sentido estricto, es decir, a aquellos materiales constitutitos por compuestos inorgánicos no metálicos, cristalinos y consolidados

  6. New insights into the interface between a single-crystalline metal electrode and an extremely pure ionic liquid: slow interfacial processes and the influence of temperature on interfacial dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drüschler, Marcel; Borisenko, Natalia; Wallauer, Jens; Winter, Christian; Huber, Benedikt; Endres, Frank; Roling, Bernhard

    2012-04-21

    Ionic liquids are of high interest for the development of safe electrolytes in modern electrochemical cells, such as batteries, supercapacitors and dye-sensitised solar cells. However, electrochemical applications of ionic liquids are still hindered by the limited understanding of the interface between electrode materials and ionic liquids. In this article, we first review the state of the art in both experiment and theory. Then we illustrate some general trends by taking the interface between the extremely pure ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate and an Au(111) electrode as an example. For the study of this interface, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was combined with in situ STM and in situ AFM techniques. In addition, we present new results for the temperature dependence of the interfacial capacitance and dynamics. Since the interfacial dynamics are characterised by different processes taking place on different time scales, the temperature dependence of the dynamics can only be reliably studied by recording and carefully analysing broadband capacitance spectra. Single-frequency experiments may lead to artefacts in the temperature dependence of the interfacial capacitance. We demonstrate that the fast capacitive process exhibits a Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman temperature dependence, since its time scale is governed by the ionic conductivity of the ionic liquid. In contrast, the slower capacitive process appears to be Arrhenius activated. This suggests that the time scale of this process is determined by a temperature-independent barrier, which may be related to structural reorganisations of the Au surface and/or to charge redistributions in the strongly bound innermost ion layer. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2012

  7. A study on effect of ATH on Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester banana fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sanju; Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan

    2018-02-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composites are used for building and structural applications due to their high strength. In conventional composites both the binder and the reinforcing fibers are synthetic or either one of the material is natural. In the present study coagulum of Euphorbia royleana has been used for replacing polyester resinas binder in polyester banana composite. Euphorbia coagulum (driedlatex) is rich in resinous mass (60-80%), which are terpenes and polyisoprene (10-20%). Effect of varying percentage of coagulum content on various physico-mechanical properties of polyester-banana composites has been studied. Since banana fiber is sensitive to water due to presence of polar group, banana composite undergoes delamination and deterioration under humid condition. Alkali treated banana fiber along with coagulum content has improved overall mechanical properties and reduction in water absorption. The best physico-mechanical properties have been achieved on replacing 40% of polyester resin by coagulum. An increase of 50% in bending strength, 30% bending modulus and 45% impact strength as well as 68% decrease in water absorption was observed. Incorporation of 20% ATH as flame retardant in coagulum modified banana polyester composite enhanced limiting oxygen index from 20.6 to 26.8% and smoke density reduced up to 40%. This study presents the possibility of utilization of renewable materials for environmental friendly composite development as well as to find out alternative feedstock for petroleum products. Developed Euphorbia latex modified banana polyester composites can have potential utility in hardboard, partition panel, plywood and automotive etc.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and ESR study of polyesters containing isomeric naphthylene units by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B.K.; Hill, D.J.T.; Choi, E.J.; Ahn, H.K.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Aromatic polyesters containing naphthalene groups have interesting properties because the geometry of the naphthalene group can provide many of the structural features for the polymer chain. In this study we synthesized six polyesters from 4,4 ' - (hexafluoroisopropyl-idene)bis(benzoic acid) and isomeric naphthylene-diols. An ESR study of the radicals formed on gamma radiolysis of the polyesters has been undertaken to investigate their relative radiation sensitivities. The structures of the polyesters were characterized by means of IR spectroscopy. Inherent viscosities were measured in the range of 0.11 - 0.46 dL/g. Thermal properties of polyesters were determined by DSC and TGA thermograms, respectively. All polyesters were irradiated in an AECL Gamma cell with a dose rate of approximately 6.7kGy h -1 to doses in the range of 0 - 15kGy at 77K and 300K, respectively. In order to identify other radicals present at 77K, annealing studies were utilized by taking advantage of the different reactivities of these radicals

  9. Development of a readily recyclable sound insulation material made of polyester fibers. Application of the PET fibers from plastic bottles; Recycle kanona jidoshayo polyester sei kyuon zairyo no kaihatsu. Shiyozumi pet bottle zai no insulator zai eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, K; Watanabe, K; Sugawara, H; Minemura, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have developed new polyester sound-absorbing materials made of fine and modified-cross-section polyester fabric. They provide noticeably higher sound-absorbing performance than traditional materials. Another feature of the new materials is their excellent recyclability since they are made of polyester. Application of the new materials to the dash silencer and the floor carpeting produced a great improvement in sound-insulation performance with less weight. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Poly(ester amide)s based on (L)-lactic acid oligomers and α-amino acids: influence of the α-amino acid side chain in the poly(ester amide)s properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana C; Coelho, Jorge F J; Valente, Joana F A; Correia, Tiago R; Correia, Ilídio J; Gil, Maria H; Simões, Pedro N

    2013-01-01

    Novel biodegradable and low cytotoxic poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) based on α-amino acids and (L)-lactic acid (L-LA) oligomers were successfully synthesized by interfacial polymerization. The chemical structure of the new polymers was confirmed by spectroscopic analyses. Further characterization suggests that the α-amino acid plays a critical role on the final properties of the PEA. L-phenylalanine provides PEAs with higher glass transition temperature, whereas glycine enhances the crystallinity. The hydrolytic degradation in PBS (pH = 7.4) at 37 °C also depends on the α-amino acid, being faster for glycine-based PEAs. The cytotoxic profiles using fibroblast human cells indicate that the PEAs did not elicit an acute cytotoxic effect. The strategy presented in this work opens the possibility of synthesizing biodegradable PEAs with low citotoxicity by an easy and fast method. It is worth to mention also that the properties of these materials can be fine-tuned only by changing the α-amino acid.

  11. Polyester Textiles as a Source of Microplastics from Households: A Mechanistic Study to Understand Microfiber Release During Washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Edgar; Nowack, Bernd; Mitrano, Denise M

    2017-06-20

    Microplastic fibers make up a large proportion of microplastics found in the environment, especially in urban areas. There is good reason to consider synthetic textiles a major source of microplastic fibers, and it will not diminish since the use of synthetic fabrics, especially polyester, continues to increase. In this study we provide quantitative data regarding the size and mass of microplastic fibers released from synthetic (polyester) textiles during simulated home washing under controlled laboratory conditions. Consideration of fabric structure and washing conditions (use of detergents, temperature, wash duration, and sequential washings) allowed us to study the propensity of fiber shedding in a mechanistic way. Thousands of individual fibers were measured (number, length) from each wash solution to provide a robust data set on which to draw conclusions. Among all the variables tested, the use of detergent appeared to affect the total mass of fibers released the most, yet the detergent composition (liquid or powder) or overdosing of detergent did not significantly influence microplastic release. Despite different release quantities due to the addition of a surfactant (approximately 0.025 and 0.1 mg fibers/g textile washed, without and with detergent, respectively), the overall microplastic fiber length profile remained similar regardless of wash condition or fabric structure, with the vast majority of fibers ranging between 100 and 800 μm in length irrespective of wash cycle number. This indicates that the fiber staple length and/or debris encapsulated inside the fabric from the yarn spinning could be directly responsible for releasing stray fibers. This study serves as a first look toward understanding the physical properties of the textile itself to better understand the mechanisms of fiber shedding in the context of microplastic fiber release into laundry wash water.

  12. Synthesis of poly(ethylene furandicarboxylate) polyester using monomers derived from renewable resources: thermal behavior comparison with PET and PEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George Z; Tsanaktsis, Vasilios; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2014-05-07

    Poly(ethylene-2,5-furandicarboxylate) (PEF) is a new alipharomatic polyester that can be prepared from monomers derived from renewable resources like furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural. For this reason it has gained high interest recently. In the present work it was synthesized from the dimethylester of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and ethylene glycol by applying the two-stage melt polycondensation method. The thermal behavior of PEF was studied in comparison to its terephthalate and naphthalate homologues poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN), which were also synthesized following the same procedure. The equilibrium melting point of PEF was found to be 265 °C while the heat of fusion for the pure crystalline PEF was estimated to be about 137 J g(-1). The crystallization kinetics was analyzed using various models. PET showed faster crystallization rates than PEN and this in turn showed faster crystallization than PEF, under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The spherulitic morphology of PEF during isothermal crystallization was investigated by polarized light microscopy (PLM). A large nucleation density and a small spherulite size were observed for PEF even at low supercoolings, in contrast to PET or PEN. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that PEF is thermally stable up to 325 °C and the temperature for the maximum degradation rate was 438 °C. These values were a little lower than those for PET or PEN.

  13. Solid-State Polymerization of Poly(ethylene furanoate Biobased Polyester, I: Effect of Catalyst Type on Molecular Weight Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejib Kasmi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the synthesis of poly(ethylene furanoate (PEF, catalyzed by three different catalysts, namely, titanium (IV isopropoxide (TIS, tetrabutyltitanate (TBT, and dibutyltin (IV oxide (DBTO, via the two-stage melt polycondensation method. Solid-state polymerization (SSP was conducted at different reaction times (1, 2, 3.5, and 5 h and temperatures 190, 200, and 205 °C, under vacuum. The resultant polymers were analyzed according to their intrinsic viscosity (IV, end groups (–COOH, and thermal properties, via differential scanning calorimetry. DSC results showed that the post polymerization process was favorable to enhance the melting point of the prepared PEF samples. As was expected, the intrinsic viscosity and the average molecular weight of PEF increased with the SSP time and temperature, whereas the number of carboxyl end-groups was decreased. A simple kinetic model was also developed and used to predict the time evolution of polymers IV, as well as the carboxyl and hydroxyl content of PEF during the SSP. From both the experimental measurements and the theoretical simulation results it was proved that the presence of the TIS catalyst resulted in higher transesterification kinetic rate constants and higher reaction rates. The activation energies were not much affected by the presence of different catalysts. Finally, using DBTO as a catalyst, the polyesters produced have higher crystallinity, and as a consequence, higher number of inactive carboxyl and hydroxyl groups.

  14. Synthesis of Functional Polyester Based on Polylactic Acid and Its Effect on PC12 Cells after Coupling with Small Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyesters containing functional groups are a suitable candidate matrix for cell culture in tissue engineering. Three types of semicrystalline copolymer poly(L-lactide-co-β-malic acid [P(LA-co-BMD] with pendent carboxyl groups were synthesized in this study. The functional monomer 3(S-[(benzyloxycarbonylmethyl]-1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione (BMD was synthesized using L-aspartic acid. The copolymer P(LA-co-BMD was then synthesized through ring-opening copolymerization of L-LA and BMD, with dodecanol as initiator and stannous octoate as catalyst. Copolymer structure was characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses. Results of 1H NMR and GPC analyses showed that the copolymers were synthesized successfully. DSC curves showed that the crystal melting peak and enthalpy decreased with increased BMD. The crystallinity of the copolymer was destroyed by the presence of the functional monomer. After deprotection, carboxyl groups were coupled with the isoleucine-lysine-valine-alanine-valine peptide through N-hydroxysuccinimide/dicyclohexylcarbodiimide method. The small peptide was beneficial to the axon growth of PC12 cells.

  15. Neutron transmission through crystalline Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Habib, N.; Kilany, M.; El-Mesiry, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    The neutron transmission through crystalline Fe has been calculated for neutron energies in the range 10 4 < E<10 eV using an additive formula. The formula permits calculation of the nuclear capture, thermal diffuse and Bragg scattering cross-section as a function of temperature and crystalline form. The obtained agreement between the calculated values and available experimental ones justifies the applicability of the used formula. A feasibility study on using poly-crystalline Fe as a cold neutron filter and a large Fe single crystal as a thermal one is given

  16. Synthesis and degradation kinetics of a novel polyester containing bithiazole rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, W., E-mail: hwdut2003@yahoo.com [Research Center of Plastic Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142 (China); State Key Laboratory of Robotics (China); Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Jiang, Y.Y. [Research Center of Plastic Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142 (China); State Key Laboratory of Robotics (China); Luyt, A.S. [Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Ocaya, R.O. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Ge, T.J. [Research Center of Plastic Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142 (China); State Key Laboratory of Robotics (China)

    2011-10-20

    Highlights: {yields} A novel Schiff base type polyester was synthesized and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. {yields} Thermal degradation of the polyester in nitrogen has been studied at several heating rates by thermogravimetric analysis. {yields} The activation energies were calculated by different methods. And the possible conversation function was estimated. {yields} The life time estimates for the polyester can be determined and the results demonstrate that the polymer possesses good thermal resistance. - Abstract: A novel Schiff base type polyester containing 2,2'-diamino-4,4'-bithiazole (DABT) was prepared by low-temperature interface polycondensation of 1,4-benzenedicarbonyl dichloride with 4,4'-(4,4'-bithiazole-2,2'-diylbis(imine-2,1-diyl) diphenol (BDDP), which is derived from a 2,2'-diamino-4,4'-bithiazole (DABT) Schiff base reacted with a 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde monomer. The newly generated polyester was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. The thermal decomposition was investigated in nitrogen atmosphere using thermogravimetric analysis. The activation energies of the decomposition step of the polyester were calculated through the isoconversional methods of Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (K-A-S) and the iterative equation. In order to estimate the reaction model that best describes the experimental data, the use of an empirical kinetic equation based on that proposed by Sestak-Berggren was investigated here. On the basis of the kinetic data, the life time estimates for the polyester generated from the weight loss of 5%, 10%, and 15% were also constructed.

  17. Optimum Drafting Conditions Of Polyester And Viscose Blend Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatamvand Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used an experimental design to investigate the influence of the total draft, break draft, distance between the aprons (Clips and production roller pressure on yarn quality in order to obtain optimum drafting conditions for polyester and viscose (PES/CV blend yarns in ring spinning frame. We used PES fibers (1.4 dtex × 38 mm long and CV fibers (1.6 dtex × 38 mm long to spin a 20 Tex blend yarn of PES (70%/CV (30% blend ratio. When the break draft, adjustment of distance between of aprons and roller pressure is not reasonable, controlling and leading of the fibers is not sufficient for proper orientation of the fibers in the yarn structure to produce a high quality yarn. Experimental results and statistical analysis show that the best yarn quality will be obtained under drafting conditions total draft of 38, 1.2 break draft, 2.8 mm distance between of aprons and maximum pressure of the production top roller (18daN.

  18. In situ polymerization of vinyl monomers in polyester yarns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avny, Y.; Rebenfeld, L.; Weigmann, H.D.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of a pretreatment of polyester (PET) yarns with a strongly interacting solvent such as dimethylformamide (DMF) on vinyl monomer incorporation were investigated. When the DMF pretreatment is carried out at high temperatures (above 120 0 C), the swollen PET structure is stabilized by solvent-induced secondary crystallization. This substrate is highly suitable for the incorporation of vinyl monomers. In situ polymerization of vinyl monomers in DMF-treated PET was investigated using chemical and γ-irradiation polymerization techniques, both in the presence and in the absence of excess monomer outside the PET fibers. When polymerization was carried out in a system in which a constant supply of free radicals was available from the outside of the PET fibers, lower initiator concentrations and smaller γ-irradiation doses were necessary. These results are attributed to a low efficiency of the initiator inside the PET fiber due to mobility restrictions. Water uptake and moisture regain of PET yarns containing poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(acrylic acid) were also investigated. When most of the vinyl polymer was inside the PET fiber, water absorption was limited. The changes in mechanical properties of the PET yarns resulting from the DMF pretreatment were partially reversed by in situ polymerization of vinyl monomers

  19. Polyester composite versus PTFE in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Modesto J; Telem, Dana A; Chin, Edward; Weber, Kaare; Divino, Celia M; Nguyen, Scott Q

    2011-01-01

    Both polyester composite (POC) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mesh are commonly used for laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. However, sparse information exists comparing perioperative and long-term outcome by mesh repair. A prospective database was utilized to identify 116 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic ventral hernia repair at The Mount Sinai Hospital from 2004-2009. Patients were grouped by type of mesh used, PTFE versus POC, and retrospectively compared. Follow-up at a mean of 12 months was achieved by telephone interview and office visit. Of the 116 patients, 66 underwent ventral hernia repair with PTFE and 50 with POC mesh. Patients were well matched by patient demographics. No difference in mean body mass index (BMI) was demonstrated between the PTFE and POC group (31.8 vs. 32.5, respectively; P=NS). Operative time was significantly longer in the PTFE group (136 vs.106 minutes, PPTFE group and none in the POC group (P NS). No other major complications occurred in the immediate postoperative period (30 days). At a mean follow-up of 12 months, no significant difference was demonstrated between the PTFE and POC groups in hernia recurrence (3% vs. 2%), wound complications (1% vs. 0%), mesh infection, requiring removal (3% vs. 0%), bowel obstruction (3% vs. 2%), or persistent pain or discomfort (28% vs. 32%), respectively (P=NS). Our study demonstrated no significant association between types of mesh used and postoperative complications. In the 12-month follow-up, no differences were noted in hernia recurrence.

  20. Tearing resistance of some co-polyester sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Sung; Karger-Kocsis, Jozsef

    2004-01-01

    A three-zone model consisting of initial, evolutionary and stabilised plastic zones for tearing resistance was proposed for polymer sheets. An analysis with the model, based on the essential work of fracture (EWF) approach, was demonstrated to be capable for predicting specific total work of fracture along the tear path across all the plastic zones although accuracy of specific essential work of fracture is subject to improvement. Photo-elastic images were used for identification of plastic deformation sizes and profiles. Fracture mode change during loading was described in relation with the three zones. Tearing fracture behaviour of extruded mono- and bi-layer sheets of different types of amorphous co-polyesters and different thicknesses was investigated. Thick material exhibited higher specific total work of tear fracture than thin mono-layer sheet in the case of amorphous polyethylene terephthalate (PET). This finding was explained in terms of plastic zone size formed along the tear path, i.e., thick material underwent larger plastic deformation than thin material. When PET and polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) were laminated with each other, specific total work of fracture of the bi-layer sheets was not noticeably improved over that of the constituent materials

  1. Uranium biosorption by Trichoderma harzianum entrapped in polyester foam beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A.M.; Shemsi, A.M.; Akhtar, K.; Anwar, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Mechanism of uranium biosorption by resting cells of Trichoderma harzianum was studied at pH 4.5. Time-dependent uptake of uranium by Trichoderma harzianum was also determined. Various cations (Na, K, Ca and Fe, etc.) were found to affect the adsorption capability of these cells. Different theoretical thermodynamic models governing the adsorption behavior of uranium were also tested and it was found to follow the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The constants of Freundlich adsorption isotherm A and 1/n were found to be 1.5 x 10 -6 mole/g and 0.31 respectively. Dubinin Radushkevich equation was tested and the maximum adsorption capacity (X m ) of Trichoderma harzianum and sorption energy (E s ) for the ion exchange process computed. Data of uranium sorption were also examined using Weber Morris's equation. The upscaling of uranium biosorption by Trichoderma harzianum entrapped in commercial foam (polyesters) was carried out in glass columns. It was found to recover more than 85% of the total uranium present in bacterial leachate

  2. Recent Advances in 3D Printing of Aliphatic Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiulan, Ioana; Frone, Adriana Nicoleta; Brandabur, Călin; Panaitescu, Denis Mihaela

    2017-12-24

    3D printing represents a valuable alternative to traditional processing methods, clearly demonstrated by the promising results obtained in the manufacture of various products, such as scaffolds for regenerative medicine, artificial tissues and organs, electronics, components for the automotive industry, art objects and so on. This revolutionary technique showed unique capabilities for fabricating complex structures, with precisely controlled physical characteristics, facile tunable mechanical properties, biological functionality and easily customizable architecture. In this paper, we provide an overview of the main 3D-printing technologies currently employed in the case of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), two of the most important classes of thermoplastic aliphatic polyesters. Moreover, a short presentation of the main 3D-printing methods is briefly discussed. Both PLA and PHA, in the form of filaments or powder, proved to be suitable for the fabrication of artificial tissue or scaffolds for bone regeneration. The processability of PLA and PHB blends and composites fabricated through different 3D-printing techniques, their final characteristics and targeted applications in bioengineering are thoroughly reviewed.

  3. Fatigue life prediction in woven carbon fabric polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.; Al-Sulaiman, F.S.; Farooqi, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    An analytical model, based on stiffness degradation during fatigue loading, which has been used for fatigue life predictions in the Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP), is employed to examine its validity to the fatigue life predictions in the Woven Fabric Reinforced Plastics. The rate of stiffness degradation (dE/dN) has been obtained from the constant amplitude fatigue testing of 8-ply coupons made from prepreg plain-weave woven carbon-carbon fabric having a polyester resin as the matrix material. The test coupons had three different ply stacking sequences, namely, the unidirectional (0)8,and two off axis plied (0,0,+45,-45)s, and (+45,-45,0,0)s orientations. The estimated fatigue lives obtained from the damage rate function dD/dN, which in turn was a function of the stiffness degradation rate dE/dN, were compared with the experimentally observed fatigue life data. It is shown that the stiffness degradation model provides reasonably good correlation between the analytically determined fatigue lives and the experimentally observed fatigue for the plain-weave woven Carbon-Carbon Fabric Reinforced Plastic Composites. (author)

  4. Recent Advances in 3D Printing of Aliphatic Polyesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Adriana Nicoleta; Brandabur, Călin

    2017-01-01

    3D printing represents a valuable alternative to traditional processing methods, clearly demonstrated by the promising results obtained in the manufacture of various products, such as scaffolds for regenerative medicine, artificial tissues and organs, electronics, components for the automotive industry, art objects and so on. This revolutionary technique showed unique capabilities for fabricating complex structures, with precisely controlled physical characteristics, facile tunable mechanical properties, biological functionality and easily customizable architecture. In this paper, we provide an overview of the main 3D-printing technologies currently employed in the case of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), two of the most important classes of thermoplastic aliphatic polyesters. Moreover, a short presentation of the main 3D-printing methods is briefly discussed. Both PLA and PHA, in the form of filaments or powder, proved to be suitable for the fabrication of artificial tissue or scaffolds for bone regeneration. The processability of PLA and PHB blends and composites fabricated through different 3D-printing techniques, their final characteristics and targeted applications in bioengineering are thoroughly reviewed. PMID:29295559

  5. Recent Advances in 3D Printing of Aliphatic Polyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Chiulan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing represents a valuable alternative to traditional processing methods, clearly demonstrated by the promising results obtained in the manufacture of various products, such as scaffolds for regenerative medicine, artificial tissues and organs, electronics, components for the automotive industry, art objects and so on. This revolutionary technique showed unique capabilities for fabricating complex structures, with precisely controlled physical characteristics, facile tunable mechanical properties, biological functionality and easily customizable architecture. In this paper, we provide an overview of the main 3D-printing technologies currently employed in the case of poly (lactic acid (PLA and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA, two of the most important classes of thermoplastic aliphatic polyesters. Moreover, a short presentation of the main 3D-printing methods is briefly discussed. Both PLA and PHA, in the form of filaments or powder, proved to be suitable for the fabrication of artificial tissue or scaffolds for bone regeneration. The processability of PLA and PHB blends and composites fabricated through different 3D-printing techniques, their final characteristics and targeted applications in bioengineering are thoroughly reviewed.

  6. Unravelling the distinct crystallinity and thermal properties of suberin compounds from Quercus suber and Betula pendula outer barks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Andreia F; Gandini, Alessandro; Caetano, Ana; Maria, Teresa M R; Freire, Carmen S R; Neto, Carlos Pascoal; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2016-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of suberin (a naturally occurring aromatic-aliphatic polyester ubiquitous to the vegetable realm) as a renewable source of chemicals and, in particular, to assess their physical properties. A comparison between cork and birch suberin fragments obtained by conventional depolymerisation processes (hydrolysis or methanolysis) is provided, focusing essentially on their thermal and crystallinity properties. It was found that suberin fragments obtained by the hydrolysis depolymerisation of birch had a high degree of crystallinity, as indicated by their thermal analysis and corroborated by the corresponding XRD diffractions, as opposed to hydrolysis-depolymerised cork suberin counterparts, which were essentially amorphous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gamma-irradiation effects to posttranslational modification and chaperon function of bovine α-crystalline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, K; Matsumoto, S.; Awakura, M.; Fujii, N.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of D-asparate (D-Asp) in αA-crystallin of the aged human eye and the cataract crystalline lens has been reported. Crystalline lens keeps the transparency by forming α-crystallin which consists of a high order association of αA-and αB-crystallin. Bovine α-crystallin for investigating a chaperone function which protects the crystalline lens from getting to opaque or disordered agglutination with heat or light, is irradiated by gamma-ray (Co-60) at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 kGy, respectively. The irradiated bovine α-crystallin are analyzed with electrophoresis, gel permeation chromatograph, and UV absorption spectrometer for checking on the agglutination and the isomerization of macromolecules. Oxidation of methionine residues (Met-1) and isomerization of asparagine residues (Asp-151) in the αA-crystallin are ascertained in molecular levels with reversed phase liquid chromatography. The Met-1 oxidation and the Asp-151 isomerization depend on gamma-irradiation doses. It is thought that OH radical and H radical in water generated by the irradiation lead to the oxidation and the isomerization. Stereoinversion in the α-crystallin following to such a chemical change are considered to lead to the agglutination of polymer and the reduction of chaperon function. (M. Suetake)

  8. The Degradation of Mechanical Properties in Halloysite Nanoclay-Polyester Nanocomposites Exposed in Seawater Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shahneel Saharudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyester based polymers are extensively used in aggressive marine environments; however, inadequate data is available on the effects of the seawater on the polyester based nanocomposites mechanical properties. This paper reports the effect of seawater absorption on the mechanical properties degradation of halloysite nanoclay-polyester nanocomposites. Results confirmed that the addition of halloysite nanoclay into polyester matrix was found to increase seawater uptake and reduce mechanical properties compared to monolithic polyester. The maximum decreases in microhardness, tensile and flexural properties, and impact toughness were observed in case of 1 wt% nanoclay. The microhardness decreased from 107 HV to 41.7 HV (61% decrease. Young’s modulus decreased from 0.6 GPa to 0.4 GPa (33% decrease. The flexural modulus decreased from 0.6 GPa to 0.34 GPa (43% decrease. The impact toughness dropped from 0.71 kJ/m2 to 0.48 kJ/m2 (32% decrease. Interestingly, the fracture toughness KIC increased with the addition of halloysite nanoclay due to the plasticization effect of the resin matrix. SEM images revealed the significant reduction in mechanical properties in case of 1 wt% reinforcement which is attributed to the degradation of the nanoclay-matrix interface influenced by seawater absorption and agglomeration of halloysite nanoclay.

  9. Recent developments and future prospects on bio-based polyesters derived from renewable resources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Noreen, Aqdas; Zuber, Mohammad; Tabasum, Shazia; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A significantly growing interest is to design a new strategy for development of bio-polyesters from renewable resources due to limited fossil fuel reserves, rise of petrochemicals price and emission of green house gasses. Therefore, this review aims to present an overview on synthesis of biocompatible, biodegradable and cost effective polyesters from biomass and their prospective in different fields including packaging, coating, tissue engineering, drug delivery system and many more. Isosorbide, 2,4:3,5-di-O-methylene-d-mannitol, bicyclic diacetalyzed galactaric acid, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, citric, 2,3-O-methylene l-threitol, dimethyl 2,3-O-methylene l-threarate, betulin, dihydrocarvone, decalactone, pimaric acid, ricinoleic acid and sebacic acid, are some important monomers derived from biomass which are used for bio-based polyester manufacturing, consequently, replacing the petrochemical based polyesters. The last part of this review highlights some recent advances in polyester blends and composites in order to improve their properties for exceptional biomedical applications i.e. skin tissue engineering, guided bone regeneration, bone healing process, wound healing and wound acceleration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xiaohong, E-mail: yxhong1981_2004@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Faculty of Clothing and Design, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350121, Fujian (China); Xu, Wenzheng, E-mail: xwz8199@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Huang, Fenglin, E-mail: windhuang325@163.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Dongsheng, E-mail: mjuchen@126.com [Faculty of Clothing and Design, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350121, Fujian (China); Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by magnetron sputtering technique. • Ag film was easily oxidized into Ag{sub 2}O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. • The zinc film coated on the surface of Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. • Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film can obtained structural color. • The anti-ultraviolet and antistatic properties of polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film all were good. - Abstract: Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by using direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering and radio frequency (RF) magnetron reaction sputtering techniques with pure silver (Ag) and zinc (Zn) targets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the deposited film on the fabric. It was found that the zinc film coated on Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. Anti-ultraviolet property and antistatic property of the coated samples using different magnetron sputtering methods were also investigated. The experimental results showed that Ag film was oxidized into in Ag{sub 2}O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. The deposition of Zn film on the surface of the fabric coated with Ag film before RF reactive sputtering, could successfully obtained Ag/ZnO composite film, and also generated structural color on the polyester fabric.

  11. Physico-chemical studies of gamma-irradiated polyester. Impregnated cement mortar composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.R.; Afifi, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of impregnation time on the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of polyester-cement mortar composite has been investigated. The samples were soaked in unsaturated polyester resin containing 40% styrene monomer at impregnation times ranging from 1-15 hours and then exposed to 50 kGy of γ-irradiation. The effects on polymer loading, compressive strength, apparent porosity, and water absorption in addition to IR spectra and TGA of the samples were studied. It was found that, the polymer loading and compressive strength increase with the increased of soaking time up to 4 hours and there is no significant improvement of the polymer loading and strength. Whereas, the apparent porosity and water absorption behave in an opposite direction. These are attributed to the presence of polymer in the pores of the samples. IR spectra showed that, new bands appeared as result of the reaction between polyester and set cement. TGA showed that, the polyester cement composite has higher thermal stability as a compared to irradiated polyester. (author)

  12. Influence of fibre treatments on mechanical properties of short Sansevieria cylindrica/polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, V.S.; Ravindran, D.; Manikandan, V.; Narayanasamy, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fibre treatments were performed to improve interfacial bond between SCF and matrix. ► Mechanical properties of treated SCFP composites are greater than USCFP composites. ► PSCFP composites show maximum mechanical properties among treated SCFP composites. ► SEM analysis revealed that the wetting of PSCFs by the polyester resin was good. ► KMnO 4 treatment is ideal treatment for SCFs to get optimum mechanical properties. -- Abstract: In the present study, to improve the interfacial bond between Sansevieria cylindrica fibres (SCFs) and polyester matrix, chemical surface treatments have been performed on the fibres. Treatments including alkali, benzoyl peroxide, potassium permanganate and stearic acid were carried out to modify the fibre surface. Raw and each type of treated SCF samples were utilised separately for fabricating the composites. The mechanical properties of composites prepared from the chemically treated SCFs are found to be much better than those of the untreated ones. Potassium-permanganate-treated S. cylindrica fibre/polyester (PSCFP) composites showed optimum mechanical properties among the treated S. cylindrica fibre/polyester (SCFP) composites. The surface morphologies of fracture surfaces of composites were recorded using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM micrographs reveal that interfacial bonding between potassium-permanganate-treated SCF (PSCF) and polyester matrix has significantly improved, suggesting that better dispersion of PSCF into the matrix has occurred upon potassium permanganate treatment of SCF.

  13. Composite Preparation of Wood Dust-Polyester-Coconut Choir Fiber Mixture for Particle Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto; Darsono; Padmono; Betty, Angesti

    2002-01-01

    Experiment on the use of γ-ray of Co 60 radiation has been used for curing of composite which made of wood dust, unsaturated polyester resin and coconut coir mixture. Composite was prepared by mixing of wood dust, polyester and coconut coir at a various mixture composition. Concentration of polyesters were 50, 55 and 60 % by weight based on saw dust and polyester mixture. Irradiation was conducted using 27,6 kCi acti vity Co 60 at a dose rate of 5 kGy/hrs and dose of 8, 10 and 12 kGy. Composite was also prepared conventionally by using peroxide catalyst. Parameters observed were density, pencil hardness and compression strength Experimental results showed that optimum condition wus achieved at irradiation dose of 12 kGy, polyester concentration of 60 % and coconut coir fiber of 4 %. In this condition, the density, hardness and compression strength were 1,115 g/cm 3, 5 Hand 6,815 kN/cm2 respectively. Density, hardness of composite prepared by radiation were almost the same whereas the compression strength was higher than that of composite prepared by conventional method

  14. Catalyst Influence on Undesired Side Reactions in the Polycondensation of Fully Bio-Based Polyester Itaconates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Schoon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based unsaturated polyester resins derived from itaconic acid can be an alternative to established resins of this type in the field of radical-curing resins. However, one of the challenges of these polyester itaconates is the somewhat more elaborate synthetic process, especially under polycondensation conditions used on an industrial scale. The α,β-unsaturated double bond of the itaconic acid is prone to side reactions that can lead to the gelation of the polyester resin under standard conditions. This is especially true when bio-based diols such as 1,3-propanediol or 1,4-butanediol are used to obtain resins that are 100% derived from renewable resources. It was observed in earlier studies that high amounts of these aliphatic diols in the polyester lead to low conversion and gelation of the resins. In this work, a catalytic study using different diols was performed in order to elucidate the reasons for this behavior. It was shown that the choice of catalyst has a crucial influence on the side reactions occurring during the polycondensation reactions. In addition, the side reactions taking place were identified and suppressed. These results will allow for the synthesis of polyester itaconates on a larger scale, setting the stage for their industrial application.

  15. Sensing of environmental pollutant by conductive composite from prepared from hyperbranched polymer-grafted carbon black and crystalline polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Chen, J.; Ogawa, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Shimizu, H.; Tsubokawa, N.; Maekawa, Y.; Yoshida, M.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The hyperbranched (HB) polymer-grafted (PG) carbon blacks (CB) have the possibility of utilizing as a support of catalyst and enzyme, and a curing agent of epoxy resin, because they have much terminal amino or hydroxyl groups. The postgrafting of crystalline polymer onto HB PG CB and the sensing of environmental pollutant by the conductive composite prepared from the polymer-postgrafted CB was discussed. The grafting of poly(amidoamide) onto CB surface was achieved by repeating either Michael addition of methyl acrylate to amino group on the surface or the amidation of the resulting terminal methyl ester group with ethylene diamine. HB polyester onto CB surface was grafted by stepwise growth of 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (bis-MPA) from surface carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on CB as a core in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA). The one-pot grafting of HB polyester onto CB as core was also achieved by the polycondensation of bis-MPA in the presence of p-TSA. Postgrafting of crystalline polymer onto HB polymer-grafted CB was achieved by the reaction of terminal amino or hydroxyl groups of grafted chain with COCl-terminated crystalline polymer. The electric resistance of the composite prepared from crystalline polymer-postgrafted CB was found to increase drastically in hexane, containing environmental pollutant, such as chloroform and trichloroethane, and returned immediately to the initial resistance when it was transferred into pure hexane. Based on the above results, it is concluded that the composite can be used as a novel sensor for environmental pollutant in solution

  16. Temperature-triggered release of a liquid cross-linker micro-encapsulated in a glassy polymer for low temperature curing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senatore, D.; Cate, ten A.T.; Laven, J.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.; With, de G.

    2013-01-01

    In order to prevent a liquid epoxy cross-linker from premature, Arrhenius-law predicted, reaction with an acid-functional polyester resin, the liquid cross-linker has been physically separated from the resin by encapsulation while release is only possible by a temperature-controlled trigger. The

  17. Design of multi materials combining crystalline and amorphous metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volland, A.; Ragani, J.; Liu, Y.; Gravier, S.; Suéry, M.; Blandin, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Elaboration of multi materials associating metallic glasses and conventional crystalline alloys by co-deformation performed at temperatures close to the glass transition temperature of the metallic glasses. ► Elaboration of filamentary metal matrix composites with a core in metallic glass by co extrusion. ► Sandwich structures produced by co-pressing. ► Detection of atomic diffusion from the glass to the crystalline alloys during the processes. ► Good interfaces between the metallic glasses and the crystalline alloys, as confirmed by mechanical characterisation. - Abstract: Multi materials, associating zirconium based bulk metallic glasses and crystalline metallic alloys like magnesium alloys or copper are elaborated by co-deformation processing performed in the supercooled liquid regions (SLR) of the bulk metallic glasses. Two processes are investigated: co-extrusion and co-pressing. In the first case, filamentary composites with various designs can be produced whereas in the second case sandwich structures are obtained. The experimental window (temperature, time) in which processing can be carried out is directly related to the crystallisation resistance of the glass which requires getting information about the crystallisation conditions in the selected metallic glasses. Thermoforming windows are identified for the studied BMGs by thermal analysis and compression tests in their SLR. The mechanical properties of the produced multi materials are investigated thanks to specifically developed mechanical devices and the interfaces between the amorphous and the crystalline alloys are characterised.

  18. The make up of crystalline bedrock - crystalline body and blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, M.; Huber, A.

    1986-01-01

    Statements of a geological nature can be made on the basis of investigations of the bedrock exposed in southern Black Forest and these can, in the form of prognoses, be applied to the crystalline Basement of northern Switzerland. Such statements relate to the average proportions of the main lithological groups at the bedrock surface and the surface area of the granite body. Some of the prognoses can be compared and checked with the results from the deep drilling programme in northern Switzerland. Further, analogical interferences from the situation in the southern Black Forest allow predictions to be made on the anticipated block structure of the crystalline Basement. (author)

  19. neutron transmission through crystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mesiry, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the neutron transmission through crystalline materials. Therefore a study of pyrolytic graphite (PG) as a highly efficient selective thermal neutron filter and Iron single crystal as a whole one, as well as the applicability of using their polycrystalline powders as a selective cold neutron filters is given. Moreover, the use of PG and iron single crystal as an efficient neutron monochromator is also investigated. An additive formula is given which allows calculating the contribution of the total neutron cross-section including the Bragg scattering from different )(hkl planes to the neutron transmission through crystalline iron and graphite. The formula takes into account their crystalline form. A computer CFe program was developed in order to provide the required calculations for both poly- and single-crystalline iron. The validity of the CFe program was approved from the comparison of the calculated iron cross-section data with the available experimental ones. The CFe program was also adapted to calculate the reflectivity from iron single crystal when it used as a neutron monochromator The computer package GRAPHITE, developed in Neutron Physics laboratory, Nuclear Research Center, has been used in order to provide the required calculations for crystalline graphite in the neutron energy range from 0.1 meV to 10 eV. A Mono-PG code was added to the computer package GRAPHITE in order to calculate the reflectivity from PG crystal when it used as a neutron monochromator.

  20. Diverse topics in crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Draeseke, A.; Sessler, A.M.; Li, Xiao-Ping

    1995-01-01

    Equations of motion are presented, appropriate to interacting charged particles of diverse charge and mass, subject to the external forces produced by various kinds of magnetic fields and radio-frequency (rf) electric fields in storage rings. These equations are employed in the molecular dynamics simulations to study the properties of crystalline beams. The two necessary conditions for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams are summarized. The transition from ID to 2D, and from 2D to 3D is explored, and the scaling behavior of the heating rates is discussed especially in the high temperature limit. The effectiveness of various cooling techniques in achieving crystalline states has been investigated. Crystalline beams made of two different species of ions via sympathetic cooling are presented, as well as circulating ''crystal balls'' bunched in all directions by magnetic focusing and rf field. By numerically reconstructing the original experimental conditions of the NAP-M ring, it is found that only at extremely low beam intensities, outside of the range of the original measurement, proton particles can form occasionally-passing disks. The proposed New ASTRID ring is shown to be suitable for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams of all dimensions