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Sample records for liquid azide salts

  1. Synthesis of radiolabelled aryl azides from diazonium salts: experimental and computational results permit the identification of the preferred mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sameer M; de Cózar, Abel; Gómez-Vallejo, Vanessa; Koziorowski, Jacek; Llop, Jordi; Cossío, Fernando P

    2015-05-28

    Experimental and computational studies on the formation of aryl azides from the corresponding diazonium salts support a stepwise mechanism via acyclic zwitterionic intermediates. The low energy barriers associated with both transition structures are compatible with very fast and efficient processes, thus making this method suitable for the chemical synthesis of radiolabelled aryl azides.

  2. Thermochemistry of organic azides revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Algarra, Manuel; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C.G.; Hierrezuelo, Jesús; López-Romero, Juan M.; Verevkin, Sergey P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pure samples of 4-nitro-phenyl azide, 1-octyl- and 1-decyl-azides were prepared. • Vapour pressures, sublimation and vaporization enthalpies measured by transpiration. • Enthalpy of formation of 1-alkyl azides measured by combustion calorimetry. • Enthalpy of fusion of 4-nitro-phenyl azide measured by DSC. • Experimental gas enthalpies of formation were in agreement with calculated by G4. - Abstract: Highly pure samples of 4-nitro-phenyl azide, 1-octyl azide and 1 decyl-azide were prepared for thermochemical studies. Vapour pressures over the solid and the liquid sample of 4-nitro-phenyl azide have been determined by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization/sublimation for this compound were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapour pressures. The molar enthalpy of fusion of 4-nitro-phenyl azide was measured by DSC. The measured data set for 4-nitro-phenyl azide was successfully checked for internal consistency. Molar enthalpies of vaporization of 1-octyl azide and 1 decyl-azide were measured by transpiration. The molar enthalpies of formation of the liquid 1-octyl azide and 1 decyl-azides were derived from the combustion calorimetry. New experimental results for these organic azides have been used to derive their molar enthalpies of formation in the gas state and for comparison with results from quantum-chemical method G4

  3. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure to a large amount of sodium azide by any route may cause these other health effects as well: Convulsions Low blood pressure Loss of consciousness Lung injury Respiratory failure leading to death Slow heart rate ...

  4. Development of High Throughput Salt Separation System with Integrated Liquid Salt Separation - Salt Distillation Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sangwoon; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, S. J.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. S.

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of a salt distiller should be sufficiently large to reach the throughput of uranium electro-refining process. In this study, an assembly composing a liquid separation sieve and a distillation crucible was developed for the sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation in the same tower. The feasibility of the sequential salt separation was examined by the rotation test of the sieve-crucible assembly and sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation. The adhered salt in the uranium deposits was removed successfully. The salt content in the deposits was below 0.1 wt% after the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation - salt distillation. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that efficient salt separation can be realized by the sequential operation of liquid salt separation and vacuum distillation in one distillation tower since the operation procedures are simplified and no extra operation of cooling and reheating is necessary.

  5. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  6. Novel Synthesis of 1,2,3-Triazoles via 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions of Alkynes to Azides in Ionic Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG,Ping(钟平); GUO,Sheng-Rong(郭圣荣)

    2004-01-01

    2-Azido-3,5-dichloropyridine and 2-azido-5-chloro-3-fluoropyridine were given by reaction of sodium azide with 2,3,5-trichloropyridine, 3,5-dichloro-2-fluoropyridine or 5-chloro-2,3-difiuoropyridine in ionic liquids.1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of 2-azido-3,5-dichloropyridine or 2-azido-5-chloro-3-fluoropyridine to alkynes in ionic liquids afforded the corresponding 1,4,5-trisubstituted [1,2,3]-triazoles in good yields and regioselectivities.

  7. Liquid Fluoride Salt Experimentation Using a Small Natural Circulation Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Heatherly, Dennis Wayne [ORNL; Williams, David F [ORNL; Elkassabgi, Yousri M. [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Caja, Joseph [Electrochemical Systems, Inc.; Caja, Mario [ORNL; Jordan, John [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Salinas, Roberto [Texas A& M University, Kingsville

    2014-04-01

    A small molten fluoride salt experiment has been constructed and tested to develop experimental techniques for application in liquid fluoride salt systems. There were five major objectives in developing this test apparatus: Allow visual observation of the salt during testing (how can lighting be introduced, how can pictures be taken, what can be seen) Determine if IR photography can be used to examine components submerged in the salt Determine if the experimental configuration provides salt velocity sufficient for collection of corrosion data for future experimentation Determine if a laser Doppler velocimeter can be used to quantify salt velocities. Acquire natural circulation heat transfer data in fluoride salt at temperatures up to 700oC All of these objectives were successfully achieved during testing with the exception of the fourth: acquiring velocity data using the laser Doppler velocimeter. This paper describes the experiment and experimental techniques used, and presents data taken during natural circulation testing.

  8. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    Heat transport is central to all thermal-based forms of electricity generation. The ever increasing demand for higher thermal efficiency necessitates power generation cycles transitioning to progressively higher temperatures. Similarly, the desire to provide direct thermal coupling between heat sources and higher temperature chemical processes provides the underlying incentive to move toward higher temperature heat transfer loops. As the system temperature rises, the available materials and technology choices become progressively more limited. Superficially, fluoride salts at {approx}700 C resemble water at room temperature being optically transparent and having similar heat capacity, roughly three times the viscosity, and about twice the density. Fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat-transport material at high temperatures. Fluoride salts have been extensively used in specialized industrial processes for decades, yet they have not entered widespread deployment for general heat transport purposes. This report does not provide an exhaustive screening of potential heat transfer media and other high temperature liquids such as alkali metal carbonate eutectics or chloride salts may have economic or technological advantages. A particular advantage of fluoride salts is that the technology for their use is relatively mature as they were extensively studied during the 1940s-1970s as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's program to develop molten salt reactors (MSRs). However, the instrumentation, components, and practices for use of fluoride salts are not yet developed sufficiently for commercial implementation. This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the technologies involved in liquid salt heat transport (LSHT) along with providing references to the more detailed primary information resources. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier MSR program. However, technology has evolved over the intervening years

  9. Molten salt hazardous waste disposal process utilizing gas/liquid contact for salt recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The products of a molten salt combustion of hazardous wastes are converted into a cooled gas, which can be filtered to remove hazardous particulate material, and a dry flowable mixture of salts, which can be recycled for use in the molten salt combustion, by means of gas/liquid contact between the gaseous products of combustion of the hazardous waste and a solution produced by quenching the spent melt from such molten salt combustion. The process results in maximizing the proportion of useful materials recovered from the molten salt combustion and minimizing the volume of material which must be discarded. In a preferred embodiment a spray dryer treatment is used to achieve the desired gas/liquid contact

  10. Continuous extraction of molten chloride salts with liquid cadmium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.S.; Basco, J.K.; Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    A pyrochemical method is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to provide contnuous multistage extractions between molten chloride salts and liquid cadmium alloys at 500 degrees C. The extraction method will be used to recover transuranic (TRU) elements from the process salt in the electroretiner used in the pyrochemical reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR is one of the Department of Energy's advanced power reactor concepts. The recovered TRU elements are returned to the electrorefiner. The extracted salt undergoes further processing to remove rare earths and other fission products so that most of the purified salt can also be returned to the electrorefiner, thereby extending the useful life of the process salt many times

  11. Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark; Sridhara, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-11

    The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a

  12. Lithium conducting ionic liquids based on lithium borate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygadlo-Monikowska, E.; Florjanczyk, Z.; Sluzewska, K.; Ostrowska, J.; Langwald, N.; Tomaszewska, A. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, ul. Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The simple reaction of trialkoxyborates with butyllithium resulted in the obtaining of new lithium borate salts: Li{l_brace}[CH{sub 3}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub n}O]{sub 3}BC{sub 4}H{sub 9}{r_brace}, containing oxyethylene substituents (EO) of n=1, 2, 3 and 7. Salts of n {>=} 2 show properties of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) of low glass transition temperature, T{sub g} of the order from -70 to -80 C. The ionic conductivity of the salts depends on the number of EO units, the highest conductivity is shown by the salt with n = 3; in bulk its ambient temperature conductivity is 2 x 10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} and in solution in cyclic propylene sulfite or EC/PC mixture, conductivity increases by an order of magnitude. Solid polymer electrolytes with borate salts over a wide concentration range, from 10 to 90 mol.% were obtained and characterized. Three types of polymeric matrices: poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) and two copolymers of acrylonitrile and butyl acrylate p(AN-BuA) were used in them as polymer matrices. It has been found that for systems of low salt concentration (10 mol.%) the best conducting properties were shown by solid polymer electrolytes with PEO, whereas for systems of high salt concentration, of the polymer-in-salt type, good results were achieved for PTMC as polymer matrix. (author)

  13. System Design Description Salt Well Liquid Pumping Dynamic Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARMSEN, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The Salt Well Liquid (SWL) Pumping Dynamic Simulation used by the single-shell tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Project is described. A graphical dynamic simulation predicts SWL removal from 29 SSTs using an exponential function and unique time constant for each SST. Increasing quarterly efficiencies are applied to adjust the pumping rates during fiscal year 2000

  14. Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

    2003-01-01

    The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value

  15. Solubility of inorganic salts in pure ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereiro, A.B.; Araújo, J.M.M.; Oliveira, F.S.; Esperança, J.M.S.S.; Canongia Lopes, J.N.; Marrucho, I.M.; Rebelo, L.P.N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We report the solubility of different conventional salts in several ionic liquids. ► The solubility was initially screened using a visual detection method. ► The most promising mixtures were quantitatively re-measured using an ATR–FTIR. - Abstract: The solubility of different conventional salts in several room-temperature ionic liquids – containing ammonium, phosphonium or imidazolium cations combined with acetate, sulfate, sulfonate, thiocyanate, chloride, tetracyano-borate, tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluoro-phosphate, L-lactate, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide or trifluoromethylsulfonate anions – were screened using a visual detection method. The most promising mixtures were then re-measured using an ATR–FTIR (Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infra Red) spectroscopy technique in order to accurately and quantitatively determine the corresponding solubility at 298.15 K.

  16. Photoionization of Sodium Salt Solutions in a Liquid Jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieves, G. A.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Herring-Captain, J.; Olanrewaju, B.; Aleksandrov, A.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Orlando, Thomas M.

    2008-06-05

    A liquid microjet was employed to examine the gas/liquid interface of aqueous sodium halide (Na+X-, X=Cl, Br, I) salt solutions. Laser excitation at 193 nm produced and removed cations of the form H+(H2O)n and Na+(H2O)m from liquid jet surfaces containing either NaCl, NaBr or NaI. The protonated water cluster yield varied inversely with increasing salt concentration, while the solvated sodium ion cluster yield varied by anion type. The distribution of H+(H2O)n at low salt concentration is identical to that observed from low-energy electron irradiated amorphous ice and the production of these clusters can be accounted for using a localized ionization/Coulomb expulsion model. Production of Na+(H2O)m is not accounted for by this model but requires ionization of solvation shell waters and a contact ion/Coulomb expulsion mechanism. The reduced yields of Na+(H2O)m from high concentration (10-2 and 10-1 M) NaBr and NaI solutions indicate a propensity for Br- and I- at the solution surfaces and interfaces. This is supported by the observation of multiphoton induced production and desorption of Br+ and I+ from the 10-2 and 10-1 M solution surfaces.

  17. Photoionization of Sodium Salt Solutions in a Liquid Jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieves, G. A.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Herring-Captain, J.; Olanrewaju, B.; Aleksandrov, A.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Orlando, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    A liquid microjet was employed to examine the gas/liquid interface of aqueous sodium halide (Na+X-, X=Cl, Br, I) salt solutions. Laser excitation at 193 nm produced and removed cations of the form H+(H2O)n and Na+(H2O)m from liquid jet surfaces containing either NaCl, NaBr or NaI. The protonated water cluster yield varied inversely with increasing salt concentration, while the solvated sodium ion cluster yield varied by anion type. The distribution of H+(H2O)n at low salt concentration is identical to that observed from low-energy electron irradiated amorphous ice and the production of these clusters can be accounted for using a localized ionization/Coulomb expulsion model. Production of Na+(H2O)m is not accounted for by this model but requires ionization of solvation shell waters and a contact ion/Coulomb expulsion mechanism. The reduced yields of Na+(H2O)m from high concentration (10-2 and 10-1 M) NaBr and NaI solutions indicate a propensity for Br- and I- at the solution surfaces and interfaces. This is supported by the observation of multiphoton induced production and desorption of Br+ and I+ from the 10-2 and 10-1 M solution surfaces

  18. Application of salting-out effect equation to modelling of liquid-liquid distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitsch, H.K.

    1986-03-01

    Physicochemical interpretation of salting-out is reviewed and effects of the medium on liquid-liquid distribution equilibria are described by two non-specific parameters of salting-out agents: total concentration of species in the aqueous phase and water activity. Thus extraction of a given constituent in various media can be forecasted with few data. Different uranyl and technetium (VII) extraction systems are analyzed to show the potentiality of the method. Coextraction of nitric acid and uranyl nitrate by tributyl phosphate is used to show the possibility of modelling complex distribution systems in industrial conditions [fr

  19. Membrane interactions of ionic liquids and imidazolium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Drücker, Patrick

    2018-06-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to their versatile properties such as negligible volatility, inflammability, high extractive selectivity and thermal stability. In general, RTILs are organic salts with a melting point below ~100 °C determined by the asymmetry of at least one of their ions. Due to their amphiphilic character, strong interactions with biological materials can be expected. However, rising attention has appeared towards their similarity and interaction with biomolecules. By employing structural modifications, the biochemical properties of RTILs can be designed to mimic lipid structures and to tune their hydrophobicity towards a lipophilic behavior. This is evident for the interaction with lipid-membranes where some of these compounds present membrane-disturbing effects or cellular toxicity. Moreover, they can form micelles or lipid-like bilayer structures by themselves. Both aspects, cellular effects and membrane-forming capacities, of a novel class of lipophilic imidazolium salts will be discussed.

  20. Fully recoverable rigid shape memory foam based on copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) using a salt leaching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Abeer A; Saed, Mohand; Yakacki, Christopher M; Song, Han Byul; Sowan, Nancy; Walston, Joshua J; Shah, Parag K; McBride, Matthew K; Stansbury, Jeffrey W; Bowman, Christopher N

    2018-01-07

    This study is the first to employ the use of the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) polymerization to form a tough and stiff, porous material from a well-defined network possessing a high glass transition temperature. The effect of the network linkages formed as a product of the CuAAC reaction, i.e., the triazoles, on the mechanical behavior at high strain was evaluated by comparing the CuAAC foam to an epoxy-amine-based foam, which consisted of monomers with similar backbone structures and mechanical properties (i.e., T g of 115 °C and a rubbery modulus of 1.0 MPa for the CuAAC foam, T g of 125 °C and a rubbery modulus of 1.2 MPa for the epoxy-amine foam). When each foam was compressed uniformly to 80% strain at ambient temperature, the epoxy-amine foam was severely damaged after only reaching 70% strain in the first compression cycle with a toughness of 300 MJ/m 3 . In contrast, the CuAAC foam exhibited pronounced ductile behavior in the glassy state with three times higher toughness of 850 MJ/m 3 after the first cycle of compression to 80% strain. Additionally, when the CuAAC foam was heated above T g after each of five compression cycles to 80% strain at ambient temperature, the foam completely recovered its original shape while exhibiting a gradual decrease in mechanical performance over the multiple compression cycles. The foam demonstrated almost complete shape fixity and recovery ratios even through five successive cycles, indicative of "reversible plasticity", making it highly desirable as a glassy shape memory foams.

  1. Containment of solidified liquid hazardous waste in domal salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenico, P.A.; Lerman, A.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the solidification of hazardous liquid waste has become a viable option in waste management. The solidification process results in an increased volume but more stable waste form that must be disposed of or stored in a dry environment. An environment of choice in south central Texas is domal salt. The salt dome currently under investigation has a water content of 0.002 percent by weight and a permeability less than one nanodarcy. A question that must be addressed is whether a salt dome has a particular set of attributes that will prevent the release of contaminants to the environment. From a regulatory perspective, a ''no migration'' petition must be approved by the U.S.E.P.A. for the containment facility. By ''no migration'' it is implied that the waste must be contained for 10,000 years. A demonstration that this condition will be met will require model calculations and such models must be based on the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste form and the geologic environment. In particular, the models must address the rate of brine infiltration into the caverns, providing information on how fast an immobile solid waste form could convert to a more mobile liquid state. Additionally, the potential for migration by both diffusion and advection is of concern. Lastly, given a partially saturated cavern, the question of how far gaseous waste will be transported over the 10,000 year containment period must also be addressed. Results indicate that the containment capabilities of domal salt are exceptional. A nominal volume of brine will seep into the cavern and most voids between the injected solidified waste pellets will remain unsaturated. Very small quantities of hazardous constituents will be leached from the waste pellets

  2. Liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing secondary organic material free of inorganic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mijung; Liu, Pengfei; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2017-09-01

    Particles containing secondary organic material (SOM) are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a role in climate and air quality. Recently, research has shown that liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) occurs at high relative humidity (RH) (greater than ˜ 95 %) in α-pinene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts, while LLPS does not occur in isoprene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts. We expand on these findings by investigating LLPS at 290 ± 1 K in SOM particles free of inorganic salts produced from ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene, ozonolysis of limonene, and photo-oxidation of toluene. LLPS was observed at greater than ˜ 95 % RH in the biogenic SOM particles derived from β-caryophyllene and limonene while LLPS was not observed in the anthropogenic SOM particles derived from toluene. This work combined with the earlier work on LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts suggests that the occurrence of LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts is related to the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C) of the organic material. These results help explain the difference between the hygroscopic parameter κ of SOM particles measured above and below water saturation in the laboratory and field, and have implications for predicting the cloud condensation nucleation properties of SOM particles.

  3. Mutagenic azide metabolite is azidoalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owais, W.M.; Rosichan, J.L.; Ronald, R.C.; Kleinhofs, A.; Nilan, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Sodium axide produces high mutation rates in a number of species. Azide mutagenicity is mediated through a metabolite in barley and bacteria. Many studies showed that azide affects the L-cysteine biosynthesis pathway. Cell-free extracts of Salmonella typhimurium convert azide and O-acetylserine to the mutagenic metabolite. O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the metabolite biosynthesis. To confirm the conclusion that the azide metabolite is formed through the β-substitution pathway of L-cysteine, we radioactively labeled the azide metabolite using 14 C-labeled precursors. Moreover, the mutagenic azide metabolite was purified and identified as azidoalanine based on mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Thiophene-2-carbonyl azide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Findlater

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C5H3N3OS, is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation for the ten non-H atoms = 0.018 Å and forms an extended layer structure in the (100 plane, held together via hydrogen-bonding interactions between adjacent molecules. Of particular note is the occurrence of RC—H...N−=N+=NR interactions between an aromatic C—H group and an azide moiety which, in conjunction with a complementary C—H...O=C interaction, forms a nine-membered ring.

  5. Ionic diffusion and salt dissociation conditions of lithium liquid crystal electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yuria; Hirai, Kenichi; Murata, Shuuhei; Kishii, Yutaka; Kii, Keisuke; Yoshio, Masafumi; Kato, Takashi

    2005-06-16

    Salt dissociation conditions and dynamic properties of ionic species in liquid crystal electrolytes of lithium were investigated by a combination of NMR spectra and diffusion coefficient estimations using the pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR techniques. Activation energies of diffusion (Ea) of ionic species changed with the phase transition of the electrolyte. That is, Ea of the nematic phase was lower than that of the isotropic phase. This indicates that the aligned liquid crystal molecules prepared efficient conduction pathways for migration of ionic species. The dissociation degree of the salt was lower compared with those of the conventional electrolyte solutions and polymer gel electrolytes. This is attributed to the low concentration of polar sites, which attract the dissolved salt and promote salt dissociation, on the liquid crystal molecules. Furthermore, motional restriction of the molecules due to high viscosity and molecular oriented configuration in the nematic phase caused inefficient attraction of the sites for the salt. With a decreased dissolved salt concentration of the liquid crystal electrolyte, salt dissociation proceeded, and two diffusion components attributed to the ion and ion pair were detected independently. This means that the exchange rate between the ion and the ion pair is fairly slow once the salt is dissociated in the liquid crystal electrolytes due to the low motility of the medium molecules that initiate salt dissociation.

  6. Mesocarbon microbead based graphite for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yajuan, E-mail: yajuan.zhong@gmail.com [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Carbon Materials, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Zhang, Junpeng [CAS Key Laboratory of Carbon Materials, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Lin, Jun, E-mail: linjun@sinap.ac.cn [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Xu, Liujun [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Feng; Xu, Hongxia; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Haitao; Li, Ziwei; Zhu, Zhiyong [Center for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor System, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Guo, Quangui [CAS Key Laboratory of Carbon Materials, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) and quasi-isostatic pressing method were used to prepare MCMB based graphite (MG) for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor (MSR). Characteristics of mercury infiltration and molten salt infiltration in MG were investigated and compared with A3-3 (graphite for spherical fuel element in high temperature gas cooled reactor) to identify the infiltration behaviors. The results indicated that MG had a low porosity about 14%, and an average pore diameter of 96 nm. Fluoride salt occupation of A3-3 (average pore diameter was 760 nm) was 10 wt% under 6.5 atm, whereas salt gain did not infiltrate in MG even up to 6.5 atm. It demonstrated that MG could inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt effectively. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of MG lies in 6.01 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1} (α{sub ∥}) and 6.15 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1} (α{sub ⊥}) at the temperature range of 25–700 °C. The anisotropy factor of MG calculated by CTE maintained below 1.02, which could meet the requirement of the spherical fuel element (below 1.30). The constant isotropic property of MG is beneficial for the integrity and safety of the graphite used in the spherical fuel element for a MSR.

  7. Mesocarbon microbead based graphite for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Yajuan; Zhang, Junpeng; Lin, Jun; Xu, Liujun; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Hongxia; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Haitao; Li, Ziwei; Zhu, Zhiyong; Guo, Quangui

    2017-01-01

    Mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) and quasi-isostatic pressing method were used to prepare MCMB based graphite (MG) for spherical fuel element to inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt in molten salt reactor (MSR). Characteristics of mercury infiltration and molten salt infiltration in MG were investigated and compared with A3-3 (graphite for spherical fuel element in high temperature gas cooled reactor) to identify the infiltration behaviors. The results indicated that MG had a low porosity about 14%, and an average pore diameter of 96 nm. Fluoride salt occupation of A3-3 (average pore diameter was 760 nm) was 10 wt% under 6.5 atm, whereas salt gain did not infiltrate in MG even up to 6.5 atm. It demonstrated that MG could inhibit the infiltration of liquid fluoride salt effectively. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of MG lies in 6.01 × 10 −6 K −1 (α ∥ ) and 6.15 × 10 −6 K −1 (α ⊥ ) at the temperature range of 25–700 °C. The anisotropy factor of MG calculated by CTE maintained below 1.02, which could meet the requirement of the spherical fuel element (below 1.30). The constant isotropic property of MG is beneficial for the integrity and safety of the graphite used in the spherical fuel element for a MSR.

  8. Numerical study on heat transfer characteristics of liquid-fueled molten salt using OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol

    2017-01-01

    To pursue sustainability and safety enhancement of nuclear energy, molten salt reactor is regarded as a promising candidate among various types of gen-IV reactors. Besides, pyroprocessing, which treats molten salt containing fission products, should consider safety related to decay heat from fuel material. For design of molten salt-related nuclear system, it is required to consider both thermal-hydraulic characteristics and neutronic behaviors for demonstration. However, fundamental heat transfer study of molten salt in operation condition is not easy to be experimentally studied due to its large scale, high temperature condition as well as difficulties of treating fuel material. >From that reason, numerical study can have benefit to investigate behaviors of liquid-fueled molten salt in real condition. In this study, open source CFD package OpenFOAM was used to analyze liquid-fueled molten salt loop having internal heat source as a first step of research. Among various molten salts considered as a candidate of liquid fueled molten salt reactors, in this study, FLiBe was chosen as liquid salt. For simulating heat generation from fuel material within fluid flow, volumetric heat source was set for fluid domain and OpenFOAM solver was modified as fvOptions as customized. To investigate thermal-hydraulic behavior of molten salt, CFD model was developed and validated by comparing experimental results in terms of heat transfer and pressure drop. As preliminary stage, 2D cavity simulations were performed to validate the modeling capacity of modified solver of OpenFOAM by comparison with those of ANSYS-CFX. In addition, cases of external heat flux and internal heat source were compared to configure the effect of heat source setting in various operation condition. As a result, modified solver of OpenFOAM considering internal heat source have sufficient modeling capacity to simulate liquid-fueled molten salt systems including heat generation cases. (author)

  9. Thermal gradient brine inclusion migration in salt study: gas-liquid inclusions, preliminary model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.; Machiels, A.J.

    1979-10-01

    Natural salt deposits contain small cubical inclusions of brine distributed through the salt. Temperature gradients, resulting from storing heat-generating wastes in the salt, can cause the inclusions to move through the salt. Prediction of the rate and amount of brine-inclusion migration is necessary for the evaluation of bedded or domed salts as possible media for waste repositories. Inclusions filled exclusively with liquid migrate up the temperature gradient towards the heat source. The solubility of salt in the brine inclusion increases with temperature. Consequently, salt dissolves into the inclusion across the hot surface and crystallizes out at the cold surface. Diffusion of salt within the liquid phase from the hot to the cold faces causes the inclusions to move in the opposite direction. In so doing, they change shape and eventually become rectangular parallelipipeds with a width (dimension perpendicular to the thermal gradient) much larger than the thickness (dimension in the direction of the thermal gradient). The inclusions may also contain a gas phase predominantly consisting of water vapor. These entities are termed two-phase or gas-liquid inclusions. The two-phase inclusions usually migrate down the temperature gradient away from the heat source remaining more-or-less cubical. A two-phase inclusion also forms when an all-liquid inclusion reaches the waste package; upon opening up at the salt-package interface, the brine partially evaporates and the inclusion reseals with some insoluble gas trapped inside. These gas-liquid inclusions proceed to move down the temperature gradient, in the opposite sense of the all-liquid inclusions. The gas-liquid inclusions phenomenon provides a pathway by which radionuclides leached from the wasteform by the brine can be transported away from the waste package and thus might have greater access to the biosphere

  10. Neutronics of a liquid salt cooled - very high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakova, J.

    2007-01-01

    During last few years, the interest in the innovative, Liquid Salt cooled - Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR), has been growing. The preconceptual design of the LS-VHTR was suggested in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) [1] and nowadays, several research institutions contribute to the development of this concept. The LS-VHTR design utilises a prismatic, High Temperature Reactor (HTR) fuel [2] in combination with liquid salt as a coolant. This connection of high-performance fuel and a coolant with enhanced heat transfer abilities enables efficient and economical operation. Main objective of the LS-VHTR operation may be either an efficient electricity production or a heat supply for a production of hydrogen or, combination of both. The LS-VHTR is moderated by graphite. The graphite matrix of the fuel blocks, as well as the inner and outer core reflectors serve as a thermal buffer in case of an accident, and they provide a strong thermal feedback during normal reactor operation. The high inherent safety of the LS-VHTR meets the strict requirements on future reactor systems, as defined by the Gen IV project. This work, purpose, scope, contribution to the state-of-art: The design, used in the present work is based on the first ORNL suggestion [1]. Recent study is focused on comparison of the neutronic performance of two types of fuel in the LS-VHTR core, whereas, in all previous works, only uranium fuel has been investigated. The first type of fuel, which has been employed in the present analysis, is based on the spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel, whereas the second one consists of enriched uranium oxide. The results of such a comparison bring a valuable knowledge about limits and possibilities of the LS-VHTR concept, when employed as a spent fuel burner. Method:It is used a 3-D drawing of the LS-VHTR core, which contains 324x10 hexagonal fuel blocks. Each fuel block contains 216x10 fuel pins, which consists of TRISO particles incorporated into a graphite

  11. Characteristics of dry- and brine-salted salmon later treated with liquid smoke flavouring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. MARTINEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of smoke flavourings for the processing of salmon has begun to substitute traditional smoking methods. This review examines the quality issues associated with salted salmon ‘smoked’ by this technique along the salting and smoking steps. Firstly, the evidence is examined to determine whether dry or brine salting is better for salmon flesh destined to be treated by liquid smoking. Secondly, influence of liquid smoking on the sensorial, physicochemical and textural characteristics of the flesh are described, as are its effects on potential spoilage organisms.;

  12. Solution, thermal and optical properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s as ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Tae Soo; Koh, Jung Jae; Han, Haesook; Bhowmik, Pradip K.

    2013-01-01

    Bis(pyridinium salt)s containing different alkyl chain lengths and various organic counterions were prepared by the ring-transmutation reaction of bis(pyrylium tosylate) with aliphatic amines in dimethyl sulfoxide at 130–135 °C for 18 h and their tosylate counterions were exchanged to other anions such as triflimide, methyl orange, and dioctyl sulfosuccinate by the metathesis reaction in a common organic solvent. Their chemical structures were established by using 1 H, 19 F, and 13 C NMR spectra. The thermal properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s were studied by DSC and TGA measurements. Some of the dicationic salts provided low melting points below 100 °C and some of them displayed amorphous properties. Polarized optical microscopy studies revealed the crystal structures prior to melting temperatures in some cases. Their optical properties were examined by using UV–Vis and photoluminescent spectrometers; and they emitted blue light both in the solution and solid states regardless of their microstructures, counterions, and the polarity of organic solvents. However, most of these salts exhibited hypsochromic shifts in their emission peaks in the solid state when compared with those of their solution spectra. Due to unique properties of methyl orange anion as a pH indicator, two of the salts showed different color change in varying concentrations of triflic acid in common organic solvents, demonstrating their potential use as an acid sensor in methanol, acetonitrile and acetone. Highlights: ► Luminescent dicationic salts were synthesized by ring-transmutation and metathesis reactions. ► Thermal and optical properties of dicationic salts are affected by the size of anion structures. ► Due to the methyl orange counterions, some dicationic salts showed pH- sensing property

  13. Effects of sodium azide on the abundance of prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Winter

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is set to become the standard method for enumerating prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples. However, the samples need to be flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen directly after aldehyde fixation. Because liquid nitrogen may not always be available, we tested the potential of sodium azide as a preservative for prokaryotes and viruses in marine samples as a possible alternative. For that we conducted incubation experiments with untreated and sodium azide treated marine water samples at 4°C and room temperature. The data indicate that sodium azide cannot be used to maintain marine samples used for the enumeration of prokaryotes and viruses.

  14. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahna, S K; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit [Cytogenetics and Mycology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Government College, Ajmer (India)

    1990-07-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10{sup -6}, 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3}M) of sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}) for 4 hours at 28{+-} 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M{sub 2}.

  15. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahna, S.K.; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit

    1990-01-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10 -6 , 10 -5 , 10 -4 and 10 -3 M) of sodium azide (NaN 3 ) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M 2

  16. The electrodeposition and rare earths reduction in the molten salt actinides recovery systems using liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, J-B.; Lee, J-H.; Kwon, S-W.; Ahn, B-G.; Woo, M-S.; Lee, B-J.; Kim, E-H.; Park, H-S.; Yoo, J-H.

    2005-01-01

    A pyrochemical partitioning system uses liquid metals such as cadmium and bismuth in order to recover the actinide metals from a molten salt mixture containing rare earth fission product metals. The liquid metals play roles as a cathode in the electrowinning or an extracting phase in the reductive extraction operation. The product resulting from the above operations is metal-cadmium or-bismuth alloy, which should contain the rare earth element amounts as low as possible for a transmutation purpose. In this study, the electrodeposition behaviours of uranium and lanthanide elements such as La, Ce and Nd were investigated for solid molybdenum and liquid cadmium electrodes in a molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. Electrochemical methods used are a cyclic voltammetry (CV) and a chronopotentiometry for monitoring the salt phase and recovering the metals, respectively. The CV graphs for monitoring the oxidizing agent CdCl 2 in the salt phase were obtained. These show a time dependently disappearance of the oxidizing agent corresponding to the formation of UCl 3 by inserting the uranium metal into the salt. Also, a sequential oxidation technique which is added at a controlled amount of the oxidizing agents into the salt phase was applied. It was found that this method is feasible for the selective reduction of the rare earths content in liquid metal alloys. (author)

  17. Environmental Friendly Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reaction of Azides, Alkynes, and Organic Halides or Epoxides in Water: Efficient "Click" Synthesis of 1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives by Cu Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建明; 刘慕文; 岳园园; 姚美焕; 卓克垒

    2012-01-01

    An efficient click synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives from benzyl halides or alkyl halides, epoxides, terminal alkynes, and sodium azides in the presence of copper salts and relative benzimidazole salts have been developed. This procedure eliminates the need to handle potentially organic azides, which are generated in situ. A broad spec- trum of substrates can participate in the process effectively to produce the desired products in good yields.

  18. Neutronic design of a Liquid Salt-cooled Pebble Bed Reactor (LSPBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zwaan, S. J.; Boer, B.; Lathouwers, D.; Kloosterman, J. L.

    2006-01-01

    A renewed interest has been raised for liquid salt cooled nuclear reactors. The excellent heat transfer properties of liquid salt coolants provide several benefits, like lower fuel temperatures, higher coolant outlet temperatures, increased core power density and better decay heat removal. In order to benefit from the online refueling capability of a pebble bed reactor, the Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactor (LSPBR) is proposed. This is a high temperature pebble-bed reactor with a fuel design similar to existing HTRs, but using a liquid salt as a coolant. In this paper, the selection criteria for the liquid salt coolant are described. Based on its neutronic properties, LiF-BeF 2 (FLIBE) was selected for the LSPBR. Two designs of the LSPBR were considered: a cylindrical core and an annular core with a graphite inner reflector. Coupled neutronic-thermal hydraulic calculations were performed to obtain the steady state power distribution and the corresponding fuel temperatures. Finally, calculations were performed to investigate the decay heat removal capability in a protected loss-of-forced cooling accident. The maximum allowable power that can be produced with the LSPBR is hereby determined. (authors)

  19. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for the quantitative determination of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor quizartinib in mouse plasma using salting-out liquid-liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retmana, Irene A; Wang, Jing; Schinkel, Alfred H; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Sparidans, Rolf W

    2017-01-01

    A bioanalytical assay for quizartinib -a potent, and selective FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitor- in mouse plasma was developed and validated. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE), using acetonitrile and magnesium sulfate, was selected as sample pretreatment with deuterated quizartinib

  20. Thermal Aging of Anions in Ionic Liquids containing Lithium Salts by IC/ESI-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyschik, Marcelina; Kraft, Vadim; Passerini, Stefano; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal aging investigation of TFSI- and FSI- based ionic liquids and their mixtures with Li salts. • PYR 13 FSI shows thermal decomposition when mixed with LiPF 6 and LiClO 4 . • PYR 13 TFSI does not show any decomposition products with the electrolyte salts. • LiPF 6 dissolved in ionic liquids suffers of thermal aging as in conventional Li-ion battery electrolytes. - Abstract: The stability of 1-methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR 13 TFSI) and 1-methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR 13 FSI) ionic liquids at elevated temperatures (60 °C) is investigated by ion chromatography. Additionally, the influence of the electrolyte salts, lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6 ), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4 ), on the decomposition of both the ionic liquids was analysed over a long term stability study. It has been found out that TFSI has a much higher thermal stability than FSI. The addition of LiTFSI did not show any effect on the aging of both ionic liquid anions. However, PYR 13 FSI degraded when mixed with the electrolyte salts LiPF 6 and LiClO 4 , while PYR 13 TFSI did not. Finally, LiPF 6 forms the same hydrolysis products in the investigated ionic liquids as in the commonly used electrolytes based on organic solvents in lithium-ion batteries

  1. Dicyanamide Salts that Adopt Smectic, Columnar, or Bicontinuous Cubic Liquid-Crystalline Mesophases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geonhui; Goossens, Karel; Shin, Tae Joo; Bielawski, Christopher W

    2018-04-25

    Although dicyanamide (i.e., [N(CN) 2 ] - ) has been commonly used to obtain low-viscosity, halogen-free, room-temperature ionic liquids, liquid-crystalline salts containing such anions have remained virtually unexplored. Here we report a series of amphiphilic dicyanamide salts that, depending on their structures and compositions, adopt smectic, columnar, or bicontinuous cubic thermotropic liquid-crystalline mesophases, even at room temperature in some cases. Their thermal properties were explored by polarized light optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (including evolved gas analysis), and variable-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Comparison of the thermal phase characteristics of these new liquid-crystalline salts featuring "V-shaped" [N(CN) 2 ] - anions with those of structural analogues containing [SCN] - , [BF 4 ] - , [PF 6 ] - , or [CF 3 SO 3 ] - anions indicated that not only the size of the counterion but also its shape should be considered in the development of mesomorphic salts. Collectively, these discoveries may be expected to facilitate the design of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals that form inverted-type bicontinuous cubic and other sophisticated liquid-crystalline phases. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Electrochemical Behavior of La on Liquid Bi electrode in LiCl-KCl molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Beom Kyu; Han, Hwa Jeong; Park, Byung Gi [Soonchunyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Pyroprocessing technology aims to achieve a grouped and efficiently separation of all actinide for recycling with a sufficient decontamination of fission products generating the minimum. The main steps of the pyroprocess is electrowinning process, where the remaining elements in a molten salt after electrorifinning process. That process is U, MAs are concurrently recovered at the liquid metal. Recently, a study of the liquid metal and molten salt using an electrochemical is carried out in a variety of fields. However, there is deficient information about the electrode reaction of lanthanide and actinide on the liquid bismuth metal electrodes. In this paper, the electrochemical behavior of La(III), with liquid bismuth was investigated by the electrochemical method. The aim of this study is to investigate the electrochemical behavior of lanthanum or neodymium among lanthanides in molten LiCl-KCl salt at liquid metal bismuth electrode cyclic voltammetry and derive the thermochemical properties. The electrochemical behavior of La was studied in LiCl-KCl-LaCl{sub 3} molten salts using electrochemical techniques Cyclic Voltammetry on liquid Bi electrodes at 773K. During the process of cyclic voltammetry electrolysis, intermetallic compound were observed of La, Lax-Biy, Li-Bi. The diffusion coefficient of La was measured by cyclic voltemmetry and was found to be 8.18x10{sup -5}cm{sup 2}/s.

  3. Salt Marsh--Estuarine Ecosystem: A Liquid Asset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steever, E. Zell

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the salt marsh-estuarine ecosystem is provided. Topics discussed include: the general geologic history and formation of this ecosystem; physical and chemical parameters; variety; primary productivity; tidal zones; kind, sizes and abundance of vegetation; and the environmental factors influencing vegetation. (BT)

  4. Aluminium sensitized spectrofluorimetric determination of fluoroquinolones in milk samples coupled with salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qinghai; Yang, Yaling; Liu, Mousheng

    2012-10-01

    An aluminium sensitized spectrofluorimetric method coupled with salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction for the determination of four widely used fluoroquinolones (FQs) namely norfloxacin (NOR), ofloxacin (OFL), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and gatifloxacin (GAT) in bovine raw milk was described. The analytical procedure involves the fluorescence sensitization of aluminium (Al3+) by complexation with FQs, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction (SALLUE), followed by spectrofluorometry. The influence of several parameters on the extraction (the salt species, the amount of salt, pH, temperature and phase volume ratio) was investigated. Under optimized experimental conditions, the detection limits of the method in milk varied from 0.009 μg/mL for NOR to 0.016 μg/mL for GAT (signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) = 3). The relative standard deviations (RSD) values were found to be relatively low (0.54-2.48% for four compounds). The calibration graph was linear from 0.015 to 2.25 μg/mL with coefficient of determinations not less than 0.9974. The methodology developed was applied to the determination of FQs in bovine raw milk samples. The main advantage of this method is simple, accurate and green. The method showed promising applications for analyzing polar analytes especially polar drugs in various sample matrices.

  5. Thermal decomposition of nitrate salts liquid waste for the lagoon sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Lee, K. Y.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the thermal decomposition property of nitrate salts liquid waste which is produced in a series of the processes for the sludge treatment. Thermal decomposition property was analyzed by TG/DTA and XRD. Most ammonium nitrate in the nitrate salts liquid waste was decomposed at 250 .deg. C and calcium nitrate was decomposed and converted into calcium oxide at 550 .deg. C. Sodium nitrate was decomposed at 700 .deg. C and converted into sodium oxide which reacts with water easily. But sodium oxide was able to convert into a stable compound by adding alumina. Therefore, nitrate salts liquid waste can be treated by two steps as follows. First, ammonium nitrate is decomposed at 250 .deg. C. Second, alumina is added in residual solid sodium nitrate and calcium nitrate and these are decomposed at 900 .deg. C. Final residue consists of calcium oxide and Na 2 O.Al 2 O 3 and can be stored stably

  6. Engineering Database of Liquid Salt Thermophysical and Thermochemical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Matthias A. Ebner; Piyush Sabharwall; Phil Sharpe

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a review of thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of candidate molten salt coolants, which may be used as a primary coolant within a nuclear reactor or heat transport medium from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to a processing plant, for example, a hydrogen-production plant. Thermodynamic properties of four types of molten salts, including LiF-BeF2 (67 and 33 mol%, respectively; also known as FLiBe), LiF-NaF-KF (46.5, 11.5, and 52 mol%, also known as FLiNaK), and KCl-MgCl2 (67 and 33 mol%), and sodium nitrate-sodium nitrite-potassium nitrate (NaNO3–NaNO2–KNO3, (7-49-44 or 7-40-53 mol%) have been investigated. Limitations of existing correlations to predict density, viscosity, specific heat capacity, surface tension, and thermal conductivity, were identified. The impact of thermodynamic properties on the heat transfer, especially Nusselt number was also discussed. Stability of the molten salts with structural alloys and their compatibility with the structural alloys was studied. Nickel and alloys with dense Ni coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides but not so in chlorides. Of the chromium containing alloys, Hastelloy N appears to have the best corrosion resistance in fluorides, while Haynes 230 was most resistant in chloride. In general, alloys with increasing carbon and chromium content are increasingly subject to corrosion by the fluoride salts FLiBe and FLiNaK, due to attack and dissolution of the intergranular chromium carbide. Future research to obtain needed information was identified.

  7. Lead-Salt Quantum-Dot Ionic Liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng

    2010-03-08

    PbS quantum dots (QDs) are functionalized using ionic liquids with thiol moieties as capping ligands. The resulting amphiphilic QD ionic liquids exhibit fluidlike behavior at room temperature, even in the absence of solvents. The photostability of the QDs is dramatically improved compared to the as-synthesized oleic acid-capped QDs dispersed in toluene. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Cation effect on small phosphonium based ionic liquid electrolytes with high concentrations of lithium salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Kerr, Robert; Forsyth, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Ionic liquid electrolytes with high alkali salt concentrations have displayed some excellent electrochemical properties, thus opening up the field for further improvements to liquid electrolytes for lithium or sodium batteries. Fundamental computational investigations into these high concentration systems are required in order to gain a better understanding of these systems, yet they remain lacking. Small phosphonium-based ionic liquids with high concentrations of alkali metal ions have recently shown many promising results in experimental studies, thereby prompting us to conduct further theoretical exploration of these materials. Here, we conducted a molecular dynamics simulation on four small phosphonium-based ionic liquids with 50 mol. % LiFSI salt, focusing on the effect of cation structure on local structuring and ion diffusional and rotational dynamics—which are closely related to the electrochemical properties of these materials.

  9. Membrane formation in liquids by adding an antagonistic salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakane, Koichiro; Seto, Hideki

    2018-03-01

    Antagonistic salts are composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic ions. In a binary mixture, such as water and organic solvent, these ion pairs preferentially dissolve to those phases, respectively, and there is a coupling between the charge density and the composition. The heterogeneous distribution of ions forms a large electric double layer at the interface between these solvents. This reduces the interfacial tension between water and organic solvent, and stabilizes an ordered structure, such as a membrane. These phenomena have been extensively studied from both theoretical and experimental point of view. In addition, the numerical simulations can reproduce such ordered structures.

  10. Membrane Formation in Liquids by Adding an Antagonistic Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Sadakane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic salts are composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic ions. In a binary mixture, such as water and organic solvent, these ion pairs preferentially dissolve to those phases, respectively, and there is a coupling between the charge density and the composition. The heterogeneous distribution of ions forms a large electric double layer at the interface between these solvents. This reduces the interfacial tension between water and organic solvent, and stabilizes an ordered structure, such as a membrane. These phenomena have been extensively studied from both theoretical and experimental point of view. In addition, the numerical simulations can reproduce such ordered structures.

  11. The osmolyte xylitol reduces the salt concentration of airway surface liquid and may enhance bacterial killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabner, Joseph; Seiler, Michael P.; Launspach, Janice L.; Karp, Philip H.; Kearney, William R.; Look, Dwight C.; Smith, Jeffrey J.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2000-10-01

    The thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) contains antimicrobial substances that kill the small numbers of bacteria that are constantly being deposited in the lungs. An increase in ASL salt concentration inhibits the activity of airway antimicrobial factors and may partially explain the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF). We tested the hypothesis that an osmolyte with a low transepithelial permeability may lower the ASL salt concentration, thereby enhancing innate immunity. We found that the five-carbon sugar xylitol has a low transepithelial permeability, is poorly metabolized by several bacteria, and can lower the ASL salt concentration in both CF and non-CF airway epithelia in vitro. Furthermore, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, xylitol sprayed for 4 days into each nostril of normal volunteers significantly decreased the number of nasal coagulase-negative Staphylococcus compared with saline control. Xylitol may be of value in decreasing ASL salt concentration and enhancing the innate antimicrobial defense at the airway surface.

  12. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for the tyrosine kinase inhibitor afatinib in mouse plasma using salting-out liquid-liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparidans, Rolf W; van Hoppe, Stephanie; Rood, Johannes J M; Schinkel, Alfred H; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative bioanalytical liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) assay for afatinib, an irreversible inhibitor of the ErbB (erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog) tyrosine kinase family, was developed and validated. Plasma samples were pre-treated using salting-out

  13. Extraction of lithium from salt lake brine using room temperature ionic liquid in tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Chenglong; Jia, Yongzhong; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Hong; Jing, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed a new system for Li recovery from salt lake brine by extraction using an ionic liquid. • Cation exchange was proposed to be the mechanism of extraction followed in ionic liquid. • This ionic liquid system shown considerable extraction ability for lithium and the single extraction efficiency of lithium reached 87.28% under the optimal conditions. - Abstract: Lithium is known as the energy metal and it is a key raw material for preparing lithium isotopes which have important applications in nuclear energy source. In this work, a typical room temperature ionic liquid (RTILs), 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C 4 mim][PF 6 ]), was used as an alternative solvent to study liquid/liquid extraction of lithium from salt lake brine. In this system, the ionic liquid, NaClO 4 and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were used as extraction medium, co-extraction reagent and extractant respectively. The effects of solution pH value, phase ratio, ClO 4 − amount and other factors on lithium extraction efficiency had been investigated. Optimal extraction conditions of this system include the ratio of TBP/IL at 4/1 (v/v), O/A at 2:1, n(ClO 4 − )/n(Li + ) at 2:1, the equilibration time of 10 min and unadjusted pH. Under the optimal conditions, the single extraction efficiency of lithium was 87.28% which was much higher than the conventional extraction system. Total extraction efficiency of 99.12% was obtained by triple-stage countercurrent extraction. Study on the mechanism revealed that the use of ionic liquid increased the extraction yield of lithium through cation exchange in this system. Preliminary results indicated that the use of [C 4 mim][PF 6 ] as an alternate solvent to replace traditional organic solvents (VOCs) in liquid/liquid extraction was very promising

  14. Selective solid-liquid extraction of lithium halide salts using a ditopic macrobicyclic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Joseph M; Beatty, Alicia M; Smith, Bradley D

    2004-11-29

    A ditopic salt receptor that is known to bind and extract solid NaCl, KCl, NaBr, and KBr into organic solution as their contact ion pairs is now shown by NMR and X-ray crystallography to bind and extract solid LiCl and LiBr as water-separated ion pairs. The receptor can transport these salts from an aqueous phase through a liquid organic membrane with a cation selectivity of K+ > Na+ > Li+. However, the selectivity order is strongly reversed when the receptor extracts solid alkali metal chlorides and bromides into organic solution. For a three-component mixture of solid LiCl, NaCl, and KCl, the ratio of salts extracted and complexed to the receptor in CDCl3 was 94:4:2, respectively. The same strong lithium selectivity was also observed in the case of a three-component mixture of solid LiBr, NaBr, and KBr where the ratio of extracted salts was 92:5:3. This observation is attributed to the unusually high solubility of lithium salts in organic solvents. The study suggests that ditopic receptors with an ability to extract solid salts as associated ion pairs may have application in separation processes.

  15. Ion clustering in aqueous salt solutions near the liquid/vapor interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous NaCl, KCl, NaI, and KI solutions are used to study the effects of salts on the properties of the liquid/vapor interface. The simulations use the models which include both charge transfer and polarization effects. Pairing and the formation of larger ion clusters occurs both in the bulk and surface region, with a decreased tendency to form larger clusters near the interface. An analysis of the roughness of the surface reveals that the chloride salts, which have less tendency to be near the surface, have a roughness that is less than pure water, while the iodide salts, which have a greater surface affinity, have a larger roughness. This suggests that ions away from the surface and ions near the surface affect the interface in opposite ways.

  16. Determination of insoluble azides by thermometric titrimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, A P; Godinho, O E; Costa, J L

    1977-09-01

    A method for determination of azide, based on the thermometric titration of this anion with hydrochloric acid, is described. Although this reaction has a large enthalpy change (DeltaH = -3.6 kcal/ mole), sulphate is added as an endothermic thermometric indicator to improve the end-point. The application of the method to the analysis of insoluble azides has been studied.

  17. Salt-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction of Cr(VI) ion using an ionic liquid for preconcentration prior to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, B.; Shemirani, F.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the salt-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction of cationic complexes of Cr(VI) ion using the hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoraborate and potassium hydrogen phosphate. This is a novel, simple, non-toxic and effective technique for sample pretreatment technique that displays large extraction efficiency and represents a new platform where Cr(VI) is complexed with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) in sulfuric acid medium. It was applied to the extraction of Cr(VI) in the form of the Cr(VI)-DPC complex prior to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Cr(III) ion also can be determined by this procedure after oxidation to Cr(VI). Extraction is mainly affected by the amount of water-soluble IL, the kind and quantity of inorganic salts, by pH and the concentration of DPC. Calibration plots are linear in the range from 3 to 150 μg L -1 of Cr(VI), and the limit of detection is 1. 25 μg L -1 . The method was successfully applied to the speciation and determination of trace levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in environmental water samples containing high levels of dissolved salts or food grade salts. (author)

  18. Phosphoramidite accelerated copper(I)-catalyzed [3+2] cycloadditions of azides and alkynes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell-Verduyn, Lachlan S.; Mirfeizi, Leila; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2009-01-01

    Monodentate phosphoramidite ligands are used to accelerate the copper(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (CuAAC) rapidly yielding a wide variety of functionalized 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles; Cu(I) and Cu(II) salts both function as the copper source in aqueous

  19. Liquid–liquid phase separation in particles containing secondary organic material free of inorganic salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Particles containing secondary organic material (SOM are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a role in climate and air quality. Recently, research has shown that liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS occurs at high relative humidity (RH (greater than  ∼  95 % in α-pinene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts, while LLPS does not occur in isoprene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts. We expand on these findings by investigating LLPS at 290 ± 1 K in SOM particles free of inorganic salts produced from ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene, ozonolysis of limonene, and photo-oxidation of toluene. LLPS was observed at greater than  ∼  95 % RH in the biogenic SOM particles derived from β-caryophyllene and limonene while LLPS was not observed in the anthropogenic SOM particles derived from toluene. This work combined with the earlier work on LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts suggests that the occurrence of LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts is related to the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C of the organic material. These results help explain the difference between the hygroscopic parameter κ of SOM particles measured above and below water saturation in the laboratory and field, and have implications for predicting the cloud condensation nucleation properties of SOM particles.

  20. The effect of salt composition on reductive extraction of some typical elements from molten LiF-BeF2 salt into liquid bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotake, M.; Jun, O.; Kimikazu, M.; Kunimitsu, Y.; Yasunobu, T.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution coefficients of thorium and radium between molten LiF-BeF 2 and liquid bismuth solutions were measured at 600 0 C in support of the processing of the molten-salt breeder reactor (MSBR) fuel. The increasing mole fraction of LiF in the salt phase from 40 to 70 mol% resulted in the rapid decrease of the distribution coefficient of thorium and in the slow decrease of that of radium. A comprehensive correlation of distribution behavior with salt composition is given by taking into account the formation of complex ions. The equilibrium distribution data affirm that thorium and radium exist mainly as Li 2 ThF 6 and RaF 2 , respectively, in the salt phase. It is suggested that the lower mole fraction of LiF in the fuel salt is effective in the MSBR fuel processing

  1. Preparation of pyrolytic carbon coating on graphite for inhibiting liquid fluoride salt and Xe135 penetration for molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jinliang; Zhao, Yanling; He, Xiujie; Zhang, Baoliang; Xu, Li; He, Zhoutong; Zhang, DongSheng; Gao, Lina; Xia, Huihao; Zhou, Xingtai; Huai, Ping; Bai, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Rough laminar pyrolytic carbon coating (RLPyC) is prepared by a fixed-bed method. • The salt-infiltration into IG-110 is 13.5%, less than 0.01% of RLPyC under 1.5 atm. • The helium diffusion coefficient of RLPyC coated graphite is 2.16 × 10 −8 cm 2 /s. • The coated graphite can inhibit the liquid fluoride salt and Xe 135 penetration. - Abstract: A fixed-bed deposition method was used to prepare rough laminar pyrolytic carbon coating (RLPyC) on graphite for inhibiting liquid fluoride salt and Xe 135 penetration during use in molten salt breeder reactor. The RLPyC coating possessed a graphitization degree of 44% and had good contact with graphite substrate. A high-pressure reactor was constructed to evaluate the molten salt infiltration in the isostatic graphite (IG-110, TOYO TANSO CO., LTD.) and RLPyC coated graphite under 1.01, 1.52, 3.04, 5.07 and 10.13 × 10 5 Pa for 12 h. Mercury injection and molten-salt infiltration experiments indicated the porosity and the salt-infiltration amount of 18.4% and 13.5 wt% under 1.52 × 10 5 Pa of IG-110, which was much less than 1.2% and 0.06 wt% under 10.13 × 10 5 Pa of the RLPyC, respectively. A vacuum device was constructed to evaluate the Xe 135 penetration in the graphite. The helium diffusion coefficient of RLPyC coated graphite was 2.16 × 10 −12 m 2 /s, much less than 1.21 × 10 −6 m 2 /s of the graphite. Thermal cycle experiment indicated the coatings possessed excellent thermal stability. The coated graphite could effectively inhibit the liquid fluoride salt and Xe 135 penetration

  2. Coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and safety characteristics of liquid-fueled molten salt reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Dalin; Liu, Minghao; Liu, Limin; Xu, Rongshuan; Gong, Cheng; Su, Guanghui [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering

    2016-05-15

    Molten salt reactor (MSR) as one candidate of the Generation IV advanced nuclear power systems is attracted more attention in China due to its top ranked fuel cycle and thorium utilization. The MSRs are characterized by using liquid-fuel, which offers complicated coupling problem of neutronics and thermal hydraulics. In this paper, the fundamental model and numerical method are established to calculate and analyze the safety characteristics for liquid-fuel MSRs. The theories and methodologies are applied to the MOSART concept. The liquid-fuel flow effects on neutronics, reactivity coefficients and three operation parameters' influences at steady state are obtained, which provide the basic information for safety analysis. The unprotected loss of flow transient is calculated, the results of which shows the inherent safety characteristics of MOSART due to its strong negative reactivity feedbacks.

  3. Coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and safety characteristics of liquid-fueled molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Dalin; Liu, Minghao; Liu, Limin; Xu, Rongshuan; Gong, Cheng; Su, Guanghui

    2016-01-01

    Molten salt reactor (MSR) as one candidate of the Generation IV advanced nuclear power systems is attracted more attention in China due to its top ranked fuel cycle and thorium utilization. The MSRs are characterized by using liquid-fuel, which offers complicated coupling problem of neutronics and thermal hydraulics. In this paper, the fundamental model and numerical method are established to calculate and analyze the safety characteristics for liquid-fuel MSRs. The theories and methodologies are applied to the MOSART concept. The liquid-fuel flow effects on neutronics, reactivity coefficients and three operation parameters' influences at steady state are obtained, which provide the basic information for safety analysis. The unprotected loss of flow transient is calculated, the results of which shows the inherent safety characteristics of MOSART due to its strong negative reactivity feedbacks.

  4. Extraction of lithium from salt lake brine using room temperature ionic liquid in tributyl phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Chenglong [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Jia, Yongzhong [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China); Zhang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Liu, Hong [Qinghai Salt Chemical Products Supervision and Inspection Center, 816000 Golmud (China); Jing, Yan, E-mail: 1580707906@qq.com [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We proposed a new system for Li recovery from salt lake brine by extraction using an ionic liquid. • Cation exchange was proposed to be the mechanism of extraction followed in ionic liquid. • This ionic liquid system shown considerable extraction ability for lithium and the single extraction efficiency of lithium reached 87.28% under the optimal conditions. - Abstract: Lithium is known as the energy metal and it is a key raw material for preparing lithium isotopes which have important applications in nuclear energy source. In this work, a typical room temperature ionic liquid (RTILs), 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}]), was used as an alternative solvent to study liquid/liquid extraction of lithium from salt lake brine. In this system, the ionic liquid, NaClO{sub 4} and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were used as extraction medium, co-extraction reagent and extractant respectively. The effects of solution pH value, phase ratio, ClO{sub 4}{sup −} amount and other factors on lithium extraction efficiency had been investigated. Optimal extraction conditions of this system include the ratio of TBP/IL at 4/1 (v/v), O/A at 2:1, n(ClO{sub 4}{sup −})/n(Li{sup +}) at 2:1, the equilibration time of 10 min and unadjusted pH. Under the optimal conditions, the single extraction efficiency of lithium was 87.28% which was much higher than the conventional extraction system. Total extraction efficiency of 99.12% was obtained by triple-stage countercurrent extraction. Study on the mechanism revealed that the use of ionic liquid increased the extraction yield of lithium through cation exchange in this system. Preliminary results indicated that the use of [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}] as an alternate solvent to replace traditional organic solvents (VOCs) in liquid/liquid extraction was very promising.

  5. Ionic conductivity of ternary electrolyte containing sodium salt and ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egashira, Minato; Asai, Takahito; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ternary electrolyte containing NaBF 4 , polyether and ionic liquid has been prepared. ► The conductivity of the electrolytes has been evaluated toward content of ionic liquid. ► The conductivity shows maximum 1.2 mS cm −1 and is varied in relation to solution structure. - Abstract: For the development of novel non-aqueous sodium ion conductor with safety of sodium secondary cell, non-flammable ionic liquid is attractive as electrolyte component. A preliminary study has been carried out for the purpose of constructing sodium ion conducting electrolyte based on ionic liquid. The solubility of sodium salt such as NaBF 4 in ionic liquid is poor, thus the ternary electrolyte has been prepared where NaBF 4 with poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME) as coordination former is dissolved with ionic liquid diethyl methoxyethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DEMEBF 4 ). The maximum conductivity among the prepared solutions, ca. 1.2 mS cm −1 at 25 °C, was obtained when the molar ratio (ethylene oxide unit in PEGDME):NaBF 4 :DEMEBF 4 was 8:1:2. The relationship between the conductivity of the ternary electrolyte and its solution structure has been discussed.

  6. (Surfactant + polymer) interaction parameter studied by (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data of quaternary aqueous solution containing surfactant, polymer, and salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroutan, Masumeh [Physical Chemistry Department, School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, 14155-6455 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: foroutan@khayam.ut.ac.ir; Heidari, Nosrat; Mohammadlou, Maryam [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Uremia University, Uremia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sojahrood, Amin Jafari [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Uremia University, Uremia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data of quaternary aqueous system containing polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl ether (with abbreviation name Brij 58, non-ionic surfactant), diammonium hydrogen phosphate, and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) with three molar masses {l_brace}M{sub W} = (1000, 6000, and 35,000) g . mol{sup -1}{r_brace} have been determined experimentally at T = 313.15 K. Furthermore, the Flory-Huggins theory with two electrostatic terms (Debye-Hueckel and Pitzer-Debye-Hueckel equations) have been used to calculate the phase behavior of the quaternary systems and (surfactant + polymer) interaction parameter as well as interaction parameters between other species. Temperature dependency of the parameters of the Flory-Huggins theory has been obtained. Also an effort have been done to show that addition of PEG as well as increasing the temperature can shift the binodal curves of the ternary aqueous system containing surfactant and salt to lower mole fraction of salt. Also the effect of polymer molar mass on the binodal diagram displacement has been discussed.

  7. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte: Effect of lithium salt addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, G. P.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Performance characteristics of the solid-state supercapacitors fabricated with ionic liquid (IL) incorporated gel polymer electrolyte and acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have been studied. The effect of Li-salt (LiPF6) addition in the IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate, EMImFAP) based gel electrolyte on the performance of supercapacitors has been specifically investigated. The LiPF6/IL/poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte film possesses excellent electrochemical window of 4 V (from -2.0 to 2.0 V), high ionic conductivity ∼2.6 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 20 °C and high enough thermal stability. The comparative performance of supercapacitors employing electrolytes with and without lithium salt has been evaluated by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies. The acid-treated MWCNT electrodes show specific capacitance of ∼127 F g-1 with IL/LiPF6 containing gel polymer electrolyte as compared to that with the gel polymer electrolyte without Li-salt, showing the value of ∼76 F g-1. The long cycling stability of the solid state supercapacitor based on the Li-salt containing gel polymer electrolyte confirms the electrochemical stability of the electrolyte.

  8. A Diazonium Salt-Based Ionic Liquid for Solvent-FreeModification of Carbon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chengdu [ORNL; Huang, Jing-Fang [ORNL; Li, Zuojiang [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    A novel ionic liquid that consists of p-butylbenzenediazonium ions and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amidates (Tf{sub 2}N{sup -}) has been synthesized as a task-specific ionic liquid for the solvent-free modification of carbon materials. The use of anions Tf{sub 2}N{sup =} is the key to rendering the hydrophobicity, low liquidus temperature, and ionicity to this novel molten salt. This diazonium salt has a melting point of 7.2 C and a moderate electric conductivity of 527 {micro} s/cm at 25 C. The thermal stability of this diazonium ionic liquid has been investigated by high-resolution thermogravimetric analysis (HRTGA). The compound is stable up to about 90 C in nitrogen, which is only 10 C less than its solid tetrafluoroborate counterpart. The modification of carbon materials has been carried out through both thermal and electrochemical activations of diazonium ions to generate free radical intermediates without the use of any solvent. The surface-coverage loadings of 3.38 {micro} mol/m{sup 2} and 6.07 {micro} mol/m{sup 2} for covalently attached organic functionalities have been achieved by the thermally induced functionalization and electrochemically assisted reaction, respectively.

  9. Salting-out homogenous extraction followed by ionic liquid/ionic liquid liquid-liquid micro-extraction for determination of sulfonamides in blood by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongling; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Hanqi; Gu, Fanbin; Jin, Xiangqun

    2016-12-01

    Salting-out homogenous extraction followed by ionic liquid/ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction system was developed and applied to the extraction of sulfonamides in blood. High-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the determination of the analytes. The blood sample was centrifuged to obtain the serum. After the proteins in the serum were removed in the presence of acetonitrile, ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, ionic liquid 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate were added into the resulting solution. After the resulting mixture was ultrasonically shaken and centrifuged, the precipitate was separated. The acetonitrile was added in the precipitate and the analytes were extracted into the acetonitrile phase. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, such as volume of ionic liquid, amount of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, volume of dispersant, extraction time and temperature were investigated. The limits of detection of sulfamethizole (STZ), sulfachlorpyridazine (SCP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and Sulfisoxazole (SSZ) were 4.78, 3.99, 5.21 and 3.77μgL -1 , respectively. When the present method was applied to the analysis of real blood samples, the recoveries of analytes ranged from 90.0% to 113.0% and relative standard deviations were lower than 7.2%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrodeposition of alkali and alkali-earth metals on liquid lead cathodes in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caravaca, C.; De Cordoba, G.

    2008-01-01

    Pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel leads to the dissolution as chlorides of fission products (FPs) that have to be removed in order to recycle the salt. Precipitation technique have been tested for the removal of these FPs in the LiCl-KCl, salt selected as reference, with different results. Salt decontamination from lanthanides can be easily achieved as solid precipitates of oxychlorides or single phosphates; however, for the alkaline and alkaline-earth metals this technique is not suitable. Within the EUROPART project (VI FP of the EC), a new route that consist of the electrodeposition of these FP on a liquid lead cathode (LLC) has been considered, including the Li and K constituting the electrolyte. First results obtained with Sr and Cs are presented herein. Although according to the thermodynamic potential values, the electrodeposition order on LLC is Ba, Sr, Li, K and Cs, during our experiments it was not possible to distinguish the electrochemical signals corresponding to the individual elements. (authors)

  11. Electrodeposition of alkali and alkali-earth metals on liquid lead cathodes in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaca, C.; De Cordoba, G. [CIEMAT/DE/DFN/URAA. Avda. Complutense, 22. 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel leads to the dissolution as chlorides of fission products (FPs) that have to be removed in order to recycle the salt. Precipitation technique have been tested for the removal of these FPs in the LiCl-KCl, salt selected as reference, with different results. Salt decontamination from lanthanides can be easily achieved as solid precipitates of oxychlorides or single phosphates; however, for the alkaline and alkaline-earth metals this technique is not suitable. Within the EUROPART project (VI FP of the EC), a new route that consist of the electrodeposition of these FP on a liquid lead cathode (LLC) has been considered, including the Li and K constituting the electrolyte. First results obtained with Sr and Cs are presented herein. Although according to the thermodynamic potential values, the electrodeposition order on LLC is Ba, Sr, Li, K and Cs, during our experiments it was not possible to distinguish the electrochemical signals corresponding to the individual elements. (authors)

  12. Fast, simple and efficient salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction of naringenin from fruit juice samples prior to their enantioselective determination by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiera, Sylwia; Kwietniowska, Ewelina

    2016-11-15

    In this study, an easy, simple and efficient method for the determination of naringenin enantiomers in fruit juices after salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD) was developed. The sample treatment is based on the use of water-miscible acetonitrile as the extractant and acetonitrile phase separation under high-salt conditions. After extraction, juice samples were incubated with hydrochloric acid in order to achieve hydrolysis of naringin to naringenin. The hydrolysis parameters were optimized by using a half-fraction factorial central composite design (CCD). After sample preparation, chromatographic separation was obtained on a Chiralcel® OJ-RH column using the mobile phase consisting of 10mM aqueous ammonium acetate:methanol:acetonitrile (50:30:20; v/v/v) with detection at 288nm. The average recovery of the analyzed compounds ranged from 85.6 to 97.1%. The proposed method was satisfactorily used for the determination of naringenin enantiomers in various fruit juices samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and application of a system analysis code for liquid fueled molten salt reactors based on RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Chengbin; Cheng, Maosong; Liu, Guimin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New point kinetics and thermo-hydraulics models as well as a numerical method are added into RELAP5 code to be suitable for liquid fueled molten salt reactor. • The extended REALP5 code is verified by the experimental benchmarks of MSRE. • The different transient scenarios of the MSBR are simulated to evaluate performance during the transients. - Abstract: The molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of the six advanced reactor concepts declared by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), which can be characterized by attractive attributes as inherent safety, economical efficiency, natural resource protection, sustainable development and nuclear non-proliferation. It is important to make system safety analysis for nuclear power plant of MSR. In this paper, in order to developing a system analysis code suitable for liquid fueled molten salt reactors, the point kinetics and thermo-hydraulic models as well as the numerical method in thermal–hydraulic transient code Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5) developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are extended and verified by Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) experimental benchmarks. And then, four transient scenarios including the load demand change, the primary flow transient, the secondary flow transient and the reactivity transient of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) are modeled and simulated so as to evaluate the performance of the reactor during the anticipated transient events using the extended RELAP5 code. The results indicate the extended RELAP5 code is effective and well suited to the liquid fueled molten salt reactor, and the MSBR has strong inherent safety characteristics because of its large negative reactivity coefficient. In the future, the extended RELAP5 code will be used to perform transient safety analysis for a liquid fueled thorium molten salt reactor named TMSR-LF developed by the Center

  14. Development and application of a system analysis code for liquid fueled molten salt reactors based on RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Chengbin [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cheng, Maosong, E-mail: mscheng@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Liu, Guimin [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • New point kinetics and thermo-hydraulics models as well as a numerical method are added into RELAP5 code to be suitable for liquid fueled molten salt reactor. • The extended REALP5 code is verified by the experimental benchmarks of MSRE. • The different transient scenarios of the MSBR are simulated to evaluate performance during the transients. - Abstract: The molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of the six advanced reactor concepts declared by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), which can be characterized by attractive attributes as inherent safety, economical efficiency, natural resource protection, sustainable development and nuclear non-proliferation. It is important to make system safety analysis for nuclear power plant of MSR. In this paper, in order to developing a system analysis code suitable for liquid fueled molten salt reactors, the point kinetics and thermo-hydraulic models as well as the numerical method in thermal–hydraulic transient code Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5) developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are extended and verified by Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) experimental benchmarks. And then, four transient scenarios including the load demand change, the primary flow transient, the secondary flow transient and the reactivity transient of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) are modeled and simulated so as to evaluate the performance of the reactor during the anticipated transient events using the extended RELAP5 code. The results indicate the extended RELAP5 code is effective and well suited to the liquid fueled molten salt reactor, and the MSBR has strong inherent safety characteristics because of its large negative reactivity coefficient. In the future, the extended RELAP5 code will be used to perform transient safety analysis for a liquid fueled thorium molten salt reactor named TMSR-LF developed by the Center

  15. Separation of tungsten from molybdenum by liquid-liquid extraction and extraction chromatography using thiocyanate and a quarternary ammonium salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, C.; Onishi, H.

    1977-01-01

    Methods were developed for the separation of tungsten from molybdenum by liquid-liquid extraction and extraction chromatography using thiocyanate and a quaternary ammonium salt, Zephiramine. Tungsten was extracted into chloroform as an ion associate of tungsten(V)-thiocyanate complex and Zephiramine cation was retained on a column of Teflon powder coated with Zephiramine, but molybdenum(III) was neither extracted nor retained. The extraction chromatographic method was succesfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of tungsten in molybdenum by neutron activation analysis. The γ-ray spectrum, observed with the Ge(Li) detector, of tungsten fraction separated from irradiated molybdenum are shown. The peaks of 99 Mo, sup(99m)Tc, and sup(99m)Nb (produced by 92 Mo(n,p)sup(99m)Nb) were seen, but these nuclides did nit interfere with the determination of tungsten using a NaI(Tl) detector. The results of the neutron activation analysis of a sample of ammonium molybdate agreed quite well with that of the spectrophotometric determination after extraction chromatographic separation. (T.G.)

  16. Preparation of pyrolytic carbon coating on graphite for inhibiting liquid fluoride salt and Xe{sup 135} penetration for molten salt breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jinliang [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhao, Yanling, E-mail: jlsong1982@yeah.net [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); He, Xiujie; Zhang, Baoliang [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Xu, Li [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); He, Zhoutong; Zhang, DongSheng; Gao, Lina; Xia, Huihao; Zhou, Xingtai; Huai, Ping [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Bai, Shuo [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Rough laminar pyrolytic carbon coating (RLPyC) is prepared by a fixed-bed method. • The salt-infiltration into IG-110 is 13.5%, less than 0.01% of RLPyC under 1.5 atm. • The helium diffusion coefficient of RLPyC coated graphite is 2.16 × 10{sup −8} cm{sup 2}/s. • The coated graphite can inhibit the liquid fluoride salt and Xe{sup 135} penetration. - Abstract: A fixed-bed deposition method was used to prepare rough laminar pyrolytic carbon coating (RLPyC) on graphite for inhibiting liquid fluoride salt and Xe{sup 135} penetration during use in molten salt breeder reactor. The RLPyC coating possessed a graphitization degree of 44% and had good contact with graphite substrate. A high-pressure reactor was constructed to evaluate the molten salt infiltration in the isostatic graphite (IG-110, TOYO TANSO CO., LTD.) and RLPyC coated graphite under 1.01, 1.52, 3.04, 5.07 and 10.13 × 10{sup 5} Pa for 12 h. Mercury injection and molten-salt infiltration experiments indicated the porosity and the salt-infiltration amount of 18.4% and 13.5 wt% under 1.52 × 10{sup 5} Pa of IG-110, which was much less than 1.2% and 0.06 wt% under 10.13 × 10{sup 5} Pa of the RLPyC, respectively. A vacuum device was constructed to evaluate the Xe{sup 135} penetration in the graphite. The helium diffusion coefficient of RLPyC coated graphite was 2.16 × 10{sup −12} m{sup 2}/s, much less than 1.21 × 10{sup −6} m{sup 2}/s of the graphite. Thermal cycle experiment indicated the coatings possessed excellent thermal stability. The coated graphite could effectively inhibit the liquid fluoride salt and Xe{sup 135} penetration.

  17. Extended UNIQUAC Model for Correlation and Prediction of Vapor-Liquid-Liquid-Solid Equilibria in Aqueous Salt Systems Containing Non-Electrolytes. Part B. Alcohol (Ethanol, Propanols, Butanols) - Water-salt systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Iliuta, Maria Cornelia; Rasmussen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The Extended UNIQUAC model for electrolyte solutions is an excess Gibbs energy function consisting of a Debye-Huckel term and a term corresponding to the UNIQUAC equation. For vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations, the fugacities of gas-phase components are calculated with the Soave-Redlich-Kwong......The Extended UNIQUAC model for electrolyte solutions is an excess Gibbs energy function consisting of a Debye-Huckel term and a term corresponding to the UNIQUAC equation. For vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations, the fugacities of gas-phase components are calculated with the Soave...... solid-liquid-vapor equilibrium and thermal property data for strongly non-ideal systems. In this work, the model is extended to aqueous salt systems containing higher alcohols. The calculations are based on an extensive database consisting of salt solubility data, vapor liquid equilibrium data...

  18. New Pyrazolium Salts as a Support for Ionic Liquid Crystals and Ionic Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, María Jesús; Sánchez, Ignacio; Campo, José A; Schmidt, Rainer; Cano, Mercedes

    2018-04-03

    Ionic liquid crystals (ILCs) are a class of materials that combine the properties of liquid crystals (LCs) and ionic liquids (ILs). This type of materials is directed towards properties such as conductivity in ordered systems at different temperatures. In this work, we synthesize five new families of ILCs containing symmetrical and unsymmetrical substituted pyrazolium cations, with different alkyl long-chains, and anions such as Cl - , BF₄ - , ReO₄ - , p -CH₃-₆H₄SO₃ - (PTS) and CF₃SO₃ - (OTf). We study their thermal behavior by polarized light optical microscopy (POM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). All of them, except those with OTf as counteranion, show thermotropic mesomorphism. The observations by POM reveal textures of lamellar mesophases. Those agree with the arrangement observed in the X-ray crystal structure of [H₂pz R(4),R(4) ][ReO₄]. The nature of the mesophases is also confirmed by variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction. On the other hand, the study of the dielectric properties at variable temperature in mesomorphic (Cl - and BF₄ - ) and non-mesomorphic (OTf) salts indicates that the supramolecular arrangement of the mesophase favors a greater ionic mobility and therefore ionic conductivity.

  19. Distillation Separation of Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric Acid from Acid Waste Using the Salt Effect on Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideki; Sumoge, Iwao

    2011-03-01

    This study presents the distillation separation of hydrofluoric acid with use of the salt effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium for acid aqueous solutions and acid mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrofluoric acid + salt systems (fluorite, potassium nitrate, cesium nitrate) was measured using an apparatus made of perfluoro alkylvinylether. Cesium nitrate showed a salting-out effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Fluorite and potassium nitrate showed a salting-in effect on the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Separation of hydrofluoric acid from an acid mixture containing nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid was tested by the simple distillation treatment using the salt effect of cesium nitrate (45 mass%). An acid mixture of nitric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) and hydrofluoric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) was prepared as a sample solution for distillation tests. The concentration of nitric acid in the first distillate decreased from 5.0 mol · dm-3 to 1.13 mol · dm-3, and the concentration of hydrofluoric acid increased to 5.41 mol · dm-3. This first distillate was further distilled without the addition of salt. The concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid in the second distillate were 7.21 mol · dm-3 and 0.46 mol · dm-3, respectively. It was thus found that the salt effect on vapor-liquid equilibrium of acid mixtures was effective for the recycling of acids from acid mixture wastes.

  20. Controlling hazardous chemicals in microreactors: Synthesis with iodine azide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan C. Brandt

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic aldehydes have been converted into the corresponding carbamoyl azides using iodine azide. These reactions have been performed safely under continuous flow reaction conditions in microreactors.

  1. AZIDE-ALKYNE CLICK POLYMERIZATION: AN UPDATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-kun Li; Jing-zhi Sun; An-jun Qin; Ben Zhong Tang

    2012-01-01

    The great achievements of click chemistry have encouraged polymer scientists to use this reaction in their field.This review assembles an update of the advances of using azide-alkyne click polymerization to prepare functional polytriazoles (PTAs) with linear and hyperbranched structures.The Cu(Ⅰ)-mediated click polymerization furnishes 1,4-regioregular PTAs,whereas,the metal-free click polymerization of propiolates and azides produces PTAs with 1,4-regioisomer contents up to 90%.The PTAs display advanced functions,such as aggregation-induced emission,thermal stability,biocompatibility and optical nonlinearity.

  2. Annular core liquid-salt cooled reactor with multiple fuel and blanket zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Per F.

    2013-05-14

    A liquid fluoride salt cooled, high temperature reactor having a reactor vessel with a pebble-bed reactor core. The reactor core comprises a pebble injection inlet located at a bottom end of the reactor core and a pebble defueling outlet located at a top end of the reactor core, an inner reflector, outer reflector, and an annular pebble-bed region disposed in between the inner reflector and outer reflector. The annular pebble-bed region comprises an annular channel configured for receiving pebble fuel at the pebble injection inlet, the pebble fuel comprising a combination of seed and blanket pebbles having a density lower than the coolant such that the pebbles have positive buoyancy and migrate upward in said annular pebble-bed region toward the defueling outlet. The annular pebble-bed region comprises alternating radial layers of seed pebbles and blanket pebbles.

  3. Thermal-Hydraulics Phenomena Important in Modeling and Simulation of Liquid-Fuel Molten Salt Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajorek, Stephen; Diamond, David J.

    2018-11-11

    This paper discusses liquid-fuel molten salt reactors, how they will operate under normal, transient, and accident conditions, and the results of an expert elicitation to determine the corresponding thermalhydraulic phenomena important to understanding their behavior. Identifying these phenomena will enable the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop or identify modeling functionalities and tools required to carry out confirmatory analyses that examine the validity and accuracy of an applicant’s calculations and help determine the margin of safety in plant design. NRC frequently does an expert elicitation using a Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) to identify and evaluate the state of knowledge of important modeling phenomena. However, few details about the design of these reactors and the sequence of events during accidents are known, so the process used was considered a preliminary PIRT. A panel met to define phenomena that would need to be modeled and considered the impact/importance of each phenomenon with respect to specific figures-of-merit (FoMs) (e.g., salt temperature, velocity, and composition). Each FoM reflected a potential impact on radionuclide release or loss of a barrier to release. The panel considered what the path forward might be with respect to being able to model the phenomenon in a simulation code. Results are explained for both thermal and fast spectrum designs.

  4. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection following salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction for the analysis of benzimidazole residues in farm fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Casado, Carmen; Lara, Francisco J; García-Campaña, Ana M; Del Olmo-Iruela, Monsalud

    2018-03-30

    Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with fluorescence detection (FL) has been proposed for the first time to determine thirteen benzimidazoles (BZs) in farmed fish samples. In order to optimize the chromatographic separation, parameters such as mobile phase composition and flow rate were carefully studied, establishing a gradient mode with a mobile phase consisted of water (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The separation was performed on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus RRHD C 18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm), involving a total analysis time lower than 12 min. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) was applied as sample treatment to different types of farmed fish (trout, sea bream and sea bass). To obtain satisfactory extraction efficiencies for the studied analytes, several parameters affecting the SALLE procedure were optimized including the amount of sample, type and volume of the extraction solvent, and the nature and amount of the salt used. Characterization of the method in terms of performance characteristics was carried out, obtaining satisfactory results for the linearity (R 2  ≥ 0.997), repeatability (RSD ≤ 6.1%), reproducibility (RSD ≤ 10.8%) and recoveries (R ≥ 79%; RSD ≤ 7.8%). Detection limits between 0.04-29.9 μg kg -1 were obtained, demonstrating the applicability of this fast, simple and environmentally friendly method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation of salted meat products, e.g. cured bacon - by injecting liquid comprising meat proteins hydrolysed with enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation of salted meat products comprises the following:(1) meat is chopped into fine pieces and mixed with water to form a slurry; (2) enzymes hydrolyse proteins in the meat; (3) adding a culture to the resulting medium, which comprises short peptide chains or amino acids; (4) forming...... flavourings as the culture is growing, and (5) injecting the liquid into pieces of meat....

  6. Determination of Fusarium toxins in functional vegetable milks applying salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Ahmed M; Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura

    2017-11-01

    Vegetable milks are considered as functional foods due to their physiological benefits. Although the consumption of these products has significantly increased, they have received little attention in legislation with regard to contaminants. However, they may contain mycotoxins resulting from the use of contaminated raw materials. In this work, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been proposed for the determination of the most relevant Fusarium toxins (fumonisin B 1 and B 2 , HT-2 and T-2 toxins, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and fusarenon-X) in different functional beverages based on cereals, legumes and seeds. Sample treatment consisted of a simple salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction with no further clean-up. The method provided limits of quantification between 3.2 and 57.7 µg L -1 , recoveries above 80% and precision with RSD lower than 12%. The method was also applied for studying the occurrence of these mycotoxins in market samples of vegetable functional beverages and deoxynivalenol was found in three oat-based commercial drinks.

  7. Interference of dissolved salts in Cerenkov and liquid scintillation estimation of 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulhani, Vandana; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Reddy, Priyanka; Bhade, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    Quenching is the most important effect occurring in Cerenkov and LSC because it affects the efficiency of conversion of β particles into light. Bore well water samples are very often concentrated by evaporation to reduce the detection limit which can also increase the dissolved solid content (TDS) in the sample. Some ground waters are inherently having higher TDS. Self-absorption of beta-particle radiation by the sample especially the lower-energy beta particles depends on sample thickness and density. Environmental samples, after applying the radiochemical procedure, are also estimated by Cerenkov/LSC and might be affected by colour quenching. To get best measurements using Liquid Scintillation and Cerenkov radiations, it is necessary to avoid high salt concentrations and colors which may weaken energy transfers within scintillator cocktails and sample medium. Therefore the degree of self-absorption and quench should be evaluated and taken into account in the calibration. Efficiency is represented as a function spectral quench parameter of external standard SQP(E). The quenching effect of dissolved solids on the efficiency of estimation of 90 Sr by Cerenkov and Liquid Scintillation are studied

  8. Liquid Salt as Green Solvent: A Novel Eco-Friendly Technique to Enhance Solubility and Stability of Poorly Soluble Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anant A.

    As a result of tremendous efforts in past few decades, various techniques have been developed in order to resolve solubility issues associated with class II and IV drugs, However, majority of these techniques offer benefits associated with certain drawbacks; majorly including low drug loading, physical instability on storage and excessive use of environmentally challenging organic solvents. Hence, current effort was to develop an eco-friendly technique using liquid salt as green solvent, which can offer improvement in dissolution while maintaining long term stability. The liquid salt formulations (LSF) of poorly soluble model drugs ibuprofen, gemfibrozil and indomethacin were developed using 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate (EMIM ES) as a non-toxic and environmentally friendly alternate to organic solvents. Liquid medications containing clear solutions of drug, EMIM ES and polysorbate 20, were adsorbed onto porous carrier Neusilin US2 to form free flowing powder. The LSF demonstrated greater rate and extent of dissolution compared to crystalline drugs. The dissolution data revealed that more than 80% drug release from LSF within 20 mins compared to less than 18% release from pure drugs. As high as 70% w/w liquid loading was achieved while maintaining good flowability and compressibility. In addition, the LSF samples exposed to high temperature and high humidity i.e. 40°C/80% RH for 8 weeks, demonstrated excellent physical stability without any signs of precipitation or crystallization. As most desirable form of administration is tablet, the developed liquid salt formulations were transformed into tablets using design of experiment approach by Design Expert Software. The tablet formulation composition and critical parameter were optimized using Box-Behnken Design. This innovative liquid salt formulation technique offered improvement in dissolution rate and extent as well as contributed to excellent physical stability on storage. Moreover, this formulation

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations of the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of divalent salts and ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-González, Víctor; Docampo-Álvarez, Borja; Gallego, Luis J.; Varela, Luis M., E-mail: luismiguel.varela@usc.es [Grupo de Nanomateriais e Materia Branda, Departamento de Física da Materia Condensada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Cabeza, Oscar [Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruña, Campus A Zapateira s/n, E-15008 A Coruña (Spain); Fedorov, Maxim [Department of Physics, Scottish University Physics Alliance (SUPA), University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Bldg., 107 Rottenrow East, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Lynden-Bell, Ruth M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-28

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of a protic (ethylammonium nitrate) and an aprotic (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexaflurophosphate [BMIM][PF{sub 6}]) room-temperature ionic liquids doped with magnesium and calcium salts with a common anion at 298.15 K and 1 atm. The solvation of these divalent cations in dense ionic environments is analyzed by means of apparent molar volumes of the mixtures, radial distribution functions, and coordination numbers. For the protic mixtures, the effect of salt concentration on the network of hydrogen bonds is also considered. Moreover, single-particle dynamics of the salt cations is studied by means of their velocity autocorrelation functions and vibrational densities of states, explicitly analyzing the influence of salt concentration, and cation charge and mass on these magnitudes. The effect of the valency of the salt cation on these properties is considered comparing the results with those for the corresponding mixtures with lithium salts. We found that the main structural and dynamic features of the local solvation of divalent cations in ionic liquids are similar to those of monovalent salts, with cations being localized in the polar nanoregions of the bulk mixture coordinated in monodentate and bidentate coordination modes by the [NO{sub 3}]{sup −} and [PF{sub 6}]{sup −} anions. However, stronger electrostatic correlations of these polar nanoregions than in mixtures with salts with monovalent cations are found. The vibrational modes of the ionic liquid (IL) are seen to be scarcely affected by the addition of the salt, and the effect of mass and charge on the vibrational densities of states of the dissolved cations is reported. Cation mass is seen to exert a deeper influence than charge on the low-frequency vibrational spectra, giving a red shift of the vibrational modes and a virtual suppression of the higher energy vibrational modes for the heavier Ca{sup 2

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of divalent salts and ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-González, Víctor; Docampo-Álvarez, Borja; Gallego, Luis J.; Varela, Luis M.; Cabeza, Oscar; Fedorov, Maxim; Lynden-Bell, Ruth M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of a protic (ethylammonium nitrate) and an aprotic (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexaflurophosphate [BMIM][PF 6 ]) room-temperature ionic liquids doped with magnesium and calcium salts with a common anion at 298.15 K and 1 atm. The solvation of these divalent cations in dense ionic environments is analyzed by means of apparent molar volumes of the mixtures, radial distribution functions, and coordination numbers. For the protic mixtures, the effect of salt concentration on the network of hydrogen bonds is also considered. Moreover, single-particle dynamics of the salt cations is studied by means of their velocity autocorrelation functions and vibrational densities of states, explicitly analyzing the influence of salt concentration, and cation charge and mass on these magnitudes. The effect of the valency of the salt cation on these properties is considered comparing the results with those for the corresponding mixtures with lithium salts. We found that the main structural and dynamic features of the local solvation of divalent cations in ionic liquids are similar to those of monovalent salts, with cations being localized in the polar nanoregions of the bulk mixture coordinated in monodentate and bidentate coordination modes by the [NO 3 ] − and [PF 6 ] − anions. However, stronger electrostatic correlations of these polar nanoregions than in mixtures with salts with monovalent cations are found. The vibrational modes of the ionic liquid (IL) are seen to be scarcely affected by the addition of the salt, and the effect of mass and charge on the vibrational densities of states of the dissolved cations is reported. Cation mass is seen to exert a deeper influence than charge on the low-frequency vibrational spectra, giving a red shift of the vibrational modes and a virtual suppression of the higher energy vibrational modes for the heavier Ca 2+ cations. No qualitative

  11. Centrifugeless dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on salting-out phenomenon followed by high performance liquid chromatography for determination of Sudan dyes in different species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Arghavani-Beydokhti, Somayeh; Asghari, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a novel method, namely centrifugeless dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, is introduced for the efficient extraction of banned Sudan dyes from foodstuff and water samples. In this method, which is based upon the salting-out phenomenon, in order to accelerate the extraction process, the extraction solvent (1-undecanol, 75 μL) is dispersed into the sample solution. Then the mixture is passed through a small column filled with 5 g sodium chloride, used as a separating reagent. In this condition, fine droplets of the extraction solvent are floated on the mixture, and the phase separation is simply achieved. This method is environmentally friendly, simple, and very fast, so that the overall extraction time is only 7 min. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the preconcentration factors in the range of 90-121 were obtained for the analytes. Also good linearities were obtained in the range of 2.5-1200 ng mL -1 (r 2  ≥ 0.993). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neutronics Phenomena Important in Modeling and Simulation of Liquid-Fuel Molten Salt Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, David J.

    2018-11-11

    This paper discusses liquid-fuel molten salt reactors, how they will operate under normal, transient, and accident conditions, and the results of an expert elicitation to determine the corresponding neutronic phenomena important to understanding their behavior. Identifying these phenomena will enable the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop or identify modeling functionalities and tools required to carry out confirmatory analyses that examine the validity and accuracy of applicants’ calculations and help determine the margin of safety in plant design. NRC frequently does an expert elicitation using a Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) to identify and evaluate the state of knowledge of important modeling phenomena. However, few details about the design of these reactors and the sequence of events during accidents are known, so the process used was considered a preliminary PIRT. A panel met to define phenomena that would need to be modeled and considered the impact/importance of each phenomenon with respect to specific figures-of-merit (FoMs) (e.g., power distribution, fluence, kinetics parameters and reactivity). Each FoM reflected a potential impact on radionuclide release or loss of a barrier to release. The panel considered what the path forward might be with respect to being able to model the phenomenon in a simulation code. Results are explained for both thermal and fast spectrum designs.

  13. Investigation of an Alternative Fuel Form for the Liquid Salt Cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casino, William A. Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the recent studies investigating the use of liquid salts as reactor coolants have utilized a core configuration of graphite prismatic fuel block assemblies with TRISO particles embedded into cylindrical fuel compacts arranged in a triangular pitch lattice. Although many calculations have been performed for this fuel form in gas cooled reactors, it would be instructive to investigate whether an alternative fuel form may yield improved performance for the liquid salt-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This study investigates how variations in the fuel form will impact the performance of the LS-VHTR during normal and accident conditions and compares the results with a similar analysis that was recently completed for a LS-VHTR core made up of prismatic block fuel. (author)

  14. Sequential continuous flow processes for the oxidation of amines and azides by using HOF·MeCN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPake, Christopher B; Murray, Christopher B; Sandford, Graham

    2012-02-13

    The generation and use of the highly potent oxidising agent HOF·MeCN in a controlled single continuous flow process is described. Oxidations of amines and azides to corresponding nitrated systems by using fluorine gas, water and acetonitrile by sequential gas-liquid/liquid-liquid continuous flow procedures are reported. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Many-electron electrochemical processes. Reactions in molten salts, room-temperature ionic liquids and ionic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriiko, Aleksandr A. [National Technical Univ. Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine). Kyiv Polytechnic Inst.; Andriyko, Yuriy O. [CEST Centre of Electrochemical Surface Technology, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Nauer, Gerhard E. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    2013-02-01

    The authors provide a unified concept for understanding multi-electron processes in electrochemical systems such as molten salts, ionic liquids, or ionic solutions. A major advantage of this concept is its independence of assumptions like one-step many-electron transfers or 'discrete' discharge of complex species. This book contains the following main topics: 1. Many-electron electrochemical systems: Concepts and definitions. 2. Many-electron systems at equilibrium. 3. Phenomenology of electrochemical kinetics. 4. Electrode film systems: experimental evidences. 5. Dynamics of a non-equilibrium electrochemical system. 6. Electrochemistry of Ti(IV) in ionic liquids.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Benzimidazolium Salts as Novel Ionic Liquids and their Catalytic Behavior in the Reaction of Alkylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Guo HUANG; Bo CHEN; Yuan Yuan WANG; Li Yi DAI; Yong Kui SHAN

    2005-01-01

    A new series of ionic liquids have been prepared containing benzimidazolium cation (abbreviated as Bim). These salts were characterized by DSC, NMR, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. They showed different properties compared to imidazolium cation due to the introduction of benzene ring. The alkylation of benzene/diphenyl ether with 1-dodecene was carried in C4eBimBr-AlCl3 ionic liquids showing high catalytic activity when the mole ratio of C4eBimB:AlCl3 was 1:2.

  17. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be

  18. Confused ionic liquid ions--a "liquification" and dosage strategy for pharmaceutically active salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, Katharina; Rogers, Robin D

    2010-02-28

    We present a strategy to expand the liquid and compositional ranges of ionic liquids, specifically pharmaceutically active ionic liquids, by simple mixing with a solid acid or base to form oligomeric ions.

  19. Experimental Investigations into U/TRU Recovery using a Liquid Cadmium Cathode and Salt Containing High Rare Earth Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelly X. Li; Steven D. Herrmann; Michael F. Simpson

    2009-09-01

    Experimental Investigations into U/TRU Recovery using a Liquid Cadmium Cathode and Salt Containing High Rare Earth Concentrations Shelly X. Li, Steven D. Herrmann, and Michael F. Simpson Pyroprocessing Technology Department Idaho National Laboratory P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 USA Abstract - A series of six bench-scale liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) tests was performed to obtain basic separation data with focus on the behavior of rare earth elements. The electrolyte used for the tests was a mixed salt from the Mk-IV and Mk-V electrorefiners, in which spent metal fuels from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) had been processed. Rare earth (RE) chlorides, such as NdCl3, CeCl3, LaCl3, PrCl3, SmCl3, and YCl3, were spiked into the salt prior to the first test to create an extreme case for investigating rare earth contamination of the actinides collected by a LCC. For the first two LCC tests, an alloy with the nominal composition of 41U-30Pu-5Am-3Np-20Zr-1RE was loaded into the anode baskets as the feed material. The anode feed material for Runs 3 to 6 was spent ternary fuel (U-19Pu-10Zr). The Pu/U ratio in the salt varied from 0.6 to 1.3. Chemical and radiochemical analytical results confirmed that U and transuranics can be collected into the LCC as a group under the given run conditions. The RE contamination level in the LCC product was up to 6.7 wt% of the total metal collected. The detailed data for partitioning of actinides and REs in the salt and Cd phases are reported in the paper.

  20. Thio-phene-2-carbonyl azide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Gene C; Singer, Laci M; Cordes, David B; Findlater, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C5H3N3OS, is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation for the ten non-H atoms = 0.018 Å) and forms an extended layer structure in the (100) plane, held together via hydrogen-bonding inter-actions between adjacent mol-ecules. Of particular note is the occurrence of RC-H⋯N(-)=N(+)=NR inter-actions between an aromatic C-H group and an azide moiety which, in conjunction with a complementary C-H⋯O=C inter-action, forms a nine-membered ring.

  1. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of pyrethroid insecticides in high salinity and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zongliang; Yu, Chunwei; He, Xiaowen; Zhang, Jun; Wen, Yingying

    2017-09-05

    A salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of four pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) in high salinity and biological samples. Several parameters including sample pH, salting-out solution volume and salting-out solution pH influencing the extraction efficiency were systematically investigated with the aid of orthogonal design. The optimal extraction conditions of SALLE were: 4mL of salting-out solution with pH=4 and the sample pH=3. Under the optimum extraction and determination conditions, good responses for four PYRs were obtained in a range of 5-5000ng/mL, with linear coefficients greater than 0.998. The recoveries of the four PYRs ranged from 74% to 110%, with standard deviations ranging from 1.8% to 9.8%. The limits of detection based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were between 1.5-60.6ng/mL. The method was applied to the determination of PYRs in urine, seawater and wastewater samples with a satisfactory result. The results demonstrated that this SALLE-GC-MS method was successfully applied to determine PYRs in high salinity and biological samples. SALLE avoided the need for the elimination of salinity and protein in the sample matrix, as well as clean-up of the extractant. Most of all, no centrifugation or any special apparatus are required, make this a promising method for rapid sample preparation procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a robust ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction against high concentration of salt for preconcentration of trace metals in saline aqueous samples: Application to the determination of Pb and Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Seyed Reza; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2010-01-01

    A new ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method was developed for preconcentration and determination of compounds in aqueous samples containing very high salt concentrations. This method can solve the problems associated with the limited application of the conventional IL-based DLLME in these samples. This is believed to arise from dissolving of the ionic liquids in aqueous samples with high salt content. In this method, the robustness of microextraction system against high salt concentration (up to 40%, w/v) is increased by introducing a common ion of the ionic liquid into the sample solution. The proposed method was applied satisfactorily to the preconcentration of lead and cadmium in saline samples. After preconcentration, the settled IL-phase was dissolved in 100 μL ethanol and aspirated into the flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) using a home-made microsample introduction system. Several variables affecting the microextraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions and preconcentration of only 10 mL of sample, the enhancement factors of 273 and 311 and the detection limits of 0.6 μg L -1 and 0.03 μg L -1 were obtained for lead and cadmium, respectively. Validation of the method was performed by both an analysis of a certified reference material (CRM) and comparison of results with those obtained by ISO standard method.

  3. Salting-Out Assisted Liquid-Liquid Extraction for Quantification of Febuxostat in Plasma Using RP-HPLC and Its Pharmacokinetic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandel, Devang; Shah, Purvi; Patel, Kalpana; Thakkar, Vaishali; Patel, Kirti; Gandhi, Tejal

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using novel salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction technique has been developed for the quantitative determination of febuxostat (FEB), used for the treatment of gout, in rat plasma. The method was validated according to US FDA guideline. Separation was achieved using a Phenomenex Luna-C 18 (250 × 4.60 mm, 5 µm) column and mobile phase composed of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer 25 mM, adjusted to pH 6.8 with triethylamine:methanol in a ratio of 35:65 (v/v) showing retention time 5.56 and 8.86 min for FEB and internal standard, respectively. The optimal salting-out parameters; 1 mL of acetonitrile and 200 µL of 2 M ammonium acetate salt showed extraction recovery >90% for FEB from plasma. This extraction procedure afforded clear samples resulting in convenient and cost-saving procedure and showed good linear relationship (r > 0.9997) between peak area ratio and concentration from 0.3 to 20 µg/mL. The results of pharmacokinetic study showed that absorption profile of spherical agglomerate of FEB compared to marketed formulation was higher indicating greater systemic absorption. In conclusion, the developed SALLE-HPLC method with simple ultraviolet detection offered a number of advantages including good quantitative ability, wide linear range, high recovery, short analysis time as well as low cost. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Estimating the Application Rate of Liquid Chloride Products Based on Residual Salt Concentration on Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-21

    This technical report summarizes the results of laboratory testing on asphalt and concrete pavement. A known quantity of salt brine was applied as an anti-icer, followed by snow application, traffic simulation, and mechanical snow removal via simulat...

  5. Identification of Organic Iodine Compounds and Their Transformation Products in Edible Iodized Salt Using Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Lifen; Peng, Yue'e; Chang, Qing; Zhu, Qingxin; Guo, Wei; Wang, Yanxin

    2017-07-05

    The consumption of edible iodized salt is a key strategy to control and eliminate iodine deficiency disorders worldwide. We herein report the identification of the organic iodine compounds present in different edible iodized salt products using liquid chromatography combined with high resolution mass spectrometry. A total of 38 organic iodine compounds and their transformation products (TPs) were identified in seaweed iodine salt from China. Our experiments confirmed that the TPs were generated by the replacement of I atoms from organic iodine compounds with Cl atoms. Furthermore, the organic iodine compound contents in 4 seaweed iodine salt samples obtained from different manufacturers were measured, with significant differences in content being observed. We expect that the identification of organic iodine compounds in salt will be important for estimating the validity and safety of edible iodized salt products.

  6. Sodium Azide Associated Acute Hyperkalemia in a Swine Model of Sodium Azide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-16

    Sodium Azide Toxicity presented at/published to SURF , San Antonio, TX, 16 June 2017 in accordance with MDWI 41-108, has been approved and assigned local...Surgical Center (WHASC) internship and residency programs. 3. Please know that if you are a Graduate Health Sciences Education student and your... waves on electrocardiogram and continued acidosis (lactate mean 6.7 mmo/L). Statistics: Repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine statistically

  7. Use of water in aiding olefin/paraffin (liquid + liquid) extraction via complexation with a silver bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Thompson, Jillian; Zhou, Jingjing; Goodrich, Peter; Atilhan, Mert; Pensado, Alfonso S.; Kirchner, Barbara; Rooney, David; Jacquemin, Johan; Khraisheh, Majeda

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Silver-based ILs used as olefin extracting agents for olefin/paraffin mixtures. • Each extraction process is based on the olefin complexation and solvation. • The presence of water influences positively each extraction process. • Each extraction process was evaluated by DFT calculations, NMR, IR and Raman. • LLE data were then correlated by using the UNIQUAC model. - Abstract: This paper describes the extraction of C 5 –C 8 linear α-olefins from olefin/paraffin mixtures of the same carbon number via a reversible complexation with a silver salt (silver bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, Ag[Tf 2 N]) to form room temperature ionic liquids [Ag(olefin) x ][Tf 2 N]. From the experimental (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the olefin/paraffin mixtures and Ag[Tf 2 N], 1-pentene showed the best separation performance while C 7 and C 8 olefins could only be separated from the corresponding mixtures on addition of water which also improves the selectivity at lower carbon numbers like the C 5 and C 6 , for example. Using infrared and Raman spectroscopy of the complex and Ag[Tf 2 N] saturated by olefin, the mechanism of the extraction was found to be based on both chemical complexation and the physical solubility of the olefin in the ionic liquid ([Ag(olefin) x ][Tf 2 N]). These experiments further support the use of such extraction techniques for the separation of olefins from paraffins

  8. Determination of the diffusion coefficient of salts in non-Newtonian liquids by the Taylor dispersion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mey, Paula; Varges, Priscilla R.; Mendes, Paulo R. de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do RJ (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br

    2010-07-01

    This research looked for a method to determine the binary diffusion coefficient D of salts in liquids (especially in drilling fluids) not only accurately, but in a reasonable time. We chose to use the Taylor Dispersion Method. This technique has been used for measuring binary diffusion coefficients in gaseous, liquid and supercritical fluids, due to its simplicity and accuracy. In the method, the diffusion coefficient is determined by the analysis of the dispersion of a pulse of soluble material in a solvent flowing laminarly through a tube. This work describes the theoretical basis and the experimental requirements for the application of the Taylor Dispersion Method, emphasizing the description of our experiment. A mathematical formulation for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is presented. The relevant sources of errors are discussed. The experimental procedure and associated analysis are validated by applying the method in well known systems, such as NaCl in water.D of salts in liquids (especially in drilling fluids) not only accurately, but in a reasonable time. We chose to use the Taylor Dispersion Method. This technique has been used for measuring binary diffusion coefficients in gaseous, liquid and supercritical fluids, due to its simplicity and accuracy. In the method, the diffusion coefficient is determined by the analysis of the dispersion of a pulse of soluble material in a solvent flowing laminarly through a tube. This work describes the theoretical basis and the experimental requirements for the application of the Taylor Dispersion Method, emphasizing the description of our experiment. A mathematical formulation for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is presented. The relevant sources of errors are discussed. The experimental procedure and associated analysis are validated by applying the method in well known systems, such as NaCl in water. (author)

  9. A Simple Halide-to-Anion Exchange Method for Heteroaromatic Salts and Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Mesquida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A broad and simple method permitted halide ions in quaternary heteroaromatic and ammonium salts to be exchanged for a variety of anions using an anion exchange resin (A− form in non-aqueous media. The anion loading of the AER (OH− form was examined using two different anion sources, acids or ammonium salts, and changing the polarity of the solvents. The AER (A− form method in organic solvents was then applied to several quaternary heteroaromatic salts and ILs, and the anion exchange proceeded in excellent to quantitative yields, concomitantly removing halide impurities. Relying on the hydrophobicity of the targeted ion pair for the counteranion swap, organic solvents with variable polarity were used, such as CH3OH, CH3CN and the dipolar nonhydroxylic solvent mixture CH3CN:CH2Cl2 (3:7 and the anion exchange was equally successful with both lipophilic cations and anions.

  10. Actinide-Lanthanide separation by an electrolytic method in molten salt media: feasibility assessment of a renewed liquid cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet, A.

    2009-12-01

    This study is part of a research program concerning the assessment of pyrochemical methods for the nuclear waste processing. The An-Ln partitioning could be achieved by an electrolytic selective extraction in molten salt media. It has been decided to focus on liquid reactive cathode which better suits to a group actinides co-recycling. The aim of the study is to propose, define and initiate the development of an electrolytic pyro-process dedicated to the quantitative and selective recovery of the actinides. Quantitativeness is related to technology, whereas selectivity is governed by chemistry. The first step consisted in selecting the adequate operating conditions, which enables a sufficient An-Ln separation. The first step consisted, by means of thermodynamic calculi and electrochemical investigations, in selecting a promising combination between molten electrolyte and cathodic material, regarding the process constraints. To improve the recovery yield, it is necessary to develop a disruptive technology: here comes the concept of a dynamic electrodeposition carried out onto liquid metallic drops. The next step consisted in designing and manufacturing a lab-scale device which enables dropping flow studies. Since interfacial phenomena are of primary meaning in such a concept, it has been decided to focus on high temperature liquid-liquid interfacial measurements. (author)

  11. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of azides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Algarra, Manuel; Manuel Lopez-Romero, J.; Aguiar, Fabio; Enrique Rodriguez-Borges, J.; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We prepared and measured vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 7 azides. → We examined consistency of new and available in the literature data. → Data for geminal azides and azido-alkanes selected for thermochemical calculations. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of some azides have been determined by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. The measured data sets were successfully checked for internal consistency by comparison with vaporization enthalpies of similarly structured compounds.

  12. Surviving a massive sodium azide poisoning with toxic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Overtchouk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium azide poisoning is rare (~50 case reports but can be quickly fatal. A systematic review reported the fatal dose in humans to be over 10 mg/kg1. A 69 year-old female was admitted to our hospital for voluntary sodium azide poisoning. She ingested a massive dose of a soup spoon (15 g of pure sodium azide powder with intention to commit suicide without any co-intoxication. Within minutes, she felt nauseous and had several vomiting. She was immediately brought to the hospital.

  13. The material combining conducting polymer and ionic liquid: hydrogen bonding interactions between polyaniline and imidazolium salt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Dybal, Jiří; Trchová, Miroslava

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 197, November (2014), s. 168-174 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08944S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * conductivity * imidazolium salt Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2014

  14. Development of molten salt electrorefining process. Basic behavior of deposition on the stirred liquid cadmium cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondou, Naruhito; Koyama, Masashi; Iizuka, Masatoshi

    1996-01-01

    An impeller type liquid metal cathode has been studied by the authors for designing and developing a liquid cadmium cathode which is capable of collects the mixture of plutonium and uranium without formation of dendritic uranium. In this study, radial profile of the liquid surface was measured with various rotating speed and dimension of the impeller. Then, electrodepositions of zinc metal in the liquid gallium metal cathode was carried out for obtaining operational conditions such as current density and Reynolds number. The obtained result can be written in the following form, w c ∞i -1 ·N Re 0.3 , where w c is the maximum concentration in the liquid metal cathode, i is the cathode current density and N Re is the agitational Reynolds number. (author)

  15. Nonafluorobutanesulfonyl azide as a shelf-stable highly reactive oxidant for the copper-catalyzed synthesis of 1,3-diynes from terminal alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, José Ramón; Collado-Sanz, Daniel; Cárdenas, Diego J; Chiara, Jose Luis

    2015-01-16

    Nonafluorobutanesulfonyl azide is a highly efficient reagent for the copper-catalyzed coupling of terminal alkynes to give symmetrical and unsymmetrical 1,3-diynes in good to excellent yields and with good functional group compatibility. The reaction is extremely fast (<10 min), even at low temperature (−78 °C), and requires substoichiometric amounts of a simple copper(I) or copper(II) salt (2–5 mol %) and an organic base (0.6 mol %). A possible mechanistic pathway is briefly discussed on the basis of model DFT theoretical calculations. The quantitative assessment of the safety of use and shelf stability of nonafluorobutanesulfonyl azide has confirmed that this reagent is a superior and safe alternative to other electrophilic azide reagents in use today.

  16. Liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complexes of cobalt(II-4-(2-pyridylazoresorcinol with ditetrazolium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divarova Vidka V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation and liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complexes between Co(II-4-(2-Pyridylazoresorcinol (PAR anionic chelates and cations of three ditetrazolium chlorides were studied: Blue Tetrazolium chloride (BTC, Neotetrazolium chloride (NTC and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium chloride (NBT. The optimum conditions for the formation and solvent extraction of the ion-association comlpex chelates were determined. It has been found that in the systems of Co(II-PAR-DTS, the reactants are reacted in molar ratios 1:2:1 and the general formula of complexes was suggested. The extraction equilibria were investigated and quantitatively characterized by the equilibrium constants and the recovery factors. The analytical characteristics of the complexes were calculated.

  17. Effect of temperature on the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium for aqueous solution of nonionic surfactant and salt: Experimental and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroutan, Masumeh [Physical Chemistry Department, School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, 14155-6455 Enghelab Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: foroutan@khayam.ut.ac.ir; Heidari, Nosrat; Mohammadlou, Maryam [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Uremia University, Uremia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sojahrood, Amin Jafari [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Uremia University, Uremia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    The effect of temperature on the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium of the aqueous solution of surfactant polyoxyethylene cetylether (with abbreviation name Brij 58) and diammonium hydrogen phosphate has been investigated at T = (303.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K. The Flory-Huggins equation with two electrostatic terms (Debye-Huckle and Pitzer-Debye-Huckle equations) was used to correlate the phase behavior of this system. Good agreement has been found between experimental and calculated data from both models. The results indicated that the enlargement of the two-phase region upon increasing the temperature. Additionally temperature dependency of the parameters of the Flory-Huggins model has been calculated.

  18. Development of a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction: Application for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides from fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Feriduni, Behruz; Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza Afshar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction (CCSHLLE) followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides in fruit juice samples prior to their analysis by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In this method, initially, sodium chloride as a separation reagent is filled into a small column and a mixture of water (or fruit juice) and acetonitrile is passed through the column. By passing the mixture sodium chloride is dissolved and the fine droplets of acetonitrile are formed due to salting-out effect. The produced droplets go up through the remained mixture and collect as a separated layer. Then, the collected organic phase (acetonitrile) is removed with a syringe and mixed with 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (extraction solvent at µL level). In the second step, for further enrichment of the analytes the above mixture is injected into 5 mL de-ionized water placed in a test tube with conical bottom in order to dissolve acetonitrile into water and to achieve a sedimented phase at µL-level volume containing the enriched analytes. Under the optimal extraction conditions (extraction solvent, 1.5 mL acetonitrile; pH, 7; flow rate, 0.5 mL min(-1); preconcentration solvent, 20 µL 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; NaCl concentration; 5%, w/w; and centrifugation rate and time, 5000 rpm and 5 min, respectively), the extraction recoveries and enrichment factors ranged from 87% to 96% and 544 to 600, respectively. Repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviations, ranged from 2% to 6% for intra-day (n=6, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) and inter-days (n=4, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) precisions. Limits of detection are obtained between 2 and 12 µg L(-1). Finally, the proposed method is applied for the determination of the target pesticide residues in the juice samples. Copyright © 2015

  19. Spectroscopic Characterization of HAN-Based Liquid Gun Propellants and Nitrate Salt Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-15

    spectra were recorded of bubbles of a concentrated aqueous nitrate solution, mineral oil, and an aqueous surfactant solution. Polymethacrylic acid ...FTIR spectra of droplets of a concentrated aqueous nitrate salt based solution (LGP1845), of solid particles cf polymethacrylic acid packing IO, 3... polymethacrylic acid low density packing foam cut to a 3x4 mnn rectangle was levitated with a low acoustic power. The sample was easily I positioned in the

  20. Experimental study of vapor explosion of molten salt and low boiling point liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Yoshihiro; Takashima, Takeo

    1987-01-01

    Fundamental study of vapor explosion using small drops of high temperature liquid and low boiling point liquid and a series of small-scale vapor explosion tests are carried out. A single or plural drops of molten LiNO 3 are dropped into ethyl alcohol and the temperature range of two liquids wherein the fragmentation occurs is examined. The propagation phenomenon of vapor explosion between two drops is photographed and the pressure trace is proved to be well consistent with the behavior of the vapor bubble regions. A small amount of molten Flinak and tin which are enclosed in a test tube is dropped into tapped water. The temperature effect of two liquids onto the occurrence of vapor explosion is investigated. Some considerations are made with respect to the upper and lower temperature limits of vapor explosion to occur. A qualitative modeling of vapor explosion mechanism is proposed and discussed. (author)

  1. Effects of Coolant Temperature Changes on Reactivity for Various Coolants in a Liquid Salt Cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casino, William A. Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform an investigation into the relative merit of various salts and salt compounds being considered for use as coolants in the liquid salt cooled very high temperature reactor platform (LS-VHTR). Most of the non-nuclear properties necessary to evaluate these salts are known, but the neutronic characteristics important to reactor core design are still in need of a more extensive examination. This report provides a two-fold approach to further this investigation. First, a list of qualifying salts is assembled based upon acceptable non-nuclear properties. Second, the effect on system reactivity for a secondary system transient or an off-normal or accident condition is examined for each of these salt choices. The specific incident to be investigated is an increase in primary coolant temperature beyond normal operating parameters. In order to perform the relative merit comparison of each candidate salt, the System Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity is calculated for each candidate salt at various state points throughout the core burn history. (author)

  2. Effectiveness of sodium azide alone compared to sodium azide in combination with methyl nitrosurea for rice mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice seeds of the temperate japonica cultivar Kitaake were mutagenized with sodium azide alone and in combination with methyl nitrosourea. Using the reduced representation sequencing method Restriction Enzyme Sequence Comparative Analysis (RESCAN), the mutation densities, types and local sequence co...

  3. Cementation of liquid radioactive waste with high content of borate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, O.

    2015-01-01

    The report reviews the ways of optimization of cementation of boron-containing liquid radioactive waste. The most common way to hardening the low-level liquid radioactive waste (LRW) is the cementation. However, boron-containing liquid radioactive waste with low pH values cannot be cemented without alkaline additives, to neutralize acid forms of borate compounds. Cement setting without additives happens only on 14-56 days, the compounds have low strength, and hence an insufficient reliability of radionuclides fixation in the cement matrix. The alkaline additives increase the volume of the final cement compound which enhances financial and operational costs. In order to control the speed of hardening of cement solution with a boron-containing liquid radioactive waste and to remove the components that prevent hardening of cement solution, it is proposed an electromagnetic treatment of LRW in the vortex layer of ferromagnetic particles. The results of infrared spectroscopy show, that electromagnetic treatment of liquid radioactive waste changes the ionic forms of the borates and raises the pH due to the dissociation of the oxygen and hydrogen bonds in the aqueous solutions of the boron compounds. The various types of ferromagnetic activators of the vortex layer have been investigated, including the highly dispersed nano-powders and the magnetic phases of the iron oxides. It has been determined the technological parameters of the electromagnetic treatment of liquid radioactive waste and the subsequent cementation of this type of LRW. By using the method of scanning electron microscopy it has been shown, that the nano-particles of magnetic phases of the ferric oxides are involved in phase formation of hydro-aluminum-calcium ferrites in the early stages of hardening and improving strength of the cement compounds with liquid radioactive waste. (authors)

  4. Activity and conformation of lysozyme in molecular solvents, protic ionic liquids (PILs) and salt-water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, Emmy C; Separovic, Frances; Drummond, Calum J; Greaves, Tamar L

    2016-09-21

    Improving protein stabilisation is important for the further development of many applications in the pharmaceutical, specialty chemical, consumer product and agricultural sectors. However, protein stabilization is highly dependent on the solvent environment and, hence, it is very complex to tailor protein-solvent combinations for stable protein maintenance. Understanding solvent features that govern protein stabilization will enable selection or design of suitable media with favourable solution environments to retain protein native conformation. In this work the structural conformation and activity of lysozyme in 29 solvent systems were investigated to determine the role of various solvent features on the stability of the enzyme. The solvent systems consisted of 19 low molecular weight polar solvents and 4 protic ionic liquids (PILs), both at different water content levels, and 6 aqueous salt solutions. Small angle X-ray scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to investigate the tertiary and secondary structure of lysozyme along with the corresponding activity in various solvation systems. At low non-aqueous solvent concentrations (high water content), the presence of solvents and salts generally maintained lysozyme in its native structure and enhanced its activity. Due to the presence of a net surface charge on lysozyme, electrostatic interactions in PIL-water systems and salt solutions enhanced lysozyme activity more than the specific hydrogen-bond interactions present in non-ionic molecular solvents. At higher solvent concentrations (lower water content), solvents with a propensity to exhibit the solvophobic effect, analogous to the hydrophobic effect in water, retained lysozyme native conformation and activity. This solvophobic effect was observed particularly for solvents which contained hydroxyl moieties. Preferential solvophobic effects along with bulky chemical structures were postulated to result in less

  5. Salt-induced phase separation for the determination of metals as their diethyldithiocarbamate complexes by high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, B.J.; Lovett, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection can be used to determine trace levels of Pt(II), Pd(II), Rh(III), Co(III), Ru(III), and Ir in aqueous solution following complexation with diethyldithiocarbamate. The metal complexes are extracted into acetonitrile from aqueous solution by the addition of a saturated salt solution. Quantitative metal recovery from aqueous solution is achievable for most metals for a wide solution pH range. Detection limits for the metals are <3 ng of metal/mL of original aqueous sample. Analyses of real samples are highly reproducible and sensitive. Ir an interfere in the determination of Pt(II) and Rh(III). A general protocol for chromatographic separation and determination of Pt(II), Pd(II), Rh(III), Ru(III), and Ir in aqueous solution is presented

  6. Effect of lithium salts addition on the ionic liquid based extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Jie-Xing; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an ionic liquids (ILs) based extraction approach has been successfully applied to the extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos, and the effect of lithium chloride was also investigated. The results indicated that the oil yields can be increased by the ILs, and the extraction time can be reduced significantly (from 4h to 2h), compared with the conventional water distillation. The addition of lithium chloride showed different effect according to the structures of ILs, and the oil yields may be related with the structure of cation, while the chemical compositions of essential oil may be related with the anion. The reduction of extraction time and remarkable higher efficiency (5.41-62.17% improved) by combination of lithium salt and proper ILs supports the suitability of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrodeposition of americium on a liquid cadmium cathode from a molten salt bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplace, A.; Lacquement, J.; Maillard, C.; Donner, L.

    2004-01-01

    A high-activity experiment involving the electrode position of americium on a liquid cadmium cathode from a LiCl-KCl eutectic with about 3 g of AmO 2 was conducted in a shielded cell in the ATALANTE complex. After describing the electrolyzer and the experimental conditions, the authors discuss the preparation of the LiCl-KCl-AmCl 3 solution and briefly review its electrochemical properties. It was clearly confirmed that Am(III) reduction on an inert solid cathode occurs in two steps forming Am(II) before Am(0), whereas only one reduction step was observed on liquid cadmium. The main results of this study concern americium electrode position on the liquid cadmium cathode (recovery yields, current densities, problems encountered). The solvent properties of cadmium for actinide/lanthanide separation are discussed. (authors)

  8. Simple and rapid determination of 5-nitroimidazoles and metabolites in fish roe samples by salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction and UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mesa, Maykel; Cruces-Blanco, Carmen; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2018-06-30

    A novel multiresidue method is proposed for the determination of 12 5-nitroimidazoles and their metabolites in fish roe samples using UHPLC-MS/MS. A salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction procedure was performed prior to sample analysis. The separation of compounds was accomplished using a C18 Zorbax Eclipse Plus column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm) at 25 °C and a mobile phase consisting of 0.025% (v/v) aqueous formic acid and pure MeOH at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Parameters involved in ionization and fragmentation were also optimized. The method was characterized in terms of linearity (R 2  ≥ 0.9992), extraction efficiency (≥68.9%), repeatability (RSD ≤ 9.8%), reproducibility (RSD ≤ 13.9%) and trueness (recoveries ≥81.4%). Decision limits (CCα) and detection capabilities (CCβ) were obtained in the ranges 0.1-1.0 and 0.2-1.7 µg/kg, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Liquid-liquid reductive extraction in molten fluoride salt/liquid aluminium as a core of process for the An/Ln group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conocar, O.

    2007-06-01

    This report concerns a pyrochemical process based on liquid-liquid extraction in a molten fluoride/liquid aluminium system as a core process for actinide (An)/lanthanide (Ln) group separation, studied at CEA. The basic and demonstrative experiments have established the feasibility of the An/Ln group separation in the molten fluoride/liquid aluminium system (U, Pu, Np, Am, Cm traces from Nd, Ce, Eu, Sm, Eu, La - An/Ln separation factors over 1000 - An recovery yield over 98 % in one batch). The main experimental efforts must now be targeted on the recovery of actinides from the Al matrix. A thermodynamic and bibliographical survey has been done. It shows that back-extraction in a molten chloride melt could be a promising technique for this purpose

  10. Liquid-liquid reductive extraction in molten fluoride salt/liquid aluminium as a core of process for the An/Ln group separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conocar, O

    2007-06-15

    This report concerns a pyrochemical process based on liquid-liquid extraction in a molten fluoride/liquid aluminium system as a core process for actinide (An)/lanthanide (Ln) group separation, studied at CEA. The basic and demonstrative experiments have established the feasibility of the An/Ln group separation in the molten fluoride/liquid aluminium system (U, Pu, Np, Am, Cm traces from Nd, Ce, Eu, Sm, Eu, La - An/Ln separation factors over 1000 - An recovery yield over 98 % in one batch). The main experimental efforts must now be targeted on the recovery of actinides from the Al matrix. A thermodynamic and bibliographical survey has been done. It shows that back-extraction in a molten chloride melt could be a promising technique for this purpose.

  11. Chemico-technological support of transmutation objectives: Solid, molten salt and liquid blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, V.I.; Zakharkin, B.S.; Vakhrushin, A.Y. [VNIINM, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    Chemical and technological provision for the transmutation process, independantly on the scheme of its conduction, includes: fuel composition separation for fractions of components, subjected to annihilation; their transition into chemical form, in which they are present in the reactor; discharge and return into the form, convenient for chemical reprocessing, providing for the transmutation products separation from the components being transmutated and transferring of short-lived isotopes into the form of their temporary storage. The authors discuss different chemical processes which can be used in these steps to either improve efficiency or minimize additional waste generation and expense associated with decontamination. They consider processes involving molten salts for circulation of wastes thru transmutation steps, and possible advantages in extraction processes.

  12. Use of ferric- and ferrous-salts in liquid waste treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremenkov, V.M.; Toropov, I.G.; Toropova, V.V.; Satsukevich, V.M.; Davidov, J.P.; Jabrodsky, V.N.; Prokshin, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of spent decontamination solutions is the most complicated task in the whole problem of management of liquid radioactive waste, because quite often they have complex compositions, which makes it difficult to find for them effective and non-expensive treatment technology. New methods of treatment of such a waste is proposed based on use of specific sorption ability of ferro- and ferri-species in solution. These species are often present in solution as the by-products, and in combination with other components of decontamination solution they can be used as initial substances for synthesis of valuable sorbents directly in treating solution. Using specific compositions and conditions in solution, it is possible to make liquid waste treatment process more effective and less expensive. Particular examples of this process is presented in this work

  13. Rapid determination of triclosan in personal care products using new in-tube based ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Jen; Liu, Ya-Ting; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Ponnusamy, Vinoth Kumar; Jen, Jen-Fon

    2013-03-12

    This paper describes the development of a novel, simple and efficient in-tube based ultrasound-assisted salt-induced liquid-liquid microextraction (IT-USA-SI-LLME) technique for the rapid determination of triclosan (TCS) in personal care products by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection. IT-USA-SI-LLME method is based on the rapid phase separation of water-miscible organic solvent from the aqueous phase in the presence of high concentration of salt (salting-out phenomena) under ultrasonication. In the present work, an indigenously fabricated home-made glass extraction device (8-mL glass tube inbuilt with a self-scaled capillary tip) was utilized as the phase separation device for USA-SI-LLME. After the extraction, the upper extractant layer was narrowed into the self-scaled capillary tip by pushing the plunger plug; thus, the collection and measurement of the upper organic solvent layer was simple and convenient. The effects of various parameters on the extraction efficiency were thoroughly evaluated and optimized. Under optimal conditions, detection was linear in the concentration range of 0.4-100ngmL(-1) with correlation coefficient of 0.9968. The limit of detection was 0.09ngmL(-1) and the relative standard deviations ranged between 0.8 and 5.3% (n=5). The applicability of the developed method was demonstrated for the analysis of TCS in different commercial personal care products and the relative recoveries ranged from 90.4 to 98.5%. The present method was proven to be a simple, sensitive, less organic solvent consuming, inexpensive and rapid procedure for analysis of TCS in a variety of commercially available personal care products or cosmetic preparations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 25th anniversary article: "Cooking carbon with salt": carbon materials and carbonaceous frameworks from ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellinger, Tim-Patrick; Thomas, Arne; Yuan, Jiayin; Antonietti, Markus

    2013-11-06

    This review surveys recent work on the use of ionic liquids (ILs) and polymerized ionic liquids (PILs) as precursors to synthesize functional carbon materials. As solvents or educts with negligible vapour pressure, these systems enable simple processing, composition, and structural control of the resulting carbons under rather simple and green synthesis conditions. Recent applications of the resulting nanocarbons across a multitude of fields, such as fuel cells, energy storage in batteries and supercapacitors, catalysis, separation, and sorption materials are highlighted. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Rock-salt structure lithium deuteride formation in liquid lithium with high-concentrations of deuterium: a first-principles molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mohan; Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; Carter, Emily A.

    2016-01-01

    Because of lithium’s possible use as a first wall material in a fusion reactor, a fundamental understanding of the interactions between liquid lithium (Li) and deuterium (D) is important. We predict structural and dynamical properties of liquid Li samples with high concentrations of D, as derived from first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. Liquid Li samples with four concentrations of inserted D atoms (LiDβ , β =0.25 , 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00) are studied at temperatures ranging from 470 to 1143 K. Densities, diffusivities, pair distribution functions, bond angle distribution functions, geometries, and charge transfer between Li and D atoms are calculated and analyzed. The analysis suggests liquid-solid phase transitions can occur at some concentrations and temperatures, forming rock-salt LiD within liquid Li. We also observe formation of some D2 molecules at high D concentrations.

  16. Versatile lanthanide-azide complexes with azide/carboxylate/hydroxy mixed bridged chain exhibiting magnetic and luminescent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haichao; Xue Min; Guo Qian; Zhao Jiongpeng; Liu Fuchen; Ribas, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Two new lanthanide-azide complexes, [Ln 2 (N 3 )(isonic) 2 (OH) 3 (Hisonic)(H 2 O)] n (Ln=Yb for 1 and Tb for 2, isonic=isonicotinate), were obtained in hydrothermal condition. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the two complexes are isomorphic chain structure in which the Ln III ions are mixed bridged by the azide anions, hydroxyl anions and carboxylate groups of the isonicotinate ligands. Further studies indicated weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the Ln III ions in 1 and 2, and complex 2 exhibit green sensitized Luminescent character of Tb III ion. - Graphical abstract: Two new 1D lanthanide-azide complexes, [Ln 2 (N 3 )(isonic) 2 (OH) 3 (Hisonic)(H 2 O)] n (Ln=Yb III for 1 and Tb III for 2, isonic=isonicotinate), were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction and exhibit interesting magnetism and fluorescence properties. Highlights: ► The research provided a new method for synthesizing lanthanide-azide complexes. ► The complexes have an interesting azide/hydroxyl/carboxylate mixed bridged1D chain structure. ► The antiferromagnetic coupling between the complexes and 2 displays green luminescence.

  17. Applications of Azide-Based Bioorthogonal Click Chemistry in Glycobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Click chemistry is a powerful chemical reaction with excellent bioorthogonality features: biocompatible, rapid and highly specific in biological environments. For glycobiology, bioorthogonal click chemistry has created a new method for glycan non-invasive imaging in living systems, selective metabolic engineering, and offered an elite chemical handle for biological manipulation and glycomics studies. Especially the [3 + 2] dipolar cycloadditions of azides with strained alkynes and the Staudinger ligation of azides and triarylphosphines have been widely used among the extant click reactions. This review focuses on the azide-based bioorthogonal click chemistry, describing the characteristics and development of these reactions, introducing some recent applications in glycobiology research, especially in glycan metabolic engineering, including glycan non-invasive imaging, glycomics studies and viral surface manipulation for drug discovery as well as other applications like activity-based protein profiling and carbohydrate microarrays.

  18. Copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition polymer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Abeer Ahmed

    -CuAAC reaction and a chain-growth acrylate homopolymerization were demonstrated and used to form branched polymer structures. A bulk, organic soluble initiation system consisting of a Cu(II) salt and a primary amine was also examined in both model reactions and in bulk polymerizations. The system was shown to be highly efficient, leading to nearly complete CuAAC polymerization at ambient temperature. Increasing the ratio of amine to copper from 1 to 4 increases the CuAAC reaction rate significantly from 4 mM/min for 1:1 ratio of Cu(II):hexyalmine to 14mM/min for 1:4 ratio. The concentration dependence of the amine on the reaction rate enables the polymerization rate to be controlled simply by manipulating the hexylamine concentration. Sequential thiol--acrylate and photo-CuAAC click reactions were utilized to form two-stage reactive polymer networks capable of generating wrinkles in a facile manner. The click thiol-Michael addition reaction was utilized to form a cross-linked polymer with residual, reactive alkyne sites that remained tethered throughout the network. The latent, unreacted alkyne sites are subsequently reacted with diazide monomers via a photoinduced Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction to increase the cross-link density. Increased cross-linking raised the modulus and glass transition temperature from 1.6 MPa and 2 °C after the thiol-acrylate reaction to 4.4 MPa and 22 °C after the CuAAC reaction, respectively. The double click reaction approach led to micro-wrinkles with well-controlled wavelength and amplitude of 8.50 +/- 1.6 and 1.4 μm, respectively, for a polymer with a 1280 μm total film thickness. Additionally, this approach further enables spatial selectivity of wrinkle formation by photo-patterning. The CuAAC-based polymerization was also used to design smart, responsive porous materials from well-defined CuAAC networks, which possesses a high glass transition temperature (Tg= 115°C) due to the formation of the triazole linkages

  19. Development of an U and Pu recovery process by molten salt electrorefining. Behavior of U and Pu at simultaneous recoveries into liquid cadmium cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uozumi, Koichi; Kato, Tetsuya; Iizuka, Masatoshi; Inoue, Tadashi; Iwai, Takashi; Shirai, Osamu; Arai, Yasuo

    2003-01-01

    In order to study behaviors of U and Pu at simultaneous recoveries into liquid cadmium cathodes (LCCs) in the electrorefining of pyrometallurgical reprocessing, several experiments were conducted to recover U and Pu into LCCs at different U/Pu ratios in the salt phase. The major results were as follows: (1) The weight ratios of U and Pu in 120 g LCCs reached 10 wt.% (the tentative target), with current efficiencies higher than 80 %. (2) Under the conditions of U/Pu ratios in the initial salt phase less than 1/4.3, the amounts of recovered U and Pu were proportional to the passed electric charges, with the separation factors of U to Pu (= (U/Pu ration in the recovered product)/(U/Pu ratio in the salt)) between 1.2 and 2.0. (3) On the other hand, under the condition of U/Pu ratio in the initial salt phase at 1/1.73, only U was recovered into the LCC after the saturation of LCC with U and Pu. Accordingly, there will be a threshold in the U/Pu ratio of the salt phase for the simultaneous recovery of U and Pu. (4) Am showed a similar behavior to Pu. The separation factors of Am to Pu (=(AM/Pu ratio in the recovered product)/(Am/Pu ratio in the salt)) was 0.78, which means that Am is co-recovered with Pu into LCC. (author)

  20. The Use of Computer-Based Image Analysis on Colour Determination of Liquid Smoked Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Treated with Different Dry Salt-Sugar Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayde Ayvaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the changes in % yield, dry matter, ash, lipid, protein content, water activity, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N, total viable aerobic count (TVC, yeast and mold count, lactic acid bacteria (LAB, colour parameters and sensorial properties were analysed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to either salt only or two different salt-sugar mixture treatments. For this purpose, three groups were formed. For the first, second and third group, fish samples were treated with only salt (S, salt and sugar blend (WS and salt and brown sugar blend (BS, respectively. Then, the samples were vacuum packaged and stored at +4°C for 3 months. Overall, salt treatments, liquid smoking and cooking as well as storage generally caused remarkable changes in the parameters of interest. However, except for the sensory analysis, not a remarkable change was seen when the three groups were compared among themselves. The results of experienced panelists suggested that group BS samples had superior appearance, taste, odor and texture and therefore expected to be more preferred by the potential consumers.

  1. Electrical resistivities and solvation enthalpies for solutions of salts in liquid alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubberstey, P.; Dadd, A.T.

    1982-01-01

    An empirical correlation is shown to exist between the resistivity coefficients drho/dc for solutes in liquid alkali metals and the corresponding solvation enthalpies Usub(solvn) of the neutral gaseous solute species. Qualitative arguments based on an electrostatic solvation model in which the negative solute atom is surrounded by a solvation sphere of positive solvent ion cores are used to show that both parameters are dependent on the charge density of the solute atom and hence on the extent of charge transfer from solvent to solute. Thus as the charge density of the solute increases, the solvation enthalpy increases regularly and the resistivity coefficients pass through a maximum to give the observed approximately parabolic drho/dc versus Usub(solvn) relationship. (Auth.)

  2. Intermediate strength alloys for high temperature service in liquid-salt cooled energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane Francis; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2017-06-20

    An alloy consists essentially of, in terms of weight percent: 6 to 8.5 Cr, 5.5 to 13.5 Mo, 0.4 to 7.5 W, 1 to 2 Ti, 0.7 to 0.85 Mn, 0.05 to 0.3 Al, up to to 0.1 Co, 0.08 to 0.5 C, 1 to 5 Ta, 1 to 4 Nab, 1 to 3 Hf, balance Ni. The alloy is characterized by, at 850.degree. C., a yield strength of at least 36 Ksi, a tensile strength of at least 40 Ksi, a creep rupture life at 12 Ksi of at least 72.1 hours, and a corrosion rate, expressed in weight loss [g/(cm2sec)].times.10.sup.-11 during a 1000 hour immersion in liquid FLiNaK at 850.degree. C., in the range of 8 to 25.

  3. Conversion of Azides into Diazo Compounds in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ho-Hsuan; Raines, Ronald T.

    2013-01-01

    Diazo compounds are in widespread use in synthetic organic chemistry, but have untapped potential in chemical biology. We report on the design and optimization of a phosphinoester that mediates the efficient conversion of azides into diazo compounds in phosphate buffer at neutral pH and room temperature. High yields are maintained in the presence of common nucleophilic or electrophilic functional groups, and reaction progress can be monitored by colorimetry. As azido groups are easy to install and maintain in biopolymers or their ligands, this new mode of azide reactivity could have substantial utility in chemical biology. PMID:24053717

  4. Ultrafast Infrared and UV-vis Studies of the Photochemistry of Methoxycarbonylphenyl Azides in Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Jiadan; Luk, Hoi Ling; Eswaran, S. V.; Hadad, Christopher M.; Platz, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    The photochemistry of 4-methoxycarbonylphenyl azide (2a), 2-methoxycarbonylphenyl azide (3a) and 2-methoxy-6-methoxycarbonylphenyl azide (4a) were studied by ultrafast time-resolved infrared (IR) and UV-vis spectroscopies in solution. Singlet nitrenes and ketenimines were observed and characterized for all three azides. Isoxazole species 3g and 4g are generated after photolysis of 3a and 4a, respectively, in acetonitrile. Triplet nitrene 4e formation correlated with the decay of singlet nitre...

  5. Alkylation of Methyl Linoleate with Propene in Ionic Liquids in the Presence of Metal Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomelli, Christian Silvio; Ghilardi, Tiziana; Chiappe, Cinzia; de Angelis, Alberto Renato; Calemma, Vincenzo

    2015-12-07

    Vegetable oils and fatty acid esters are suitable precursor molecules for the production of a variety of bio-based products and materials, such as paints and coatings, plastics, soaps, lubricants, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, printing inks, surfactants, and biofuels. Here, we report the possibility of using Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) to obtain polyunsaturated ester dimerization-oligomerization and/or, in the presence of another terminal alkene (propene), co-polymerization. In particular, we have tested the Lewis acidic mixtures arising from the addition of a proper amount of GaCl₃ (Χ > 0.5) to two chloride-based (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [bmim]Cl, and 1-butylisoquinolium chloride, [BuIsoq]Cl) or by dissolution of a smaller amount of Al(Tf₂N)₃ (Χ = 0.1) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [bmim][Tf₂N]. On the basis of product distribution studies, [bmim][Tf₂N]/Al(Tf₂N)₃ appears the most suitable medium in which methyl linoleate alkylation with propene can compete with methyl linoleate or propene oligomerization.

  6. High strength alloys for high temperature service in liquid-salt cooled energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2017-01-10

    An essentially cobalt-free alloy consists essentially of, in terms of weight percent: 6.3 to 7.2 Cr, 0.5 to 2 Al, 0 to 5 Fe, 0.7 to 0.8 Mn, 9 to 12.5 Mo, 0 to 6 Ta, 0.75 to 3.5 Ti, 0.01 to 0.25 Nb, 0.2 to 0.6 W, 0.02 to 0.04 C, 0 to 0.001 B, 0.0001 to 0.002 N, balance Ni. The alloy is characterized by a .gamma.' microstructural component in the range of 3 to 17.6 weight percent of the total composition. The alloy is further characterized by, at 850.degree. C., a yield strength of at least 60 Ksi, a tensile strength of at least 70 Ksi, a creep rupture life at 12 Ksi of at least 700 hours, and a corrosion rate, expressed in weight loss [g/(cm.sup.2sec)]10.sup.-11 during a 1000 hour immersion in liquid FLiNaK at 850.degree. C., in the range of 5.5 to 17.

  7. High strength alloys for high temperature service in liquid-salt cooled energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2017-01-10

    An essentially cobalt-free alloy consists essentially of, in terms of weight percent: 6.3 to 7.2 Cr, 0.5 to 2 Al, 0 to 5 Fe, 0.7 to 0.8 Mn, 9 to 12.5 Mo, 0 to 6 Ta, 0.75 to 3.5 Ti, 0.01 to 0.25 Nb, 0.2 to 0.6 W, 0.02 to 0.04 C, 0 to 0.001 B, 0.0001 to 0.002 N, balance Ni. The alloy is characterized by a .gamma.' microstructural component in the range of 3 to 17.6 weight percent of the total composition. The alloy is further characterized by, at 850.degree. C., a yield strength of at least 60 Ksi, a tensile strength of at least 70 Ksi, a creep rupture life at 12 Ksi of at least 700 hours, and a corrosion rate, expressed in weight loss [g/(cm.sup.2sec)]10.sup.-11 during a 1000 hour immersion in liquid FLiNaK at 850.degree. C., in the range of 5.5 to 17.

  8. Alkylation of Methyl Linoleate with Propene in Ionic Liquids in the Presence of Metal Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Silvio Pomelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils and fatty acid esters are suitable precursor molecules for the production of a variety of bio-based products and materials, such as paints and coatings, plastics, soaps, lubricants, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, printing inks, surfactants, and biofuels. Here, we report the possibility of using Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs to obtain polyunsaturated ester dimerization-oligomerization and/or, in the presence of another terminal alkene (propene, co-polymerization. In particular, we have tested the Lewis acidic mixtures arising from the addition of a proper amount of GaCl3 (Χ > 0.5 to two chloride-based (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [bmim]Cl, and 1-butylisoquinolium chloride, [BuIsoq]Cl or by dissolution of a smaller amount of Al(Tf2N3 (Χ = 0.1 in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide, [bmim][Tf2N]. On the basis of product distribution studies, [bmim][Tf2N]/Al(Tf2N3 appears the most suitable medium in which methyl linoleate alkylation with propene can compete with methyl linoleate or propene oligomerization.

  9. Creep-resistant, cobalt-free alloys for high temperature, liquid-salt heat exchanger systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David E; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-09-06

    An essentially Fe- and Co-free alloy is composed essentially of, in terms of weight percent: 6.0 to 7.5 Cr, 0 to 0.15 Al, 0.5 to 0.85 Mn, 11 to 19.5 Mo, 0.03 to 4.5 Ta, 0.01 to 9 W, 0.03 to 0.08 C, 0 to 1 Re, 0 to 1 Ru, 0 to 0.001 B, 0.0005 to 0.005 N, balance Ni, the alloy being characterized by, at 850.degree. C., a yield strength of at least 25 Ksi, a tensile strength of at least 38 Ksi, a creep rupture life at 12 Ksi of at least 25 hours, and a corrosion rate, expressed in weight loss [g/(cm.sup.2 sec)]10.sup.-11 during a 1000 hour immersion in liquid FLiNaK at 850.degree. C., in the range of 3 to 10.

  10. Nitridation of U and Pu recovered in liquid Cd cathode by molten salt electrorefining of (U,Pu)N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Takumi; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Solid solutions of actinide mono-nitrides have been proposed as a candidate fuel of the accelerator-driven system (ADS) and Gen.IV-type fast reactors because the thermal conductivity and metal density are higher than those of actinide oxides and also they have high melting temperature. Pyrochemical process has several advantages over conventional wet process in treating of spent nitride fuel. One of the key technologies of the pyrochemical reprocessing of nitride fuel is the formation of the nitrides from actinides in the liquid Cd cathode. The nitridation-distillation combined method was developed and has been adopted to convert the actinides to the nitrides. In this method, the nitridation of actinides and the distillation of Cd occurred simultaneously by heating the actinide-Cd alloys in N{sub 2} gas stream. In the present study, the nitride formation behavior of U and Pu recovered in Cd cathode by molten salt electrorefining of (U,Pu)N was experimentally investigated. In addition, the nitride pellet was prepared form the powder obtained by the nitridation of U and Pu recovered in Cd cathode. (U,Pu)N (PuN = 80 mol %) was used as the starting material in the experiment. Molten salt electrorefining of (U,Pu)N pellet was carried out in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt with 1.2 wt% PuCl{sub 3} and 0.3 wt% UCl{sub 3} of about 110 g at the constant anodic potential of -0.60 to -0.55 V vs. Ag/AgCl for about 9 hours at 773 K. After the electrorefining, about 42 % of U and Pu in the starting (U,Pu)N pellet was dissolved at the anode and recovered into the liquid Cd cathode. The recovered U-Pu-Cd alloy was heated in an alumina crucible at 973 K for 10 hours under N{sub 2} gas (99.999 %) stream (0.015 L/min). Fine black powder was recovered after heating the U-Pu-Cd alloy. The powder was identified as the single phase solid solution of (U,Pu)N by the XRD analysis. After milling in the agate mortar for 1 hour, the powder was compacted into green pellet under a pressure of about

  11. Performance of the mesh-type liquid cadmium cathode structure for the electrodeposition of uranium from the molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, S.; Kim, S.H.; Lee, H.; Ahn, D.H.; Yoon, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    A mesh-type liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) structure has been devised to improve the performance of the electro-winning process for the recovery of actinides in a molten chloride system. For the verification of its performance, electrodeposition experiments of uranium from the molten LiCl-KCl-UCl 3 salt were conducted at 773 K for different current densities using the mesh-type LCC structure. Uranium was successfully collected over 5 wt. % in the LCC without growing uranium dendrites. The mesh-type LCC structure prevented the uncontrolled growth of uranium dendrites into the electrolyte phase above the cadmium surface and caused the LCC deposit to accumulate at the higher in the cadmium phase over uranium solubility in cadmium. After cooling the LCC crucible, its solid deposits were identified as an intermetallic compound UCd 11 by EPMA and XRD analysis. The cathode potential profiles from the electrochemical experiments and the chemical structure of the LCC deposits showed that it could be applied practically to recover the actinides above their solubility in cadmium. (orig.)

  12. LiCl-LiI molten salt electrolyte with bismuth-lead positive electrode for liquid metal battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junsoo; Shin, Donghyeok; Jung, Youngjae; Hwang, Soo Min; Song, Taeseup; Kim, Youngsik; Paik, Ungyu

    2018-02-01

    Liquid metal batteries (LMBs) are attractive energy storage device for large-scale energy storage system (ESS) due to the simple cell configuration and their high rate capability. The high operation temperature caused by high melting temperature of both the molten salt electrolyte and metal electrodes can induce the critical issues related to the maintenance cost and degradation of electrochemical properties resulting from the thermal corrosion of materials. Here, we report a new chemistry of LiCl-LiI electrolyte and Bi-Pb positive electrode to lower the operation temperature of Li-based LMBs and achieve the long-term stability. The cell (Li|LiCl-LiI|Bi-Pb) is operated at 410 °C by employing the LiCl-LiI (LiCl:LiI = 36:64 mol %) electrolyte and Bi-Pb alloy (Bi:Pb = 55.5:44.5 mol %) positive electrode. The cell shows excellent capacity retention (86.5%) and high Coulombic efficiencies over 99.3% at a high current density of 52 mA cm-2 during 1000th cycles.

  13. An experimental study of molten salt electrorefining of uranium using solid iron cathode and liquid cadmium cathode for development of pyrometallurgical reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tadafumi; Iizuka, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tokiwai, Moriyasu; Shoji, Yuichi; Fujita, Reiko; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki.

    1997-01-01

    Electrorefining of uranium was studied for developing pyrometallurgical reprocessing technology of metal fuel cycle. After concentration dependence of polarization curve was measured, uranium was electrodeposited either on solid iron cathode or in liquid cadmium cathode. Design and operational conditions of the cathode were improved for obtaining much greater quantity of deposit, resulting in recovery of 732g of dendritic uranium on a single solid cathode, and of 232g of uranium in 2,344g of a liquid cadmium cathode. The behaviors of electro-codeposition of rare earth elements with uranium were observed for liquid cadmium cathode, and were found to follow the local equilibrium between salt electrolyte and cathode. The decontamination factors of FP simulating elements from uranium were tentatively determined as >2,000 for deposition to solid cathode and as >7 for deposition to liquid cadmium cathode, respectively. (author)

  14. Morphogical effects of sodium azide on tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentun Mill), varieties T106, T244 and T420 obtained from the Institute of Agriculture Research, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria were treated with sodium azide at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mM aimed at determining the effects of the mutagen on the morphological ...

  15. Cyanogen Azide. Ionization Potentials and Ab Initio SCF MO Calculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Börge; Jansen, Peter; Stafast, Herbert

    1975-01-01

    The Ne(I) and He(I) photoelectron(PE) spectra of cyanogen azide, NCN3, have been recorded at high resolution. Their interpretation is achieved by comparison with the PE spectrum of HN3 and an ab initio LCGO SCF MO calculation. Deviations from Koopmans' theorem of quite different magnitudes...

  16. Azide- and alkyne-derivatised α-amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Karl Henrik; Pedersen, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of the copper-catalysed Huisgen cycloaddition the use of azide- and alkyne-derivatised α-amino acids has found widespread use within most chemistry disciplines. Despite a growing interest in these building blocks researchers are struggling to identify the best way for their syn......With the emergence of the copper-catalysed Huisgen cycloaddition the use of azide- and alkyne-derivatised α-amino acids has found widespread use within most chemistry disciplines. Despite a growing interest in these building blocks researchers are struggling to identify the best way...... for their synthesis. In this review we have compiled available methods for synthesising optically active azide- and alkyne-derivatised α-amino acids that can be prepared from readily available α-amino acids. We highlight a number of commonly overlooked problems associated with existing methods and direct attention...... to unexplored possibilities. Azide- and alkyne-derivatised α-amino acids are finding widespread use within most chemistry disciplines. However, it is far from clear what the best way for the synthesis of these useful building blocks is. Herein we show the available methods for synthesis of optically active...

  17. Thermal Decompositon Studies Of Pre-Irradiated Nickel (II) Azides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pre-irradiation on the thermal decomposition of three samples of nickel (II) azide was studied. It was found that the rates of thermal decomposition of Ni(OH)N3 increased substantially with increase in pre-irradiation dosage. The initial reaction rates change from time-dependant nucleation law for the unirradiated ...

  18. Effects of sodium azide on yield parameters of groundnut (Arachis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... Cowpea and mungbean improvement by mutation induction Mutation Breeding Newsletter, 21: 9. Gregory WC (1955). X-ray breeding of peanuts Arachis hypogaea L.,. Agron. J. 47: 394-399. Kleinhofs W, Sander C (1975). Azide mutagenesis in Barley. Third. Barley Genetics Symp. Garching. Proceedings of ...

  19. Theoretical investigation of some high-performance novel amine azide propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Debasis [Computational Fluid Dynamics Research Corp., Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Raman, Sumathi [Department of Chemistry, Oakwood College, 2000 Adventist Blvd., Huntsville, AL 35896 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) is currently the most widely used hypergolic propellant, due to its high performance and low ignition delay. However, its toxicity is a major concern. The present work aims at developing high-performance hypergolic fuels that are based on tertiary amine azide functionality. A number of potential amine azide candidates have been proposed, and some of their physical and chemical properties have been computed using state-of-the-art molecular modeling techniques. Gas-phase heats of formation have been calculated using the CBS-QB3 method, and the first-principle COSMO-RS method has been used to compute heats of vaporization and vapor pressures. A density correlation, based on molecular-volume calculation, has been established to predict the densities of the candidate molecules. Finally, the liquid-phase heats of formation and densities have been used to predict the specific and density impulses of the proposed candidate molecules. The results show that many of the molecules proposed here have much higher density impulse than that of MMH, and may be considered for experimental studies. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of tetracycline residues in infant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-González, David; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2017-04-15

    The use of salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) has been evaluated for the determination of tetracyclines in infant foods based on meat and vegetables or in milk. To obtain satisfactory extraction efficiencies for the studied analytes, several parameters affecting the SALLE procedure were optimized. Analytical performances of the method were satisfactory, obtaining limits of quantification lower than 0.48μgkg -1 in all cases. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (%, RSD) was below 11.3%. The extraction efficiency for fortified samples ranged from 89.2 to 96.8%, with RSDs lower than 7.3%. Matrix effect was evaluated for all samples studied, being lower than |21|% in all cases. In relation to the low solvent consumption, the proposed methodology could be considered rapid, cheap and environmentally friendly. Its applicability has been successfully tested in a wide range of infant foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Green and simple analytical method to determine benzimidazoles in milk samples by using salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction and capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Casado, Carmen; Del Olmo-Iruela, Monsalud; García-Campaña, Ana M; Lara, Francisco J

    2018-08-01

    A green and simple multiresidue method using capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) with UV-diode array detection (DAD) has been developed for the determination of sixteen benzimidazoles (BZs) and its metabolites in milk samples. The separation was achieved in  0.9985 for all BZs) with limits of detection (LOD) between 1.0 and 2.8 μg kg -1 . Relative standard deviations of repeatability and intermediate precision were below 1.6 and 14.2%, respectively. Satisfactory recoveries between 79.1 and 99.6% were also obtained for three types of milk samples (cow, sheep and goat). The advantages of a miniaturized technique such as CLC in terms of better efficiencies and reduced solvent consumption, combined with the simplicity of the SALLE procedure, make this method a useful alternative for the monitoring of these residues at trace level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Guggenheim's rule and the enthalpy of vaporization of simple and polar fluids, molten salts, and room temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Volker C

    2010-07-22

    One of Guggenheim's many corresponding-states rules for simple fluids implies that the molar enthalpy of vaporization (determined at the temperature at which the pressure reaches 1/50th of its critical value, which approximately coincides with the normal boiling point) divided by the critical temperature has a value of roughly 5.2R, where R is the universal gas constant. For more complex fluids, such as strongly polar and ionic fluids, one must expect deviations from Guggenheim's rule. Such a deviation has far-reaching consequences for other empirical rules related to the vaporization of fluids, namely Guldberg's rule and Trouton's rule. We evaluate these characteristic quantities for simple fluids, polar fluids, hydrogen-bonding fluids, simple inorganic molten salts, and room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). For the ionic fluids, the critical parameters are not accessible to direct experimental observation; therefore, suitable extrapolation schemes have to be applied. For the RTILs [1-n-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides, where the alkyl chain is ethyl, butyl, hexyl, or octyl], the critical temperature is estimated by extrapolating the surface tension to zero using Guggenheim's and Eotvos' rules; the critical density is obtained using the linear-diameter rule. It is shown that the RTILs adhere to Guggenheim's master curve for the reduced surface tension of simple and moderately polar fluids, but that they deviate significantly from his rule for the reduced enthalpy of vaporization of simple fluids. Consequences for evaluating the Trouton constant of RTILs, the value of which has been discussed controversially in the literature, are indicated.

  3. An approach of ionic liquids/lithium salts based microwave irradiation pretreatment followed by ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction for two coumarins preparation from Cortex fraxini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zaizhi; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2015-10-23

    Ionic liquids/lithium salts solvent system was successfully introduced into the separation technique for the preparation of two coumarins (aesculin and aesculetin) from Cortex fraxini. Ionic liquids/lithium salts based microwave irradiation pretreatment followed by ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction (ILSMP-UMSE) procedure was developed and optimized for the sufficient extraction of these two analytes. Several variables which can potentially influence the extraction yields, including pretreatment time and temperature, [C4mim]Br concentration, LiAc content, ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction (UMSE) time, liquid-solid ratio, and UMSE power were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. Among seven variables, UMSE time, liquid-solid ratio, and UMSE power were the statistically significant variables and these three factors were further optimized by Box-Behnken design to predict optimal extraction conditions and find out operability ranges with maximum extraction yields. Under optimum operating conditions, ILSMP-UMSE showed higher extraction yields of two target compounds than those obtained by reference extraction solvents. Method validation studies also evidenced that ILSMP-UMSE is credible for the preparation of two coumarins from Cortex fraxini. This study is indicative of the proposed procedure that has huge application prospects for the preparation of natural products from plant materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Odd-even effect on the formation of aqueous biphasic systems formed by 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids and salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchior, Diana C. V.; Sintra, Tânia E.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Soromenho, Mário R. C.; Esperança, José M. S. S.; Ventura, Sónia P. M.; Rogers, Robin D.; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2018-05-01

    This work provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effect of the cation alkyl side chain length of the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride series ([CnC1im]Cl, n = 2-14) of ionic liquids (ILs) on their capability to form aqueous biphasic systems (ABSs) with salts and self-aggregation derived properties. The liquid-liquid phase behavior of ternary systems composed of [CnC1im]Cl, water, and K3PO4 or K2CO3 and the respective Setschenow salting-out coefficients (ks), a quantitative measure of the two-phase formation ability, were determined. An odd-even effect in the ks values along the number of methylene groups of the longest IL cation alkyl side chain was identified for the ABS formed by K2CO3, a weaker salting-out agent where the phenomenon is clearly identified. In general, cations with even alkyl side chains, being likely to display higher molar volumes, are more easily salted-out and thus more prone to undergo phase separation. The odd-even effect in the ks values is, however, more significant in ILs up to n = 6, where the nanostructuration/nanosegregation of ILs plays a less relevant role. Still, with the [CnC1im]Cl (n = 7-14) series of ILs, an odd-even effect was also identified in the ILs' ionization degree, molar conductivity, and conductivity at infinite dilution. In summary, it is shown here that the ILs' odd-even effect occurs in IL aqueous solutions and not just in neat ILs, an already well-established phenomenon occurring in a series of ILs' properties described as a result of the orientation of the terminal methyl groups to the imidazolium ring cation and consequent effect in the ILs' cohesive energy.

  5. Activity coefficients of plutonium and cerium in liquid gallium at 1073 K: Application to a molten salt/solvent metal separation concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertin, David; Ched'homme, Severine; Bourges, Gilles; Sanchez, Sylvie; Picard, Gerard S.

    2005-01-01

    Activity coefficients in liquid metal and salt phases are important parameters for predicting the separation efficiency of reductive extraction or electrochemical pyrochemical processes. The electrochemical properties of Ce and Pu in gallium metal and chlorides media - CaCl 2 and equimolar NaCl-KCl - have been studied at 1073 K. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry show the thermodynamic feasibility of using gallium as solvent metal for pyrochemical processes involving Pu and Ce. The activity coefficient of Pu in liquid Ga (log(γ Pu,Ga ) = -7.3 ± 0.5) is deduced from the results and is a basis of assessing the potential for using liquid metals in pyrochemical separation of actinides and lanthanides. Evaluation of literature data for Al, Bi and Cd suggests that Ga is most favorable for selective separation of Pu from Ce near 1073 K

  6. A Direct Comparison of Azide and Nitrile Vibrational Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Xin Sonia; Coutifaris, Basil A.; Brewer, Scott H.; Fenlon, Edward E.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of 2′-azido-5-cyano-2′-deoxyuridine, N3CNdU (1), from trityl-protected 2′-amino-2′-deoxyuridine was accomplished in four steps with a 12.5% overall yield. The IR absorption positions and profiles of the azide and nitrile group of N3CNdU were investigated in 14 different solvents and water/DMSO solvent mixtures. The azide probe was superior to the nitrile probe in terms of its extinction coefficient, which is 2–4 times larger. However, the nitrile IR absorbance profile is generally less complicated by accidental Fermi resonance. The IR frequencies of both probes undergo a substantial red shift upon going from water to aprotic solvents such as THF or DMSO. DFT calculations supported the hypothesis that the molecular origin of the higher observed frequency in water is primarily due to hydrogen bonds between the probes and water molecules. PMID:21336362

  7. Targeted Diazotransfer Reagents Enable Selective Modification of Proteins with Azides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Jonas; Swier, Lotteke J Y M; Oudshoorn, Ruben C; Médard, Guillaume; Kuster, Bernhard; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Witte, Martin D

    2017-04-19

    In chemical biology, azides are used to chemically manipulate target structures in a bioorthogonal manner for a plethora of applications ranging from target identification to the synthesis of homogeneously modified protein conjugates. While a variety of methods have been established to introduce the azido group into recombinant proteins, a method that directly converts specific amino groups in endogenous proteins is lacking. Here, we report the first biotin-tethered diazotransfer reagent DtBio and demonstrate that it selectively modifies the model proteins streptavidin and avidin and the membrane protein BioY on cell surface. The reagent converts amines in the proximity of the binding pocket to azides and leaves the remaining amino groups in streptavidin untouched. Reagents of this novel class will find use in target identification as well as the selective functionalization and bioorthogonal protection of proteins.

  8. INDUCED-GROWTH AND YIE BY SODIUM AZIDE IN TOMATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. The mutagenic effect of various concentra traits of three varieties of tomato was inve quantity of the traits of economic importa. Roma, UC and a Local variety were treated. (0.1mM, 1.0 mM, 2.0 mM and 0.0 mM as con seasons. The results obtained revealed high various concentrations of sodium azide on.

  9. Glycosyl azide-a novel substrate for enzymatic transgycosylations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, Pavla; Carmona, A. T.; Robina, I.; Ettrich, R.; Sedmera, Petr; Přikrylová, Věra; Hušáková, Lucie; Křen, Vladimír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, - (2005), s. 8715-8718 ISSN 0040-4039 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0172; GA MŠk OC D25.002 Grant - others:GA KONTAKT 1862/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : enzyme catalysis * glycosyl azide * molecular modelling Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.477, year: 2005

  10. Multiclass method for the determination of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in compost from sewage sludge using ultrasound and salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction followed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Muñoz, A; Vílchez, J L; Zafra-Gómez, A

    2017-07-21

    An analytical method for the analysis of 16 pharmaceuticals and personal care products in compost from sewage sludge is successfully validated. Ultrasound assisted extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile:ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) containing 10% (v/v) of acetic acid was carried out. Two cycles of extraction of 10min were applied. A clean-up of the extracts using salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) was also included. Experimental design was used for the optimization of the main parameters involved in the extraction and cleaned-up steps. The chromatographic separation was carried out by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography using a mobile phase gradient mixture of a 13mM buffer ammonium formate solution (pH 9.25) (solvent A) and methanol (solvent B). An ACQUITY UPLC ® BEH C18 column (1.7μm; 2.1×50mm) column was used. Analytes were separated in less than 11min. The compounds were detected and quantified using single reaction monitoring electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The limits of detection calculated ranged from 0.5 to 4ngg -1 d.w., and the limits of quantification from 2 to 13ngg -1 d.w. Recoveries from 93% to 111%, with relative standar deviations lower than 11% in all cases, were obtained. The method was applied to natural compost samples. High concentrations of some analytes were found. Ketoprofen (510ngg -1 d.w.), methylparaben (240ngg -1 d.w.), diclofenac (175ngg -1 d.w.) and flufenamic acid (128ngg -1 d.w.) were the most abundant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sodium azide mutagenesis in wheat: Mutants with golden glumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, K.A.; Jafri, K.A.; Arain, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (2n=6x=42, AABBDD), detection of induced mutations is hampered by the presence of duplicate and triplicate genes. Induced changes in spike characteristics are known, but mutants with changed glume colour do not seem to have been reported. Physical mutagens such as gamma rays, thermal neutrons and fast neutrons, and chemical mutagens like EMS, El, dES and NEH have been extensively used for induction of mutations in bread wheat but it seems as if these mutagens did not induce mutants with changed glume colour. We used sodium azide for inducing mutations in the widely adapted cultivar 'Sonalika', which is characterized by brown glume colour. Presoaked seeds were treated with 0.2M sodium azide for 3 hours. Three spikes were harvested from each M 1 plant. M 2 generation was space-planted as spike progeny. We were successful in identifying 3 mutants with golden glumes. The mutants resemble 'Sonalika' in other spike characteristics. The mutants glume colour was confirmed in M 3 . The mutants were also evaluated for agronomically important characteristics. Some characters were significantly different from the parent. Glume colours may be useful as genetic markers since such characters are less influenced by the environment. Our investigation confirms that also agronomically useful genetic variation may be readily induced in bread wheat through sodium azide

  12. Extended UNIQUAC model for correlation and prediction of vapour-liquid-solid equilibria in aqueous salt systems containing non-electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliuta, Maria C.; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    to aqueous salt systems containing non-electrolytes in order to demonstrate its ability in representing solid-liquid-vapour (SLV) equilibrium and thermal property data for these strongly non-ideal systems. The model requires only pure component and binary temperature-dependent interaction parameters....... The calculations are based on an extensive database consisting of salt solubility data in pure and mixed solvents, VLE data for solvent mixtures and mixed solvent-electrolyte systems and thermal properties for mixed solvent solutions. Application of the model to the methanol-water system in the presence of several...... ions (Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, CO2- and HCO3-) shows that the Extended UNIQUAC model is able to give an accurate description of VLE and SLE in ternary add quaternary mixtures, using the name set of binary interaction parameters. The capability of the model to predict accurately the phase...

  13. Ionic liquid and aqueous two-phase extraction based on salting-out coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of seven rare ginsenosides in Xue-Sai-Tong injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan-Jie; Jin, Yong-Ri; Wang, Xiao-Zhong; Liu, Ying; Wu, Qian; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Li, Xu-Wen

    2015-09-01

    A method of ionic liquid salt aqueous two-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the analysis of seven rare ginsenosides including Rg6 , F4 , 20(S)-Rg3 , 20(R)-Rg3 , Rk3 , Rk1 , and Rg5 in Xue-Sai-Tong injection. The injection was mixed with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide aqueous solution, and a mixture was obtained. With the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dipotassium phosphate into the mixture, the aqueous two-phase mixture was formed after ultrasonic treatment and centrifuged. Rare ginsenosides were extracted into the upper phase. To obtain a high extraction factors, various influences were considered systematically, such as the volume of ionic liquid, the category and amount of salts, the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate, the pH value of system, and the time of ultrasonic treatment. Under the optimal condition, rare ginsenosides in Xue-Sai-Tong injection were enriched and detected, the recoveries of seven rare ginsenosides ranged from 90.05 to 112.55%, while relative standard deviations were lower than 2.50%. The developed method was reliable, rapid and sensitive for the determination of seven rare ginsenosides in the injections. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. An enzymatic method for determination of azide and cyanide in aqueous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nan-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Xue, Feng; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2015-11-20

    A halohydrin dehalogenase (HHDH-PL) from Parvibaculum lavamentivorans DS-1 was characterized and applied to determine azide and cyanide in the water. In this methodology, HHDH-PL catalysed azide and cyanide to react with butylene oxide and form corresponding β-substituted alcohols 1-azidobutan-2-ol (ABO) and 3-hydroxypentanenitrile (HPN) that could be quantitatively detected by gas chromatograph. The detection calibration curves for azide (R(2)=0.997) and cyanide (R(2)=0.995) were linear and the lower limits of detection for azide and cyanide were 0.1 and 0.3mM, respectively. Several other nucleophiles were identified having no effect on the analysis of azide and cyanide, excepting nitrite which influenced the detection of cyanide. This was the first report of a biological method to determine the inorganic azide and cyanide by converting them to the measurable organics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of salting-out and sugaring-out liquid-liquid extraction methods for the partition of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid in royal jelly and their co-extracted protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xijuan; Sun, Fanyi; Wu, Siyuan; Liu, Weiyi; Gao, Zhaosheng; Huang, Shaokang; Chen, Wenbin

    2018-01-15

    Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (h-LLE) has been receiving considerable attention as a sample preparation method due to its simple and fast partition of compounds with a wide range of polarities. To better understand the differences between the two h-LLE extraction approaches, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and sugaring-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SULLE), have been compared for the partition of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) from royal jelly, and for the co-extraction of proteins. Effects of the amount of phase partition agents and the concentration of acetonitrile (ACN) on the h-LLE were discussed. Results showed that partition efficiency of 10-HDA depends on the phase ratio in both SALLE and SULLE. Though the partition triggered by NaCl and glucose is less efficient than MgSO 4 in the 50% (v/v) ACN-water mixture, their extraction yields can be improved to be similar with that in MgSO 4 SALLE by increasing the initial concentration of ACN in the ACN-water mixture. The content of co-extracted protein was correlated with water concentration in the obtained upper phase. MgSO 4 showed the largest protein co-extraction at the low concentration of salt. Glucose exhibited a large protein co-extraction in the high phase ratio condition. Furthermore, NaCl with high initial ACN concentration is recommended because it produced high extraction yield for 10-HDA and the lowest amount of co-extracted protein. These observations would be valuable for the sample preparation of royal jelly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Ideal Ionic Liquid Salt Bridge for the Direct Determination of Gibbs Energies of Transfer of Single Ions, Part I: The Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Valentin; Ermantraut, Andreas; Himmel, Daniel; Koslowski, Thorsten; Leito, Ivo; Krossing, Ingo

    2018-02-23

    Described is a procedure for the thermodynamically rigorous, experimental determination of the Gibbs energy of transfer of single ions between solvents. The method is based on potential difference measurements between two electrochemical half cells with different solvents connected by an ideal ionic liquid salt bridge (ILSB). Discussed are the specific requirements for the IL with regard to the procedure, thus ensuring that the liquid junction potentials (LJP) at both ends of the ILSB are mostly canceled. The remaining parts of the LJPs can be determined by separate electromotive force measurements. No extra-thermodynamic assumptions are necessary for this procedure. The accuracy of the measurements depends, amongst others, on the ideality of the IL used, as shown in our companion paper Part II. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Cumulates, Dykes and Pressure Solution in the Ice-Salt Mantle of Europa: Geological Consequences of Pressure Dependent Liquid Compositions and Volume Changes During Ice-Salt Melting Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, S.; Asphaug, E.; Bruesch, L.

    2002-12-01

    Water-salt analogue experiments used to investigate cumulate processes in silicate magmas, along with observations of sea ice and ice shelf behaviour, indicate that crystal-melt separation in water-salt systems is a rapid and efficient process even on scales of millimetres and minutes. Squeezing-out of residual melts by matrix compaction is also predicted to be rapid on geological timescales. We predict that the ice-salt mantle of Europa is likely to be strongly stratified, with a layered structure predictable from density and phase relationships between ice polymorphs, aqueous saline solutions and crystalline salts such as hydrated magnesium sulphates (determined experimentally by, inter alia, Hogenboom et al). A surface layer of water ice flotation cumulate will be separated from denser salt cumulates by a cotectic horizon. This cotectic horizon will be both the site of subsequent lowest-temperature melting and a level of neutral buoyancy for the saline melts produced. Initial melting will be in a narrow depth range owing to increasing melting temperature with decreasing pressure: the phase relations argue against direct melt-though to the surface unless vesiculation occurs. Overpressuring of dense melts due to volume expansion on cotectic melting is predicted to lead to lateral dyke emplacement and extension above the dyke tips. Once the liquid leaves the cotectic, melting of water ice will involve negative volume change. Impact-generated melts will drain downwards through the fractured zones beneath crater floors. A feature in the complex crater Mannan'an, with elliptical ring fractures around a conical depression with a central pit, bears a close resemblance to Icelandic glacier collapse cauldrons produced by subglacial eruptions. Other structures resembling Icelandic cauldrons occur along Europan banded structures, while resurgence of ice rubble within collapse structures may produce certain types of chaos region. More general contraction of the ice mantle

  18. Hydrogen bond basicity of ionic liquids and molar entropy of hydration of salts as major descriptors in the formation of aqueous biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Helena; Dinis, Teresa B V; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M; Freire, Mara G; Coutinho, João A P

    2018-05-23

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of ionic liquids (ILs) and conventional salts have been largely investigated and successfully used in separation processes, for which the determination of the corresponding ternary phase diagrams is a prerequisite. However, due the large number of ILs that can be prepared and their high structural versatility, it is impossible to experimentally cover and characterize all possible combinations of ILs and salts that may form ABS. The development of tools for the prediction and design of IL-based ABS is thus a crucial requirement. Based on a large compilation of experimental data, a correlation describing the formation of IL-based ABS is shown here, based on the hydrogen-bonding interaction energies of ILs (EHB) obtained by the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) and the molar entropy of hydration of the salt ions. The ability of the proposed model to predict the formation of novel IL-based ABS is further ascertained.

  19. Salting-out-enhanced ionic liquid microextraction with a dual-role solvent for simultaneous determination of trace pollutants with a wide polarity range in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Man; Qu, Jingang; Chen, Kai; Jin, Lide; Dahlgren, Randy Alan; Wang, Huili; Tan, Chengxia; Wang, Xuedong

    2017-11-01

    In real aquatic environments, many occupational pollutants with a wide range of polarities coexist at nanogram to milligram per liter levels. Most reported microextraction methods focus on extracting compounds with similar properties (e.g., polarity or specific functional groups). Herein, we developed a salting-out-enhanced ionic liquid microextraction based on a dual-role solvent (SILM-DS) for simultaneous detection of tetracycline, doxycycline, bisphenol A, triclosan, and methyltriclosan, with log K ow ranging from -1.32 to 5.40 in complex milk and environmental water matrices. The disperser in the ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was converted to the extraction solvent in the subsequent salting-out-assisted microextraction procedures, and thus a single solvent performed a dual role as both extractant and disperser in the SILM-DS process. Acetonitrile was selected as the dual-role solvent because of its strong affinity for both ionic liquids and water, as well as the extractant in the salting-out step. Optimized experimental conditions were 115 μL [C 8 MIM][PF 6 ] as extractor, 1200 μL acetonitrile as dual-role solvent, pH 2.0, 5.0 min ultrasound extraction time, 3.0 g Na 2 SO 4 , and 3.0 min vortex extraction time. Under optimized conditions, the recoveries of the five pollutants ranged from 74.5 to 106.9%, and their LODs were 0.12-0.75 μg kg -1 in milk samples and 0.11-0.79 μg L -1 in environmental waters. Experimental precision based on relative standard deviation was 1.4-6.4% for intraday and 2.3-6.5% for interday analyses. Compared with previous methods, the prominent advantages of the newly developed method are simultaneous determination of pollutants with a wide range of polarities and a substantially reduced workload for ordinary environmental monitoring and food tests. Therefore, the new method has great application potential for simultaneous determination of trace pollutants with strongly contrasting polarities in several

  20. The intriguing enhancement of chloroperoxidase mediated one-electron oxidations by azide, a known active-site ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, Daniel; Hager, Lowell; Manoj, Kelath Murali

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Azide is a well known heme–enzyme active site ligand and inhibitor. ► Herein, azide is reported to enhance a set of heme–enzyme mediated reactions. ► This effect is disconnected from native enzyme–azide binding. ► Azide could enhance heme–enzyme reactions via a newly proposed mechanism. ► Azide contained in reagents could impact reaction outcomes in redox biochemistry. -- Abstract: Azide is a well-known inhibitor of heme–enzymes. Herein, we report the counter-intuitive observation that at some concentration regimes, incorporation of azide in the reaction medium enhances chloroperoxidase (CPO, a heme–enzyme) mediated one-electron abstractions from several substrates. A diffusible azidyl radical based mechanism is proposed for explaining the phenomenon. Further, it is projected that the finding could have significant impact on routine in situ or in vitro biochemistry studies involving heme–enzyme systems and azide.

  1. Single-step azide introduction in proteins via an aqueous diazo transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, S.F.M.; Teeuwen, R.L.M.; Nallani, M.; van Berkel, S.S.; Cornelissen, J.J.L.M.; Nolte, R.J.M.; van Hest, J.C.M.

    The controlled introduction of azides in proteins provides targetable handles for selective protein manipulation. We present here an efficient diazo transfer protocol that can be applied in an aqueous solution, leading to the facile introduction of azides in the side chains of lysine residues and at

  2. Single-Step Azide Introduction in Proteins via an Aqueous Diazo Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, Stijn; Teeuwen, R.L.M.; Nallani, Madhavan; van Berkel, S.S; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Nolte, Roeland; van Hest, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The controlled introduction of azides in proteins provides targetable handles for selective protein manipulation. We present here an efficient diazo transfer protocol that can be applied in an aqueous solution, leading to the facile introduction of azides in the side chains of lysine residues and at

  3. Polarographic studies about indium (III) behaviour in aqueous media of sodium azide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokoro, R.

    1988-01-01

    The present study shows some polarographic behavior of indium (III) in azide media that is close those observed in a thiocyanate solution. The presence of azide ligand decreases the overpotential in the discharge of indium whose catalytic character can be explained by formation of an azide bridge between electrode and indium (III) increasing the speed of electron transfer. The discharge of indium in azide media is diffusion controlled. As the azide concentration is increased the half wave potential displaces in the cathodic direction. This displacement is due to complex formation. The number of electrons, n, involved in the total process was estimates by the reversible polarographic equation to be 2,7. The potentiostatic coulometry of indium in azide/hydrazoic acid buffer showed a catalytic process where the chemistry regeneration was performed by reaction of hydrazoic acid and indium amalgam. The electrochemistry evidence was the constancy of current as the electrolysis proceeded. The chemistry aspect was the presence of ammonium cation in electrolysed solution. The catalytic process with chemistry regeneration and the formation of a bridge by azide could explain the higher value of current in azide media compared to perchlorate solution. (author) [pt

  4. Polymerization of nitrogen in cesium azide under modest pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoli, E-mail: use126126@126.com, E-mail: lijianfu@lyu.edu.cn [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Linyi University, Linyi 276005 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Jianfu, E-mail: use126126@126.com, E-mail: lijianfu@lyu.edu.cn [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Linyi University, Linyi 276005 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Zhu, Hongyang [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chen, Li [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Linyi University, Linyi 276005 (China); Lin, Haiqing [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-07-28

    Alkali metal azides can be used as starting materials in the synthesis of polymeric nitrogen, a potential high-energy-density material. The structural evolutionary behaviors of nitrogen in CsN{sub 3} have been studied up to 200 GPa using particle swarm optimization structure search combining with density functional theory. Three stable new phases with C2/m, P2{sub 1}/m, and P-1 structure at pressure of 6, 13, and 51 GPa are identified for the first time. The phase transition to chain like structure (P-1 phase) occurs at a modest pressure 51 GPa, the azide ions N{sub 3}{sup −} (linear chains of three N atoms with covalent bonds and interact weakly with each other) begin to show remarkable polymeric N properties in the CsN{sub 3} system. Throughout the stable pressure range, the structure is metallic and consists of N atoms in sp{sup 2} hybridizations. Our study completes the structural evolution of CsN{sub 3} under pressure and reveals that the introduced Cs atoms are responsible for the decreased synthesis pressure comparing to pure molecular nitrogen under compression.

  5. Evolving Structural Diversity and Metallicity in Compressed Lithium Azide

    KAUST Repository

    Prasad, Dasari L. V. K.

    2013-10-10

    In pursuit of new stable nitrogen-rich phases and of a possible insulator-metal transition, the ground-state electronic structure of lithium azide, LiN3, is investigated from 1 atm to 300 GPa (∼2-fold compression) using evolutionary crystal structure exploration methods coupled with density functional theoretical calculations. Two new LiN3 phases, containing slightly reduced and well-separated N2 units, are found to be enthalpically competitive with the known lithium azide crystal structure at 1 atm. At pressures above 36 GPa nitrogen-rich assemblies begin to evolve. These incorporate NN bond formation beyond that in N2 or N3 -. N6 rings and infinite one-dimensional linear nitrogen chains (structural analogues to polyacetylene) appear. Above 200 GPa quasi-one- and two-dimensional extended puckered hexagonal and decagonal nitrogen layers emerge. The high-pressure phase featuring linear chains may be quenchable to P = 1 atm. With increasing pressure the progression in electrical conductivity is from insulator to metal. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  6. Taming tosyl azide: the development of a scalable continuous diazo transfer process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deadman, Benjamin J; O'Mahony, Rosella M; Lynch, Denis; Crowley, Daniel C; Collins, Stuart G; Maguire, Anita R

    2016-04-07

    Heat and shock sensitive tosyl azide was generated and used on demand in a telescoped diazo transfer process. Small quantities of tosyl azide were accessed in a 'one pot' batch procedure using shelf stable, readily available reagents. For large scale diazo transfer reactions tosyl azide was generated and used in a telescoped flow process, to mitigate the risks associated with handling potentially explosive reagents on scale. The in situ formed tosyl azide was used to rapidly perform diazo transfer to a range of acceptors, including β-ketoesters, β-ketoamides, malonate esters and β-ketosulfones. An effective in-line quench of sulfonyl azides was also developed, whereby a sacrificial acceptor molecule ensured complete consumption of any residual hazardous diazo transfer reagent. The telescoped diazo transfer process with in-line quenching was used to safely prepare over 21 g of an α-diazocarbonyl in >98% purity without any column chromatography.

  7. Synthesis of Salt Soluble Proteins in Barley. Pulse-Labeling Study of Grain Filling in Liquid-Cultured Detached Spikes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Hejgaard, Jørn

    1984-01-01

    The accumulation of salt-soluble proteins in the endosperm of developing barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains was examined. Detached spikes of barley were cultured at different levels of nitrogen nutrition and pulse-labeled with [14C] sucrose at specific times after anthesis. Proteins were extracted...... to increased nitrogen nutrition. Two major components, β-amylase and protein Z in particular, had a synthesis profile almost identical to that of the endosperm storage protein, hordein....

  8. Worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that all underground salt deposits can serve as storage sites for toxic and nuclear waste does not always hold water—literally. According to Daniel Ronen and Brian Berkowitz of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science and Yoseph Yechieli of the Geological Survey of Israel, some buried salt layers are in fact highly conductive of liquids, suggesting that wastes buried in their confines could easily leech into groundwater and nearby soil.When drilling three wells into a 10,000-year-old salt layer near the Dead Sea, the researchers found that groundwater had seeped into the layer and had absorbed some of its salt.

  9. Reporter-free potentiometric sensing of boronic acids and their reactions by using quaternary ammonium salt-functionalized polymeric liquid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewei; Yue, Dengfeng; Lv, Enguang; Wu, Lei; Qin, Wei

    2014-02-18

    The tremendous applications of boronic acids (BAs) in chemical sensing, medical chemistry, molecular assembly, and organic synthesis lead to an urgent demand for developing effective sensing methods for BAs. This paper reports a facile and sensitive potentiometric sensor scheme for heterogeneous detection of BAs based on their unexpected potential responses on quaternary ammonium salt-doped polymeric liquid membranes. (11)B NMR data reveal that a quaternary ammonium chloride can trigger the hydrolysis of an electrically neutral BA in an aprotic solvent. Using the quaternary ammonium salt as the receptor, the BA molecules can be extracted from the sample solution into the polymeric membrane phase and undergo the concomitant hydrolysis. Such salt-triggered hydrolysis generates H(+) ions, which can be coejected into the aqueous phase with the counterions (e.g., Cl(-)) owing to their high hydrophilicities. The perturbation on the ionic partition at the sample-membrane interface changes the phase boundary potential and thus enables the potentiometric sensing of BAs. In contrast to other transduction methods for BAs, for which labeled or separate reporters are exclusively required, the present heterogeneous sensing scheme allows the direct detection of BAs without using any reporter molecules. This technique shows superior detection limits for BAs (e.g., 1.0 × 10(-6) M for phenylboronic acid) as compared to previously reported methods based on colorimetry, fluorimetry, and mass spectrometry. The proposed sensing strategy has also been successfully applied to potentiometric indication of the BA reactions with hydrogen peroxide and saccharides, which allows indirect and sensitive detection of these important species.

  10. Soft X-ray absorption spectra of aqueous salt solutions with highly charged cations in liquid microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Craig P.; Uejio, Janel S.; Duffin, Andrew M.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Smith, Jared D.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2010-03-11

    X-ray absorption spectra of 1M aqueous solutions of indium (III) chloride, yttrium (III) bromide, lanthanum (III) chloride, tin (IV) chloride and chromium (III) chloride have been measured at the oxygen K-edge. Relatively minor changes are observed in the spectra compared to that of pure water. SnCl{sub 4} and CrCl{sub 3} exhibit a new onset feature which is attributed to formation of hydroxide or other complex molecules in the solution. At higher energy, only relatively minor, but salt-specific changes in the spectra occur. The small magnitude of the observed spectral changes is ascribed to offsetting perturbations by the cations and anions.

  11. Effect of sodium azide addition and aging storage on casein micelle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, H.; Deeth, H.; Bhandari, B.

    2018-02-01

    Casein micelles affected most of milk properties, therefore the use sodium azide as milk preservation is not expected to alter milk properties during storage, including the casein micelle size. The aim of this study was to analyse casein micelle size after the addition of sodium azide during storage. The experiment was performed as a complete block randomised design with three replications. The addition of 0.02-0.10% Na-azide do not lead to any noticeable differences in average casein size at the same day and show similar trend after 14 day-storage. At concentration of 0.02% sodium azide (Na-azide), the size of pasteurised milk did not change up to 12 days, while the size of raw skim milk slightly increased by ageing time at day 5. The treated concentration did not affect the size distribution, except for milk with 0.02% Na-azide which had narrower distribution compared to other treated and control milk. The finding from this study suggests that the role of Na-azide in this experiments during storage at 4°C is only for preventing the microbial growth.

  12. Polarografic study about the complex formation between indium (III) and sodium azide, in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokoro, R.; Bertotti, M.

    1988-01-01

    The present work is a branch of the main work concerned with the complex formation between several metal cations and azide ligand in aqueous media. The polarographic behavior of indium in azide system showed the tendency of complexation. Using polarographic method to determine the half potential of indium at each analytical concentration afforded experimental data to evaluate the constants. The azide concentrations was modified from 1 m to 100 m , the ionic strength held at 2,0 M with sodium perchlorate, indium concentration 7.892 x 10 -4 M, and temperature kept constant at 25,0 0 C. (author) [pt

  13. A simple LC-MS/MS method facilitated by salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction to simultaneously determine trans-resveratrol and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhixia; Yu, Jiaojiao; Dai, Yu; Yang, Yue; Lu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jiaqiu; Qin, Zhiying; Huang, Fang; Li, Ning

    2017-11-01

    A simple LC-MS/MS method facilitated by salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) was applied to simultaneously investigate the pharmacokinetics of trans-resveratrol (Res) and its major glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in rat plasma. Acetonitrile-methanol (80:20, v/v) and ammonium acetate (10 mol L -1 ) were used as extractant and salting-out reagent to locate the target analytes in the supernatant after the aqueous and organic phase stratification, then the analytes were determined via gradient elution by LC-MS/MS in negative mode in a single run. The analytical method was validated with good selectivity, acceptable accuracy (>85%) and low variation of precision (extraction efficiency of target glucuronide and sulfate conjugates (>80%). The method was successfully applied to determine Res and its four conjugated metabolites in rat after Res administration (intragastric, 50 mg kg -1 ; intravenous, 10 mg kg -1 ). The systemic exposures to Res conjugates were much higher than those to Res (AUC 0-t , i.v., 7.43 μm h; p.o., 8.31 μm h); Res-3-O-β-d-glucuronide was the major metabolite (AUC 0-t , i.v., 66.1 μm h; p.o., 333.4 μm h). The bioavailability of Res was estimated to be ~22.4%. The reproducible SALLE method simplified the sample preparation, drastically improved the accuracy of the concomitant assay and gave full consideration of extraction recovery to each target analyte in bio-samples. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Synthesis, Structural Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Novel Water Soluble Ionic Liquids Derived from N-Heterocyclic Carbene Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kunduracıoğlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Six N-heterocyclic Carbene based Ionic Liquids (ILs have been synthesized by conventional methods. The ILs were spectroscopically characterized by NMR and FT-IR techniques. Their in vitro antimicrobial activities were determined towards gram-positive and gram-negative bacterias and yeast strains using minimum inhibition concentration (MIC assay. The best inhibition performances were obtained with compound 1 due to its more hydrophilic nature compared with the others. It exhibited 1 mg L–1 MIC value against to the most bacteria while the others showed 4 mg L–1. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  15. Triton X-100 as a complete liquid scintillation cocktail for counting aqueous solutions and ionic nutrient salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Triton X-100, used alone, was found to act as a complete liquid scintillation cocktail. Triton X-100 acted as a scintillator and the effect was not due to Cerenkov radiation. A variety of other commercially available surfactants also acted as scintillators, but with different levels of efficiency. Triton X-100/water combinations were suitable for counting aqueous solutions of 33 P and 86 Rb and the count rate was stable over extended periods of time. Triton X-100/toluene combinations also yielded high counting efficiencies. Triton X-100 was more sensitive to quenching than standard cocktails containing fluors. (author)

  16. Intramolecular Azide to Alkene Cycloadditions for the Construction of Pyrrolobenzodiazepines and Azetidino-Benzodiazepines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hemming, K.; Chambers, Christopher S.; Jamshaid, F.; O´Gorman, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 10 (2014), s. 16737-16756 ISSN 1420-3049 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : azide * cycloadditions * benzodiazepines Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2014

  17. Mutagenic effects of sodium azide and γ-irradiation in Pisum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, C.; Muehlbauer, F.J.

    1977-01-01

    Sodium azide was an effective mutagen in Pisum when used at a concentration of 10 -3 M and at pH 3. Effects on dry, sound seeds of 'Juneau' so treated for 3 or 4 hr and for 3 hr in the presence of oxygen were compared with responses to 5, 10 and 20 kR of γ-rays for evaluating relative effectiveness in producing mutants. Leaf aberrations were observed on γ-irradiated plants but not on azide-treated plants, an indication that azide did not cause chromosome damage. At the treatment levels used, sodium azide was as effective in total yield of mutants but produced fewer stunted and variously deformed plants than γ-rays. (author)

  18. Catalytic Intermolecular Cross-Couplings of Azides and LUMO-Activated Unsaturated Acyl Azoliums

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wenjun; Ajitha, Manjaly John; Lang, Ming; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    An example for the catalytic synthesis of densely functionalized 1,2,3-triazoles through a LUMO activation mode has been developed. The protocol is enabled by intermolecular cross coupling reactions of azides with in situ-generated alpha

  19. Fuel and Core Design Options to Overcome the Heavy Metal Loading Limit and Improve Performance and Safety of Liquid Salt Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, Bojan [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Maldonado, Ivan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-04-14

    The research performed in this project addressed the issue of low heavy metal loading and the resulting reduced cycle length with increased refueling frequency, inherent to all FHR designs with solid, non-movable fuel based on TRISO particles. Studies performed here focused on AHTR type of reactor design with plate (“plank”) fuel. Proposal to FY12 NEUP entitled “Fuel and Core Design Options to Overcome the Heavy Metal Loading Limit and Improve Performance and Safety of Liquid Salt Cooled Reactors” was selected for award, and the 3-year project started in August 2012. A 4-month NCE was granted and the project completed on December 31, 2015. The project was performed by Georgia Tech (Prof. Bojan Petrovic, PI) and University of Tennessee (Prof. Ivan Maldonado, Co-PI), with a total funding of $758,000 over 3 years. In addition to two Co-PIs, the project directly engaged 6 graduate students (at doctoral or MS level) and 2 postdoctoral researchers. Additionally, through senior design projects and graduate advanced design projects, another 23 undergraduate and 12 graduate students were exposed to and trained in the salt reactor technology. We see this as one of the important indicators of the project’s success and effectiveness. In the process, 1 journal article was published (with 3 journal articles in preparation), together with 8 peer-reviewed full conference papers, 8 peer-reviewed extended abstracts, as well as 1 doctoral dissertation and 2 master theses. The work included both development of models and methodologies needed to adequately analyze this type of reactor, fuel, and its fuel cycle, as well as extensive analyses and optimization of the fuel and core design.

  20. Fuel and Core Design Options to Overcome the Heavy Metal Loading Limit and Improve Performance and Safety of Liquid Salt Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, Bojan; Maldonado, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The research performed in this project addressed the issue of low heavy metal loading and the resulting reduced cycle length with increased refueling frequency, inherent to all FHR designs with solid, non-movable fuel based on TRISO particles. Studies performed here focused on AHTR type of reactor design with plate ('plank') fuel. Proposal to FY12 NEUP entitled 'Fuel and Core Design Options to Overcome the Heavy Metal Loading Limit and Improve Performance and Safety of Liquid Salt Cooled Reactors' was selected for award, and the 3-year project started in August 2012. A 4-month NCE was granted and the project completed on December 31, 2015. The project was performed by Georgia Tech (Prof. Bojan Petrovic, PI) and University of Tennessee (Prof. Ivan Maldonado, Co-PI), with a total funding of $758,000 over 3 years. In addition to two Co-PIs, the project directly engaged 6 graduate students (at doctoral or MS level) and 2 postdoctoral researchers. Additionally, through senior design projects and graduate advanced design projects, another 23 undergraduate and 12 graduate students were exposed to and trained in the salt reactor technology. We see this as one of the important indicators of the project's success and effectiveness. In the process, 1 journal article was published (with 3 journal articles in preparation), together with 8 peer-reviewed full conference papers, 8 peer-reviewed extended abstracts, as well as 1 doctoral dissertation and 2 master theses. The work included both development of models and methodologies needed to adequately analyze this type of reactor, fuel, and its fuel cycle, as well as extensive analyses and optimization of the fuel and core design.

  1. [3 + 2]-Cycloadditions of nitrile ylides after photoactivation of vinyl azides under flow conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Cludius-Brandt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The photodenitrogenation of vinyl azides to 2H-azirines by using a photoflow reactor is reported and compared with thermal formation of 2H-azirines. Photochemically, the ring of the 2H-azirines was opened to yield the nitrile ylides, which underwent a [3 + 2]-cycloaddition with 1,3-dipolarophiles. When diisopropyl azodicarboxylate serves as the dipolarophile, 1,3,4-triazoles become directly accessible starting from the corresponding vinyl azide.

  2. Facile synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted thiazoles from terminal alkynes, sulfonyl azides, and thionoesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tomoya; Funakoshi, Yuuta; Fujimoto, Yoshikazu; Nakahashi, Junki; Murakami, Masahiro

    2015-05-15

    A sequential procedure for the synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted thiazoles from terminal alkynes, sulfonyl azides, and thionoesters is reported. A copper(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of terminal alkynes with sulfonyl azides affords 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles, which then react with thionoesters in the presence of a rhodium(II) catalyst. The resulting 3-sulfonyl-4-thiazolines subsequently aromatize into the corresponding 2,5-disubstituted thiazoles by elimination of the sulfonyl group.

  3. Development of salt and pH-induced solidified floating organic droplets homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction for extraction of ten pyrethroid insecticides in fresh fruits and fruit juices followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbati, Mohammadali; Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Torbati, Mostafa; Nabil, Ali Akbar Alizadeh; Mohebbi, Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    A new microextraction method named salt and pH-induced homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed in a home-made extraction device for the extraction and preconcentration of some pyrethroid insecticides from different fruit juice samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the present work, an extraction device made from two parallel glass tubes with different lengths and diameters was used in the microextraction procedure. In this method, a homogeneous solution of a sample solution and an extraction solvent (pivalic acid) was broken by performing an acid-base reaction and the extraction solvent was produced in whole of the solution. The produced droplets of the extraction solvent went up through the solution and solidified using an ice-bath. They were collected without centrifugation step. Under the optimum conditions, limits of detection and quantification were obtained in the ranges of 0.006-0.038, and 0.023-0.134ngmL -1 , respectively. The enrichment factors and extraction recoveries of the selected analytes ranged from 365-460 to 73-92%, respectively. The relative standard deviations were lower than 9% for intra- (n = 6) and inter-day (n = 4) precisions at a concentration of 1ngmL -1 of each analyte. Finally, some fruit juice samples were effectively analyzed by the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Data for the size of cholesterol-fat micelles as a function of bile salt concentration and the physico-chemical properties of six liquid experimental pine-derived phytosterol formulations in a cholesterol-containing artificial intestine fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsoo Yi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data in this paper are additional information to the research article entiltled “Inhibition of cholesterol transport in an intestine cell model by pine-derived phytosterols” (Yi et al.,2016 [1]. The data derived from the measurement on six liquid formulations of commercial pine-derived phytosterol (CPP by dynamic light scattering. The data cover micelle size and the zeta-potential for formulations with cholesterol including monoglyceride, oleic acid, and bile salt. The data demonstrate the critical effect of the bile salt concentration on the size of cholesterol-digested fat micelles.

  5. Structural Determinants of Alkyne Reactivity in Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloadditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work represents our initial effort in identifying azide/alkyne pairs for optimal reactivity in copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC reactions. In previous works, we have identified chelating azides, in particular 2-picolyl azide, as “privileged” azide substrates with high CuAAC reactivity. In the current work, two types of alkynes are shown to undergo rapid CuAAC reactions under both copper(II- (via an induction period and copper(I-catalyzed conditions. The first type of the alkynes bears relatively acidic ethynyl C-H bonds, while the second type contains an N-(triazolylmethylpropargylic moiety that produces a self-accelerating effect. The rankings of reactivity under both copper(II- and copper(I-catalyzed conditions are provided. The observations on how other reaction parameters such as accelerating ligand, reducing agent, or identity of azide alter the relative reactivity of alkynes are described and, to the best of our ability, explained.

  6. Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis of Azides, Triazoles, and Tetrazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentrup, Curt

    2017-03-08

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of azides is an extremely valuable method of generating nitrenes and studying their thermal rearrangements. The nitrenes can in many cases be isolated in low-temperature matrices and observed spectroscopically. NH and methyl, alkyl, aralkyl, vinyl, cyano, aryl and N-heteroaryl, acyl, carbamoyl, alkoxycarbonyl, imidoyl, boryl, silyl, phosphonyl, and sulfonyl nitrenes are included. FVP of triazoloazines generates diazomethylazines and azinylcarbenes, which often rearrange to the energetically more stable arylnitrenes. N 2 elimination from monocyclic 1,2,3-triazoles can generate iminocarbenes, 1H-azirines, ketenimines, and cyclization products, and 1,2,4-triazoles are precursors of nitrile ylides. Benzotriazoles are preparatively useful precursors of cyanocyclopentadienes, carbazoles, and aza-analogues. FVP of 5-aryltetrazoles can result in double N 2 elimination with formation of arylcarbenes or of heteroarylcarbenes, which again rearrange to arylnitrenes. Many 5-substituted and 2,5-disubstituted tetrazoles are excellent precursors of nitrile imines (propargylic, allenic, or carbenic), which are isolable at low temperatures in some cases (e.g., aryl- and silylnitrile imines) or rearrange to carbodiimides. 1,5-Disubstituted tetrazoles are precursors of imidoylnitrenes, which also rearrange to carbodiimides or add intramolecularly to aryl substituents to yield indazoles and related compounds. Where relevant for the mechanistic understanding, pyrolysis under flow conditions or in solution or the solid state will be mentioned. Results of photolysis reactions and computational chemistry complementing the FVP results will also be mentioned in several places.

  7. Structure and thermodynamics of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papatheodorou, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates single-component molten salts and multicomponent salt mixtures. Molten salts provide an important testing ground for theories of liquids, solutions, and plasmas. Topics considered include molten salts as liquids (the pair potential, the radial distribution function, methods of characterization), single salts (structure, thermodynamic correlations), and salt mixtures (the thermodynamics of mixing; spectroscopy and structure). Neutron and X-ray scattering techniques are used to determine the structure of molten metal halide salts. The corresponding-states theory is used to obtain thermodynamic correlations on single salts. Structural information on salt mixtures is obtained by using vibrational (Raman) and electronic absorption spectroscopy. Charge-symmetrical systems and charge-unsymmetrical systems are used to examine the thermodynamics of salt mixtures

  8. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  9. Efficiency and effectiveness of gamma rays and sodium azide in Sesbania cannabina Poir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, G.; Srivastava, N.

    2013-01-01

    Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency is an important factor for the selection of a mutagen for a mutation breeding program. Mutagenic effectiveness is a measure of the frequency of mutations induced by a unit mutagen dose, while mutagenic efficiency is a measure of the proportion of mutations in relation to undesirable changes such as lethality, sterility, meiotic aberrations etc. The present study envisages the mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of individual and combined treatments of chemical and physical mutagens i.e. sodium azide (individual), gamma rays (individual) and sodium azide + gamma ray (combined). For the individual treatment of sodium azide, the seeds of the Sesbania cannabina variety ND-1 were treated with 0.5% solution of sodium azide (SA) for four different time durations, i.e. 3, 5, 7, and 9 h, and for the individual treatment of gamma rays, dry and healthy seeds were treated with 20, 40, 60, and 80 Kr doses of gamma rays. For the combined treatment, the seeds were exposed to four different doses of gamma rays (20, 40, 60, and 80 Kr) and after irradiation seeds were treated with 0.5% solution of sodium azide for 3 h. After treatment, seeds subjected to individual and combined treatment were sown in randomized block design to raise the M 1 generation and a study was conducted on germination percentage, survival percentage, pollen fertility percentage, and chromosomal aberrations at different doses of the individual and combined treatments. (author)

  10. Effects of mutagen application of sodium azide and gamma radiation in rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of mutagen application of sodium azide and gamma radiation in rice seeds. Upland rice seeds, variety Dourado Precoce, were treated with gamma-rays and sodium azide(SA). Biological effects of these treatments were studied in the M 1 and M 2 generations. Survival number, seedling height, plant fertility and chlorophyill mutation frequencies based on mutations per 100 M 1 panicles and mutants per 100 M 2 seedlings were analysed. Among these characters, plant fertility was the most sensitive for mutagen treatments, and higher doses of gamma-rays or higher concentrations of sodium azide reduced significantly fertility of M 1 plants. The same effect as increase of concentration of sodium azide was observed when the acidity of buffer solution was increased, or when seeds were pre-treated in distilled water. The maximum chlorophyll mutation frequencies were obtained in sodium azide treatments: 40.74% in the M 1 panicles and 10.67% in the M 2 seedlings, in comparison with the maximum frequenies in gamma-irradiation of 10.39% in the M 1 panicles and 1.73% in the M 2 seedlings. (Author) [pt

  11. Reaction of Tris(cyclopentadienyl)uranium compounds with amines, azides, and related ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, R.K.

    1989-12-01

    The trivalent uranium compound, (MeC 5 H 4 ) 3 U(thf), serves as a one- or two-electron reducing agent towards azides, RN 3 . These reactions produce either the uranium(IV) azide, (MeC 5 H 4 ) 3 UN 3 , or uranium(V) imides, (MeC 5 H 4 ) 3 UNR. The role of steric and electronic effects upon this reaction has been investigated using several series of azides. For Me 3 XN 3 , the imides are produced when X = C or Si, both products are formed when X = Ge, and the azide is produced when X = Sn. For Ph 3 XN 3 , the azide is produced when X = C or Sn. For Ph 3-x CH 3 N 3 , the imide is produced when x = 2 and both compounds are produced when x = 1. For substituted phenylazides, RC 6 H 4 N 3 , only the imides are produced. The magnetic properties of uranium diimides, [(MeC 5 H 4 ) 3 U] 2 (μ-NRN), were investigated. Several uranium(III) amines, (MeC 5 H 4 ) 3 U(NH 2 R), were produced from (MeC 5 H 4 ) 3 U(thf) and RNH 2 , and NH 3 was found to be a better ligand towards (MeC 5 H 4 ) 3 U than is PMe 3

  12. Electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) copolymer/octahydroxy-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanofibrous mats as ionic liquid host: enhanced salt dissociation and its function in electrochromic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Rui; Pramoda, Kumari Pallathadka; Liu, Wanshuang; Zhou, Dan; Ding, Guoqiang; He, Chaobin; Leong, Yew Wei; Lu, Xuehong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The well dispersed POSS-OH promotes the dissociation of both LiClO 4 and BMIM + BF 4 − . • POSS-OH significantly increases the ionic conductivity and lithium transference number. • POSS-OH containing electrolyte improves the optical contrast of electrochromic device. - Abstract: Electrospun polymer nanofibrous mats loaded with ionic liquids (ILs) and lithium salts are promising non-volatile electrolytes owing to their high ionic conductivities. However, the large cations of ILs are difficult to diffuse into solid electrodes, whereas the lithium ions in ILs tend to form anionic complexes with the IL anions, reducing the number of free lithium ions. To address these issues, octa(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyldimethylsiloxy) polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS-OH), which has large specific surface area and functionality number, is incorporated into electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-co-HFP) nanofibrous mats, and the mats are used to host LiClO 4 /1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM + BF 4 − ). It is found that POSS-OH can significantly increase both ionic conductivity and lithium transference number of the electrolytes owing to the Lewis acid-base interactions of POSS-OH with ClO 4 − and BF 4 − . The electrochromic device using the hybrid mat (with 5 wt% POSS-OH) loaded with LiClO 4 /BMIM + BF 4 − as the electrolyte shows significantly improved transmittance contrast and switching time, as a result of increased number of free lithium ions

  13. Separation of adhered salt from uranium deposits generated in electro-refiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.W.; Park, K.M.; Lee, H.S.; Kim, J.G.; Ahn, H.G.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to increase a throughput of the salt removal process from uranium deposits which is generated on the solid cathode of electro-refiner in pyroprocess. In this study, it was proposed to increase the throughput of the salt removal process by the separation of the liquid salt prior to the distillation of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from the uranium deposits. The feasibility of liquid salt separation was examined by salt separation experiments on a stainless steel sieve. It was found that the amount of salt to be distilled could be reduced by the liquid salt separation prior to the salt distillation. The residual salt remained in the deposits after the liquid salt separation was successfully removed further by the vacuum distillation. It was concluded that the combination of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation is an effective route for the achievement of a high throughput performance in the salt separation process. (author)

  14. Asymmetric Catalysis with Organic Azides and Diazo Compounds Initiated by Photoinduced Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoqiang; Webster, Richard D; Harms, Klaus; Meggers, Eric

    2016-09-28

    Electron-acceptor-substituted aryl azides and α-diazo carboxylic esters are used as substrates for visible-light-activated asymmetric α-amination and α-alkylation, respectively, of 2-acyl imidazoles catalyzed by a chiral-at-metal rhodium-based Lewis acid in combination with a photoredox sensitizer. This novel proton- and redox-neutral method provides yields of up to 99% and excellent enantioselectivities of up to >99% ee with broad functional group compatibility. Mechanistic investigations suggest that an intermediate rhodium enolate complex acts as a reductive quencher to initiate a radical process with the aryl azides and α-diazo carboxylic esters serving as precursors for nitrogen and carbon-centered radicals, respectively. This is the first report on using aryl azides and α-diazo carboxylic esters as substrates for asymmetric catalysis under photoredox conditions. These reagents have the advantage that molecular nitrogen is the leaving group and sole byproduct in this reaction.

  15. Ionic conduction in sodium azide under high pressure: Experimental and theoretical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinglin; Ma, Yanzhang; Sang, Dandan; Wang, Xiaoli; Liu, Cailong; Hu, Haiquan; Wang, Wenjun; Zhang, Bingyuan; Fan, Quli; Han, Yonghao; Gao, Chunxiao

    2018-04-01

    Alkali metal azides can be used as starting materials for the synthesis of polymeric nitrogen, a potential material of high energy density. In this letter, we report the ionic transport behavior in sodium azide under high pressure by in situ impedance spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The ionic transportation consists of ion transfer and Warburg diffusion processes. The ionic migration channels and barrier energy were given for the high-pressure phases. The enhanced ionic conductivity of the γ phase with pressure is because of the formation of space charge regions in the grain boundaries. This ionic conduction and grain boundary effect in NaN3 under pressures could shed light on the better understanding of the conduction mechanism of alkali azides and open up an area of research for polymeric nitrogen in these compounds and other high-energy-density polynitrides.

  16. Exchange reactions between a molten salt and a solution of tri-butyl phosphate in a liquid silicone; Reactions d'echange entre un sel fondu et une solution de phosphate de tributyle dans un silicone liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzog, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Present interest centred around molten salts can be explained by their possible use in the field of nuclear energy, in particular as a support for fuels and also as reprocessing agents. It seemed of interest to consider the molten salt as a solvent and to study partition phenomena with a second phase stable at high temperatures. The salt chosen is a ternary eutectic of alkali nitrates and the second phase is a solution of tri-butyl phosphate in a liquid silicone. The working temperature is fixed at 150 deg. C. We have studied first of all the stability of the two phases and their mutual solubilities at this temperature. It has been shown that the two solvents are immiscible and stable. We have also described the extraction by the silicone solution of various products in solution in the salt phase, and have determined the partition coefficients and the formulae of the extracted molecules. It has been possible to calculate the partition coefficients of the following ions extracted as nitrates: Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} whose partition coefficients are very low: Mg{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} whose extraction yields are greater than 50 per cent; finally Ce{sup 3+}, La{sup 3+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, highly extracted. Also the following anions have been extracted in the form of alkali salts: F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -}, I{sup -}, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, CN{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup -}, C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}. Amongst these, only the halogens have non-negligible partition coefficients. In certain particular cases we have been able to study the influence of complex formation on the extraction phenomena. Two applications are described: - The separation of two products by complex formation and extraction (separation of magnesium from cobalt, nickel and zinc); - The calculation of the equilibrium constant of a complex by measurement of the variation in the partition coefficient of the ion complexed

  17. SALT-INDUCED TRANSITION FROM A MICELLAR TO A LAMELLAR LIQUID-CRYSTALLINE PHASE IN DILUTE MIXTURES OF ANIONIC AND NONIONIC SURFACTANTS IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SEIN, A; ENGBERTS, JBFN; VANDERLINDEN, E; VANDEPAS, JC

    In dilute mixtures of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (NaDoBS), and nonionic poly(ethylene oxide) alkyl monoether (C13-15E(7)) a transition from a micellar to a lamellar phase is found at high salting-out electrolyte (NaCit) concentrations. With an increase of the salt

  18. Synthesis of positron labeled photoactive compounds: 18F labeled aryl azides for positron labeling of biochemical molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Kazunari; Hashimoto, Naota; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    1995-01-01

    The authors have prepared various [ 18 F] fluorine labeled aryl azides as a novel photoactive compounds suitable for positron labeling of biochemical molecules. The introduction of fluorine substituents to aryl azides can be expected to have dramatic effects on their nature and reactivity toward photolysis. Positron labeled reagents for labeling proteins or peptides have recently attracted considerable attention due to their wide applicability in biochemistry and positron emission tomography (PET). Various labeled azide compounds are often used in biochemistry for radiolabeling biological molecules by photolysis, but there have been no reports on the preparation or use of fluorine-18 labeled azides. The authors now report a novel synthesis of 18 F-labeled aryl azides which will have wide application in the biochemistry and nuclear medicine as a means for 18 F-fluorine labeling for proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids. 2 tabs

  19. Alkylating efficiency of sodium azide on pod yield, nut size and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutation has been utilised to improve growth and yield of many food crops, but only little effort has been made to ascertain the nutritional advantages in such improved crops. The present study evaluates the alkylating efficiency of sodium azide of different concentrations on pod yield, nut size and nutritional composition of ...

  20. Surface modification of GC and HOPG with diazonium, amine, azide, and olefin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mutsuo; Sawaguchi, Takahiro; Sato, Yukari; Yoshioka, Kyoko; Niwa, Osamu

    2011-01-04

    Surface modification of glassy carbon (GC) and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) was carried out with diazonium, amine, azide, and olefin derivatives bearing ferrocene as an electroactive moiety. Features of the modified surfaces were evaluated by surface concentrations of immobilized molecule, blocking effect of the modified surface against redox reaction, and surface observation using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (EC-STM). The measurement of surface concentrations of immobilized molecule revealed the following three aspects: (i) Diazonium and olefin derivatives could modify substrates with the dense-monolayer concentration. (ii) The surface concentration of immobilized amine derivative did not reach to the dense-monolayer concentration reflecting their low reactivity. (iii) The surface modification with the dense-monolayer concentration was also possible with azide derivative, but the modified surface contained some oligomers produced by the photoreaction of azides. Besides, the blocking effect against redox reaction was observed for GC modified with diazonium derivative and for HOPG modified with diazonium and azide derivatives, suggesting fabrication of a densely modified surface. Finally, the surface observation for HOPG modified with diazonium derivative by EC-STM showed a typical monolayer structure, in which the ferrocene moieties were packed densely at random. On the basis of those results, it was demonstrated that surface modification of carbon substrates with diazonium could afford a dense monolayer similar to the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation.

  1. Catalytic Intermolecular Cross-Couplings of Azides and LUMO-Activated Unsaturated Acyl Azoliums

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wenjun

    2017-02-15

    An example for the catalytic synthesis of densely functionalized 1,2,3-triazoles through a LUMO activation mode has been developed. The protocol is enabled by intermolecular cross coupling reactions of azides with in situ-generated alpha,beta-unsaturated acyl azoliums. High yields and broad scope as well as the investigation of reaction mechanism are reported.

  2. Biological and genetic effects of combined treatments of sodium azide, gamma rays and EMS in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.Y.; Gao, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    Dry seeds of diploid barley were subjected to mutagenic treatments of sodium azide, gamma rays and EMS alone or in combination. Damage (reduction in seedling height, plant height and fertility), the frequency of chimeras in the M1 generation, and the frequency of chlorophyll-deficient mutations as well as morphological mutations in the M2 generation induced by combined treatments were greater than those by either of the single treatments. Synergistic increase in the frequency of chimeras, chlorphyll-deficient mutations and morphological mutations were observed in both sodium azide post-irradiation treatments and pre-EMS treatments; interaction among the mutagens in the treatment combinations on M1 damage was generally subtractive. An 8- to 16-hr soaking period of irradiated seeds in distilled water prior to sodium azide treatment significantly increased chlorophyll mutation frequency, as compared to that from the non-soaking treatment. Damage and frequency of chimeras, chlorophyll mutations and morphological mutations were consistently reduced by the soaking treatment in sodium azide plus EMS treatments. (author)

  3. Continuous flow photolysis of aryl azides: Preparation of 3H-azepinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan R. Bou-Hamdan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Photolysis of aryl azides to give nitrenes, and their subsequent rearrangement in the presence of water to give 3H-azepinones, is performed in continuous flow in a photoreactor constructed of fluorinated ethylene polymer (FEP tubing. Fine tuning of the reaction conditions using the flow reactor allowed minimization of secondary photochemical reactions.

  4. Azidoperfluoroalkanes: Synthesis and Application in Copper(I)-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blastik, Zsófia E.; Voltrová, Svatava; Matoušek, V.; Jurásek, Bronislav; Manley, David W.; Klepetářová, Blanka; Beier, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2017), s. 346-349 ISSN 1433-7851 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 607787 - FLUOR21 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : azides * click reactions * fluorine * perfluoroalkanes * triazoles Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 11.994, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/anie.201609715/full

  5. In situ generation of the Ohira-Bestmann Reagent from stable sulfonyl azide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Tue Heesgaard; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard

    2014-01-01

    We report an improved method for in situ generation of the Ohira-Bestmann reagent. Using the recently reported bench stable imidazole-1-sulfonyl azide as diazotransfer reagent, this new method represents a safe and scalable approach for the transformation of aldehydes into terminal alkynes...

  6. Continuous flow hydrogenation of nitroarenes, azides and alkenes using maghemite-Pd nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghemite-supported ultra-fine Pd (1-2 nm) nanoparticles, prepared by a simple co-precipitation method, find application in the catalytic continuous flow hydrogenation of nitroarenes, azides, and alkenes wherein they play an important role in reduction of various functional group...

  7. Copper on Chitosan: A Recyclable Heterogeneous Catalyst for Azide-alkyne Cycloaddition Reactions in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate is immobilized over chitosan by simply stirring an aqueous suspension of chitosan in water with copper sulfate; the ensuing catalyst has been utilized for the azide-alkyne cycloaddition in aqueous media and it can be recycled and reused many time without loosing it...

  8. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or more...

  9. C,N-Chelated Organotin(IV) Azides: Synthesis, Structure and Use within the Click Chemistry.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švec, P.; Bartoš, K.; Růžičková, Z.; Cuřínová, Petra; Dušek, L.; Turek, J.; de Proft, F.; Růžička, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 7 (2016), s. 5808-5817 ISSN 1144-0546 Grant - others:FWO(BE) 12T6615N Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : organotin(IV)azides * click chemistry * chelation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.269, year: 2016

  10. Liquid Salts as Media for Process Heat Transfer from VHTR's: Forced Convective Channel Flow Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, and Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd; Corradini, Michael

    2012-01-30

    The goal of this NERI project was to perform research on high temperature fluoride and chloride molten salts towards the long-term goal of using these salts for transferring process heat from high temperature nuclear reactor to operation of hydrogen production and chemical plants. Specifically, the research focuses on corrosion of materials in molten salts, which continues to be one of the most significant challenges in molten salts systems. Based on the earlier work performed at ORNL on salt properties for heat transfer applications, a eutectic fluoride salt FLiNaK (46.5% LiF-11.5%NaF-42.0%KF, mol.%) and a eutectic chloride salt (32%MgCl2-68%KCl, mole %) were selected for this study. Several high temperature candidate Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, were exposed to molten FLiNaK with the goal of understanding corrosion mechanisms and ranking these alloys for their suitability for molten fluoride salt heat exchanger and thermal storage applications. The tests were performed at 850C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion was noted to occur predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries Alloy weight-loss due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys weight-loss was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present for the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. Experiments involving molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in Incoloy-800H crucibles under an argon cover gas showed a significantly lower corrosion for this alloy than when tested in a graphite crucible. Graphite significantly accelerated alloy corrosion due to the reduction of Cr from solution by graphite and formation

  11. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  12. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  13. Reaction of Tris(cyclopentadienyl)uranium compounds with amines, azides, and related ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, R.K.

    1989-12-01

    The trivalent uranium compound, (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(thf), serves as a one- or two-electron reducing agent towards azides, RN{sub 3}. These reactions produce either the uranium(IV) azide, (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}UN{sub 3}, or uranium(V) imides, (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}UNR. The role of steric and electronic effects upon this reaction has been investigated using several series of azides. For Me{sub 3}XN{sub 3}, the imides are produced when X = C or Si, both products are formed when X = Ge, and the azide is produced when X = Sn. For Ph{sub 3}XN{sub 3}, the azide is produced when X = C or Sn. For Ph{sub 3-x}CH{sub 3}N{sub 3}, the imide is produced when x = 2 and both compounds are produced when x = 1. For substituted phenylazides, RC{sub 6}H{sub 4}N{sub 3}, only the imides are produced. The magnetic properties of uranium diimides, ((MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U){sub 2}({mu}-NRN), were investigated. Several uranium(III) amines, (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(NH{sub 2}R), were produced from (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(thf) and RNH{sub 2}, and NH{sub 3} was found to be a better ligand towards (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U than is PMe{sub 3}.

  14. Challenges Related to the Use of Liquid Metal and Molten Salt Coolants in Advanced Reactors. Report of the collaborative project COOL of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was launched in 2000, based on a resolution by the IAEA General Conference (GC(44)/RES/21). INPRO aims at helping to ensure that nuclear energy is available in the twenty-first century in a sustainable manner, and seeks to bring together all interested Member States, both technology holders and technology users, to jointly consider actions to achieve desired innovations. INPRO is taking care of the specific needs of developing countries. One of the aims of INPRO is to develop options for enhanced sustainability through promotion of technical and institutional innovations in nuclear energy technology through collaborative projects among IAEA Member States. Collaboration among INPRO members is fostered on selected innovative nuclear technologies to bridge technology gaps. Collaborative projects have been selected so that they complement other national and international R and D activities. The INPRO Collaborative Project COOL on Investigation of Technological Challenges Related to the Removal of Heat by Liquid Metal and Molten Salt Coolants from Reactor Cores Operating at High Temperatures investigated the technological challenges of cooling reactor cores that operate at high temperatures in advanced fast reactors, high temperature reactors and accelerator driven systems by using liquid metals and molten salts as coolants. The project was initiated in 2008 and was led by India; experts from Brazil, China, Germany, India, Italy and the Republic of Korea participated and provided chapters of this report. The INPRO Collaborative Project COOL addressed the following fields of research regarding liquid metal and molten salt coolants: (i) survey of thermophysical properties; (ii) experimental investigations and computational fluid dynamics studies on thermohydraulics, specifically pressure drop and heat transfer under different operating conditions; (iii) monitoring and control of coolant

  15. The chemistry of molten salt mixtures: application to the reductive extraction of lanthanides and actinides by a liquid metal; Chimie des melanges de sels fondus. Application a l'extraction reductrice d'actinides et de lanthanides par un metal liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finne, J

    2005-10-15

    The design of a process of An/Ln separation by liquid - liquid extraction can be used for on-line purification of the molten salt in a molten salt nuclear reactor (Generation IV) as well as reprocessing various spent fuels. In order to establish the chemical properties of An and Ln in molten salt mediums, E - pO{sub 2} - diagrams were established for the relevant chemical elements. With the purpose of checking the possibilities of separating the An from Ln, the real activity coefficients in liquid metals were measured. An experimental protocol was developed and validated on the Gd/Ga system. It was then transferred to radioactive environment to measure the activity coefficient of Pu in Ga. The results made it possible to estimate the effectiveness of the Pu extraction and its separation from Gd and Ce. The selectivity was shown to decrease with the temperature and Al and Ga showed a good selectivity between Pu and the Ce in fluoride medium. (author)

  16. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Tsukada, Kineo; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Oomichi, Toshihiko; Oono, Hideo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To simplify the structure, as well as improve the technical reliability and safety by the elimination of a proton beam entering window. Constitution: The nuclear reactor container main body is made of Hastelloy N and provided at the inner surface with two layers of graphite shields except for openings. An aperture was formed in the upper surface of the container, through which protons accelerated by a linear accelerator are directly entered to the liquid surface of molten salts such as 7LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 , 7LiF-NaF-ThF 4 , 7LiF-Rb-UF 4 , NaF-KF-UF 4 and the like. The heated molten salts are introduced by way of a pipeway into a heat exchanger where the heat is transferred to coolant salts and electric generation is conducted by way of heated steams. (Furukawa, Y.)

  17. Ionic liquids-lithium salts pretreatment followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction of vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside and vitexin from Phyllostachys edulis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kexin; Chen, Fengli; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

    2016-01-29

    An efficient method for the extraction of vitexin, vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, and vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside from Phyllostachys edulis leaves comprises heat treatment using an ionic liquid-lithium salt mixture (using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as the solvent and lithium chloride as the additive), followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction. To obtain higher extraction yields, the effects of the relevant experimental parameters (including heat treatment temperature and time, relative amounts of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and lithium chloride, power and time of the ultrasound irradiation, and the liquid-solid ratio) are evaluated and response surface methodology is used to optimize the significant factors. The morphologies of the treated and untreated P. edulis leaves are studied by scanning electron microscopy. The improved extraction method proposed provides high extraction yield, good repeatability and precision, and has wide potential applications in the analysis of plant samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of physiological and genetic effects of gamma radiation and sodium azide on two rice (Oryza sativa, L.) genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faracco, A.L.A.

    1990-01-01

    The sensitivity of both genotypes (Oryzica 1 and Strain 30036) to gamma rays and sodium azide is studied. Doses of gamma-rays and concentrations of sodium azide were chosen so as to produce around 20%-25% height reduction in these genotypes. Emergence, survival and fertility were the physiological effects on M 1 generation analysed after the final treatment. The number of chlorophyll mutations and the number of seedling mutants were counted in M 2 generation. Taking into consideration, specially M 1 generation sterility, it was concluded that for the two genotypes studied, sodium azide presented a greater mutagen effect. (M.A.C.)

  19. Sequential One-Pot Ruthenium-Catalyzed Azide−Alkyne Cycloaddition from Primary Alkyl Halides and Sodium Azide

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Johan R.

    2011-04-01

    An experimentally simple sequential one-pot RuAAC reaction, affording 1,5-disubstituted 1H-1,2,3-triazoles in good to excellent yields starting from an alkyl halide, sodium azide, and an alkyne, is reported. The organic azide is formed in situ by treating the primary alkyl halide with sodium azide in DMA under microwave heating. Subsequent addition of [RuClCp*(PPh 3) 2] and the alkyne yielded the desired cycloaddition product after further microwave irradiation. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Strong Control of Salts on Near Surface Liquid Water Content in a High Polar Desert Indicated by Near Surface Resistivity Mapping with a Helicopter-Borne TEM Sensor, Lower Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, N.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Auken, E.; Mikucki, J.; Myers, K. F.; Dugan, H.; Doran, P. T.; Virginia, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Closed depressions in the Lower Taylor Valley (McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica) have near surface (top 5m) electrical resistivity that is lower by about an order of magnitude than the resistivity of nearby slopes and ridges (100s of ohm-m vs. 1000s). We interpret this spatial pattern as being due to long term concentration of salts carried by liquid water and/or deliquescent vapor fronts. High concentration of salts in the top decimeters to meters beneath the surface may prolong the existence and abundance of liquid water in this otherwise very cold and dry high polar desert. Due to its connections with life and chemical transport, liquid water is a much studied feature in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. This setting can be used as an analogue for similar features on the surface of Mars, where liquid water tracks have been observed and are believed to be controlled by eutectic brines. Our study demonstrates the utility of mapping at a regional scale via helicopter-borne Transient EM. Airborne EM covers more ground and can measure deeper than surface-based measurements, at the expense of resolution. This allows creating valley-scale datasets which could not feasibly be collected on the ground. Our remote measurements complement physical samples that indicate that soluble salts concentrate in certain areas of surface soil where water moves ions and is later removed by evaporation or sublimation. In areas where we measured low resistivity, the integrated liquid water fraction in the top 5m may be a few to several percent by volume, equivalent to a few or several dozens of cm of water layer thickness. This estimate assumes that the interstitial waters have very low resistivity, comparable to seawater or hypersaline brines at freezing (0.2-0.35 ohm-m). If soil water was considerably fresher than this, liquid water content would have to reach dozens of percent throughout the top 5m for bulk resistivities to drop to 100s of ohm-m. We consider the latter case to be unlikely as

  1. Direct C–H Azidation of Calix[4]arene as a Novel Method to Access Meta Substituted Derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, F.; Eigner, V.; Dvořáková, H.; Cuřínová, Petra; Lhoták, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 39 (2015), s. 5357-5361 ISSN 0040-4039 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : calixarene * azidation * regionselectivity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.347, year: 2015

  2. Synthesis of novel bis(perfluorophenyl azides) coupling agents: Evaluation of their performance by crosslinking of poly(ethylene oxide)

    KAUST Repository

    Mehenni, Hakim; Bakr, Osman

    2011-01-01

    Novel bis(perfluorophenyl azides) coupling agents, containing spacer arms from ethylene or ethylene glycol subunits, were successfully synthesized. Nitrenes photogenerated from these novel bis(PFPA) coupling agents were applied successfully

  3. Consecutive hydrazino-Ugi-azide reactions: synthesis of acylhydrazines bearing 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Fátima S. Barreto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions (IMCRs allow the construction of relatively complex molecules through a one-pot synthesis. The combination of IMCRs in a consecutive or sequential fashion further extends the complexity of the molecules obtained. Herein, we report the efficient application of this approach to the synthesis of acylhydrazines bearing 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles. Our strategy was accomplished in only three steps: first, a one-pot hydrazino-Ugi-azide four-component reaction; second a hydrazinolysis and finally an additional hydrazino-Ugi-azide reaction. This sequence provides the title compounds in moderate to excellent yields. The products synthesized herein contain functional groups within their structures that can be easily modified to obtain new acylhydrazino 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles.

  4. Experimental evidence for the involvement of dinuclear alkynylcopper(I) complexes in alkyne-azide chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Benjamin R; Dann, Sandra E; Heaney, Harry

    2010-06-01

    Dinuclear alkynylcopper(I) ladderane complexes are prepared by a robust and simple protocol involving the reduction of Cu(2)(OH)(3)OAc or Cu(OAc)(2) by easily oxidised alcohols in the presence of terminal alkynes; they function as efficient catalysts in copper-catalysed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reactions as predicted by the Ahlquist-Fokin calculations. The same copper(I) catalysts are formed during reactions by using the Sharpless-Fokin protocol. The experimental results also provide evidence that sodium ascorbate functions as a base to deprotonate terminal alkynes and additionally give a convincing alternative explanation for the fact that the Cu(I)-catalysed reactions of certain 1,3-diazides with phenylacetylene give bis(triazoles) as the major products. The same dinuclear alkynylcopper(I) complexes also function as catalysts in cycloaddition reactions of azides with 1-iodoalkynes.

  5. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  6. Ultrafast infrared and UV-vis studies of the photochemistry of methoxycarbonylphenyl azides in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiadan; Luk, Hoi Ling; Eswaran, S V; Hadad, Christopher M; Platz, Matthew S

    2012-06-07

    The photochemistry of 4-methoxycarbonylphenyl azide (2a), 2-methoxycarbonylphenyl azide (3a), and 2-methoxy-6-methoxycarbonylphenyl azide (4a) were studied by ultrafast time-resolved infrared (IR) and UV-vis spectroscopies in solution. Singlet nitrenes and ketenimines were observed and characterized for all three azides. Isoxazole species 3g and 4g are generated after photolysis of 3a and 4a, respectively, in acetonitrile. Triplet nitrene 4e formation correlated with the decay of singlet nitrene 4b. The presence of water does not change the chemistry or kinetics of singlet nitrenes 2b and 3b, but leads to protonation of 4b to produce nitrenium ion 4f. Singlet nitrenes 2b and 3b have lifetimes of 2 ns and 400 ps, respectively, in solution at ambient temperature. The singlet nitrene 4b in acetonitrile has a lifetime of about 800 ps, and reacts with water with a rate constant of 1.9 × 10(8) L·mol(-1)·s(-1) at room temperature. These results indicate that a methoxycarbonyl group at either the para or ortho positions has little influence on the ISC rate, but that the presence of a 2-methoxy group dramatically accelerates the ISC rate relative to the unsubstituted phenylnitrene. An ortho-methoxy group highly stabilizes the corresponding nitrenium ion and favors its formation in aqueous solvents. This substituent has little influence on the ring-expansion rate. These results are consistent with theoretical calculations for the various intermediates and their transition states. Cyclization from the nitrene to the azirine intermediate is favored to proceed toward the electron-deficient ester group; however, the higher energy barrier is the ring-opening process, that is, azirine to ketenimine formation, rendering the formation of the ester-ketenimine (4d') to be less favorable than the isomeric MeO-ketenimine (4d).

  7. Gamma ray and sodium azide induced heterophylly of Bhindi and Clusterbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaleel Basha, S.; Gopala Rao, P.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma rays (35, 45 Krad) and sodium azide (100, 200 ppm) and their combinations caused heterophylly in Bhindi (Hibiscus esculentus) and Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba). Changes like notching of leaf at the tip region, reduction of secondary and tertiary veins, formation of 2,4 leaflets, reduction of leaf lobes and change of shape were noticed. More changes were observed at higher doses of the mutagens. (author). 12 refs

  8. Functionalization of Graphene Nanoplatelets Using Sugar Azide for Graphene/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-20

    supercapacitor electrode . Nanotechnology, 22, 295202(2011). doi:10.1088/0957-4484/22/29/295202 20. Leinonen H, Pettersson M, Lajunen M, Water-soluble...Azide for Graphene/Epoxy Nanocomposites Saswata Bose1, Lawrence T. Drzal 1* Dept of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Composite Materials ...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Dept of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science,Composite Materials and Structures Center,2100 Engineering

  9. Synthesis of polynorbornene with pendant moiety bearing azide and terminal alkyne groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze Zhang; Zhi Wei Peng; Kun Zeng Fan

    2011-01-01

    A powerful approach to the synthesis of an unprecedented polynorbornene with pendant moiety bearing azide and terminal alkyne groups is developed. Two key intermediates, namely, 3-azido-5-(2-(trimethylsilyl)ethynyl) benzyl alcohol and 4-(4-aza-tricyclo [5.2.1.02.6]dec-8-en-4-yl) benzoic acid, were optimally synthesized for convergent synthesis of the corresponding monomer.

  10. Intramolecular Azide to Alkene Cycloadditions for the Construction of Pyrrolobenzodiazepines and Azetidino-Benzodiazepines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Hemming

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The coupling of proline- and azetidinone-substituted alkenes to 2-azidobenzoic and 2-azidobenzenesulfonic acid gives precursors that undergo intramolecular azide to alkene 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions to give imine-, triazoline- or aziridine-containing pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines (PBDs, pyrrolo[1,2,5]benzothiadiazepines (PBTDs, and azetidino[1,4]benzodiazepines. The imines and aziridines are formed after loss of nitrogen from a triazoline cycloadduct. The PBDs are a potent class of antitumour antibiotics.

  11. A practical and azide-free synthetic approach to oseltamivir from diethyl D-tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jiang; Li, Yong-Bo; Wang, Rui-Bin; Li, Feng-Quan; Liu, Can; Chan, Albert S C; Lu, Gui

    2010-05-07

    A short and practical synthesis of oseltamivir was accomplished in 11 steps from inexpensive and abundant diethyl D-tartrate starting material. This azide-free route featured an asymmetric aza-Henry reaction and a domino nitro-Michael/Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction as the key steps to construct the relevant cyclohexene ring of the product, which provided an economical and practical alternative for the synthesis of oseltamivir.

  12. Pressure-accelerated azide-alkyne cycloaddition: micro capillary versus autoclave reactor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borukhova, Svetlana; Seeger, Andreas D; Noël, Timothy; Wang, Qi; Busch, Markus; Hessel, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Pressure effects on regioselectivity and yield of cycloaddition reactions have been shown to exist. Nevertheless, high pressure synthetic applications with subsequent benefits in the production of natural products are limited by the general availability of the equipment. In addition, the virtues and limitations of microflow equipment under standard conditions are well established. Herein, we apply novel-process-window (NPWs) principles, such as intensification of intrinsic kinetics of a reaction using high temperature, pressure, and concentration, on azide-alkyne cycloaddition towards synthesis of Rufinamide precursor. We applied three main activation methods (i.e., uncatalyzed batch, uncatalyzed flow, and catalyzed flow) on uncatalyzed and catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. We compare the performance of two reactors, a specialized autoclave batch reactor for high-pressure operation up to 1800 bar and a capillary flow reactor (up to 400 bar). A differentiated and comprehensive picture is given for the two reactors and the three methods of activation. Reaction speedup and consequent increases in space-time yields is achieved, while the process window for favorable operation to selectively produce Rufinamide precursor in good yields is widened. The best conditions thus determined are applied to several azide-alkyne cycloadditions to widen the scope of the presented methodology. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Click functionalization of phenyl-capped bithiophene on azide-terminated self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yijun; Cui, Jiaxi; Ikeda, Taichi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrochemically-active self-assembled monolayers with phenyl-capped bithiophene were prepared. • Post-functionalization method based on click chemistry solved the solubility issue of phenyl-capped thiophene alkanethiol. • The capture and release of the counter anions during the redox reaction were detectable by E-QCM. - Abstract: We immobilized tetra(ethylene glycol)-substituted phenyl-capped bithiophene with alkyne terminals (Ph2TPh-alkyne) on azide-terminated self-assembled monolayers (N 3 -SAMs) by Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. Ph2TPh-functionalized SAMs on a gold substrate showed reversible electrochemical response. The surface densities of the azide groups in N 3 -SAMs and Ph2TPh units in Ph2TPh-functionalized SAMs were estimated to be 7.3 ± 0.3 × 10 −10 mol cm −2 and 4.6 ± 0.3 × 10 −10 mol cm −2 , respectively, by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Most of Ph2TPh-alkynes are considered to be anchored on N 3 -SAMs via both terminal groups. Ph2TPh-functionalized SAMs exhibited reversible redox peaks in cyclic voltammetry (CV). In redox reaction, reversible capture and release of the counter anion could be monitored by electrochemical QCM (E-QCM).

  14. Click functionalization of phenyl-capped bithiophene on azide-terminated self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yijun; Cui, Jiaxi [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPIP), Ackermannweg 10, Mainz 55128 (Germany); Ikeda, Taichi, E-mail: IKEDA.Taichi@nims.go.jp [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPIP), Ackermannweg 10, Mainz 55128 (Germany); Polymer Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrochemically-active self-assembled monolayers with phenyl-capped bithiophene were prepared. • Post-functionalization method based on click chemistry solved the solubility issue of phenyl-capped thiophene alkanethiol. • The capture and release of the counter anions during the redox reaction were detectable by E-QCM. - Abstract: We immobilized tetra(ethylene glycol)-substituted phenyl-capped bithiophene with alkyne terminals (Ph2TPh-alkyne) on azide-terminated self-assembled monolayers (N{sub 3}-SAMs) by Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. Ph2TPh-functionalized SAMs on a gold substrate showed reversible electrochemical response. The surface densities of the azide groups in N{sub 3}-SAMs and Ph2TPh units in Ph2TPh-functionalized SAMs were estimated to be 7.3 ± 0.3 × 10{sup −10} mol cm{sup −2} and 4.6 ± 0.3 × 10{sup −10} mol cm{sup −2}, respectively, by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Most of Ph2TPh-alkynes are considered to be anchored on N{sub 3}-SAMs via both terminal groups. Ph2TPh-functionalized SAMs exhibited reversible redox peaks in cyclic voltammetry (CV). In redox reaction, reversible capture and release of the counter anion could be monitored by electrochemical QCM (E-QCM).

  15. A small azide-modified thiazole-based reporter molecule for fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Wolfram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular probes are widely used tools in chemical biology that allow tracing of bioactive metabolites and selective labeling of proteins and other biomacromolecules. A common structural motif for such probes consists of a reporter that can be attached by copper(I-catalyzed 1,2,3-triazole formation between terminal alkynes and azides to a reactive headgroup. Here we introduce the synthesis and application of the new thiazole-based, azide-tagged reporter 4-(3-azidopropoxy-5-(4-bromophenyl-2-(pyridin-2-ylthiazole for fluorescence, UV and mass spectrometry (MS detection. This small fluorescent reporter bears a bromine functionalization facilitating the automated data mining of electrospray ionization MS runs by monitoring for its characteristic isotope signature. We demonstrate the universal utility of the reporter for the detection of an alkyne-modified small molecule by LC–MS and for the visualization of a model protein by in-gel fluorescence. The novel probe advantageously compares with commercially available azide-modified fluorophores and a brominated one. The ease of synthesis, small size, stability, and the universal detection possibilities make it an ideal reporter for activity-based protein profiling and functional metabolic profiling.

  16. Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of Iridium(III Azide- and Triazole-Bisterpyridine Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy W. Schmidt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the synthesis of azide-functionalised iridium(III bisterpyridines using the “chemistry on the complex” strategy. The resulting azide-complexes are then used in the copper(I-catalysed azide-alkyne Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition “click chemistry” reaction to from the corresponding triazole-functionalised iridium(III bisterpyridines. The photophysical characteristics, including lifetimes, of these compounds were also investigated. Interestingly, oxygen appears to have very little effect on the lifetime of these complexes in aqueous solutions. Unexpectedly, sodium ascorbate acid appears to quench the luminescence of triazole-functionalised iridium(III bisterpyridines, but this effect can be reversed by the addition of copper(II sulfate, which is known to oxidize ascorbate under aerobic conditions. The results demonstrate that iridium(III bisterpyridines can be functionalized for use in “click chemistry” facilitating the use of these photophysically interesting complexes in the modification of polymers or surfaces, to highlight just two possible applications.

  17. Ionic liquids as electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinski, Maciej; Lewandowski, Andrzej; Stepniak, Izabela

    2006-01-01

    Salts having a low melting point are liquid at room temperature, or even below, and form a new class of liquids usually called room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL). Information about RTILs can be found in the literature with such key words as: room temperature molten salt, low-temperature molten salt, ambient-temperature molten salt, liquid organic salt or simply ionic liquid. Their physicochemical properties are the same as high temperature ionic liquids, but the practical aspects of their maintenance or handling are different enough to merit a distinction. The class of ionic liquids, based on tetraalkylammonium cation and chloroaluminate anion, has been extensively studied since late 1970s of the XX century, following the works of Osteryoung. Systematic research on the application of chloroaluminate ionic liquids as solvents was performed in 1980s. However, ionic liquids based on aluminium halides are moisture sensitive. During the last decade an increasing number of new ionic liquids have been prepared and used as solvents. The general aim of this paper was to review the physical and chemical properties of RTILs from the point of view of their possible application as electrolytes in electrochemical processes and devices. The following points are discussed: melting and freezing, conductivity, viscosity, temperature dependence of conductivity, transport and transference numbers, electrochemical stability, possible application in aluminium electroplating, lithium batteries and in electrochemical capacitors

  18. Improvement to molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienvenu, Claude.

    1975-01-01

    The invention proposes a molten salt nuclear reactor whose core includes a mass of at least one fissile element salt to which can be added other salts to lower the melting temperature of the mass. This mass also contains a substance with a low neutron capture section that does not give rise to a chemical reaction or to an azeotropic mixture with these salts and having an atmospheric boiling point under that of the mass in operation. Means are provided for collecting this substance in the vapour state and returning it as a liquid to the mass. The kind of substance chosen will depend on that of the molten salts (fissile element salts and, where required, salts to lower the melting temperature). In actual practice, the substance chosen will have an atmospheric pressure boiling point of between 600 and 1300 0 C and a melting point sufficiently below 600 0 C to prevent solidification and clogging in the return line of the substance from the exchanger. Among the materials which can be considered for use, mention is made of magnesium, rubidium, cesium and potassium but metal cesium is not employed in the case of many fissile salts, such as fluorides, which it would reduced to the planned working temperatures [fr

  19. Introduction of sample tubes with sodium azide as a preservative for ethyl glucuronide in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginbühl, Marc; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct alcohol marker, which is widely used for clinical and forensic applications, mainly for abstinence control. However, the instability of EtG in urine against bacterial degradation or the post-collectional synthesis of EtG in contaminated samples may cause false interpretation of EtG results in urine samples. This study evaluates the potential of sodium azide in tubes used for urine collection to hinder degradation of ethyl glucuronide by bacterial metabolism taking place during growth of bacterial colonies. The tubes are part of a commercial oral fluid collection device. The sampling system was tested with different gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species previously observed in urinary tract infections, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterecoccus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Inhibition of bacterial growth by sodium azide, resulting in lower numbers of colony forming units compared to control samples, was observed for all tested bacterial species. To test the prevention of EtG degradation by the predominant pathogen in urinary tract infection, sterile-filtered urine and deficient medium were spiked with EtG, and inoculated with E. coli prior to incubation for 4 days at 37 °C in tubes with and without sodium azide. Samples were collected every 24 hours, during four consecutive days, whereby the colony forming units (CFU) were counted on Columbia blood agar plates, and EtG was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. As expected, EtG degradation was observed when standard polypropylene tubes were used for the storage of contaminated samples. However, urine specimens collected in sodium azide tubes showed no or very limited bacterial growth and no EtG degradation. As a conclusion, sodium azide is useful to reduce bacterial growth of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It inhibits the degradation of EtG by E. coli and can be used for

  20. Preparation of manganese salts of carboxylic acids labelled with ''54Mn and comparison with ''54 MnCl2 in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Arcos Merino, J. M. los; Grau Malonda, A.

    1992-01-01

    Procedures for liquid scintillation sample preparation of manganese dimethylbutirate, decanoate and palmitate, labelled with 54 Mn are described. their quenching effect, spectral evolution and counting stability along several weeks are analysed in liquid scintillation measurements with Toluene. HISafe II. PCS, instagel. Dioxane-naphtalene and Toluene-alcohol. For comparison, Inorganic 54 MnCl-2 samples are also studied, resulting in acceptable counting stability but showing greater quenching and signs of little spectral degradation against the organic samples. (Author)

  1. Disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts from the Molten Salt Reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretz, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) is an 8 MW reactor that was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1965 through 1969. The reactor used a unique liquid salt fuel, composed of a mixture of LIF, BeF 2 , ZrF 4 , and UF 4 , and operated at temperatures above 600 degrees C. The primary fuel salt circulation system consisted of the reactor vessel, a single fuel salt pump, and a single primary heat exchanger. Heat was transferred from the fuel salt to a coolant salt circuit in the primary heat exchanger. The coolant salt was similar to the fuel salt, except that it contains only LiF (66%) and BeF, (34%). The coolant salt passed from the primary heat exchanger to an air-cooled radiator and a coolant salt pump, and then returned to the primary heat exchanger. Each of the salt loops was provided with drain tanks, located such that the salt could be drained out of either circuit by gravity. A single drain tank was provided for the non-radioactive coolant salt. Two drain tanks were provided for the fuel salt. Since the fuel salt contained radioactive fuel, fission products, and activation products, and since the reactor was designed such that the fuel salt could be drained immediately into the drain tanks in the event of a problem in the fuel salt loop, the fuel salt drain tanks were provided with a system to remove the heat generated by radioactive decay. A third drain tank connected to the fuel salt loop was provided for a batch of flush salt. This batch of salt, similar in composition to the coolant salt, was used to condition the fuel salt loop after it had been exposed to air and to flush the fuel salt loop of residual fuel salt prior to accessing the reactor circuit for maintenance or experimental activities. This report discusses the disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salt

  2. Distribution behavior of uranium, neptunium, rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) and alkaline-earth metals (Sr,Ba) between molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and liquid cadmium or bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, M.; Sakamura, Y.; Hijikata, T.; Kinoshita, K.

    1995-01-01

    Distribution coefficients of uranium neptunium, eight rare-earth elements (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) and two alkaline-earth metals (Sr and Ba) between molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and either liquid cadmium or bismuth were measured at 773 K. Separation factors of trivalent rare-earth elements to uranium or neptunium in the LiCl-KCl/Bi system were by one or two orders of magnitude larger than those in the LiCl-KCl/Cd system. On the contrary, the separation factors of alkaline-earth metals and divalent rare-earth elements to trivalent rare-earth elements were by one or two orders of magnitude smaller in the LiCl-KCl/Bi system. (orig.)

  3. A novel ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of xanthones and steroidal saponins in crude and salt-processed Anemarrhenae Rhizoma aqueous extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, De; Su, Xiaonan; Huang, Ziyan; Wang, Qiaohan; Lu, Tulin

    2018-06-01

    We established a rapid and sensitive ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of xanthones and steroidal saponins in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C 18 column with a mobile phase comprising acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid. The detection was performed by negative electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The validated method showed good linearity within the tested range (r > 0.9945). The intra- and interday precision at high, medium, and low concentrations was less than 7.96%. The bias of accuracies ranged from -1.92 to 9.62%. The extraction recoveries of the compounds ranged from 84.78 to 88.69%, and the matrix effects ranged from 96.76 to 108.59%. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic comparison of crude and salt-processed Anemarrhenae Rhizoma aqueous extracts after oral administration in rats. The maximum plasma concentration and area under concentration-time curve of timosaponin BIII and timosaponin AIII increased significantly (P < 0.05 or 0.01) and those of timosaponin BII decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after processing. These results could contribute to the clinical application of crude and salt-processed Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and reveal the processing mechanism. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Aerosol Liquid Water Driven by Anthropogenic inorganic salts: Playing a key role in the winter haze formation over North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z.; Liu, Y.; Tan, T.; Wang, Y.; Shang, D.; Xiao, Y.; Li, M.; Zeng, L.; Hu, M.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol liquid water influences ambient particulate matter mass concentrations and aerosol optical properties, and can serve as a reactor for multiphase reactions that perturb local photochemistry1. Our observations revealed that ambient relative humidity, inorganic fraction (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate), and PM2.5 mass concentration generally simultaneously elevated during haze episodes, resulting in the abundant anthropogenic aerosol water in the atmosphere of Beijing. The enrichment of aerosol liquid water may significantly affect the particle phase, which plays a key role in determining the reactive uptake, gas-particle partitioning, and heterogeneous chemical reactivity2. A newly-built three-arm impactor was used to detect the particle rebound fraction. The observations showed the increased RH and inorganic-rich particulate matter led to an increased aerosol liquid water content, and thus a liquid phase state during haze episode during wintertime. Here, we proposed that the transition to a liquid phase state marked the beginning of the haze episode and kicked off a positive feedback loop, wherein the liquid particles readily uptake pollutants that could react to form inorganics which could then uptake more water. The strict controlling strategy of sulfur emissions in China might lead to a decreased sulfate fraction and increased nitrate fraction in PM1. As a result, due to the lower deliquescence RH of nitrate, the feedback loop proposed could start at an even lower RH in the future. Reference1 Herrmann, H., T. Schaefer, A. Tilgner, S. A. Styler, C. Weller, M. Teich, and T. Otto (2015), Tropospheric Aqueous-Phase Chemistry: Kinetics, Mechanisms, and Its Coupling to a Changing Gas Phase, Chemical Reviews, 115(10), 4259-4334.2 M. Kuwata, S. T. Martin (2012), Phase of atmospheric secondary organic material affects its reactivity, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(43):17354-17359

  5. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths and been blamed for a handful of suicides and murders. Two of the chemicals in bath salts (mephedrone and MDPV) are Schedule I class drugs. That means they have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use . People who are ...

  6. Azidoimidazolinium Salts: Safe and Efficient Diazo-transfer Reagents and Unique Azido-donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Mitsuru

    2017-07-01

    2-Azido-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium chloride (ADMC) and its corresponding hexafluorophosphate (ADMP) were found to be efficient diazo-transfer reagents to various organic compounds. ADMC was prepared by the reaction of 2-chloro-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium chloride (DMC) and sodium azide. ADMP was isolated as a crystal having good thermal stability and low explosibility. ADMC and ADMP reacted with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds under mild basic conditions to give 2-diazo-1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in high yields, which were easily isolated in virtue of the high water solubility of the by-products. ADMP showed high diazo-transfer ability to primary amines even in the absence of metal salt such as Cu(II). Using this diazotization approach, various alkyl/aryl azides were directly obtained from their corresponding primary amines in high yields. Furthermore, naphthols reacted with ADMC to give the corresponding diazonaphthoquinones in good to high yields. In addition, 2-azido-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium salts were employed as azide-transfer and migratory amidation reagents. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Use of sodium salt electrolysis in the process of continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents test results concerning the selection of sodium salt for the technology of continuous modification of the EN AC-AlSi12 alloy, which is based on electrolysis of sodium salts, occurring directly in a crucible with liquid alloy. Sodium ions formed as a result of the sodium salt dissociation and the electrolysis are ...

  8. Synthesis, solid-state structure, and bonding analysis of a homoleptic beryllium azide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naglav, Dominik; Tobey, Briac; Lyhs, Benjamin; Roemer, Beate; Blaeser, Dieter; Woelper, Christoph; Jansen, Georg; Schulz, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    [Ph 4 P] 2 [Be(N 3 ) 4 ] (1) and [PNP] 2 [Be(N 3 ) 4 ] (2; PNP=Ph 3 PNPPh 3 ) were synthesized by reacting Be(N 3 ) 2 with [Ph 4 P]N 3 and [PNP]N 3 . Compound 1 represents the first structurally characterized homoleptic beryllium azide. The electronic structure and bonding situation in the tetraazidoberyllate dianion [Be(N 3 ) 4 ] 2- were investigated by quantum-chemical calculations (NPA, ELF, LOL). (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Azide- and Alkyne-Functionalised α- and β3-Amino Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sminia, T.J.; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis and full characterisation of bifunctional β -amino acids that have side chains functionalised with terminal azides (S)-4 and (R)-4 or acetylenes 5 and 6 is reported for the first time. The building blocks incorporate a turn-inducing β -segment and a side chain that can...... be functionalised further, for example, through copper-catalysed Huisgen cycloaddition. Moreover, the corresponding α-amino acids 1 and 3 have been synthesised and characterised. All amino acid building blocks were of high optical purity as demonstrated by derivatisation and subsequent NMR analysis....

  10. Synthesis, Solid-State Structure, and Bonding Analysis of a Homoleptic Beryllium Azide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglav, Dominik; Tobey, Briac; Lyhs, Benjamin; Römer, Beate; Bläser, Dieter; Wölper, Christoph; Jansen, Georg; Schulz, Stephan

    2017-07-10

    [Ph 4 P] 2 [Be(N 3 ) 4 ] (1) and [PNP] 2 [Be(N 3 ) 4 ] (2; PNP=Ph 3 PNPPh 3 ) were synthesized by reacting Be(N 3 ) 2 with [Ph 4 P]N 3 and [PNP]N 3 . Compound 1 represents the first structurally characterized homoleptic beryllium azide. The electronic structure and bonding situation in the tetraazidoberyllate dianion [Be(N 3 ) 4 ] 2- were investigated by quantum-chemical calculations (NPA, ELF, LOL). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Allylic azides as potential building blocks for the synthesis of nitrogenated compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sá Marcus M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic potential of multifunctional allylic azides and imines in attempted intramolecular cyclizations to nitrogen-containing heterocycles was investigated. Tandem Staudinger/aza-Wittig reaction of (E-3-aryl-2-(azidomethylpropenoates with triphenylphosphine and aldehydes yielded N-allylic imines in good yield. The (E-stereochemistry of C=C and C=N bonds was assigned based on NOESY experiments. AlCl3 mediated formation of 3-carbomethoxyquinoline from methyl (E-2-(azidomethyl-3-phenylpropenoate is also described.

  12. Two Zn and Hg bromide salts based on 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium ionic liquid: Ionothermal synthesis, structures and supramolecular organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Cheng Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two Zn(II and Hg(II bromide salts, [EMI]2[ZnBr4] (1 and [EMI][HgBr3] (2, have been synthesized under ionothermal conditions using 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium bromide ([EMI]Br as solvents. 1 consists of tetrahedral anion [ZnBr4]2− and 2 consists of 1D double chain locating in the cavities surrounded by [EMI]+ cations. Both compounds exhibit 3D supramolecular architectures organized by the C-H•••Br hydrogen bondings and alkyl-alkyl interactions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i3.9

  13. Influence of Proton and Salt Concentration on the Chromonic Liquid Crystal Phase Diagram of Disodium Cromoglycate Solutions: Prospects and Limitations of a Host for DNA Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingru; Kitzerow, Heinz-S

    2016-03-31

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals have recently been suggested for use as a self-organized host for dispersing and aligning self-organized DNA origami nanostructures. However, an appropriate pH value and a suitable cation concentration are necessary to stabilize such nanostructures and to avoid unfolding of the DNA. The present study shows that the nematic and columnar liquid crystal phases appearing in aqueous solutions of disodium cromoglycate are robust against the replacement of deionized water by a neutral or alkaline buffer solution. However, disodium cromoglycate precipitates when an acidic buffer is used or when the concentration of magnesium cations exceeds a critical concentration of about 0.6-0.7 mmol/L.

  14. Copper-Catalyzed Sulfonyl Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reactions: Simultaneous Generation and Trapping of Copper-Triazoles and -Ketenimines for the Synthesis of Triazolopyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallagangula, Madhu; Namitharan, Kayambu

    2017-07-07

    First simultaneous generation and utilization of both copper-triazole and -ketenimine intermediates in copper-catalyzed sulfonyl azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions is achieved for the one-pot synthesis of triazolopyrimidines via a novel copper-catalyzed multicomponent cascade of sulfonyl azides, alkynes, and azirines. Significantly, the reaction proceeds under very mild conditions in good yields.

  15. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of azide and cyanate ion pairs in AOT reverse micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.; Pomfret, Michael B.; Barton, David J.; Kidwell, David A.

    2008-07-01

    Evidence for ion pair formation in aqueous bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles (RMs) was obtained from infrared spectra of azide and cyanate with Li+, Na+, K+, and NH4+ counterions. The anions' antisymmetric stretching bands near 2000 cm-1 are shifted to higher frequency (blueshifted) in LiAOT and to a lesser extent in NaAOT, but they are very similar to those in bulk water with K+ and NH4+ as the counterions. The shifts are largest for low values of wo=[water]/[AOT] and approach the bulk value with increasing wo. The blueshifts are attributed to ion pairing between the anions and the counterions. This interpretation is reinforced by the similar trend (Li+>Na+>K+) for producing contact ion pairs with the metal cations in bulk dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions. We find no evidence of ion pairs being formed in NH4AOT RMs, whereas ammonium does form ion pairs with azide and cyanate in bulk DMSO. Studies are also reported for the anions in formamide-containing AOT RMs, in which blueshifts and ion pair formation are observed more than in the aqueous RMs. Ion pairs are preferentially formed in confined RM systems, consistent with the well established ideas that RMs exhibit reduced polarity and a disrupted hydrogen bonding network compared to bulk water and that ion-specific effects are involved in mediating the structure of species at interfaces.

  16. Rice mutants obtained through sodium azide (NaN3) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.F.; Ando, A.; Tulmann Neto, A.

    2001-01-01

    The successful utilization of sodium azide to generate genetic variability in plant breeding has been reported in barley, rice, and other crops. Rice seeds of 'Dourado Precoce', Brazilian upland cultivar, were treated with 5x10 -3 M of sodium azide, prepared in buffer solution of pH 3,0, for 8 hours at laboratory temperature. Ten short culm mutant lines were selected in the M 2 , M 3 and M 4 generations. In the M 5 generation, the mutant lines were evaluated for flowering and maturing cycles, tiller number per plant, plant height, panicle number per m 2 , panicle length, fertility of panicle, weight of 1.000 grains, productivity, percentage of intact grains after milling, width and thickness of peeled and polished grains and length/width grain ratio. The experiment was conducted in the Centro Experimental of Instituto Agronomico, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the period of 1993/94, utilizing randomized block design with four replications. Each experimental plot consisted of five rows of four meters in length, 50 cm between rows, with 75 seeds sown per meter. The cultivar 'IAC 201' and the original Dourado Precoce were planted as checks. All observations were made on the three central rows of each experimental plot. The data was analysed by the SANEST statistical program and the mean values were discriminated by the Tukey's test at the level 5% of probability

  17. Ratiometric Fluorescence Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition for Live Mammalian Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hongxia; Li, Yanru; Sun, Lingbo; He, Pan; Duan, Xinrui

    2015-11-17

    Click chemistry with metabolic labeling has been widely used for selectively imaging biomacromolecules in cells. The first example of azide-alkyne cycloaddition for ratiometric fluorescent imaging of live cells is reported. The precursor of the azido fluorophore (cresyl violet) has a fluorescence emission peak at 620 nm. The electron-rich nitrogen of the azido group blue-shifts the emission peak to 566 nm. When the click reaction occurs, an emission peak appears at 620 nm due to the lower electronic density of the newly formed triazole ring, which allows us to ratiometrically record fluorescence signals. This emission shift was applied to ratiometric imaging of propargylcholine- and dibenzocyclooctyne-labeled human breast cancer cells MCF-7 under laser confocal microscopy. Two typical triazole compounds were isolated for photophysical parameter measurements. The emission spectra presented a fluorescence emission peak around 620 nm for both click products. The results further confirmed the emission wavelength change was the result of azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. Since nearly all biomolecules can be metabolically labeled by reported alkyne-functionalized derivatives of native metabolites, our method can be readily applied to image these biomacromolecules.

  18. Preparatory on manganose salts of carboxilic acids labelled with 54Mn and comparison with 54MnCl2 in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Los Arcos, J.M.; Grau, A.

    1992-01-01

    Procedures for scintillation sample preparation of manganose dimethylbutirate, decanoate and palmitate, labelled with 54 Mn are described. Their quenching effect, spectral evolution and counting stability along several weeks are analysed in liquid scintillation measurements with Toluene, HlSafe II, PCS, Instagel, Dioxane-naphtalene and Toluene-alcohol. For comparison, inorganic 54 MnCl 2 samples are also studied, resulting in acceptable counting stability but showing greater quenching and signs of little spectral degradation against the organic samples. (author) 14 fig. 15 ref

  19. High throughput salt separation from uranium deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S.W.; Park, K.M.; Kim, J.G.; Kim, I.T.; Park, S.B., E-mail: swkwon@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system owing to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites in pyroprocessing. Multilayer porous crucible system was proposed to increase a throughput of the salt distiller in this study. An integrated sieve-crucible assembly was also investigated for the practical use of the porous crucible system. The salt evaporation behaviors were compared between the conventional nonporous crucible and the porous crucible. Two step weight reductions took place in the porous crucible, whereas the salt weight reduced only at high temperature by distillation in a nonporous crucible. The first weight reduction in the porous crucible was caused by the liquid salt penetrated out through the perforated crucible during the temperature elevation until the distillation temperature. Multilayer porous crucibles have a benefit to expand the evaporation surface area. (author)

  20. Development of salt-tolerance interface for an high performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry system and its application to accurate quantification of DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Yuka; Sakagawa, Shinnosuke; Inagaki, Kazumi; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Sabarudin, Akhmad; Umemura, Tomonari; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2012-02-03

    Accurate quantification of DNA is highly important in various fields. Determination of phosphorus by ICP-MS is one of the most effective methods for accurate quantification of DNA due to the fixed stoichiometry of phosphate to this molecule. In this paper, a smart and reliable method for accurate quantification of DNA fragments and oligodeoxythymidilic acids by hyphenated HPLC/ICP-MS equipped with a highly efficient interface device is presented. The interface was constructed of a home-made capillary-attached micronebulizer and temperature-controllable cyclonic spray chamber (IsoMist). As a separation column for DNA samples, home-made methacrylate-based weak anion-exchange monolith was employed. Some parameters, which include composition of mobile phase, gradient program, inner and outer diameters of capillary, temperature of spray chamber etc., were optimized to find the best performance for separation and accurate quantification of DNA samples. The proposed system could achieve many advantages, such as total consumption for small amount sample analysis, salt-tolerance for hyphenated analysis, high accuracy and precision for quantitative analysis. Using this proposed system, the samples of 20 bp DNA ladder (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 300, 400, 500 base pairs) and oligodeoxythymidilic acids (dT(12-18)) were rapidly separated and accurately quantified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The nymphea concept: a new way for using ion exchange in the decontamination of radioactive liquid wastes with low salt content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierlas, R.; Nicoud, R.; Schweich, D.; Kalimbadjian, M.; Dozol, J.F.

    1986-09-01

    SGN has undertaken the development of a new equipment ''NYMPHEA'', specially fitted for the purification of the pool water in spent fuel storage facilities. Based on ion-exchange process, these immersed units are working with high flow rate and a small thickness of the resins bed. Cogema has selected these ionic ''NYMPHEA'' for installation in the new storage basins already built or in construction in the new french reprocessing plant UP3 in La Hague (France). Together with the necessary and complementary hot tests in CEA laboratories (CADARACHE), a basic research has been started in cooperation with the Chemical Engineering Science Laboratory (LSGC Nancy) and the results already achieved are presented in this paper. Since two years, the ''NYMPHEA'' are into operation at La Hague (pool C), fulfilling all the required performances. This new and promising concept could, in the future, be extended to other applications, for the treatment of low salt content solutions, in the nuclear waste processing field, as well as for various chemical separations

  2. Molten salt reactors. Synthesis of studies realized between 1973 and 1983. Experimental loop file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    Four test loops were developed for the experimental study of a molten salt reactor with lead salt direct contact. A molten salt loop, completely in graphite, including the pump, showed that this material is convenient for salt containment and circulation. Reactor components like flowmeters, electromagnetic pumps, pressure gauge, valves developed for liquid sodium, were tested with liquid lead. A water-mercury loop was built for lead-molten salt simulation studies. Finally a lead-salt loop (COMPARSE) was built to study the behaviour of salt particles carried by lead in the heat exchanger. [fr

  3. Conventional high-performance liquid chromatography versus derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt in the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Pyranine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitian, Simion; White, Samuel R; Yang, H-H Wendy; Weisz, Adrian

    2014-01-10

    Specifications in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Colour Index No. 59040) limit the levels of the subsidiary colors 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (P3S) and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (P4S). The present paper describes a comparative study of two possible methods to replace the currently used multi-step TLC/spectrophotometry method of separating and quantifying the minor components P3S and P4S in G8. One of the new approaches uses conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the other, derivative spectrophotometry. While the derivative spectrophotometric method was shown to be inadequate for the analysis of minor components overwhelmed by components of much higher concentration, the HPLC method was proven highly effective. The closely related, very polar compounds P3S and P4S were separated by the new HPLC method in less than 4 min using a conventional HPLC instrument. P3S and P4S were quantified by using five-point calibration curves with data points that ranged from 0.45 to 7.63% and from 0.13 to 1.82%, by weight, for P3S and P4S, respectively. The HPLC method was applied to the analysis of test portions from 20 batches of D&C Green No. 8 submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for certification. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures

  5. Development of a general methodology for labelling peptide-morpholino oligonucleotide conjugates using alkyne-azide click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanpoor, Fazel; Gait, Michael J

    2013-11-11

    We describe a general methodology for fluorescent labelling of peptide conjugates of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotides (PMOs) by alkyne functionalization of peptides, subsequent conjugation to PMOs and labelling with a fluorescent compound (Cy5-azide). Two peptide-PMO (PPMO) examples are shown. No detrimental effect of such labelled PMOs was seen in a biological assay.

  6. Solid-phase synthesis of NH-1,2,3-triazoles using 4,4′- bismethoxybenzhydryl azide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohrt, Anders Emil O'Hanlon; Le Quement, Sebastian Thordal; Nielsen, Thomas Eiland

    2014-01-01

    Readily available 4,4′-bismethoxybenzhydryl azide was found to be a useful building block for the synthesis of NH-1,2,3-triazoles through copper(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions with solid-supported terminal alkynes, followed by acid-mediated deprotection. Peptide-containing NH-1,2,3-triazole...

  7. Target and identify: triazene linker helps identify azidation sites of labelled proteins via click and cleave strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Jonas; Schindl, Alexandra; Danda, Natasha; Williams, Chris P; Kramer, Karl; Kuster, Bernhard; Witte, Martin D; Médard, Guillaume

    2017-10-31

    A method for identifying probe modification of proteins via tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Azide bearing molecules are immobilized on functionalised sepharose beads via copper catalysed Huisgen-type click chemistry and selectively released under acidic conditions by chemical cleavage of the triazene linkage. We applied this method to identify the modification site of targeted-diazotransfer on BirA.

  8. Determination of gold osmium and ruthenium through iodine-azide reaction in presence of 2- or 6- mercaptopurine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusiewicz, H.; Kurzawa, Z.

    1978-01-01

    The composition of osmium and ruthenium complexes with 6-mercaptopurine has been determined. The sensitivity of the method was enhanced due to a proper choice of the optimal time of the formation of these complexes and the time of equilibrium attainment in the presence of excess of azide. Also the gold complex with 2-mercaptopurine was investigated. (author)

  9. Probing subsistence of ion-pair and triple-ion of an ionic salt in liquid environments by means of conductometric contrivance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banik, Ishani; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of ion-solvation of [Bu 4 NBF 4 ] in CH 3 CN, CH 3 OH, DMSO, and 1,3-DO. • Triple-ion formation in 1,3-Dioxolane. • Ion–solvent interaction is stronger in DMSO. • Ion–solvent interaction dominates over ion–ion interaction in the studied solutions. -- Abstract: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of molecular interaction prevailing in ionic salt-organic solvent media, probed by electrical conductances have been reported. Tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate [Bu 4 NBF 4 ] in acetonitrile (CH 3 CN), methanol (CH 3 OH), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 1,3-dioxolane (1,3-DO) have been studied at 298.15 K. The extent of interaction is expressed in terms of the association constant (K A ) and shows the interaction to be a function of viscosity. Limiting molar conductances (Λ o ), association constants (K A ), and the association diameter (R) for ion-pair formation have been analyzed using the Fuoss conductance-concentration equation (1978). The observed molar conductivities were explained by the formation of ion-pairs (M + +X − ↔ MX, K P ) and triple-ions (2M + + X − ↔ M 2 X + ; M + + 2X − ↔ MX 2 − , K T ). The Walden product is obtained and discussed. The deviation of the conductometric curves (Λ vs c 1/2 ) from linearity for the electrolyte in 1,3-dioxolane indicates triple-ion formation, and therefore the corresponding conductance data have been analyzed by using the Fuoss–Kraus theory of triple-ions. The limiting ionic conductances (λ o ± ) have been calculated from the appropriate division of the limiting molar conductivity value of tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate [Bu 4 NBPh 4 ] as the “reference electrolyte” method along with a numerical evaluation of ion-pair and triple-ion formation constants (K P ≈ K A and K T ). The results have been interpreted in terms of solvent properties and configurational theory

  10. Rapid analysis of charge variants of monoclonal antibodies using non-linear salt gradient in cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Varsha; Kumar, Vijesh; Rathore, Anurag S

    2015-08-07

    A method is proposed for rapid development of a short, analytical cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography method for analysis of charge heterogeneity in monoclonal antibody products. The parameters investigated and optimized include pH, shape of elution gradient and length of the column. It is found that the most important parameter for development of a shorter method is the choice of the shape of elution gradient. In this paper, we propose a step by step approach to develop a non-linear sigmoidal shape gradient for analysis of charge heterogeneity for two different monoclonal antibody products. The use of this gradient not only decreases the run time of the method to 4min against the conventional method that takes more than 40min but also the resolution is retained. Superiority of the phosphate gradient over sodium chloride gradient for elution of mAbs is also observed. The method has been successfully evaluated for specificity, sensitivity, linearity, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. Application of this method as a potential at-line process analytical technology tool has been suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Azide-Alkyne Huisgen [3+2] Cycloaddition Using CuO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjoon Song

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the synthesis of CuO nanoparticles (NPs and their application to the [3+2] cycloaddition of azides with terminal alkynes are reviewed. With respect to the importance of click chemistry, CuO hollow NPs, CuO hollow NPs on acetylene black, water-soluble double-hydrophilic block copolymer (DHBC nanoreactors and ZnO–CuO hybrid NPs were synthesized. Non-conventional energy sources such as microwaves and ultrasound were also applied to these click reactions, and good catalytic activity with high regioselectivity was observed. CuO hollow NPs on acetylene black can be recycled nine times without any loss of activity, and water-soluble DHBC nanoreactors have been developed for an environmentally friendly process.

  12. Relative Performance of Alkynes in Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislukhin, Alexander A.; Hong, Vu P.; Breitenkamp, Kurt E.; Finn, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) has found numerous applications in a variety of fields. We report here only modest differences in the reactivity of various classes of terminal alkynes under typical bioconjugative and preparative organic conditions. Propargyl compounds represent an excellent combination of azide reactivity, ease of installation, and cost. Electronically activated propiolamides are slightly more reactive, at the expense of increased propensity for Michael addition. Certain alkynes, including tertiary propargyl carbamates, are not suitable for bioconjugation due to copper-induced fragmentation. A fluorogenic probe based on such reactivity is available in one step from rhodamine 110 and can be useful for optimization of CuAAC conditions. PMID:23566039

  13. Synthesis, solid-state structure, and bonding analysis of a homoleptic beryllium azide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naglav, Dominik; Tobey, Briac; Lyhs, Benjamin; Roemer, Beate; Blaeser, Dieter; Woelper, Christoph; Jansen, Georg; Schulz, Stephan [Faculty of Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (Cenide), Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany)

    2017-07-10

    [Ph{sub 4}P]{sub 2}[Be(N{sub 3}){sub 4}] (1) and [PNP]{sub 2}[Be(N{sub 3}){sub 4}] (2; PNP=Ph{sub 3}PNPPh{sub 3}) were synthesized by reacting Be(N{sub 3}){sub 2} with [Ph{sub 4}P]N{sub 3} and [PNP]N{sub 3}. Compound 1 represents the first structurally characterized homoleptic beryllium azide. The electronic structure and bonding situation in the tetraazidoberyllate dianion [Be(N{sub 3}){sub 4}]{sup 2-} were investigated by quantum-chemical calculations (NPA, ELF, LOL). (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Lithium Azide as an Electrolyte Additive for All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Judez, Xabier; Li, Chunmei; Bondarchuk, Oleksandr; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M; Zhang, Heng; Armand, Michel

    2017-11-27

    Of the various beyond-lithium-ion battery technologies, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have an appealing theoretical energy density and are being intensely investigated as next-generation rechargeable lithium-metal batteries. However, the stability of the lithium-metal (Li°) anode is among the most urgent challenges that need to be addressed to ensure the long-term stability of Li-S batteries. Herein, we report lithium azide (LiN 3 ) as a novel electrolyte additive for all-solid-state Li-S batteries (ASSLSBs). It results in the formation of a thin, compact and highly conductive passivation layer on the Li° anode, thereby avoiding dendrite formation, and polysulfide shuttling. It greatly enhances the cycling performance, Coulombic and energy efficiencies of ASSLSBs, outperforming the state-of-the-art additive lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Electronic effects of ruthenium-catalyzed [3+2]-cycloaddition of alkynes and azides

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Duenren

    2010-11-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of ruthenium-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (RuAAC) reactions is presented and various electronic analyses were conducted to provide a basis in understanding the observed regioselectivity of the 1,2,3-triazole products. Computational studies using density functional theory (DFT) and atoms in molecules quantum theory (AIM) further yield fresh details on the electronic factors that determine the regioselectivity in the RuAAC. It is found that the formation of 1,2,3-triazole products is irreversible and from the Hammett study, the pathway involving a vinyl cationic intermediate is ruled out. The electronic effect favors the formation of 5-electron-donating-group substituted-1,2,3-trizoles. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electronic effects of ruthenium-catalyzed [3+2]-cycloaddition of alkynes and azides

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Duenren; Kuan, Tingchun; Li, YuKai; Lee, Richmond; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2010-01-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of ruthenium-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (RuAAC) reactions is presented and various electronic analyses were conducted to provide a basis in understanding the observed regioselectivity of the 1,2,3-triazole products. Computational studies using density functional theory (DFT) and atoms in molecules quantum theory (AIM) further yield fresh details on the electronic factors that determine the regioselectivity in the RuAAC. It is found that the formation of 1,2,3-triazole products is irreversible and from the Hammett study, the pathway involving a vinyl cationic intermediate is ruled out. The electronic effect favors the formation of 5-electron-donating-group substituted-1,2,3-trizoles. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring the flexible chemistry of 4-fluoro-3-nitrophenyl azide for biomolecule immobilization and bioconjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saroj; Kumar, Dileep; Ahirwar, Rajesh; Nahar, Pradip

    2016-10-01

    Bioconjugation and functionalization of polymer surfaces are two major tasks in materials chemistry which are accomplished using a variety of coupling agents. Immobilization of biomolecules onto polymer surfaces and the construction of bioconjugates are essential requirements of many biochemical assays and chemical syntheses. Different linkers with a variety of functional groups are used for these purposes. Among them, the benzophenones, aryldiazirines, and arylazides represent the most commonly used photolinker to produce the desired chemical linkage upon their photo-irradiation. In this review, we describe the versatile applications of 4-fluoro-3-nitrophenyl azide, one of the oldest photolinkers used for photoaffinity labeling in the late 1960s. Surprisingly, this photolinker, historically known as 1-fluoro-2-nitro-4-azidobenzene (FNAB), has remained unexplored for a long time because of apprehension that FNAB forms ring-expanded dehydroazepine as a major product and hence cannot activate an inert polymer. The first evidence of photochemical activation of an inert surface by FNAB through nitrene insertion reaction was reported in 2001, and the FNAB-activated surface was found to conjugate a biomolecule without any catalyst, reagent, or modification. FNAB has distinct advantages over perfluorophenyl azide derivatives, which are contemporary nitrene-generating photolinkers, because of its simple, single-step preparation and ease of thermochemical and photochemical reactions with versatile polymers and biomolecules. Covering these aspects, the present review highlights the flexible chemistry of FNAB and its applications in the field of surface engineering, immobilization of biomolecules such as antibodies, enzymes, cells, carbohydrates, oligonucleotides, and DNA aptamers, and rapid diagnostics. Graphical Abstract An overview of the FNAB-engineered activated polymer surfaces for covalent ligation of versatile biomolecules.

  18. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000760.htm Cooking without salt To use the sharing features on ... other dishes to add zest. Try Salt-free Cooking Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash ...

  19. Analysis of Phenolic Acids of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. Responding to Salt-Stress by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujia Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics can have applications in pharmaceutical and other industries. To identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in Helianthus tuberosus leaves, qualitative analysis was performed by a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS and quantitative analysis by HPLC. Ten chlorogenic acids (CGAs were identified (3-o-caffeoylquinic acid, two isomers of caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaroyl-quinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoyquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid by comparing their retention times, UV-Vis absorption spectra, and MS/MS spectra with standards. In addition, four other phenolic compounds, including caffeoyl glucopyranose, isorhamnetin glucoside, kaempferol glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-o-glucoside, were tentatively identified in Helianthus tuberosus leaves for the first time. The 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid (7.752 mg/g DW, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (5.633 mg/g DW, and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4.900 mg/g DW were the major phenolic compounds in leaves of Helianthus tuberosus cultivar NanYu in maturity. The variations in phenolic concentrations and proportions in Helianthus tuberosus leaves were influenced by genotype and plant growth stage. Cultivar NanYu had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds, in particular 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid compared with the other genotypes (wild accession and QingYu. Considering various growth stages, the concentration of total phenolics in cultivar NanYu was higher at flowering stage (5.270 mg/g DW than at budding and tuber swelling stages. Cultivar NanYu of Helianthus tuberosus is a potential source of natural phenolics that may play an important role in the development of pharmaceuticals.

  20. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  1. Double salts of ionic-liquid-based surfactants in microextraction: application of their mixed hemimicelles as novel sorbents in magnetic-assisted micro-dispersive solid-phase extraction for the determination of phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2015-11-01

    The use of mixed hemimicelles of ionic liquid (IL)-based surfactants in a magnetic-based micro-dispersive solid-phase extraction (m-μdSPE) approach is described. Not only is the symmetric monocationic IL-based surfactant 1,3-didodecylimidazolium bromide (C12C12Im-Br) studied for first time in m-μdSPE, but double-salt (DS) IL (DSIL)-based surfactants are also examined. Nine DSIL-based surfactants were formed by combination of C12C12Im-Br with other IL-based surfactants, including nonsymmetric monocationic and dicationic ILs combined at three different molar fractions. The analytical application was focused on the determination of a group of eight phenols, including bisphenol A, in water samples. The best results were obtained with the DSIL formed by C12C12Im-Br (molar fraction 0.5) and 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C16MIm-Br), after proper optimization of the overall method in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and diode-array detection (DAD). The optimum conditions for 100 mL of water samples require a small amount (10 mg) of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles, a low content (5.0 mg of C12C12Im-Br and 3.9 mg of C16MIm-Br) of the selected DSIL, pH 11, a sonication time of 2.5 min, and an equilibration time of 5 min with the aid of NdFeB magnets, followed by elution of phenols, evaporation, and reconstitution with 0.5 mL of acetonitrile. The overall m-μdSPE-HPLC-DAD method is characterized for limits of detection down to 1.3 μg · L(-1), intraday relative standard deviations lower than 13 % (n = 3), and interday relative standard deviations lower than 17 % (n = 9), with a spiking level of 15 μg · L(-1); with enrichment factors between 15.7 and 141, and average relative recoveries of 99.9 %.

  2. Liquid electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  3. Bituminization of liquid radioactive waste. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G'oshev, G.S.; Gradev, G.D.; Stefanova, I.G.; Milusheva, A.G.; Guteva, E.S.; Stefanov, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    The elaborated technology for bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes (salt concentrates) is characterized by the fact that the bituminization process takes place in two stages: concentration of the liquid residue and evaporation of the water with simultaneous homogeneous incorporation of the salts in the melted bitumen. An experimental installation for bituminization of salt concentrates was designed on the basis of this technology. The experience accumulated during the design and construction of the installation for bituminization of salt concentrates could be used for designing and constructing an industrial installation for bituminization of the liquid residue of the nuclear power plants. 2 tabs., 3 figs., 3 refs

  4. The orbital ground state of the azide-substrate complex of human heme oxygenase is an indicator of distal H-bonding: Implications for the enzyme mechanism‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Hiroshi; Evans, John P.; Peng, Dungeng; Satterlee, James D.; de Montellano, Paul R. Ortiz; Mar, Gerd N. La

    2009-01-01

    The active site electronic structure of the azide complex of substrate-bound human heme oxygenase-1, (hHO) has been investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy to shed light on the orbital/spin ground state as an indicator of the unique distal pocket environment of the enzyme. 2D 1H NMR assignments of the substrate and substrate-contact residue signals reveal a pattern of substrate methyl contact shifts, that places the lone iron π-spin in the dxz orbital, rather than the dyz orbital found in the cyanide complex. Comparison of iron spin relaxivity, magnetic anisotropy and magnetic susceptibilities argues for a low-spin, (dxy)2(dyz,dxz)3, ground state in both azide and cyanide complexes. The switch from singly-occupied dyz for the cyanide to dxz for the azide complex of hHO is shown to be consistent with the orbital hole determined by the azide π-plane in the latter complex, which is ∼90° in-plane rotated from that of the imidazole π-plane. The induction of the altered orbital ground state in the azide relative to the cyanide hHO complex, as well as the mean low-field bias of methyl hyperfine shifts and their paramagnetic relaxivity relative to those in globins, indicate that azide exerts a stronger ligand field in hHO than in the globins, or that the distal H-bonding to azide is weaker in hHO than in globins. The Asp140 → Ala hHO mutant that abolishes activity retains the unusual WT azide complex spin/orbital ground state. The relevance of our findings for other HO complexes and the HO mechanism is discussed. PMID:19243105

  5. The orbital ground state of the azide-substrate complex of human heme oxygenase is an indicator of distal H-bonding: implications for the enzyme mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Hiroshi; Evans, John P; Peng, Dungeng; Satterlee, James D; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R; La Mar, Gerd N

    2009-04-14

    The active site electronic structure of the azide complex of substrate-bound human heme oxygenase 1 (hHO) has been investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy to shed light on the orbital/spin ground state as an indicator of the unique distal pocket environment of the enzyme. Two-dimensional (1)H NMR assignments of the substrate and substrate-contact residue signals reveal a pattern of substrate methyl contact shifts that places the lone iron pi-spin in the d(xz) orbital, rather than the d(yz) orbital found in the cyanide complex. Comparison of iron spin relaxivity, magnetic anisotropy, and magnetic susceptibilities argues for a low-spin, (d(xy))(2)(d(yz),d(xz))(3), ground state in both azide and cyanide complexes. The switch from singly occupied d(yz) for the cyanide to d(xz) for the azide complex of hHO is shown to be consistent with the orbital hole determined by the azide pi-plane in the latter complex, which is approximately 90 degrees in-plane rotated from that of the imidazole pi-plane. The induction of the altered orbital ground state in the azide relative to the cyanide hHO complex, as well as the mean low-field bias of methyl hyperfine shifts and their paramagnetic relaxivity relative to those in globins, indicates that azide exerts a stronger ligand field in hHO than in the globins, or that the distal H-bonding to azide is weaker in hHO than in globins. The Asp140 --> Ala hHO mutant that abolishes activity retains the unusual WT azide complex spin/orbital ground state. The relevance of our findings for other HO complexes and the HO mechanism is discussed.

  6. Gamma ray, EMS and sodium azide induced effectiveness and efficiency of chlorophyll mutations in basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sanjeev; Singh, J.; Singh, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    The effectiveness and efficiency of gamma ray, EMS, sodium azide alone or in combination in relation to chlorophyll mutations in two varieties of Basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.) in M 2 generation were studied. The chlorophyll mutations were induced by all the doses of mutagens alone or in combination relatively at a fair frequency in both the varieties in M 2 generation. In general, it was found that combination treatments of gamma rays and EMS were observed to be more efficient in Taraori Basmati, while EMS alone and combination treatment of gamma rays and EMS were more efficient in Pusa Basmati 1 on sterility and growth injury basis both. Sodium azide at 0.5 mM was found as the most effective dose in both Taraori Basmati and Pusa Basmati 1 cultivars. (author)

  7. Detection of Alkynes via Click Chemistry with a Brominated Coumarin Azide by Simultaneous Fluorescence and Isotopic Signatures in Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua; Chumsae, Chris; Kaplan, Jenifer B; Moulton, Kevin Ryan; Wang, Dongdong; Lee, David H; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny

    2017-09-20

    Alkynes are a key component of click chemistry and used for a wide variety of applications including bioconjugation, selective tagging of protein modifications, and labeling of metabolites and drug targets. However, challenges still exist for detecting alkynes because most 1,2,3-triazole products from alkynes and azides do not possess distinct intrinsic properties that can be used for their facile detection by either fluorescence or mass spectrometry. To address this critical need, a novel brominated coumarin azide was used to tag alkynes and detect alkyne-conjugated biomolecules. This tag has several useful properties: first, it is fluorogenic and the click-chemistry products are highly fluorescent and quantifiable; second, its distinct isotopic pattern facilitates identification by mass spectrometry; and third, its click-chemistry products form a unique pair of reporter ions upon fragmentation that can be used for the quick screening of data. Using a monoclonal antibody conjugated with alkynes, a general workflow has been developed and examined comprehensively.

  8. [1+1+3] Annulation of Diazoenals and Vinyl Azides: Direct Synthesis of Functionalized 1-Pyrrolines through Olefination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchupalli, Vinaykumar; Katukojvala, Sreenivas

    2018-05-04

    A dirhodium carboxylate catalyzed [1+1+3] annulation reaction of diazoenals and vinyl azides that gives synthetically important enal-functionalized 1-pyrroline derivatives was developed. The reaction involves a novel rhodium-catalyzed olefination of diazoenals with vinyl azides via electrophilic enal carbenoids, resulting in a new class of enal acrylates. The annulation reaction was used for the direct synthesis of valuable deuterated 1-pyrrolines. Structural diversification of the enal-functionalized 1-pyrrolines resulted in the biologically important pyrrolidine-fused oxaziridine, amino acid derivatives, and a 6-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane motif present in polycyclic alkaloids. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Chemistry and technology of Molten Salt Reactors - history and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Molten Salt Reactors represent one of promising future nuclear reactor concept included also in the Generation IV reactors family. This reactor type is distinguished by an extraordinarily close connection between the reactor physics and chemical technology, which is given by the specific features of the chemical form of fuel, representing by molten fluoride salt and circulating through the reactor core and also by the requirements of continuous 'on-line' reprocessing of the spent fuel. The history of Molten Salt Reactors reaches the period of fifties and sixties, when the first experimental Molten Salt Reactors were constructed and tested in ORNL (US). Several molten salt techniques dedicated to fresh molten salt fuel processing and spent fuel reprocessing were studied and developed in those days. Today, after nearly thirty years of discontinuance, a renewed interest in the Molten Salt Reactor technology is observed. Current experimental R and D activities in the area of Molten Salt Reactor technology are realized by a relatively small number of research institutions mainly in the EU, Russia and USA. The main effort is directed primarily to the development of separation processes suitable for the molten salt fuel processing and reprocessing technology. The techniques under development are molten salt/liquid metal extraction processes, electrochemical separation processes from the molten salt media, fused salt volatilization techniques and gas extraction from the molten salt medium

  10. The effects of sodium azide on seed germination and seedling growth of chili pepper (Capsicum annum L. cv. Landung)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafizham; Herwibawa, B.

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effects of sodium azide on the performance of chili pepper. Dry seeds from pure lines of chili pepper cv. Landung were used in this experiment. Each set containing 50 seeds was placed in nylon fishner bags, washed in flowing water and soaked in distilled water for four hours. After soaking, four sets of seeds were dabbed dry with tissue paper and were treated for two hours at 30 0C in appropriate solution of 0, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80, 1.60 mM sodium azide with phosphate buffer at pH 3. After treatment, the seeds were germinated in plastic boxes containing sterilized sand and kept under laboratory condition by supplied with water everyday. The seeds for M1 germination percentage, seedling height, plant height and number of leaves were recorded 30 days and 60 days after treatment, respectively. Seeds which radicle emerged were considered germinated, the seedling and plant height were measured from the tip of primary root to the base of the first leaf pair, and the number of leaves were counted for only fully expanded leaves. A completely randomized block design in four replicates was used throughout the experiment. Data obtained were analysed for range, mean, standard of deviation, and percent of control using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software. It was concluded that different doses of sodium azide influenced the performances of chili pepper cv. Landung. Very low doses of sodium azide (0-1.60 mM) might be used to study the improvement of chili pepper diversity.

  11. Recent Advances in Recoverable Systems for the Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reaction (CuAAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mandoli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The explosively-growing applications of the Cu-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between organic azides and alkynes (CuAAC have stimulated an impressive number of reports, in the last years, focusing on recoverable variants of the homogeneous or quasi-homogeneous catalysts. Recent advances in the field are reviewed, with particular emphasis on systems immobilized onto polymeric organic or inorganic supports.

  12. Alkyne-Azide Cycloaddition Catalyzed by Silver Chloride and “Abnormal” Silver N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo I. Ortega-Arizmendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A library of 1,2,3-triazoles was synthesized from diverse alkynes and azides using catalytic amounts of silver chloride instead of copper compounds. In addition, a novel “abnormal” silver N-heterocyclic carbene complex was tested as catalyst in this process. The results suggest that the reaction requires only 0.5% of silver complex, affording 1,2,3-triazoles in good yields.

  13. In situ generation of the Ohira-Bestmann reagent from stable sulfonyl azide: scalable synthesis of alkynes from aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Tue Heesgaard; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard

    2014-10-03

    We report an improved method for in situ generation of the Ohira-Bestmann reagent. Using the recently reported bench-stable imidazole-1-sulfonyl azide as diazotransfer reagent, this new method represents a scalable and convenient approach for the transformation of aldehydes into terminal alkynes. The method features an easier workup compared to the existing in situ protocol due to increased aqueous solubility of waste products.

  14. Synthesis of novel bis(perfluorophenyl azides) coupling agents: Evaluation of their performance by crosslinking of poly(ethylene oxide)

    KAUST Repository

    Mehenni, Hakim

    2011-11-01

    Novel bis(perfluorophenyl azides) coupling agents, containing spacer arms from ethylene or ethylene glycol subunits, were successfully synthesized. Nitrenes photogenerated from these novel bis(PFPA) coupling agents were applied successfully to the cross-linking of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO10,000) in either aqueous medium or at the solid state, thus, we demonstrated the potential of these bis(PFPA) molecules as promising coupling agents in surface engineering. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Direct Functionalization of an Acid-Terminated Nanodiamond with Azide: Enabling Access to 4-Substituted-1,2,3-Triazole-Functionalized Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Zachary C.; Barrett, Christopher A.; Warner, Marvin G.

    2017-01-01

    Azides on the periphery of nanodiamond materials (ND) are of great utility because they have been shown to undergo Cu-catalyzed and Cu-free cycloaddition reactions with structurally diverse alkynes, affording particles tailored for applications in biology and materials science. However, current methods employed to access ND featuring azide groups typically require either harsh pretreatment procedures or multiple synthesis steps and use surface linking groups that may be susceptible to undesirable cleavage. Here in this paper we demonstrate an alternative single-step approach to producing linker-free, azide-functionalized ND. Our method was applied to low-cost, detonation-derived ND powders where surface carbonyl groups undergo silver-mediated decarboxylation and radical substitution with azide. ND with directly grafted azide groups were then treated with a variety of aliphatic, aromatic, and fluorescent alkynes to afford 1-(ND)-4-substituted-1,2,3-triazole materials under standard copper-catalyzed cycloaddition conditions. Surface modification steps were verified by characteristic infrared absorptions and elemental analyses. High loadings of triazole surface groups (up to 0.85 mmol g –1 ) were obtained as determined from thermogravimetric analysis. The azidation procedure disclosed is envisioned to become a valuable initial transformation in numerous future applications of ND.

  16. Direct Functionalization of an Acid-Terminated Nanodiamond with Azide: Enabling Access to 4-Substituted-1,2,3-Triazole-Functionalized Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Zachary C; Barrett, Christopher A; Warner, Marvin G

    2017-03-21

    Azides on the periphery of nanodiamond materials (ND) are of great utility because they have been shown to undergo Cu-catalyzed and Cu-free cycloaddition reactions with structurally diverse alkynes, affording particles tailored for applications in biology and materials science. However, current methods employed to access ND featuring azide groups typically require either harsh pretreatment procedures or multiple synthesis steps and use surface linking groups that may be susceptible to undesirable cleavage. Here we demonstrate an alternative single-step approach to producing linker-free, azide-functionalized ND. Our method was applied to low-cost, detonation-derived ND powders where surface carbonyl groups undergo silver-mediated decarboxylation and radical substitution with azide. ND with directly grafted azide groups were then treated with a variety of aliphatic, aromatic, and fluorescent alkynes to afford 1-(ND)-4-substituted-1,2,3-triazole materials under standard copper-catalyzed cycloaddition conditions. Surface modification steps were verified by characteristic infrared absorptions and elemental analyses. High loadings of triazole surface groups (up to 0.85 mmol g -1 ) were obtained as determined from thermogravimetric analysis. The azidation procedure disclosed is envisioned to become a valuable initial transformation in numerous future applications of ND.

  17. The formation of nitrogeneous compounds in the γ-radiolyses of liquid nitrogen solutions of hydrogen, methane, and ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horigome, Keiichi; Hirokami, Shun-ichi; Sato, Shin

    1978-01-01

    The γ-radiolyses of liquid nitrogen solutions of hydrogen, methane, and ethane have been reinvestigated. A complete survey of nitrogen-containing products has been attempted. The nitrogeneous compounds observed were ammonia (0.7) and hydrogen azide (0.02) in the case of hydrogen, ammonia (0.3), hydrogen cyanide (0.1), methyl azide (0.01), and a polymer in the case of methane, and ammonia (0.3), hydrogen cyanide (0.05), acetonitrile (0.04), ethyl azide (0.01), and a polymer in the case of ethane. The values in parentheses are the G-values obtained at optimum conditions. The hydrolysis of the polymer obtained with methane gave formaldehyde in amounts which correspond to the fact that the G-value of the nitrogen atoms which were converted into the polymer is about 1.0. In order to explain these results, possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. (auth.)

  18. Molten Salts for High Temperature Reactors: University of Wisconsin Molten Salt Corrosion and Flow Loop Experiments -- Issues Identified and Path Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Matt Ebner; Manohar Sohal; Phil Sharpe; Thermal Hydraulics Group

    2010-03-01

    Considerable amount of work is going on regarding the development of high temperature liquid salts technology to meet future process needs of Next Generation Nuclear Plant. This report identifies the important characteristics and concerns of high temperature molten salts (with lesson learned at University of Wisconsin-Madison, Molten Salt Program) and provides some possible recommendation for future work

  19. Synthesis of thiazolium salts and their screening for catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seul Ki; Kim, Do Joong; Park, Jin Kyoon [Dept. of Chemistry and Institute of Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A facile synthetic method to prepare thiazolium-based ionic liquids in high yield was developed. The direct alkylation of thiazole was performed using a trialkyl orthoester as both the alkyl donor and the solvent. The synthesized thiazolium salts were subsequently screened for their ability to catalyze the benzoin condensation reaction. Of the salts that were tested, 3-butyl,4,5-dimethyl thiazolium salt, was found to be the best catalyst.

  20. Improved metal-adhesive polymers from copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurso, Adrian A; Delaney, Mac; O'Brien, Jeff; Kim, Hyonny; Iovine, Peter M; Díaz Díaz, David; Finn, M G

    2014-08-18

    Electrically conductive adhesive polymers offer many potential advantages relative to Sn-Pb solders, including reduced toxicity, low cost, low processing temperatures, and the ability to make application-specific formulations. Polymers generated from the copper(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction between multivalent azides and alkynes have previously been identified as strong metal-binding adhesives. Herein we demonstrate that the performance of these materials can be remarkably improved by the incorporation of a flexibility-inducing difunctionalized component and a tertiary amine additive in optimized concentrations. The best formulations were identified by means of rapid adhesion testing of a library of potential candidates by using a custom-built instrument and validated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-standard lap-shear test. Characteristic phase transitions were identified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for adhesives with and without the additives as a function of curing temperature. The incorporation of flexible components was found to more than double the strength of the adhesive. Moreover, the adhesive was made electrically conductive by the inclusion of 20 wt% silver-coated copper flakes and further improved in this regard by the incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the formulation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Azide-based cross-linking of polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) for condensable gas separation

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Naiying; Dal-Cin, Mauro M D; Pinnau, Ingo; Nicalek, Andrzej; Robertson, Gilles P.; Guiver, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-linked polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM)s for gas separation membranes, were prepared by a nitrene reaction from a representative PIM in the presence of two different diazide cross-linkers. The reaction temperature was optimized using TGA. The homogenous membranes were cast from THF solutions of different ratios of PIM to azides. The resulting cross-linked structures of the PIMs membranes were formed at 175 °C after 7.5 h and confirmed by TGA, XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy and gel content analysis. These resulting cross-linked polymeric membranes showed excellent gas separation performance and can be used for O 2/N 2 and CO 2/N 2 gas pairs, as well as for condensable gases, such as CO 2/CH 4, propylene/propane separation. Most importantly, and differently from typical gas separation membranes derived from glassy polymers, the crosslinked PIMs showed no obvious CO 2 plasticization up to 20 atm pressure of pure CO 2 and CO 2/CH 4 mixtures. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Azide-based cross-linking of polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) for condensable gas separation

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Naiying

    2011-03-11

    Cross-linked polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM)s for gas separation membranes, were prepared by a nitrene reaction from a representative PIM in the presence of two different diazide cross-linkers. The reaction temperature was optimized using TGA. The homogenous membranes were cast from THF solutions of different ratios of PIM to azides. The resulting cross-linked structures of the PIMs membranes were formed at 175 °C after 7.5 h and confirmed by TGA, XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy and gel content analysis. These resulting cross-linked polymeric membranes showed excellent gas separation performance and can be used for O 2/N 2 and CO 2/N 2 gas pairs, as well as for condensable gases, such as CO 2/CH 4, propylene/propane separation. Most importantly, and differently from typical gas separation membranes derived from glassy polymers, the crosslinked PIMs showed no obvious CO 2 plasticization up to 20 atm pressure of pure CO 2 and CO 2/CH 4 mixtures. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Determination of azide in biological fluids by use of electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakata, Kayoko; Suzuki, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method has been developed for the determination of azide ion (N 3 - ) in biological fluids and beverages. The procedure was based on the formation of a ternary complex Cu(N 3 ) 2 (4-methylpyridine) x in benzene, followed by its detection by electron paramagnetic resonance. The complex in benzene showed a characteristic four-peak hyperfine structure with a g-value of 2.115 at room temperature. Cu 2+ reacted with N 3 - most strongly among common metals found in biological fluids. Several anions and metal ions in biological fluids did not interfere with the determination of N 3 - in the presence of large amounts of Cu 2+ and oxidants. In the present method, N 3 - at the concentration from 5 μM to 2 mM in 100 μl solution could be determined with the detection limit of 20 ng. The recoveries were more than 95% for N 3 - added to 100 μl of blood, urine, milk and beverages at 200 μM. Our method is recommendable because it takes less than 10 min to determine N 3 - and the produced complex is quite stable

  4. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of EMS, sodium azide and gamma radiation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshile, J.D.; Apparao, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS), Sodium Azide (SA) and gamma radiation on two cultivars of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L), Vijay and Vishwas were evaluated by the biological damages caused by them in M 1 generation and on the basis of frequency of chlorophyll mutations produced in the M 2 generation. All mutagenic treatments of EMS, SA and gamma radiation decreased germination, seedling height, plant survival and pollen fertility in both the cultivars. The extent of effect was dose dependent. LD 50 values of mutagen were found to be helpful for planning experimental mutagenesis in chickpea. Frequency of chlorophyll mutations in M 2 generation was less in Vijay as compared to Vishwas. Mutagenic effectiveness is inversely proportional to the increasing concentrations/doses of mutagens in both the cultivars, except for gamma radiation treatments in the cultivar Vishwas. All three mutagens (except EMS in the Vijay and gamma radiation in the cultivar Vishwas) exhibited gradual decrease in mutagenic efficiency, with an increase in their concentration/dose. (author)

  5. Thorium and Molten Salt Reactors: "Essential Questions for Classroom Discussions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLisi, Gregory A.; Hirsch, Allison; Murray, Meredith; Rarick, Richard

    2018-01-01

    A little-known type of nuclear reactor called the "molten salt reactor" (MSR), in which nuclear fuel is dissolved in a liquid carrier salt, was proposed in the 1940s and developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 1960s. Recently, the MSR has generated renewed interest as a remedy for the drawbacks associated with conventional…

  6. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes produced by the fuel cycles of Integral Fast Reactors (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal alloy fuels. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500/degree/C. This cell has a liquid cadmium anode in which the fuels are dissolved and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a mixture of either lithium, potassium, and sodium chlorides or lithium, calcium, barium, and sodium chlorides. One method being considered for immobilizing the treated nontransuranic salt waste is to disperse the salt in a portland cement-base mortar that will be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canister-molds where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material. The set times must be longer than a few hours to allow sufficient time for processing, and the mortar must reach a reasonable compressive strength (/approximately/7 MPa) within three days to permit handling. Because fission product heating will be high, about 0.6 W/kg for a mortar containing 10% waste salt, the effects of elevated temperatures during curing and storage on mortar properties must be considered

  7. [Historical roles of salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C

    2004-12-17

    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  8. Salt Separation from Uranium Deposits in Integrated Crucible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S. W.; Park, K. M.; Chang, J. H.; Kim, J. G.; Park, S. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The solid cathode processing is necessary to separate the salt from the cathode since the uranium deposit in a solid cathode contains electrolyte salt. A physical separation process, such as distillation separation, is more attractive than a chemical or dissolution process because physical processes generate much less secondary process. Distillation process was employed for the cathode processsing due to the advantages of minimal generation of secondary waste, compact unit process, simple and low cost equipment. The basis for vacuum distillation separation is the difference in vapor pressures between salt and uranium. A solid cathode deposit is heated in a heating region and salt vaporizes, while non-volatile uranium remains behind. It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system due to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites. The evaporation rate of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in vacuum distiller is not so high to come up with the generation capacity of uranium dendrites in electro-refiner. Therefore, wide evaporation area or high distillation temperature is necessary for the successful salt separation. The adhered salt in the uranium deposits was removed successfully. The salt content in the deposits was below 0.1 wt% after the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation - salt distillation.

  9. Salt Selection for the LS-VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Clarno, K.T.

    2006-01-01

    Molten fluorides were initially developed for use in the nuclear industry as the high temperature fluid-fuel for a Molten Salt Reactor (MSR). The Office of Nuclear Energy is exploring the use of molten fluorides as a primary coolant (rather than helium) in an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) design, also know as the Liquid-Salt cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This paper provides a review of relevant properties for use in evaluation and ranking of candidate coolants for the LS-VHTR. Nuclear, physical, and chemical properties were reviewed and metrics for evaluation are recommended. Chemical properties of the salt were examined for the purpose of identifying factors that effect materials compatibility (i.e., corrosion). Some preliminary consideration of economic factors for the candidate salts is also presented. (authors)

  10. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes from the fuel cycle of an integral fast reactor (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal fuel. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500 degrees C. This cell has a cadmium anode and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a low-melting mixture of alkaline and alkaline earth chlorides. This paper discusses one method being considered for immobilizing this treated salt, to disperse it in a portland cement-base motar, which would then be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canisters where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material

  11. Comparison of the reactivities of H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} and H{sub 4}SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40} and their K{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cs{sup +} salts in liquid phase isobutane/butene alkylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essayem, N.; Kieger, S.; Coudurier, G. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse, Villeurbanne (France)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Aliphatic alkylation presents a great interest in petroleum refinery processes. Classic acid solid catalysts exhibit rapid deactivation. The aim of this work was to study different salts with varying compositions. Activity in n-butane isomerization reaction of various alkaline salts of H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} and H{sub 4}SiW{sub l2}O{sub 40} was shown to be strongly dependent on the strength and number of accessible protons whereas the stability with time on stream was correlated to the presence of mesoporosity. For the liquid iC{sub 4}/C{sub 4}{sup =} continuous alkylation reaction, the strength and the number of acid sites appeared less important than the existence of mesoporosity indicating that the diffusion of the reactants and of the products plays an important role in this reaction.

  12. Biosensor Technology Reveals the Disruption of the Endothelial Barrier Function and the Subsequent Death of Blood Brain Barrier Endothelial Cells to Sodium Azide and Its Gaseous Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Dan T; Johnson, Rebecca H; O'Carroll, Simon J; Angel, Catherine E; Graham, E Scott

    2017-09-21

    Herein we demonstrate the sensitive nature of human blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells to sodium azide and its gaseous product. Sodium azide is known to be acutely cytotoxic at low millimolar concentrations, hence its use as a biological preservative (e.g., in antibodies). Loss of barrier integrity was noticed in experiments using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) biosensor technology, to measure endothelial barrier integrity continuously in real-time. Initially the effect of sodium azide was observed as an artefact where it was present in antibodies being employed in neutralisation experiments. This was confirmed where antibody clones that were azide-free did not mediate loss of barrier function. A delayed loss of barrier function in neighbouring wells implied the influence of a liberated gaseous product. ECIS technology demonstrated that the BBB endothelial cells had a lower level of direct sensitivity to sodium azide of ~3 µM. Evidence of gaseous toxicity was consistently observed at 30 µM and above, with disrupted barrier function and cell death in neighbouring wells. We highlight the ability of this cellular biosensor technology to reveal both the direct and gaseous toxicity mediated by sodium azide. The sensitivity and temporal dimension of ECIS technology was instrumental in these observations. These findings have substantial implications for the wide use of sodium azide in biological reagents, raising issues of their application in live-cell assays and with regard to the protection of the user. This research also has wider relevance highlighting the sensitivity of brain endothelial cells to a known mitochondrial disruptor. It is logical to hypothesise that BBB endothelial dysfunction due to mitochondrial dys-regulation could have an important but underappreciated role in a range of neurological diseases.

  13. Sea Salt vs. Table Salt: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and healthy eating What's the difference between sea salt and table salt? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. The main differences between sea salt and table salt are in their taste, texture ...

  14. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  15. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    MSBR Study Group formed in October 1974 has studied molten salt breeder reactor and its various aspects. Usage of a molten salt fuel, extremely interesting as reactor chemistry, is a great feature to MSBR; there is no need for separate fuel making, reprocessing, waste storage facilities. The group studied the following, and these results are presented: molten salt technology, molten salt fuel chemistry and reprocessing, reactor characteristics, economy, reactor structural materials, etc. (Mori, K.)

  16. Stereoselective Synthesis of(Z)-4-(2-Bromovinyl)benzenesulfonyl Azide and Its Synthetic Utility for the Transformation to(2)-N-[4-(2-Bromovinyl)benzenesulfonyl]imidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wensheng; KUANG Chunxiang; YANG Qing

    2009-01-01

    A novel method for the stereoselective synthesis of(Z)-4-(2-bromovinyl)benzenesulfonyl azide by simultaneous azidation and debrorninative decarboxylation of anti-2,3-dibromo-3-(4-chlorosulfonylphenyl)propanoic acid using NaN3 only was developed.Facile transformation of(Z)-4-(2-bromovinyl)benzenesulfonyl azide to(Z)-N-[4(2-bromovinyl)benzenesulfonyl]imidates was also achieved by Cu-catalyzed three-component coulping of (Z)-4-(2-bromovinyi)benzenesulfonyl azide,terminal alkynes and alcohols/phenols.

  17. Pressure induced polymorphism in ammonium azide (NH{sub 4}N{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, S.A., E-mail: s.medvedev@mpic.de [Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Postfach 3060, D-55020 Mainz (Germany); Institute fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Eremets, M.I. [Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Postfach 3060, D-55020 Mainz (Germany); Evers, J.; Klapoetke, T.M. [Energetic Materials Research, Ludwig-Maximilian University Munich (LMU), Butenandtstrasse 5-13(D), D-81377 Munich (Germany); Palasyuk, T. [Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Postfach 3060, D-55020 Mainz (Germany); Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Trojan, I.A. [Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Postfach 3060, D-55020 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-07-28

    Graphical abstract: Polymorph phase transition is observed in NH{sub 4}N{sub 3} at {approx}3 GPa by pressure dependent Raman studies. The strength of hydrogen bond appears to be modified at the phase transition as illustrated by dependence of N-H stretching frequency on pressure shown on figure. Highlights: {yields} Ammonium azide (NH{sub 4}N{sub 3}) studied at high pressures by Raman spectroscopy. {yields} Phase transition is observed at pressure {approx}3 GPa. {yields} Strength of hydrogen bond appears to be modified at the phase transition. {yields} NH{sub 4}N{sub 3} remain in molecular form up to pressures above 50 GPa. - Abstract: Pressure-dependent Raman spectroscopy studies reveal polymorph phase transition in simple molecular ionic crystal NH{sub 4}N{sub 3} at pressure {approx}3 GPa unobserved by recent abinitio evolutionary structure searches. Hydrogen bonding is spectroscopically evident in both low- and high-pressure phases. The strength of hydrogen bond appears to be modified at the phase transition: in the low-pressure phase NH{sub 4}N{sub 3} behaves as system with very strong hydrogen bonding whereas changes of spectra with pressure in the high-pressure phase are indicative of weak or medium-strength hydrogen bonds. The high pressure phase is most likely thermodynamically stable at least up to pressure {approx}55 GPa contradicting the abinitio studies predicting transformation of NH{sub 4}N{sub 3} to nonmolecular hydronitrogen solid at 36 GPa.

  18. Photografting of perfluoroalkanes onto polyethylene surfaces via azide/nitrene chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegmann, Konstantin, E-mail: konstantin.siegmann@zhaw.ch [Institute of Materials and Process Engineering (IMPE), School of Engineering (SoE), Zurich University of Applied Sciences - ZHAW, Technikumstrasse 9, CH-8401 Winterthur (Switzerland); Inauen, Jan, E-mail: jan.inauen@zhaw.ch [Institute of Materials and Process Engineering (IMPE), School of Engineering (SoE), Zurich University of Applied Sciences - ZHAW, Technikumstrasse 9, CH-8401 Winterthur (Switzerland); Villamaina, Diego, E-mail: diego.villamaina@gmail.com [Visiting scientist at IMPE, Permanent address: Rapidplatz 3, CH-8953 Dietikon (Switzerland); Winkler, Martin, E-mail: martin.winkler@zhaw.ch [Institute of Materials and Process Engineering (IMPE), School of Engineering (SoE), Zurich University of Applied Sciences - ZHAW, Technikumstrasse 9, CH-8401 Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2017-02-28

    The purpose of this study is to render polyethylene surfaces strongly and permanently hydrophobic. Polyethylene is a common plastic and, because of its inertness, difficult to graft. We chose polyethylene as example because of its ubiquity and model character. As graft chains linear perfluoroalkyl residues (−C{sub 4}F{sub 9}, −C{sub 6}F{sub 13}, −C{sub 8}F{sub 17} and −C{sub 10}F{sub 21}) were chosen, and photografting was selected as grafting method. Photolytically generated nitrenes can insert into carbon–hydrogen bonds and are therefore suited for binding to polyethylene. Hydrophobic photo reactive surface modifiers based on azide/nitrene chemistry are designed, synthesized in high yield and characterized. Four new molecules are described. Water contact angles exceeding 110° were achieved on grafted polyethylene. One problem is to demonstrate that the photografted surface modifiers are bound covalently to the polyethylene. Abrasion tests show that all new molecules, when photografted to polyethylene, have a higher abrasion resistance than a polyethylene surface coated with a long-chain perfluoroalkane. Relative abrasion resitances of 1.4, 2.0, 2.1 and 2.5 compared to the fluoroalkane coating were obtained for the four compounds. An abrasion model using ice is developed. Although all four compounds have the same λ{sub max} of 266 nm in acetonitrile solution, their molar extincition coefficients increase from 1.6·10{sup 4} to 2.2·10{sup 4} with increasing length of the fluorotelomer chain. Exitonic coupling of the chromophores of the surface modifiers is observed for specific molecules in the neat state. A linear correlation of water contact angle with fluorine surface content, as measured by photoelectron spectroscopy, in grafted polyethylene surfaces is established.

  19. Wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets: A molecular dynamics investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Borg, Matthew K; Sefiane, Khellil; Reese, Jason M

    2015-11-01

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets on platinum surfaces. Our results show that the contact angle of the droplets increases with the salt concentration. To verify this, a second simulation system of a thin salt-water film on a platinum surface is used to calculate the various surface tensions. We find that both the solid-liquid and liquid-vapor surface tensions increase with salt concentration and as a result these cause an increase in the contact angle. However, the evaporation rate of salt-water droplets decreases as the salt concentration increases, due to the hydration of salt ions. When the water molecules have all evaporated from the droplet, two forms of salt crystals are deposited, clump and ringlike, depending on the solid-liquid interaction strength and the evaporation rate. To form salt crystals in a ring, it is crucial that there is a pinned stage in the evaporation process, during which salt ions can move from the center to the rim of the droplets. With a stronger solid-liquid interaction strength, a slower evaporation rate, and a higher salt concentration, a complete salt crystal ring can be deposited on the surface.

  20. Ionic liquids, tuneable solvents for intensifying reactions and separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2007-01-01

    An Ionic Liquid (IL), or a Room Temperature Ionic Liquid (RTIL), is commonly defined as a liquid entirely composed of ions, which is a fluid below 100 °C. Due to the fact that an ionic liquid is a salt, it has a negligible vapour pressure. Therefore, ionic liquids are not volatile at ambient process

  1. Method for treating radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komrow, R.R.; Pritchard, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    A process for treating and handling radioactive liquids and rendering such liquids safe for handling is disclosed. Transportation and disposal, the process comprises adding thereto a small amount of a water-insoluble alkali salt of an aqueous alkali saponified gelatinized-starch-polyacrylonitrile graft polymer, to form a solid, semi-solid or gel product

  2. Possible origin, nature, extent and tectomic position of joints and fracture in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation of about 500 bibliographic references for the safe ultimate storage in salt leds to the following results: fractures in rock salt and potash salt are formed in all types of storage, fractures are less numerous in a vertical storage than in a horizontal storage, nevertheless fissures are found in salt fomations containing liquids or gas undergoing rock pressures, fractures can be created during salt formation. Datation of formations by geologic methods and K-Ar method are considered. Deep formations (about 300m) are liquid and gas-tight, if homogenous and non perturbated. In all German permian formations are found indications of brine accumulation along fractures and tectonic zones

  3. Metal-Free Poly-Cycloaddition of Activated Azide and Alkynes toward Multifunctional Polytriazoles: Aggregation-Induced Emission, Explosive Detection, Fluorescent Patterning, and Light Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongwei; He, Benzhao; Quan, Changyun; Zheng, Chao; Deng, Haiqin; Hu, Rongrong; Zhao, Zujin; Huang, Fei; Qin, Anjun; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2017-09-01

    The metal-free click polymerization (MFCP) of activated alkynes and azides or activated azide and alkynes have been developed into powerful techniques for the construction of polytriazoles without the obsession of metallic catalyst residues problem. However, the MFCP of activated azides and alkynes is rarely applied in preparation of functional polytriazoles. In this paper, soluble multifunctional polytriazoles (PIa and PIb) with high weight-average molecular weights (M w up to 32 000) are prepared via the developed metal-free poly-cycloaddition of activated azide and alkynes in high yields (up to 90%). The resultant PIa and PIb are thermally stable, and show aggregation-induced emission characteristics, enabling their aggregates to detect explosives with superamplification effect. Moreover, thanks to their containing aromatic rings and polar moieties, PIa and PIb exhibit high refractive indices. In addition, they can also be cross-linked upon UV irradiation to generate 2D fluorescent patterning due to their remaining azide groups and containing ester groups. Thus, these multifunctional polytriazoles are potentially applicable in the optoelectronic and sensing fields. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, T_{cloud}, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer. We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above I_{buffer} = 0.6 mol dm^{-3} does not affect the T_{cloud} values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte by another salt, keeping the total ionic strength constant, we can significantly change the cloud-point temperature. All the salts de-stabilize the solution and the magnitude of the effect depends on the nature of the salt. Experimental results are analyzed within the framework of the one-component model, which treats the protein-protein interaction as highly directional and of short-range. We use this approach to predict the second virial coefficients, and liquid-liquid phase diagrams under conditions, where T_{cloud} is determined experimentally.

  5. Salt Removal from the Uranium Deposits of Electrorefiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S. W.; Park, K. M.; Lee, S. J.; Park, S. B.; Cho, C. H.; Choi, S. Y.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Electrorefining is a key step in pyroprocessing. The electrorefining process is generally composed of two recovery steps. The deposit of uranium onto a solid cathode and the recovery of the remaining uranium and TRU elements simultaneously by a liquid cadmium cathode. The solid cathode processing is necessary to separate the salt from the cathode since the uranium deposit in a solid cathode contains electrolyte salt. In the liquid cathode, cadmium metal should be removed to recover actinide product. A physical separation process, such as distillation separation, is more attractive than a chemical or dissolution process because physical processes generate much less secondary process. Distillation process was employed for the cathode processing due to the advantages of minimal generation of secondary waste, compact unit process, simple and low cost equipment. The basis for vacuum distillation separation is the difference in vapor pressures between salt and uranium. A solid cathode deposit is heated in a heating region and salt vaporizes, while non volatile uranium remains behind. It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system due to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites. The evaporation rate of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in vacuum distiller is not so high to come up with the generation capacity of uranium dendrites in electro-refiner. Therefore, wide evaporation area or high distillation temperature is necessary for the successful salt separation. In this study, the solid-liquid separation was proposed prior to distillation of salt and a feasibility of the separation of the liquid salt by a metallic wire mesh (sieve) was tested for the reduction of the burden of the following vacuum distillation process

  6. Salt Removal from the Uranium Deposits of Electrorefiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S. W.; Park, K. M.; Lee, S. J.; Park, S. B.; Cho, C. H.; Choi, S. Y.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Electrorefining is a key step in pyroprocessing. The electrorefining process is generally composed of two recovery steps. The deposit of uranium onto a solid cathode and the recovery of the remaining uranium and TRU elements simultaneously by a liquid cadmium cathode. The solid cathode processing is necessary to separate the salt from the cathode since the uranium deposit in a solid cathode contains electrolyte salt. In the liquid cathode, cadmium metal should be removed to recover actinide product. A physical separation process, such as distillation separation, is more attractive than a chemical or dissolution process because physical processes generate much less secondary process. Distillation process was employed for the cathode processing due to the advantages of minimal generation of secondary waste, compact unit process, simple and low cost equipment. The basis for vacuum distillation separation is the difference in vapor pressures between salt and uranium. A solid cathode deposit is heated in a heating region and salt vaporizes, while non volatile uranium remains behind. It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system due to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites. The evaporation rate of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in vacuum distiller is not so high to come up with the generation capacity of uranium dendrites in electro-refiner. Therefore, wide evaporation area or high distillation temperature is necessary for the successful salt separation. In this study, the solid-liquid separation was proposed prior to distillation of salt and a feasibility of the separation of the liquid salt by a metallic wire mesh (sieve) was tested for the reduction of the burden of the following vacuum distillation process

  7. AuBr3-catalyzed azidation of per-O-acetylated and per-O-benzoylated sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Jayashree; Hotha, Srinivas; Vangala, Madhuri

    2018-01-01

    Herein we report, for the first time, the successful anomeric azidation of per- O -acetylated and per- O -benzoylated sugars by catalytic amounts of oxophilic AuBr 3 in good to excellent yields. The method is applicable to a wide range of easily accessible per- O -acetylated and per- O -benzoylated sugars. While reaction with per- O -acetylated and per- O -benzoylated monosaccharides was complete within 1-3 h at room temperature, the per- O -benzoylated disaccharides needed 2-3 h of heating at 55 °C.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization, and thermal properties of alumino silicate azide sodalite, Na8[AlSiO4]6(N3)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhade, A. V.; Wakchaure, S. G.; Dholi, A. G.; Kshirsagar, T. A.

    2017-07-01

    First time we report the synthesis, structural characterization and thermal behavior of an unusual N3 - containing alumino-silicate sodalite mineral. Azide sodalite, Na8[AlSiO4]6(N3)2 has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions at 433 K in steel lined Teflon autoclave. The structural and microstructural properties of azide sodalite mineral was characterized by various methods including FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TGA, and MAS NMR. Crystal structure have been refined by Rietveld method in P\\bar 43n space group, indicating that the N3 - sodalite has cubic in lattice. High temperature study was carried out to see the effect of thermal expansion on cell dimension ( a o) of azide sodalite. Thermal behavior of sodalite was also assessed by thermogravimetric method.

  9. Molten salts and nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed

  10. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  11. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  12. PENENTUAN KADAR IODIDA DAN IODAT DALAM GARAM BERIODIUM DENGAN METODE KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KENERJA TINGGI PASANGAN ION [Determination of Iodate and Iodide Content in Iodized Salt By Ion Pair High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnu Cahyadi1

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Two species of iodine, i.e. iodide and iodate in commercial iodized salt were determined using ion pair HPLC. From 15 samples analysed, the iodide and iodate content ranged from 24,05 ± 2,51 to 70,25 ± 3,78 ppm and from 31,43 ± 8,10 to 87,59 ± 0,44 ppm, respectively. The method used was found satisfactory in terms of precission, accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity, therefore the method seem acceptable for the determination of iodide and iodate content in iodized salt samples.

  13. Thorium-based Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) project in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Zhimin; Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Making great efforts in development of nuclear energy is one of the long-term-plan in China's energy strategies. The advantages of Thorium-based nuclear energy are: rich resource in nature, less nuclear waste, low toxicity, nuclear non-proliferation and so on. Furthermore, China is a country with abundant thorium, thus it is necessary to develop the Thorium-based Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) in China. Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SINAP) had designed and constructed the first China's light-water reactor and developed a zero-power thorium-based molten salt reactor successfully in the early 1970s. The applied research project 'thorium molten salt reactor nuclear power system' by SINAP together with several other institutes had been accepted and granted by China government in 2011. The whole project has been divided into three stages: Firstly, built a 2 MW-zero-power high temperature solid molten salt reactor in 2015 and a 2 MW-zero-power high temperature liquid molten salt reactor in 2017. Secondly, in 2020 built a 10 MW high temperature liquid molten salt reactor. Thirdly, on the base of previous work, a 100 MW high temperature molten salt reactor should be achieving in 2030. After more than one years of efforts, a high quality scientific research team has been formed, which is able to design the molten salt reactor, the molten salt loop and related key equipment, the systems of molten salt preparation, purification and the radioactive gas removal. In the past one year, the initial physical design of high temperature molten salt reactor has been completed; the nuclear chemistry and radiation chemical laboratory has been built, a high temperature salt (HTS) loop and radioactive gas removal experiment device system have been successfully developed and constructed. Further, the preliminary study on reactor used carbon-carbon composite material has been investigated. (author)

  14. Development of an integrated crucible for the salt separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S. W.; Park, K. M.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Pyroprocessing has been developed for the recovery of actinide elements from spent fuel due to its advantages. Electrorefining is a key step in pyroprocessing. The electrorefining process is generally composed of two recovery steps. The deposit of uranium onto a solid cathode and the recovery of the remaining uranium and TRU elements simultaneously by a liquid cadmium cathode. The solid cathode processing is necessary to separate the salt from the cathode since the uranium deposit in a solid cathode contains electrolyte salt. A physical separation process, such as distillation separation, is more attractive than a chemical or dissolution process because physical processes generate much less secondary process. Distillation process was employed for the cathode process sing due to the advantages of minimal generation of secondary waste, compact unit process, simple and low cost equipment. The basis for vacuum distillation separation is the difference in vapor pressures between salt and uranium. A solid cathode deposit is heated in a heating region and salt vaporizes, while non volatile uranium remains behind. It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system due to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites. The evaporation rate of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in vacuum distiller is not so high to come up with the generation capacity of uranium dendrites in electro-refiner. Therefore, wide evaporation area or high distillation temperature is necessary for the successful salt separation. In this study, the integrated salt separation system was developed to increase the throughput of the salt removal process by the separation of the liquid salt prior to the distillation of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from the uranium deposits

  15. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  16. Design and Synthesis of New Chacones Substituted with Azide/Triazole Groups and Analysis of Their Cytotoxicity Towards HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. F. P. Villar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of new chalcones substituted with azide/triazole groups were designed and synthesized, and their cytotoxic activity was evaluated in vitro against the HeLa cell line. O-Alkylation, Claisen-Schmidt condensation and Cu(I-catalyzed cycloaddition of azides with terminal alkynes were applied in key steps. Fifteen compounds were tested against HeLa cells. Compound 8c was the most active molecule, with an IC50 value of 13.03 µM, similar to the value of cisplatin (7.37 µM.

  17. One-pot synthesis of 2,5-dihydropyrroles from terminal alkynes, azides, and propargylic alcohols by relay actions of copper, rhodium, and gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tomoya; Tanaka, Takamasa; Matsumoto, Kohei; Murakami, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    Relay actions of copper, rhodium, and gold formulate a one-pot multistep pathway, which directly gives 2,5-dihydropyrroles starting from terminal alkynes, sulfonyl azides, and propargylic alcohols. Initially, copper-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of terminal alkynes with sulfonyl azides affords 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles, which then react with propargylic alcohols under the catalysis of rhodium. The resulting alkenyl propargyl ethers subsequently undergo the thermal Claisen rearrangement to give α-allenyl-α-amino ketones. Finally, a gold catalyst prompts 5-endo cyclization to produce 2,5-dihydropyrroles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Rhodium/Silver-Cocatalyzed Transannulation of N-Sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles with Vinyl Azides: Divergent Synthesis of Pyrroles and 2 H-Pyrazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Sun, Ge; Bi, Xihe

    2016-11-07

    The first cyclization reaction between vinyl azides and N-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles is reported. A Rh/Ag binary metal catalyst system proved to be necessary for the successful cyclization. By varying the structure of vinyl azides, such reaction allows the divergent synthesis of pyrroles and 2H-pyrazines. The cyclization reactions feature a broad substrate scope, good functional group tolerance, high reaction efficiency, and good to high product yields. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effect of gamma radiations, ethyl methane sulfonate and sodium azide on the sennoside content in Cassia angustifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalatkar, A.S.; Bhargava, Y.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cassia angustifolia commonly known as Tinnevelly Senna is an excellent source of sennosides. The leaflets of this plant constitute the principal raw material. To investigate the effect(s) of mutagenic treatments on phytochemical characteristics, the sand treated dry seeds of Senna were treated with different doses of gamma radiations, ethyl methane sulfonate and sodium azide for 18 hours duration at 24 ± 2°C. The treated population in M1 generation exhibited different degree of stimulation in growth. Other parameters were also affected by all the three mutagenic treatments. Seeds collected from M1 generation were sown and M2 plant progenies were raised. Morphological mutations with desirable characters were further investigated. Biochemical estimation of sennoside from the leaflets in vegetative and blooming phases was carried out. Of the three mutagens, 0.006% sodium azide yielded maximum sennoside in the vegetative phase; while, in the blooming phase, it was highest with 20 kR of gamma radiations. Seeds of these plant types hold promise for enhancing the sennoside yields per gram of tissue

  20. Development of an improved and early sowing potential variety of jute - binadeshipat-2 using chemical mutagen sodium azide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.M.; Saha, C.S.; Azad, M.A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Jute is the important agricultural and industrial resource of Bangladesh for earning foreign currency. Seeds of the widely cultivated variety, CVL-1 were treated with 4 mM to 20mM of sodium azide (NaN3). The treated seeds were grown in M1 to M10 generations. A single plant (selection number C-278) was selected from M2 segregating population on the basis of early sowing potential and late flowering. Ten fiber quality characters were tested and it was found that the fiber quality of the mutant had been improved. Hence, the mutagen sodium azide showed extra potentiality to induce fiber quality characters of jute. The strain C-278 was also tested through Preliminary, Advanced, Zonal Yield Trial and Farmers field trial at different locations of the jute growing area in Bangladesh. The field evaluation team of the National Seed Board (NSB) visited most of the trials and reported that at early sowing and overall performance of the strain C-278 was found best than that of the mother variety. Besides these the strain produced 7.5% and 20% higher fiber yield than the mother variety CVL-1 and a local cultivar, D-154, respectively. After evaluation of the Technical Committee of NSB recommended that the strain C-278 may be released as a variety. The National Seed Board released the strain C-278 as a National jute variety under the name Binadeshipat-2 for cultivation in Bangladesh

  1. A history of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  2. Molten salt reactors. The AMSTER concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, J.; Garzenne, C.; Lecarpentier, D.; Mouney, H.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the concept of actinide molten salt transmuter (AMSTER). This reactor is graphite-moderated and is dedicated to the burning of actinides. The main difference with a molten salt reactor is that its liquid fuel undergoes an on-line partial reprocessing in which fission products are extracted and heavy nuclei are reintroduced into the fuel. In order to maintain the reactivity regular injections of 235 U-salt are made. In classical reactors, fuel burn-up is limited by the swelling of the cladding and the radiation fuel pellets resistance, in AMSTER there is no limitation to the irradiation time of the fuel, so all the actinides can be burnt or transmuted. (A.C.)

  3. A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth’s surface-environment can be regarded as ‘water-friendly’ and ‘salt hostile’, the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, ‘salt-friendly’. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets, is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed ‘evaporites’, meaning that they formed as a consequence of the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, as an ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will attain the phase of supercritical water vapor (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (T>400°C, P>300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea indicates that a

  4. Liquid--liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This well-known phenomenon is called a ''vapor explosion.'' One method of producing intimate, liquid--liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. In this experiment cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture). The main conclusion from the experimental study is that hydrodynamic effects may be very significant in any shock tube analyses, especially when multiple interactions are observed. A theoretical study was performed to check the possibility of vapor film squeezing (between a drop in film boiling and a surface) as a controlling mechanism for making liquid--liquid contact. Using experimental data, the film thickness was calculated and it was found to be too thick for any conceivable film rupture mechanism. It was suggested that the coalescence is a two-stage process, in which the controlling stage depends mainly on temperature and surface properties and can be described as the ability of cold liquid to spread on a hot surface

  5. Thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibrium for water + poly(Ethylene glycol + salt aqueous two-phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.G. Sé

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The NRTL (nonrandom, two-liquid model, expressed in mass fraction instead of mole fraction, was used to correlate liquid-liquid equilibria for aqueous two-phase polymer-salt solutions. New interaction energy parameters for this model were determined using reported data on the water + poly(ethylene glycol + salt systems, with different molecular masses for PEG and the salts potassium phosphate, sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate and magnesium sulfate. The correlation of liquid-liquid equilibrium is quite satisfactory.

  6. Molten salt reactors: chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This work is a critical analysis of the 1000 MW MSBR project. Behavior of rare gases in the primary coolant circuit, their extraction from helium. Coating of graphite by molybdenum, chemistry of protactinium and niobium produced in the molten salt, continuous reprocessing of the fuel salt and use of stainless steel instead of hastelloy are reviewed [fr

  7. IMPROVED SYNTHESIS OF ROOM TEMPERATURE IONIC LIQUIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), molten salts comprised of N-alkylimidazolium cations and various anions, have received significant attention due to their commercial potential in a variety of chemical applications especially as substitutes for conventional volatile organic...

  8. Method of processing radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurumada, Norimitsu; Shibata, Setsuo; Wakabayashi, Toshikatsu; Kuribayashi, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the procession of liquid wastes containing insoluble salts of boric acid and calcium in a process for solidifying under volume reduction of radioactive liquid wastes containing boron. Method: A soluble calcium compound (such as calcium hydroxide, calcium oxide and calcium nitrate) is added to liquid wastes whose pH value is adjusted neutral or alkaline such that the molar ratio of calcium to boron in the liquid wastes is at least 0.2. Then, they are agitated at a temperature between 40 - 70 0 C to form insoluble calcium salt containing boron. Thereafter, the liquid is maintained at a temperature less than the above-mentioned forming temperature to age the products and, thereafter, the liquid is evaporated to condensate into a liquid concentrate containing 30 - 80% by weight of solid components. The concentrated liquid is mixed with cement to solidify. (Ikeda, J.)

  9. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  10. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  11. Salt og forbrugervalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt......-reducerede produkter at købe eller som ender med at købe alle de salt-reducerede produkter....

  12. Magnetic resonance studies on the copper site of dopamine β-monooxygenase in the presence of cyanide and azide anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, A.; Tanaka, H.; Kawazura, H.

    1987-01-01

    In order to elucidate the coordination state of water molecules in the Cu(II) site of dopamine [(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine] β-monooxygenase, measurements of the paramagnetic 1 H nuclear magnetic relaxation rate of solvent water in the enzyme solution containing cyanide or azide as an exogenous ligand were carried out to obtain the values of intrinsic paramagnetic relaxation rate decrements R/sub p/ 1 and R/sub p/ 2 for the ligand-enzyme 1:1 and 2:1 complexes, respectively. R/sub p/ 1 (percent) values were 53 (pH 5.5) and 52 (pH 7.0) for cyanide and 38 (pH 5.5) and 32 (pH 7.0) for azide, while R/sub p/ 2 (percent) values were 98 (pH 5.5) and 96 (pH 7.0) for azide. Although no R/sub p/ 2 values for cyanide were obtained because of its reducing power at the Cu(II) site, the R/sub p/ 1 and R/sub p/ 2 values obtained above prove that the Cu(II) center has two coordinated water molecules that are exchangeable for exogenous ligands at either pH. Supporting evidence was provided by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) titration, in which the enzyme solution containing cyanide-enzyme (1:1) complex in an equal proportion to uncomplexed enzyme gave an observed paramagnetic relaxation rate decrement, R/sub p/, of 23%. Another characteristic of the R/sub p/ 1 and R/sub p/ 2 values was their invariability with respect to pH, indicating that the three-dimensional structure of the Cu(II) site is pH-invariant within the range examined. Binding constants of ligand to enzyme K/sub b/ 1 and K/sub b/ 2 for 1:1 and 2:1 complex formation, respectively, were also determined through an analysis of the R/sub p/ values; it was found that K/sub b/ 1 was larger than K/sub b/ 2 irrespective of pH. On the basis of these results, together with the axial-symmetric EPR parameters of the 1:1 complexes, a possible coordination geometry of the two water molecules in the Cu(II) site of the enzyme is suggested

  13. Topological ferrimagnetic behaviours of coordination polymers containing manganese(II) chains with mixed azide and carboxylate bridges and alternating F/AF/AF'/AF'/AF interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Qin; Liu, Hou-Ting; Qi, Yan; Gao, En-Qing

    2014-08-21

    Two Mn(ii) complexes with azide and a new zwitterionic tetracarboxylate ligand 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(4-carboxylatopyridinium-1-methylene)benzene (L(1)), {[Mn5(L(1))2(N3)8(OH)2]·12H2O}n () and {[Mn5(L(1))2(N3)8(H2O)2](ClO4)2·6H2O}n (), have been synthesized and characterized crystallographically and magnetically. and contain similar alternating chains constructed by azide and carboxylate bridges. The independent sets of bridges alternate in an ABCCB sequence between adjacent Mn(ii) ions: (EO-N3)2 double bridges (EO = end-on) (denoted as A), [(EO-N3)(OCO)2] triple bridges (denoted as B) and [(EO-N3)(OCO)] double bridges (denoted as C). The alternating chains are interlinked into 2D coordination networks by the tetrapyridinium spacers. Magnetic studies demonstrate that the magnetic coupling through the double EO azide bridges is ferromagnetic and that through mixed azide/carboxylate bridges is antiferromagnetic. The unprecedented F/AF/AF'/AF'/AF coupling sequence along the chain dictates an uncompensated ground spin state (S = 5/2 per Mn5 unit) and leads to one-dimensional topological ferrimagnetism, which features a minimum in the χT versus T plot.

  14. Determination of microgramme amounts of osmium and ruthenium based on inhibition of the iodine-azide reaction by their complexes with 6-mercaptopurine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusiewicz, H.; Kurzawa, Z.

    1976-01-01

    A new kinetic method of the determination of microamounts of osmium and ruthenium has been developed. The reaction between sodum azide and iodine induced by 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) was used for this purpose. Under suitable experimental conditions the induction coefficient of 6-MP amounts to 1750+-40. The formed complexes of the metals are stable in the medium containing an excess of azide ions and do not induce the iodine-azide reaction. The method consists in the determination of the 6-MP not bound to the metal. The amount of osmium or ruthenium is then determined from linear relations. Before the determination osmium and ruthenium must be separated from other cations and from each other by distillation as volatile tetroxides. The iodine-azide method is simple, sensitive and does not require any apparatus. The range of the determination is 0.1-5.0 μg in 5 cm 3 of the solution of Os(8) and 0.5-5.0 μg for Ru(8). The error of the determination is +-6.4% and +- 6.1% for osmium and ruthenium, respectively. The time of the determination is 30 minutes not taking into account 2-hour waiting time necessary for the formation of the complexes. (author)

  15. Traceless Azido Linker for the Solid-Phase Synthesis of NH-1,2,3-Triazoles via Cu-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohrt, Anders Emil; Jensen, Jakob Feldthusen; Nielsen, Thomas Eiland

    2010-01-01

    A broadly useful acid-labile traceless azido linker for the solid-phase synthesis of NH-1,2,3-triazoles is presented. A variety of alkynes were efficiently immobilized on a range of polymeric supports by Cu(I)-mediated azide-alkyne cycloadditions. Supported triazoles showed excellent compatibility...

  16. Techniques in gas-phase thermolyses - Part 7. Direct surface participation in gas-phase Curie-point pyrolysis: The pyrolysis of phenyl azide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Carlsen, Lars

    1986-01-01

    The possible direct participation of the hot reactor surface in the formation of pyrolysis products was elucidated through the pyrolytic decomposition of phenyl azide. It is demonstrated that the intermediate phenyl nitrene generated reacts with elemental carbon at the filament surface, leading...

  17. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

  18. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  19. Volatility of atmospherically relevant alkylaminium carboxylate salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Avi; Segre, Enrico; Gomez-Hernandez, Mario; Zhang, Renyi; Rudich, Yinon

    2015-05-14

    Heterogeneous neutralization reactions of ammonia and alkylamines with sulfuric acid play an important role in aerosol formation and particle growth. However, little is known about the physical and chemical properties of alkylaminium salts of organic acids. In this work we studied the thermal stability and volatility of alkylaminium carboxylate salts of short aliphatic alkylamines with monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids. The enthalpy of vaporization and saturation vapor pressure at 298 K were derived using the kinetic model of evaporation and the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The vapor pressure of alkylaminium dicarboxylate salts is ∼10(-6) Pa, and the vaporization enthalpy ranges from 73 to 134 kJ mol(-1). Alkylaminium monocarboxylate salts show high thermal stability, and their thermograms do not follow our evaporation model. Hence, we inferred their vapor pressure from their thermograms as comparable to that of ammonium sulfate (∼10(-9) Pa). Further characterization showed that alkylaminium monocarboxylates are room temperature protic ionic liquids (RTPILs) that are more hygroscopic than ammonium sulfate (AS). We suggest that the irregular thermograms result from an incomplete neutralization reaction leading to a mixture of ionic and nonionic compounds. We conclude that these salts are expected to contribute to new particle formation and particle growth under ambient conditions and can significantly enhance the CCN activity of mixed particles in areas where SO2 emissions are regulated.

  20. New electrolytes for aluminum production: Ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Kamavarum, Venkat; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2003-11-01

    In this article, the reduction, refining/recycling, and electroplating of aluminum from room-temperature molten salts are reviewed. In addition, the characteristics of several non-conventional organic solvents, electrolytes, and molten salts are evaluated, and the applicability of these melts for production of aluminum is discussed with special attention to ionic liquids. Also reviewed are electrochemical processes and conditions for electrodeposition of aluminum using ionic liquids at near room temperatures.

  1. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  2. Process for improving the energy density of feedstocks using formate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R.P.; Case, Paige A.

    2015-09-01

    Methods of forming liquid hydrocarbons through thermal deoxygenation of cellulosic compounds are disclosed. Aspects cover methods including the steps of mixing a levulinic acid salt-containing feedstock with a formic acid salt, exposing the mixture to a high temperature condition to form hydrocarbon vapor, and condensing the hydrocarbon vapor to form liquid hydrocarbons, where both the formic acid salt and the levulinic acid salt-containing feedstock decompose at the high temperature condition and wherein one or more of the mixing, exposing, and condensing steps is carried out a pressure between about vacuum and about 10 bar.

  3. Oscillating liquid flow ICF Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Oscillating liquid flow in a falling molten salt inertial confinement fusion reactor is predicted to rapidly clear driver beam paths of residual liquid droplets. Oscillating flow will also provide adequate neutron and x-ray protection for the reactor structure with a short (2-m) fall distance permitting an 8 Hz repetition rate. A reactor chamber configuration is presented with specific features to clear the entire heavy-ion beam path of splashed molten salt. The structural components, including the structure between beam ports, are shielded. 3 refs., 12 figs

  4. Solution NMR characterization of magnetic/electronic properties of azide and cyanide-inhibited substrate complexes of human heme oxygenase: implications for steric ligand tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dungeng; Ogura, Hiroshi; Ma, Li-Hua; Evans, John P; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz; La Mar, Gerd N

    2013-04-01

    Solution 2D (1)H NMR was carried out on the azide-ligated substrate complex of human heme oxygenase, hHO, to provide information on the active site molecular structure, chromophore electronic/magnetic properties, and the distal H-bond network linked to the exogenous ligand by catalytically relevant oriented water molecules. While 2D NMR exhibited very similar patterns of two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy cross peaks of residues with substrate and among residues as the previously characterized cyanide complex, significant, broadly distributed chemical shift differences were observed for both labile and non-labile protons. The anisotropy and orientation of the paramagnetic susceptibility tensor, χ, were determined for both the azide and cyanide complexes. The most significant difference observed is the tilt of the major magnetic axes from the heme normal, which is only half as large for the azide than cyanide ligand, with each ligand tilted toward the catalytically cleaved α-meso position. The difference in chemical shifts is quantitatively correlated with differences in dipolar shifts in the respective complexes for all but the distal helix. The necessity of considering dipolar shifts, and hence determination of the orientation/anisotropy of χ, in comparing chemical shifts involving paramagnetic complexes, is emphasized. The analysis shows that the H-bond network cannot detect significant differences in H-bond acceptor properties of cyanide versus azide ligands. Lastly, significant retardation of distal helix labile proton exchange upon replacing cyanide with azide indicates that the dynamic stability of the distal helix is increased upon decreasing the steric interaction of the ligand with the distal helix. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Two-Dimensional Infrared Study of Vibrational Coupling between Azide and Nitrile Reporters in a RNA Nucleoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Andrew J; Hogle, David G; Gai, Xin Sonia; Fenlon, Edward E; Brewer, Scott H; Tucker, Matthew J

    2016-09-08

    The vibrations in the azide, N3, asymmetric stretching region and nitrile, CN, symmetric stretching region of 2'-azido-5-cyano-2'-deoxyuridine (N3CNdU) are examined by two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy. At earlier waiting times, the 2D IR spectrum shows the presence of both vibrational transitions along the diagonal and off-diagonal cross peaks indicating vibrational coupling. The coupling strength is determined from the off-diagonal anharmonicity to be 66 cm(-1) for the intramolecular distance of ∼7.9 Å, based on a structural map generated for this model system. In addition, the frequency-frequency correlation decay is detected, monitoring the solvent dynamics around each individual probe position. Overall, these vibrational reporters can be utilized in tandem to simultaneously track global structural information and fast structural fluctuations.

  6. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  7. Molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Simon, N.; Renault, C.

    2014-01-01

    Molten salt reactors are one of the 6 concepts retained for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. The principle of this reactor is very innovative: the nuclear fuel is dissolved in the coolant which allows the online reprocessing of the fuel and the online recovery of the fission products. A small prototype: the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE - 8 MWt) was operating a few years in the sixties in the USA. The passage towards a fast reactor by the suppression of the graphite moderator leads to the concept of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) which is presently studied through different European projects such as MOST, ALISIA and EVOL. Worldwide the main topics of research are: the adequate materials resisting to the high level of corrosiveness of the molten salts, fuel salt reprocessing, the 3-side coupling between neutron transport, thermohydraulics and thermo-chemistry, the management of the changing chemical composition of the salt, the enrichment of lithium with Li 7 in the case of the use of lithium fluoride salt and the use of MSFR using U 233 fuel (thorium cycle). The last part of the article presents a preliminary safety analysis of the MSFR. (A.C.)

  8. Molten salt extractive distillation process for zirconium-hafnium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an improvement in a process for zirconium-hafnium separation. It utilizes an extractive distillation column with a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides introduced into a distillation column having a top and bottom with hafnium enriched overheads taken from the top of the column and a molten salt solvent circulated through the column to provide a liquid phase, and with molten salt solvent containing zirconium chloride being taken from the bottom of the distillation column. The improvements comprising: utilizing a molten salt solvent consisting principally of lithium chloride and at least one of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium chlorides; stripping of the zirconium chloride taken from the bottom of the distillation column by electrochemically reducing zirconium from the molten salt solvent; and utilizing a pressurized reflux condenser on the top of the column to add the hafnium chloride enriched overheads to the molten salt solvent previously stripped of zirconium chloride

  9. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  10. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt

    OpenAIRE

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450?470??C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, a...

  11. Subcritical enhanced safety molten-salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.N.; Ignatiev, V.V.; Men'shikov, L.I.; Prusakov, V.N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Subbotin, S.A.; Krasnykh, A.K.; Rudenko, V.T.; Somov, L.N.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear power and its fuel cycle safety requirements can be met in the main by providing nuclear power with subcritical molten salt reactors (SMSR) - 'burner' with an external neutron source. The utilized molten salt fuel is the decisive advantage of the SMSR over other burners. Fissile and fertile nuclides in the burner are solved in a liquid salt in the form of fluorides. This composition acts simultaneously as: a) fuel, b) coolant, c) medium for chemical partitioning and reprocessing. The effective way of reducing the external source power consists in the cascade neutron multiplication in the system of coupled reactors with suppressed feedback between them. (author)

  12. Molten salt/metal extractions for recovery of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.S.; Basco, J.K.; Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    The integral fast reactor (EFR) is an advanced reactor concept that incorporates metallic driver and blanket fuels, an inherently safe, liquid-sodium-cooled, pool-type, reactor design, and on-site pyrochemical reprocessing (including electrorefining) of spent fuels and wastes. This paper describes a pyrochemical method that is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory to recover transuranic elements from the EFR electrorefiner process salt. The method uses multistage extractions between molten chloride salts and cadmium metal at high temperatures. The chemical basis of the salt extraction method, the test equipment, and a test plan are discussed

  13. Ionic Liquids in HPLC and CE: A Hope for Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Suhail, Mohd; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2017-07-04

    The ionic liquids (ILs) are salts with melting points below 100°C. These are called as ionic fluids, ionic melts, liquid electrolytes, fused salts, liquid salts, ionic glasses, designer solvents, green solvents and solvents of the future. These have a wide range of applications, including medical, pharmaceutical and chemical sciences. Nowadays, their use is increasing greatly in separation science, especially in chromatography and capillary electrophoresis due to their remarkable properties. The present article describes the importance of ILs in high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Efforts were also made to highlight the future expectations of ILs.

  14. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450-470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl-KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. •The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept.•This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L.•The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going.

  15. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450–470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl–KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. • The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept. • This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L. • The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going. PMID:26150977

  16. Reconsolidation of salt as applied to permanent seals for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, F.D.; Callahan, G.D.; Van Sembeek, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Reconsolidated salt is a fundamental component of the permanent seals for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As regulations are currently understood and seal concepts envisioned, emplaced salt is the sole long-term seal component designed to prevent the shafts from becoming preferred pathways for rating gases or liquids. Studies under way in support of the sealing function of emplaced salt include laboratory testing of crushed salt small-scale in situ tests, constitutive modeling of crushed salt, calculations of the opening responses during operation and closure, and design practicalities including emplacement techniques. This paper briefly summarizes aspects of these efforts and key areas of future work

  17. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Cite this article APA Style MLA Style ...

  18. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  19. Recovery and purification of americium from molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Martella, L.L.; Thompson, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Americium recovery and purification development at Rocky Flats involves the testing of a combined anion exchange - bidentate organophosphorus liquid - liquid extraction or extraction chromatography process for separating americium from molten salt extraction residues. Laboratory-scale and preliminary pilot-plant results have shown that americium can be effectively recovered and purified from impurity elements such as aluminum, calcium, magnesium, plutonium, potassium, sodium, and zinc. The purified americium oxide product from the liquid - liquid extraction process contained greater than 95% AmO 2 with less than 1% of any individual impurity element

  20. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-08-01

    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  1. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. Emphasize is put essentially on the fuel salt of the primary circuit inside which fission reactions occur. The reasons why the (LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 -UF 4 ) salt was chosen for the M.S.B.R. concept are examined; the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of this salt are discussed with its interactions with the structural materials and its evolution in time. An important part of this volume is devoted to the continuous reprocessing of the active salt, the project designers having deemed advisable to take advantage at best from the availability of a continuous purification, in a thermal breeding. The problem of tritium formation and distribution inside the reactor is also envisaged and the fundamentals of the chemistry of the secondary coolant salt are given. The solutions proposed are: the hydrogen scavenging of the primary circuit, a reduction in metal permeability by an oxyde layer deposition on the side in contact with the vapor, and tritium absorption through an isotope exchange with the hydroxifluoroborate [fr

  2. Development of High-Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt in Pyroprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, In Tae; Park, Sung Bin

    2014-01-01

    The electrorefining process, which is a key process in pyroprocessing, is composed of two parts, electrorefining to deposit a uranium with a solid cathode and electrowinning to co-deposit TRU and RE with a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC). As the electrorefining operation proceedes, TRU and RE are accumulated in electrolyte LiCl-KCl salt, and after the electrorefining process, the molten salt used in an electrorefining reactor should by transported to the next process, the electrowinning process, to recover U/TRU/RE; Thus, a molten salt transfer system by suction is now being developed. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high- temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The feasibility of pyro-reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory-scale experiments. In pyroprocessing, a eutectic LiCl-KCl salt was used as a liquid elextrolyte for a recovery of actinides. However, reliable transport technologies for these high temperature liquids have not yet been developed. A preliminary study on high-temperature transport technology for molten salt by suction is now being carried out. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated to select the most suitable method for molten salt transport. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology. Basic preliminary suction transport experiments were carried out using the prepared LiC-KCl eutectic salt at 500 .deg. C to observe the transport behavior of LiCl-KCl molten salt. In addition, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed for an engineering-scale salt transport demonstration. Several types of suction transport experiments using molten salt (LiCl-KCl eutectics) for the development of a high

  3. Development of High-Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt in Pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, In Tae; Park, Sung Bin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The electrorefining process, which is a key process in pyroprocessing, is composed of two parts, electrorefining to deposit a uranium with a solid cathode and electrowinning to co-deposit TRU and RE with a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC). As the electrorefining operation proceedes, TRU and RE are accumulated in electrolyte LiCl-KCl salt, and after the electrorefining process, the molten salt used in an electrorefining reactor should by transported to the next process, the electrowinning process, to recover U/TRU/RE; Thus, a molten salt transfer system by suction is now being developed. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high- temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The feasibility of pyro-reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory-scale experiments. In pyroprocessing, a eutectic LiCl-KCl salt was used as a liquid elextrolyte for a recovery of actinides. However, reliable transport technologies for these high temperature liquids have not yet been developed. A preliminary study on high-temperature transport technology for molten salt by suction is now being carried out. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated to select the most suitable method for molten salt transport. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology. Basic preliminary suction transport experiments were carried out using the prepared LiC-KCl eutectic salt at 500 .deg. C to observe the transport behavior of LiCl-KCl molten salt. In addition, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed for an engineering-scale salt transport demonstration. Several types of suction transport experiments using molten salt (LiCl-KCl eutectics) for the development of a high

  4. Radioactive liquid water processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Keijiro; Noda, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Fumio.

    1993-01-01

    Alkaline earth metals and heavy metals are added to radioactive liquid wastes containing a surface active agent comprising alkali metal salts of higher fatty acids. These metals form metal soaps with the surface active agent dissolved in the liquid wastes and crystallized. The crystallized metal soaps are introduced to a filtering column filled with a burnable polymeric fibrous filtering material. The filtering material is burnt. This can remove the surface active agent to remove COD without using an active carbon. (T.M.)

  5. Hydrofrac characteristics of saline rock as a function of salt species, pressure, and rate of pressure increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, K.

    1986-01-01

    The author investigates the conditions in which the storage of liquids in salt caverns can be assumed to be safe. Experiments on hollow salt cylinders and salt cubes were to establish conservative limiting values for the suitable storage conditions. The experiments, owing to the small size of the test specimens and to their preparatory treatment, resulted in a somewhat lower strength of the salt than would have been measured in situ. (orig./PW) [de

  6. Steam gasification of plant biomass using molten carbonate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, Brandon J.; Honda, Masanori; Kittelson, David B.; Davidson, Jane H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of molten alkali-carbonate salts as a reaction and heat transfer medium for steam gasification of plant biomass with the objectives of enhanced heat transfer, faster kinetics, and increased thermal capacitance compared to gasification in an inert gas. The intended application is a solar process in which concentrated solar radiation is the sole source of heat to drive the endothermic production of synthesis gas. The benefits of gasification in a molten ternary blend of lithium, potassium, and sodium carbonate salts is demonstrated for cellulose, switchgrass, a blend of perennial plants, and corn stover through measurements of reaction rate and product composition in an electrically heated reactor. The feedstocks are gasified with steam at 1200 K in argon and in the molten salt. The use of molten salt increases the total useful syngas production by up to 25%, and increases the reactivity index by as much as 490%. Secondary products, in the form of condensable tar, are reduced by 77%. -- Highlights: ► The presence of molten salt increases the rate of gasification by up to 600%. ► Reaction rates across various feedstocks are more uniform with salt present. ► Useful syngas yield is increased by up to 30% when salt is present. ► Secondary production of liquid tars are reduced by 77% when salt is present.

  7. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  8. Thin aligned organic polymer films for liquid crystal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Kathryn Ellen

    1997-01-01

    This project was designed to investigate the possibility of producing alignment layers for liquid crystal devices by cross-linking thin films containing anisotropic polymer bound chromophores via irradiation with polarised ultraviolet light. Photocross-linkable polymers find use in microelectronics, liquid crystal displays, printing and UV curable lacquers and inks; so there is an increasing incentive for the development of new varieties of photopolymers in general. The synthesis and characterisation of two new photopolymers that are suitable as potential alignment layers for liquid crystal devices are reported in this thesis. The first polymer contains the anthracene chromophore attached via a spacer unit to a methacrylate backbone and the second used a similarly attached aryl azide group. Copolymers of the new monomers with methyl methacrylate were investigated to establish reactivity ratios in order to understand composition drift during polymerisation. (author)

  9. Exothermic potential of sodium nitrate salt cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1977-06-01

    High-Level radioactive liquid waste is being reduced to a liquid slurry by an evaporation and crystallization process and stored in the existing single-shell tanks. Continuous pumping of the waste storage tank will reduce the present 30 to 50% moisture to the minimum possible. The reduced waste is a relatively immobile salt cake consisting predominantly of sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) with lesser amounts of sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ), sodium metaaluminate (NaAlO 2 ), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Trace amounts of fission products, transuranics, and a broad spectrum of organic materials in small but unknown amounts are also present. A program was initiated in 1973 to determine whether or not conditions exist which could lead to an exothermic reaction in the salt cake. Results of the latest series of tests conducted to determine the effects of mass and pressure are summarized. Hanford salt cake, as stored, cannot support combustion, and does not ignite when covered with a burning volatile hydrocarbon

  10. Measurement of emittance of metal interface in molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, N.; Makino, A.; Nakamura, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A new technique for measuring the total normal emittance of a metal in a semi-transparent liquid has been proposed and this technique has been applied to measure the emittance of stainless steel (SUS304), nickel, and gold in molten potassium nitrate KNO 3 . These emittance data are indispensable to analyzing the radiative heat transfer between a metal and a semitransparent liquid, such as a molten salt

  11. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  12. Temperature effects on geotechnical and hydraulic properties of bentonite hydrated with inorganic salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, H. M. A.; Kawamoto, K.; Saito, T.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, International Journal of GEOMATE. This study investigated the combined effect of temperature and single-species salt solutions on geotechnical properties (swell index and liquid limit) and hydraulic conductivity of bentonite applying different cation types, concentrations, and temperatures...

  13. Carboxymethyl glycoside lactone(CMGL) synthons:Scope of the method and preliminary results on step growth polymerization of α-azide-ω-alkyne glycomonomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAMBERT; Stéphane; BERNARD; Julien; FLEURY; Etienne; QUENEAU; Yves

    2010-01-01

    Carboxymethyl glycoside lactones(CMGLs) are bicyclic synthons which open readily for accessing new types of pseudo-glycoconjugates,such as sugar-amino acid hybrids,neoglycolipids,pseudodisaccharides,and membrane imaging systems.After lactone opening,free OH-2 is available for further functionalization,leading to 1,2-bisfunctionalized derivatives.This strategy is illustrated herein with new polymerizable systems of the AB type bearing both azide and alkyne functions prepared from α or β gluco-CMGL synthons.After the reaction of lactones with propargylamine,an azido group was introduced by two different sequences leading to either the 2-manno-azido or the 6-gluco-azido products.The capability of these AB monomers to undergo step growth polymerization through copper(I) catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition(CuAAC) and generate glycopolytriazoles was evidenced.

  14. Thermodynamic characterization of the molten salt reactor fuel - 5233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelli, E.; Konings, R.J.M.; Benes, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) has been selected as one of the Generation IV nuclear systems. The very unique feature of this reactor concept is the liquid nature of the fuel which offers numerous advantages concerning the reactor safety. Nowadays, the research in Europe is focused on an innovative concept, the MSFR (Molten Salt Fast Reactor), that combines the generic assets of molten salt as liquid fuel with those related to fast neutron reactors and the thorium fuel cycle. For the design and safety assessment of the MSFR concept, it is extremely important to have a thorough knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of fluorides salts, which is the class of materials that is the best suited for nuclear applications. Potential chemical systems have been critically reviewed and an extensive thermodynamic database describing the most relevant systems has been created at the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the Joint Research Centre (JRC). Thermochemical equilibrium calculations are a very important tool that allows the evaluation of the performance of several salt mixtures predicting their properties and thus the optimization of the fuel composition. The work combines the experimental determination of different salt properties with the modelling of the thermodynamic functions, using the Calphad method. An overview of the experimental work and the thermodynamic assessments will be given in this paper and different fuel options for the MSFR will be discussed. (authors)

  15. Hydrogen permeation through Flinabe fluoride molten salts for blanket candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiumi, Ryosuke, E-mail: r.nishiumi@aees.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Fukada, Satoshi; Nakamura, Akira; Katayama, Kazunari

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • H{sub 2} diffusivity, solubility and permeability in Flinabe as T breeder are determined. • Effects in composition differences among Flibe, Fnabe and Flinabe are compared. • Changes of pressure dependence of Flinabe permeation rate are clarified. - Abstract: Fluoride molten salt Flibe (2LiF + BeF{sub 2}) is a promising candidate for the liquid blanket of a nuclear fusion reactor, because of its large advantages of tritium breeding ratio and heat-transfer fluid. Since its melting point is higher than other liquid candidates, another new fluoride molten salt Flinabe (LiF + NaF + BeF{sub 2}) is recently focused on because of its lower melting point while holding proper breeding properties. In this experiment, hydrogen permeation behavior through the three molten salts of Flibe (2LiF + BeF{sub 2}), Fnabe (NaF + BeF{sub 2}) and Flinabe are investigated in order to clarify the effects of their compositions on hydrogen transfer properties. After making up any of the three molten salts and purifying it using HF, hydrogen permeability, diffusivity and solubility of the molten salts are determined experimentally by using a system composed of tertiary cylindrical tubes. Close agreement is obtained between experimental data and analytical solutions. H{sub 2} permeability, diffusivity and solubility are correlated as a function of temperature and are compared among the three molten salts.

  16. Performance Test of the Salt transfer and Pellet fabrication of UCl3 Making Equipment for Electrorefining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, M. S.; Jin, H. J.; Park, G. I.; Park, S. B.

    2014-01-01

    The process to produce a uranium chloride salt includes two steps: a reaction process of gaseous chlorine with liquid cadmium to form the CdCl 2 occurring in a Cd layer, followed by a process to produce UCl 3 by the reaction of U in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and CdCl 2 . Chemical reaction is next chlorination reaction; - Cd chlorination : Cd + Cl2 → CdCl 2 - U chlorination : 3CdCl2 + 2U → 3Cd + 2UCl 3 The apparatus for producing UCl 3 consists of a chlorine gas generator, a uranium chlorinator, a Cd distiller, the pelletizer, a off-gas wet scrubber and a dry scrubber. Salt transfer system set among reactors to transfer salt at 500 .deg. C. The temperature of the reactants is maintained at about 600 .deg. C. After the reaction is completed in the uranium chlorinator, The Salt product is transferred to the Cd distiller to decrease residual Cd concentration in the salts, and then salt is transferred to the mould of pelletizer by a transfer system to fabricate pellet type salt. Performance test of the salt transfer and pellet fabrication of its equipment was tested in this work. Performance test of the salt transfer and pellet fabrication of UCl3 making equipment for Electrorefining carried out in this work. The result of equipment test is that melted salt at 600 .deg. C was easy transferred by salt transfer equipment heated at 500 .deg. C. In this time, salt transfer was carried out by argon gas pressurization at 3bar. When velocity of salt transfer was controlled under reduce pressure, velocity of salt transfer was difficult to control. And when salt pellet was fabricated by the mold of pelletizer heated at 90 .deg. C better than mold of pelletizer heated at 200 .deg. C because salt melted prevent leakage from mold of pelletizer

  17. Facile solid-phase ruthenium assisted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (RuAAC) utilizing the Cp*RuCl(COD)-catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ebbe; sgz228, sgz228; Blixt, Klas Ola

    2017-01-01

    The ruthenium assisted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (RuAAC) reaction is a well-established method for the generation of 1,5- and 1,4,5-substituted 1,2,3-triazoles, which we have extended to the solid-phase synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole-peptides. The 1,2,3-triazole moieties were formed upon the reacti...

  18. Solvent effect on copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC): synthesis of novel triazolyl substituted quinolines as potential anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellanki, Amarender Reddy; Islam, Aminul; Rama, Veera Swamy; Pulipati, Ranga Prasad; Rambabu, D; Krishna, G Rama; Reddy, C Malla; Mukkanti, K; Vanaja, G R; Kalle, Arunasree M; Kumar, K Shiva; Pal, Manojit

    2012-05-15

    A regioselective route to novel mono triazolyl substituted quinolines has been developed via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) of 2,4-diazidoquinoline with terminal alkynes in DMF. The reaction provided bis triazolyl substituted quinolines when performed in water in the presence of Et(3)N. A number of the compounds synthesized showed promising anti-proliferative properties when tested in vitro especially against breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Facile synthesis of linear-dendritic cholesteryl-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-(L-lysine)(G2) by thiol-ene and azide-alkyne "click" reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Binder, W.H.; Tanner, S.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of a linear-dendritic block copolymer consisting of terminal cholesteryl moiety, poly(epsilon-caprolactone), and a second generation L-lysine dendron has been accomplished by the combination of copper(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne and UV-triggered thiol-ene "click" reactions. Ring-op...... and thiocholesterol. Near to quantitative functionalization of the intermediate and final products has been attained as confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF spectrometry....

  20. Synthesis, crystal structure, antimicrobial activity and electrochemistry study of chromium(III) and copper(II) complexes based on semicarbazone Schiff base and azide ligands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaabani, B.; Khandar, A.A.; Dušek, Michal; Pojarová, Michaela; Mahmoudi, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 394, JAN (2013), s. 563-568 ISSN 0020-1693 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0701 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antimicrobial activity * azide ligand * metal complex * Schiff base ligand * X-ray structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.041, year: 2013

  1. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  2. Recovery of metal chlorides from their complexes by molten salt displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a process for recovering zirconium or hafnium chloride from a complex of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride and phosphorus oxychloride. The process comprising: introducing liquid complex of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride and phosphorus oxychloride into an upper portion of a feed column containing zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and phosphorus oxychloride vapor. The liquid complex absorbing zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and producing a bottoms liquid and also producing a phosphorus oxychloride vapor stripped of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride; introducing the bottoms liquid into a molten salt containing displacement reactor, the reactor containing molten salt comprising at least 30 mole percent lithium chloride and at least 30 mole percent of at least one other alkali metal chloride, the reactor being heated to 30-450 0 C to displace phosphorus oxychloride from the complex and product zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and phosphorus oxychloride vapor and zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride-containing molten salt; introducing the zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and the phosphorus oxychloride vapor into the feed column below the point of introduction of the liquid stream; introducing the zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride containing-molten salt into a recovery vessel where zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride is removed from the molten salt to produce zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride product and zirconium or hafnium chloride-depleted molten salt; and recycling the zirconium or hafnium tetachloride-depleted molten salt to the displacement reactor

  3. Ionic Liquids as Extraction Media for Metal Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Naoki

    In solvent extraction separation of metal ions, recently, many researchers have investigated possible use of hydrophobic ionic liquids as extraction media instead of organic solvents. Ionic liquids are salts of liquid state around room temperature and can act not only as solvents but also as ion-exchangers. Therefore, the extraction mechanism of metal ions into ionic liquids is complicated. This review presents current overview and perspective on evaluation of nature of hydrophobic ionic liquids as extraction media for metal ions.

  4. ISDP salt batch #2 supernate qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fink, S. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2009-01-05

    This report covers the laboratory testing and analyses of the second Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) salt supernate samples, performed in support of initial radioactive operations of Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Major goals of this work include characterizing Tank 22H supernate, characterizing Tank 41H supernate, verifying actinide and strontium adsorption with a standard laboratory-scale test using monosodium titanate (MST) and filtration, and checking cesium mass transfer behavior for the MCU solvent performance when contacted with the liquid produced from MST contact. This study also includes characterization of a post-blend Tank 49H sample as part of the Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE). This work was specified by Task Technical Request and by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP). In addition, a sampling plan will be written to guide analytical future work. Safety and environmental aspects of the work were documented in a Hazard Assessment Package.

  5. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part 'CIRCUITS' regroups under a condensed form - in French and using international units - the essential information contained in both basic documents of the American project for a molten-salt breeder power plant. This part is only dealing with things relating to the CEA-EDF workshop 'CIRCUITS'. It is not concerned with information on: the reactor and the moderator replacement, the primary and secondary salts, and the fuel salt reprocessing, that are dealt with in parts 'CORE' and 'CHEMISTRY' respectively. The possible evolutions in the data - and solutions - taken by the American designers for their successive projects (1970 to 1972) are shown. The MSBR power plant comprises three successive heat transfer circuits. The primary circuit (Hastelloy N), radioactive and polluted, containing the fuel salt, includes the reactor, pumps and exchangers. The secondary circuit (pipings made of modified Hastelloy N) contaminated in the exchanger, ensures the separation between the fuel and the fluid operating the turbo-alternator. The water-steam circuit feeds the turbine with steam. This steam is produced in the steam generator flowed by the secondary fluid. Some subsidiary circuits (discharge and storage of the primary and secondary salts, ventilation of the primary circuit ...) complete the three principal circuits which are briefly described. All circuits are enclosed inside the controlled-atmosphere building of the nuclear boiler. This building also ensures the biological protection and the mechanical protection against outer aggressions [fr

  6. Well-defined polyethylene-based graft terpolymers by combining nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization, polyhomologation and azide/alkyne “click” chemistry†

    KAUST Repository

    Alkayal, Nazeeha

    2016-03-30

    Novel well–defined polyethylene–based graft terpolymers were synthesized via the “grafting onto” strategy by combining nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization (NMP), polyhomologation and copper (I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) “click” chemistry. Three steps were involved in this approach: (i) synthesis of alkyne-terminated polyethylene-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PE-b-PCL-alkyne) block copolymers (branches) by esterification of PE-b-PCL-OH with 4-pentynoic acid; the PE-b-PCL-OH was obtained by polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide to afford PE-OH, followed by ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone using the PE-OH as macroinitiator, (ii) synthesis of random copolymers of styrene (St) and 4-chloromethylstyrene (4-CMS) with various CMS contents, by nitroxide-mediated radical copolymerization (NMP), and conversion of chloride to azide groups by reaction with sodium azide (NaN3) (backbone) and (iii) “click” linking reaction to afford the PE-based graft terpolymers. All intermediates and final products were characterized by high-temperature size exclusion chromatography (HT-SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  7. Solubility of uranium in liquid gallium, indium and their alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Maltsev, Dmitry S.; Yamschikov, Leonid F.; Osipenko, Alexander G.; Kormilitsyn, Mikhail V.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) employing molten salts and liquid metals as working media is considered as a possible alternative to the existing liquid extraction (PUREX) processes. Liquid salts and metals allow reprocessing highly irradiated high burn-up fuels with short cooling times, including the fuels of fast neutron reactors. Pyrochemical technology opens a way to practical realization of short closed fuel cycle. Liquid low-melting metals are immiscible with molten salts and can be effectively used for separation (or selective extraction) of SNF components dissolved in fused salts. Binary or ternary alloys of eutectic compositions can be employed to lower the melting point of the metallic phase. However, the information on SNF components behaviour and properties in ternary liquid metal alloys is very scarce

  8. A non-ideal model for predicting the effect of dissolved salt on the flash point of solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Horng-Jang; Wang, Tzu-Ai

    2007-03-06

    Flash point is one of the major quantities used to characterize the fire and explosion hazard of liquids. Herein, a liquid with dissolved salt is presented in a salt-distillation process for separating close-boiling or azeotropic systems. The addition of salts to a liquid may reduce fire and explosion hazard. In this study, we have modified a previously proposed model for predicting the flash point of miscible mixtures to extend its application to solvent/salt mixtures. This modified model was verified by comparison with the experimental data for organic solvent/salt and aqueous-organic solvent/salt mixtures to confirm its efficacy in terms of prediction of the flash points of these mixtures. The experimental results confirm marked increases in liquid flash point increment with addition of inorganic salts relative to supplementation with equivalent quantities of water. Based on this evidence, it appears reasonable to suggest potential application for the model in assessment of the fire and explosion hazard for solvent/salt mixtures and, further, that addition of inorganic salts may prove useful for hazard reduction in flammable liquids.

  9. Electrochemical studies on plutonium in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, G.; Lambertin, D.; Rochefort, S.; Delpech, S.; Picard, G.

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical studies on plutonium have been supporting the development of pyrochemical processes involving plutonium at CEA. The electrochemical properties of plutonium have been studied in molten salts - ternary eutectic mixture NaCl-KCl-BaCl 2 , equimolar mixture NaCl-KCl and pure CaCl 2 - and in liquid gallium at 1073 K. The formal, or apparent, standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu redox couple in eutectic mixture of NaCl-KCl-BaCl 2 at 1073 K determined by potentiometry is equal to -2.56 V (versus Cl 2 , 1 atm/Cl - reference electrode). In NaCl-KCl eutectic mixture and in pure CaCl 2 the formal standard potentials deduced from cyclic voltammetry are respectively -2.54 V and -2.51 V. These potentials led to the calculation of the activity coefficients of Pu(III) in the molten salts. Chronoamperometry on plutonium in liquid gallium using molten chlorides - CaCl 2 and equimolar NaCl/KCl - led to the determination of the activity coefficient of Pu in liquid Ga, log γ = -7.3. This new data is a key parameter to assess the thermodynamic feasibility of a process using gallium as solvent metal. By comparing gallium with other solvent metals - cadmium, bismuth, aluminum - gallium appears to be, with aluminum, more favorable for the selectivity of the separation at 1073 K of plutonium from cerium. In fact, compared with a solid tungsten electrode, none of these solvent liquid metals is a real asset for the selectivity of the separation. The role of a solvent liquid metal is mainly to trap the elements

  10. Making a Pellet-type LiCl-KCl-UCl3 salt for Electrorefining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, M. S.; Jin, H. J.; Kim, I. T.; Kim, J. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The role of uranium chloride salt (UCl3) is to stabilize the initial cell voltage between electrodes in the electrorefining reactor. The process to produce a uranium chloride salt includes two steps: a reaction process of gaseous chlorine with liquid cadmium to form the CdCl2 occurring in a Cd layer, followed by a process to produce UCl3 by the reaction of U in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and CdCl2 The apparatus for producing UCl3 consists of a chlorine gas generator, a uranium chlorinator, a Cd distiller, the pelletizer, and a off-gas and a dry scrubber. The temperature of the reactants is maintained at about 600 .deg. C. After the reaction is completed in the uranium chlorinator, The salt products is transferred to the Cd distiller to decrease residual Cd concentration in the salts, and then salt is transferred to the mould of pelletizer by a transfer system to make pellet type salt. Making pellet type LiCl-KCl-UCl3 salt for electrorefining was carried out using the chlorinator, Cd distiller, and pelletizer. Salt transfer carried out by salt transfer equipment heated 500 .deg. C. The Cd concentration of final salt products distillated at 60 torr, 2 hrs, 600 .deg. C was 200 ppm from the ICP, XRD analysis. And pellet type salt products were fabricated by using the mould of pelletizer at 90∼130 .deg. C.

  11. Making a Pellet-type LiCl-KCl-UCl3 salt for Electrorefining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, M. S.; Jin, H. J.; Kim, I. T.; Kim, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The role of uranium chloride salt (UCl3) is to stabilize the initial cell voltage between electrodes in the electrorefining reactor. The process to produce a uranium chloride salt includes two steps: a reaction process of gaseous chlorine with liquid cadmium to form the CdCl2 occurring in a Cd layer, followed by a process to produce UCl3 by the reaction of U in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and CdCl2 The apparatus for producing UCl3 consists of a chlorine gas generator, a uranium chlorinator, a Cd distiller, the pelletizer, and a off-gas and a dry scrubber. The temperature of the reactants is maintained at about 600 .deg. C. After the reaction is completed in the uranium chlorinator, The salt products is transferred to the Cd distiller to decrease residual Cd concentration in the salts, and then salt is transferred to the mould of pelletizer by a transfer system to make pellet type salt. Making pellet type LiCl-KCl-UCl3 salt for electrorefining was carried out using the chlorinator, Cd distiller, and pelletizer. Salt transfer carried out by salt transfer equipment heated 500 .deg. C. The Cd concentration of final salt products distillated at 60 torr, 2 hrs, 600 .deg. C was 200 ppm from the ICP, XRD analysis. And pellet type salt products were fabricated by using the mould of pelletizer at 90∼130 .deg. C

  12. Site-Specific Antibody Labeling by Covalent Photoconjugation of Z Domains Functionalized for Alkyne-Azide Cycloaddition Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perols, Anna; Arcos Famme, Melina; Eriksson Karlström, Amelie

    2015-11-01

    Antibodies are extensively used in research, diagnostics, and therapy, and for many applications the antibodies need to be labeled. Labeling is typically performed by using amine-reactive probes that target surface-exposed lysine residues, resulting in heterogeneously labeled antibodies. An alternative labeling strategy is based on the immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding protein domain Z, which binds to the Fc region of IgG. Introducing the photoactivable amino acid benzoylphenylalanine (BPA) into the Z domain makes it possible for a covalent bond to be be formed between the Z domain and the antibody on UV irradiation, to produce a site-specifically labeled product. Z32 BPA was synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis and further functionalized to give alkyne-Z32 BPA and azide-Z32 BPA for Cu(I) -catalyzed cycloaddition, as well as DBCO-Z32 BPA for Cu-free strain-promoted cycloaddition. The Z32 BPA variants were conjugated to the human IgG1 antibody trastuzumab and site-specifically labeled with biotin or fluorescein. The fluorescently labeled trastuzumab showed specific staining of the membranes of HER2-expressing cells in immunofluorescence microscopy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

  14. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the...

  15. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisbrod, Kirk Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clark, David Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Stream Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.

  16. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrod, Kirk Ryan; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Funk, David John; Clark, David Lewis

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Stream Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.

  17. Concentration device for leak liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kaname; Matsuda, Ken; Takabori, Ken-ichi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve radioactivity recovery and volume-reducing rates, as well as enable safety and easy handling for leak liquids resulted from reptures in coolant circuits. Constitution: The device of the invention comprises an evaporation vessel filled with leak fluids to a predetermined level, an airtight vessel disposed in the evaporation vessel containing hydrophilic porous material partially immersed in the leak fluids and means for heating the hydrophilic material. In this device, leak liquids are absorbed in the hydrophilic porous material, a great amount of water is evaporated from the outer surface of the hydrophilic porous material exposed above the liquid surface, and salts and radioactive material are remained on the inside and the outer surface of the porous material. The evaporated water content is condensated and recovered in a cooler and the remaining salts, etc. are discarded together with the porous material. The volume-reducing property can be improved by constituting the porous material with burnable material. (Takahashi, M.)

  18. to salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tony

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... 3Inner Mongolia Industrial Engineering Research, Center of University for Castor, Tongliao 028042, ... strengthen and improve salt stress tolerance in plants. .... 2 µl cDNA, 1 µl each of 4 µM forward and reverse primer, 0.2 µl.

  19. Molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  20. Molten salt electrorefining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Shoji, Yuichi; Matsumaru, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    A molten cadmium phase (lower side) and a molten salt phase (upper side) are filled in an electrolytic bath. A basket incorporating spent nuclear fuels is inserted/disposed in the molten cadmium phase. A rotatable solid cathode is inserted/disposed in the molten salt phase. The spent fuels, for example, natural uranium, incorporated in the basket is dissolved in the molten cadmium phase. In this case, the uranium concentration in the molten salt phase is determined as from 0.5 to 20wt%. Then, electrolysis is conducted while setting a stirring power for stirring at least the molten salt phase of from 2.5 x 10 2 to 1 x 10 4 based on a reynolds number. Crystalline nuclei of uranium are precipitated uniformly on the surface of the solid cathode, and they grow into fine dendrites. With such procedures, since short-circuit between the cathode precipitates and the molten cadmium phase (anode) is scarcely caused, to improve the recovering rate of uranium. (I.N.)

  1. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  2. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  3. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  4. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  5. Thermal gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level nuclear wastes repositories, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In the present work, thermal gradient migration of both all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boudaries was observed

  6. Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity Assay in situ with Blue Tetrazolium Salt in Crabtree-Positive Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Berlowska

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric method for determining succinate dehydrogenase (SDH activity assay in azide-sensitive yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been developed. The permeabilization of yeast cells by 0.05 % digitonin permitted to study yeast enzymatic activity in situ. The reduction of blue tetrazolium salt (BT to blue tetrazolium formazan (BTf was conducted in the presence of phenazine methosulphate (PMS as an exogenous electron carrier, and sodium azide (SA as an inhibitor of cytochrome oxidase (Cyt pathway. Various factors such as type of substrate, BT concentration, cell number, temperature and time of incubation, and different Cyt pathway blockers were optimized. In earlier studies, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO had been selected as the best solvent for extraction of BTf from yeast cells. The linear correlation between permeabilized yeast cell density and amount of formed formazan was evidenced in the range from 9·10^7 to 5·10^8 cells per sample solution. Below the yeast cell concentration of 10^7 the absorbance values were too low to detect formazans with good precision. This standarized procedure allows the estimation of SDH activity in whole cells, depending on vitality level of yeast populations. Significant increases of succinate dehydrogenase activities were observed in sequential passages as the result of the increase of activity of the strain and adaptation to cultivation conditions.

  7. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Vitor H; Faria, Luiz F O; Ribeiro, Mauro C C

    2017-05-24

    Vibrational spectroscopy has continued use as a powerful tool to characterize ionic liquids since the literature on room temperature molten salts experienced the rapid increase in number of publications in the 1990's. In the past years, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies have provided insights on ionic interactions and the resulting liquid structure in ionic liquids. A large body of information is now available concerning vibrational spectra of ionic liquids made of many different combinations of anions and cations, but reviews on this literature are scarce. This review is an attempt at filling this gap. Some basic care needed while recording IR or Raman spectra of ionic liquids is explained. We have reviewed the conceptual basis of theoretical frameworks which have been used to interpret vibrational spectra of ionic liquids, helping the reader to distinguish the scope of application of different methods of calculation. Vibrational frequencies observed in IR and Raman spectra of ionic liquids based on different anions and cations are discussed and eventual disagreements between different sources are critically reviewed. The aim is that the reader can use this information while assigning vibrational spectra of an ionic liquid containing another particular combination of anions and cations. Different applications of IR and Raman spectroscopies are given for both pure ionic liquids and solutions. Further issues addressed in this review are the intermolecular vibrations that are more directly probed by the low-frequency range of IR and Raman spectra and the applications of vibrational spectroscopy in studying phase transitions of ionic liquids.

  8. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  9. Molten salt electrolysis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Kazuaki; Takasawa, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    A rotational shaft is disposed vertically downwardly from an upper portion so as to be immersed in a liquid metal in a vessel, impellers for stirring the liquid metal are disposed on the lower portion of the rotational shaft, and a cylindrical body is disposed in the inside of the vessel so as to surround the impellers. When the rotational shaft is rotated, the impellers suck the liquid metal upwardly from the lower portion of the cylindrical body and flow the metal from the upper portion to cause a downwarding stream on the outside of the cylindrical body. As a result, materials reduced and deposited on the upper surface of a liquid metal cathode along with the stream of the liquid metal are precipitated effectively on the lower portion of the vessel. In addition, since a liquid metal with no deposition of uranium is always frown over from the upper portion of the cylindrical body, growth of uranium on the surface of the cathode of liquid metal is prevented, so that uranium, plutonium and transuranium elements can be recovered stably by electrolytic reduction. (N.H.)

  10. Electrolytic experiments of gadolinium and neodymium ions in the fluoride molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, J. B.; Hwang, S. C.; Kim, W. H.; Kang, Y. H.; Lee, B. J.; Yoo, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    Electrolytic reductions of Gd 3+ and Nd 3+ ions were carried out to prepare bismuth alloys including Gd and Nd solutes using a molten liquid Bi cathode in the LiF-NaF-KF fluoride salt. It was considered that selective separation of Gd from bismuth alloy is possible by controlling the addition amount of an oxidation agent to a salt phase. Cyclic voltammetry measurements are useful tools not only for in-situ detection of solutes in salt phase in the course of back extraction experiments but also for elucidation of electrochemical reactions of Gd and Nd in the FLINAK molten salt

  11. Test procedures for salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Potash mining, salt mining, design of solution caverns in salt rocks, disposal of waste in salt repositories, and the use of granular halite backfill in underground salt rock mines are all mining activities which are practised or contemplated for the near future. Whatever the purpose, the need for high quality design parameters is evident. The authors have been testing salt rocks in the laboratory in a number of configurations for some time. Great care has been given to the quality of sample preparation and test methodology. This paper describes the methods, presents the elements of equipment design, and shows some typical results

  12. Chiral pyrrolidinium salts derived from menthol as precursor – synthesis and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Ewa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Six new chiral pyrolidinium salts with chiral substituent at quaternary nitrogen atom were synthesized with high overall yields from (--menthol as cheap chiral precursor and were identified by NMR and HRMS spectroscopy. It was shown that anion type had the effect on chemical shift of protons adjacent to quaternary nitrogen atom and physical properties of these salts. Salts with NTf2 or NPf2 were in a liquid state at room temperature and characterized with the highest thermal stability among others. Furthermore, chiral ionic liquid with NTf2 anion was used as solvent in Diels-Alder reaction and gave higher yield and stereoselectivity than in ionic liquids with achiral cations. Synthesized chiral salts have the potential as chiral solvents in synthesis and auxiliaries in analytical methods to improve chiral recognition.

  13. Azide photochemistry for facile modification of graphitic surfaces: preparation of DNA-coated carbon nanotubes for biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghaddam, Minoo J; Yang Wenrong; Bojarski, Barbara; Gengenbach, Thomas R; Gao Mei; Zareie, Hadi; McCall, Maxine J

    2012-01-01

    A facile, two-step method for chemically attaching single-stranded DNA to graphitic surfaces, represented here by carbon nanotubes, is reported. In the first step, an azide-containing compound, N-5-azido-nitrobenzoyloxy succinimide (ANB-NOS), is used to form photo-adducts on the graphitic surfaces in a solid-state photochemical reaction, resulting in active ester groups being oriented for the subsequent reactions. In the second step, pre-synthesized DNA strands bearing a terminal amine group are coupled in an aqueous solution with the active esters on the photo-adducts. The versatility of the method is demonstrated by attaching pre-synthesized DNA to surfaces of carbon nanotubes in two platforms—as vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes on a solid support and as tangled single-walled carbon nanotubes in mats. The reaction products at various stages were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Two different assays were used to check that the DNA strands attached to the carbon nanotubes were able to bind their partner strands with complementary base sequences. The first assay, using partner DNA strands tethered to gold nanoparticles, enabled the sites of DNA attachment to the carbon nanotubes to be identified in TEM images. The second assay, using radioactively labelled partner DNA strands, quantified the density of functional DNA strands attached to the carbon nanotubes. The diversity of potential applications for these DNA-modified carbon-nanotube platforms is exemplified here by the successful use of a DNA-modified single-walled carbon-nanotube mat as an electrode for the specific detection of metal ions. (paper)

  14. Salt separation of uranium deposits generated from electrorefining in pyro process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S. W.; Park, K. M.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Electrorefining is a key step in a pyro processing. Electrorefining process is generally composed of two recovery steps- deposit of uranium onto a solid cathode(electrorefining) and then the recovery of the remaining uranium and TRU(TransUranic) elements simultaneously by a liquid cadmium cathode(electrowinning). The uranium ingot is prepared from the deposits after the salt separation. In this study, the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation? distillation of the residual salt was attempted for the achievement of high throughput performance in the salt separation. The effects of deposit size and packing density were also investigated with steel chips, steel chips, and uranium dendrites. The apparent evaporation rate decreased with the increasing packing density or the increasing size of deposits due to the hindrance of the vapor transport by the deposits. It was found that the packing density and the geometry of deposit crucible are important design parameters for the salt separation system. Base on the results of the study, an engineering scale salt distiller was developed and installed in the argon cell. The salt distiller is a batch-type, and the process capacity to about 50 kg U-deposits/day. The design of the salt distiller is based on the remote operation by Master Slave Manipulator (MSM) and a hoist. The salt distiller is composed of two large blocks of the distillation tower and the crucible loading system for the transportation to maintenance room via the Large Transfer Lock (LTL)

  15. Salt separation of uranium deposits generated from electrorefining in pyro process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S. W.; Park, K. M.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Electrorefining is a key step in a pyro processing. Electrorefining process is generally composed of two recovery steps- deposit of uranium onto a solid cathode(electrorefining) and then the recovery of the remaining uranium and TRU(TransUranic) elements simultaneously by a liquid cadmium cathode(electrowinning). The uranium ingot is prepared from the deposits after the salt separation. In this study, the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation? distillation of the residual salt was attempted for the achievement of high throughput performance in the salt separation. The effects of deposit size and packing density were also investigated with steel chips, steel chips, and uranium dendrites. The apparent evaporation rate decreased with the increasing packing density or the increasing size of deposits due to the hindrance of the vapor transport by the deposits. It was found that the packing density and the geometry of deposit crucible are important design parameters for the salt separation system. Base on the results of the study, an engineering scale salt distiller was developed and installed in the argon cell. The salt distiller is a batch-type, and the process capacity to about 50 kg U-deposits/day. The design of the salt distiller is based on the remote operation by Master Slave Manipulator (MSM) and a hoist. The salt distiller is composed of two large blocks of the distillation tower and the crucible loading system for the transportation to maintenance room via the Large Transfer Lock (LTL)

  16. Liquid chromatography coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and post-column addition of metal salt solutions as a powerful tool for the metabolic profiling of Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirigliano, Adriana M; Rodriguez, M Alejandra; Gagliano, M Laura; Bertinetti, Brenda V; Godeas, Alicia M; Cabrera, Gabriela M

    2016-03-25

    Fusarium oxysporum L11 is a non-pathogenic soil-borne fungal strain that yielded an extract that showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens. In this study, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (API-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of the metabolites from the extract. The employed sources were electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Post-column addition of metal solutions of Ca, Cu and Zn(II) was also tested using ESI. A total of 137 compounds were identified or tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals, suggested molecular formulae and MS/MS analysis with previously reported data. Some compounds were isolated and identified by NMR. The extract was rich in cyclic peptides like cyclosporins, diketopiperazines and sansalvamides, most of which were new, and are reported here for the first time. The use of post-column addition of metals resulted in a useful strategy for the discrimination of compound classes since specific adducts were observed for the different compound families. This technique also allowed the screening for compounds with metal binding properties. Thus, the applied methodology is a useful choice for the metabolic profiling of extracts and also for the selection of metabolites with potential biological activities related to interactions with metal ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The material flow of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostick, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different parts from snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) and identification of their natural antioxidants using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L X; Hu, D J; Lam, S C; Ge, L; Wu, D; Zhao, J; Long, Z R; Yang, W J; Fan, B; Li, S P

    2016-01-08

    Snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.), a world-widely well-known flower tea material, has attracted more and more attention because of its beneficial health effects such as antioxidant activity and special flavor. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) based assay was employed for comparison and identification of antioxidants in different samples of snow chrysanthemum. The results showed that snow chrysanthemum flowers possessed the highest while stems presented the lowest antioxidant capacities. Fourteen detected peaks with antioxidant activity were temporarily identified as 3,4',5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, chlorogenic acid, 2R-3',4',8-trihydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, flavanomarein, flavanocorepsin, flavanokanin, quercetagitin-7-O-glucoside, 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, marein, maritimein, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin and acetyl-marein by comparing their UV spectra, retention times and MS data with standards or literature data. Antioxidants existed in snow chrysanthemum are quite different from those reported in Chrysanthemum morifolium, a well-known traditional beverage in China, which indicated that snow chrysanthemum may be a promising herbal tea material with obvious antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Steady state investigation on neutronics of a molten salt reactor considering the flow effect of fuel salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dalin; Qiu Suizheng; Su Guanghui; Liu Changliang

    2008-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), one of the 'Generation IV' concepts, is a liquid-fuel reactor, which is different from the conventional reactors using solid fissile materials due to the flow effect of fuel salt. The study on its neutronics considering the fuel salt flow, which is the base of the thermal-hydraulic calculation and safety analysis, must be done. In this paper, the theoretical model on neutronics under steady condition for a single-liquid-fueled MSR is conducted and calculated by numerical method. The neutronics model consists of two group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes, and balance equations for six-group delayed neutron precursors considering the flow effect of fuel salt. The spatial discretization of the above models is based on the finite volume method, and the discretization equations are computed by the source iteration method. The distributions of neutron fluxes and the distributions of the delayed neutron precursors in the core are obtained. The numerical calculated results show that, the fuel salt flow has little effect on the distribution of fast and thermal neutron fluxes and the effective multiplication factor; however, it affects the distribution of the delayed neutron precursors significantly, especially the long-lived one. In addition, it could be found that the delayed neutron precursors influence the neutronics slightly under the steady condition. (authors)

  20. Steady state investigation on neutronics of a molten salt reactor considering the flow effect of fuel salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Da-Lin; QIU Sui-Zheng; LIU Chang-Liang; SU Guang-Hui

    2008-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR),one of the‘Generation Ⅳ'concepts,is a liquid-fuel reactor,which is different from the conventional reactors using solid fissile materials due to the flow effect of fuel salt.The study on its neutronice considering the fuel salt flow,which is the base of the thermal-hydraulic calculation and safety analysis,must be done.In this paper,the theoretical model on neutronics under steady condition for a single-liquid-fueled MSR is conducted and calculated by numerical method.The neutronics model consists of two group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes,and balance equations for six-group delayed neutron precursors considering the flow effect of fuel salt. The spatial discretization of the above models is based on the finite volume method,and the discretization equations are computed by the source iteration method.The distributions of neutron fluxes and the distributions of the delayed neutron precursors in the core are obtained.The numerical calculated results show that,the fuel salt flow has little effect on the distribution of fast and thermal neutron fluxes and the effective multiplication factor;however,it affects the distribution of the delayed neutron precursors significantly,especially the long-lived one.In addition,it could be found that the delayed neutron precursors influence the nentronics slightly under the steady condition.

  1. Devoluming method of acidic radioactive liquid waste and processing system therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Takamori; Honda, Tadahiro

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive liquid wastes such as liquid wastes discharged from chemical decontamination (containing free acids, metal salts dissolved in acids, not-dissolved iron rust and radioactive metals) are introduced to an acid recovering device using a diffusion permeation membrane and separated to a deacidified liquid and separated acid liquid. The separated acid liquid mainly comprising free acids is recovered to a tank for recovered acids, and used repeatedly for removing crud. The deacidified liquid mainly comprising salts is concentrated in a reverse osmosis membrane (RO) concentration device. RO concentrated liquid containing radioactive metals is dried, and salts are decomposed in a drying/salt-decomposing device and separated into metal oxides and a mixed gas of an acidic gas and steams. The gas is cooled in an acid absorbing device and recovered as free acids. The metal oxides containing radioactive metals are solidified. (I.N.)

  2. Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-09-01

    It has been proposed that high-level nuclear waste be disposed in a geologic repository. Natural-salt deposits, which are being considered for this purpose, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive-decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In this work, thermal gradient migration of both all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is non-linear.At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boundaries was observed. 35 figures, 3 tables

  3. Optical absorption of dilute solutions of metals in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senatore, G.; Parrinello, M.; Tosi, M.P. (Trieste Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica; Gruppo Nazionale di Struttura dell material del CNR, Trieste (Italy); International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

    1978-12-23

    The theory of liquid structure for fluids of charged hard spheres is applied to an evaluation of the F-centre model for valence electrons in metal-molten salt solutions at high dilution. Minimization of the free energy yields the groundstate radius of the elctron bubble and hence the optical excitation energy in a Franck-Condon transition, the shift and broadening of the transition due to fluctuations in the bubble radius, the volume of mixing, and the activity of the salt in the solution.

  4. Mixing Modeling Analysis For SRS Salt Waste Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear waste at Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks consists of three different types of waste forms. They are the lighter salt solutions referred to as supernate, the precipitated salts as salt cake, and heavier fine solids as sludge. The sludge is settled on the tank floor. About half of the residual waste radioactivity is contained in the sludge, which is only about 8 percentage of the total waste volume. Mixing study to be evaluated here for the Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) project focuses on supernate preparations in waste tanks prior to transfer to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The methods to mix and blend the contents of the SRS blend tanks were evalutaed to ensure that the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 50H to the SWPF feed tank. The work consists of two principal objectives to investigate two different pumps. One objective is to identify a suitable pumping arrangement that will adequately blend/mix two miscible liquids to obtain a uniform composition in the tank with a minimum level of sludge solid particulate in suspension. The other is to estimate the elevation in the tank at which the transfer pump inlet should be located where the solid concentration of the entrained fluid remains below the acceptance criterion (0.09 wt% or 1200 mg/liter) during transfer operation to the SWPF. Tank 50H is a Waste Tank that will be used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the mixing modeling analysis during miscible liquid blending operation, and the flow pattern analysis during transfer operation of the blended liquid. The modeling results will provide quantitative design and operation information during the mixing/blending process and the transfer operation of the blended

  5. Ionic Liquid-Liquid Chromatography: A New General Purpose Separation Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Leslie; Earle, Martyn J; Gîlea, Manuela A; Plechkova, Natalia V; Seddon, Kenneth R

    2017-08-10

    Ionic liquids can form biphasic solvent systems with many organic solvents and water, and these solvent systems can be used in liquid-liquid separations and countercurrent chromatography. The wide range of ionic liquids that can by synthesised, with specifically tailored properties, represents a new philosophy for the separation of organic, inorganic and bio-based materials. A customised countercurrent chromatograph has been designed and constructed specifically to allow the more viscous character of ionic liquid-based solvent systems to be used in a wide variety of separations (including transition metal salts, arenes, alkenes, alkanes, bio-oils and sugars).

  6. Development of electrowinner and salt regenerator for PRIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paek, S. W.; Lee, H. S.; Hur, J. M. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2011-11-15

    A scope of this study includes an manufacturing an electrowinning equipment of LCC(Liquid Cadmium Cathode) to recover actinides such as uranium and TRU(Np, Pu, Am, Cm) remained in the molten salt(LiCl-KCl) transferred after an electrorefining process which collects uranium of high purity and an salt regeneration equipment to remove RE(Rare Earth) from the remaining salt after electrowinning process by oxidation and precipitation. The design capacity to recover actinide metals for PRIDE electrowinner was determined to 1 kg/batch and the amount of cadmium and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were 10 kg and 50 kg, respectively. The equipment was designed based on the operation experiences of lab-scale LCC apparatus but the concepts of remote operation were introduced. PRIDE scale oxidative precipitation precipitation apparatus whose maximum batch size is 20kg-salt/batch was designed and installed. It consists of four parts: oxidation reactor, oxygen sparing unit, flange moving device and crucible unit. To avoid a severe corrosion problem due to a high temperature, oxygen and chloride salt atmosphere, the oxidation reaction is conducted in an 100% Ta crucible. A 3D test was conducted to review the possibility of the remote operation for the equipment and the test results were applied to the design improvement. The mock-up equipment were prepared on the basis of 3D test results and after the test of remote operation, the final equipment for PRIDE were manufactured.

  7. Reactivity studies of eta sup (6)-p-cymene ruthenium(II) carboxylato complexes towards azide some neutral ligands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Kollipara, M.R.

    sub (2)O sub (4)(7) or C sub (2)CH sub (2)O sub (4)(10)] have been prepared by the reaction of [(p-cymene)RuCl sub (2)]sub (2) with the corresponding sodium salts of the carboxylic acids. Treatment of (eta sup (6)-p-cymene) ruthenium(II) carboxylato...

  8. Computer simulation on molten ionic salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, K.; Okada, I.

    1978-01-01

    The extensive advances in computer technology have since made it possible to apply computer simulation to the evaluation of the macroscopic and microscopic properties of molten salts. The evaluation of the potential energy in molten salts systems is complicated by the presence of long-range energy, i.e. Coulomb energy, in contrast to simple liquids where the potential energy is easily evaluated. It has been shown, however, that no difficulties are encountered when the Ewald method is applied to the evaluation of Coulomb energy. After a number of attempts had been made to approximate the pair potential, the Huggins-Mayer potential based on ionic crystals became the most often employed. Since it is thought that the only appreciable contribution to many-body potential, not included in Huggins-Mayer potential, arises from the internal electrostatic polarization of ions in molten ionic salts, computer simulation with a provision for ion polarization has been tried recently. The computations, which are employed mainly for molten alkali halides, can provide: (1) thermodynamic data such as internal energy, internal pressure and isothermal compressibility; (2) microscopic configurational data such as radial distribution functions; (3) transport data such as the diffusion coefficient and electrical conductivity; and (4) spectroscopic data such as the intensity of inelastic scattering and the stretching frequency of simple molecules. The computed results seem to agree well with the measured results. Computer simulation can also be used to test the effectiveness of a proposed pair potential and the adequacy of postulated models of molten salts, and to obtain experimentally inaccessible data. A further application of MD computation employing the pair potential based on an ionic model to BeF 2 , ZnCl 2 and SiO 2 shows the possibility of quantitative interpretation of structures and glass transformation phenomena

  9. In vivo click reaction between Tc-99m-labeled azadibenzocyclooctyne-MAMA and 2-nitroimidazole-azide for tumor hypoxia targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjing; Chu, Taiwei

    2015-10-15

    The bioactivity of nitroimidazole in Tc-99m-labeled 2-nitroimidazole, a traditional solid tumor hypoxia-imaging agent for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), is reduced by the presence of large ligand and metallic radionuclide, exhibiting lower tumor-to-nontumor ratios. In an effort to solve this general problem, a pretargeting strategy based on click chemistry (strain-promoted cyclooctyne-azide cycloaddition) was applied. The functional click synthons were synthesized as pretargeting components: an azide group linked to 2-nitroimidazole (2NIM-Az) serves for tumor hypoxia-targeting and azadibenzocyclooctyne conjugated with monoamine monoamide dithiol ligand (AM) functions as radiolabeling and binding group to azides in vivo. 2NIM-triazole-MAMA was obtained from in vitro click reaction with a reaction rate constant of 0.98M(-1)s(-1). AM and 2NIM-triazole-MAMA were radiolabeled with Tc-99m. The hypoxia-pretargeting biodistribution was studied in Kunming mice bearing S180 tumor; (99m)Tc-AM and (99m)Tc-triazole-2NIM were used as blank control and conventional control. Compared to the control groups, the pretargeting experiment exhibits the best radio-uptake and retention in tumor, with higher tumor-to-muscle and tumor-to-blood ratios (up to 8.55 and 1.44 at 8h post-(99m)Tc-complex-injection, respectively). To some extent, the pretargeting strategy protects the bioactivity of nitroimidazole and therefore provides an innovative approach for the development of tumor hypoxia-SPECT imaging agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Site-specific bioconjugation of a murine dihydrofolate reductase enzyme by copper(I-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition with retained activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung In Lim

    Full Text Available Cu(I-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC is an efficient reaction linking an azido and an alkynyl group in the presence of copper catalyst. Incorporation of a non-natural amino acid (NAA containing either an azido or an alkynyl group into a protein allows site-specific bioconjugation in mild conditions via CuAAC. Despite its great potential, bioconjugation of an enzyme has been hampered by several issues including low yield, poor solubility of a ligand, and protein structural/functional perturbation by CuAAC components. In the present study, we incorporated an alkyne-bearing NAA into an enzyme, murine dihydrofolate reductase (mDHFR, in high cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli, and performed CuAAC conjugation with fluorescent azide dyes to evaluate enzyme compatibility of various CuAAC conditions comprising combination of commercially available Cu(I-chelating ligands and reductants. The condensed culture improves the protein yield 19-fold based on the same amount of non-natural amino acid, and the enzyme incubation under the optimized reaction condition did not lead to any activity loss but allowed a fast and high-yield bioconjugation. Using the established conditions, a biotin-azide spacer was efficiently conjugated to mDHFR with retained activity leading to the site-specific immobilization of the biotin-conjugated mDHFR on a streptavidin-coated plate. These results demonstrate that the combination of reactive non-natural amino acid incorporation and the optimized CuAAC can be used to bioconjugate enzymes with retained enzymatic activity.

  11. Where Does Road Salt Go - a Static Salt Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. W.; Liu, F.; Moriarty, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    Each winter, more than 15 million tons of road salt is applied in the United States for the de-icing purpose. Considerable amount of chloride in road salt flows into streams/drainage systems with the snow melt runoff and spring storms, and eventually goes into ecologically sensitive low-lying areas in the watershed, such as ponds and lakes. In many watersheds in the northern part of US, the chloride level in the water body has increased significantly in the past decades, and continues an upward trend. The environmental and ecological impact of the elevated chloride level can no longer be ignored. However although there are many studies on the biological impact of elevated chloride levels, there are few investigations on how the spatially distributed road salt application affects various parts of the watershed. In this presentation, we propose a static road salt model as a first-order metric to address spacial distribution of salt loading. Derived from the Topological Wetness Index (TWI) in many hydrological models, this static salt model provides a spatial impact as- sessment of road salt applications. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the static model, National Elevation Dataset (NED) of ten-meter resolution of Lake George watershed in New York State is used to generate the TWI, which is used to compute a spatially dis- tributed "salt-loading coefficient" of the whole watershed. Spatially varying salt applica- tion rate is then aggregated, using the salt-loading coefficients as weights, to provide salt loading assessments of streams in the watershed. Time-aggregated data from five CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensors in selected streams are used for calibration. The model outputs and the sensor data demonstrate a strong linear correlation, with the R value of 0.97. The investigation shows that the static modeling approach may provide an effective method for the understanding the input and transport of road salt to within watersheds.

  12. Continuous metal scavenging and coupling to one-pot copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition click reaction in flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vural - Gursel, Dr. Iris; Aldiansyah, Ferry; Wang, Qi; Noël, Timothy; Hessel, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Increasing usage of catalytic chemistry calls for efficient removal of metal traces. This paper describes the development and optimization of a scavenger-based extraction in flow to remove metal catalysts. It enables liquid-liquid extraction with slug flow and phase separation with a porous

  13. Ultrasound-promoted organocatalytic enamine–azide [3 + 2] cycloaddition reactions for the synthesis of ((arylselanylphenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel P. Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of sonochemistry is described in the organocatalytic enamine–azide [3 + 2] cycloaddition between 1,3-diketones and aryl azidophenyl selenides. These sonochemically promoted reactions were found to be amenable to a range of 1,3-diketones or aryl azidophenyl selenides, providing an efficient access to new ((arylselanylphenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylketones in good to excellent yields and short reaction times. In addition, this protocol was extended to β-keto esters, β-keto amides and α-cyano ketones. Selanyltriazoyl carboxylates, carboxamides and carbonitriles were synthesized in high yields at short times of reaction under very mild reaction conditions.

  14. The orbital ground state of the azide-substrate complex of human heme oxygenase is an indicator of distal H-bonding: Implications for the enzyme mechanism‡

    OpenAIRE

    Ogura, Hiroshi; Evans, John P.; Peng, Dungeng; Satterlee, James D.; de Montellano, Paul R. Ortiz; Mar, Gerd N. La

    2009-01-01

    The active site electronic structure of the azide complex of substrate-bound human heme oxygenase-1, (hHO) has been investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy to shed light on the orbital/spin ground state as an indicator of the unique distal pocket environment of the enzyme. 2D 1H NMR assignments of the substrate and substrate-contact residue signals reveal a pattern of substrate methyl contact shifts, that places the lone iron π-spin in the dxz orbital, rather than the dyz orbital found in the cya...

  15. Liquid-liquid contact in vapor explosion. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This phenomenon is called a vapor explosion. One method of producing intimate, liquid-liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. The report describes experiments in which cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture).

  16. Application of ionic liquids in liquid chromatography and electrodriven separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Yao, Shun; Song, Hang

    2013-08-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are salts in the liquid state at ambient temperature, which are nonvolatile, nonflammable with high thermal stability and dissolve easily for a wide range of inorganic and organic materials. As a kind of potential green solvent, they show high efficiency and selectivity in the field of separation research, especially in instrumental analysis. Thus far, ILs have been successfully applied by many related researchers in high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis as chromatographic stationary phases, mobile phase additives or electroosmotic flow modifiers. This paper provides a detailed review of these applications in the study of natural products, foods, drugs and other fine chemicals. Furthermore, the prospects of ILs in liquid chromatographic and electrodriven techniques are discussed.

  17. Complete Sensitivity/Uncertainty Analysis of LR-0 Reactor Experiments with MSRE FLiBe Salt and Perform Comparison with Molten Salt Cooled and Molten Salt Fueled Reactor Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mueller, Don [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In September 2016, reactor physics measurements were conducted at Research Centre Rez (RC Rez) using the FLiBe (2 7LiF + BeF2) salt from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) in the LR-0 low power nuclear reactor. These experiments were intended to inform on neutron spectral effects and nuclear data uncertainties for advanced reactor systems using FLiBe salt in a thermal neutron energy spectrum. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in collaboration with RC Rez, performed sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analyses of these experiments as part of the ongoing collaboration between the United States and the Czech Republic on civilian nuclear energy research and development. The objectives of these analyses were (1) to identify potential sources of bias in fluoride salt-cooled and salt-fueled reactor simulations resulting from cross section uncertainties, and (2) to produce the sensitivity of neutron multiplication to cross section data on an energy-dependent basis for specific nuclides. This report provides a final report on the S/U analyses of critical experiments at the LR-0 Reactor relevant to fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) and liquid-fueled molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts. In the future, these S/U analyses could be used to inform the design of additional FLiBe-based experiments using the salt from MSRE. The key finding of this work is that, for both solid and liquid fueled fluoride salt reactors, radiative capture in 7Li is the most significant contributor to potential bias in neutronics calculations within the FLiBe salt.

  18. Application of Ionic Liquids in Hydrometallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jesik; Jung, Yeojin; Kusumah, Priyandi; Lee, Jinyoung; Kwon, Kyungjung; Lee, Churl Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids, low temperature molten salts, have various advantages manifesting themselves as durable and environmentally friendly solvents. Their application is expanding into various fields including hydrometallurgy due to their unique properties such as non-volatility, inflammability, low toxicity, good ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical potential window. This paper reviews previous literatures and our recent results adopting ionic liquids in extraction, synthesis and processing of metals with an emphasis on the electrolysis of active/light, rare earth, and platinum group metals. Because the research and development of ionic liquids in this area are still emerging, various, more fundamental approaches are expected to popularize ionic liquids in the metal manufacturing industry. PMID:25177864

  19. Salt geologic evaluation of the impact of cryogenic fissures and halokinetic deformation processes on the integrity of the geological barrier of the salt dome Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Joerg; Fleig, Stephanie; Mingerzahn, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    In several salt domes of the area close to Hannover fissures were observed that might be caused by thermally induced fissure formation due to cold periods (cryogenic fissures). Comprehensive substantial-structural analyses are performed as an example for the salt dome Bokeloh with respect to genesis and transferability to the salt dome Gorleben. Based on recent structure-geological, mineralogical-geochemical and micro-paleontological studies and thermo-mechanical modeling a solely thermally induced fissure formation due to cold periods is unlikely for the salt dome Bokeloh. There is a direct relation between the genesis of the salt dome Bokeloh, its regional tectonic site and the fissure formation. Due to the completely different genesis and another regional-tectonic situation the existence of cryogenic fissures is excluded for the salt dome Gorleben. The salt-geologic and experimental studies on the deformation of anhydrite layers in salt domes are summarized and evaluated with respect to the long-term consequences for a potential final repository for high-level heat-generating radioactive waste in the salt dome Gorleben. The studies confirm the older BGR studies that anhydrite layers do not represent hydraulic potential ling-distance liquid paths.

  20. Multilayer Porous Crucibles for the High Throughput Salt Separation from Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S. W.; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Kim, I. T.; Seo, B. K.; Moon, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Solid cathode processing is necessary to separate the salt from the cathode since the uranium deposit in a solid cathode contains electrolyte salt. A physical separation process, such as a distillation separation, is more attractive than a chemical or dissolution process because physical processes generate much less secondary process. Distillation process was employed for the cathode processsing due to the advantages of minimal generation of secondary waste, compact unit process, simple and low cost equipment. The basis for vacuum distillation separation is the difference in vapor pressures between salt and uranium. A solid cathode deposit is heated in a heating region and salt vaporizes, while nonvolatile uranium remains behind. It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system owing to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites. The evaporation rate of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in vacuum distiller is not so high to come up with the generation capacity of uranium dendrites in an electro-refiner. Therefore, a wide evaporation area or high distillation temperature is necessary for the successful salt separation. In this study, it was attempted to enlarge a throughput of the salt distiller with a multilayer porous crucibles for the separation of adhered salt in the uranium deposits generated from the electrorefiner. The feasibility of the porous crucibles was tested by the salt distillation experiments. In this study, the salt distiller with multilayer porous crucibles was proposed and the feasibility of liquid salt separation was examined to increase a throughput. It was found that the effective separation of salt from uranium deposits was possible by the multilayer porous crucibles

  1. Multilayer Porous Crucibles for the High Throughput Salt Separation from Uranium Deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S. W.; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Kim, I. T.; Seo, B. K.; Moon, J. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Solid cathode processing is necessary to separate the salt from the cathode since the uranium deposit in a solid cathode contains electrolyte salt. A physical separation process, such as a distillation separation, is more attractive than a chemical or dissolution process because physical processes generate much less secondary process. Distillation process was employed for the cathode processsing due to the advantages of minimal generation of secondary waste, compact unit process, simple and low cost equipment. The basis for vacuum distillation separation is the difference in vapor pressures between salt and uranium. A solid cathode deposit is heated in a heating region and salt vaporizes, while nonvolatile uranium remains behind. It is very important to increase the throughput of the salt separation system owing to the high uranium content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of uranium dendrites. The evaporation rate of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in vacuum distiller is not so high to come up with the generation capacity of uranium dendrites in an electro-refiner. Therefore, a wide evaporation area or high distillation temperature is necessary for the successful salt separation. In this study, it was attempted to enlarge a throughput of the salt distiller with a multilayer porous crucibles for the separation of adhered salt in the uranium deposits generated from the electrorefiner. The feasibility of the porous crucibles was tested by the salt distillation experiments. In this study, the salt distiller with multilayer porous crucibles was proposed and the feasibility of liquid salt separation was examined to increase a throughput. It was found that the effective separation of salt from uranium deposits was possible by the multilayer porous crucibles.

  2. Synthesis of disk-rod-disk liquid crystal trimers by using click chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A series of disk-rod-disk liquid crystal trimers were synthesized.CuI-NEt3 catalyzed alkyne azide cycloaddition in toluene at room temperature connected two triphenylene discogens to a biphenyl rod-shaped mesogen.The trimers were characterized by using 1H NMR,IR,and high resolution mass spectrometry.The mesomorphic properties were investigated using polarized optical microscopy(POM) ,differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) ,and wide-angle X-ray diffraction.The results showed that the trimers exhibited rectangular columnar mesophase(Colr) .The length of the flexible spacer connecting the three segments has prominent influence on the phase transition temperatures of the trimers.

  3. Generic aspects of salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughon, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of geological disposal of radioactive wastes in salt is presented from 1957 when a panel of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council recommended burial in bedded salt deposits. Early work began in the Kansas, portion of the Permian Basin where simulated wastes were placed in an abandoned salt mine at Lyons, Kansas, in the late 1960's. This project was terminated when the potential effect of nearby solution mining activities could not be resolved. Evaluation of bedded salts resumed a few years later in the Permian Basin in southeastern New Mexico, and search for suitable sites in the 1970's resulted in the formation of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program in 1976. Evaluation of salt deposits in many regions of the United States has been virtually completed and has shown that deposits having the greatest potential for radioactive waste disposal are those of the largest depositional basins and salt domes of the Gulf Coast region

  4. Processing of effluent salt from the direct oxide reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The production of reactive metals by Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) process using calcium in a molten calcium salt system generates significant amount of contaminated waste as calcium oxide saturated calcium chloride salt mix with calcium oxide content of up to 15 wt. pct. Fused salt electrolysis of a simulated salt mix has been carried out to electrowin calcium, which can be recycled to the DOR reactor along with the calcium chloride salt or may be used in-situ in a combined DOR and electrowinning process. Many reactive metal oxides could thus be reduced in a one-step process without generating a significant amount of waste. The process has been optimized in terms of the calcium solubility, cell temperature, current density and the cell design to maximize the current efficiency. Based on the information available regarding the solubility of calcium in calcium chloride salt in the presence of calcium oxide, and the back reactions occurring in-situ between the electrowon calcium and other components present in the cell, e.g. carbon, oxygen, carbon dioxide and calcium oxide, it is difficult to recover elemental calcium within the system. However, a liquid cathode or a rising cathode has been used in the past to recover calcium. The solubility has also been found to depend on the use of graphite as the anode material as evidenced by the presence of calcium carbonate in the final salt. The rate of recovery for metallic calcium has to be enhanced to levels that overcome the back reactions in a system where quick removal of anodic gases is achieved. Calcium has been detected by the hydrogen evolution technique and the amount of calcia has been determined by titration. A porous ceramic sheath has been used in the cell to prevent the chemical reaction of electrowon calcium to produce oxide or carbonate and to prevent the contamination of salt by the anodic carbon

  5. Experimental studies on natural circulation in molten salt loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Borgohain, A.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Molten salts are increasingly getting attention as a coolant and storage medium in solar thermal power plants and as a liquid fuel, blanket and coolant in Molten Salt Reactors (MSR’s). Two different test facilities named Molten Salt Natural Circulation Loop (MSNCL) and Molten Active Fluoride salt Loop (MAFL) have been setup for thermal hydraulics, instrument development and material related studies relevant to MSR and solar power plants. The working medium for MSNCL is a molten nitrate salt which is a mixture of NaNO 3 and KNO 3 in 60:40 ratio and proposed as one of the coolant option for molten salt based reactor and coolant as well as storage medium for solar thermal power application. On the other hand, the working medium for MAFL is a eutectic mixture of LiF and ThF 4 and proposed as a blanket salt for Indian Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR). Steady state natural circulation experiments at different power level have been performed in the MSNCL. Transient studies for startup of natural circulation, loss of heat sink, heater trip and step change in heater power have also been carried out in the same. A 1D code LeBENC, developed in-house to simulate the natural circulation characteristics in closed loops, has been validated with the experimental data obtained from MSNCL. Further, LeBENC has been used for Pretest analysis of MAFL. This paper deals with the description of both the loops and experimental studies carried out in MSNCL. Validation of LeBENC along with the pretest analysis of MAFL using the same are also reported in this paper. (author)

  6. Demand driven salt clean-up in a molten salt fast reactor - Defining a priority list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, B; Litskevich, D; Gregg, R; Mount, A R

    2018-01-01

    The PUREX technology based on aqueous processes is currently the leading reprocessing technology in nuclear energy systems. It seems to be the most developed and established process for light water reactor fuel and the use of solid fuel. However, demand driven development of the nuclear system opens the way to liquid fuelled reactors, and disruptive technology development through the application of an integrated fuel cycle with a direct link to reactor operation. The possibilities of this new concept for innovative reprocessing technology development are analysed, the boundary conditions are discussed, and the economic as well as the neutron physical optimization parameters of the process are elucidated. Reactor physical knowledge of the influence of different elements on the neutron economy of the reactor is required. Using an innovative study approach, an element priority list for the salt clean-up is developed, which indicates that separation of Neodymium and Caesium is desirable, as they contribute almost 50% to the loss of criticality. Separating Zirconium and Samarium in addition from the fuel salt would remove nearly 80% of the loss of criticality due to fission products. The theoretical study is followed by a qualitative discussion of the different, demand driven optimization strategies which could satisfy the conflicting interests of sustainable reactor operation, efficient chemical processing for the salt clean-up, and the related economic as well as chemical engineering consequences. A new, innovative approach of balancing the throughput through salt processing based on a low number of separation process steps is developed. Next steps for the development of an economically viable salt clean-up process are identified.

  7. Molten salt oxidation as a technique for decommissioning: selection of low melting point salt mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainetti, Paulo E.O.; Garcia, Vitor F.; Benvegnu, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    During the 70 and 80 years, IPEN built several facilities in pilot scale, destined to the technological domain of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. In the nineties, radical changes in the Brazilian nuclear policy determined the interruption of the activities and the shut-down of pilot plants. Nowadays, IPEN has been facing the problem of the dismantling and decommissioning of its Nuclear Fuel Cycle old facilities. The facility CELESTE-I of the IPEN is a laboratory where reprocessing studies were accomplished during the decade of 80 and in the beginning of the 90s. The last operations occurred in 92-93. The research activities generated radioactive wastes in the form of organic and aqueous solutions of different compositions and concentrations. For the treatment of these liquid wastes it was proposed a study of waste thermal decomposition based on the molten salt oxidation process.Decomposition tests of different organic wastes have been performed in laboratory equipment developed at IPEN, in the range of temperatures of 900 to 1020 deg C, demonstrating the complete oxidation of the compounds. The reduction of the process temperatures would be of crucial importance. Besides this, the selection of lower melting point salt mixtures would have an important impact in the reduction of equipment costs. Several experiments were performed to determine the most suitable salt mixtures, optimizing costs and melting temperatures as low as possible. This paper describes the main characteristics of the molten salt oxidation process, besides the selection of salt mixtures of binary and ternary compositions, respectively Na 2 CO 3 - NaOH and Na 2 CO 3 - K 2 CO 3 -Li 2 CO 3 . (author)

  8. Salt effects on isotope partitioning and their geochemical implications: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, J.; Cole, D.R.; Fortier, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Essential to the use of stable isotopes as natural tracers and geothermometers is the knowledge of equilibrium isotope partitioning between different phases and species, which is usually a function of temperature only. The one exception known to date is oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation between liquid water and other phases (steam, gases, minerals), which changes upon the addition of salts to water, i.e., the isotope salt salt effect. Our knowledge of this effect, the difference between activity and composition (a-X) of isotopic water molecules in salt solutions, is very limited and controversial, especially at elevated temperatures. For the last several years, we have been conducting a detailed, systematic experimental study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the isotope salt effects from room temperature to elevated temperatures (currently to 500 degree C). From this effort, a simple, coherent picture of the isotope salt effect is emerging, that differs markedly from the complex results reported in the literature. In this communication, we present an overview on the isotope salt effect, obtained chiefly from our study. Observed isotope salt effects in salt solutions are significant even at elevated temperatures. The importance and implications of the isotope salt effect for isotopic studies of brine-dominated systems are also discussed in general terms

  9. 2D and 3D surface photopatterning via laser-promoted homopolymerization of a perfluorophenyl azide-substituted BODIPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffy, Guillaume; Bofinger, Robin; Tron, Arnaud; Guerzo, André Del; McClenaghan, Nathan D; Vincent, Jean-Marc

    2017-11-09

    An innovative photopatterning process is described that allows, in a single laser-promoted operation, the covalent attachment of a molecule on a surface (2D patterning - xy dimensions) and its photopolymerization to grow micro-/nanostructures with spatial control in a third z-dimension. The surface patterning process, based on nitrene reactivity, was harnessed using the highly fluorescent azide-substituted boron difluoride dipyrromethene (BODIPY) 1 that was prepared in a single synthetic step from the parent pentafluorophenyl BODIPY on reacting with NaN 3 . Using the laser of a fluorescence microscope (375 nm or 532 nm) 1 could be grafted on adapted surfaces and then homopolymerised. In this study we show that using glass coverslips coated with PEG/high density alkyne groups (density of ∼1 × 10 14 per cm 2 ), the patterning process was much more spatially confined than when using PEG only coating. Varying the irradiation time (1 to 15 s) or laser power (0.14-3.53 μW) allowed variation of the amount of deposited BODIPY to afford, in the extreme case, pillars of a height up to 800 nm. AFM and MS studies revealed that the nano/microstructures were formed of particles of photopolymerized 1 having a mean diameter of ca. 30 nm. The emission spectra and fluorescence lifetimes for the patterned structures were measured, revealing a red-shift (from ∼560 nm up to 620 nm) of the maximum emission and a shortening (from ∼6 ns to 0.8 ns) of the fluorescence lifetimes in areas where the density of BODIPY is high. As an application of the patterning process, a figure formed of 136 dots/pillars was prepared. The confocal hyperspectral fluorescence image revealed that the figure is clearly resolved and constituted by highly photoluminescent red dots whose fluorescence intensities and emission color proved to be highly reproducible. SEM and AFM studies showed that the luminescent dots were pillars with a conical shape, an average height of 710 ± 28 nm and a FWHM of 400 ± 20

  10. Zechstein salt Denmark. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngsie Jacobsen, F.; Soenderholm, M.; Springer, N.; Gutzon Larsen, J.; Lagoni, P.; Fabricius, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Salt Research Project EFP-81 has mainly been aiming upon an elucidation of the stratigraphy of the Danish Zechstein evaporites. Also an attempt to clarify the connection between the fabric and the strength of the strongly deformed domal rock salt is performed. The unravelling of the stratigraphy is carried out by means of renewed interpretations of new and old data from all the wells drilling in the Danish Permian basin in connection with a revaluation of the core descriptions. By means of trace elements analysis it is possible to some extent to distinguish between Zestein 1 and 2 ''grey salt''. A description of the transition zone between Zechstein 1 and 2 is carried out. New methods of fabric analyses are introduced and the strength measurements of the rock salt are treated statistically in connection with new defined rock salt parameters. An investigation of fluid inclusions in halite and quartz crystals from dome salt has resulted in the determination of salinity and chemical composition of the brines present in the salt. Temperatures and corresponding pressures during the evolution of the salt pillow and salt dome have been established. The dehydration conditions of natural carnallite in situ are clarified. (author)

  11. Salt formations offer disposal alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funderburk, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston

  12. Fused salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm 2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  13. Performance Test of the Salt transfer and Pellet fabrication of UCl{sub 3} Making Equipment for Electrorefining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, M. S.; Jin, H. J.; Park, G. I.; Park, S. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The process to produce a uranium chloride salt includes two steps: a reaction process of gaseous chlorine with liquid cadmium to form the CdCl{sub 2} occurring in a Cd layer, followed by a process to produce UCl{sub 3} by the reaction of U in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and CdCl{sub 2}. Chemical reaction is next chlorination reaction; - Cd chlorination : Cd + Cl2 → CdCl{sub 2} - U chlorination : 3CdCl2 + 2U → 3Cd + 2UCl{sub 3} The apparatus for producing UCl{sub 3} consists of a chlorine gas generator, a uranium chlorinator, a Cd distiller, the pelletizer, a off-gas wet scrubber and a dry scrubber. Salt transfer system set among reactors to transfer salt at 500 .deg. C. The temperature of the reactants is maintained at about 600 .deg. C. After the reaction is completed in the uranium chlorinator, The Salt product is transferred to the Cd distiller to decrease residual Cd concentration in the salts, and then salt is transferred to the mould of pelletizer by a transfer system to fabricate pellet type salt. Performance test of the salt transfer and pellet fabrication of its equipment was tested in this work. Performance test of the salt transfer and pellet fabrication of UCl3 making equipment for Electrorefining carried out in this work. The result of equipment test is that melted salt at 600 .deg. C was easy transferred by salt transfer equipment heated at 500 .deg. C. In this time, salt transfer was carried out by argon gas pressurization at 3bar. When velocity of salt transfer was controlled under reduce pressure, velocity of salt transfer was difficult to control. And when salt pellet was fabricated by the mold of pelletizer heated at 90 .deg. C better than mold of pelletizer heated at 200 .deg. C because salt melted prevent leakage from mold of pelletizer.

  14. Solidification of salt solutions on a horizontal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, S.L.; Viskanta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The freezing of water-salt solutions on a horizontal wall is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The growth of the solid-liquid region is observed for NaCl - H sub(2)O and N H sub(4)Cl - H sub(2)O systems under different temperature and concentration conditions. A unidirectional mathematical model is used to predict the solidification process. The transport of heat is by diffusion, and convection is absent. The mass diffusion is neglected and the growth of crystal is governed by the transport of heat. In all experiments, the solution salt concentration is smaller than the eutectic composition, and the wall temperature is higher than the eutectic temperature. The predicted temperature and salt concentration profiles, as well as the interface position, are compared with experimental data. (author)

  15. Molten salt fueled reactors with a fast salt draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventre, Edmond; Blum, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a molten salt nuclear reactor which comprises a new arrangement for shutting it down in complete safety. This nuclear reactor has a molten salt primary circuit comprising, in particular, the core of this reactor. It includes a leak tight vessel the capacity of which is appreciably greater than that of the molten salt volume of the circuit and placed so that the level of the molten salt, when all the molten salt of the circuit is contained in this vessel, is less than that of the base of the core. There are facilities for establishing and maintaining an inert gas pressure in the vessel above the molten salt, for releasing the compressed gas and for connecting the vessel to the primary circuit entering this vessel at a lower level than that of the molten salt and enabling molten salt to enter or leave the vessel according to the pressure of the inert gas. The particular advantage of this reactor is that it can be shut down safely since the draining of the primary circuit no longer results from a 'positive action' but from the suppression of an arrangement essential for the operation of the reactor consisting of the build-up of the said inert gas pressure in the said vessel [fr

  16. Savannah River Site - Salt-stone Disposal Facility Performance Assessment Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Salt-stone Facility is currently in the midst of a Performance Assessment revision to estimate the effect on human health and the environment of adding new disposal units to the current Salt-stone Disposal Facility (SDF). These disposal units continue the ability to safely process the salt component of the radioactive liquid waste stored in the underground storage tanks at SRS, and is a crucial prerequisite for completion of the overall SRS waste disposition plan. Removal and disposal of low activity salt waste from the SRS liquid waste system is required in order to empty tanks for future tank waste processing and closure operations. The Salt-stone Production Facility (SPF) solidifies a low-activity salt stream into a grout matrix, known as salt-stone, suitable for disposal at the SDF. The ability to dispose of the low-activity salt stream in the SDF required a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of 2005 and was approved in January 2006. One of the requirements of Section 3116 of the NDAA is to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives set out in Subpart C of Part 61 of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations. The PA is the document that is used to ensure ongoing compliance. (authors)

  17. Laboratory Investigations on the Survival of Bacillus subtilis Spores in Deliquescent Salt Mars Analog Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuding, Danielle L; Gough, Raina V; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J; Spry, James A; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2017-10-01

    Observed features such as recurring slope lineae suggest that liquid water may exist on the surface and near-subsurface of Mars today. The presence of this liquid water, likely in the form of a brine, has important implications for the present-day water cycle, habitability, and planetary protection policies. It is possible that this water is formed, at least partially, by deliquescence of salts, a process during which hygroscopic salts absorb water vapor from the atmosphere and form a saturated liquid brine. We performed laboratory experiments to examine the ability of Bacillus subtilis (B-168) spores, alone or mixed with calcium perchlorate salt (Ca(ClO 4 ) 2 ), to form liquid water via deliquescence under Mars-relevant conditions. Spore survival after exposure to these conditions was examined. An environmental chamber was used to expose the samples to temperature and relative humidity (RH) values similar to those found on Mars, and Raman microscopy was used to identify the phases of water and salt that were present and to confirm the presence of spores. We found that B-168 spores did not condense any detectable water vapor on their own during the diurnal cycle, even at 100% RH. However, when spores were mixed with perchlorate salt, the entire sample deliquesced at low RH values, immersing the spores in a brine solution during the majority of the simulated martian temperature and humidity cycle. After exposure to the simulated diurnal cycles and, in some cases, perchlorate brine, the impact of each environmental scenario on spore survival was estimated by standard plate assay. We found that, if there are deliquescent salts in contact with spores, there is a mechanism for the spores to acquire liquid water starting with only atmospheric water vapor as the H 2 O source. Also, neither crystalline nor liquid Ca(ClO 4 ) 2 is sporicidal despite the low water activity. Key Words: Raman microscopy-Mars-Planetary protection-Salts-Water activity. Astrobiology 17, 997-1008.

  18. Functional ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baecker, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    In the thesis at hand, new functional ionic liquids were investigated. Main focus was attended to their structure property relations and the structural features leading to a decrease of the melting point. New compounds of the type 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(N,Ndialkyldithiocarbamato) uranylate with variously substituated dithiocarbamato ligands were synthesized and characterized. Ligands with asymmetrical substitution pattern proved to be most suitable for ionic liquid formation. The single-crystal X-ray structures revealed the interactions in the solid state. Here, the first spectroscopic investigation of the U-S bond in sulfur donated uranyl complexes, up to now only observed in single-crystal X-ray structures, is presented, and the participation of the uranium f-orbitals is shown by theoretical calculations. Electrochemical investigations showed the accessibility of the respective U V O 2 + compounds. As well, ionic liquids with [FeCl 4 ] - and [Cl 3 FeOFeCl 3 ] 2- as anion were synthesized. Both of these anions contain high-spin Fe(III) centres in distorted tetrahedral environment, but exhibit different magnetic behaviour. The tetrachloroferrates show the usual paramagnetism, the m-oxobis(trichloroferrate) exhibits unexpectedly strong antiferromagnetic coupling, as was observed by NMR experiments and susceptibility measurements. To investigate structure-property relations in functionalized ionic liquids, a set of protic, primary alkylammonium and aprotic, quarternary trimethylalkylammonium based ionic liquids was synthesized, and characterized. The length of the alkyl chain was systematically varied, and all compounds were synthesized with and without hydroxyl group, as well as formate and bis(triflyl)amide salts, aiming at getting insight into the influence of the different structure parts on the respective ionic liquid's properties.

  19. A Theoretical Study of the Relationship between the Electrophilicity ω Index and Hammett Constant σp in [3+2] Cycloaddition Reactions of Aryl Azide/Alkyne Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Ben El Ayouchia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the electrophilicity ω index and the Hammett constant σp has been studied for the [2+3] cycloaddition reactions of a series of para-substituted phenyl azides towards para-substituted phenyl alkynes. The electrophilicity ω index—a reactivity density functional theory (DFT descriptor evaluated at the ground state of the molecules—shows a good linear relationship with the Hammett substituent constants σp. The theoretical scale of reactivity correctly explains the electrophilic activation/deactivation effects promoted by electron-withdrawing and electron-releasing substituents in both azide and alkyne components.

  20. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1928-01-01

    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt