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Sample records for lipoprotein lipase s447x

  1. Hindiii and S447x polymorphisms of lipoprotein lipase gene and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hindiii and S447x polymorphisms of lipoprotein lipase gene and their relationship to coronary artery disease. ... Lipoprotein lipase is a key enzyme in lipoprotein metabolism and its gene is a major candidate gene for coronary ... Article Metrics.

  2. Polimorfismo S447X da lipase lipoprotéica: influência sobre a incidência de doença arterial coronariana prematura e sobre os lípides plasmáticos The S447X polymorphism of lipoprotein lipase: effect on the incidence of premature coronary disease and on plasma lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia A. Almeida

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do polimorfismo S447X sobre os lípides plasmáticos em pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC prematura. MÉTODOS: Os lípides plasmáticos e a genotipagem foram determinados em 2 grupos: 313 pacientes com DAC prematura (OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymorphism S447X on plasma lipids of patients with premature coronary artery disease (CAD. METHODS: Plasma lipids and genotypes were determined in 2 groups: 313 patients with premature CAD (<55 years of age and 150 controls without CAD. RESULTS: Frequency of the S447X polymorphism was 18% in patients with CAD and 23% in the control group. The S447X polymorphism of lipoprotein lipase is related to a decrease in plasma triglyceride concentrations in male patients with CAD, but this correlation is not observed in female patients. CONCLUSION: The presence of the S447X lipoprotein lipase polymorphism was not associated with the incidence of CAD.

  3. Lipoprotein lipase S447X variant associated with VLDL, LDL and HDL diameter clustering in the MetS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous analysis clustered 1,238 individuals from the general population Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs Network (GOLDN) study by the size of their fasting very low-density, low-density and high-density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL, HDL) using latent class analysis. From two of the eight identified gro...

  4. S447X variant of the lipoprotein lipase gene, lipids, and risk of coronary heart disease in 3 prospective cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M.K.; Rimm, E.B.; Rader, D.

    2009-01-01

    in this gene, we investigated the association between the LPL S447X variant with lipids and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in 3 independent, prospective studies. Methods The S447X variant was genotyped in case-control studies of incident CHD nested within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), the Health......; the association was weaker in the HPFS and not statistically significant in the DCH women and men. The pooled relative risk per minor allele was 0.74 (0.56-1.00). There was a suggestion that the associations of the S447X variant with plasma lipids and CHD risk were more pronounced in obese individuals in the NHS...... whether greater benefit from this variant may be conferred in some subgroups. (Am Heart J 2009;157:384-90.)...

  5. Association of lipase lipoprotein polymorphisms with high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides in elderly men

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo,Lara Miguel Quirino; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra [UNIFESP; Gigek, Carolina de Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Smith, Maria de Arruda Cardoso [UNIFESP

    2010-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase is essential for triglyceride hydrolysis. the polymorphisms S447X in exon 9 and HindIII in intron 8 have been associated with lower triglyceride levels and lower cardiovascular risk in adult men. We examined the association of these lipoprotein lipase polymorphisms with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride levels in elderly men. Blood samples were obtained from 87 elderly men, 48 of whom had cardiovascular disease and 39 (controls) had no history of cardiovascula...

  6. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000408.htm Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a group of rare genetic ...

  7. Physiological regulation of lipoprotein lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL), originally identified as the clearing factor lipase, hydrolyzes triglycerides present in the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins VLDL and chylomicrons. LPL is primarily expressed in tissues that oxidize or store fatty acids in large quantities such as the heart, skele

  8. Association of the HindIII and S447X Polymorphisms in LPL Gene with Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Muñoz-Barrios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (LPL is a key enzyme in lipid metabolismand is associatedwith obesity, dyslipidemias, hypertension (HTN and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. LPL gene polymorphisms can be related with the development of cardiovascular risk factors. The present study was conducted to analyze the relationship of the HindIII and S447X polymorphisms in LPL gene with cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican families. The study population comprised ninety members of 30 Mexican families, in which an index case had obesity, were included in the study. We evaluated the body composition by bioelectrical impedance. Peripheral blood samples were collected to determine biochemical parameters. Screening for both polymorphisms was made by PCR-RFLPs. In the parents, both polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg’s equilibrium. We found that the genotype T/T of HindIII was associated with diastolic blood pressure ≧ 85 mmHg (OR = 1.1; p = 0.011, whereas the genotype C/C of S447X was associated with systolic blood pressure ≧ 130 mmHg (OR = 1.2; p < 0.001, diastolic blood pressure ≧ 85 mmHg (OR = 1.3; p < 0.001, T2DM (OR = 1.3; p < 0.001 and with increase of total cholesterol (β = 23.6 mg/mL; p = 0.03. These data suggest that the HindIII and S447X LPL gene polymorphisms can confer susceptibility for the development of hypertension and T2DM in Mexican families.

  9. The lipoprotein lipase gene in combined hyperlipidemia: evidence of a protective allele depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malloy Mary J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL, a key enzyme in lipid metabolism, catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides (TG from TG-rich lipoproteins, and serves a bridging function that enhances the cellular uptake of lipoproteins. Abnormalities in LPL function are associated with pathophysiological conditions, including familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH. Whereas two LPL susceptibility alleles were found to co-segregate in a few FCH kindred, a role for common, protective alleles remains unexplored. The LPL Ser447Stop (S447X allele is associated with anti-atherogenic lipid profiles and a modest reduction in risk for coronary disease. We hypothesize that significant depletion of the 447X allele exists in combined hyperlipidemia cases versus controls. A case-control design was employed. The polymorphism was assessed by restriction assay in 212 cases and 161 controls. Genotypic, allelic, and phenotypic associations were examined. Results We found evidence of significant allelic (447Xcontrol: 0.130 vs. 447Xcase: 0.031, χ2 = 29.085; 1df; p 2 = 26.09; 1df; p Conclusion These findings suggest a role for the S447X polymorphism in combined hyperlipidemia and demonstrate the importance of evaluating both susceptibility and protective genetic risk factors.

  10. Lipoprotein lipase gene variants: Association with acute myocardial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipoprotein lipase gene variants: Association with acute myocardial infarction and lipid profiles. ... Therefore, genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism pathways such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL), are proper candidates ... Article Metrics.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rare Disorders (NORD) RareConnect GeneReviews (1 link) Familial Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific Articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) ...

  12. Lipoprotein lipase isoelectric point isoforms in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badia-Villanueva, M.; Carulla, P.; Carrascal, M.

    2014-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes circulating triacylglycerols (TAG) into free fatty acids and glycerol. It is present in almost all tissues and its tissue-specific regulation directs the flow of circulating TAG in the body. We demonstrated in a previous study that, in rat heart and post-hepari...

  13. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency with visceral xanthomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servaes, Sabah; Bellah, Richard [Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Verma, Ritu [Department of Gastroenterology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pawel, Bruce [Department of Pathology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Lipoprotein lipase deficiency (LLD) is a rare metabolic disorder that typically presents with skin xanthomas and pancreatitis in childhood. We report a case of LLD in an infant who presented with jaundice caused by a pancreatic head mass. Abdominal imaging also incidentally revealed hyperechoic renal masses caused by renal xanthomas. This appearance of the multiple abdominal masses makes this a unique infantile presentation of LLD. (orig.)

  14. Comparative analyses of lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and endothelial lipase, and their binding properties with known inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyun Wang

    Full Text Available The triglyceride lipase gene subfamily plays a central role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. There are three members of this subfamily: lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and endothelial lipase. Although these lipases are implicated in the pathophysiology of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, their structures have not been fully solved. In the current study, we established homology models of these three lipases, and carried out analysis of their activity sites. In addition, we investigated the kinetic characteristics for the catalytic residues using a molecular dynamics simulation strategy. To elucidate the molecular interactions and determine potential key residues involved in the binding to lipase inhibitors, we analyzed the binding pockets and binding poses of known inhibitors of the three lipases. We identified the spatial consensus catalytic triad "Ser-Asp-His", a characteristic motif in all three lipases. Furthermore, we found that the spatial characteristics of the binding pockets of the lipase molecules play a key role in ligand recognition, binding poses, and affinities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that systematically builds homology models of all the triglyceride lipase gene subfamily members. Our data provide novel insights into the molecular structures of lipases and their structure-function relationship, and thus provides groundwork for functional probe design towards lipase-based therapeutic inhibitors for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  15. Combined analysis of six lipoprotein lipase genetic variants on triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrup, Hans H; Andersen, Rolf V; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne;

    2006-01-01

    Genetic variants in lipoprotein lipase may affect triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Genetic variants in lipoprotein lipase may affect triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  16. Combined analysis of six lipoprotein lipase genetic variants on triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrup, Hans H; Andersen, Rolf V; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Genetic variants in lipoprotein lipase may affect triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Genetic variants in lipoprotein lipase may affect triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  17. Lipoprotein Lipase mRNA expression in different tissues of farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipoprotein Lipase mRNA expression in different tissues of farm animals. ... Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) controls triacylglycerol partitioning between adipose tissues and muscles, so it is important enzyme for ... Article Metrics. Metrics Loading .

  18. The effect of interaction between Lipoprotein Lipase and ApoVLDL-II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of interaction between Lipoprotein Lipase and ApoVLDL-II genes on fat and serum biochemical levels. ... Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in apoVLDL-II and lipoprotein lipase genes was screened by ... Article Metrics.

  19. Lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase in human testis and in germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J E; Lindegaard, M L; Friis-Hansen, L;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate endothelial lipase (EL, LIPG) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA and protein expression in normal human testis and testicular germ cell tumours (GCT). Both EL and LPL were expressed in normal seminiferous tubules and in the interstitial compartment. EL m....... The results suggest that both EL and LPL participate in the supply of nutrients and steroidogenesis in the testes, and that especially EL may be important for the supply of cholesterol for testosterone production in the Leydig cells. The partial cellular separation of the expression of the two lipases...

  20. 代谢综合征与脂蛋白脂酶的关系研究进展%Research on Relationship between Lipoprotein Lipase and Metabolic Syndrone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婧

    2011-01-01

    Metaholic syndrome is a complex metabolic disorder syndrome , including obesity, high blood sugar , blood pressure , blood lipid disorders. Lipoprotein lipase ( LPL ) is one of the key enzymes in lipid metabolism,the main catalyze of chylomicrons and verv low-density lipoprotein hydrolysis into triglycerides. Research showed that LPL deficiency and gene mutations cause lipodystrophy. Dfferent gene polymorphisms have a different impact on lipid metabolism.Hind Ⅲ and Pvu Ⅱ mutations cause lipid metabolism,and the S447X polymorphism may have a beneficial lipid changes. LPL is associated with the incidence of metabolic syndrome including obesity , insulin resistance , type 2 diabetes etc.%代谢综合征是一组复杂的代谢紊乱症候群,包括肥胖、高血糖、高血压、血脂紊乱等.脂蛋白脂酶(LPL)是脂代谢关键酶之一,主要催化乳糜微粒和极低密度脂蛋白中的三酰甘油水解.研究显示LPL缺乏和基因突变会导致脂肪代谢障碍,不同的基因多态性对脂代谢有着不同的影响,HindⅢ和PvuⅡ突变会导致脂代谢紊乱,而S447X多态性可能产生有益的血脂改变.LPL与肥胖、胰岛素抵抗和2型糖尿病等代谢综合征的发病有着密切的关系.

  1. Characterization of Lipoprotein Lipases interactions with Sortilin and SorLA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinger, Stine Christensen

    . The present study describes their trafficking of two ligands, lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein A-V, which are integral parts of the lipid metabolism. Lipoprotein lipase is found at the luminal side of capillary endothelial cells, where it is involved in the conversion of circulating triglycerides to free...... fatty acids, which in turn are used as an energy source in muscle cells or as an energy reserve in adipose tissue. Lack of lipoprotein lipase leads to an elevated level of plasma lipids and results in increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The regulation of lipoprotein lipase expression takes place...... at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels. While the transcriptional regulation of the lipase is well described, the posttranslational mechanisms affecting lipoprotein lipase expression are far from understood. The functions of the recently discovered apolipoprotein A-V are still a subject...

  2. Effect of apolipoprotein E variants on lipolysis of very low density lipoproteins by heparan sulphate proteoglycan-bound lipoprotein lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, F.H.A.F. de; Beer, F. de; Laarse, A. van der; Smelt, A.H.M.; Leuven, J.A.G.; Havekes, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is bound to heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPG) at the luminal surface of endothelium. It is the key enzyme involved in the hydrolysis of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Prior to lipolysis by LPL, the lipoproteins are considered to interact with vessel wall HSPG. Apo

  3. Regulation of hepatic lipase activity by sphingomyelin in plasma lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Subbaiah, Papasani V.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic lipase (HL) is an important enzyme in the clearance of triacylglycerol (TAG) from the circulation, and has been proposed to have pro-atherogenic as well as anti-atherogenic properties. It hydrolyzes both phospholipids and TAG of lipoproteins, and its activity is negatively correlated with HDL levels. Although it is known that HL acts preferentially on HDL lipids, the basis for this specificity is not known, since it does not require any specific apoprotein for activity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sphingomyelin (SM), whose concentration is much higher in VLDL and LDL compared to HDL, is an inhibitor of HL, and that this could explain the lipoprotein specificity of the enzyme. The results presented show that the depletion of SM from normal lipoproteins activated the HL roughly in proportion to their SM content. SM depletion stimulated the hydrolysis of both phosphatidylcholine (PC) and TAG, although the PC hydrolysis was stimulated more. In the native lipoproteins, HL showed specificity for PC species containing polyunsaturated fatty acids at sn-2 position, and produced more unsaturated lyso PC species. The enzyme also showed preferential hydrolysis of certain TAG species over others. SM depletion affected the specificity of the enzyme towards PC and TAG species modestly. These results show that SM is a physiological inhibitor of HL activity in lipoproteins and that the specificity of the enzyme towards HDL is at least partly due to its low SM content. PMID:26193433

  4. The majority of lipoprotein lipase in plasma is bound to remnant lipoproteins: A new definition of remnant lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koichi; Okajima, Fumikazu; Miyashita, Kazuya; Imamura, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Junji; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J; Machida, Tetsuo; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Masami; Schaefer, Ernst; Nakajima, Katsuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a multifunctional protein and a key enzyme involved in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism. We determined the lipoproteins to which LPL is bound in the pre-heparin and post-heparin plasma. Tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), a potent inhibitor of serine lipases, was used to block the lipolytic activity of LPL, thereby preventing changes in the plasma lipoproteins due to ex vivo lipolysis. Gel filtration was performed to obtain the LPL elution profiles in plasma and the isolated remnant lipoproteins (RLP). When ex vivo lipolytic activity was inhibited by THL in the post-heparin plasma, majority of the LPL was found in the VLDL elution range, specifically in the RLP as inactive dimers. However, in the absence of THL, most of the LPL was found in the HDL elution range as active dimers. Furthermore, majority of the LPL in the pre-heparin plasma was found in the RLP as inactive form, with broadly diffused lipoprotein profiles in the presence and absence of THL. It is suggested that during lipolysis in vivo, the endothelial bound LPL dimers generates RLP, forming circulating RLP-LPL complexes in an inactive form that subsequently binds and initiates receptor-mediated catabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of Hepatic Lipase and Endothelial Lipase in High-Density Lipoprotein-Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Wijtske; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2011-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) constitutes a key part of the atheroprotective properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Hepatic lipase (HL) and endothelial lipase (EL) are negative regulators of plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Although overexpression of EL decreases overall macrophage-to-fe

  6. Brain lipoprotein lipase as a regulator of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe

    2017-07-24

    The central nervous system is an essential actor in the control of the energy balance. Indeed, many signals of nervous (vagal afferent for example) or circulating (hormone, nutrients) origin converge towards the brain to inform it permanently of the energetic status of the organism. In turn, the brain sends information to the periphery (sympathetic vagal balance, thyroid or corticotropic axis) which allows a fine regulation of the energy fluxes by acting on the hepatic glucose production, the secretion of the pancreatic hormones (glucagon, insulin) or food behavior. Among the nutrients, increasing amount of data assigns a signal molecule role to lipids such as fatty acids. These fatty acids may originate from the bloodstream but may also be the product of the hydrolysis of lipoproteins such as chylomicrons or VLDLs. Indeed, the identification of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the brain has led to the hypothesis that the LPL-dependent degradation of TG-enriched particles, and the addition of fatty acids, as informative molecules, to sensitive cells (neurons and/or astrocytes), plays a key role in maintaining the energy balance at equilibrium. Other lipases could also participate in these regulatory mechanisms. This review will summarize the state of the art and open up perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  7. Triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins protect lipoprotein lipase from inactivation by ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Stefan K; Anderson, Fredrick; Ericsson, Madelene; Larsson, Mikael; Makoveichuk, Elena; Lookene, Aivar; Heeren, Joerg; Olivecrona, Gunilla

    2012-10-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is important for clearance of triacylglycerols (TG) from plasma both as an enzyme and as a bridging factor between lipoproteins and receptors for endocytosis. The amount of LPL at the luminal side of the capillary endothelium determines to what extent lipids are taken up. Mechanisms to control both the activity of LPL and its transport to the endothelial sites are regulated, but poorly understood. Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs) 3 and 4 are potential control proteins for LPL, but plasma concentrations of ANGPTLs do not correlate with plasma TG levels. We investigated the effects of recombinant human N-terminal (NT) ANGPTLs3 and 4 on LPL-mediated bridging of TG-rich lipoproteins to primary mouse hepatocytes and found that the NT-ANGPTLs, in concentrations sufficient to cause inactivation of LPL in vitro, were unable to prevent LPL-mediated lipoprotein uptake. We therefore investigated the effects of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL and LDL) on the inactivation of LPL in vitro by NT-ANGPTLs3 and 4 and found that LPL activity was protected by TG-rich lipoproteins. In vivo, postprandial TG protected LPL from inactivation by recombinant NT-ANGPTL4 injected to mice. We conclude that lipoprotein-bound LPL is stabilized against inactivation by ANGPTLs. The levels of ANGPTLs found in blood may not be sufficient to overcome this stabilization. Therefore it is likely that the prime site of action of ANGPTLs on LPL is in subendothelial compartments where TG-rich lipoprotein concentration is lower than in blood. This could explain why the plasma levels of TG and ANGPTLs do not correlate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 中国人群脂蛋白脂肪酶基因突变与高脂血症的相关性研究%Genetic Screening of the Lipoprotein Lipase Gene for Mutations in Chinese Subjects with or without Hypertriglyceridemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇虹; 穆云祥; 赵郁; 刘新宇; 赵莉莉; 汪军梅; 解用虹

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between the mutations in lipoprotein lipase gene and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). Methods: The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene was screened for mutations in 386 Chinese subjects with (108 cases in the HTG group) or without HTG (278 cases in the control group), by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing. Results: One novel silent mutation L103L, one missense mutation P207L, three splicing mutations Int3/3' -ass/C(-6)→T, and the common S447X polymorphism has been identified in the whole coding region and exon-intron junctions of the LPL gene were examined. Heterozygous P207L found in the HTG group was the first case reported in Asia and subsequently another P207L heterozygote was found in the proband's family, all of which suggested that P207L was one of the causes of familial combined hyperlipidemia, but was not so prevalent as that in French Canadian. Int3/3'-ass/C(-6)→T was found in both groups in the present study although it was regarded as a pathogenic variant to HTG earlier on. Moreover about the beneficial polymorphism S447X,there was also some supportive evidence that the levels of triglycerides (TG) in S447X carriers were significantly lower than noncarriers in the subjects without HTG. Conclusions: The association between the LPL variants and HTG is quite complicated and versatile, genotyping of LPL in a larger-scale screening should be necessary and justifiable.%为进行脂蛋白脂肪酶基因突变与中国人群高脂血症的相关性研究,采用单链构象多态性分析结合DNA序列测定的方法,对386例(其中108例高脂血症患者,278例正常对照)中国人群进行突变筛查.结果发现1个新的沉默突变L103L,1个错义突变P207L,3个剪接突变Int3/3'-ass/C(-6)→T和普遍存在的S447X多态性,其中发生在高脂血症组的P207L杂合子为亚洲首报,并对先证者的家系进行了研究,认为P207L是家族性高脂血症的病因之

  9. Triacylglycerol kinetics in endotoxic rats with suppressed lipoprotein lipase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagby, G.J.; Corll, C.B.; Martinez, R.R.

    1987-07-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia observed in animals after bacterial endotoxin administration and some forms of sepsis can result from increased hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) output or decreased TG clearance by extrahepatic tissues. To differentiate between these two possibilities, TG and free fatty acid (FFA) kinetics were determined in control and endotoxin-injected rats 18 h after treatment. Plasma TG and FFA kinetics were assessed by a constant intravenous infusion with (9,10-/sup 3/H)palmitate-labeled very low-density lipoprotein and (1-/sup 14/C)palmitate bound to albumin, respectively. In addition, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was determined in heart, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue as well as in postheparin plasma of functionally hepatectomized, adrenalectomized, and gonadectomized rats. Plasma FFA acid concentrations were slightly increased in endotoxin-treated rats but their turnover did not differ from control. Endotoxin-treated rats had a threefold increase in plasma TG concentrations and decreased heart, skeletal muscle, and post-heparin plasma LPL activity. Plasma TG turnover was decreased, indicating that hypertriglyceridemia was not due to an increased TG output by the liver. Instead, the endotoxin-induced increase in plasma TG concentration was consequence of the 80% reduction in TG metabolic clearance rate. Thus, suppression of LPL activity in endotoxic animals impairs TG clearance resulting in hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, endotoxin administration reduced the delivery of TG-FFA to extrahepatic tissues because hepatic synthesis and secretion of TG from plasma FFA was decreased and LPL activity was suppressed.

  10. Apolipoprotein B-100 containing lipoprotein metabolism in subjects with lipoprotein lipase gene mutations (106/120)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Esther M M; Russell, Betsy S; Olson, Eric; Sun, Sam Z; Diffenderfer, Margaret R; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Keilson, Leonard; Barrett, P Hugh R; Schaefer, Ernst J; Sprecher, Dennis L

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigated the impact of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene mutations on apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 metabolism. Methods and Results We studied 3 subjects with familial LPL deficiency (FLD), 14 subjects heterozygous for the LPL gene mutations, Gly188Glu, Trp64Stop and Ile194Thr, and 10 control subjects. Very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apoB-100 kinetics were determined in the fed state using stable isotope methods and compartmental modeling. Compared with controls, FLD had markedly elevated plasma triglycerides and lower VLDL-apoB-100 fractional catabolic rate (FCR), IDL-apoB-100 FCR, VLDL-to-IDL conversion and VLDL-apoB-100 production rate (PR) (ptriglyceride, VLDL- and IDL-apoB-100 concentrations, and lower VLDL- and IDL-apoB-100 FCR (ptriglycerides were not different but IDL-apoB-100 concentration and PR, and VLDL-to-IDL conversion were lower in Trp64Stop compared with controls (ptriglycerides. The changes in plasma triglycerides and apoB-100 kinetics are attributable to the effects of the LPL genotype. PMID:22095987

  11. Severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis associated with lipoprotein lipase deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. van Walraven (L.); J.B.C. de Klerk (Johannes); R.R. Postema (Roelf)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAn 11-year-old girl with lipoprotein lipase deficiency experienced recurring episodes of abdominal pain. She initially underwent appendectomy for suspected appendicitis; however, the appendix was normal. Pancreatitis was subsequently identified as the cause of her pain.

  12. Tissue-specific overexpression of lipoprotein lipase causes tissue-specific insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jason K.; Fillmore, Jonathan J.; Chen, Yan; Yu, Chunli; Moore, Irene K.; Pypaert, Marc; Lutz, E. Peer; Kako, Yuko; Velez-Carrasco, Wanda; Goldberg, Ira J.; Breslow, Jan L.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2001-01-01

    Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and liver may play a primary role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the mechanism by which insulin resistance occurs may be related to alterations in fat metabolism. Transgenic mice with muscle- and liver-specific overexpression of lipoprotein lipase were studied during a 2-h hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp to determine the effect of tissue-specific increase in fat on insulin action and signaling. Muscle–lipoprotein lipase mice had a 3...

  13. Effects of acute hypoxia on human adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity and lipolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahat, Bimit; Chassé, Étienne; Mauger, Jean-François; Imbeault, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue regulates postprandial lipid metabolism by storing dietary fat through lipoprotein lipase-mediated hydrolysis of exogenous triglycerides, and by inhibiting delivery of endogenous non-esterified fatty acid to nonadipose tissues. Animal studies show that acute hypoxia, a model of obstructive sleep apnea, reduces adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity and increases non-esterified fatty acid release, adversely affecting postprandial lipemia. These observations remain...

  14. Inhibitory effect of morinda citrifolia L. On lipoprotein lipase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak-Dek, M S; Abdul-Hamid, A; Osman, A; Soh, C S

    2008-10-01

    Efficacy of Morinda citrifolia L. leaf (MLE) and fruit extracts (MFE) in inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was determined in vitro. The result of the study showed that the highest inhibition on the LPL activity was exhibited by MLE (66%+/- 2.1%), which is significantly higher than that demonstrated by MFE (54.5%+/- 2.5%), green tea extract (GTE) (54.5%+/- 2.6%), and catechin (43.6%+/- 6.1%). Percent of LPL inhibition increase with concentration of the extracts. Quantitative analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of high levels of (+)-catechin at 63.5 +/- 17 and 53.7 +/- 5.7 mg/g in MLE and MFE, respectively, although not as high as that found in GTE (530.6 +/- 42 mg/g). Appreciable amount of epicatechin was found in all extracts tested, while rutin was only found in MLE and MFE. The study suggested that both leaf and fruit of M. citrifolia may be used as antiobesity agents in body weight management.

  15. Adropin induction of lipoprotein lipase expression in tilapia hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Anji; Wu, Keqiang; Liu, Tianqiang; Jiang, Nan; Jiang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    The peptide hormone adropin plays a role in energy homeostasis. However, biological actions of adropin in non-mammalian species are still lacking. Using tilapia as a model, we examined the role of adropin in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) regulation in hepatocytes. To this end, the structural identity of tilapia adropin was established by 5'/3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The transcripts of tilapia adropin were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues with the highest levels in the liver and hypothalamus. The prolonged fasting could elevate tilapia hepatic adropin gene expression, whereas no effect of fasting was observed on hypothalamic adropin gene levels. In primary cultures of tilapia hepatocytes, synthetic adropin was effective in stimulating LPL release, cellular LPL content, and total LPL production. The increase in LPL production also occurred with parallel rises in LPL gene levels. In parallel experiments, adropin could elevate cAMP production and up-regulate protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC activities. Using a pharmacological approach, cAMP/PKA and PLC/inositol trisphosphate (IP3)/PKC cascades were shown to be involved in adropin-stimulated LPL gene expression. Parallel inhibition of p38MAPK and Erk1/2, however, were not effective in these regards. Our findings provide, for the first time, evidence that adropin could stimulate LPL gene expression via direct actions in tilapia hepatocytes through the activation of multiple signaling mechanisms.

  16. Parathyroid hormone is not an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnadottir, M; Nilsson-Ehle, P

    1994-01-01

    The reduced lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities in uraemia are reflected by increased serum triglyceride concentrations and reduced HDL cholesterol concentrations. Both hyperparathyroidism and circulating inhibitor(s) of LPL have been associated with the disturbances of lipid metabolism in uraemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate if parathyroid hormone (PTH) had an inhibitory effect on LPL activity. Plasma post-heparin LPL activities, plasma LPL inhibitory activities, serum PTHintact and serum PTHC-terminal concentrations were analysed in 20 patients on haemodialysis and 20 healthy controls. The effects of purified, human PTHintact and a carboxyterminal fragment of PTH (PTH39-84) on LPL activities in post-heparin plasma from healthy individuals and on the enzyme activity of purified, bovine milk LPL, activated with apolipoprotein CII, were studied. Patients had significantly higher plasma LPL inhibitory activities than controls, but there was no correlation between plasma LPL inhibitory activities and serum PTH concentrations. Neither PTHintact nor PTH39-84 had a significant effect on LPL activities in vitro. Thus there was no evidence of a direct inhibition of LPL activity by PTH under the present in-vivo or in-vitro conditions.

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of THP-1 Macrophages Exposed to Lipoprotein Hydrolysis Products Generated by Lipoprotein Lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Narmadaa; Marshall, Jenika D; Pickett, Arthur T; Schumacher, Clemens; Yang, Yanbo; Christian, Sherri L; Brown, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    Macrophage lipoprotein lipase (LPL) induces lipid accumulation and promotes atherosclerosis. However, the effects of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL on macrophage-derived foam cell formation are not clearly understood. Thus, we analyzed the transcriptomic response to hydrolysis products via microarray analyses on RNA isolated from human THP-1 macrophages incubated with total lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL. The expression of 183 transcripts was significantly upregulated and 133 transcripts were significantly downregulated. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that there was a significant over-representation of genes involved in cell cycling, stress response, type I interferon signaling, cellular metal ion homeostasis, sterol metabolism, and nuclease activity. Interestingly, transcripts for 63 small nucleolar RNA were significantly upregulated. We verified the microarray data by quantitative real-time PCR and found that the expression of SNORA56, as well as the expression of genes associated with the cell cycle (PCNA and DKC1 variant 3), stress response (ATF3), type I interferon signaling (IFITM1), and lipid metabolism (CD36 and PLIN2) were significantly affected by LPL hydrolysis products. To determine if the free fatty acid (FFA) component of total lipoprotein hydrolysis products is sufficient to alter the expression of these genes, THP-1 macrophages were also incubated with the total FFA or individual classes of the FFA component. The gene regulation by the FFA component did not mimic that of the hydrolysis products, suggesting that the regulation of gene expression in THP-1 macrophages depends on the specific combination and concentration of lipid species present in the hydrolysis products, and not solely on FFA.

  18. Effect of oral mesoglycan on plasma lipoprotein concentration and on lipoprotein lipase activity in primary hyperlipoproteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, A; De Simone, B; Rubba, P; Lamenza, F; Montefusco, S; Mastranzo, P

    1984-01-01

    Mesoglycan extracted from calf aorta was orally administered (96 mg/day) to 15 patients with primary hyperlipoproteinemia: 4 type IIA, 4 type IIB, 6 type IV and one type V. In the seven hypertriglyceridemic patients the drug after two months of treatment reduced total and VLDL-triglyceride from 701 mg/dl to 423 mg/dl (p less than 0.025) and from 562 mg/dl to 377 mg/dl (p less than 0.025) respectively and increased lipoprotein lipase activity from 19.7 mumol/l/min to 27.8 mumol/l/min (p less than 0.05). No change was observed in the group with type IIA-IIB hyperlipoproteinemia.

  19. Role of adipocyte-derived lipoprotein lipase in adipocyte hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Robert A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major portion of available fatty acids for adipocyte uptake is derived from lipoprotein lipase (LPL-mediated hydrolysis of circulating lipoprotein particles. In vivo studies aimed at identifying the precise role of adipocyte-derived LPL in fat storage function of adipose tissue have been unable to provide conclusive evidence due to compensatory mechanisms that activate endogenous fatty acid synthesis. To address this gap in knowledge, we have measured the effect of reducing adipocyte LPL expression on intracellular lipid accumulation using a well-established cultured model of adipocyte differentiation. Methods siRNA specific for mouse LPL was transfected into 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Expression of LPL was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and cell surface-associated LPL enzymatic activity was measured by colorimetric detection following substrate (p-nitrophenyl butyrate hydrolysis. Apolipoprotein CII and CIII expression ratios were also measured by qRT-PCR. Intracellular lipid accumulation was quantified by Nile Red staining. Results During differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, LPL mRNA expression increases 6-fold resulting in a 2-fold increase in cell surface-associated LPL enzymatic activity. Parallel to this increase in LPL expression, we found that intracellular lipids increased ~10-fold demonstrating a direct correlation between adipocyte-derived LPL expression and lipid storage. We next reduced LPL expression in adipocytes using siRNA transfections to directly quantify the contributions of adipocyte-derived LPL to lipid storage, This treatment reduced LPL mRNA expression and cell surface-associated LPL enzymatic activity to ~50% of non-treated controls while intracellular lipid levels were reduced by 80%. Exogenous addition of purified LPL (to restore extracellular lipolytic activity or palmitate (as a source of free fatty acids to siRNA-treated cells restored intracellular lipid levels to those measured for non

  20. Lipoprotein particle distribution and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity after acute exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many of the metabolic effects of exercise are due to the most recent exercise session. With recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS, it is possible to gain insight about which lipoprotein particles are responsible for mediating exercise effects. Methods Using a randomized cross-over design, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL responses were evaluated in eight men on the morning after i an inactive control trial (CON, ii exercising vigorously on the prior evening for 100 min followed by fasting overnight to maintain an energy and carbohydrate deficit (EX-DEF, and iii after the same exercise session followed by carbohydrate intake to restore muscle glycogen and carbohydrate balance (EX-BAL. Results The intermediate, low and high density lipoprotein particle concentrations did not differ between trials. Fasting triglyceride (TG determined biochemically, and mean VLDL size were lower in EX-DEF but not in EX-BAL compared to CON, primarily due to a reduction in VLDL-TG in the 70–120 nm (large particle range. In contrast, VLDL-TG was lower in both EX-DEF and EX-BAL compared to CON in the 43–55 nm (medium particle range. VLDL-TG in smaller particles (29–43 nm was unaffected by exercise. Because the majority of VLDL particles were in this smallest size range and resistant to change, total VLDL particle concentration was not different between any of these conditions. Skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase (LPL activity was also not different across these 3 trials. However, in CON only, the inter-individual differences in LPL activity were inversely correlated with fasting TG, VLDL-TG, total, large and small VLDL particle concentration and VLDL size, indicating a regulatory role for LPL in the non-exercised state. Conclusions These findings reveal a high level of differential regulation between different sized triglyceride-rich lipoproteins following exercise and feeding, in the absence of changes in

  1. Lipoprotein particle distribution and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity after acute exercise

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, Michael

    2012-06-06

    AbstractBackgroundMany of the metabolic effects of exercise are due to the most recent exercise session. With recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS), it is possible to gain insight about which lipoprotein particles are responsible for mediating exercise effects.MethodsUsing a randomized cross-over design, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) responses were evaluated in eight men on the morning after i) an inactive control trial (CON), ii) exercising vigorously on the prior evening for 100 min followed by fasting overnight to maintain an energy and carbohydrate deficit (EX-DEF), and iii) after the same exercise session followed by carbohydrate intake to restore muscle glycogen and carbohydrate balance (EX-BAL).ResultsThe intermediate, low and high density lipoprotein particle concentrations did not differ between trials. Fasting triglyceride (TG) determined biochemically, and mean VLDL size were lower in EX-DEF but not in EX-BAL compared to CON, primarily due to a reduction in VLDL-TG in the 70–120 nm (large) particle range. In contrast, VLDL-TG was lower in both EX-DEF and EX-BAL compared to CON in the 43–55 nm (medium) particle range. VLDL-TG in smaller particles (29–43 nm) was unaffected by exercise. Because the majority of VLDL particles were in this smallest size range and resistant to change, total VLDL particle concentration was not different between any of these conditions. Skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was also not different across these 3 trials. However, in CON only, the inter-individual differences in LPL activity were inversely correlated with fasting TG, VLDL-TG, total, large and small VLDL particle concentration and VLDL size, indicating a regulatory role for LPL in the non-exercised state.ConclusionsThese findings reveal a high level of differential regulation between different sized triglyceride-rich lipoproteins following exercise and feeding, in the absence of changes in LPL activity.

  2. Impact of lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphisms on ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshihito Kosaka; Taizou Shiraishi; Masatoshi Watanabe; Takayuki Yamamoto; Ai Nakahara; Takahiko Katoh; Junji Yoshino; Kazuo Inui; Takao Wakabayashi; Kazumu Okushima; Takashi Kobayashi; Hironao Miyoshi; Yuta Nakamura; Shigekazu Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine the influence of lipoprotein lipase (LPL)gene polymorphism in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients.METHODS: Peripheral blood was obtained from 131 patients with UC and 106 healthy controls for DNA extraction. We determined LPL gene polymorphisms affecting the enzyme at Ser447stop, as well as Hind Ⅲ and Pvu Ⅱ polymorphisms using PCR techniques. PCR products were characterized by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing.Polymorphisms were examined for association with clinical features in UC patients. Genotype frequencies for LPL polymorphisms were also compared between UC patients and controls.RESULTS: In patients with onset at age 20 years or younger, C/G and G/G genotypes for Ser447stop polymorphism were more prevalent than C/C genotype (OR= 3.13, 95% CI = 0.95-10.33). Patients with H+/- or H-/-genotype for HindⅢ polymorphism also were more numerous than those with H+/+ genotype (OR = 2.51, 95%CI = 0.85-7.45). In the group with H+/+ genotype for HindⅢ polymorphism, more patients had serum triglyceride concentrations over 150 mg/dL than patients with H+/- or H-/- genotype (P < 0.01, OR = 6.46, 95% CI =1.39-30.12). Hypertriglycemia was also more prevalent in patients with P+/+ genotypes for Pvu Ⅱ polymorphism (P< 0.05, OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.06-8.50). Genotype frequency for LPL polymorphism did not differ significantly between UC patients and controls.CONCLUSION: Ser447stop and HindⅢ LPL polymorphisms may influence age of onset of UC, while HindⅢand PvuⅡ polymorphisms influence serum triglyceride in UC patients.

  3. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is impaired by the fatty acid component from lipoprotein hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yanbo; Thyagarajan, Narmadaa; Coady, Breanne M.; Brown, Robert J., E-mail: rbrown@mun.ca

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Lipoprotein hydrolysis products were produced by lipoprotein lipase. • Hydrolysis products lowers expression of macrophage cholesterol transporters. • Hydrolysis products reduces expression of select nuclear receptors. • Fatty acid products lowers cholesterol transporters and select nuclear receptors. • Fatty acid products reduces cholesterol efflux from macrophages. - Abstract: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes triglycerides within circulating lipoproteins. Macrophage LPL contributes to atherogenesis, but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the products of lipoprotein hydrolysis generated by LPL promote atherogenesis by inhibiting the cholesterol efflux ability by macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we treated human THP-1 macrophages with total lipoproteins that were hydrolyzed by LPL and we found significantly reduced transcript levels for the cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and scavenger receptor BI. These decreases were likely due to significant reductions for the nuclear receptors liver-X-receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and PPAR-γ. We prepared a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA) that represented the ratios of FFA species within lipoprotein hydrolysis products, and we found that the FFA mixture also significantly reduced cholesterol transporters and nuclear receptors. Finally, we tested the efflux of cholesterol from THP-1 macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I, and we found that the treatment of THP-1 macrophages with the FFA mixture significantly attenuated cholesterol efflux. Overall, these data show that the FFA component of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL may promote atherogenesis by inhibiting cholesterol efflux, which partially explains the pro-atherogenic role of macrophage LPL.

  4. Endothelial and lipoprotein lipases in human and mouse placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie L S; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Christoffersen, Christina;

    2005-01-01

    Placenta expresses various lipase activities. However, a detailed characterization of the involved genes and proteins is lacking. In this study, we compared the expression of endothelial lipase (EL) and LPL in human term placenta. When placental protein extracts were separated by heparin......-Sepharose affinity chromatography, the EL protein eluted as a single peak without detectable phospholipid or triglyceride (TG) lipase activity. The major portion of LPL protein eluted slightly after EL. This peak also had no lipase activity and most likely contained monomeric LPL. Fractions eluting at a higher Na......Cl concentration contained small amounts of LPL protein (most likely dimeric LPL) and had substantial TG lipase activity. In situ hybridization studies showed EL mRNA expression in syncytiotrophoblasts and endothelial cells and LPL mRNA in syncytiotrophoblasts. In contrast, immunohistochemistry showed EL and LPL...

  5. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is impaired by the fatty acid component from lipoprotein hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanbo; Thyagarajan, Narmadaa; Coady, Breanne M; Brown, Robert J

    2014-09-05

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes triglycerides within circulating lipoproteins. Macrophage LPL contributes to atherogenesis, but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the products of lipoprotein hydrolysis generated by LPL promote atherogenesis by inhibiting the cholesterol efflux ability by macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we treated human THP-1 macrophages with total lipoproteins that were hydrolyzed by LPL and we found significantly reduced transcript levels for the cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and scavenger receptor BI. These decreases were likely due to significant reductions for the nuclear receptors liver-X-receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and PPAR-γ. We prepared a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA) that represented the ratios of FFA species within lipoprotein hydrolysis products, and we found that the FFA mixture also significantly reduced cholesterol transporters and nuclear receptors. Finally, we tested the efflux of cholesterol from THP-1 macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I, and we found that the treatment of THP-1 macrophages with the FFA mixture significantly attenuated cholesterol efflux. Overall, these data show that the FFA component of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL may promote atherogenesis by inhibiting cholesterol efflux, which partially explains the pro-atherogenic role of macrophage LPL.

  6. Hydrolysis of guinea pig nascent very low density lipoproteins catalyzed by lipoprotein lipase: activation by hjman apolipoprotein C-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzharris, T J; Quinn, D M; Goh, E H; Johnson, J D; Kashyap, M L; Srivastava, L S; Jackson, R L; Harmony, J A

    1981-08-01

    Very low density lipoproteins isolated from guinea pig liver perfusate (VLDLp) lack the equivalent of human apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II), the activator of lipoprotein lipase (LpL). These lipoproteins are therefore ideal substrates with which to investigate the mechanism by which apoC-II activates the enzyme. VLDLp binds apoC-II, and apoC-II associated with VLDLp markedly increases the rate of lipoprotein lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of VLDLp-triglycerides. The activator potency of apoC-II is independent of the method of enrichment of VLDLp with apoC-II: delipidated human apoC-II and apoC-II transferred from human high density lipoproteins activate lipoprotein lipase to equal extents. ApoC-II causes pH-dependent changes in both apparent Km and VmaX of LpL-catalyzed hydrolysis of VLDLp-triglycerides. At pH l7.4--7.5, the major effects of apoC-II is to decrease the apparent Km by 3.3--4.0 fold. The apparent Vmax is increased 1.3-fold. At pH 6.5 and 8.5, the decrease of apparent Km is less marked, 1.6-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively. At pH 6.5, apoC-II increases the apparent Vmax ty 1.3-fold, while at pH 8.5 the primary effect of apoC-II is a 1.6-fold increase of apparent Vmax. Based on a simple kinetic model, the data suggest that apoC-II favors direct interaction between enzyme and triglyceride within the lipoprotein particle, as well as subsequent catalytic turnover.

  7. GPIHBP1 Missense Mutations Often Cause Multimerization of GPIHBP1 and Thereby Prevent Lipoprotein Lipase Binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beigneux, Anne P; Fong, Loren G; Bensadoun, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: GPIHBP1, a GPI-anchored protein of capillary endothelial cells, binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the subendothelial spaces and shuttles it to the capillary lumen. GPIHBP1 missense mutations that interfere with LPL binding cause familial chylomicronemia. Objective: We sought to underst......Rationale: GPIHBP1, a GPI-anchored protein of capillary endothelial cells, binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the subendothelial spaces and shuttles it to the capillary lumen. GPIHBP1 missense mutations that interfere with LPL binding cause familial chylomicronemia. Objective: We sought...

  8. Endothelial and lipoprotein lipases in human and mouse placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Christoffersen, Christina;

    2005-01-01

    Placenta expresses various lipase activities. However, a detailed characterization of the involved genes and proteins is lacking. In this study, we compared the expression of endothelial lipase (EL) and LPL in human term placenta. When placental protein extracts were separated by heparin...... protein associated with both cell types. In mouse placentas, lack of LPL expression resulted in increased EL mRNA expression. These results suggest that the cellular expression of EL and LPL in human placenta is different. Nevertheless, the two lipases might have overlapping functions in the mouse...... placenta. Our data also suggest that the major portions of both proteins are stored in an inactive form in human term placenta....

  9. Moderate Exercise Increases Affinity of Large Very Low-Density Lipoproteins for Hydrolysis by Lipoprotein Lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, Khloud; Cooney, Josephine; Bedford, Dorothy K; Wilson, John; Caslake, Muriel J; Gill, Jason M R

    2015-06-01

    Postprandial triglyceride (TG) concentration is independently associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Exercise reduces postprandial TG concentrations, but the mechanisms responsible are unclear. The objective was to determine the effects of exercise on affinity of chylomicrons, large very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL1), and smaller VLDL (VLDL2) for lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated TG hydrolysis. This was designed as a within-participant crossover study. The setting was a university metabolic investigation unit. Participants were 10 overweight/obese men. Participants undertook two oral fat tolerance tests, separated by 7-14 days, in which they had blood taken while fasting and for 4 hours after a high-fat mixed meal. On the afternoon before one test, they performed a 90-minute treadmill walk at 50% maximal oxygen uptake (exercise trial [EX]); no exercise was performed before the control trial (CON). We measured circulating TG-rich lipoprotein concentrations and affinity of chylomicrons, VLDL1, and VLDL2 for LPL-mediated TG hydrolysis. Exercise significantly reduced fasting VLDL1-TG concentration (CON, 0.49 [0.33-0.72] mmol.L(-1); EX, 0.36 [0.22-0.59] mmol.L(-1); geometric means [95% confidence interval]; P = .04). Time-averaged postprandial chylomicron-TG (CON, 0.55 ± 0.10 mmol.L(-1); EX, 0.39 ± 0.08 mmol.L(-1); mean ± SEM; P = .03) and VLDL1-TG (CON, 0.85 ± 0.13 mmol.L(-1); EX, 0.66 ± 0.10 mmol.L(-1); P = .01) concentrations were both lower in EX than CON. Affinity of VLDL1 for LPL-mediated TG hydrolysis increased by 2.2 (1.3-3.7)-fold [geometric mean (95% confidence interval)] (P = .02) in the fasted state and 2.6 (1.8-2.6)-fold (P = .001) postprandially. Affinity of chylomicrons and VLDL2 was not significantly different between trials. Exercise increases affinity of VLDL1 for LPL-mediated TG hydrolysis both fasting and postprandially. This mechanism is likely to contribute to the TG-lowering effect of exercise.

  10. Lipoprotein lipase variants interact with polyunsaturated fatty acids to modulate obesity traits in Puerto Ricans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a candidate gene for obesity based on its role in triglyceride hydrolysis and the partitioning of fatty acids towards storage or oxidation. Whether dietary fatty acids modify LPL associated obesity risk is unknown. We examined five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (...

  11. The relationship between lipoprotein lipase-447C/G genepolymorphism and cerebral infarction in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓雁

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the lipoprotein lipase(LPL)-447C/G gene polymorphism and cerebral infarction in the elderly. Methods This was a case-control study,which enrolled 206 cases with cerebral infarction in the elderly and 203 elderly

  12. Evaluation of the immediate vascular stability of lipoprotein lipase-generated 2-monoacylglycerol in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleberg, Karen; Nielsen, Louise Lundeman; Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai;

    2014-01-01

    2-Monoacylglycerols are gaining increasing interest as signaling lipids, beyond endocannabinoids, for example, as ligands for the receptor GPR119 and as mediators of insulin secretion. In the vascular system, they are formed by the action of lipoprotein lipase (LPL); however, their further dispos...

  13. Apolipoprotein A5 and lipoprotein lipase interact to modulate anthropometric measures in Hispanics of Caribbean origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) proteins interact functionally to regulate lipid metabolism, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each gene have also been associated independently with obesity risk. Evaluating gene combinations may be more effective than single SNP a...

  14. Post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase, but not hepatic lipase activity, is related to plasma adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, R; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Sluiter, WJ; Van Tol, A; Dullaart, RPF

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships of plasma adiponectin with post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activities, and to evaluate whether plasma adiponectin contributes to diabetes-associated dyslipidaemia. Plasma adiponectin, post-heparin plasma

  15. Segments in the C-terminal folding domain of lipoprotein lipase important for binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and to heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Schallburg; Brejning, Jeanette; García, R.;

    1997-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) can mediate cellular uptake of chylomicron and VLDL remnants via binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) and the endocytic alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha2MR/LRP). Whereas it is established that the C-terminal ......Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) can mediate cellular uptake of chylomicron and VLDL remnants via binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) and the endocytic alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha2MR/LRP). Whereas it is established that the C...

  16. Hepatic lipase, genetically elevated high-density lipoprotein, and risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Trine Holm; Kamstrup, Pia R; Andersen, Rolf V

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hepatic lipase influences metabolism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), a risk factor for ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICD: ischemic heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease). OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in the hepatic lipase genetic variants V.......91 (95% CI 0.89-0.94), respectively; this calculation assumes that genetically elevated HDL levels confer decreased risk similar to common HDL elevations. In contrast, when all cases and controls were combined, the observed odds ratios for ICD for these three genetic variants vs. noncarriers were 1.19 (0.......76-1.88), 1.04 (0.96-1.13), and 1.08 (0.89-1.30), respectively. Hazard/odds ratios for ICD in carriers vs. noncarriers of the four remaining hepatic lipase genetic variants did not differ consistently from 1.0. CONCLUSION: Hepatic lipase genetic variants with elevated levels of HDL cholesterol did...

  17. Lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triglyceride lipase reduce the infectivity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) through their catalytic activities on HCV-associated lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuko; Hishiki, Takayuki; Sugiyama, Kazuo; Ogawa, Kazuya; Funami, Kenji; Kato, Atsushi; Ohsaki, Yuki; Fujimoto, Toyoshi; Takaku, Hiroshi; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2010-11-10

    The effect of lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was evaluated. First, medium from HuH7.5 cells bearing HCV genome replication was treated with LPL. LPL treatment led to reduced HCV infectivity, shifted HCV to higher densities, and lowered the amount of apolipoprotein E-associated HCV. The effect of endogenous HTGL secreted from HuH7.5 on HCV infectivity was next examined. Neutralization of HTGL by an anti-HTGL antibody resulted in suppression of LPL-induced reduction in infectivity of HCV-bearing medium, while knockdown of HTGL by siRNA led to increased HCV infectivity irrespective of LPL. HCV in medium from HTGL knockdown cells was found in fractions with a lower density. These results indicate that changes in the nature of HCV-associated lipoproteins by LPL and/or HTGL affect HCV infectivity, suggesting that association of HCV with specific lipoproteins is important for HCV infectivity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lipoprotein composition in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Impact of lipases and adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Thomas A; Calderon, Rossana M; Diaz, Sylvia; Mendez, Armando J; Goldberg, Ronald B

    2016-01-01

    High cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is widely recognized. Paradoxically, these patients have been shown to have elevated HDL-C and reduced apoB-containing lipoproteins. The purpose of this investigation was to further characterize the lipoprotein composition in T1DM and to assess the role that lipases and adipokines may play in these differences. T1DM patients (89) attending the Diabetes Clinic at the University of Miami and 42 healthy controls were recruited. Clinical characteristics, lipoprotein composition (by ultracentrifugation and HPLC), leptin, and adiponectin were measured in the full cohort, while a subgroup had LPL and hepatic lipase measured. Subjects were predominately Caucasian and Hispanic. HgbA1c's were above goal while their mean duration of diabetes was >20 years. LPL was 2-fold elevated in diabetic women versus controls (+107%{p=0.001}) with no difference in men. Hepatic lipase was reduced 50% {pdiabetic men (-33%{pdiabetic women (-25%{p=0.015}). LPL activity correlated primarily with IDL(-), LDL(-), HDL-L(+), and HDL-D(-) only in the women. HL correlated weakly with VLDL(+), LDL(+), HDL-L(-), and HDL-D(+) in women but had much stronger correlations with VLDL(-), IDL(-), and HDL-L(+). Adiponectin correlated with VLDL(-), IDL(-), LDL(-), HDL-L(+), and HDL-D(-) in women but only HDL-L(+) and HDL-D(-) in men. Leptin correlated with very few parameters in women but did correlate weakly with several HDL-L(-) and HDL-M(-) parameters. Lipoprotein composition and adipokine concentrations in both genders as well as lipase activities in the women would be expected to reduce the atherosclerotic risk in these patients with T1DM. These data suggest that there are functional lipoprotein abnormalities responsible for their CV risk that are not reflected in their plasma concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of the effect of post-heparin and pre-heparin lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triglyceride lipase on remnant lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Takashi; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Shimomura, Younosuke; Kobayashi, Junji; Stanhope, Kimber; Havel, Peter; Machida, Tetsuo; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Masami

    2015-02-02

    A comparison of post-heparin and pre-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) on the metabolism of remnant lipoproteins (RLPs) has not been reported yet. Healthy volunteers were injected with heparin for LPL and HTGL determination in the fasting (8:00) and postprandial (20:00) plasma on the same day. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-C, HDL-C, small dense LDL (sdLDL)-C, remnant lipoprotein (RLP)-C, RLP-TG, the RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio, adiponectin and apoCIII were measured. LPL activity and concentration in the post-heparin plasma exhibited a significant inverse correlation with TG, RLP-C, RLP-TG, and RLP particle size estimated as RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio and sdLDL-C, and positively correlated with HDL-C. HTGL was only inversely correlated with HDL-C. LPL concentration in the pre-heparin plasma was also inversely correlated with the RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio and other lipoprotein parameters. Adiponectin was inversely correlated with RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio and apoC III was positively correlated with RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio, but not correlated with LPL activity. LPL activity and concentration were inversely and significantly correlated with the particle size of RLP in both the post-heparin and pre-heparin plasma. Those results suggest that LPL concentration in pre-heparin plasma can take the place of LPL activity in the post-heparin plasma. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Cultured human astrocytes secrete large cholesteryl ester- andtriglyceride-rich lipoproteins along with endothelial lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lin; Liu, Yanzhu; Forte, Trudy M.; Chisholm, Jeffrey W.; Parks, John S.; Shachter, Neil S.

    2003-12-01

    We cultured normal human astrocytes and characterized their secreted lipoproteins. Human astrocytes secreted lipoproteins in the size range of plasma VLDL (Peak 1), LDL (Peak 2), HDL (Peak 3) and a smaller peak (Peak 4), as determined by gel filtration chromatography, nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and transmission electron microscopy. Cholesterol enrichment of astrocytes led to a particular increase in Peak 1. Almost all Peak 2, 3 and 4 cholesterol and most Peak 1 cholesterol was esterified (unlike mouse astrocyte lipoproteins, which exhibited similar peaks but where cholesterol was predominantly non-esterified). Triglycerides were present at about 2/3 the level of cholesterol. LCAT was detected along with two of its activators, apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV and apoC-I. ApoA-I and apoA-II mRNA and protein were absent. ApoJ was present equally in all peaks but apoE was present predominantly in peaks 3 and 4. ApoB was not detected. The electron microscopic appearance of Peak 1 lipoproteins suggested partial lipolysis leading to the detection of a heparin-releasable triglyceride lipase consistent with endothelial lipase. The increased neuronal delivery of lipids from large lipoprotein particles, for which apoE4 has greater affinity than does apoE3, may be a mechanism whereby the apoE {var_epsilon}4 allele contributes to neurodegenerative risk.

  1. Relationship between two common lipoprotein lipase variants and the metabolic syndrome and its individual components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K. K.; Hansen, Tine W.; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Common lipoprotein lipase (LPL) variants are important determinants of triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (C) concentrations. High TG/low HDL-C tend to cluster with hypertension, glucose intolerance, and abdominal obesity and comprise the metabolic...... syndrome (MetS). The role of LPL variants as a cause of MetS is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between two common LPL variants and the presence of MetS and its individual components. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, including 2348 Danish women (50.7%) and men, age 41-72 years, without...

  2. [Influence of rapeseed oil on lipoprotein lipase activity in pigs (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, M S

    1976-01-01

    Toxic activities in various animal species have shown for rapeseed oil. In this paper the influence of this oil on lipoprotein lipase activity of heart, liver and lung of pigs has been examined. The animals were fed with rapeseed oil with 40% erucic acid for 7, 15, 20 and 40 days. The control animals received olive oil. The results have shown a slight increase in the lipoprotein lipase activity in the heart of the pig after 20 days with rapeseed oil. In the liver this increase is particularly large in the pigs having been fed for 15 days both with rapeseed oil and olive oil. No differences were observed in the lung in the test and control animals with the only exception of animals fed for 20 days.

  3. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING AND DRUG DESIGNING OF LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE (LPL INVOLVED IN ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Torabizadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Homology modeling and flexible docking of Lipoprotein Lipase has been studied in silico approach. Blast result was found to have similarity with Lipoprotein Lipase of 83% identity with 1LPA. Active site of LPL protein was identified by CASTP. Large potential drugs were designed for identifying molecules that can likely bind to protein target of interest. The different drug derivatives designed were used for docking with the generated structure, among the 10 derivatives designed, 3rd derivative showed highest docking result. The drug derivatives were docked to the protein by hydrogen bonding interactions and these interactions play an important role in the binding studies. Our investigations may be helpful for further studies.

  4. Retinal pigment epithelial acid lipase activity and lipoprotein receptors: effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acids.

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To show that fish oil-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, delivered to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) by circulating low-density lipoproteins (LDL), enhance already considerable RPE lysosomal acid lipase activity, providing for more efficient hydrolysis of intralysosomal RPE lipids, an effect that may help prevent development of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). METHODS: Colorimetric biochemical and histochemical techniques were used to demonstrate RPE acid lipa...

  5. Studies on association between lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphisms of Pvu Ⅱ site and hypertriglyceridemics in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore whether Pvu Ⅱ restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene are associated with hypertriglyceridemics (HTG).Methods Pvu Ⅱ restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the lipoprotein lipase gene on a sample of 135 HTG patients and 193 age-matched healthy individuals in Chengdu area were detected with the method of PCR-RFLP.Results The P+P+ genotype frequency and P+ allelic frequency of LPL gene for HTG cases are higher than those for control groups (0.460 vs 0.337, P<0.05; 0.689 vs 0.565, P<0.01). The serum levels of TG, apoC Ⅱ, apoC Ⅲ, apoE and TG/HDL-C in P+P+ genotype are higher than those in P-P- genotype (P<0.05).Conclusion The results suggest that P+P+ genotype in the lipoprotein lipase gene is associated with susceptibility to hypertriglyceridemics in Chinese population.

  6. Lipoprotein lipase inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV infection by blocking virus cell entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Maillard

    Full Text Available A distinctive feature of HCV is that its life cycle depends on lipoprotein metabolism. Viral morphogenesis and secretion follow the very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL biogenesis pathway and, consequently, infectious HCV in the serum is associated with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL hydrolyzes TRL within chylomicrons and VLDL but, independently of its catalytic activity, it has a bridging activity, mediating the hepatic uptake of chylomicrons and VLDL remnants. We previously showed that exogenously added LPL increases HCV binding to hepatoma cells by acting as a bridge between virus-associated lipoproteins and cell surface heparan sulfate, while simultaneously decreasing infection levels. We show here that LPL efficiently inhibits cell infection with two HCV strains produced in hepatoma cells or in primary human hepatocytes transplanted into uPA-SCID mice with fully functional human ApoB-lipoprotein profiles. Viruses produced in vitro or in vivo were separated on iodixanol gradients into low and higher density populations, and the infection of Huh 7.5 cells by both virus populations was inhibited by LPL. The effect of LPL depended on its enzymatic activity. However, the lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin restored only a minor part of HCV infectivity, suggesting an important role of the LPL bridging function in the inhibition of infection. We followed HCV cell entry by immunoelectron microscopy with anti-envelope and anti-core antibodies. These analyses demonstrated the internalization of virus particles into hepatoma cells and their presence in intracellular vesicles and associated with lipid droplets. In the presence of LPL, HCV was retained at the cell surface. We conclude that LPL efficiently inhibits HCV infection by acting on TRL associated with HCV particles through mechanisms involving its lipolytic function, but mostly its bridging function. These mechanisms lead to immobilization of the virus at the cell

  7. [Polymorphisms of lipoprotein lipase gene and their participation in metabolic processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a central role in dyslipidemia and development of metabolic syndrome. The occurrence of polymorphisms of the LPL gene may result in the disturbance in the lipid metabolism and pathogenesis of CAD. Carriers of X447 allele were reported to have lower triglyceride and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels as well as a reduced risk of CAD. The patiens with hypertriglicerydemia are carriers of common PLP mutations as Asp9Asn,Asn291Ser, Trp86Arg, Gly188Glu, Pro207Leu, and Asp250Asn. LPL is an interesting enzyme that contributes in a pronounced way to normal metabolism, including insulin action, body weight regulation, energy balance, and atherosclerosis. In this rewiev, the roles of polymorphism LPL and their implications in the control of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis are discussed, especially in the group of risk developing metabolic syndrome - children with low birth weight (below 2500 g).

  8. Lipoprotein lipase release from BFC-1 beta adipocytes. Effects of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and lipolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, A; Goldberg, I J

    1992-07-25

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), synthesized by adipocytes and myocytes, must be transported to the luminal endothelial cell surface where it then interacts with circulating lipoproteins. The first step in this extracellular LPL transport pathway is LPL release from the surface of LPL-synthesizing cells. Because hydrolysis of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins releases LPL from the apical surface of endothelial cells, we hypothesized that the same substances dissociate LPL from adipocytes. 125I-LPL was bound to the surface of brown adipocytes (BFC-1 beta). LPL binding to the adipocyte surface was greater than to endothelial cell surfaces. Using low concentrations of heparin, more LPL was released from endothelial cells than BFC-1 beta, suggesting that the affinity of LPL binding to the adipocytes was greater than LPL affinity for endothelial cells. Greater than 3-fold more LPL was released from the cell surface when very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were added to culture medium containing 3% bovine serum albumin. LPL remaining on the cell surface decreased with VLDL addition. Endogenously produced LPL activity was also released from the cells by VLDL. Low and high density lipoproteins did not release 125I-LPL or LPL activity from the adipocytes. To assess whether lipolysis was necessary for LPL release, BFC-1 beta were incubated with TG-rich lipoproteins from a patient with apoCII deficiency. The apoCII-deficient lipoproteins did not release LPL unless an exogenous source of apoCII was added. Apolipoproteins E and Cs and high molar ratios of oleic acid:bovine serum albumin did not release surface-associated LPL. Lysolecithin (25 and 100 microM), but not lecithin, monoglycerides, or diglycerides, released adipocyte surface LPL. Because lysolecithin also released LPL during a 4 degrees C incubation, cellular metabolic functions are not required for LPL dissociation from the cells. Lysolecithin also inhibited LPL binding to endothelial cells; however, this effect was

  9. Triglyceride content in remnant lipoproteins is significantly increased after food intake and is associated with plasma lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Sakamaki, Koji; Shimomura, Younosuke; Kobayashi, Junji; Kamachi, Keiko; Tanaka, Akira; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J; Wang, Tao; Machida, Tetsuo; Murakami, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Previous large population studies reported that non-fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) reflect a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than TG in the fasting plasma. This is suggestive of the presence of higher concentration of remnant lipoproteins (RLP) in postprandial plasma. TG and RLP-TG together with other lipids, lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in both fasting and postprandial plasma were determined in generally healthy volunteers and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after consuming a fat load or a more typical moderate meal. RLP-TG/TG ratio (concentration) and RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio (particle size) were significantly increased in the postprandial plasma of both healthy controls and CAD patients compared with those in fasting plasma. LPL/RLP-TG ratio demonstrated the interaction correlation between RLP concentration and LPL activity The increased RLP-TG after fat consumption contributed to approximately 90% of the increased plasma TG, while approximately 60% after a typical meal. Plasma LPL in postprandial plasma was not significantly altered after either type of meal. Concentrations of RLP-TG found in the TG along with its particle size are significantly increased in postprandial plasma compared with fasting plasma. Therefore, non-fasting TG determination better reflects the presence of higher RLP concentrations in plasma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia due to a novel p.Q240H mutation in the Lipoprotein Lipase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Angela Ganan; McIntyre, Adam; Agrawal, Sungeeta; Bialo, Shara R; Hegele, Robert A; Boney, Charlotte M

    2015-09-04

    Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Several mutations in the LPL gene have been identified to cause decreased activity of the enzyme. An 11-week-old, exclusively breastfed male presented with coffee-ground emesis, melena, xanthomas, lipemia retinalis and chylomicronemia. Genomic DNA analysis identified lipoprotein lipase deficiency due to compound heterozygosity including a novel p.Q240H mutation in exon 5 of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene. His severe hypertriglyceridemia, including xanthomas, resolved with dietary long-chain fat restriction. We describe a novel mutation of the LPL gene causing severe hypertriglyceridemia and report the response to treatment. A review of the current literature regarding LPL deficiency syndrome reveals a few potential new therapies under investigation.

  11. An update on gene therapy for the treatment of lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libby AE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Andrew E Libby, Hong Wang Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, School of Medicine, University of Colorado at Denver, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL is responsible for clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the blood. Deficiency or defects in this enzyme result in profound hypertriglyceridemia and susceptibility to chronic, life-threatening pancreatitis. Management of LPL deficiency has traditionally been restricted to palliative care and strategies to reduce the risk of pancreatitis, including severe dietary restrictions of fat. Recently, the European Commission approved the first gene therapy treatment in the West to treat this rare disease. Alipogene tiparvovec (Glybera® was granted marketing authorization in November 2012 to treat LPL deficiency in a subset of patients that are at increased risk for pancreatitis. Designed as a one-time treatment, the drug uses adeno-associated virus (AAV1 delivery of transgenic LPL to muscle in patients lacking functional enzyme. Although statistically significant reduction of serum triglycerides was initially observed in trial subjects, this effect was found to be transient, with triglyceride levels eventually rebounding to basal levels by 26 weeks in all participants. Nevertheless, despite the return of triglycerides to pretreatment levels, alipogene tiparvovec was found to have a long-term impact on postprandial chylomicron metabolism by lowering the fraction of triglyceride found in this subset of lipoproteins. Furthermore, the drug led to a clinically significant reduction in the incidence of pancreatitis in LPL-deficient patients. The regulatory approval of alipogene tiparvovec was a historic process and serves as an example of the challenges that future orphan drugs will face. Keywords: lipoprotein lipase deficiency, gene therapy, AAV, chylomicron, pancreatitis

  12. Segments in the C-terminal folding domain of lipoprotein lipase important for binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and to heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Schallburg; Brejning, Jeanette; García, R.

    1997-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) can mediate cellular uptake of chylomicron and VLDL remnants via binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) and the endocytic alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha2MR/LRP). Whereas it is established that the C......L-(347-448) in Escherichia coli. In addition to binding to alpha2MR/LRP, LpL-(313-448) displayed binding to heparin with an affinity similar to that of the LpL monomer, whereas it bound poorly to lipoprotein particles. Moreover, LpL-(313-448) displayed heparin sensitive binding to normal, but not to HSPG...

  13. Leu452His mutation in lipoprotein lipase gene transfer associated with hypertriglyceridemia in mice in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyue Sun

    Full Text Available Mutated mouse lipoprotein lipase (LPL containing a leucine (L to histidine (H substitution at position 452 was transferred into mouse liver by hydrodynamics-based gene delivery (HD. Mutated-LPL (MLPL gene transfer significantly increased the concentrations of plasma MLPL and triglyceride (TG but significantly decreased the activity of plasma LPL. Moreover, the gene transfer caused adiposis hepatica and significantly increased TG content in mouse liver. To understand the effects of MLPL gene transfer on energy metabolism, we investigated the expression of key functional genes related to energy metabolism in the liver, epididymal fat, and leg muscles. The mRNA contents of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, fatty acid-binding protein (FABP, and uncoupling protein (UCP were found to be significantly reduced. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism by which MLPL gene transfer affected fat deposition in the liver, fat tissue, and muscle. The gene expression and protein levels of forkhead Box O3 (FOXO3, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α were found to be remarkably decreased in the liver, fat and muscle. These results suggest that the Leu452His mutation caused LPL dysfunction and gene transfer of MLPL in vivo produced resistance to the AMPK/PGC-1α signaling pathway in mice.

  14. Bio F1B hamster: a unique animal model with reduced lipoprotein lipase activity to investigate nutrient mediated regulation of lipoprotein metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornish Marion L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bio F1B hamster is an inbred hybrid strain that is highly susceptible to diet-induced atherosclerosis. We previously reported that feeding a high fat fish oil diet to Bio F1B hamster caused severe hyperlipidaemia. In this study we compared the effects of various diets in the Bio F1B hamster and the Golden Syrian hamster, which is an outbred hamster strain to investigate whether genetic background plays an important role in dietary fat mediated regulation of lipoprotein metabolism. We further investigated the mechanisms behind diet-induced hyperlipidaemia in F1B hamster. Methods The Bio F1B and Golden Syrian hamsters, 8 weeks old, were fed high fat diets rich in either monounsaturated fatty acids, an n-6: n-3 ratio of 5 or a fish oil diet for 4 weeks. Animals were fasted overnight and blood and tissue samples were collected. Plasma was fractionated into various lipoprotein fractions and assayed for triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations. Plasma lipoprotein lipase activity was measured using radioisotope method. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein activity was measured in the liver and intestine. Plasma apolipoproteinB48, -B100 and apolipoprotein E was measured using Western blots. Two-way ANOVA was used to determine the effect of diet type and animal strain. Results The fish oil fed F1B hamsters showed milky plasma after a 14-hour fast. Fish oil feeding caused accumulation of apolipoproteinB48 containing lipoprotein particles suggesting hindrance of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein clearance. There was no significant effect of diet or strain on hepatic or intestinal microsomal triglyceride transfer protein activity indicating that hyperlipidaemia is not due to an increase in the assembly or secretion of lipoprotein particles. F1B hamsters showed significantly reduced levels of lipoprotein lipase activity, which was inhibited by fish oil feeding. Conclusion Evidence is presented for the first time that alterations in

  15. Relationship between common lipoprotein lipase gene sequence variants, hyperinsulinemia, and risk of ischemic heart disease: A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine Willum; Torp-Pedersen, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    Hyperinsulinemia and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) are important determinants of fasting and postprandial plasma triglyceride levels. High insulin and high triglyceride levels are associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). This study aimed to find out whether common LPL gene...

  16. A lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-specific monoclonal antibody, 88B8, that abolishes the binding of LPL to GPIHBP1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, Christopher M; Larsson, Mikael; Hu, Xuchen

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) contains two principal domains: an amino-terminal catalytic domain (residues 1-297) and a carboxyl-terminal domain (residues 298-448) that is important for binding lipids and binding GPIHBP1 (an endothelial cell protein that shuttles LPL to the capillary lumen). The LPL s...

  17. Scavenger Receptor BI-mediated Selective Uptake Is Required for the Remodeling of High Density Lipoprotein by Endothelial Lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, Niels; Wiersma, Harmen; Gautier, Thomas; van der Giet, Markus; Maugeais, Cyrille; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a negative regulator of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol plasma levels, and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is involved in remodeling of HDL. The present study investigates the requirement of SR-BI for the effects of EL- mediated phospholipid hydrolysis on HDL meta

  18. Ser447stop mutation in lipoprotein lipase is associated with elevated HDL cholesterol levels in normolipidemic males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuivenhoven, J A; Groenemeyer, B E; Boer, J. M.; Reymer, P W; Berghuis, Riteke; Bruin, T; Jansen, Hans; Seidell, J C; Kastelein, J J

    This report describes the association between a frequent mutation in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene and HDL cholesterol levels. It concerns a previously described defect that predicts a premature truncation of the LPL protein (447stop). We determined the frequency of this mutation in three groups

  19. The lipoprotein lipase (Asn291 → Ser) mutation is associated with elevated lipid levels in families with familial combined hyperlipidaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffer, M.J.V.; Bredie, S.J.H.; Boomsma, D.I.; Reymer, P.W.A.; Kastelein, J.J.P.; Knijff, P. de; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Havekes, L.M.; Frants, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    Familial combined hyperlipidaemia (FCHL) is one of the major genetic causes of coronary heart disease (CHD) and is characterised by elevated levels of plasma cholesterol and/or triglycerides in individuals within a single family. Decreased lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity has been found in some

  20. Binding of β-VLDL to heparan sulfate proteoglycans requires lipoprotein lipase, whereas apoE only modulates binding affinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, F. de; Hendriks, W.L.; Vark, L.C. van; Kamerling, S.W.A.; Dijk, K.W. van; Hofker, M.H.; Smelt, A.H.M.; Havekes, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    The binding of β-VLDL to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) has been reported to be stimulated by both apoE and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In the present study we investigated the effect of the isoform and the amount of apoE per particle, as well as the role of LPL on the binding of β-VLDL to HSPG.

  1. Apolipoprotein AV Accelerates Plasma Hydrolysis OfTriglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins By Interaction With Proteoglycan BoundLipoprotein Lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Martin; Loeffler, Britta; Kluger, Malte; Fabig, Nathalie; Geppert, Gesa; Pennacchio, Len A.; Laatsch, Alexander; Heeren, Joerg

    2005-02-22

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is associated with differences intriglyceride levels and familial combined hyperlipidemia. In genetically engineered mice, apoAV plasma levels are inversely correlated with plasmatriglycerides. To elucidate the mechanism by which apoAV influences plasma triglycerides, metabolic studies and in vitro assays resembling physiological conditions were performed. In hAPOA5 transgenic mice(hAPOA5tr), catabolism of chylomicrons and VLDL was accelerated due to a faster plasma hydrolysis of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase (LPL).Hepatic VLDL and intestinal chylomicron production were not affected. The functional interplay between apoAV and LPL was further investigated by crossbreeding a human LPL transgene with the apoa5 knockout, and the hAPOA5tr to an LPL deficient background. Increased LPL activity completely normalized hypertriglyceridemia of apoa5 deficient mice,however, over expression of human apoAV modulated triglyceride levels only slightly when LPL was reduced. To reflect the physiological situation in which LPL is bound to cell surface proteoglycans, we examined hydrolysis in the presence or absence of proteoglycans. Without proteoglycans, apoAV derived either from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, hAPOA5tr HDL, or a recombinant source did not alter the LPL hydrolysis rate. In the presence of proteoglycans, however, apoAV led to a significant and dose-dependent increase in LPL mediated hydrolysis of VLDL triglycerides. These results were confirmed in cell culture using a proteoglycan-deficient cell line.A direct interaction between LPL and apoAV was found by ligand blotting.It is proposed, that apoAV reduces triglyceride levels by guiding VLDL and chylomicrons to proteoglycans bound LPL for lipolysis.

  2. A Pressure-dependent Model for the Regulation of Lipoprotein Lipase by Apolipoprotein C-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Nathan L; Larsson, Mikael; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Small, Donald M

    2015-07-17

    Apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) is the co-factor for lipoprotein lipase (LPL) at the surface of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. LPL hydrolyzes triacylglycerol, which increases local surface pressure as surface area decreases and amphipathic products transiently accumulate at the lipoprotein surface. To understand how apoC-II adapts to these pressure changes, we characterized the behavior of apoC-II at multiple lipid/water interfaces. ApoC-II adsorption to a triacylglycerol/water interface resulted in large increases in surface pressure. ApoC-II was exchangeable at this interface and desorbed on interfacial compressions. These compressions increase surface pressure and mimic the action of LPL. Analysis of gradual compressions showed that apoC-II undergoes a two-step desorption, which indicates that lipid-bound apoC-II can exhibit at least two conformations. We characterized apoC-II at phospholipid/triacylglycerol/water interfaces, which more closely mimic lipoprotein surfaces. ApoC-II had a large exclusion pressure, similar to that of apoC-I and apoC-III. However, apoC-II desorbed at retention pressures higher than those seen with the other apoCs. This suggests that it is unlikely that apoC-I and apoC-III inhibit LPL via displacement of apoC-II from the lipoprotein surface. Upon rapid compressions and re-expansions, re-adsorption of apoC-II increased pressure by lower amounts than its initial adsorption. This indicates that apoC-II removed phospholipid from the interface upon desorption. These results suggest that apoC-II regulates the activity of LPL in a pressure-dependent manner. ApoC-II is provided as a component of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins and is the co-factor for LPL as pressure increases. Above its retention pressure, apoC-II desorbs and removes phospholipid. This triggers release of LPL from lipoproteins.

  3. A Pressure-dependent Model for the Regulation of Lipoprotein Lipase by Apolipoprotein C-II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Nathan L.; Larsson, Mikael; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Small, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) is the co-factor for lipoprotein lipase (LPL) at the surface of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. LPL hydrolyzes triacylglycerol, which increases local surface pressure as surface area decreases and amphipathic products transiently accumulate at the lipoprotein surface. To understand how apoC-II adapts to these pressure changes, we characterized the behavior of apoC-II at multiple lipid/water interfaces. ApoC-II adsorption to a triacylglycerol/water interface resulted in large increases in surface pressure. ApoC-II was exchangeable at this interface and desorbed on interfacial compressions. These compressions increase surface pressure and mimic the action of LPL. Analysis of gradual compressions showed that apoC-II undergoes a two-step desorption, which indicates that lipid-bound apoC-II can exhibit at least two conformations. We characterized apoC-II at phospholipid/triacylglycerol/water interfaces, which more closely mimic lipoprotein surfaces. ApoC-II had a large exclusion pressure, similar to that of apoC-I and apoC-III. However, apoC-II desorbed at retention pressures higher than those seen with the other apoCs. This suggests that it is unlikely that apoC-I and apoC-III inhibit LPL via displacement of apoC-II from the lipoprotein surface. Upon rapid compressions and re-expansions, re-adsorption of apoC-II increased pressure by lower amounts than its initial adsorption. This indicates that apoC-II removed phospholipid from the interface upon desorption. These results suggest that apoC-II regulates the activity of LPL in a pressure-dependent manner. ApoC-II is provided as a component of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins and is the co-factor for LPL as pressure increases. Above its retention pressure, apoC-II desorbs and removes phospholipid. This triggers release of LPL from lipoproteins. PMID:26026161

  4. [TOTAL PARENTERAL NUTRITION IN A PREGNANT PATIENT WITH ACUTE PANCREATITIS AND LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Bolívar, Victoria; González-Molero, Inmaculada; Valdivieso, Pedro; Olveira, Gabriel

    2015-10-01

    We present a case of severe acute pancreatitis induced by hypertriglyceridemia secondary to lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency in a pregnant patient with gestational diabetes, initially maneged with diet but it was later necessary to carry out artificial nutricional support measures: total parenteral nutrition. LPL deficiency might cause severe hypertriglyceridemia, repetition acute pancreatitis which is an unwieldy and severe situation during pregnancy. Acute familial hypertriglyceridemia pancreatitis accounts for 5% of cases, including LPL deficiency. The goal of treatment is to reach triglycerides levels below 500 mg/dl, being very low fat diet the treatment of choice, drugs or plasmapheresis techniques can also be associated. TPN enriched in ω3 fatty acids and glutamine was safe and effective in our patient with significant decrease in triglyceride levels.

  5. Physiological Study of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene Pvu II Polymorphism in Cases of Obesity in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada El-Kannishy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic predisposition has been implicated in obesity. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL gene, the main lipase of chylomicrons and Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL, has a fundamental role in the transport and metabolism of plasma cholesterol. The present study was undertaken to test for the association of the LPL gene Pvu II polymorphism with obesity with or without hypertension and diabetes and dyslipidemia among affected Egyptian cases. This study has included 120 subjects affected with obesity; 57 of them were affected with metabolic syndrome (with diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension while the other 63 cases were not complicated and were termed simple obesity. These cases were compared to 83 healthy non-obese controls. Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist Hip Ration (WHR and serum lipid levels were measured. The LPL gene polymorphic alleles were determined by PCR-RFLP that includes polymerase chain reaction for gene amplification followed by digestion with Pvu II enzyme and analysis according to the size of digested amplified DNA. Obesity cases had a significantly higher frequency of the homozygous mutated LPL Pvu II (+/+ genotype and also of the (+ allele particularly among metabolic syndrome cases compared to controls. Cases with the (+/+ homozygous genotype showed significantly higher frequency of diabetes, lower frequency of positive family history and lower values for waist hip ratio than those with the (+/- and (-/- genotypes. These cases have showed also higher levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C, yet not reaching statistical significance. This study showed a significant association between the LPL Pvu II gene polymorphism and obesity among Egyptian cases particularly when complicated with the metabolic syndrome.

  6. Proteinuria and lipoprotein lipase activity in Miniature Schnauzer dogs with and without hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrow, E; Jaeger, J Q; Parker, V J; Hinchcliff, K W; Johnson, S E; Murdoch, S J; de Boer, I H; Sherding, R G; Brunzell, J D

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous hyperlipidemia in rats causes glomerular disease. Idiopathic hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is prevalent in Miniature Schnauzers, but its relationship with proteinuria is unknown. Decreased activity of major lipid metabolism enzymes, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL), may play a role in the cyclic relationship between hyperlipidemia and proteinuria. These enzymes have also not been previously investigated in Miniature Schnauzers. The aims of this study were to determine the relationship between HTG and proteinuria in Miniature Schnauzers and to measure LPL and HL activities in a subset of dogs. Fifty-seven Miniature Schnauzers were recruited (34 with and 23 without HTG). Fasting serum triglyceride concentrations and urine protein-to-creatinine ratios (UPC) were measured in all dogs, and LPL and HL activities were determined in 17 dogs (8 with and 9 without HTG). There was a strong positive correlation between triglyceride concentration and UPC (r = 0.77-0.83, P Proteinuria (UPC ≥ 0.5) was present in 60% of dogs with HTG and absent from all dogs without HTG (P Proteinuria occurs with HTG in Miniature Schnauzers and could be due to lipid-induced glomerular injury. Reduced LPL activity may contribute to the severity of HTG, but further assay validation is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Zinc deficiency and the activities of lipoprotein lipase in plasma and tissues of rats force-fed diets with coconut oil or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, S I; Eder, K; Kettler, A; Kirchgessner, M

    2000-03-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of zinc deficiency on the activities of lipoprotein lipase in postheparin serum and tissues of rats fed diets containing either coconut oil or fish oil as dietary fat, using a bifactorial experimental design. To ensure an adequate food intake, all the rats were force-fed by gastric tube. Experimental diets contained either 0.8 mg zinc/kg (zinc-deficient diets) or 40 mg zinc/kg (zinc-adequate diets). The effects of zinc deficiency on the activities of lipoprotein lipase in postheparin serum and postprandial triglyceride concentrations and distribution of apolipoproteins in serum lipoproteins depended on the type of dietary fat. Zinc-deficient rats fed the coconut oil diet exhibited a reduced activity of lipoprotein lipase in postheparin serum and adipose tissue, markedly increased concentrations of triglycerides in serum, and a markedly reduced content of apolipoprotein C in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins compared with zinc-adequate rats fed coconut oil. By contrast, zinc-deficient rats fed the fish oil diet did not exhibit reduced activities of lipoprotein lipase in postheparin serum and adipose tissue and increased concentrations of serum lipids compared with zinc-adequate rats fed the fish oil diet. This study suggests that a reduced activity of lipoprotein lipase might contribute to increased postprandial concentrations of serum triglycerides observed in zinc-deficient animals. However, it also demonstrates that the effects of zinc deficiency on lipoprotein metabolism are influenced by dietary fatty acids.

  8. SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS OF LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE GENE AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH MARBLING QUALITY IN LOCAL SHEEPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hidayati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (LPL is a key enzyme that plays in metabolism and transport lipoprotein andtherefore has an influence on blood triglyceride levels. LPL controls triacylglycerol partitioning betweenadipose tissue and muscle that increases fat storage or provides energy in the form of fatty acids formuscle growth. The research was aimed to explore Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of LPL gene andto associate SNP with marbling quality. A total of 66 genomic DNAs consisted of sumatera thin-tail edsheep (50 heads and garut sheep (16 heads were used in this study. Polymerase Chain Reaction wasused to amplify genomic DNA and direct sequencing method was to identify polymorphism sequences.The sequences were analyzed with Bio Edit and MEGA 5.2. The BLAST sequence was obtained fromgene bank X.68308.1. The association between the genotype and marbling quality was analyze by oneway ANOVA and further between mean differences were tested using least sgnificant difference. Theresults showed that 3 novel SNPs i.e. insertion g.26>C; insertion g.27> G and c.192T>C on garut sheepand a SNP insertion g.26>C/G on sumatera thin-tail ed sheep. The diversity of LPL gene at c.192T>Cwas associated with heneicosanoic acid, whereas TT genotype (0.04% was higher than CC (0.03% andCT (0.02%.

  9. Lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphisms and risks of childhood obesity in Chinese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li N; Yu, Qing; Xiong, Yan; Liu, Lin F; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Xue N; Cheng, Hao; Wang, Bei

    2011-10-01

    Childhood obesity is increasingly prevalent in the community and is related to many adult diseases. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a central role in dyslipidemia, and polymorphisms of the LPL gene may result in the disturbance in the lipid's metabolism. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that genetic variants of LPL and serum lipid levels are associated with the risk of childhood obesity. We genotyped +495T > G and PvuII T > C in an LPL gene and measured the serum lipid levels in a case-control study of 124 obese children and 346 frequency-matched normal controls in preschool Chinese children. The variant genotypes of LPL + 495GG and PvuII CC were associated with a significantly increased risk of childhood obesity [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.09-5.23 for +495 GG; adjusted OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.04-3.83 for PvuII CC], compared with their wild-type genotypes, respectively. In addition, compared with the lower serum level cut off by the control median, the higher level of serum triglyceride (TG) (>0.59 mmol/L) was associated with a 1.32-fold increased risk of childhood obesity, and the higher level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) (>1.14 mmol/L) was associated with a 36% decrease in risk of childhood obesity. Furthermore, the median levels of TG were higher in obese children carrying LPL +495TT/TG and PvuII TT/CT genotypes than those in controls, the HDLC levels were lower in obese children carrying LPL +495TG and PvuII CT/CC genotypes than those in controls. In conclusion, the LPL gene +495T > G and PvuII T > C polymorphisms may modulate the magnitude of dyslipidemia in Chinese early-onset obesity.

  10. Triglyceride kinetics, tissue lipoprotein lipase, and liver lipogenesis in septic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A. (Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studied by examining liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant iv infusion of (2-3H)glycerol-labeled VLDL. Clearance of VLDL-TG was also evaluated by measuring activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in heart, soleus muscle, and adipose tissue from fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E. coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 x 10(7) live E. coli colonies per 100 g body wt. Twenty-four hours after E. coli injection, serum TG, free fatty acids (FFA), and cholesterol of fasted E. coli-treated rats were elevated by 170, 76, and 16%, respectively. The elevation of serum TG may be attributed to the 67% decrease in clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E. coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The suppressed activities of LPL in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and heart were consistent with reduced clearance of TG. Secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in livers of fasted E. coli-treated rats, which was accompanied by a twofold increase in the composition of liver TG. Rates of in vivo TG synthesis in livers of the fasted E. coli-treated rats were twofold higher than in those of fasted control rats. Decreased rate of TG appearance along with the increase in liver synthesis of TG contributed to the elevation of liver lipids in the fasted E. coli-treated rats.

  11. Haplotypes in the lipoprotein lipase gene influence fasting insulin and discovery of a new risk haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mark O; Taylor, Kent D; Guo, Xiuqing; Hokanson, John E; Haffner, Steven M; Cui, Jinrui; Chen, Yii-Der I; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Bergman, Richard N; Rotter, Jerome I

    2007-01-01

    Prior studies of Mexican Americans described association of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene haplotypes with insulin sensitivity/resistance and atherosclerosis. The most common haplotype (haplotype 1) was protective, whereas the fourth most common haplotype (haplotype 4) conferred risk for insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In this study of Hispanics in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study Family Study, we sought to replicate LPL haplotype association with insulin sensitivity/resistance. LPL haplotypes based on 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed for association with indexes of insulin sensitivity and other metabolic and adiposity measures. This study was conducted in the general community of San Antonio, Texas, and San Luis Valley, Colorado. Participants in this study were 978 members of 86 Hispanic families. LPL haplogenotype, metabolic phenotypes, and adiposity were measured in this study. The haplotype structure was identical with that observed in prior studies. Among 978 phenotyped subjects, haplotype 1 was associated with decreased fasting insulin (P = 0.01), and haplotype 4 was associated with increased fasting insulin (P = 0.02) and increased visceral fat mass (P = 0.002). Insulin sensitivity, derived from iv glucose tolerance testing, tended (P > 0.1) to be higher with haplotype 1 (S(I) = 1.72) and lower with haplotype 4 (S(I)=1.38). Haplotype 2 was associated with increases in fasting insulin, triglycerides (TGs), TG to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio, and apolipoprotein B (P = 0.01-0.04). This study independently replicates our prior results of LPL haplotypes 1 and 4 as associated with measures of insulin sensitivity and resistance, respectively. Haplotype 4 may confer insulin resistance by increasing visceral fat. Haplotype 2 was identified as a new risk haplotype, suggesting the complex nature of LPL's effect on features of the insulin resistance syndrome.

  12. Effects of adipocyte lipoprotein lipase on de novo lipogenesis and white adipose tissue browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Alexander; Weigelt, Clara; Cherradi, M Lisa; Niemeier, Andreas; Tödter, Klaus; Heeren, Joerg; Scheja, Ludger

    2013-05-01

    Efficient storage of dietary and endogenous fatty acids is a prerequisite for a healthy adipose tissue function. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the master regulator of fatty acid uptake from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In addition to LPL-mediated fatty acid uptake, adipocytes are able to synthesize fatty acids from non-lipid precursor, a process called de novo lipogenesis (DNL). As the physiological relevance of fatty acid uptake versus DNL for brown and white adipocyte function remains unclear, we studied the role of adipocyte LPL using adipocyte-specific LPL knockout animals (aLKO). ALKO mice displayed a profound increase in DNL-fatty acids, especially palmitoleate and myristoleate in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) depots while essential dietary fatty acids were markedly decreased. Consequently, we found increased expression in adipose tissues of genes encoding DNL enzymes (Fasn, Scd1, and Elovl6) as well as the lipogenic transcription factor carbohydrate response element binding protein-β. In a high-fat diet (HFD) study aLKO mice were characterized by reduced adiposity and improved plasma insulin and adipokines. However, neither glucose tolerance nor inflammatory markers were ameliorated in aLKO mice compared to controls. No signs of increased BAT activation or WAT browning were detected in aLKO mice either on HFD or after 1 week of β3-adrenergic stimulation using CL316,243. We conclude that despite a profound increase in DNL-derived fatty acids, proposed to be metabolically favorable, aLKO mice are not protected from metabolic disease per se. In addition, induction of DNL alone is not sufficient to promote browning of WAT. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  13. Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) Polymorphism and the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Li, You-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) polymorphism has been extensively investigated as a potential risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the results of these studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to explore the association between LPL polymorphism and CAD risk. Methods: The literature was searched from electronic databases such as Embase, China Biological Medicine Database, PubMed, Knowledge Infrastructure, and China National Web of Science by the key words “coronary artery disease”, “lipoprotein lipase” and “polymorphism”. All of the studies included in this manuscript met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. An odds ratio (OR) analysis using a 95% confidence interval (CI) was employed to assess the association of the LPL polymorphism with CAD susceptibility. Results: We performed a meta-analysis of 14 case-control studies including HindIII, Ser447X and PvuII polymorphism. A statistically significant increase in the risk of CAD was associated with LPL HindIII polymorphism. This included HindIII H+H+ genotype (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.09–1.49, p = 0.002, I2 = 43%) and H+ allele genotype (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.03–1.58, p = 0.03, I2 = 67%). Ser447X XX genotype (OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.33–4.24, p = 0.004, I2 = 53%) was also associated with CAD risk. However, PvuII polymorphism was found to have no significant association with CAD risk. Conclusions: LPL HindIII polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of CAD. For Ser447X polymorphism, it was found that only XX genotype was significantly associated with CAD risk. Furthermore, PvuII polymorphism had no significant association with CAD risk. It was considered that LPL HindIII polymorphism might serve as a potential biomarker for CAD risk.

  14. The acidic domain of the endothelial membrane protein GPIHBP1 stabilizes lipoprotein lipase activity by preventing unfolding of its catalytic domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Simon; Kristensen, Kristian Kølby; Larsson, Mikael;

    2016-01-01

    GPIHBP1 is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein of capillary endothelial cells that binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) within the interstitial space and shuttles it to the capillary lumen. The LPL•GPIHBP1 complex is responsible for margination of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins along capillaries and...

  15. Lipoprotein Lipase as a Candidate Target for Cancer Prevention/Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Takasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that serum triglyceride (TG levels are linked with risk of development of cancer, including colorectal and pancreatic cancers, and their precancerous lesions. Thus, it is assumed that serum TG plays an important role in carcinogenesis, and the key enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of plasma TG, may therefore be involved. Dysregulation of LPL has been reported to contribute to many human diseases, such as atherosclerosis, chylomicronaemia, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been reported that LPL gene deficiency, such as due to chromosome 8p22 loss, LPL gene polymorphism, and epigenetic changes in its promoter region gene, increases cancer risk, especially in the prostate. In animal experiments, high serum TG levels seem to promote sporadic/carcinogen-induced genesis of colorectal and pancreatic cancers. Interestingly, tumor suppressive effects of LPL inducers, such as PPAR ligands, NO-1886, and indomethacin, have been demonstrated in animal models. Moreover, recent evidence that LPL plays important roles in inflammation and obesity implies that it is an appropriate general target for chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents.

  16. Relationship between a lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphism in placental tissue and insulin resistance in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D D; Su, D Y; Xue, L; Gao, W; Pang, W Y

    2015-07-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between a lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene polymorphism in placental tissue and insulin resistance (IR) in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. Using polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, the LPL HindIII RFLP was examined in the placental tissue of 110 patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (observation group) and 110 women with normal gestation (control group). The relationships between fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting insulin (FINS), cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), body mass index (BMI), and IR indices and the LPL polymorphism in the two study groups and their offspring were determined. The frequency of the H+ allele was significantly higher in the observation group than in the controls (P diabetes, and was also found to be related to the IR of their offspring.

  17. Intermittent hypoxia inhibits clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and inactivates adipose lipoprotein lipase in a mouse model of sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drager, Luciano F; Li, Jianguo; Shin, Mi-Kyung; Reinke, Christian; Aggarwal, Neil R; Jun, Jonathan C; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Sztalryd, Carole; O'Byrne, Sheila M; Kroupa, Olessia; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Blaner, William S; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2012-03-01

    Delayed lipoprotein clearance is associated with atherosclerosis. This study examined whether chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a hallmark of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), can lead to hyperlipidaemia by inhibiting clearance of triglyceride rich lipoproteins (TRLP). Male C57BL/6J mice on high-cholesterol diet were exposed to 4 weeks of CIH or chronic intermittent air (control). FIO(2) was decreased to 6.5% once per minute during the 12 h light phase in the CIH group. After the exposure, we measured fasting lipid profile. TRLP clearance was assessed by oral gavage of retinyl palmitate followed by serum retinyl esters (REs) measurements at 0, 1, 2, 4, 10, and 24 h. Activity of lipoprotein lipase (LpL), a key enzyme of lipoprotein clearance, and levels of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4), a potent inhibitor of the LpL activity, were determined in the epididymal fat pads, skeletal muscles, and heart. Chronic intermittent hypoxia induced significant increases in levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides, which occurred in TRLP and LDL fractions (P5-fold decrease in LpL activity (P< 0.01) and an 80% increase in Angptl4 mRNA and protein levels in the epididymal fat, but not in the skeletal muscle or heart. CIH decreases TRLP clearance and inhibits LpL activity in adipose tissue, which may contribute to atherogenesis observed in OSA.

  18. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in a patient heterozygous for a lipoprotein lipase gene allele with two novel missense variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassner, Ursula; Salewsky, Bastian; Wühle-Demuth, Marion; Szijarto, Istvan Andras; Grenkowitz, Thomas; Binner, Priska; März, Winfried; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2015-09-01

    Rare monogenic hyperchylomicronemia is caused by loss-of-function mutations in genes involved in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, including the lipoprotein lipase gene, LPL. Clinical hallmarks of this condition are eruptive xanthomas, recurrent pancreatitis and abdominal pain. Patients with LPL deficiency and severe or recurrent pancreatitis are eligible for the first gene therapy treatment approved by the European Union. Therefore the precise molecular diagnosis of familial hyperchylomicronemia may affect treatment decisions. We present a 57-year-old male patient with excessive hypertriglyceridemia despite intensive lipid-lowering therapy. Abdominal sonography showed signs of chronic pancreatitis. Direct DNA sequencing and cloning revealed two novel missense variants, c.1302A>T and c.1306G>A, in exon 8 of the LPL gene coexisting on the same allele. The variants result in the amino-acid exchanges p.(Lys434Asn) and p.(Gly436Arg). They are located in the carboxy-terminal domain of lipoprotein lipase that interacts with the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored HDL-binding protein (GPIHBP1) and are likely of functional relevance. No further relevant mutations were found by direct sequencing of the genes for APOA5, APOC2, LMF1 and GPIHBP1. We conclude that heterozygosity for damaging mutations of LPL may be sufficient to produce severe hypertriglyceridemia and that chylomicronemia may be transmitted in a dominant manner, at least in some families.

  19. Cardiac lipoprotein lipase activity in the hypertrophied heart may be regulated by fatty acid flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauton, David; Caldwell, Germaine M

    2012-04-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterised by an imbalance between lipid uptake and fatty acid β-oxidation leading to an accumulation of lipids, particularly triacylglycerol (TAG). It is unclear whether uptake mechanisms such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL) can be attenuated to diminish this uptake. Rats were cold acclimated to induce cardiac hypertrophy and increase cardiac LPL. Lipid uptake and metabolism were altered by feeding a 'Western-style' high fat diet (WSD) or feeding oxfenicine (2g/L) in the drinking water. Diastolic stiffness (increased volume change/unit pressure change) was induced in hypertrophied hearts for rats fed WSD (Pmuscle, estimated from stress-strain calculations was unchanged. Cold acclimation increased cardiac endothelial LPL (P<0.05) but this was diminished following oxfenicine. Following WSD LPL was further decreased below WSD-fed control hearts (P<0.05) with no further decrease by oxfenicine supplementation. A negative correlation was noted between plasma TAG and endothelial LPL (correlation coefficient=-0.654; P<0.001) but not cardiac TAG concentration. Transcript levels of angiopoietin-like protein-4 (ANGPTL4) were increased 6-fold by WSD (P<0.05) and increased 15-fold following WSD+oxfenicine (P<0.001). For CA-hearts fed WSD or WSD+oxfenicine ANGPTL4 mRNA levels were preserved at chow-fed levels. VLDLR protein levels were increased 10-fold (P<0.01) by CA. ANGPTL4 protein levels were increased 2-fold (P<0.05) by WSD, but restored following oxfenicine. For CA-hearts WSD increased ANGPTL4 protein levels 3-fold (P<0.01) with WSD+oxfenicine increasing ANGPTL4 protein 4-fold (P<0.01). These data suggest that endothelial LPL levels in the heart are altered to maintain FA flux and may exploit ANGPTL4. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of circulating lipoprotein lipase and adiponectin on the particle size of remnant lipoproteins in patients with diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Takashi; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Yatsuzuka, Shin-ichi; Shimomura, Younosuke; Kobayashi, Junji; Machida, Tetsuo; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Masami

    2015-02-02

    The factors regulating particle size of remnant lipoproteins (RLPs) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) cases have not been well elucidated. T2DM, MetS and healthy controls with and without a fatty liver were studied. Remnant lipoprotein (RLP)-cholesterol (RLP-C) and RLP-triglyceride (RLP-TG), small dense LDL-cholesterol (sdLDL-C), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) and adiponectin concentrations were measured in the fasting pre-heparin plasma. The RLP particle size was estimated by the RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio. The serum TG, RLP-C, RLP-TG, RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio and sdLDL-C were significantly greater in T2DM and MetS than in controls. Fatty liver and high serum TG were significantly associated with an increased RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio which was used to estimate the particle size of RLP in controls, T2DM and MetS. LPL and adiponectin in the pre-heparin plasma were inversely correlated with RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio in normal, T2DM and MetS. LPL was also positively correlated with adiponectin in all three cases. RLP particle size in T2DM and MetS was significantly larger than in controls and was regulated by circulating LPL and adiponectin, but not HTGL. Fatty liver and high TG were significantly associated with the prevalence of the large RLP particle size. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effects of 2 G on adiposity, leptin, lipoprotein lipase, and uncoupling protein-1 in lean and obese Zucker rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L. E.; Horwitz, B. A.; Hamilton, J. S.; Fuller, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Male Zucker rats were exposed to 2 G for 8 wk to test the hypothesis that the leptin regulatory pathway contributes to recovery from effects of 2 G on feeding, growth, and nutrient partitioning. After initial hypophagia, body mass-independent food intake of the lean rats exposed to 2 G surpassed that of the lean rats maintained at 1 G, but food intake of the obese rats exposed to 2 G remained low. After 8 wk at 2 G, body mass and carcass fat were less in both genotypes. Leptin and percent fat were lower in lean rats exposed to 2 G vs. 1 G but did not differ in obese rats exposed to 2 G vs. 1 G. Although exposure to 2 G did not alter uncoupling protein-1 levels, it did elicit white fat pad-specific changes in lipoprotein lipase activity in obese but not lean rats. We conclude that 2 G affects both genotypes but that the lean Zucker rats recover their food intake and growth rate and retain "normal" lipoprotein lipase activity to a greater degree than do the obese rats, emphasizing the importance of a functional leptin regulatory pathway in this acclimation.

  2. Effects of 2 G on adiposity, leptin, lipoprotein lipase, and uncoupling protein-1 in lean and obese Zucker rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L. E.; Horwitz, B. A.; Hamilton, J. S.; Fuller, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Male Zucker rats were exposed to 2 G for 8 wk to test the hypothesis that the leptin regulatory pathway contributes to recovery from effects of 2 G on feeding, growth, and nutrient partitioning. After initial hypophagia, body mass-independent food intake of the lean rats exposed to 2 G surpassed that of the lean rats maintained at 1 G, but food intake of the obese rats exposed to 2 G remained low. After 8 wk at 2 G, body mass and carcass fat were less in both genotypes. Leptin and percent fat were lower in lean rats exposed to 2 G vs. 1 G but did not differ in obese rats exposed to 2 G vs. 1 G. Although exposure to 2 G did not alter uncoupling protein-1 levels, it did elicit white fat pad-specific changes in lipoprotein lipase activity in obese but not lean rats. We conclude that 2 G affects both genotypes but that the lean Zucker rats recover their food intake and growth rate and retain "normal" lipoprotein lipase activity to a greater degree than do the obese rats, emphasizing the importance of a functional leptin regulatory pathway in this acclimation.

  3. Combined analysis of six lipoprotein lipase genetic variants on triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and ischemic heart disease: cross-sectional, prospective, and case-control studies from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrup, HH; Andersen, RV; Tybjærg-Hansen, A

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Genetic variants in lipoprotein lipase may affect triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of T(-93)G, G(-53)C, Asp9Asn, Gly188Glu, Asn291Ser, and Ser447Ter lipoprotein...... in plasma triglycerides greater than 1 mmol/liter and differences in HDL cholesterol greater than 0.5 mmol/liter. A 1.6-fold risk of IHD in 9Asn (with -93G) heterozygotes and homozygotes combined is influenced by apolipoprotein E genotype.......CONTEXT: Genetic variants in lipoprotein lipase may affect triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of T(-93)G, G(-53)C, Asp9Asn, Gly188Glu, Asn291Ser, and Ser447Ter lipoprotein...... lipase genotypes on triglycerides, HDL, and IHD. DESIGN: The cross-sectional study involved 9004 adults. The prospective study consisted of 8817 adults developing 1001 IHD events over 23 yr. The case-control study involved 7818 non-IHD individuals vs. cohorts of 915 and 1062 IHD patients, respectively...

  4. The angiopoietin-like protein ANGPTL4 catalyzes unfolding of the hydrolase domain in lipoprotein lipase and the endothelial membrane protein GPIHBP1 counteracts this unfolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Simon; Kristensen, Kristian Kølby; Larsson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) undergoes spontaneous inactivation via global unfolding and this unfolding is prevented by GPIHBP1 (Mysling et al., 2016). We now show: (1) that ANGPTL4 inactivates LPL by catalyzing the unfolding of its hydrolase domain; (2) that binding to GPIHBP1 renders LPL largely...

  5. Effect of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene Polymorphism on Plasma Lipid Levels, BMI and Subcutaneous Fat Distribution in Simple Obesity Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Hind Ⅲ DNA polymorphis in the lipoprotein lipase ( LPL )gene on plasma lipid levels, body mass index ( BMI) and subcutaneous fat distribution in simple obesity children. Methods The LPL Hind Ⅲ genotypes were detected with the polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) and restriction fragment length polymorphism ( RFLP ) techniques in 92 children with simple obesity. The levels of the plnsma lipid, plasma lipoproteins, BMI and skinfold thickness in three regions (biceps, subscapular and abdominal uall) were also measured. Results It was shown that the levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, ApoB, BMI, biceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, and the average value of the skinfold thickness in three regions were significantly higher in the obese children uyith H -H- genotype than those with H-+-H- genotype. Conclusions It can be concluded that LPL-Hind Ⅲ polymorphism may modify the levels of plasma lipid, plasma lipoprotein and BMI in children with simple obesity, and meanwhile alters the distribution of subcutaneous fat.

  6. Effect of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene Polymorphism on Plasma Lipid Levels, BMI and Subcutaneous Fat Distribution in Simple Obesity Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Hind Ⅲ DNA polymorphis in the lipoprotein lipase ( LPL )gene on plasma lipid levels, body mass index ( BMI) and subcutaneous fat distribution in simple obesity children. Methods The LPL Hind Ⅲ genotypes were detected with the polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) and restriction fragment length polymorphism ( RFLP ) techniques in 92 children with simple obesity. The levels of the plnsma lipid, plasma lipoproteins, BMI and skinfold thickness in three regions (biceps, subscapular and abdominal uall) were also measured. Results It was shown that the levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, ApoB, BMI, biceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, and the average value of the skinfold thickness in three regions were significantly higher in the obese children uyith H -H- genotype than those with H-+-H- genotype. Conclusions It can be concluded that LPL-Hind Ⅲ polymorphism may modify the levels of plasma lipid, plasma lipoprotein and BMI in children with simple obesity, and meanwhile alters the distribution of subcutaneous fat.

  7. Genetic epidemiology of lipoprotein lipase deficiency in Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean (Québec, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, C; Gagné, C; Julien, P; Murthy, M R; Lambert, M; Roederer, G; Davignon, J; Hayden, M R; Lupien, P J; de Braekeleer, M

    1992-01-01

    Familial hyperchylomicronemia due to the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity deficiency (Type I hyperlipoproteinemia) is an autosomal recessive disorder with a prevalence estimated at one case per million. Thirty-four type I individuals are known in Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean (SLSJ), a geographically isolated region of Quebec. The prevalence of type I and LPL deficient heterozygote in this region was estimated at 1/6382 and 1/46 inhabitants respectively. The mean inbreeding coefficient was slightly elevated in the type I group compared with three control groups. The mean kinship coefficient was 15.1 times higher in the type I group than in the control groups. The high prevalence of type I in SLSJ appears to be the result of the emigration of carriers of LPL deficiency from Charlevoix, another isolated region of quebec to the SLSJ region. Endogamy also played a crucial role in increasing the prevalence of type I in SLSJ.

  8. Interaction of lipoprotein lipase with p-nitrophenyl N-alkylcarbamates: kinetics, mechanism, and analogy to the acylenzyme mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H C; Quinn, D M

    1992-01-28

    The interaction of lipoprotein lipase with p-nitrophenyl N-alkylcarbamates [PNPOC(=O)-NHCnH2n+1; n = 4, 8, and 12] proceeds by the three-stage mechanism shown below. After reversible [formula: see text] formation of the enzyme-carbamate complex (EC), rapid carbamylation (kc) precedes slow decarbamylation. Therefore, in short-term assays (less than or equal to 30 min) of lipoprotein lipase catalyzed hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate, activity is rapidly lost. The inhibition by p-nitrophenyl N-butylcarbamate follows saturation kinetics, which allows determination of Kc = 5.4 +/- 0.9 microM and kc = (4.9 +/- 0.7) x 10(-2)s-1. Saturation kinetics are not observed for the longer inhibitors p-nitrophenyl N-octylcarbamate and p-nitrophenyl N-dodecylcarbamate. Rather, plots of the pseudo-first-order rate constant for activity loss versus inhibitor concentration are concave upward, consistent with inhibitor binding to two sites on the enzyme. The inhibition phase is sufficiently rapid that p-nitrophenyl N-octylcarbamate can be used to titrate enzyme active sites. On the other hand, long-term assays (greater than 5 h) show sequential inhibition and activity return phases, and from the activity return phase kd is calculated. The long-term activity time course is accurately simulated by Runge-Kutta integration of the differential equations for the three-stage mechanism. These approaches have been used to characterize the kinetics of interaction of the enzyme with the carbamate inhibitors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Lipoprotein lipase activity and mass, apolipoprotein C-II mass and polymorphisms of apolipoproteins E and A5 in subjects with prior acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Arias Carlota

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe hypertriglyceridaemia due to chylomicronemia may trigger an acute pancreatitis. However, the basic underlying mechanism is usually not well understood. We decided to analyze some proteins involved in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia. Methods Twenty-four survivors of acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis (cases and 31 patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia (controls were included. Clinical and anthropometrical data, chylomicronaemia, lipoprotein profile, postheparin lipoprotein lipase mass and activity, hepatic lipase activity, apolipoprotein C II and CIII mass, apo E and A5 polymorphisms were assessed. Results Only five cases were found to have LPL mass and activity deficiency, all of them thin and having the first episode in childhood. No cases had apolipoprotein CII deficiency. No significant differences were found between the non-deficient LPL cases and the controls in terms of obesity, diabetes, alcohol consumption, drug therapy, gender distribution, evidence of fasting chylomicronaemia, lipid levels, LPL activity and mass, hepatic lipase activity, CII and CIII mass or apo E polymorphisms. However, the SNP S19W of apo A5 tended to be more prevalent in cases than controls (40% vs. 23%, NS. Conclusion Primary defects in LPL and C-II are rare in survivors of acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis; lipase activity measurements should be restricted to those having their first episode during chilhood.

  10. Lipoprotein lipase and hydrofluoric acid deactivate both bacterial lipoproteins and lipoteichoic acids, but platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase degrades only lipoteichoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ho Seong; Nahm, Moon H

    2009-08-01

    To identify the Toll-like receptor 2 ligand critically involved in infections with gram-positive bacteria, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is often used to selectively inactivate lipoproteins, and hydrofluoric acid (HF) or platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) is used to selectively inactivate lipoteichoic acid (LTA). However, the specificities of these chemical reactions are unknown. We investigated the reaction specificities by using two synthetic lipoproteins (Pam(3)CSK(4) and FSL-1) and LTAs from pneumococci and staphylococci. Changes in the structures of the two synthetic proteins and the LTAs were monitored by mass spectrometry, and biological activity changes were evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor alpha production by mouse macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) following stimulation. PAF-AH inactivated LTA without reducing the biological activities of Pam(3)CSK(4) and FSL-1. Mass spectroscopy confirmed that PAF-AH monodeacylated pneumococcal LTA but did not alter the structure of either Pam(3)CSK(4) or FSL-1. As expected, HF treatment reduced the biological activity of LTA by more than 80% and degraded LTA. HF treatment not only deacylated Pam(3)CSK(4) and FSL-1 but also reduced the activities of the lipoproteins by more than 60%. Treatment with LPL decreased the biological activities by more than 80%. LPL also removed an acyl chain from the LTA and reduced its activity. Our results indicate that treatment with 1% H(2)O(2) for 6 h at 37 degrees C inactivates Pam(3)CSK(4), FSL-1, and LTA by more than 80%. Although HF, LPL, and H(2)O(2) treatments degrade and inactivate both lipopeptides and LTA, PAF-AH selectively inactivated LTA with no effect on the biological and structural properties of the two lipopeptides. Also, the ability of PAF-AH to reduce the inflammatory activities of cell wall extracts from gram-positive bacteria suggests LTA to be essential in inflammatory responses to gram-positive bacteria.

  11. Effects of insulin and exercise on muscle lipoprotein lipase activity in man and its relation to insulin action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Lithell, H; Mikines, K J;

    1989-01-01

    -induced increase in leg glucose uptake (r = 0.93, P less than 0.05). In the control group (n = 6) in which saline was infused in place of insulin and glucose, m-LPLA in nonexercised muscle did not change with time. No change in m-LPLA was observed immediately after one-legged knee extension exercise, but 4 h after......The effects of exercise and a physiological increase in plasma insulin concentration on muscle lipoprotein lipase activity (mLPLA), leg exchange of glucose, and serum lipoprotein levels were investigated in healthy young men. During euglycemic hyperinsulinemia (n = 7) at 44 mU.liter-1, m......-LPLA in non-exercised muscle decreased from 30 +/- 7.4 mU.g-1 wet weight (w.w.) (mean +/- SE) to 19 +/- 3.3 (P less than 0.05). Furthermore, the decrease in m-LPLA correlated closely (r = 0.97, P less than 0.05) with the increase in leg glucose uptake. Moreover, basal m-LPLA correlated with the insulin...

  12. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency caused by known (G188E) and novel (W394X) LPL gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, A J; Crawford, G M; Brisbane, J M; Robertson, K; Watts, G F; van Bockxmeer, F M; Burnett, J R

    2008-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the key enzyme in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the circulation. Familial LPL deficiency is characterized by hypertriglyceridaemia and absence of LPL activity. We report a case of LPL deficiency in a 43-year-old woman, who initially presented in childhood with chylomicronaemia syndrome. At that time, her plasma triglyceride concentration was approximately 30 mmol/L and post-heparin lipolytic activity was very low. In addition to having the known missense mutation LPL G188E, the patient was also found to have a novel nonsense mutation in exon 8, namely LPL W394X. The novel substitution in exon 8 (c.1262G > A) predicts a truncated protein product of 393 amino acids that lacks the carboxylterminal 12% of the mature LPL. Trp(394) is part of a cluster of exposed tryptophan residues in the carboxyl-terminal domain of LPL important for binding lipid substrate. Of 11 members from her three-generation family, three were heterozygotes for G188E (mean plasma triglyceride, 3.5 +/- 2.0 mmol/L), whereas six were heterozygotes for W394X (triglyceride, 4.3 +/- 1.8 mmol/L). In summary, we describe a case of familial LPL deficiency caused by compound heterozygosity for known (G188E) and novel (W394X) LPL gene mutations.

  13. Pancreatic carboxyl ester lipase: a circulating enzyme that modifies normal and oxidized lipoproteins in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Shamir, R.; Johnson, W. J.; Morlock-Fitzpatrick, K; R. Zolfaghari; Li, L; mas, e; Lombardo, D; Morel, D W; Fisher, E A

    1996-01-01

    Pancreatic carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) hydrolyzes cholesteryl esters (CE), triglycerides (TG), and lysophospholipids, with CE and TG hydrolysis stimulated by cholate. Originally thought to be confined to the gastrointestinal system, CEL has been reported in the plasma of humans and other mammals, implying its potential in vivo to modify lipids associated with LDL, HDL (CE, TG), and oxidized LDL (lysophosphatidylcholine, lysoPC). We measured the concentration of CEL in human plasma as 1.2+/-0....

  14. Impact of phosphatidylcholine liposomes on the compositional changes of VLDL during lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwiklińska, Agnieszka; Gliwińska, Anna; Senderowska, Zuzanna; Kortas-Stempak, Barbara; Kuchta, Agnieszka; Dąbkowski, Kamil; Jankowski, Maciej

    2016-02-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) is accompanied by the release of surface material containing phospholipids (PL), free cholesterol (FC) and apolipoproteins, E (apoE) and Cs (apoCII, apoCIII). The released molecules are accepted by high density lipoprotein (HDL), and new HDL-sized apoE-containing particles are also generated. A decrease in the number of HDL particles or abnormalities in their structure is associated with unfavourable changes in the features of VLDL remnants. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes (PC-L) can also act as acceptors of surface material components released from lipoproteins. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of liposomes on compositional changes of VLDL during its LPL-mediated lipolysis. VLDL isolated from human sera was incubated with LPL (LPL:VLDLTAG; 24 μg/ml:90 mg/dl) and/or PC-L (VLDLPL:PC-LPL; 1:30 weight ratio). After incubation (2h, 37 °C) VLDL was separated from other reaction products, and VLDL lipid and apolipoprotein content were analysed. Newly generated HDL-sized apoE-containing lipoproteins were separated by two-dimensional non-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGGE). The reaction of VLDL with PC-L in the presence or absence of LPL significantly affected the VLDL composition. The ratio of core (TAG+cholesteryl ester) to surface (PL+FC) lipids in VLDL decreased 1.8-fold with PC-L, 1.2-fold with LPL and 3-fold with PC-L+LPL. The reaction with PC-L and PC-L+LPL caused a 3.7-fold and 3.2-fold decrease of apoCs/apoE average weight ratio, respectively. Compositional changes in VLDL under the influence of PC-L were accompanied by an increase in the efficiency of VLDL lipolysis and the generation of apoE-containing HDL-sized particles, heterogeneous in size (from ∼ 9 to ∼ 18.8 nm) and mobility (γ and preβ). We conclude that PL-rich particles, similarly to HDL, promote the release of surface material components from VLDL during LPL

  15. Effect of 6 dietary fatty acids on the postprandial lipid profile, plasma fatty acids, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol ester transfer activities in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandstrøm, B.; Bysted, Anette;

    2001-01-01

    to the test-fat meals were observed for plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations, plasma fatty acid concentrations, and lipoprotein lipase and CETP activities (diet x time interaction: 0.001 saturated fatty acids stearic and palmitic acids resulted...... in a relatively lower lipemic response than did intake of the unsaturated fatty acids, probably because the saturated fatty acids were absorbed less and at a lower rate; therefore, the lipemic response took longer to return to postabsorptive values. Conclusions: Fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation...

  16. trans-10, cis-12 Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits lipoprotein lipase but increases the activity of lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue from hamsters fed an atherogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Zabala, Amaia; Churruca Ortega, Itziar; Fernández Quintela, Alfredo; Rodríguez Rivera, Víctor Manuel; Macarulla Arenaza, María Teresa; Martínez, J Alfredo; Portillo Baquedano, María Puy

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of trans-10,cis-12conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the activity and expression of lipogenic enzymes and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), as well as on the expression of transcriptional factors controlling these enzymes, in adipose tissue from hamsters, and to evaluate the involvement of these changes in the body fat-reducing effect of this CLA isomer. Thirty male hamsters were divided into three groups and fed atherogenic diets supplemented...

  17. Lipoprotein lipase expression, serum lipid and tissue lipid deposition in orally-administered glycyrrhizic acid-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton So

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities comprising visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance (IR. With the onset of IR, the expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL, a key regulator of lipoprotein metabolism, is reduced. Increased activation of glucocorticoid receptors results in MetS symptoms and is thus speculated to have a role in the pathophysiology of the MetS. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, the bioactive constituent of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 that catalyzes the activation of glucocorticoids. Thus, oral administration of GA is postulated to ameliorate the MetS. Results In this study, daily oral administration of 50 mg/kg of GA for one week led to significant increase in LPL expression in the quadriceps femoris (p p > 0.05 of the GA-treated rats compared to the control. Decrease in adipocyte size (p > 0.05 in both the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots accompanies such selective induction of LPL expression. Consistent improvement in serum lipid parameters was also observed, with decrease in serum free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol but elevated HDL-cholesterol (p > 0.05. Histological analysis using tissue lipid staining with Oil Red O showed significant decrease in lipid deposition in the abdominal muscle and quadriceps femoris (p p > 0.05. Conclusion Results from this study may imply that GA could counteract the development of visceral obesity and improve dyslipidaemia via selective induction of tissue LPL expression and a positive shift in serum lipid parameters respectively, and retard the development of IR associated with tissue steatosis.

  18. Angiopoietin-like 4 Modifies the Interactions between Lipoprotein Lipase and Its Endothelial Cell Transporter GPIHBP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xun; Shetty, Shwetha K; Shows, Hannah W; Hjelmaas, Alexander J; Malcolm, Emily K; Davies, Brandon S J

    2015-05-01

    The release of fatty acids from plasma triglycerides for tissue uptake is critically dependent on the enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides by LPL can be disrupted by the protein angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), and ANGPTL4 has been shown to inactivate LPL in vitro. However, in vivo LPL is often complexed to glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) on the surface of capillary endothelial cells. GPIHBP1 is responsible for trafficking LPL across capillary endothelial cells and anchors LPL to the capillary wall during lipolysis. How ANGPTL4 interacts with LPL in this context is not known. In this study, we investigated the interactions of ANGPTL4 with LPL-GPIHBP1 complexes on the surface of endothelial cells. We show that ANGPTL4 was capable of binding and inactivating LPL complexed to GPIHBP1 on the surface of endothelial cells. Once inactivated, LPL dissociated from GPIHBP1. We also show that ANGPTL4-inactivated LPL was incapable of binding GPIHBP1. ANGPTL4 was capable of binding, but not inactivating, LPL at 4 °C, suggesting that binding alone was not sufficient for ANGPTL4's inhibitory activity. We observed that although the N-terminal coiled-coil domain of ANGPTL4 by itself and full-length ANGPTL4 both bound with similar affinities to LPL, the N-terminal fragment was more potent in inactivating both free and GPIHBP1-bound LPL. These results led us to conclude that ANGPTL4 can both bind and inactivate LPL complexed to GPIHBP1 and that inactivation of LPL by ANGPTL4 greatly reduces the affinity of LPL for GPIHBP1.

  19. Cardiomyocyte VEGF Regulates Endothelial Cell GPIHBP1 to Relocate Lipoprotein Lipase to the Coronary Lumen During Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Amy Pei-Ling; Wan, Andrea; Lal, Nathaniel; Zhang, Dahai; Wang, Fulong; Vlodavsky, Israel; Hussein, Bahira; Rodrigues, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated triglyceride hydrolysis is the major source of fatty acid for cardiac energy. LPL, synthesized in cardiomyocytes, is translocated across endothelial cells (EC) by its transporter glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1). Previously, we have reported an augmentation in coronary LPL, which was linked to an increased expression of GPIHBP1 following moderate diabetes mellitus. We examined the potential mechanism by which hyperglycemia amplifies GPIHBP1. Exposure of rat aortic EC to high glucose induced GPIHBP1 expression and amplified LPL shuttling across these cells. This effect coincided with an elevated secretion of heparanase. Incubation of EC with high glucose or latent heparanase resulted in secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Primary cardiomyocytes, being a rich source of VEGF, when cocultured with EC, restored EC GPIHBP1 that is lost because of cell passaging. Furthermore, recombinant VEGF induced EC GPIHBP1 mRNA and protein expression within 24 hours, an effect that could be prevented by a VEGF neutralizing antibody. This VEGF-induced increase in GPIHBP1 was through Notch signaling that encompassed Delta-like ligand 4 augmentation and nuclear translocation of the Notch intracellular domain. Finally, cardiomyocytes from severely diabetic animals exhibiting attenuation of VEGF were unable to increase EC GPIHBP1 expression and had lower LPL activity at the vascular lumen in perfused hearts. EC, as the first responders to hyperglycemia, can release heparanase to liberate myocyte VEGF. This growth factor, by activating EC Notch signaling, is responsible for facilitating GPIHBP1-mediated translocation of LPL across EC and regulating LPL-derived fatty acid delivery to the cardiomyocytes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. 脂蛋白脂酶与代谢综合征%Lipoprotein lipase and metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈灶萍; 刘军; 查兵兵; 盛励; 徐炯

    2011-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the key enzyme in metabolism of lipids,which mainly hydrolyzes triglyceride (TG) and plays an important role in the metabolism of chylomicrons (CM)and very low density lipoprotein(VLDL).The defect of LPL or its abnormal activity can induce dyslipidemia and glucose metabolism disorder.Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clinical syndrome which characterized by the cluster of cardiovascular risk factors,such as abdominal obesity,hypertension and glycolipids metabolism disorders.LPL is now considered to play an important role in the occurrence and development of MS by more and more animal and cilinical evidences,and the research of LPL will help to explore new therapeutic direction for MS.%脂蛋白脂酶是脂质代谢的关键酶,主要水解甘油三酯,在乳糜微粒及极低密度脂蛋白的代谢中发挥重要作用.该酶的缺乏或活力异常,将导致糖、脂代谢紊乱.代谢综合征(MS)是以腹型肥胖,高血压,糖、脂代谢异常等多重心血管危险因素聚集为特征的临床综合征.越来越多的动物及临床证据表明,脂蛋白脂酶参与了 MS的发生、发展,故脂蛋白脂酶的研究将有助于探索MS治疗的新方向.

  1. Fasting Lipoprotein Lipase Protein Levels Can Predict a Postmeal Increment of Triglyceride Levels in Fasting Normohypertriglyceridemic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Kazunori; Sakane, Naoki

    2016-09-01

    Although a postprandial increment in triglyceride (TG) levels is considered to be a risk factor for atherogenesis, tests (e.g., fat load) to assess postprandial changes in TG levels cannot be easily applied to clinical practice. Therefore, fasting markers that predict postprandial TG states are needed to be developed. One current candidate is lipoprotein lipase (LPL) protein, a molecule that hydrides TGs. This study investigated whether fasting LPL levels could predict postprandial TG levels. A total of 17 subjects (11 men, 6 women, mean age 52 ± 11 years) with normotriglyceridemia during fasting underwent the meal test. Several fasting parameters, including LPL, were measured for the area under the curve of postprandial TGs (AUC-TG). The subjects' mean fasting TG level was 1.30 mmol/l, and their mean LPL level was 41.6 ng/ml. The subjects' TG levels increased after loading (they peaked after two postprandial hours). Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that fasting TG levels were a predictor of the AUC-TG. In addition, fasting LPL mass levels were found to be a predictor of the AUC-TG (β = 0.65, P fasting TG levels. Fasting LPL levels may be useful to predict postprandial TG increment in this population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Lipoprotein Lipase and PPAR Alpha Gene Polymorphisms, Increased Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Levels, and Decreased High-Density Lipoprotein Levels as Risk Markers for the Development of Visceral Leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Dias Teixeira Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In visceral leishmaniasis (VL endemic areas, a minority of infected individuals progress to disease since most of them develop protective immunity. Therefore, we investigated the risk markers of VL within nonimmune sector. Analyzing infected symptomatic and, asymptomatic, and noninfected individuals, VL patients presented with reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, elevated triacylglycerol (TAG, and elevated very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C levels. A polymorphism analysis of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL gene using HindIII restriction digestion (N = 156 samples (H+ = the presence and H− = the absence of mutation revealed an increased adjusted odds ratio (OR of VL versus noninfected individuals when the H+/H+ was compared with the H−/H− genotype (OR = 21.3; 95% CI = 2.32–3335.3; P = 0.003. The H+/H+ genotype and the H+ allele were associated with elevated VLDL-C and TAG levels (P < 0.05 and reduced HDL-C levels (P < 0.05. An analysis of the L162V polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα gene (n = 248 revealed an increased adjusted OR when the Leu/Val was compared with the Leu/Leu genotype (OR = 8.77; 95% CI = 1.41–78.70; P = 0.014. High TAG (P = 0.021 and VLDL-C (P = 0.023 levels were associated with susceptibility to VL, whereas low HDL (P = 0.006 levels with resistance to infection. The mutated LPL and the PPARα Leu/Val genotypes may be considered risk markers for the development of VL.

  3. Lipoprotein lipase activity and interactions studied in human plasma by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimund, Mart; Kovrov, Oleg; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Lookene, Aivar

    2017-01-01

    LPL hydrolyzes triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins. Due to the complex regulation mechanism, it has been difficult to mimic the physiological conditions under which LPL acts in vitro. We demonstrate that isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), using human plasma as substrate, overcomes several limitations of previously used techniques. The high sensitivity of ITC allows continuous recording of the heat released during hydrolysis. Both initial rates and kinetics for complete hydrolysis of plasma lipids can be studied. The heat rate was shown to correspond to the release of fatty acids and was linearly related to the amount of added enzyme, either purified LPL or postheparin plasma. Addition of apoC-III reduced the initial rate of hydrolysis by LPL, but the inhibition became less prominent with time when the lipoproteins were triglyceride poor. Addition of angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL)3 or ANGPTL4 caused reduction of the activity of LPL via a two-step mechanism. We conclude that ITC can be used for quantitative measurements of LPL activity and interactions under in vivo-like conditions, for comparisons of the properties of plasma samples from patients and control subjects as substrates for LPL, as well as for testing of drug candidates developed with the aim to affect the LPL system. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. The role of registries in rare genetic lipid disorders: Review and introduction of the first global registry in lipoprotein lipase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Stroes, Erik; Soran, Handrean; Johnson, Colin; Moulin, Philippe; Iotti, Giorgio; Zibellini, Marco; Ossenkoppele, Bas; Dippel, Michaela; Averna, Maurizio R

    2016-08-21

    A good understanding of the natural history of rare genetic lipid disorders is a pre-requisite for successful patient management. Disease registries have been helpful in this regard. Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency (LPLD) is a rare, autosomal-recessive lipid disorder characterized by severe hypertriglyceridemia and a very high risk for recurrent acute pancreatitis, however, only limited data are available on its natural course. Alipogene tiparvovec (Glybera(®)) is the first gene therapy to receive Marketing Authorization in the European Union; GENIALL (GENetherapy In the MAnagement of Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency), a 15-year registry focusing on LPLD was launched in 2014 as part of its Risk Management Plan. The aim of this publication is to introduce the GENIALL Registry within a structured literature review of registries in rare genetic lipid disorders. A total of 11 relevant initiatives/registries were identified (homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (hoFH) [n = 5]; LPLD [n = 1]; Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency [LALD, n = 1], detection of mutations in genetic lipid disorders [n = 4]). Besides one product registry in hoFH and the LALD registry, all other initiatives are local or country-specific. GENIALL is the first global prospective registry in LPLD that will collect physician and patient generated data on the natural course of LPLD, as well as long-term outcomes of gene therapy.

  5. Angiopoietin-like 4 promotes intracellular degradation of lipoprotein lipase in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, Wieneke; Beigneux, Anne P; Larsson, Mikael; Bensadoun, André; Young, Stephen G; Kersten, Sander

    2016-09-01

    LPL hydrolyzes triglycerides in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins along the capillaries of heart, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. The activity of LPL is repressed by angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Our objective was to study the cellular location and mechanism for LPL inhibition by ANGPTL4. We performed studies in transfected cells, ex vivo studies, and in vivo studies with Angptl4(-/-) mice. Cotransfection of CHO pgsA-745 cells with ANGPTL4 and LPL reduced intracellular LPL protein levels, suggesting that ANGPTL4 promotes LPL degradation. This conclusion was supported by studies of primary adipocytes and adipose tissue explants from wild-type and Angptl4(-/-) mice. Absence of ANGPTL4 resulted in accumulation of the mature-glycosylated form of LPL and increased secretion of LPL. Blocking endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi transport abolished differences in LPL abundance between wild-type and Angptl4(-/-) adipocytes, suggesting that ANGPTL4 acts upon LPL after LPL processing in the ER. Finally, physiological changes in adipose tissue ANGPTL4 expression during fasting and cold resulted in inverse changes in the amount of mature-glycosylated LPL in wild-type mice, but not Angptl4(-/-) mice. We conclude that ANGPTL4 promotes loss of intracellular LPL by stimulating LPL degradation after LPL processing in the ER. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Lipoprotein lipase and angiopoietin-like 4 - Cardiomyocyte secretory proteins that regulate metabolism during diabetic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthanveetil, Prasanth; Wan, Andrea; Rodrigues, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac diseases have been extensively studied following diabetes and altered metabolism has been implicated in its initiation. In this context, there is a shift from glucose utilization to predominantly fatty acid metabolism. We have focused on the micro- and macro-environments that the heart uses to provide fatty acids to the cardiomyocyte. Specifically, we will discuss the cross talk between endothelial cells, smooth muscles and cardiomyocytes, and their respective secretory products that allows for this shift in metabolism. These changes will then be linked to alterations in the cardiovascular system and the augmented heart disease observed during diabetes. Traditionally, the heart was only thought of as an organ that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the body through its function as a pump. However, the heart as an endocrine organ has also been suggested. Secreted products from the cardiomyocytes include the natriuretic peptides atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Both have been shown to have vasodilatory, diuretic and antihypertensive effects. These peptides have been extensively studied and their deficiency is considered to be a major cause for the initiation of cardiovascular and cardiometabolic disorders. Another secretory enzyme, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), has been implicated in diabetic heart disease. LPL is a triglyceride-hydrolyzing enzyme that is synthesized within the cardiomyocyte and secreted towards the lumen under various conditions. For example, moderate or short-term hyperglycemia stimulates the release of LPL from the cardiomyocytes towards the endothelial cells. This process allows LPL to contact lipoprotein triglycerides, initiating their break down, with the product of lipolysis (free fatty acids, FA) translocating towards the cardiomyocytes for energy consumption. This mechanism compensates for the lack of glucose availability following diabetes. Under prolonged, chronic conditions of hyperglycemia, there is

  7. Lipoprotein lipase and lipid profiles in plasma and placenta from normal pregnancies compared with patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z M; Ye, Y F; Zhang, Y K; Yang, S F; Ye, X L

    2016-08-01

    To analyse lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression and lipid levels in placenta and plasma of patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and normal pregnancies. This prospective study included 30 patients with ICP and 30 gestational-age-matched pregnancies without any complications. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to investigate plasma LPL levels from 28 weeks of gestation, at 4-weekly intervals, to 38 weeks of gestation, and data were assessed longitudinally. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to detect placental LPL expression and activity. Placental triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were also analysed. The clinical data related to ICP and lipid profiles were collected retrospectively. Plasma LPL concentration increased with gestational age in both groups, but the increase was limited in the ICP group. Immunohistochemistry revealed LPL staining mainly in syncytiotrophoblasts, and 3,3'-diamino-benzidine tetrahydrochloride wt% was lower in ICP placenta compared with normal placenta (p<0.01). LPL protein and mRNA expression in ICP placenta were significantly lower than in normal placenta (p<0.01). LPL activity was not significantly different in both groups. Correlation analysis indicated that the plasma LPL level was negatively associated with the corresponding concentration of total bile acid (r=-0.57) in the ICP group. Reduced LPL expression in placenta, limited increase in LPL level in maternal plasma, and abnormal lipid profiles were found in patients with ICP. LPL was possibly related to ICP by participating abnormal lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphism interacts with consumption of alcohol and unsaturated fat to modulate serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Inkyung; Lee, Seungku; Kim, Seong Hwan; Shin, Chol

    2013-10-01

    There are limited data from prospective studies regarding interactions between lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) and lifestyle factors in association with HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, a biomarker of coronary heart disease risk. Our prospective cohort study investigated the interactive effects of a common LPL polymorphism and lifestyle factors, including obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and dietary intake, on follow-up measurements of HDL-C and triglyceride (TG) concentrations. A total of 5314 Korean men and women aged 40-69 y participated in the study. Serum HDL-C and TG concentrations were measured in all participants at baseline and 6-y follow-up examinations. On the basis of genome-wide association data for HDL-C and TG concentrations, we selected the most significant polymorphism (rs10503669), which was in high linkage disequilibrium with the serine 447 stop (S447×) mutation (D' = 0.99) of LPL. We found that carrying the T allele reflecting the LPL ×447 allele was positively associated with follow-up measurement of HDL-C concentrations (P HDL-C concentration and potential risk factors, we observed interactive effects of the polymorphism and consumption of alcohol (P-interaction unsaturated fat (P-interaction HDL-C concentrations. We also observed interactive effects of the polymorphism and body mass index (P-interaction unsaturated fat to minimize reduction of blood HDL-C concentrations and that obese persons who do not carry the LPL ×447 allele need to control body weight to prevent hypertriglyceridemia.

  9. Lipoprotein Lipase, Tissue Expression and Effects on Genes Related to Fatty Acid Synthesis in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Sheng Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (LPL serves as a central factor in hydrolysis of triacylglycerol and uptake of free fatty acids from the plasma. However, there are limited data concerning the action of LPL on the regulation of milk fat synthesis in goat mammary gland. In this investigation, we describe the cloning and sequencing of the LPL gene from Xinong Saanen dairy goat mammary gland, along with a study of its phylogenetic relationships. Sequence analysis showed that goat LPL shares similarities with other species including sheep, bovine, human and mouse. LPL mRNA expression in various tissues determined by RT-qPCR revealed the highest expression in white adipose tissue, with lower expression in heart, lung, spleen, rumen, small intestine, mammary gland, and kidney. Expression was almost undetectable in liver and muscle. The expression profiles of LPL gene in mammary gland at early, peak, mid, late lactation, and the dry period were also measured. Compared with the dry period, LPL mRNA expression was markedly greater at early lactation. However, compared with early lactation, the expression was lower at peak lactation and mid lactation. Despite those differences, LPL mRNA expression was still greater at peak, mid, and late lactation compared with the dry period. Using goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC, the in vitro knockdown of LPL via shRNA or with Orlistat resulted in a similar degree of down-regulation of LPL (respectively. Furthermore, knockdown of LPL was associated with reduced mRNA expression of SREBF1, FASN, LIPE and PPARG but greater expression of FFAR3. There was no effect on ACACA expression. Orlistat decreased expression of LIPE, FASN, ACACA, and PPARG, and increased FFAR3 and SREBF1 expression. The pattern of LPL expression was similar to the changes in milk fat percentage in lactating goats. Taken together, results suggest that LPL may play a crucial role in fatty acid synthesis.

  10. Maternal undernutrition leads to elevated hepatic triglycerides in male rat offspring due to increased expression of lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei-Fen; Zhu, Jian-Fang; Liang, Li; Shen, Zheng; Wang, Ying-Min

    2016-05-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) at birth increases the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, which encompasses various symptoms including hypertriglyceridemia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether maternal undernutrition during pregnancy may lead to alterations in hepatic triglyceride content and the gene expression levels of hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in SGA male offspring. The present study focused on the male offspring in order to prevent confounding factors, such as estrus cycle and hormone profile. Female Sprague Dawley rats were arbitrarily assigned to receive an ad libitum chow diet or 50% food restricted diet from pregnancy day 1 until parturition. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to measure the gene expression levels of hepatic LPL at day 1 and upon completion of the third week of age. Chromatin immunoprecipitation quantified the binding activity of liver X receptor‑α (LXR‑α) gene to the LXR response elements (LXRE) on LPL promoter and LPL epigenetic characteristics. At 3 weeks of age, SGA male offspring exhibited significantly elevated levels of hepatic triglycerides, which was concomitant with increased expression levels of LPL. Since LPL is regulated by LXR‑α, the expression levels of LXR‑α were detected in appropriate for gestational age and SGA male offspring. Maternal undernutrition during pregnancy led to an increase in the hepatic expression levels of LXR‑α, and enriched binding to the putative LXR response elements in the LPL promoter regions in 3‑week‑old male offspring. In addition, enhanced acetylation of histone H3 [H3 lysine (K)9 and H3K14] was detected surrounding the LPL promoter. The results of the present study indicated that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy may lead to an increase in hepatic triglycerides, via alterations in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the LPL gene.

  11. Lipoprotein Lipase, Tissue Expression and Effects on Genes Related to Fatty Acid Synthesis in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wang-Sheng; Hu, Shi-Liang; Yu, Kang; Wang, Hui; Wang, Wei; Loor, Juan; Luo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) serves as a central factor in hydrolysis of triacylglycerol and uptake of free fatty acids from the plasma. However, there are limited data concerning the action of LPL on the regulation of milk fat synthesis in goat mammary gland. In this investigation, we describe the cloning and sequencing of the LPL gene from Xinong Saanen dairy goat mammary gland, along with a study of its phylogenetic relationships. Sequence analysis showed that goat LPL shares similarities with other species including sheep, bovine, human and mouse. LPL mRNA expression in various tissues determined by RT-qPCR revealed the highest expression in white adipose tissue, with lower expression in heart, lung, spleen, rumen, small intestine, mammary gland, and kidney. Expression was almost undetectable in liver and muscle. The expression profiles of LPL gene in mammary gland at early, peak, mid, late lactation, and the dry period were also measured. Compared with the dry period, LPL mRNA expression was markedly greater at early lactation. However, compared with early lactation, the expression was lower at peak lactation and mid lactation. Despite those differences, LPL mRNA expression was still greater at peak, mid, and late lactation compared with the dry period. Using goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC), the in vitro knockdown of LPL via shRNA or with Orlistat resulted in a similar degree of down-regulation of LPL (respectively). Furthermore, knockdown of LPL was associated with reduced mRNA expression of SREBF1, FASN, LIPE and PPARG but greater expression of FFAR3. There was no effect on ACACA expression. Orlistat decreased expression of LIPE, FASN, ACACA, and PPARG, and increased FFAR3 and SREBF1 expression. The pattern of LPL expression was similar to the changes in milk fat percentage in lactating goats. Taken together, results suggest that LPL may play a crucial role in fatty acid synthesis. PMID:25501331

  12. Developmental changes in adipose and muscle lipoprotein lipase activity in the atherosclerosis-prone JCR:LA-corpulent rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, L; Russell, J C; Brindley, D N; Deshaies, Y

    2002-03-01

    To characterize the developmental changes in adipose and muscle lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in the atherosclerosis-prone JCR:LA-corpulent rat, and to test the hypothesis that tissue-specific abnormalities in LPL activity precede the establishment of obesity. Lean (+/?) and obese cp/cp male JCR:LA rats were studied at 4, 5 and 8 weeks of age, that is at the onset of obesity, and at a time when obesity is well established. Assessment was made of plasma variables related to glucose and lipid metabolism and of LPL activity in several adipose depots, skeletal muscles and the heart. At week 4, body weights were identical in both genotypes and began to diverge at week 5. Eight-week-old cp/cp rats weighed 35% more than their lean counterparts. Perirenal and epididymal adipose depot weights were also identical in both genotypes at week 4 and began to increase in cp/cp rats at week 5, whereas the subcutaneous depot of 4-week-old cp/cp rats was slightly enlarged. At week 4, the cp/cp rats were hyperinsulinemic (5-fold), hyperleptinemic (30-fold) and hypertriglyceridemic (3-fold) compared to their lean counterparts, and their liver contained twice as much triglyceride. The 4-week-old cp/cp rats displayed 2-7-fold higher LPL specific activity in the various adipose depots compared to lean rats, and enzyme activity remained higher in obese than in lean rats at all subsequent ages. In contrast, LPL activity in the vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius and heart muscles of 4-week-old obese rats was approximately half that observed in lean animals. Profound, persistent alterations in the tissue-specific modulation of LPL activity are established in the JCR:LA cp/cp rat prior to the development of frank obesity. The increase in adipose tissue LPL activity and its decrease in muscle tissues are likely to be related to the concomitant alterations in insulinemia and triglyceridemia, respectively. The pre-obesity, tissue-specific alterations in LPL activity may be considered as an

  13. Preclinical investigations of a medium-chain triglyceride:fish oil emulsion. I. Effects of bovine milk lipoprotein lipase on lipid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Yvon A; Dupont, Isabelle; Portois, Laurence; Malaisse, Willy J

    2006-10-01

    The bolus intravenous injection of a novel medium-chain triglyceride:fish oil emulsion (MCT:FO, 8:2, w:w) was recently found to increase within 60 min the leucocyte and platelet phospholipid content of long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids. The present report deals with the effects of bovine milk lipoprotein lipase on the lipid composition of this emulsion. The results are compared to those obtained with either a pure fish oil emulsion or a medium-chain triglyceride: long-chain triglyceride:fish oil emulsion (MLF, 5:4:1). Emphasis is placed on i) differences in the fate of distinct fatty acids initially present in the triglycerides, di glycerides and phospholipids, ii) the generation of unesterified fatty acids relative to their initial content in each emulsion, and iii) the time course for these various events. The comparison between the three emulsions under consideration also provides information relevant to their respective sensitivity to lipoprotein lipase and suitability in terms of the generation of distinct unesterified fatty acids, including long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids. Furthermore, attention is drawn to the greater efficiency for the hydrolysis of fatty acids from diglycerides as compared to triglycerides and a transient increase in the paired C8:0/C10:0 ratio in the diglycerides generated from the MCT:FO or MLF emulsion. The present study thus affords novel information relevant to the possible use of the MCT:FO emulsion in human subjects.

  14. Inactivation of lipoprotein lipase occurs on the surface of THP-1 macrophages where oligomers of angiopoietin-like protein 4 are formed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makoveichuk, Elena; Sukonina, Valentina; Kroupa, Olessia [Department of Medical Biosciences, Physiological Chemistry Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Thulin, Petra; Ehrenborg, Ewa [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Olivecrona, Thomas [Department of Medical Biosciences, Physiological Chemistry Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Olivecrona, Gunilla, E-mail: Gunilla.Olivecrona@medbio.umu.se [Department of Medical Biosciences, Physiological Chemistry Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity is controlled by ANGPTL4 in THP-1 macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both LPL and ANGPTL4 bind to THP-1 macrophages in a heparin-releasable fashion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only monomers of ANGPTL4 are present within THP-1 macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Covalent oligomers of ANGPTL4 appear on cell surface and in medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of LPL coincide with ANGPTL4 oligomer formation on cell surfaces. -- Abstract: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins causing release of fatty acids for metabolic purposes in muscles and adipose tissue. LPL in macrophages in the artery wall may, however, promote foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. Angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL) 4 inactivates LPL and ANGPTL4 expression is controlled by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). The mechanisms for inactivation of LPL by ANGPTL4 was studied in THP-1 macrophages where active LPL is associated with cell surfaces in a heparin-releasable form, while LPL in the culture medium is mostly inactive. The PPAR{delta} agonist GW501516 had no effect on LPL mRNA, but increased ANGPTL4 mRNA and caused a marked reduction of the heparin-releasable LPL activity concomitantly with accumulation of inactive, monomeric LPL in the medium. Intracellular ANGPTL4 was monomeric, while dimers and tetramers of ANGPTL4 were present in the heparin-releasable fraction and medium. GW501516 caused an increase in the amount of ANGPTL4 oligomers on the cell surface that paralleled the decrease in LPL activity. Actinomycin D blocked the effects of GW501516 on ANGPTL4 oligomer formation and prevented the inactivation of LPL. Antibodies against ANGPTL4 interfered with the inactivation of LPL. We conclude that inactivation of LPL in THP-1 macrophages primarily occurs on the cell surface where oligomers of ANGPTL4 are formed.

  15. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer and hepatic lipase activity are related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in association with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, SC; Van Tol, A; Scheek, LM; Dullaart, RPF

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the: hypothesis that plasma cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) and lipase activities are influenced by insulin sensitivity and contribute to the low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol observed in type 2 diabetic patients and insulin-resistant non-diabetic subjects. Sixteen type 2

  16. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer and hepatic lipase activity are related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in association with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, SC; Van Tol, A; Scheek, LM; Dullaart, RPF

    We evaluated the: hypothesis that plasma cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) and lipase activities are influenced by insulin sensitivity and contribute to the low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol observed in type 2 diabetic patients and insulin-resistant non-diabetic subjects. Sixteen type 2

  17. Associations of lipoprotein lipase gene rs326 with changes of lipid profiles after a high-carbohydrate and low-fat diet in healthy Chinese Han youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xing-chun; Lin, Jia; Wang, Qian; Liu, Hui; Qiu, Li; Fang, Ding-zhi

    2014-04-23

    To investigate the effects of a high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HC/LF) diet on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins (Apos) of healthy Chinese Han youth with different genotypes of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) rs326, 56 subjects were given a washout diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrate for seven days, followed by the HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for six days, with no total energy restriction. Plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Apo B-100 and Apo A-I were analyzed at baseline and before and after the HC/LF diet. The results show that, when compared with before the HC/LF diet, only the male G carriers experienced increased HDL-C (p = 0.008) and Apo A-I (p = 0.005) after the HC/LF diet. Decreased TC in both males and females and increased TG in females were found regardless of the genotype after the HC/LF diet. LDL-C decreased in all the subjects although the decrease was not significant in the female G carriers. These results demonstrate that the G allele of LPL rs326 associates with the elevated levels of HDL-C and Apo A-I after the HC/LF diet in males of the healthy Chinese Han Youth.

  18. Associations of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene rs326 with Changes of Lipid Profiles after a High-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diet in Healthy Chinese Han Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-chun Zhu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of a high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HC/LF diet on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins (Apos of healthy Chinese Han youth with different genotypes of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL rs326, 56 subjects were given a washout diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrate for seven days, followed by the HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for six days, with no total energy restriction. Plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, Apo B-100 and Apo A-I were analyzed at baseline and before and after the HC/LF diet. The results show that, when compared with before the HC/LF diet, only the male G carriers experienced increased HDL-C (p = 0.008 and Apo A-I (p = 0.005 after the HC/LF diet. Decreased TC in both males and females and increased TG in females were found regardless of the genotype after the HC/LF diet. LDL-C decreased in all the subjects although the decrease was not significant in the female G carriers. These results demonstrate that the G allele of LPL rs326 associates with the elevated levels of HDL-C and Apo A-I after the HC/LF diet in males of the healthy Chinese Han Youth.

  19. Primeiro relato de uma criança Brasileira portadora da mutação G188E do gene da lipoproteína lipase First report of a Brazilian child carrying the G188E mutation of lipoprotein lipase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Tiemi Takata

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o caso de uma criança com hipertrigliceridemia grave por mutações do gene da lipoproteína lipase. DESCRIÇÃO DE CASO: Menino de três anos que apresentou, com um mês de idade, soro lipêmico. Seu perfil lipídico indicou hipertrigliceridemia grave, com concentrações de triglicerídeos plasmáticos iguais a 25000mg/dL. Foi detectada a mutação G188E no éxon 5 da lipoproteína lipase em homozigose na criança e em heterozigose nos pais. COMENTÁRIOS: A deficiência da lipoproteína lípase é uma doença de herança autossômica recessiva e esses pacientes evoluem com hipertrigliceridemia grave.OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a child with serious hypertriglyceridemia due to lipase lipoprotein gene mutation. CASE DESCRIPTION: A three-year-old boy presented with lipemic serum at one month of age. His lipid profile revealed serious hypertriglyceridemia with plasma triglycerides levels of 25,000mg/dL. A mutation G188E in éxon 5 of the lipoprotein lipase gene was detected in homozygosis for him and in heterozygosis for his parents. COMMENTS: The deficiency of the lipoprotein lipase is a recessive autossomal disease that causes severe hypertriglyceridemia.

  20. A novel missense mutation in the C-terminal domain of lipoprotein lipase (Glu410-->Val) leads to enzyme inactivation and familial chylomicronemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previato, L; Guardamagna, O; Dugi, K A; Ronan, R; Talley, G D; Santamarina-Fojo, S; Brewer, H B

    1994-09-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a complex enzyme consisting of multiple functional domains essential for the initial hydrolysis of triglycerides present in plasma lipoproteins. Previous studies have localized the catalytic domain of LPL, responsible for the hydrolytic function of the enzyme, to the N-terminus whereas the C-terminal end may play a role in lipid and heparin binding. To date, most described missense mutations resulting in a nonfunctional LPL have been located in the N-terminal region of the enzyme. In this manuscript we describe the defect in the LPL gene of a patient with triglycerides ranging from normal to 12,000 mg/dl, low LPL mass, and no LPL activity in post-heparin plasma. Sequencing of patient PCR-amplified DNA identified two separate mutations in the C-terminal domain of LPL: an A-->T transversion at nucleotide 1484 resulting in a Glu410-->Val substitution and a C-->G mutation at position 1595 that introduces a premature stop codon at position 447. Digestion with MaeIII and MnII established that the patient is a true homozygote for both mutations. In order to investigate the functional significance of these defects, mutant enzymes containing either the Val410 or the Ter447 mutations as well as both Val410 and Ter447, were expressed in vitro. Compared to the wild-type enzyme, LPL447 demonstrated a moderate reduction of specific activity using triolein (70% of normal) and tributyrin (74% of normal) substrates, while LPL410 had a significant (11% and 23% of normal) reduction of the normal lipase and esterase specific activities, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Reduced adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase responses, postprandial lipemia, and low high-density lipoprotein-2 subspecies levels in older athletes with silent myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzel, L I; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Rogus, E M; Krauss, R M; Goldberg, A P

    1994-02-01

    Healthy older (64 +/- 1 years, mean +/- SEM) athletic (maximal oxygen consumption [VO2max] > 40 mL/kg/min) normocholesterolemic men with no prior history of coronary artery disease (CAD) were recruited for cardiovascular and metabolic studies. Thirty-three percent had asymptomatic exercise-induced ST segment depression on their exercise electrocardiogram (ECG), consistent with silent myocardial ischemia (SI). We hypothesized that abnormalities in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and postprandial triglyceride (TG) metabolism may increase their risk for CAD. Compared with 12 nonischemic controls of comparable age, percent body fat, and VO2max, the 13 men with SI had decreased fasting HDL cholesterol ([HDL-C] 41 +/- 2 v 50 +/- 2 mg/dL, P postprandial plasma TG, chylomicron-TG, and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG levels and postprandial areas were higher in men with SI (P < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Methodological Aspects and Relevance of the Study of Vegetable Oil, Fat and Lipoprotein Oxidation Using Pancreatic Lipase and Arylesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Nus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils as major dietary components are involved in the development of chronic diseases. In this paper the physiological relevance and some methodological aspects related to the determination of two enzymes enrolled in metabolism of fat – pancreatic lipase and arylesterase – are discussed. Pancreatic lipase has been extensively used to study the triacylglycerol fatty acid composition and the in vitro digestion of oils and fats. The action of this enzyme may be coupled to analytical methods as GC, HPLC, HPSEC, TLC- -FID, etc. as a useful tool for understanding the composition and digestion of thermal oxidized oils. Pancreatic lipase hydrolysis occurs in the water/oil interface, and it presents a behaviour that seems to be Michaelian, in which the apparent Km and the apparent Vmax of the enzymatic process depend more on the type of oil tested than on the degree of alteration. The kinetic behaviour of pancreatic lipase towards thermally oxidized oils also depends on the presence of natural tensioactive compounds present in the oil and surfactants formed during the frying. Arylesterase is an HDL binding enzyme that inhibits LDL oxidation. Low serum concentration of this enzyme has been related to increased cardiovascular disease risk. In this paper the most widely used methods for the determination of arylesterase activity are commented on. The importance of intrinsic factors (e.g. substrates, cofactors participating in the enzyme reaction is also discussed. Moreover, several suggestions about further researches on the influence of extrinsic factors (e.g. diet, oxidative stress upon the enzyme activity are proposed.

  3. The binding of human lipoprotein lipase treated VLDL by the human hepatoma cell line HepG2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Wit, E.de; Havekes, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    It has been suggested that besides the LDL-receptor, hepatocytes possess an apo E or remnant receptor. To evaluate which hepatic lipoprotein receptor is involved in VLDL remnant catabolism, we studied the binding of VLDL remnants to HepG2 cells. Native VLDL was obtained from type IIb hyperlipidemic

  4. The interferon-γ-mediated inhibition of lipoprotein lipase gene transcription in macrophages involves casein kinase 2- and phosphoinositide-3-kinase-mediated regulation of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying transcriptional inhibition by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) are poorly understood despite the existence of a large number of genes that are regulated in this manner and the key role of this cytokine in inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis. We have previously identified a novel mechanism for transcriptional inhibition by IFN-γ that involves a reduction in the binding of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 to regulatory sequences in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene. In...

  5. Homozygosity for two point mutations in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in a patient with familial LPL deficiency: LPL(Asp9-->Asn, Tyr262-->His).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouis, M; Lohse, P; Dugi, K A; Lohse, P; Beg, O U; Ronan, R; Talley, G D; Brunzell, J D; Santamarina-Fojo, S

    1996-03-01

    Familial lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency is an inherited disorder of lipoprotein metabolism characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent episodes of abdominal pain and pancreatitis. We have studied the genetic basis of LPL deficiency in a 62-year-old black male with undetectable pre- and post-heparin plasma LPL mass and activity, DNA sequence analysis of the patient's LPL cDNA and gene as well as digestion with Bcl I and Asu I revealed that the proband is a homozygote for two separate gene defects. One mutation changed a G to an A, resulting in the conversion of amino acid 9 of the mature protein, aspartic acid (GAC), to asparagine (AAC). The second substitution, a C for a T, replaced tyrosine (TAC) at residue 262 with histidine (CAC). Northern blot analysis of monocyte-derived macrophage RNA demonstrated the presence of LPL mRNA of approximately normal size and quantity when compared to control. Expression of both mutations separately (pCMV-9 and pCMV-262) or in combination (pCMV-9+262) in human embryonal kidney-293 cells demonstrated that LPL-9 had approximately 80% the specific activity of wild type LPL, but LPL-262 and LPL-9+262 had no enzymic activity, thus establishing the functional significance of the LPL-262 defect. Despite an absolute deficiency of LPL mass and activity demonstrated by analysis of patient post-heparin plasma, in vitro expression of both LPL mutants was normal, suggesting that the absence of LPL in patient post-heparin plasma was a result of altered in vivo processing. Analysis of the heparin binding properties of the mutant enzymes by heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography indicated that most of the LPL-262 mass was present in an inactive peak, which like the normal LPL monomer, eluted at 0.8 M NaCl. Thus, the Tyr262 --> His mutation may alter the stability of the LPL dimer, leading to the formation of inactive LPL-262 monomer which exhibits reduced heparin affinity. Based on these results, we propose that, in vivo, enhanced

  6. Lipoprotein lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine of guinea pig very low density lipoproteins and discoidal complexes of phospholipid and apolipoprotein: effect of apolipoprotein C-II on the catalytic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, K; Fitzharris, T J; Shinomiya, M; Muntz, H G; Harmony, J A; Jackson, R L; Quinn, D M

    1983-06-01

    To elucidate the mechanism by which apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) enhances the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LpL), discoidal phospholipid complexes were prepared with apoC-III and di[(14)C]palmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and containing various amounts of apoC-II. The rate of DPPC hydrolysis catalyzed by purified bovine milk LpL was determined on the isolated complexes. The rate of hydrolysis was optimal at pH 8.0. Analysis of enzyme kinetic data over a range of phospholipid concentrations revealed that the major effect of apoC-II was to increase the maximal velocity (V(max)) some 50-fold with a limited effect on the Michaelis constant (K(m)). V(max) of the apoC-III complex containing no apoC-II was 9.2 nmol/min per mg LpL vs. 482 nmol/min per mg LpL for the complex containing only apoC-II. The effect of apoC-II on enzyme kinetic parameters for LpL-catalyzed hydrolysis of DPPC complexes was compared to that on the parameters for hydrolysis of DPPC and trioleoylglycerol incorporated into guinea pig very low density lipoproteins (VLDL(p)) which lack the equivalent of human apoC-II. Tri[(3)H]oleoylglycerol-labeled VLDL(p) were obtained by perfusion of guinea pig liver with [(3)H]oleic acid. Di[(14)C]palmitoyl phosphatidylcholine was incorporated into the VLDL(p) by incubation of VLDL(p) with sonicated vesicles of di[(14)C]palmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and purified bovine liver phosphatidylcholine exchange protein. The rates of LpL-catalyzed hydrolysis of trioleoylglycerol and DPPC were determined at pH 7.4 and 8.5 in the presence and absence of apoC-II. In the presence of apoC-II, the V(max) for DPPC hydrolysis in guinea pig VLDL(p) increased at both pH 7.4 and pH 8.5 (2.4- and 3.2-fold, respectively); the value of K(m) did not change at either pH (0.23 mm). On the other hand, the kinetic value of K(m) for triacylglycerol hydrolysis in the presence of apoC-II decreased at both pH 7.4 (3.05 vs. 0.54 mm) and pH 8.5 (2.73 vs. 0.62 mm). These kinetic studies suggest

  7. Association of CTRC and SPINK1 Gene Variants with Recurrent Hospitalizations for Pancreatitis or Acute Abdominal Pain in Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency

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    Karine eTremblay

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are important inter-individual variations in the incidence and severity of acute pancreatitis in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Several genes involved in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism or serine proteases pathways are known to influence the risk of pancreatitis. Aim: To evaluate the association between genes regulating serine proteases, chymotrypsin C (CTRC and serine peptidase inhibitor kazal type1 (SPINK1, and recurrence of hospitalizations for acute pancreatitis or severe abdominal pain in patients with Lipoprotein Lipase deficiency (LPLD, a rare and extreme monogenic model of severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis. Method: The CTRC and SPINK1 genes promoter and coding regions sequencing has been performed in a sample of 38 LPLD adults (22 men and 16 women and 100 controls (53 men and 47 women. Estimation of the association of CTRC and SPINK1 gene variants or combinations of variants with history of hospitalizations for pancreatitis or acute abdominal pain in LPLD was investigated using non parametric analyses with correction for multiple testing and logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, family history and life habits. Results: Gene sequencing followed by genotype-stratified analyses of the CTRC and SPINK1 genes in LPLD and controls revealed a positive association between recurrence of hospitalizations and the rs545634 (CTRC - rs11319 (SPINK1 combination (OR = 41.4 [CI: 2.0-848.0]; p=0.016. In all models, a positive family history of pancreatitis was a significant predictor of recurrent hospitalizations independently of the contribution of SPINK1 or CTRC (pConclusion: These results suggest that a positive family history of pancreatitis and genetic markers in the serine protease pathways could be associated with a risk of recurrent hospitalization for acute pancreatitis in severe hypertriglyceridemia due to LPLD.

  8. Effects of lipoprotein lipase gene variations, a high-carbohydrate low-fat diet, and gender on serum lipid profiles in healthy Chinese Han youth.

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    Huang, Xin; Gong, Renrong; Lin, Jia; Li, Ronghui; Xiao, Liying; Duan, Wei; Fang, Dingzhi

    2011-01-01

    A high-carbohydrate low-fat (HC/LF) diet and lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) Ser447Stop and Hind III polymorphisms have separately been found to be associated with triacylglycerol (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). This study sought to test the effects of LPL polymorphisms and an HC/LF diet on the serum lipid profile of Chinese with a lower incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) consuming a diet with less fat and more carbohydrates. Fifty-six healthy subjects (22.89 ± 1.80 years) were given a control diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrates for 7 days, followed by an HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for 6 days; there were no changes in the fatty acid composition or restrictions on total energy. Serum lipid profiles at baseline, before and after the HC/LF diet, and LPL polymorphisms were analyzed. After 6 days of the HC/LF diet, TG and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) index were found to increase only in females with S447S. No decrease in HDL-C was noted. In subjects with Hind III polymorphism, increased TG was found in all females but not in males. Increased HDL-C, together with apolipoprotein (apo) AI, was found in male H- carriers but not in males with H+/H+ and females. In conclusion, LPL Ser447Stop and Hind III polymorphisms modified the effects of an HC/LF diet on the serum lipid profiles of a young Chinese population in different ways. Effective strategies for dietary interventions targeted at younger populations should take into account the interplay between genetic polymorphisms, diet, and gender.

  9. A novel apolipoprotein C-II mimetic peptide that activates lipoprotein lipase and decreases serum triglycerides in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

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    Amar, Marcelo J A; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Sakurai-Ikuta, Akiko; Sviridov, Denis; Freeman, Lita; Ahsan, Lusana; Remaley, Alan T

    2015-02-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides are currently being developed as possible new agents for the treatment of cardiovascular disease based on their ability to promote cholesterol efflux and their other beneficial antiatherogenic properties. Many of these peptides, however, have been reported to cause transient hypertriglyceridemia due to inhibition of lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase (LPL). We describe a novel bihelical amphipathic peptide (C-II-a) that contains an amphipathic helix (18A) for binding to lipoproteins and stimulating cholesterol efflux as well as a motif based on the last helix of apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) that activates lipolysis by LPL. The C-II-a peptide promoted cholesterol efflux from ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1-transfected BHK cells similar to apoA-I mimetic peptides. Furthermore, it was shown in vitro to be comparable to the full-length apoC-II protein in activating lipolysis by LPL. When added to serum from a patient with apoC-II deficiency, it restored normal levels of LPL-induced lipolysis and also enhanced lipolysis in serum from patients with type IV and V hypertriglyceridemia. Intravenous injection of C-II-a (30 mg/kg) in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice resulted in a significant reduction of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides of 38 ± 6% and 85 ± 7%, respectively, at 4 hours. When coinjected with the 5A peptide (60 mg/kg), the C-II-a (30 mg/kg) peptide was found to completely block the hypertriglyceridemic effect of the 5A peptide in C57Bl/6 mice. In summary, C-II-a is a novel peptide based on apoC-II, which promotes cholesterol efflux and lipolysis and may therefore be useful for the treatment of apoC-II deficiency and other forms of hypertriglyceridemia. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  10. A Novel Apolipoprotein C-II Mimetic Peptide That Activates Lipoprotein Lipase and Decreases Serum Triglycerides in Apolipoprotein E–Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Toshihiro; Sakurai-Ikuta, Akiko; Sviridov, Denis; Freeman, Lita; Ahsan, Lusana; Remaley, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides are currently being developed as possible new agents for the treatment of cardiovascular disease based on their ability to promote cholesterol efflux and their other beneficial antiatherogenic properties. Many of these peptides, however, have been reported to cause transient hypertriglyceridemia due to inhibition of lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase (LPL). We describe a novel bihelical amphipathic peptide (C-II-a) that contains an amphipathic helix (18A) for binding to lipoproteins and stimulating cholesterol efflux as well as a motif based on the last helix of apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) that activates lipolysis by LPL. The C-II-a peptide promoted cholesterol efflux from ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1-transfected BHK cells similar to apoA-I mimetic peptides. Furthermore, it was shown in vitro to be comparable to the full-length apoC-II protein in activating lipolysis by LPL. When added to serum from a patient with apoC-II deficiency, it restored normal levels of LPL-induced lipolysis and also enhanced lipolysis in serum from patients with type IV and V hypertriglyceridemia. Intravenous injection of C-II-a (30 mg/kg) in apolipoprotein E–knockout mice resulted in a significant reduction of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides of 38 ± 6% and 85 ± 7%, respectively, at 4 hours. When coinjected with the 5A peptide (60 mg/kg), the C-II-a (30 mg/kg) peptide was found to completely block the hypertriglyceridemic effect of the 5A peptide in C57Bl/6 mice. In summary, C-II-a is a novel peptide based on apoC-II, which promotes cholesterol efflux and lipolysis and may therefore be useful for the treatment of apoC-II deficiency and other forms of hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:25395590

  11. Angiopoietin-like 4 mediates PPAR delta effect on lipoprotein lipase-dependent fatty acid uptake but not on beta-oxidation in myotubes.

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    Marius R Robciuc

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR delta is an important regulator of fatty acid (FA metabolism. Angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4, a multifunctional protein, is one of the major targets of PPAR delta in skeletal muscle cells. Here we investigated the regulation of Angptl4 and its role in mediating PPAR delta functions using human, rat and mouse myotubes. Expression of Angptl4 was upregulated during myotubes differentiation and by oleic acid, insulin and PPAR delta agonist GW501516. Treatment with GW501516 or Angptl4 overexpression inhibited both lipoprotein lipase (LPL activity and LPL-dependent uptake of FAs whereas uptake of BSA-bound FAs was not affected by either treatment. Activation of retinoic X receptor (RXR, PPAR delta functional partner, using bexarotene upregulated Angptl4 expression and inhibited LPL activity in a PPAR delta dependent fashion. Silencing of Angptl4 blocked the effect of GW501516 and bexarotene on LPL activity. Treatment with GW501516 but not Angptl4 overexpression significantly increased palmitate oxidation. Furthermore, Angptl4 overexpression did not affect the capacity of GW501516 to increase palmitate oxidation. Basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation were not significantly modulated by Angptl4 overexpression. Our findings suggest that FAs-PPARdelta/RXR-Angptl4 axis controls the LPL-dependent uptake of FAs in myotubes, whereas the effect of PPAR delta activation on beta-oxidation is independent of Angptl4.

  12. Glycyrrhizic acid improved lipoprotein lipase expression, insulin sensitivity, serum lipid and lipid deposition in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

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    Eu Chia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome, known also as the insulin resistance syndrome, refers to the clustering of several risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidaemia is a hallmark of the syndrome and is associated with a whole body reduction in the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL, an enzyme under the regulation of the class of nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a triterpenoid saponin, is the primary bioactive constituent of the roots of the shrub Glycyrrhiza glabra. Studies have indicated that triterpenoids could act as PPAR agonists and GA is therefore postulated to restore LPL expression in the insulin resistant state. Results Oral administration of 100 mg/kg of GA to high-fat diet-induced obese rats for 28 days led to significant reduction in blood glucose concentration and improvement in insulin sensitivity as indicated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p Conclusion In conclusion, GA may be a potential compound in improving dyslipidaemia by selectively inducing LPL expression in non-hepatic tissues. Such up-regulation was accompanied by a GA-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity, which may be associated with a decrease in tissue lipid deposition. The HDL-raising effect of GA suggests the antiatherosclerotic properties of GA.

  13. Association of the D8S282 marker near the lipoprotein lipase gene locus with systolic blood pressure in healthy Chinese subjects.

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    Ma, Yan-Qing; Thomas, G Neil; Critchley, Julian A J H; Lee, Zoe S K; Chan, Juliana C N; Tomlinson, Brian

    2002-11-01

    To investigate the association between the marker D8S282 near the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene locus, and blood pressure, anthropometric and biochemical parameters in 229 healthy Chinese subjects. METHOD Genotyping was performed using an automated DNA sequencer and the Base ImageIR software. Eight different alleles were identified (272-286 bp) resulting in 15 genotypes in our population. We investigated the association between the common (28.8%) 278 bp allele and the anthropometric and biochemical parameters. In a tertile analysis, the frequency of the 278 bp allele increased linearly ( P = 0.003) with increasing systolic blood pressure (SBP). The relationship was most evident in the females ( n = 141); SBP was higher in homozygotes for the 278 bp allele (117 +/- 10 mmHg, = 12) than those without this allele (109 +/- 9 mmHg, = 77, 0.05) and was gene-dose dependent, and this difference was more significant after adjusting for age (P = 0.004). No relationship between the locus and the anthropometric or biochemical parameters investigated was observed. The D8S282 marker near the LPL gene locus contributes to the variance of SBP in healthy Hong Kong Chinese subjects, particularly in females.

  14. Fatty Acids Bind Tightly to the N-terminal Domain of Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 and Modulate Its Interaction with Lipoprotein Lipase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robal, Terje; Larsson, Mikael; Martin, Miina; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Lookene, Aivar

    2012-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4), a potent regulator of plasma triglyceride metabolism, binds to lipoprotein lipase (LPL) through its N-terminal coiled-coil domain (ccd-Angptl4) inducing dissociation of the dimeric enzyme to inactive monomers. In this study, we demonstrate that fatty acids reduce the inactivation of LPL by Angptl4. This was the case both with ccd-Angptl4 and full-length Angptl4, and the effect was seen in human plasma or in the presence of albumin. The effect decreased in the sequence oleic acid > palmitic acid > myristic acid > linoleic acid > linolenic acid. Surface plasmon resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence, and chromatography measurements revealed that fatty acids bind with high affinity to ccd-Angptl4. The interactions were characterized by fast association and slow dissociation rates, indicating formation of stable complexes. The highest affinity for ccd-Angptl4 was detected for oleic acid with a subnanomolar equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd). The Kd values for palmitic and myristic acid were in the nanomolar range. Linoleic and linolenic acid bound with much lower affinity. On binding of fatty acids, ccd-Angptl4 underwent conformational changes resulting in a decreased helical content, weakened structural stability, dissociation of oligomers, and altered fluorescence properties of the Trp-38 residue that is located close to the putative LPL-binding region. Based on these results, we propose that fatty acids play an important role in modulating the effects of Angptl4. PMID:22773878

  15. Establishment of Real-Time TaqMan-Fluorescence Quantitative RT-PCR Assay for Detection and Quantification of Porcine Lipoprotein Lipase mRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Hong-xia; LU De-xun; GAO Min

    2009-01-01

    Porcine lipoprotein lipase (LPL) cDNA was cloned as the standard for real-time quantifying LPL mRNA and the TaqMan-fluorescence quantitative PCR assay for detection was established. The total RNA extracted from Longissimus dorsi of porcine was reverse-transcribed to cDNA. LPL cDNA was ligated with pGM-T vector and transformed into Escherichia coli TOP 10. Plasmid DNA extracted from positive clones was verified by PCR amplification and sequenced. LPL was amplified by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR from the plasmid DNA. The concentration of DNA template purified was detected by analyzing absorbance in 260 nm and then the combined plasmid was diluted to series as standard for fluorescence quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR). The method of LPL mRNA real-time PCR was well established, which detected as low as 103 with the linear range 103 to 1010 copies. The standard curves showed high correlations (R2=0.9871). A series of standards for real-time PCR analysis have been constructed successfully, and real-time TaqMan-fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR is reliable to quantitatively evaluate FQ-PCR mRNA in L. dorsi of porcine.

  16. Gene expression and enzyme activity of lipoprotein lipase correlate with intramuscular fat content in Guangxi san-huang and Arbor Acres chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y N; Wang, J; Chen, B J; Jiang, Q Y; Guo, Y F; Lan, G Q; Jiang, H S

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. This study investigated LPL gene expression, LPL enzyme activity, and the correlation of each with intramuscular fat (IMF) in Chinese Guangxi san-huang (GXSH) and Arbor Acres (AA) chickens. The results showed that age and breed had significant effects on LPL expression and enzyme activity. Correlation analyses showed significant positive correlations between LPL expression levels and IMF contents in the breast and thigh tissues of both GXSH (r = 0.712, P = 0.001; r = 0.792, P < 0.001, respectively) and AA (r = 0.644, P < 0.001; r = 0.545, P < 0.001, respectively) chickens. The results also indicated a significant positive correlation between LPL enzyme activity and IMF contents in the breast and thigh tissues of both GXSH (r = 0.615, P = 0.001; r = 0.685, P < 0.001, respectively) and AA (r = 0.600, P = 0.001; r = 0.528, P = 0.003, respectively) chickens. The results indicated that the LPL gene was significantly correlated with IMF in these two breeds. The results presented here could contribute to knowledge of LPL mRNA developmental expression patterns and enzyme activity, and it could facilitate further research on the molecular mechanisms underlying IMF deposition in chickens.

  17. POLYMORPHISMS OF THE HUMAN LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE GENE:POSSIBLE ASSOCIATION WITH LIPID LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY HEART DISEASE IN BEIJING AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶平; 裴兰; 王士雯

    1996-01-01

    The polymorphisms(Pvu Ⅱ and Hind Ⅲ)on the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene locus was investigated in a sample of 100 patients surviving previous myocardial infarction and 100 age matched healthy individuals selected from Han Chinese of Beijing area.In patient group a strong association was found between H+ allele of Hind Ⅲ polymorphism and raised TG levels (P<0.01).In control group P-P-genotype was observed to be associated with higher TG levels compared with P+P genotype of Pvu Ⅱ polymorphism (P<0.05).Combination of H+H+genotype with P-P-genotype showed the highest TG levels among all nine kinds of genotypic combinations in patient group(P<0.01).However,comparison of distribution of alleles and genotypes of these polymorphisms between patient group and control group demonstrated no significant difference.Our data suggest that the polymorphisms at the LPL gene,as the linkage markers with an aetiologic mutation at or around LPL gene,may constitute one of the genetic determinants for the population varistion in plasma TG levels,as well as for the common dyslipidemia in Chinaese population.

  18. trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits lipoprotein lipase but increases the activity of lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue from hamsters fed an atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, Amaia; Churruca, Itziar; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Víctor M; Macarulla, M Teresa; Martínez, J Alfredo; Portillo, María P

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the activity and expression of lipogenic enzymes and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), as well as on the expression of transcriptional factors controlling these enzymes, in adipose tissue from hamsters, and to evaluate the involvement of these changes in the body fat-reducing effect of this CLA isomer. Thirty male hamsters were divided into three groups and fed atherogenic diets supplemented with 0 (linoleic group), 5 or 10 g trans-10,cis-12 CLA/kg diet, for 6 weeks. Body and adipose tissue weights, food intake and serum insulin were measured. Total and heparin-releasable LPL and lipogenic enzyme activities (acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC); fatty acid synthase (FAS); glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH); and malic enzyme (ME)) were assessed. ACC, FAS, LPL, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP-1a), SREBP-1c and PPARgamma mRNA levels were also determined by real-time PCR. CLA did not modify food intake, body weight and serum insulin level. CLA feeding reduced adipose tissue weight, LPL activity and expression, and increased lipogenic enzyme activities, despite a significant reduction in ACC and FAS mRNA levels. The expression of the three transcriptional factors analysed (SREBP-1a, SREBP-1c and PPARgamma) was also reduced. These results appear to provide a framework for partially understanding the reduction in body fat induced by CLA. Inhibition of LPL activity seems to be an important mechanism underlying body fat reduction in hamsters. Further research is needed to better characterize the effects of CLA on lipogenesis and the role of these effects in CLA action.

  19. A screen in mice uncovers repression of lipoprotein lipase by microRNA-29a as a mechanism for lipid distribution away from the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Aras N; Song, Guisheng; Hitchner, Kelly; Kim, Roy Y; Lee, Andrew Y; Sharma, Amar D; Malato, Yann; McManus, Michael T; Esau, Christine C; Koller, Erich; Koliwad, Suneil; Lim, Lee P; Maher, Jacquelyn J; Raffai, Robert L; Willenbring, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Identification of microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate lipid metabolism is important to advance the understanding and treatment of some of the most common human diseases. In the liver, a few key miRNAs have been reported that regulate lipid metabolism, but since many genes contribute to hepatic lipid metabolism, we hypothesized that other such miRNAs exist. To identify genes repressed by miRNAs in mature hepatocytes in vivo, we injected adult mice carrying floxed Dicer1 alleles with an adenoassociated viral vector expressing Cre recombinase specifically in hepatocytes. By inactivating Dicer in adult quiescent hepatocytes we avoided the hepatocyte injury and regeneration observed in previous mouse models of global miRNA deficiency in hepatocytes. Next, we combined gene and miRNA expression profiling to identify candidate gene/miRNA interactions involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and validated their function in vivo using antisense oligonucleotides. A candidate gene that emerged from our screen was lipoprotein lipase (Lpl), which encodes an enzyme that facilitates cellular uptake of lipids from the circulation. Unlike in energy-dependent cells like myocytes, LPL is normally repressed in adult hepatocytes. We identified miR-29a as the miRNA responsible for repressing LPL in hepatocytes, and found that decreasing hepatic miR-29a levels causes lipids to accumulate in mouse livers. Our screen suggests several new miRNAs are regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism. We show that one of these, miR-29a, contributes to physiological lipid distribution away from the liver and protects hepatocytes from steatosis. Our results, together with miR-29a's known antifibrotic effect, suggest miR-29a is a therapeutic target in fatty liver disease. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  20. Preventive effect of Ibrolipim on suppressing lipid accumulation and increasing lipoprotein lipase in the kidneys of diet-induced diabetic minipigs

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    Li Hong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of renal lipoprotein lipase (LPL per se in kidney diseases is still controversial and obscure. The purpose of this study was to observe the preventive effects of Ibrolipim, a LPL activator, on lipid accumulation and LPL expression in the kidneys of minipigs fed a high-sucrose and high-fat diet (HSFD. Methods Male Chinese Bama minipigs were fed a control diet or HSFD with or without 0.1 g/kg/day Ibrolipim for 5 months. Body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, lipids, LPL activity, and urinary microalbumin were measured. Renal tissue was obtained for detecting LPL activity and contents of triglyceride and cholesterol, observing the renal lipid accumulation by Oil Red O staining, and examining the mRNA and protein expression of LPL by real time PCR, Western Blot and immunohistochemistry. Results Feeding HSFD to minipigs caused weight gain, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia and microalbuminuria. HSFD increased plasma LPL activity while it decreased the mRNA and protein expression and activity of LPL in the kidney. The increases in renal triglyceride and cholesterol contents were associated with the decrease in renal LPL activity of HSFD-fed minipigs. In contrast, supplementing Ibrolipim into HSFD lowered body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride and urinary albumin concentrations while it increased plasma total cholesterol and HDL-C. Ibrolipim suppressed the renal accumulation of triglyceride and cholesterol, and stimulated the diet-induced down-regulation of LPL expression and activity in the kidney. Conclusions Ibrolipim exerts renoprotective and hypolipidemic effects via the increase in renal LPL activity and expression, and thus the increased expression and activity of renal LPL play a vital role in suppressing renal lipid accumulation and ameliorating proteinuria in diet-induced diabetic minipigs.

  1. Pioglitazone-induced increase in the stearoyl-CoA desaturation index and fat accumulation in rat muscles are not related to lipoprotein lipase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Masaru; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Muscular insulin resistance is a characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, but little is known about fatty acid (FA) metabolism in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated the effects of the repeated administration of the PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone on fat accumulation, FA composition, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) index in rat tissues. Seventeen 4-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into control (C, n = 9) and pioglitazone treatment (P, n = 8) groups, and all the rats were fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 8 weeks. Vehicle or pioglitazone (3 mg/kg) was orally administered daily to rats in the C group and P group, respectively. In the eighth week of the test period, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after 12 h fasting. At the end of the test period, serum, liver, perirenal adipose tissue, and skeletal muscles were removed after 12 h fasting. The fasting serum and plasma glucose concentrations and OGTT glucose and insulin levels were significantly lower, while the serum adiponectin concentration was significantly higher in the P group than in the C group. Pioglitazone administration increased fat accumulation in the various muscle types examined, perirenal adipose tissue, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), but decreased fat accumulation in the liver. Pioglitazone administration increased the SCD indices for the muscles, perirenal adipose tissue, and liver, but not those of BAT. The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity of the BAT and perirenal adipose tissue, but not the muscles, was higher in the P group than in the C group. These results indicate that pioglitazone administration improved glucose tolerance and increased fat accumulation and SCD indices in the muscles and adipose tissues of rats. The increased fat accumulation was closely correlated with LPL activity in both adipose tissues, but not in the muscles.

  2. Placental lipoprotein lipase DNA methylation alterations are associated with gestational diabetes and body composition at 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné-Ouellet, Valérie; Houde, Andrée-Anne; Guay, Simon-Pierre; Perron, Patrice; Gaudet, Daniel; Guérin, Renée; Jean-Patrice, Baillargeon; Marie-France, Hivert; Brisson, Diane; Bouchard, Luigi

    2017-05-09

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with obesity in childhood. This suggests that consequences of in utero exposure to maternal hyperglycemia extend beyond the fetal development, possibly through epigenetic programming. The aims of this study were to assess whether placental DNA methylation (DNAm) marks were associated with maternal GDM status and to offspring body composition at 5 years old in a prospective birth cohort. DNAm levels were measured in the fetal side of the placenta in 66 samples (24 from GDM mothers) using bisDNA-pyrosequencing. Anthropometric and body composition (bioimpedance) were measured in children at 5 years of age. Mann-Whitney and Spearman tests were used to assess associations between GDM, placental DNAm levels at the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) locus and children's weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body fat, and lean masses at 5 years of age. Weight, height, and BMI z-scores were computed according to the World Health Organization growth chart. Analyses were adjusted for gestational age at birth, child sex, maternal age, and pre-pregnancy BMI. LPL DNAm levels were positively correlated with birth weight z-scores (r = 0.252, P = 0.04), and with mid-childhood weight z-scores (r = 0.314, P = 0.01) and fat mass (r = 0.275, P = 0.04), and negatively correlated with lean mass (r = -0.306, P = 0.02). We found a negative correlation between LPL DNAm and mRNA levels in placenta (r = -0.459; P fetal placental DNAm levels at the LPL gene locus are associated with the anthropometric profile in children at 5 years of age. These findings support the concept of fetal metabolic programming through epigenetic changes.

  3. PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with improved lipoprotein lipase functioning in adipose tissue of insulin resistant obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alarcón, Mardia; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Vital-Reyes, Victor Saúl; Zavala-Ortega, María Isabel; Hinojosa-Cruz, Juan Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Fernández, José

    2012-12-15

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a pivotal role in lipid metabolism, contributes to metabolic disorders related to insulin action and body weight regulation, and is influenced by inflammation. The Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ2 gene seems to influence LPL functioning, but its role in obesity and insulin resistance status, which usually coexist in the clinical setting, has not been explored. Our aim was to analyze the association of obesity and insulin resistance with adipose LPL activity and expression, and the influence of the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 58 reproductive-age women who underwent elective abdominal surgery. Free-fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and selected adipokines were measured in fasting blood samples. DNA was isolated and the polymorphism genotyped. Biopsies of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained during surgery were used to determine enzymatic LPL activity and expression; and expression of selected cytokines. Overweight/obese women presented lower LPL activity (P=0.022) and higher circulating TNF-α (P=0.020) than controls. Insulin resistant women also showed borderline lower LPL activity than non-resistant (P=0.052), but adiposity and inflammatory molecules were comparable. Nevertheless, LPL activity was higher in Pro12Ala carriers than in non-carriers after adjusting for obesity, insulin resistance and inflammation. Likewise, adipose LPL expression was increased in carriers while expression of cytokines was decreased. Our data suggest that insulin resistance is associated with low adipose LPL activity independently of obesity, but the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism seems to protect the LPL functioning of obese insulin resistant women, likely through regulating inflammation in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 脂蛋白酯酶研究进展及对动脉粥样硬化的影响%Current Progress in Lipoprotein Lipase and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田国平; 陈五军; 何平平; 尹卫东; 唐朝克

    2012-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase ( LPL) which is the rate-limiting enzyme for the hydrolysis of the triglycer-ide (TG) core of circulating TG-rich lipoproteins, chylomicrons, low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) play an important role in reducing TG deposition in vivo. Recent advances indicate that LPL gene structure, synthesis, secretion and degradation had complexity, and it is regulated by many transcription factors, miRNA, interactive proteins and hormonal. Its role in atherosclerosis in the current studies is still controversial. So we focus the LPL on the structure, synthesis and degradation, function, regulation and contribution to atherosclerosis to clarify its role in cardiovascular disease (CVD).%脂蛋白脂酶(lipoprotein lipase,LPL)主要在脏器实质细胞合成和分泌,可以水解乳糜微粒(chylomicron,CM)、低密度脂蛋白(low-density lipoproteins,LDL)及极低密度脂蛋白(very low-density lipoproteins,VLDL)中的甘油三酯(triglyceride,TG),对清除体内过多的TG至关重要.新近研究发现LPL的基因结构、合成、分泌及降解具有复杂性,生物功能的发挥和基因的表达也受到多种转录因子、微小RNA(microRNA,miRNA)、相关蛋白及营养激素的调控,其在动脉硬化性疾病中的作用也存在较大的争议.因此,本文主要针对LPL 基因的结构、合成与降解、生物功能、表达调控及与动脉硬化性心血管疾病关系的研究进展做一综述,以期进一步明确LPL在心血管疾病中的作用和意义.

  5. Effect of 6 dietary fatty acids on the postprandial lipid profile, plasma fatty acids, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol ester transfer activities in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandstrøm, B.; Bysted, Anette

    2001-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins may be related to atherogenic risk. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of individual fatty acid intakes on postprandial plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentration...

  6. Apolipoprotein C-II and lipoprotein lipase show a temporal and geographic correlation with surfactant lipid synthesis in preparation for birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard-Hudon Marie-Christine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acids are precursors in the synthesis of surfactant phospholipids. Recently, we showed expression of apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II, the essential cofactor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL, in the fetal mouse lung and found the protein on the day of the surge of surfactant synthesis (gestation day 17.5 in secretory granule-like structures in the distal epithelium. In the present study, we will answer the following questions: Does apoC-II protein localization change according to the stage of lung development, thus according to the need in surfactant? Are LPL molecules translocated to the luminal surface of capillaries? Do the sites of apoC-II and LPL gene expression change according to the stage of lung development and to protein localization? Results The present study investigated whether the sites of apoC-II and LPL mRNA and protein accumulation are regulated in the mouse lung between gestation day 15 and postnatal day 10. The major sites of apoC-II and LPL gene expression changed over time and were found mainly in the distal epithelium at the end of gestation but not after birth. Accumulation of apoC-II in secretory granule-like structures was not systematically observed, but was found in the distal epithelium only at the end of gestation and soon after birth, mainly in epithelia with no or small lumina. A noticeable increase in surfactant lipid content was measured before the end of gestation day 18, which correlates temporally with the presence of apoC-II in secretory granules in distal epithelium with no or small lumina but not with large lumina. LPL was detected in capillaries at all the developmental times studied. Conclusions This study demonstrates that apoC-II and LPL mRNAs correlate temporally and geographically with surfactant lipid synthesis in preparation for birth and suggests that fatty acid recruitment from the circulation by apoC-II-activated LPL is regionally modulated by apoC-II secretion. We propose a model

  7. Interactions among the glucocorticoid receptor, lipoprotein lipase and adrenergic receptor genes and abdominal fat in the Québec Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkola, O; Pérusse, L; Chagnon, Y C; Després, J P; Bouchard, C

    2001-09-01

    To investigate whether interactions between glucocorticoid receptor (GRL), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and adrenergic receptor (ADR) gene markers contribute to individual differences in indicators of adiposity and abdominal obesity, including visceral fat level. Cross-sectional study; 742 individuals from the phase 2 of the Québec Family Study cohort. Total body fat assessed by hydrodensitometry and the sum of six skinfolds. Abdominal fat areas measured by computed tomography and adjusted for age, sex and total fat mass in all analyses. GRL Bcl I, alpha 2A-ADR Dra I and beta 2-ADR Ban I markers were typed by Southern blot, and other markers by polymerase chain reaction technique. It is confirmed that the 4.5 kb allele of the GRL BclI polymorphism is associated with a higher amount of abdominal visceral fat (AVF) depot (P for trend<0.001) independent of the level of total body fat. Furthermore, the alpha 2-ADR Dra I variant is associated with lower cross-sectional areas of abdominal total (P=0.003) and subcutaneous (P=0.012) adipose tissue. Gene-gene interactions between GRL and alpha 2-ADR genes affecting overall adiposity (P=0.016) as well as between GRL and beta 2-ADR genes (P=0.049) having influence on total abdominal fat levels were observed. When the three genes were considered together in the same analysis, significant interactions having influence on overall adiposity (P=0.017), abdominal total (P=0.032) and visceral fat (P=0.002) were observed. About 1-2% of the total variation in total fatness and abdominal fat was explained by these gene-gene interactions. There is an association between the GRL BclI polymorphism and increased AVF levels independent of the level of total body fat. The alpha 2-ADR DraI variant is associated with a lower cross-sectional area of abdominal total fat. Numerous interactions between GRL and ADR markers on overall adiposity and total abdominal fat as well as between GRL, LPL and ADR genes on overall adiposity, abdominal total and

  8. Differences in lipid distribution and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and lipoprotein lipase genes in torafugu and red seabream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Gen; Yamada, Toshihiro; Han, Yuna; Hirano, Yuki; Khieokhajonkhet, Anurak; Shirakami, Hirohito; Nagasaka, Reiko; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Ushio, Hideki; Watabe, Shugo

    2013-04-01

    Lipid content is one of the major determinants of the meat quality in fish. However, the mechanisms underlying the species-specific distribution of lipid are still poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms associated with lipid accumulation in two species of fish: torafugu (a puffer fish) and red seabream. The lipid content of liver and carcass were 67.0% and 0.8% for torafugu, respectively, and 8.8% and 7.3% for red seabream, respectively. Visceral adipose tissue was only apparent in the red seabream and accounted for 73.3% of its total lipid content. Oil red O staining confirmed this species-specific lipid distribution, and further demonstrated that the lipid in the skeletal muscle of the red seabream was mainly localized in the myosepta. We subsequently cloned cDNAs from torafugu encoding lipoprotein lipase 1 (LPL1) and LPL2, important enzymes for the uptake of lipids from blood circulation system into various tissues. The relative mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and the LPLs of torafugu were determined by quantitative real-time PCR together with their counterparts in red seabream previously reported. The relative mRNA levels of PPARγ and LPL1 correlated closely to the lipid distribution of both fish, being significantly higher in liver than skeletal muscle in torafugu, whereas the highest in the adipose tissue, followed by liver and skeletal muscle in red seabream. However, the relative mRNA levels of LPL2 were tenfold lower than LPL1 in both species and only correlated to lipid distribution in torafugu, suggesting that LPL2 has only a minor role in lipid accumulation. In situ hybridization revealed that the transcripts of LPL1 co-localized with lipids in the adipocytes located along the myosepta of the skeletal muscle of red seabream. These results suggest that the transcriptional regulation of PPARγ and LPL1 is responsible for the species-specific lipid distribution of torafugu

  9. Activity and tissue-specific expression of lipases and tumor-necrosis factor alpha in lean and obese cats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenig, M.; McGoldrick, J.B.; Beer, M. de; Demacker, P.N.M.; Ferguson, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Post-heparin plasma activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL), and fat and muscle activity of LPL were measured in neutered lean and obese cats. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and tumor necrosis factor a (TNF) mRNA were measured in muscle and fat tissue with r

  10. Diagnostic value of post-heparin lipase testing in detecting common genetic variants in the LPL and LIPC genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Hoek (Mandy); G.M. Dallinga-Thie (Geesje); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPost-heparin lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase activities are used to identify primary disorders of triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol metabolism. Their ability to identify common variants in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (LIPC) genes is unclear. To investigate the ab

  11. Activity and tissue-specific expression of lipases and tumor-necrosis factor alpha in lean and obese cats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenig, M.; McGoldrick, J.B.; Beer, M. de; Demacker, P.N.M.; Ferguson, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Post-heparin plasma activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL), and fat and muscle activity of LPL were measured in neutered lean and obese cats. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and tumor necrosis factor a (TNF) mRNA were measured in muscle and fat tissue with r

  12. Activity and tissue-specific expression of lipases and tumor-necrosis factor alpha in lean and obese cats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenig, M.; McGoldrick, J.B.; Beer, M. de; Demacker, P.N.M.; Ferguson, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Post-heparin plasma activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL), and fat and muscle activity of LPL were measured in neutered lean and obese cats. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and tumor necrosis factor a (TNF) mRNA were measured in muscle and fat tissue with

  13. Study on Purification and Characterization of Lipoprotein Lipase From Candida Rugosa%脂蛋白酯酶的分离纯化及其部分性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何义国; 赵兴秀; 邓静; 吴华昌

    2012-01-01

    将Candidarugosa用橄榄油诱导培养,所得上清液依次经过截留分子量10000中空纤维柱浓缩,85%硫酸铵沉淀,然后经过DEAE-SepharoseF.F.离子柱和PhenylSepharoseCL-4B柱进行交换层析和疏水层析,得到了活力达6.04U/mg的脂蛋白酯酶,纯化倍数和回收率分别为13.8倍6.6%。所得纯化酶经还原和非还原SDS-PAGE分析为单一蛋白染色带,HPLC显示纯度为95%以上。该酶的最适温度为40℃~50℃之间,最适pH为7.5,具有较强的热稳定性和酸碱稳定性,在最适温度和pH条件下该酶Km值为3.4×10-4mol/L。%Candida rugosa is cultivated with inducement of substrate including olive oil. The obtained supernatant is treated by the ways of hollow fiber concentration( 10,000cut M. W. ) and 85% ( NH4 ) SO4, then the crude lipoprotein lipase is purified by DEAE-Sepharose F. F. chromatography and Phenyl Sepharose CL4B chromatography. The pure enzyme is obtained which reaches 6. 04U/mg, and the yield of enzyme activity is 6. 6% with a 13.8-fold purification factor. The puri- fied lipoprotein lipase is a single protein band detected by reduced / non-reduced SDS-PAGE. The purity is above 95% ana- lyzed by HPLC. The enzyme is found to have good pH stability and thermal stability, the optimum pH is 7. 5 and the optimum temperature is 40℃ - 50℃. The Km of purified lipoprotein lipase is 3.4 ×10 -4 mol/L at the optimum temperature and pH.

  14. The -250G>A promoter variant in hepatic lipase associates with elevated fasting serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol modulated by interaction with physical activity in a study of 16,156 Danish subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grarup, Niels; Andreasen, Camilla H; Andersen, Mette K; Albrechtsen, Anders; Sandbaek, Annelli; Lauritzen, Torsten; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Jørgensen, Torben; Schmitz, Ole; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2008-06-01

    Hepatic lipase plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein by involvement in reverse cholesterol transport and the formation of atherogenic small dense low-density lipoprotein. The objective was to investigate the impact of variants in LIPC on metabolic traits and type 2 diabetes in a large sample of Danes. Because behavioral factors influence hepatic lipase activity, we furthermore examined possible gene-environment interactions in the population-based Inter99 study. The LIPC -250G>A (rs2070895) variant was genotyped in the Inter99 study (n = 6070), the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care Denmark screening cohort of individuals with risk factors for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 8662), and in additional type 2 diabetic patients (n = 1,064) and glucose-tolerant control subjects (n = 360). In the Inter99 study, the A allele of rs2070895 associated with a 0.057 mmol/liter [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.039-0.075] increase in fasting serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) (P = 8 x 10(-10)) supported by association in the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care study [0.038 mmol/liter per allele (95% CI 0.024-0.053); P = 2 x 10(-7)). The allelic effect on HDL-c was modulated by interaction with self-reported physical activity (P(interaction) = 0.002) because vigorous physically active homozygous A-allele carriers had a 0.30 mmol/liter (95% CI 0.22-0.37) increase in HDL-c compared with homozygous G-allele carriers. We validate the association of LIPC promoter variation with fasting serum HDL-c and present data supporting an interaction with physical activity implying an increased effect on HDL-c in vigorous physically active subjects carrying the -250 A allele. This interaction may have potential implications for public health and disease prevention.

  15. 民猪脂蛋白脂酶基因在冷诱导后表达变化的研究%Study on Expression of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene in Min Pig during Cold Induced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冬杰; 刘娣; 汪亮; 别墅; 孙洪涛; 杨国伟; 张海波

    2011-01-01

    脂蛋白脂酶(lipoprotein lipase,LPL)是动物分解代谢的限速酶,是影响脂肪代谢通路中的一个重要基因.本研究将LPL基因作为影响民猪抗寒特性的候选基因,对其在心脏、肝脏、胃、脾脏、肾脏、肺脏、大肠、小肠、子宫、卵巢、背肌、腿肌、脂肪共计13个组织内的表达情况和低温冷诱导后在民猪肌肉组织内的表达变化情况进行了分析.结果表明,LPL基因在所检测的13个组织中均有表达,但表达量存在差异,心脏、背肌、腿肌、脂肪组织中的表达量较高,子宫和卵巢组织的表达量较低;LPL基因在民猪被冷诱导后表达水平无显著变化.%Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a central role in normal lipid metabolism as the key enzyme involved in the hydrolysis of triglycerides present in chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins.In this research, LPL was seen as a candidate gene for cold resistance, analysis the expression of LPL in heart, liver, stomach, spleen, kidney, lung, large intestine,small intestin, uterus, ovary, muscles of back, leg muscle, fat tissues and during cold induced.The results showed that LPL was an abroad expression gene, but the level was different.It was higher expressed in heart, muscles of back, leg muscle and fat, but lower expressed in uterus, ovary.The expression level of LPL was not different after cold induced.

  16. Genetic study of common variants at the Apo E, Apo AI, Apo CIII, Apo B, lipoprotein lipase (LPL and hepatic lipase (LIPC genes and coronary artery disease (CAD: variation in LIPC gene associates with clinical outcomes in patients with established CAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorropago Giovanni

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current evidence demonstrates that positive family history and several alterations in lipid metabolism are all important risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD. All lipid abnormalities themselves have genetic determinants. Thus, objective of this study was to determine whether 6 genetic variants potentially related to altered lipid metabolism were associated with CAD and with lipid abnormalities in an Italian population. These genetic variables were: apolipoprotein E (Apo E, Apo AI, Apo CIII, Apo B, lipoprotein lipase (LPL and the hepatic lipase (LIPC genes. Furthermore, an 8 years prospective analysis of clinical cardiovascular events was related to the various genetic markers. Methods 102 subjects with established coronary artery disease and 104 unrelated normal subjects were studied. CAD Patients were followed up for 8 years, and clinical CAD outcomes (a second coronary angioplasty (PTCA, myocardial infarction, coronary artery by-pass graft (CABG, cardiovascular deaths, available from 60 subjects, were related to the genetic variants by multiple regression analysis. Results. Of the six lipid loci studied (for a total of 11 polymorphisms only the apolipoprotein E, Apo B and LIPC polymorphisms distinguished between case and controls. However, multivariate analysis accounting for clinical and metabolic predictors of CAD showed that only the ApoB Xba1 and ApoE4 polymorphism associated with CAD in this Italian population. When lipid parameters were related to genotypes, the ApoE, ApoB, and LIPC gene polymorphisms were associated to various markers of dyslipidaemia in the CAD patients, confirming previous reports. When the occurrence of a second cardiovascular event was related to genotypes, an independent role was observed for the LIPC gene T202T variant. Conclusions variation in LIPC (hepatic lipase gene associates with clinical outcomes in Italian patients with established CAD. Further studies on the LIPC gene in CAD

  17. 脂蛋白脂酶缺失症基因治疗载体的构建及功能验证%Construction and Verification of Gene Therapy Vector for Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恺龙; 郑李彬; 张帆; 沈良才; Libby Andrew; 李旭丽; 张瑾

    2013-01-01

    脂蛋白脂酶(lipoprotein lipase,LPL)是甘油三酯分解的限速酶,LPL基因缺失会引起高血脂症,虽然发病率低,但到目前为止,尚无有效治疗手段.该文构建了用于纠正LPL缺失基因型的逆转录病毒载体MSCV-hLPL,结果表明,MSCV-hLPL可以高效侵染体外培养的细胞系C2C12、HEK293和3T3-L1,并且都可以产生具有活性的脂蛋白脂酶.利用MSCV-hLPL侵染后的C2C12、HEK293和3T3-L1,分别注射到裸鼠皮下组织,发现C2C12和3T3-L1可以分泌脂蛋白脂酶到临近的肌肉组织中,显著提高LPL活性.以上工作证明,基因治疗载体可以纠正脂蛋白脂酶缺失的基因型,而脂肪细胞和肌肉细胞移植入裸鼠体内后,均可以作为生物反应器产生具有活性的LPL.这是该领域中的一次开拓性尝试,为脂蛋白脂酶缺失症治疗方法的开发打下了坚实的基础.%Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the rate limiting enzyme for triglycerides hydrolysis,which catalyses the hydrolysis of the triacylglycerol component of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins,thereby providing fatty acids and monoacylglycerol for tissue utilization.LPL gene mutation or deletion may affect the activity of LPL,and result in lipid metabolism disorder.Although the LPL deficiency disease is rare,no cure method is developed till now.In this study,the gene therapy construct MSCV-hLPL was made,which could infect muscle cell line (C2C12),kidney cell line (HEK293T) and pre-adipocyte cell line (3T3-L1) with over 80% efficiency.Nevertheless,active LPL could be detected at the surface of all these three kinds of cells.Then,three types of cells were injected into nude mice,LPL activity increased significantly in the muscle tissues under the injection sites of the 3T3-L1 line.Our results show that MSCV-hLPL could correct the LPL-/-genotype and the adipose tissue may be the best tissue for transplantation in the future.This is a ground-breaking test in LPL deficiency treatment field

  18. The G-250A polymorphism in the hepatic lipase gene promoter is associated with changes in hepatic lipase activity and LDL cholesterol: The KANWU Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindi, Virpi; Schwab, Ursula; Louheranta, Anne;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic lipase (HL) catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides and phospholipids from lipoproteins, and promotes the hepatic uptake of lipoproteins. A common G-250A polymorphism in the promoter of the hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) has been described. The aim was to study...

  19. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    1994-01-01

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, mea

  20. Association of hepatic lipase -514T allele with coronary artery disease and ankle-brachial index, dependence on the lipoprotein phenotype: the GENES study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Verdier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Relationship between hepatic lipase (LIPC polymorphism and coronary artery disease (CAD has often led to contradictory results. We studied this relation by genotyping rs1800588 in the LIPC promoter in a case-control study on CAD (the GENES study. We also investigated the relationship between this polymorphism and the ankle-brachial index (ABI, which is predictive of atherosclerosis progression and complications in patients at high cardiovascular risk. METHODS: 557 men aged 45-74 with stable coronary artery disease and 560 paired controls were genotyped for rs1800588. Medical data, clinical examination including determination of ABI and biological measurements related to cardiovascular risk factors enabled multivariate analyses and multiple adjustments. RESULTS: CAD cases showed a higher T-allele frequency than controls (0.246 vs 0.192, p = 0.003. An interaction has been found between LIPC polymorphism and triglycerides (TG levels regarding risk of CAD: TT-homozigosity was associated with an Odds ratio (OR of 6.4 (CI: 1.8-22.3 when TG were below 1.5 g/L, but no association was found at higher TG levels (OR = 1.34, CI: 0.3-5.9. The distribution of LIPC genotypes was compared between CAD patients with normal or abnormal ABI and impact of LIPC polymorphism on ABI was determined. Following multiple adjustments, association of the T-allele with pejorative ABI (<0.90 was significant for heterozygotes and for all T-carriers (OR = 1.55, CI: 1.07-2.25. CONCLUSION: The -514T LIPC allele is associated with CAD under normotriglyceridemic conditions and constitutes an independent determinant of pejorative ABI in coronary patients.

  1. What are lipoproteins doing in the brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Eckel, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Lipoproteins in plasma transport lipids between tissues, however, only high-density lipoproteins (HDL) appear to traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB); thus, lipoproteins found in the brain must be produced within the central nervous system. Apolipoproteins E (ApoE) and ApoJ are the most abundant apolipoproteins in the brain, are mostly synthesized by astrocytes, and are found on HDL. In the hippocampus and other brain regions, lipoproteins help to regulate neurobehavioral functions by processes that are lipoprotein receptor-mediated. Moreover, lipoproteins and their receptors also have roles in the regulation of body weight and energy balance, acting through lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (LRP). Thus, understanding lipoproteins and their metabolism in the brain provides a new opportunity with potential therapeutic relevance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Obesity development in neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase deficient mice is not responsive to increased dietary fat content or change in fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Taussig, Matthew D; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Bruce, Kimberley; Piomelli, Daniele; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    We have previously reported that mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency (NEXLPL-/-) become obese by 16weeks of age on chow. Moreover, these mice had reduced uptake of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein-derived fatty acids and lower levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in the hypothalamus. Here, we asked whether increased dietary fat content or altered dietary composition could modulate obesity development in NEXLPL-/- mice. Male NEXLPL-/- mice and littermate controls (WT) were randomly assigned one of three synthetic diets; a high carbohydrate diet (HC, 10% fat), a high-fat diet (HF, 45% fat), or a HC diet supplemented with n-3 PUFAs (HCn-3, 10% fat, Lovaza, GSK®). After 42weeks of HC feeding, body weight and fat mass were increased in the NEXLPL-/- mice compared to WT. WT mice fed a HF diet displayed typical diet-induced obesity, but weight gain was only marginal in HF-fed NEXLPL-/- mice, with no significant difference in body composition. Dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation did not prevent obesity in NEXLPL-/- mice, but was associated with differential modifications in hypothalamic gene expression and PUFA concentration compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that neuronal LPL is involved in the regulation of body weight and composition in response to either the change in quantity (HF feeding) or quality (n-3 PUFA-enriched) of dietary fat. The precise role of LPL in lipid sensing in the brain requires further investigation.

  3. Effects of Glycyrrhizic Acid on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ, Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL, Serum Lipid and HOMA-IR in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia Yoke Yin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on ligand binding potential of glycyrrhizic acid, a potential agonist to PPARγ, displayed encouraging results in amelioration of metabolic syndrome. The regulation of gene cassettes by PPARγ affects glucose homeostasis, lipid, lipoprotein metabolism and adipogenesis. This study was performed to determine the effects of GA on total PPARγ and LPL expression levels, lipid parameters and HOMA-IR. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg GA for 24 hours resulted in an increase in insulin sensitivity with decreases in blood glucose, serum insulin and HOMA-IR. Improvement in serum lipid parameters was also observed with a decrease in triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and an elevation in HDL-cholesterol. GA administration also resulted in up-regulation of total PPARγ and LPL expression levels in the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, abdominal and quadriceps femoris muscles, as well as liver and kidney, with a significant up-regulation only in the visceral adipose tissue, abdominal and quadriceps femoris muscles. Thus, oral administration of 100 mg/kg GA for 24 hours improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles and induced upregulation of total PPARγ and LPL expression levels in all studied tissues.

  4. Incremental replacement of saturated fats by n-3 fatty acids in high-fat, high-cholesterol diets reduces elevated plasma lipid levels and arterial lipoprotein lipase, macrophages and atherosclerosis in LDLR-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chuchun L; Torrejon, Claudia; Jung, Un Ju; Graf, Kristin; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Effects of progressive substitution of dietary n-3 fatty acids (FA) for saturated FA (SAT) on modulating risk factors for atherosclerosis have not been fully defined. Our previous reports demonstrate that SAT increased, but n-3 FA decreased, arterial lipoprotein lipase (LpL) levels and arterial LDL-cholesterol deposition early in atherogenesis. We now questioned whether incremental increases in dietary n-3 FA can counteract SAT-induced pro-atherogenic effects in atherosclerosis-prone LDL-receptor knockout (LDLR-/-) mice and have identified contributing mechanisms. Mice were fed chow or high-fat diets enriched in SAT, n-3, or a combination of both SAT and n-3 in ratios of 3:1 (S:n-3 3:1) or 1:1 (S:n-3 1:1). Each diet resulted in the expected changes in fatty acid composition in blood and aorta for each feeding group. SAT-fed mice became hyperlipidemic. By contrast, n-3 inclusion decreased plasma lipid levels, especially cholesterol. Arterial LpL and macrophage levels were increased over 2-fold in SAT-fed mice but these were decreased with incremental replacement with n-3 FA. n-3 FA partial inclusion markedly decreased expression of pro-inflammatory markers (CD68, IL-6, and VCAM-1) in aorta. SAT diets accelerated advanced atherosclerotic lesion development, whereas all n-3 FA-containing diets markedly slowed atherosclerotic progression. Mechanisms whereby dietary n-3 FA may improve adverse cardiovascular effects of high-SAT, high-fat diets include improving plasma lipid profiles, increasing amounts of n-3 FA in plasma and the arterial wall. Even low levels of replacement of SAT by n-3 FA effectively reduce arterial lipid deposition by decreasing aortic LpL, macrophages and pro-inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Decreased concentrations of the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor angiopoietin-like protein 4 and increased serum triacylglycerol are associated with increased neonatal fat mass in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Senovilla, Henar; Schaefer-Graf, Ute; Meitzner, Katrin; Abou-Dakn, Michael; Herrera, Emilio

    2013-08-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is an extracellular inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. No studies have been done in pregnancy in which hypertriglyceridemia and tissue-specific changes in LPL activity are present. The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between neonatal fat mass (FM) and concentrations of ANGPTL4 and triacylglycerols (TAG) in maternal and cord serum of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared with controls. Maternal blood samples (control, n = 90, and GDM, n= 80) and umbilical cord blood were drawn before and after vaginal delivery, respectively. Control and GDM subjects were grouped separately into 3 subgroups, according to neonatal FM: 0-25th percentiles, 25th-75th percentiles, and 75th-100th percentiles. Glucose, insulin, TAG, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and ANGPTL4 were determined in maternal and neonatal serum. Age and pregestational body mass index did not differ between GDM and control women in any subgroups. Maternal serum of GDM pregnant women who delivered the newborn with the highest FM showed the highest concentrations of TAG and NEFAs and lowest concentration of ANGPTL4, despite glucose and insulin concentrations being independent of changes in neonatal FM. However, cord serum of neonates of GDM patients with the highest FM showed higher concentrations of insulin and lower concentrations of TAG than those with lower neonatal FM but no significant differences in NEFAs or ANGPTL4 concentrations. In well-controlled GDM pregnancies, decreased maternal ANGPTL4 concentrations and a gradient of TAG toward the fetus are related with higher neonatal FM. However, in GDM fetuses with the highest FM, the potential effect of ANGPTL4 inhibiting adipose tissue LPL activity could be overcome by their hyperinsulinemia.

  6. Lipoprotein lipase gene deficiency accelerates early renal dysfunctions in type 1 diabetic mice%脂蛋白脂酶基因缺陷加重小鼠1型糖尿病肾病的早期进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓琳; 王兆红; 王宇辉; 沈蔷; 张玲; 管又飞; 刘国庆; 黄薇

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨脂蛋白脂酶(LPL)基因缺陷对小鼠1型糖尿病(T1DM)肾病早期病变的影响.方法 雄性LPL基因缺陷杂合子(LK)和野生型(WT)小鼠腹腔注射链脲佐菌素(STZ),造成T1DM模型后4个月检测相应指标的改变.结果 糖尿病组血糖、血浆TG及TC、肾重/体重比、肌酐清除率(Ccr)、24 h尿白蛋白(UAlb)含量、肾小球表面积均高于非糖尿病组.糖尿病LK组(DLK)与糖尿病WT组(DWT)相比,血浆TG水平、UAlb及血压均增高(P<0.05).与TG合成相关的核转录因子固醇调节元件结合蛋白-1c(SREBP-1c)基因在DLK组比DWT组表达明显增加(P<0.05),但肾TG含量无改变.结论 LPL基因缺陷促进T1DM小鼠UAlb含量及血压升高,加重T1 DM早期的进展.%Objective To investigate the effect of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene deficiency on early stage of type 1 diabetic nephropathy (DN) in mice Methods At 4 months after induction of diabetes by STZ, plasma and renal parameters were examined in heterozygous LPL knock out (LKO) and wide-type (WT) mice. Results (l)Compared with control groups, diabetic groups showed the increased levels of creatinine clearance rate, 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and glomerular surface area, which suggested it was at the incipient stage of DN. (2 ) Plasma triglyceride ( P< 0. 05), UAE (P< 0. 01) and blood pressure (P<0. 05)increased in diabetic LKO (DLKO) mice than in diabetic WT (DWT) mice. (3) Real time PCR analysis showed that renal LPL mRNA expression was decreased in LPL deficiency group and diabetes group. Expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-lc was up-regulated in DLKO mice compared with DWT mice (P<0. 05), but renal lipid deposition didn't differ between 2 groups. Conclusions LPL gene deficiency increases albuminuria and blood pressure in type 1 diabetic mice, suggesting LPL gene deficiency may enhance development of early stage of DN in mice.Objective To investigate the effect of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene

  7. Rat liver contains a limited number of binding sites for hepatic lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.C. Schoonderwoerd (Kees); A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); H. Jansen (Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe binding of hepatic lipase to rat liver was studied in an ex vivo perfusion model. The livers were perfused with media containing partially purified rat hepatic lipase or bovine milk lipoprotein lipase. The activity of the enzymes was determined in the pe

  8. Differential effects of high MUFA with high or low P/S ratio (polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids) on improving hepatic lipolytic enzymes and mediating PPARγ related with lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase of white adipose tissue in diet-induced obese hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, F-H; Liou, T-H; Chiu, W-C; Shieh, M-J; Chien, Y-W

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between high monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) with different levels of polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratios and body fat loss in diet-induced obesity (DIO) models. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly assigned to the control group (n=12) and obesity group (n=24) for 4 weeks of the high-fat DIO period; afterward, six hamsters from each group were killed. The remaining control hamsters were still fed a low-fat diet. For an additional 8 weeks, the remaining obesity hamsters were switched to a low-fat diet and subdivided into three subgroups (n=6/group): the obesity-control (ObC) group, high MUFA with high P/S ratio oil (HMHR) group and olive oil (OO) group. Serum insulin and leptin concentrations were measured, and hepatic fatty acid metabolic enzymes and adipose differentiation markers were determined using enzyme activities analysis, western blot and semiquantification reverse-transcription PCR. No difference was observed in the mean energy intake through all study periods. After the DIO period, the obesity group increased in weight gain and epididymal fat weight compared with the control group. DIO hamsters in the HMLR group had significant reductions in white adipose tissue deposition and plasma leptin levels, suppression in adipose peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA expressions and increases in hepatic acyl-CoA oxidase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I activities and mRNA levels compared with those in the ObC group. The HMHR group had upregulated phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) relative to total HSL protein levels compared with the OO group. However, the OO group had significantly elevated hepatic de novo lipogenesis compared with the HMHR group. HMHR seemed to be beneficial in depleting white adipose tissue accumulation by decreasing adipose PPARγ and LPL mRNA expressions and mediating phosphorylation of HSL

  9. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on lipoprotein lipase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocyte culture Efeito da suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado sobre a atividade da lípase lipoprotéica em cultura de adipócitos 3T3-L1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Prais Botelho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid may reduce fat body mass and increase lean body mass in various species. Some studies have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat, in part, by inhibiting the activity of lipoprotein lipase in adipocytes. The objective of this work was to study the effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on lipoprotein lipase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocyte culture. 3T3-L1 adipocytes received linoleic acid (group C or conjugated linoleic acid (group AE, supplemented with AdvantEdge® CLA, and group CO, supplemented with CLA One® in concentrations of 1 mmol/L. Heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase activity was analyzed by means of a 3T3-L1 adipocyte culture. After 7 days, heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase activity was lower in the groups AE and CO supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid. These results suggest that one of the mechanisms by which CLA is capable of reducing body fat is by reducing lipoprotein lipase activity.A suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado pode reduzir a gordura corporal e aumentar a massa magra em diferentes espécies. Alguns estudos têm demonstrado que o ácido linoléico conjugado reduz a gordura corporal, por meio da inibição da atividade de lípase lipoprotéica em adipócitos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação com uma mistura de isômeros do ácido linoléico conjugado sobre a atividade da lípase lipoprotéica em cultura de adipócitos 3T3-L1. Os adipócitos 3T3-L1 receberam ácido linoléico (grupo controle ou ácido linoléico conjugado (grupo AE, suplementado com AdvantEdge® CLA, e grupo CO, suplementado com CLA One® na concentração de 1 mmol/L. A atividade de lípase lipoprotéica livre de heparina foi analisada pela média da cultura de adipócitos. Após 7 dias, a atividade da lípase lipoprotéica livre de heparina mostrou menores valores nos grupos AE e CO, suplementados com ácido linol

  10. Lipase Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with pancreatic duct obstruction, pancreatic cancer , and other pancreatic diseases as well as with gallbladder inflammation or kidney ... damage to the lipase-producing cells in the pancreas. This can occur in chronic diseases that affect the pancreas such as cystic fibrosis . ^ ...

  11. Endothelial lipase is a major determinant of HDL level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Tatsuro; Choi, Sungshin; Kundu, Ramendra K.; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Rubin, Edward M.; Cooper, Allen D.; Quertermous, Thomas

    2003-01-30

    For the past three decades, epidemiologic studies have consistently demonstrated an inverse relationship between plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and coronary heart disease (CHD). Population-based studies have provided compelling evidence that low HDL-C levels are a risk factor for CHD, and several clinical interventions that increased plasma levels of HDL-C were associated with a reduction in CHD risk. These findings have stimulated extensive investigation into the determinants of plasma HDL-C levels. Turnover studies using radiolabeled apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein component of HDL, suggest that plasma HDL-C concentrations are highly correlated with the rate of clearance of apolipoprotein AI. However, the metabolic mechanisms by which HDL are catabolized have not been fully defined. Previous studies in humans with genetic deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and in mice lacking the scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), have demonstrated that these proteins participate in the removal of cholesterol from HDL, while observations in individuals with mutations in hepatic lipase indicate that this enzyme hydrolyzes HDL triglycerides. In this issue of the JCI, reports from laboratories of Tom Quertermous and Dan Rader now indicate that endothelial lipase (LIPG), a newly identified member of the lipase family, catalyzes the hydrolysis of HDL phospholipids and facilitates the clearance of HDL from the circulation. Endothelial lipase was initially cloned by both of these laboratories using entirely different strategies. Quertermous and his colleagues identified endothelial lipase as a transcript that was upregulated in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells undergoing tube formation, whereas the Rader group cloned endothelial lipase as a transcript that was upregulated in the human macrophage-like cell line THP-1 exposed to oxidized LDL. Database searches revealed that endothelial lipase shows strong sequence similarity to lipoprotein

  12. Recent advances in physiological lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Indra

    2014-12-01

    Research into lipoprotein metabolism has developed because understanding lipoprotein metabolism has important clinical indications. Lipoproteins are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Recent advances include the identification of factors in the synthesis and secretion of triglyceride rich lipoproteins, chylomicrons (CM) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). These included the identification of microsomal transfer protein, the cotranslational targeting of apoproteinB (apoB) for degradation regulated by the availability of lipids, and the characterization of transport vesicles transporting primordial apoB containing particles to the Golgi. The lipase maturation factor 1, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high density lipoprotein binding protein 1 and an angiopoietin-like protein play a role in lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated hydrolysis of secreted CMs and VLDL so that the right amount of fatty acid is delivered to the right tissue at the right time. Expression of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor is regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has a pivotal role in the degradation of LDL receptor. Plasma remnant lipoproteins bind to specific receptors in the liver, the LDL receptor, VLDL receptor and LDL receptor-like proteins prior to removal from the plasma. Reverse cholesterol transport occurs when lipid free apoAI recruits cholesterol and phospholipid to assemble high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. The discovery of ABC transporters (ABCA1 and ABCG1) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) provided further information on the biogenesis of HDL. In humans HDL-cholesterol can be returned to the liver either by direct uptake by SR-BI or through cholesteryl ester transfer protein exchange of cholesteryl ester for triglycerides in apoB lipoproteins, followed by hepatic uptake of apoB containing particles. Cholesterol content in cells is regulated by several

  13. Placental lipases in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Barrett

    Full Text Available Infants of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are more likely to be born large for gestational age with a higher percentage body fat. Elevated maternal lipids may contribute to this. Placental lipases such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL, endothelial lipase (EL and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL are involved in transferring lipids from mother to fetus. Previous studies of expression of these lipases in placentae in women with diabetes in pregnancy have reported divergent results. Intracellular lipases such as adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, and HSL are central to lipid droplet metabolism. The activities of these lipases are both influenced by Perilipin 1, and ATGL is also activated by a co-factor comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58 and inhibited by G0/G1 switch gene 2 (GS02. None of these modifying factors or ATGL have been examined previously in placenta. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the expression of ATGL, HSL, LPL, EL, as well as Perilipin 1, GS02 and CGI-58 in term pregnancies complicated by GDM. mRNA and protein expression of the lipases were measured in placentae from 17 women with GDM and 17 normoglycaemic pregnancies, matched for maternal BMI and gestational age of delivery. ATGL mRNA expression was increased and HSL mRNA expression reduced in placentae from GDM although there was no differences in protein expression of any of the lipases. All lipases were localised to trophoblasts and endothelial cells. The expression of Perilipin 1 and CGI-58 mRNA was increased and GS02 not altered in GDM. These results suggest that there is no difference in expression in these four lipases between GDM and normoglycaemic placentae, and therefore altered lipid transfer via these lipases does not contribute to large for gestational age in infants of women with GDM.

  14. Postheparin plasma lipases and carnitine in infants during parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovamo, L

    1985-03-01

    Lipoprotein lipase is the rate-limiting factor for hydrolyzing triglycerides to glycerol and fatty acids. Carnitine is a cofactor in the transport of long-chain fatty acids through the mitochondrial membrane for oxidation. To assess these determinants of fat utilization during total parenteral nutrition, lipoprotein and hepatic lipase activities and carnitine concentrations of nine newborn infants, operated on because of gastrointestinal anomalies during the first day of life, were measured with specific methods. Total parenteral nutrition was built up in 3 days whereafter the infants received 3 g/kg of fat at a constant rate of infusion for 24 h/day. Lipoprotein lipase activity of post-heparin plasma increased from 14 to 35 mumol free fatty acids/ml/h during parenteral nutrition whereas hepatic lipase activity remained unchanged at 40 mumol free fatty acids/ml/h. Serum free carnitine and acylcarnitine levels decreased significantly during parenteral nutrition; urinary excretion of carnitine decreased also. In addition, serum cholesterol and phospholipids increased markedly during parenteral nutrition whereas serum triglycerides, free fatty acids, and blood beta-hydroxybutyrate remained unchanged. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations were unaltered, apolipoprotein A-II underwent a transient increase, and apolipoprotein B increased monotonically during parenteral nutrition. The results suggest that under the present circumstances neither lipoprotein lipase activity nor carnitine resources are rate-limiting for the utilization of fat in newborn infants during total parenteral nutrition.

  15. The pathophysiology of intestinal lipoprotein production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina eGiammanco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal lipoprotein production is a multistep process, essential for the absorption of dietary fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Chylomicron assembly begins in the endoplasmic reticulum with the formation of primordial, phospholipids-rich particles that are then transported to the Golgi for secretion. Several classes of transporters play a role in the selective uptake and/or export of lipids through the villus enterocytes. Once secreted in the lymph stream, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs are metabolized by Lipoprotein lipase (LPL, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols of very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs and chylomicrons, thereby delivering free fatty acids to various tissues. Genetic mutations in the genes codifying for these proteins are responsible of different inherited disorders affecting chylomicron metabolism.This review focuses on the molecular pathways that modulate the uptake and the transport of lipoproteins of intestinal origin and it will highlight recent findings on TRLs assembly.

  16. Acid Lipase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Acid Lipase Disease Information Page What research is being ... research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency. Additional research studies hope to identify ...

  17. STUDIES ON THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE GENRE POLYMORPHISMS OF PVU Ⅱ SITE AND HYPERTENSION COMBINED WITH OBESITY%脂蛋白脂酶基因多态性与原发性高血压合并肥胖的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑛; 张毓洪

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨脂蛋白脂酶(lipoprotein lipase,LPL)基因Pvu Ⅱ位点多态性与原发性高血压合并肥胖的相关性. [方法]采用聚合酶链反应和限制性酶切片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)技术,对135名原发性高血压合并肥胖患者和135名健康对照LPL基因PvuⅡ酶切位点进行多态性分析. [结果]LPL基因PvuⅡ位点P+P+,P+P-和P-p-3种基因型的构成比分别为36.7%、45.6%和17.8%.等位基因的频率为59.4%(P+)和40.6%(p-).PvuⅡ位点基因型分布在病例组与对照组间有统计学差异(P<0.01),其中P-P-的WHR低于P+P-和P+P+基因型,而DBP水平高于其他两种基因型(P值均<0.01). [结论]LPL基因PvuⅡ位点多态性与宁夏银川市农村人群EH合并肥胖的发病有关,其中PvuⅡ位点(-/-)基因型与WHR的降低和DBP水平的升高有关.%[Objective] To analyze the association between Pvu Ⅱ polymorphisms of the lipoprotein lipase gene and hy penension combined with obesity. [ Methods] PCR-RFLP method was used to determine the DNA polymorphism of 6th intron at LPLgene in 135 patients who had hypertension corrbined with obesity and 135 healthy people. [Results] The frequencies of genotypes were 36.7% (P+P+) , 45.6% (P+P-) and17.8% (P-P-) , respectively. The frequencies of P+ allele in whole sub jects was 59.4% and P- allele was 40.6%.The frenotype frequencies of Pvu Ⅱ polymorphic site had statistical difference between case and control group. The P-P- genotype 's waist hip ratio was lower than P+P- and P+P+ genotypes, and its diastolic blood pressure was higher than others. [Conclusion] The results suggest that Pvu Ⅱ polymorphism of the lipoprotein lipase gene was found to be associated with hypertension combined with obesity. And P-P-genotype in LPL gene was related to the level of WHR and DBP.

  18. Heparin releasable liver-type lipases of the rat : application of monoclonal antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.L.M. Persoon (Niek)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractFrom the introduction, it will be clear that liver lipase is involved in the metabolism of lipoproteins. The exact function(s) of the enzyme in lipoprotein metabolism, however, still remains to be elucidated which of course is necessary for the understanding of a possible relationship be

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Kersten

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma lipoproteins are responsible for carrying triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood and ensuring their delivery to target organs. Regulation of lipoprotein metabolism takes place at numerous levels including via changes in gene transcription. An important group of transcription factors that mediates the effect of dietary fatty acids and certain drugs on plasma lipoproteins are the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs. Three PPAR isotypes can be distinguished, all of which have a major role in regulating lipoprotein metabolism. PPARα is the molecular target for the fibrate class of drugs. Activation of PPARα in mice and humans markedly reduces hepatic triglyceride production and promotes plasma triglyceride clearance, leading to a clinically significant reduction in plasma triglyceride levels. In addition, plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol levels are increased upon PPARα activation in humans. PPARγ is the molecular target for the thiazolidinedione class of drugs. Activation of PPARγ in mice and human is generally associated with a modest increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol and a decrease in plasma triglycerides. The latter effect is caused by an increase in lipoprotein lipase-dependent plasma triglyceride clearance. Analogous to PPARα, activation of PPARβ/δ leads to increased plasma HDL-cholesterol and decreased plasma triglyceride levels. In this paper, a fresh perspective on the relation between PPARs and lipoprotein metabolism is presented. The emphasis is on the physiological role of PPARs and the mechanisms underlying the effect of synthetic PPAR agonists on plasma lipoprotein levels.

  20. Lack of association between common genetic variation in endothelial lipase (LIPG) and the risk for CAD and DVT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vergeer; D.M. Cohn; S.M. Boekholdt; M.S. Sandhu; H.M. Prins; S.L. Ricketts; N.J. Wareham; J.J.P. Kastelein; K.T. Khaw; P.W. Kamphuisen; G.M. Dallinga-Thie

    2010-01-01

    Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and possibly for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Endothelial lipase is involved in HDL-C metabolism. Common variants in the endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) have been reported to be associated

  1. Atorvastatin dose-dependently decreases hepatic lipase activity in type 2 diabetes - Effect of sex and the LIPC promoter variant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk-Planken, IIL; Hoogerbrugge, N; Stolk, RP; Bootsma, AH; Jansen, H

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Hepatic lipase (HL) is involved in the metabolism of several lipoproteins and may contribute to the atherogenic lipid profile in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the effect of cholesterol synthesis inhibitors on HL activity in relation to sex and the hepatic lipase gene, the LIPC p

  2. The -250G>A promoter variant in hepatic lipase associates with elevated fasting serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol modulated by interaction with physical activity in a study of 16,156 Danish subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Andreasen, Camilla H; Andersen, Mette K;

    2008-01-01

    of variants in LIPC on metabolic traits and type 2 diabetes in a large sample of Danes. Because behavioral factors influence hepatic lipase activity, we furthermore examined possible gene-environment interactions in the population-based Inter99 study. DESIGN: The LIPC -250G>A (rs2070895) variant was genotyped...... Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care study [0.038 mmol/liter per allele (95% CI 0.024-0.053); P = 2 x 10(-7)). The allelic effect on HDL-c was modulated by interaction with self-reported physical activity (P(interaction) = 0.002) because vigorous physically active homozygous A......-allele carriers had a 0.30 mmol/liter (95% CI 0.22-0.37) increase in HDL-c compared with homozygous G-allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We validate the association of LIPC promoter variation with fasting serum HDL-c and present data supporting an interaction with physical activity implying an increased effect on HDL...

  3. 皱褶假丝酵母Candida rugosa产脂蛋白酯酶的发酵培养基优化%Optimization on Fermentation Medium for Lipoprotein Lipase Production by Candida rugosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兴秀; 何义国; 邓静; 吴华昌; 孟延发

    2011-01-01

    Candida rugosa producing Iipoprotein lipase was screened, and the optimization of fermentation conditions was studied. The optimal medium compositions were as follows: olive oil 0.6%, proteose-peptone 0.5%, yeast extract 0.3%, malt extract 0.3%, Tween-80 0.1%, K2HPO4 0.05%, Na2HPO4 0.1%, MgSO4·7H2O 0.1%. Under the optimum cultivation conditions, the enzyme activity reached 121.65U/L%将筛选得到的产脂蛋白酯酶的皱褶假丝酵母进行了底物诱导和发酵培养基的优化,确定了其最适培养基配方:橄榄油0.6%,蛋白胨0.5%,酵母膏0.3%,麦芽浸膏0.3%,Tween-80 0.1%,K2HPO4 0.05%,Na2HPO4 0.1%,MgSO4·7H2O 0.1%.在最适培养基中培养,脂蛋白酯酶的酶活力可达121.65U/L,比未优化前提高了80倍.

  4. Effect of lipoprotein lipase inhibitor orlistat on VLDL-induced cellular lipid accumulation and MCP-1 secretion in mesangial cells%脂蛋白脂酶抑制剂抑制极低密度脂蛋白诱导的人肾小球系膜细胞脂质沉积和单核细胞趋化蛋白1表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李荣山; 李航; 李学旺

    2010-01-01

    @@ 研究认为,表达在动脉壁的脂蛋白脂酶(lipoprotein lipase,LPL)可通过促进脂质在动脉壁的沉积进而促进动脉粥样硬化的形成[1].脂质肾损害在某些方面与动脉粥样硬化有相似的发病机制.LPL在肾脏也有表达,且系膜细胞是肾脏固有细胞中脂蛋门脂酶的来源[2],但其确切的生理和病理作用尚不完全清楚.

  5. 脂蛋白脂酶基因多态性与冠心病关系的研究%Relationship between a novel polymorphism of lipoprotein lipase gene and coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏智广; 张思仲; 侯一平; 张立; 廖林川; 肖翠英

    2002-01-01

    目的探讨脂蛋白脂酶基因的多态性与冠心病的相关性. 方法提取冠心病群体和正常群体的基因组DNA,借助聚合酶链反应扩增LPL基因的9个外显子及其侧翼的内含子序列,采用变性高效液相色谱技术对扩增的片段进行了筛查,并用双脱氧末端终止法对扩增的片段进行了DNA序列检测.结果在LPL 基因第5外显子发现了一未见文献报道的多态位点,即 G830→A转换,该变异导致LPL 基因第192 位的Arg(CGA)被Gln(CAA)取代.经χ2检验,由此多态产生的基因型A/A和等位基因A在对照组和冠心病组之间没有显著性差异(P>0.05).对冠心病患者组进一步采用χ 2检验,发现A/A基因型和A等位基因在合并有高甘油三酯/低高密度脂蛋白胆固醇血症的患者组和血脂正常的患者组之间存在显著性差异(P0.05). However, the frequencies of A/A genotype and A allele ( 0.653 and 0.786) in CHD patients with high plasma triglyceride/lowed plasma hi gh density lipoprotein cholesterol were higher than those (0.415 and 0.642) in CHD patients without hyperlipidemia (P<0.05). Conclusion No direct association was found between the LPL Arg192Gln substitution polymor phism and CHD, but there is a significant positive correlation between the A/A g enotype of the LPL gene and CHD associated with high triglyceride/lowed high den sity lipoprotein cholesterol. This study may provide new data for exploring the molecular mechanism of CHD.

  6. Bacterial lipases for biotechnological applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Schneidinger, Bernd; Rosenau, Frank; Werner, Michael; Lang, Dietmar; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Schimossek, Klaus; Zonta, Albin; Reetz, Manfred T.

    1997-01-01

    Lipase genes originating from the Gram-negative bacteria Serrutiu marcescens and Pseudomonus urruginosa were cloned. S. marcescens lipase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli yielding inclusion bodies which were purified and finally refolded to give enzymatically active lipase. The lipase operon of

  7. Endothelial lipase is highly expressed in macrophages in advanced human atherosclerotic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Emil D; Nielsen, John E; Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk;

    2007-01-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is expressed in endothelial cells, and affects plasma lipoprotein metabolism by hydrolyzing phospholipids in HDL. To determine the cellular expression of EL mRNA and protein in human atherosclerotic lesions, we performed in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies...

  8. Hepatic SR-BI, not endothelial lipase, expression determines biliary cholesterol secretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Harmen; Gatti, Alberto; Nijstad, Niels; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    High density lipoprotein cholesterol is thought to represent a preferred source of sterols secreted into bile following hepatic uptake by scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). The present study aimed to determine the metabolic effects of an endothelial lipase (EL)-mediated stimulation of HDL

  9. Lipoprotein lipase gene variants: Association with acute myocardial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mahyar Bahrami

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... morphism (rs320) is located in position 495 of LPL gene's intron 8th. In this ... a control group, 203 age-matched individuals with normal coronary .... motifs for Ascl2 and NHLH1 transcription factor binding sites. (Fig 1) [29].

  10. Lipoprotein-a

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007262.htm Lipoprotein-a To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lipoproteins are molecules made of proteins and fat. They ...

  11. Lipoprotein(a) metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an atherogenic lipoprotein. The metabolism of this lipoprotein is still not well understood. It has long been known that the plasma concentration of Lp(a) is highly heritable, with its genetic determinants located in the apo(a) locus and regulating the rate of hepatic apo(a...

  12. Lipase Induction in Mucor hiemalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, M W; Mirza, A Q; Chughtai, M I

    1980-08-01

    The influence on lipase induction in Mucor hiemalis of different types of triglycerides containing mainly oleic acid (olive oil), erucic acid (mustard oil), or saturated fatty acids of 8 to 16 carbons (coconut oil) was studied. The fungus was grown in shake flasks in a fermentation medium containing peptone, minerals, and glucose or one of the oils as the carbon source. Maximum lipase was produced when the initial pH of the fermentation medium was kept at 4.0. Addition of Ca to the medium did not increase lipase production. The optimum pH for activity of both the mycelial and extracellular lipases was found to be 7.0. The fungus produced a significant amount of lipase in the presence of glucose, but the lipase activity increased markedly when olive oil was added to the medium at the beginning of the fermentation. Addition of olive oil at a later stage did not induce as much enzyme. Studies with washed mycelia showed that a greater amount of lipase was released when olive oil was present than when glucose was present. Among the various types of triglycerides used as the carbon source, olive oil was found to be most effective in inducing the lipase. Olive oil and mustard oil fatty acids inhibited the lipase more than those of coconut oil. The lipase induced by a particular type of triglyceride did not seem to be specific for the same triglyceride, nor was it inhibited specifically by it. Irrespective of the triglyceride used in the fermentation medium, the lipase produced was most active against coconut oil triglyceride, and this specificity, as shown by lipase activities in an n-heptane system, was not found to be due to a better emulsification of this oil. The lipase of M. hiemalis can be considered to be both constitutive and inducible.

  13. Breast milk composition in Ethiopian and Swedish mothers. IV. Milk lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernell, O; Gebre-Medhin, M; Olivecrona, T

    1977-04-01

    The (potential) activities of the two lipases in human milk were determined in breast milk samples collected from Ethiopian and Swedish mothers. The major lipase in human milk is dependent on bile salts for activity and probably participates in intestinal digestion of milk lipids in the newborn. The level of this lipase in the milk did not change with time after parturition, but differed between the groups so that it was higher in the privileged Ethopian mothers than in the nonprivileged Ethiopian mothers, who in turn had a higher level than the Swedish mothers. The other lipase is a serum-stimulated lipase (lipoprotein lipase). The level of this lipase varied between samples from different mothers as well as between different samples from the same mother. It tended to be lower in samples obtained at 4 to 5 days after parturition (Swedish mothers) than in later samples. There were in this case no significant differences between nonprivileged and privileged Ethiopian mothers or between them and Swedish mothers.

  14. Plant lipases: partial purification of Carica papaya lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ivanna; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Sandoval, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    Lipases from plants have very interesting features for application in different fields. This chapter provides an overview on some of the most important aspects of plant lipases, such as sources, applications, physiological functions, and specificities. Lipases from laticifers and particularly Carica papaya lipase (CPL) have emerged as a versatile autoimmobilized biocatalyst. However, to get a better understanding of CPL biocatalytic properties, the isolation and purification of individual C. papaya lipolytic enzymes become necessary. In this chapter, a practical protocol for partial purification of the latex-associated lipolytic activity from C. papaya is given.

  15. Studies on the function of hepatic lipase in the cat after immunological blockade of the enzyme in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demacker, P N; Hijmans, A G; Stalenhoef, A F; van 't Laar, A

    1988-02-01

    In order to investigate the in vivo function of hepatic lipase, cats were injected with anti-cat hepatic lipase antibodies which produced a complete and specific inhibition of heparin-releasable hepatic lipase. The cat was chosen as an animal model because it displays, like man, a relative deficiency of lipoprotein lipase compared to hepatic lipase and because the possession of two subfractions of high density lipoproteins, HDL2 and HDL3. In fasted cats no changes were observed in plasma triglycerides or phospholipids. In fed animals triglycerides increased considerably, indicating that hepatic lipase may have a function in the postprandial phase. In fat-loaded cats (6 g of fat/kg) triglycerides in the d less than 1.019 g/ml fraction increased from 4 h after the blockade due to accumulation of lipoproteins with pre-beta-mobility containing the apoproteins, apo B-100, apo E and apo A-I. Apo B-48 did not accumulate consistently. Phospholipids in the HDL2-fraction and those in the HDL3-fraction of the fat-loaded cats tended to increase and decrease from 6 and 9 h after the blockade, respectively. The absolute change in HDL2 phospholipids approximated that of HDL3-phospholipids. Overall, the density of HDL particles decreased, apparently secondary to the accumulation of apo A-I in the d less than 1.019 g/ml fraction. Our findings suggest that hepatic lipase is involved in the hydrolysis of a special class of apo A-I containing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins synthesised in the postprandial phase.

  16. Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Dependent and Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Independent Mechanisms of Cyclosporin A-Induced Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockx, Maaike; Glaros, Elias; Leung, Betty; Ng, Theodore W; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Deswaerte, Virginie; Nawara, Diana; Quinn, Carmel; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Jessup, Wendy; Rensen, Patrick C N; Meikle, Peter J; Kritharides, Leonard

    2016-07-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant commonly used to prevent organ rejection but is associated with hyperlipidemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Although studies suggest that CsA-induced hyperlipidemia is mediated by inhibition of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)-mediated lipoprotein clearance, the data supporting this are inconclusive. We therefore sought to investigate the role of the LDLr in CsA-induced hyperlipidemia by using Ldlr-knockout mice (Ldlr(-/-)). Ldlr(-/-) and wild-type (wt) C57Bl/6 mice were treated with 20 mg/kg per d CsA for 4 weeks. On a chow diet, CsA caused marked dyslipidemia in Ldlr(-/-) but not in wt mice. Hyperlipidemia was characterized by a prominent increase in plasma very low-density lipoprotein and intermediate-density lipoprotein/LDL with unchanged plasma high-density lipoprotein levels, thus mimicking the dyslipidemic profile observed in humans. Analysis of specific lipid species by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry suggested a predominant effect of CsA on increased very low-density lipoprotein-IDL/LDL lipoprotein number rather than composition. Mechanistic studies indicated that CsA did not alter hepatic lipoprotein production but did inhibit plasma clearance and hepatic uptake of [(14)C]cholesteryl oleate and glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-double-labeled very low-density lipoprotein-like particles. Further studies showed that CsA inhibited plasma lipoprotein lipase activity and increased levels of apolipoprotein C-III and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. We demonstrate that CsA does not cause hyperlipidemia via direct effects on the LDLr. Rather, LDLr deficiency plays an important permissive role for CsA-induced hyperlipidemia, which is associated with abnormal lipoprotein clearance, decreased lipoprotein lipase activity, and increased levels of apolipoprotein C-III and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. Enhancing LDLr and lipoprotein lipase activity and decreasing

  17. Lipoproteins of Bacterial Pathogens▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs-Simon, A.; Titball, R. W.; Michell, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are a set of membrane proteins with many different functions. Due to this broad-ranging functionality, these proteins have a considerable significance in many phenomena, from cellular physiology through cell division and virulence. Here we give a general overview of lipoprotein biogenesis and highlight examples of the roles of lipoproteins in bacterial disease caused by a selection of medically relevant Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Neisseria meningitidis. Lipoproteins have been shown to play key roles in adhesion to host cells, modulation of inflammatory processes, and translocation of virulence factors into host cells. As such, a number of lipoproteins have been shown to be potential vaccines. This review provides a summary of some of the reported roles of lipoproteins and of how this knowledge has been exploited in some cases for the generation of novel countermeasures to bacterial diseases. PMID:20974828

  18. Lipoprotein(a)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Kamstrup, Pia R; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    tested whether normal food intake or inflammation influenced lipoprotein(a)'s ability to predict ischemic heart disease. METHODS: We studied 34 829 individuals from the Danish general population using the Copenhagen General Population Study and the Copenhagen City Heart Study. RESULTS: Lipoprotein......(a) levels did not change in response to normal food intake: median fasting levels were 17.3 mg/dL, while median levels at 3-4 h since last meal were 19.4 mg/dL(p = 0.38). Lipoprotein(a) levels increased minimally with increasing levels of C-reactive protein(CRP): median lipoprotein(a) levels at CRP

  19. Atorvastatin dose-dependently decreases hepatic lipase activity in type 2 diabetes: effect of sex and the LIPC promoter variant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.I.L. Berk-Planken (Ingrid); N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); A.H. Bootsma (Aart); H. Jansen (Hans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Hepatic lipase (HL) is involved in the metabolism of several lipoproteins and may contribute to the atherogenic lipid profile in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the effect of cholesterol synthesis inhibitors on HL activity in relation to sex and the he

  20. Glycosaminoglycan-lipoprotein interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, U; Ostergren-Lundén, G; Moses, J

    2001-10-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) bound to various proteoglycans (PGs) present in the cardiovascular system have been proposed to perform a wide range of functions. These include conferring viscoelastic properties; interacting with and modulating growth factors and enzymes; and as receptors and co-receptors in lipoprotein metabolism. Binding of apoB-100 lipoproteins, particularly low density lipoproteins (LDL), to GAGs of extracellular matrix PGs in arteries has been proposed to be an initiating event in development of atherosclerosis. This study was initiated with the aim of getting an overview of the binding patterns of different lipoprotein subclasses with individual GAG categories. We thus evaluated the interaction of lipoproteins with GAGs commonly found in the cardiovascular system using a gel mobility-shift assay developed for this purpose. The same procedure was used to measure lipoproteins binding to metabolically [(35)S]-labeled whole PGs prepared from three cell types, arterial smooth muscle cells, THP-1 macrophages and from HepG2 cells. The effect of GAG composition on PGs on lipoprotein binding was evaluated by enzymatic degradation of the carbohydrate chains. Heparan sulfate was found to bind beta very low density lipoproteins (beta-VLDL) and a chylomicron remnant model (beta-VLDL+apoE), but not LDL. Dermatan sulfate was found to bind LDL, but not beta-VLDL or the chylomicron remnant model. Chondroitin sulfate and heparin were found to bind all lipoproteins tested (LDL, beta-VLDL and beta-VLDL+apoE) although with different affinities. We can conclude that each lipoprotein subclass tested binds a specific assortment of the GAGs tested. The observations made contribute to the understanding of new and complex mechanisms by which carbohydrate and lipid metabolism may be linked.

  1. Lapacho tea (Tabebuia impetiginosa) extract inhibits pancreatic lipase and delays postprandial triglyceride increase in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiage-Mokua, Beatrice Nyanchama; Roos, Nils; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    Earlier work in our laboratory indicated that ethanolic extracts of Tabebuia impetiginosa, Arctium lappa L., Calendula officinalis, Helianthus annuus, Linum usitatissimum and L. propolis, inhibit pancreatic lipase in vitro. In a follow-up study we assessed their effects on plasma triglycerides in rats fed on a fatty meal. Extracts, orlistat or only ethanol were given orally to the rats together with the test meal and the rate of increase of postprandial triglycerides was assessed over 4 h. Clearing of the triglycerides from the blood compartment was abolished by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase with Triton WR-1339. Our results showed that out of all the extracts, the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa led to a significant delay in the postprandial increase of plasma triglycerides. However, lapachol, which is contained in the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa and soluble in ethanol, had no lipase inhibitory effect in vitro and hence this substance did not seem to mediate the pertinent effect.

  2. Placental triglyceride accumulation in maternal type 1 diabetes is associated with increased lipase gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2006-01-01

    RNA expression of lipoprotein lipase and lysosomal lipase were similar in women with diabetes and the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed EL protein in syncytiotrophoblasts facing the maternal blood and endothelial cells facing the fetal blood in placentas from both normal women and women with diabetes......Maternal diabetes can cause fetal macrosomia and increased risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood of the offspring. Although increased transplacental lipid transport could be involved, the impact of maternal type 1 diabetes on molecular mechanisms for lipid transport...... in placenta is largely unknown. To examine whether maternal type 1 diabetes affects placental lipid metabolism, we measured lipids and mRNA expression of lipase-encoding genes in placentas from women with type 1 diabetes (n = 27) and a control group (n = 21). The placental triglyceride (TG) concentration...

  3. Lycopene stabilizes lipoprotein levels during D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide induced hepatitis in experimental rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheik Abdulazeez Sheriff; Thiruvengadam Devaki

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of lycopene on lipoprotein metabolism during D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-Gal/LPS) induced hepatitis in experimental rats. Methods: The efficacy of lycopene was validated during D-Gal/LPS induced hepatitis by analyzing the activity of lipid metabolizing enzymes such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL), lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL). Lipo protein analyses were done by the estimation of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). Results: The toxic insult of D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-Gal/LPS) in experimental group of animals reduces the normal values of lipid metabolizing enzymes due to liver injury. The significant drop in the levels of HDL and concomitant increase in the values of VLDL and LDL were observed. The pretreatment of lycopene restore these altered values to near normal level in experimental group of animals. Conclusions: In the light of results, it can be concluded that administration lycopene stabilizes the lipoprotein levels by regulating the lipid metabolizing enzymes through its antioxidant defense and helps to maintain the normal lipid metabolism during toxic injury in liver.

  4. Biodiesel production with immobilized lipase: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters, also called biodiesel, are environmentally friendly and show great potential as an alternative liquid fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils or fats with chemical catalysts or lipase. Immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst draws high attention because that process is "greener". This article reviews the current status of biodiesel production with immobilized lipase, including various lipases, immobilization methods, various feedstocks, lipase inactivation caused by short chain alcohols and large scale industrialization. Adsorption is still the most widely employed method for lipase immobilization. There are two kinds of lipase used most frequently especially for large scale industrialization. One is Candida antartica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin, and the other is Candida sp. 99-125 lipase immobilized on inexpensive textile membranes. However, to further reduce the cost of biodiesel production, new immobilization techniques with higher activity and stability still need to be explored.

  5. Role of Brown Fat in Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeke, Geerte; Kooijman, Sander; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N; Berbée, Jimmy F P

    2016-01-08

    Atherosclerosis, for which hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society, and new therapeutic strategies are highly warranted. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is metabolically active in human adults. Although positron emission tomography-computed tomography using a glucose tracer is the golden standard to visualize and quantify the volume and activity of BAT, it has become clear that activated BAT combusts fatty acids rather than glucose. Here, we review the role of brown and beige adipocytes in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis, with evidence derived from both animal and human studies. On the basis of mainly data from animal models, we propose a model in which activated brown adipocytes use their intracellular triglyceride stores to generate fatty acids for combustion. BAT rapidly replenishes these stores by internalizing primarily lipoprotein triglyceride-derived fatty acids, generated by lipoprotein lipase-mediated hydrolysis of triglycerides, rather than by holoparticle uptake. As a consequence, BAT activation leads to the generation of lipoprotein remnants that are subsequently cleared via the liver provided that an intact apoE-low-density lipoprotein receptor pathway is present. Through these mechanisms, BAT activation reduces plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels and attenuates diet-induced atherosclerosis development. Initial studies suggest that BAT activation in humans may also reduce triglyceride and cholesterol levels, but potential antiatherogenic effects should be assessed in future studies. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Lipase Improvement: Goals and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bassegoda, Arnau; Cesarini, Silvia; Diaz, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Lipases have received great attention as industrial biocatalysts in areas like oils and fats processing, detergents, baking, cheese making, surface cleaning, or fine chemistry . They can catalyse reactions of insoluble substrates at the lipid-water interface, preserving their catalytic activity in organic solvents. This makes of lipases powerful tools for catalysing not only hydrolysis, but also various reverse reactions such as esterification, transesterification, aminolysis, or thiotransest...

  7. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, endothelial lipase and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Undurti N

    2005-03-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL), a new member of the lipase gene family, was recently cloned and has been shown to have a significant role in modulating the concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein levels (HDL). EL is closely related to lipoprotein and hepatic lipases both in structure and function. It is primarily synthesized by endothelial cells, functions at the cell surface, and shows phospholipase A1 activity. Overexpression of EL decreases HDL cholesterol levels whereas blocking its action increases concentrations of HDL cholesterol. Pro-inflammatory cytokines suppress plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations by enhancing the activity of EL. On the other hand, physical exercise and fish oil (a rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) suppress the activity of EL and this, in turn, enhances the plasma concentrations of HDL cholesterol. Thus, EL plays a critical role in the regulation of plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations and thus modulates the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The expression and actions of EL in specific endothelial cells determines the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis locally explaining the patchy nature of atheroma seen, especially, in coronary arteries. Both HDL cholesterol and EPA and DHA enhance endothelial nitric oxide (eNO) and prostacyclin (PGI2) synthesis, which are known to prevent atherosclerosis. On the other hand, pro-inflammatory cytokines augment free radical generation, which are known to inactivate eNO and PGI2. Thus, interactions between EL, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the ability of endothelial cells to generate NO and PGI2 and neutralize the actions of free radicals may play a critical role in atherosclerosis.

  8. Gastric Lipase Secretion in Children with Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Sztefko; Krzysztof Fyderek; Andrzej Zając; Andrzej Wędrychowicz; Iwona Rogatko; Tomasik, Przemyslaw J

    2013-01-01

    Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL) in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10), ...

  9. Biodegradable products by lipase biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, Y Y; Lämsä, M; Wu, X; Uosukainen, E; Seppälä, J; Linko, P

    1998-11-18

    The interest in the applications of biocatalysis in organic syntheses has rapidly increased. In this context, lipases have recently become one of the most studied groups of enzymes. We have demonstrated that lipases can be used as biocatalyst in the production of useful biodegradable compounds. A number of examples are given. 1-Butyl oleate was produced by direct esterification of butanol and oleic acid to decrease the viscosity of biodiesel in winter use. Enzymic alcoholysis of vegetable oils without additional organic solvent has been little investigated. We have shown that a mixture of 2-ethyl-1-hexyl esters can be obtained in a good yield by enzymic transesterification from rapeseed oil fatty acids for use as a solvent. Trimethylolpropane esters were also similarly synthesized as lubricants. Finally, the discovery that lipases can also catalyze ester syntheses and transesterification reactions in organic solvent systems has opened up the possibility of enzyme catalyzed production of biodegradable polyesters. In direct polyesterification of 1,4-butanediol and sebacic acid, polyesters with a mass average molar mass of the order of 56,000 g mol-1 or higher, and a maximum molar mass of about 130,000 g mol-1 were also obtained by using lipase as biocatalyst. Finally, we have demonstrated that also aromatic polyesters can be synthesized by lipase biocatalysis, a higher than 50,000 g mol-1 mass average molar mass of poly(1,6-hexanediyl isophthalate) as an example.

  10. Structure and Function of Lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold-Jørgensen, Jakob

    Lipases are triacylglycerol hydrolases (EC 3.1.1.3) which are able to act on water-insoluble esters, butdisplay very low activity towards water-soluble, monomeric substrates. This is ascribed to theircharacteristic activation mechanism occurring at the boundary between water and lipid, i.e. the w......Lipases are triacylglycerol hydrolases (EC 3.1.1.3) which are able to act on water-insoluble esters, butdisplay very low activity towards water-soluble, monomeric substrates. This is ascribed to theircharacteristic activation mechanism occurring at the boundary between water and lipid, i.......e. the waterlipidinterface. For Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TlL) and related lipases, activation of the enzymeinvolves a rearrangement of a structural domain, called the “lid”, which covers the active site inhomogenous aqueous solution. At the water-lipid interface, the lid is displaced from the active site andmoves...... towards an open conformation enabling the substrate to gain access, thus initiating catalysis.Lipases have been studied for decades and their functional features have drawn much attention withinindustrial applications since their first discovery. However, given that their molecular action takes placeat...

  11. Aspects of the regulation of liver lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.C. Schoonderwoerd (Kees)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIt is evident that factors that influence the activity of liver lipase could be important because of the role of liver lipase in HDL-cholesterol metabolism. At the start of this study not much was known about the regulation of liver lipase. The activity had been found to be decreased aft

  12. Lipases and Its Application in Food Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ting; QIN Gang

    2010-01-01

    Lipases(triacylglycerol acylhydrolases,EC 3.1.1.3)occur widely in nature.It catalyze the hydrolysis and the synthesis of esters formed from glycerol and long-chain fatty acids.Lipases are commercially significant,this article discusses the source,structure,character and preparative method,the applications of lipases in food industry are discussed too.

  13. Lack of Association between Polymorphisms of Hepatic Lipase with Lipid Profile in Young Jordanian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabour, Omar F; Alomari, Mahmoud A; Alzoubi, Karem H; Gharaibeh, Mohammad Y; Alhashimi, Farah H

    2014-01-01

    The human hepatic lipase (LIPC) gene encodes hepatic lipase, an enzyme involved in lipoprotein metabolism and regulation. Therefore, variants in LIPC gene may influence plasma lipoprotein levels. In this study, the association of LIPC C-514T and G-250A polymorphisms with plasma lipid profiles in 348 young Jordanians was investigated. Genotyping of C-514T and G-250A was performed by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent digestion with DraI and NiaIII restriction enzymes, respectively, while Roche analyzer was used to determine plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-and high-density lipoprotein. The G-250 and C-514 alleles were most abundant in Jordanians with 79 and 80% frequencies, respectively. Additionally, no difference was found in the lipid-lipoprotein profile between the different genotype groups of C-514T or G-250A polymorphisms, even when males and females were examined separately (P > 0.05). In young Jordanian adults, the examined LIPC polymorphisms seem to play a limited role in determining the lipid profile.

  14. Lysosomal acid lipase: At the crossroads of normal and atherogenic cholesterol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A Dubland

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Unregulated cellular uptake of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in the arterial intima leads to the formation of foam cells in atherosclerosis. Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL plays a crucial role in both lipoprotein lipid catabolism and excess lipid accumulation as it is the primary enzyme that hydrolyzes cholesteryl esters derived from both low density lipoprotein (LDL and modified forms of LDL. Evidence suggests that as atherosclerosis progresses, accumulation of excess free cholesterol in lysosomes leads to impairment of LAL activity, resulting in accumulation of cholesteryl esters in the lysosome as well as the cytosol in foam cells. Impaired metabolism and release of cholesterol from lysosomes can lead to downstream defects in ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 regulation, needed to offload excess cholesterol from plaque foam cells. This review focuses on the role LAL plays in normal cholesterol metabolism and how the associated changes in its enzymatic activity may ultimately contribute to atherosclerosis progression.

  15. Lipase Induction in Mucor hiemalis

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, M. Waheed; Mirza, A. Q.; Chughtai, M. I. D.

    1980-01-01

    The influence on lipase induction in Mucor hiemalis of different types of triglycerides containing mainly oleic acid (olive oil), erucic acid (mustard oil), or saturated fatty acids of 8 to 16 carbons (coconut oil) was studied. The fungus was grown in shake flasks in a fermentation medium containing peptone, minerals, and glucose or one of the oils as the carbon source. Maximum lipase was produced when the initial pH of the fermentation medium was kept at 4.0. Addition of Ca2+ to the medium d...

  16. Lipases as biocatalyst for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaohu; Niehus, Xochitl; Sandoval, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    The global shortages of fossil fuels, significant increase in the price of crude oil, and increased environmental concerns have stimulated the rapid growth in biodiesel production. Biodiesel is generally produced through transesterification reaction catalyzed either chemically or enzymatically. Enzymatic transesterification draws high attention because that process shows certain advantages over the chemical catalysis of transesterification and it is "greener." This paper reviews the current status of biodiesel production with lipase-biocatalysis approach, including sources of lipases, kinetics, and reaction mechanism of biodiesel production using lipases, and lipase immobilization techniques. Factors affecting biodiesel production and economic feasibility of biodiesel production using lipases are also covered.

  17. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 and the intravascular processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyo, O; Goulbourne, C N; Bensadoun, A; Beigneux, A P; Fong, L G; Young, S G

    2012-12-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is produced by parenchymal cells, mainly adipocytes and myocytes, but is involved in hydrolysing triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins at the capillary lumen. For decades, the mechanism by which LPL reaches its site of action in capillaries was unclear, but this mystery was recently solved. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein of capillary endothelial cells, 'picks up' LPL from the interstitial spaces and shuttles it across endothelial cells to the capillary lumen. When GPIHBP1 is absent, LPL is mislocalized to the interstitial spaces, leading to severe hypertriglyceridaemia. Some cases of hypertriglyceridaemia in humans are caused by GPIHBP1 mutations that interfere with the ability of GPIHBP1 to bind to LPL, and some are caused by LPL mutations that impair the ability of LPL to bind to GPIHBP1. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the role of GPIHBP1 in health and disease and discuss some of the remaining unresolved issues regarding the processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. © 2012 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  18. Sex steroids and lipoprotein metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers Leuven, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Lipoprotein metabolism is involved in atherogenesis. Female sex-hormones have substantial effects on both lipoprotein metabolism and the vessel wall. Cholesterol, one of the major lipids in lipoproteins, is both the substrate for, and the target of, the steroidal sex hormones.

  19. Lipoproteins and lipoprotein mimetics for imaging and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, C Shad; Rink, Jonathan S; Naha, Pratap C; Cormode, David P

    2016-11-15

    Lipoproteins are a set of natural nanoparticles whose main role is the transport of fats within the body. While much work has been done to develop synthetic nanocarriers to deliver drugs or contrast media, natural nanoparticles such as lipoproteins represent appealing alternatives. Lipoproteins are biocompatible, biodegradable, non-immunogenic and are naturally targeted to some disease sites. Lipoproteins can be modified to act as contrast agents in many ways, such as by insertion of gold cores to provide contrast for computed tomography. They can be loaded with drugs, nucleic acids, photosensitizers or boron to act as therapeutics. Attachment of ligands can re-route lipoproteins to new targets. These attributes render lipoproteins attractive and versatile delivery vehicles. In this review we will provide background on lipoproteins, then survey their roles as contrast agents, in drug and nucleic acid delivery, as well as in photodynamic therapy and boron neutron capture therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency--an under-recognized cause of dyslipidaemia and liver dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Željko; Guardamagna, Ornella; Nair, Devaki; Soran, Handrean; Hovingh, Kees; Bertolini, Stefano; Jones, Simon; Ćorić, Marijana; Calandra, Sebastiano; Hamilton, John; Eagleton, Terence; Ros, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by deleterious mutations in the LIPA gene. The age at onset and rate of progression vary greatly and this may relate to the nature of the underlying mutations. Patients presenting in infancy have the most rapidly progressive disease, developing signs and symptoms in the first weeks of life and rarely surviving beyond 6 months of age. Children and adults typically present with some combination of dyslipidaemia, hepatomegaly, elevated transaminases, and microvesicular hepatosteatosis on biopsy. Liver damage with progression to fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver failure occurs in a large proportion of patients. Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are common features, and cardiovascular disease may manifest as early as childhood. Given that these clinical manifestations are shared with other cardiovascular, liver and metabolic diseases, it is not surprising that LAL-D is under-recognized in clinical practice. This article provides practical guidance to lipidologists, endocrinologists, cardiologists and hepatologists on how to recognize individuals with this life-limiting disease. A diagnostic algorithm is proposed with a view to achieving definitive diagnosis using a recently developed blood test for lysosomal acid lipase. Finally, current management options are reviewed in light of the ongoing development of enzyme replacement therapy with sebelipase alfa (Synageva BioPharma Corp., Lexington, MA, USA), a recombinant human lysosomal acid lipase enzyme.

  1. Lipase supplementation therapy: standards, alternatives, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, Peter; Keller, Jutta

    2003-01-01

    Treatment of steatorrhea by lipase supplementation therapy has become more successful in the last decade due to better understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of the digestive process. Porcine lipase has been the therapeutic standard for several decades and will continue to be the treatment of choice in pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Modern therapeutic concepts recommend administration of 25,000-40,000 units of porcine lipase per meal using pH-sensitive pancreatin microspheres. In case of treatment failure, the dose should be increased, compliance should be checked, and other reasons for malabsorption should be excluded. Still, in most patients, lipid digestion cannot be completely normalized by current standard therapy, and future developments are needed for optimizing treatment. In this article, pathophysiologic characteristics of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, prerequisites for use of alternative lipase sources as well as currently available lipases of nonporcine origin, and new developments are discussed. Current literature suggests that bovine lipase products present a theoretical alternative but play no major role in the western world. Fungal lipase has inferior properties compared with conventional products. Bacterial lipase products show promising potential and offer future therapeutic alternatives. Moreover, human pancreatic lipase gene transfer and application of bioengineered human gastric lipase appear on the horizon.

  2. Lipoprotein marker for hypertriglyceridemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubicciotti, Roger S. (El Cerrito, CA); Karu, Alexander E. (Kensington, CA); Krauss, Ronald M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1986-01-01

    Methods and compositions are provided for the detection of a particular low density lipoprotein which has been found to be a marker for patients suffering from type IV hypertriglyceridemia. A monoclonal antibody capable of specifically binding to a characteristic epitopic site on this LDL subspecies can be utilized in a wide variety of immunoassays. Hybridoma cell line SPL.IVA5A1 was deposited at the American Type Culture Collection on Mar. 29, 1984, and granted accession no. HB 8535.

  3. Extracellular lipase of an entomopathogenic fungus effecting larvae of a scale insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shaukat; Ren, Shunxiang; Huang, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    Lipases play an important role in the infection process of entomopathogenic fungi by hydrolyzing the ester bonds of lipoproteins, fats and waxes present on the insect surface and in the body. Here we report the purification and characterization of an extracellular lipase from Isaria fumosorosea. The enzyme was purified (138.46-fold) in three steps using (NH4 )2 SO4 precipitation followed by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The molecular weight of purified enzyme was determined to be 31 KDa by SDS-PAGE. The optimum temperature and pH for enzyme activity were 35 °C and 7.0, respectively, using p-nitrophenylpalmitate as the substrate. Lipolytic activity was enhanced in the presence of Ca(+2) , Mg(+2) , Na(+) , and NH4 (+) salts, while Zn(+2) , Fe(+2) , and Cu(+2) inhibited enzyme activity. The enzyme displayed broad substrate specificity with the highest activity observed for coconut oil and p-nitrophenyl carprate. Topical co-application of purified lipase with fungal conidial suspensions decreased the median survival time (ST50 ) of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes nymphs as compared to the fungus alone. Our results indicate that an extracellular lipase produced by I. fumosorosea can be exploited for development of enzyme-based insect management.

  4. HAZELNUT SEED LIPASE: EXTRACTION, PURIFICATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, İsmail; Sağıroğlu, Ayten

    2012-01-01

    Interest in lipases has markedly increased to their potential industrial applications. Themost of lipases produced commercially are obtained from animal and microbial sources.Nowadays, also obtained from plant seeds such as sunflower, soybean, peanut, castor bean andhazelnut. Hazelnut is one of the most important foods in majority of the world and Turkey islargest hazelnut producer. In this study, It was aimed that Lipase from hazelnut seed identified asyomra species isolated, purified and ch...

  5. [Lipases in catalytic reactions of organic chemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezborodov, A M; Zagustina, N A

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of enzymatic catalysis in lipase-catalyzed reactions of organic synthesis are discussed in the review. The data on modern methods of protein engineering and enzyme modification allowing a broader range of used substrates are briefly summarized. The application of lipase in the preparation of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals containing no inactive enantiomers and in the synthesis of secondary alcohol enantiomers and optically active amides is demonstrated. The subject of lipase involvement in the C-C bond formation in the Michael reaction is discussed. Data on the enzymatic synthesis of construction materials--polyesters, siloxanes, etc.--are presented. Examples demonstrating the application of lipase enzymatic catalysis in industry are given.

  6. Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Knockouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Wen-Jun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All treatments for obesity, including dietary restriction of carbohydrates, have a goal of reducing the storage of fat in adipocytes. The chief enzyme responsible for the mobilization of FFA from adipose tissue, i.e., lipolysis, is thought to be hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Studies of HSL knockouts have provided important insights into the functional significance of HSL and into adipose metabolism in general. Studies have provided evidence that HSL, though possessing triacylglycerol lipase activity, appears to be the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesteryl ester and diacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue and is essential for complete hormone stimulated lipolysis, but other triacylglycerol lipases are important in mediating triacylglycerol hydrolysis in lipolysis. HSL knockouts are resistant to both high fat diet-induced and genetic obesity, displaying reduced quantities of white with increased amounts of brown adipose tissue, increased numbers of adipose macrophages, and have multiple alterations in the expression of genes involved in adipose differentiation, including transcription factors, markers of adipocyte differentiation, and enzymes of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. With disruption of lipolysis by removal of HSL, there is a drastic reduction in lipogenesis and alteration in adipose metabolism.

  7. Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Remnants: Targets for Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Kroon, Jeffrey; Borén, Jan; Chapman, M John

    2016-07-01

    It is now evident that elevated circulating levels of triglycerides in the non-fasting state, a marker for triglyceride (TG)-rich remnant particles, are associated with increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent findings from basic and clinical studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms that contribute to the atherogenicity of these apoB-containing particles. Here, we review current knowledge of the formation, intravascular remodelling and catabolism of TG-rich lipoproteins and highlight (i) the pivotal players involved in this process, including lipoprotein lipase, glycosylphosphatidylinositol HDL binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), apolipoprotein (apo) C-II, apoC-III, angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL) 3, 4 and 8, apoA-V and cholesteryl ester transfer protein; (ii) key determinants of triglyceride (TG) levels and notably rates of production of very-low-density lipoprotein 1 (VLDL1) particles; and (iii) the mechanisms which underlie the atherogenicity of remnant particles. Finally, we emphasise the polygenic nature of moderate hypertriglyceridemia and briefly discuss modalities for its clinical management. Several new therapeutic strategies to attenuate hypertriglyceridemia have appeared recently, among which those targeted to apoC-III appear to hold considerable promise.

  8. Association of polymorphisms in genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism with plasma concentrations of remnant lipoproteins and HDL subpopulations before and after hormone therapy in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Asztalos, Bela F; Howard, Timothy D; Reboussin, David M; Horvath, Katalin V; Schaefer, Ernst J; Herrington, David M

    2010-02-01

    A high degree of inter-individual variability in plasma lipid level response to hormone therapy (HT) has been reported. Variations in the oestrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) and in genes involved in lipid metabolism may explain some of the variability in response to HT. Subjects Postmenopausal Caucasian women (n = 208) participating in a placebo-controlled randomized trial of 3.2 years of hormone therapy (HT). Plasma triglyceride (TG), remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and HDL subpopulations were assessed at baseline and at follow up. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1 and in the ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), hepatic lipase (LIPC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and scavenger receptor class B type I (SRB1) genes were assessed for their association with baseline plasma levels and HT-related changes in levels of RLP-C and HDL subpopulations. Carriers of the ESR1 PvuII or IVS1-1505 variants had lower plasma TG concentrations and higher plasma HDL-C and alpha-1 and prealpha-1 HDL particle levels at baseline and showed greater increases in HDL-C, apo A-I and alpha-1 particle levels after HT than wild-type carriers. Carriers of the N291S and D9N variants in the LPL gene had significantly higher remnant lipoproteins and lower alpha-2 HDL particle levels at baseline. The CETP TaqIB SNP was a significant determinant of baseline plasma HDL-C and HDL subpopulation profile. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in ESR1, CETP and LPL had significant effects on baseline plasma levels of TG-rich and HDL subpopulations. With the exception of ESR1 SNPs, variation in genes involved in lipid metabolism has a very modest effect on lipoprotein response to HT.

  9. Crystal structure of Proteus mirabilis lipase, a novel lipase from the Proteus/psychrophilic subfamily of lipase family I.1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler P Korman

    Full Text Available Bacterial lipases from family I.1 and I.2 catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol between 25-45°C and are used extensively as biocatalysts. The lipase from Proteus mirabilis belongs to the Proteus/psychrophilic subfamily of lipase family I.1 and is a promising catalyst for biodiesel production because it can tolerate high amounts of water in the reaction. Here we present the crystal structure of the Proteus mirabilis lipase, a member of the Proteus/psychrophilic subfamily of I.1lipases. The structure of the Proteus mirabilis lipase was solved in the absence and presence of a bound phosphonate inhibitor. Unexpectedly, both the apo and inhibitor bound forms of P. mirabilis lipase were found to be in a closed conformation. The structure reveals a unique oxyanion hole and a wide active site that is solvent accessible even in the closed conformation. A distinct mechanism for Ca²⁺ coordination may explain how these lipases can fold without specific chaperones.

  10. Oxidized lipoprotein lipids and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahotupa, Markku

    2017-04-01

    Plasma lipoproteins contain variable amounts of lipid oxidation products (LOP), which are known to impair normal physiological functions and stimulate atherosclerotic processes. Recent evidence indicates that plasma lipoproteins are active carriers of LOP, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) directing transport toward peripheral tissues, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) being active in the reverse transport. It has been proposed that the lipoprotein-specific transport of LOP could play a role in atherosclerosis-related effects of LDL and HDL. This article gives an overview of the present knowledge of lipoprotein LOP transport and its association with the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Evidence of the significance of lipoprotein LOP transport comes mainly from studies of physiological oxidative stress and is supported by studies of the functionality apolipoprotein A-1 mimetic peptides. A large body of data has accumulated indicating that lipoprotein LOP transport is connected to the risk of atherosclerosis. While high levels of LOP carried by LDL are indicative of elevated risk, high LOP level in HDL appears to associate with protection. If confirmed, the proposed lipoprotein LOP transport function would affect conception of the etiology of atherosclerosis, but would not conflict current views of the pathophysiological mechanisms. It could open new perspectives, such as the dietary origin of LOP, and the protective function of HDL in clearance of LOP. Focusing on LOP could give additional tools especially for prevention and diagnosis, but would not radically change the management of atherosclerosis and CVD.

  11. Lipoprotein Apheresis for Lipoprotein(a)-Associated Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeseler, Eberhard; Julius, Ulrich; Heigl, Franz

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lipoprotein(a)-hyperlipoproteinemia (Lp(a)-HLP) along with progressive cardiovascular disease has been approved as indication for regular lipoprotein apheresis (LA) in Germany since 2008. We aimed to study the long-term preventive effect of LA and to assess hypothetical clinical correl...

  12. Selectivity of lipases for estolides synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todea, Anamaria; Frissen, A.E.; Otten, Linda G.; Arends, I.; Peter, F.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of estolides starting from different saturated (C16 16OH, C18 12OH) and unsaturated (C18:1 9 cis 12-OH) hydroxy-fatty acids was investigated. For this reason, the catalytic efficiency of several native and immobilized lipases in different organic reaction media at temperat

  13. Organic Solvent Tolerant Lipases and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivika Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are a group of enzymes naturally endowed with the property of performing reactions in aqueous as well as organic solvents. The esterification reactions using lipase(s could be performed in water-restricted organic media as organic solvent(s not only improve(s the solubility of substrate and reactant in reaction mixture but also permit(s the reaction in the reverse direction, and often it is easy to recover the product in organic phase in two-phase equilibrium systems. The use of organic solvent tolerant lipase in organic media has exhibited many advantages: increased activity and stability, regiospecificity and stereoselectivity, higher solubility of substrate, ease of products recovery, and ability to shift the reaction equilibrium toward synthetic direction. Therefore the search for organic solvent tolerant enzymes has been an extensive area of research. A variety of fatty acid esters are now being produced commercially using immobilized lipase in nonaqueous solvents. This review describes the organic tolerance and industrial application of lipases. The main emphasis is to study the nature of organic solvent tolerant lipases. Also, the potential industrial applications that make lipases the biocatalysts of choice for the present and future have been presented.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1415 - Animal lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... defined in § 170.3(o)(9) of this chapter to hydrolyze fatty acid glycerides. (2) The ingredient is used in... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1415 Animal lipase. (a) Animal lipase (CAS Reg. No. 9001-62-1) is an enzyme... tissue. The enzyme preparation may be produced as a tissue preparation or as an aqueous extract. Its...

  15. Lipase in milk, curd and cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, T.J.; Lettink, F.J.; Wouters, J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Presence of lipase in milk, curd, whey and cheese was studied. A small amount of the product was added to a large volume of lipase-free whole milk that had been made sensitive to lipolysis by homogenization. Increase of the acidity of the fat in the mixture, determined after incubation, was

  16. Lipase in milk, curd and cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, T.J.; Lettink, F.J.; Wouters, J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Presence of lipase in milk, curd, whey and cheese was studied. A small amount of the product was added to a large volume of lipase-free whole milk that had been made sensitive to lipolysis by homogenization. Increase of the acidity of the fat in the mixture, determined after incubation, was interpre

  17. Heterologous expression systems for lipases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The production of heterologous lipases is one of the most promising strategies to increase the productivity of the bioprocesses and to reduce costs, with the final objective that more industrial lipase applications could be implemented. In this chapter, an overview of the most common microbial expression systems for the overproduction of microbial lipases is presented. Prokaryotic system as Escherichia coli and eukaryotic systems as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris are analyzed and compared in terms of productivity, operational, and downstream processing facilities. Finally, an overview of heterologous Candida rugosa and Rhizopus oryzae lipases, two of the most common lipases used in biocatalysis, is presented. In both cases, P. pastoris has been shown as the most promising host system.

  18. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to inves...

  19. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Parnell, L.D.; Werff-van der Vat, B.J.C. van der; Ommen, B. van; Greef, J. van der; Ordovás, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to inves

  20. Genetics of non-conventional lipoprotein fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoprotein subclass measures associate with cardiometabolic disease risk. Currently the information that lipoproteins convey on disease risk over that of traditional demographic and lipid measures is minimal, and so their use is clinics is limited. However, lipoprotein subclass perturbations repres...

  1. Congenital β-lipoprotein deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchem, F.S.P. van; Pol, G.; Gier, J. de; Böttcher, C.J.F.; Pries, C.

    1966-01-01

    There are several degrees of β-lipoprotein deficiency. If there is no β-lipoprotein present, or if there are only traces of it, the Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome develops. A constant feature of this syndrome is disturbed fat absorption with accumulation of fat in the epithelium of intestinal mucosa and

  2. Lipase catalyzed synthesis of aromatic esters of sugar alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croitoru, R.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Frissen, A.E.; Davidescu, C.M.; Peter, F.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Commercially available lipases (Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozyme 435, Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase, and Lipozyme TL IM), as well as sol-gel immobilized lipases, have been screened for their ability to acylate regioselectively xylitol, sorbitol, and mannitol with a phenolic ester in a binary m

  3. Cloning, purification and characterisation of Staphylococcus warneri lipase 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, M.D.; Rosenstein, R.; Götz, F.; Egmond, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    A gene encoding an extracellular lipase was identified in Staphylococcus warneri 863. The deduced lipase is organised as a prepro-protein and has significant similarity to other staphylococcal lipases. The mature part of the lipase was expressed with an N-terminal histidine tag in Escherichia coli,

  4. LIPASES PRODUCED BY YEASTS: POWERFUL BIOCATALYSTS FOR INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Lux Lock

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The term “lipolytic enzymes” refers to the lipases and carboxylic ester hydrolases. Lipase production is widespread among yeasts, but few are capable of producing lipases with interesting characteristics and in sufficient amounts to be industrially useful. The literature concerning lipases produced by Candida rugosa, Yarrowia (Candida lipolytica, Candida antarctica and other emerging lipase-producing yeasts is reviewed. The use of recombinant lipases is discussed, with emphasis on the utilization of heterologous expression systems and design of chimeras. Finally, the three approaches that aim the improvement of lipase production or the modification of the substrate selectivity of the enzyme (medium engineering, biocatalyst engineering, and protein engineering are discussed.

  5. TLC bioautographic method for detecting lipase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdel Moniem Sadek

    2012-01-01

    Bioautographic assays using TLC play an important role in the search for active compounds from plants. A TLC bioautographic assay has previously been established for the detection of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors but not for lipases. Development of a TLC bioautographic method for detecting lipase inhibitors in plant extracts. After migration of the plant extracts, the TLC plate was sprayed with α-naphtyl acetate and enzyme solutions before incubation at 37°C for 20 min. Finally, the solution of Fast Blue B salt was sprayed onto the TLC plate giving a purple background colouration. Lipase inhibitors were visualised as white spots on the TLC plates. Orlistat (a known lipase inhibitor) inhibited lipase down to 0.01 µg. Methanolic extracts of Camellia sinensis (L.) kuntz and Rosmarinus officinalis L after migration on TLC gave enzymatic inhibition when applied in amounts of 82 and 56 µg, respectively. On the other hand the methanolic extract of Morus alba leaves did not exhibit any lipase inhibitory activity. The screening test was able to detect lipase inhibition by pure reference substances and by compounds present in complex matrices, such as plant extracts. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Advances in lipase-catalyzed esterification reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, Panagiota-Yiolanda; Foukis, Athanasios; Filippou, Michalis; Koukouritaki, Maria; Parapouli, Maria; Theodorou, Leonidas G; Hatziloukas, Efstathios; Afendra, Amalia; Pandey, Ashok; Papamichael, Emmanuel M

    2013-12-01

    Lipase-catalyzed esterification reactions are among the most significant chemical and biochemical processes of industrial relevance. Lipases catalyze hydrolysis as well as esterification reactions. Enzyme-catalyzed esterification has acquired increasing attention in many applications, due to the significance of the derived products. More specifically, the lipase-catalyzed esterification reactions attracted research interest during the past decade, due to an increased use of organic esters in biotechnology and the chemical industry. Lipases, as hydrolyzing agents are active in environments, which contain a minimum of two distinct phases, where all reactants are partitioned between these phases, although their distribution is not fixed and changes as the reaction proceeds. The kinetics of the lipase-catalyzed reactions is governed by a number of factors. This article presents a thorough and descriptive evaluation of the applied trends and perspectives concerning the enzymatic esterification, mainly for biofuel production; an emphasis is given on essential factors, which affect the lipase-catalyzed esterification reaction. Moreover, the art of using bacterial and/or fungal strains for whole cell biocatalysis purposes, as well as carrying out catalysis by various forms of purified lipases from bacterial and fungal sources is also reviewed.

  7. High-density lipoprotein metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport: strategies for raising HDL cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosheska Trajkovska, Katerina; Topuzovska, Sonja

    2017-08-01

    A key to effective treatment of cardiovascular disease is to understand the body's complex lipoprotein transport system. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is the process of cholesterol movement from the extrahepatic tissues back to the liver. Lipoproteins containing apoA-I [highdensity lipoprotein (HDL)] are key mediators in RCT, whereas non-high-density lipoproteins (non-HDL, lipoproteins containing apoB) are involved in the lipid delivery pathway. HDL particles are heterogeneous; they differ in proportion of proteins and lipids, size, shape, and charge. HDL heterogeneity is the result of the activity of several factors that assemble and remodel HDL particles in plasma: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), hepatic lipase (HL), phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), endothelial lipase (EL), and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). The RCT pathway consists of the following steps: 1. Cholesterol efflux from peripheral tissues to plasma, 2. LCAT-mediated esterification of cholesterol and remodeling of HDL particles, 3. direct pathway of HDL cholesterol delivery to the liver, and 4. indirect pathway of HDL cholesterol delivery to the liver via CETP-mediated transfer There are several established strategies for raising HDL cholesterol in humans, such as lifestyle changes; use of drugs including fibrates, statins, and niacin; and new therapeutic approaches. The therapeutic approaches include CETP inhibition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, synthetic farnesoid X receptor agonists, and gene therapy. Results of clinical trials should be awaited before further clinical management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  8. Phytosterols, Phytostanols, and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gylling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of phytosterols and phytostanols added to foods and food supplements to obtain significant non-pharmacologic serum and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol reduction is well documented. Irrespective of age, gender, ethnic background, body weight, background diet, or the cause of hypercholesterolemia and, even added to statin treatment, phytosterols and phytostanols at 2 g/day significantly lower LDL cholesterol concentration by 8%–10%. They do not affect the concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a or serum proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. In some studies, phytosterols and phytostanols have modestly reduced serum triglyceride levels especially in subjects with slightly increased baseline concentrations. Phytosterols and phytostanols lower LDL cholesterol by displacing cholesterol from mixed micelles in the small intestine so that cholesterol absorption is partially inhibited. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis have been carefully evaluated during phytosterol and phytostanol supplementation. However, only a few lipoprotein kinetic studies have been performed, and they revealed that LDL apoprotein B-100 transport rate was reduced. LDL particle size was unchanged, but small dense LDL cholesterol concentration was reduced. In subjects with metabolic syndrome and moderate hypertriglyceridemia, phytostanols reduced not only non- high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol concentration but also serum triglycerides by 27%, and reduced the large and medium size very low density lipoprotein particle concentrations. In the few postprandial studies, the postprandial lipoproteins were reduced, but detailed studies with apoprotein B-48 are lacking. In conclusion, more kinetic studies are required to obtain a more complete understanding of the fasting and postprandial lipoprotein metabolism caused by phytosterols and phytostanols. It seems obvious, however, that the most atherogenic lipoprotein

  9. MICROBIAL LIPASES: PRODUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR LIPASE ENZYME BY ALCALIGENES VISCOSUS (DOGE-1 STRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Sekhar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Industrially important extracellular lipase enzyme production was explored by utilizingmicrobial strain isolated from dairy effluents. Alcaligenes viscosus DOGE-1 strain isolated from dairywaste waters proved to produce extracellular lipase. Various growth factors were attempted to maximizethe lipase production by this strain. Growth factors like NH4PO4, Peptone, Urea coupled with peptone,KH2PO4, Olive oil and pH were found to be favored the maximum lipase production. This microbialstrain was found to have a high lipolytic activity.

  10. Lipase-catalyzed process for biodiesel production: protein engineering and lipase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun Tae; Qi, Feng; Yuan, Chongli; Zhao, Xuebing; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami; Liu, Dehua; Varma, Arvind

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel is an environment-friendly and renewable fuel produced by transesterification of various feedstocks. Although the lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production has many advantages over the conventional alkali catalyzed process, its industrial applications have been limited by high-cost and low-stability of lipase enzymes. This review provides a general overview of the recent advances in lipase engineering, including both protein modification and production. Recent advances in biotechnology such as in protein engineering, recombinant methods and metabolic engineering have been employed but are yet to impact lipase engineering for cost-effective production of biodiesel. A summary of the current challenges and perspectives for potential solutions are also provided.

  11. Expression of lipases and lipid receptors in sperm storage tubules and possible role of fatty acids in sperm survival in the hen oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, A; Isobe, N; Obitsu, T; Yoshimura, Y

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of fatty acids for sperm survival in the sperm storage tubules (SSTs) of the hen oviduct. The mucosa tissues of uterovaginal junction (UVJ) of White Leghorn laying hens with or without artificial insemination using semen from Barred Plymouth Rock roosters were collected. The lipid density in the epithelium of UVJ and SST was analyzed by Sudan black B staining. The expressions of genes encoding lipid receptors and lipases were assayed by polymerase chain reaction in UVJ mucosa and SST cells isolated by laser microdissection. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and sperm were cultured with or without the identified predominant fatty acids for 24 hours to examine their effect on sperm viability. The lipid droplets were localized in the epithelium of UVJ mucosa and SSTs. The expression of genes encoding very low-density lipoprotein receptor(VLDLR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) were found in SST cells. Expression of genes encoding endothelial lipase (EL), lipase H (LIPH), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were found in UVJ. In contrast, only ATGL was found in SST cells, and its expression was significantly upregulated after artificial insemination. In UVJ mucosal tissues, five fatty acids, namely myristic acid (C14), palmitic acid (C16), stearic acid (C18), oleic acid (C18:1n9), and linoleic acid (C18:2n6), were identified as predominant fatty acids. The viability of sperm cultured with 1 mM oleic acid or linoleic acid was significantly higher than the sperm in the control culture without fatty acids. These results suggest that lipids in the SST cells may be degraded by ATGL, and fatty acids including oleic acid and linoleic acid may be released into the SST lumen to support sperm survival.

  12. Uremic Toxins and Lipases in Haemodialysis: A Process of Repeated Metabolic Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Stegmayr

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Severe kidney disease results in retention of uremic toxins that inhibit key enzymes for lipid breakdown such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL and hepatic lipase (HL. For patients in haemodialysis (HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD the LPL activity is only about half of that of age and gender matched controls. Angiopoietin, like protein 3 and 4, accumulate in the uremic patients. These factors, therefore, can be considered as uremic toxins. In animal experiments it has been shown that these factors inhibit the LPL activity. To avoid clotting of the dialysis circuit during HD, anticoagulation such as heparin or low molecular weight heparin are added to the patient. Such administration will cause a prompt release of the LPL and HL from its binding sites at the endothelial surface. The liver rapidly degrades the release plasma compound of LPL and HL. This results in a lack of enzyme to degrade triglycerides during the later part of the HD and for another 3–4 h. PD patients have a similar baseline level of lipases but are not exposed to the negative effect of anticoagulation.

  13. Photo-controlled deactivation of immobilised lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poloni, Claudia; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L.

    2014-01-01

    Lipase from Candida rugosa was immobilised on a quartz surface using an azobenzene-containing, bifunctional linker, which allows deactivation of the immobilised enzyme by irradiation with visible light.

  14. Organic Solvent Tolerant Lipases and Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Shivika; Kanwar, Shamsher S

    2014-01-01

    ... the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol to glycerol and fatty acids [2]. Lipases find potential applications in bioprocesses largely due to their availability and stability in organic as well as in aqueo...

  15. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2003-01-01

    of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...... for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge. The sludge was continuously stirred in the presence of either buffer alone or in the presence of detergent and/or chelating agents. In all cases, a marked reduction in floc size was observed upon continuous stirring. However, no lipase activity...... and negligible protease activity was extracted in the presence of buffer alone, indicating that enzyme extraction was not due to shear force alone. The highest lipase activity was extracted using 0.1% Triton X-100 above which the activity was gradually decreasing. For proteases, the highest activity was obtained...

  16. Structure and Function of Lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold-Jørgensen, Jakob

    out to calculate the energydifference between the open and closed lid conformation for TlL and a selection of lid-variants (PaperIII). Here, a correlation between experimental and theoretical data was discovered supporting the notionlid plays a key role in governing activation at the interface...... towards an open conformation enabling the substrate to gain access, thus initiating catalysis.Lipases have been studied for decades and their functional features have drawn much attention withinindustrial applications since their first discovery. However, given that their molecular action takes placeat...... onthe activation mechanism. From characterization studies of these variants we have shown (Paper I) thatthe lid-region plays a crucial role in governing interfacial activation and enzymatic activity. Specifically,using a combination of spectroscopic and enzymatic activity-based methods we have...

  17. Synthetic Lipoproteins as Carriers for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hualiang

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic lipoprotein is an effective carrier of targeted delivery for drugs. It has the very small size, good biocompatibility, suitable half-life, and specific lipoprotein receptorbinding capacity. Compared with the traditional natural lipoprotein, synthetic lipoprotein not only retains the original biological characteristics and functions, but also exhibits the excellent characteristics in drug delivery. Herein, the advantages, development, applications, and prospect of synthetic lipoproteins as drug carriers were summarized.

  18. Structural characterization of MAPLE deposited lipase biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronne, Antonio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Ausanio, Giovanni; Bloisi, Francesco [CNR-SPIN and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Calabria, Raffaela [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Califano, Valeria, E-mail: v.califano@im.cnr.it [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Fanelli, Esther [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Massoli, Patrizio [Istituto Motori-CNR, via G. Marconi 8, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Vicari, Luciano R.M. [CNR-SPIN and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Lipase from Candida Rugosa was deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) on KBr pellets, mica and glass substrate. • The deposited film was characterized morphologically and structurally by optical microscopy, SEM and FTIR analysis. • Results of characterization underlined a phenomenon of aggregation taking place. • The aggregation phenomenon was reversible since lipase showed activity in the transesterification reaction between soybean oil and isopropyl alcohol once detached from the substrate. - Abstract: Lipases (triacylglycerol ester hydrolases) are enzymes used in several industrial applications. Enzymes immobilization can be used to address key issues limiting widespread application at industrial level. Immobilization efficiency is related to the ability to preserve the native conformation of the enzyme. MAPLE (Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation) technique, a laser deposition procedure for treating organic/polymeric/biomaterials, was applied for the deposition of lipase enzyme in an ice matrix, using near infrared laser radiation. Microscopy analysis showed that the deposition occurred in micrometric and submicrometric clusters with a wide size distribution. AFM imaging showed that inter-cluster regions are uniformly covered with smaller aggregates of nanometric size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for both recognizing the deposited material and analyzing its secondary structure. Results showed that the protein underwent reversible self-association during the deposition process. Actually, preliminary tests of MAPLE deposited lipase used for soybean oil transesterification with isopropyl alcohol followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry gave results consistent with undamaged deposition of lipase.

  19. Lipase-catalyzed reactions at different surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, P; Holmberg, K; Debeche, T; Folmer, B; Fauconnot, L; Watzke, H

    2006-09-12

    Starting from gold chips, we have tailor-made three surfaces by the self-assembly monolayer technique: one entirely hydrophobic, one hydrophobic with dispersed carboxyl groups, and one hydrophilic, containing hydroxyl groups. Rhizomucor miehei lipase has been adsorbed to the hydrophobic and the hydrophilic surfaces and covalently bound to the surface containing carboxyl groups. The adsorption of two substrates-capric acid (decanoic acid) and monocaprin-on the lipase-covered surfaces was monitored by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. Biocatalysis was also performed in the SPR instrument by circulating a solution of the substrate, dissolved in an 85:15 water-glycerol mixture at a(w) = 0.81, through the instrument, thus exposing the capric acid or the monocaprin to the lipase-covered surfaces. The product composition was found to depend on the type of surface used. Lipase adsorbed at the hydrophilic surface favored hydrolysis, and capric acid was the main product formed when monocaprin was used as substrate. Lipase adsorbed at a hydrophobic surface and, in particular, lipase covalently bound to a hydrophobic surface favored condensation. More dicaprin than capric acid was formed in experiments with monocaprin as the substrate. Reactions performed outside the SPR instrument showed that small amounts of triglyceride were also formed under these conditions. We believe that this work constitutes the first example of the SPR instrument being used for in-situ biotransformation.

  20. Immobilised lipase for in vitro lipolysis experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Stephanie; Salentinig, Stefan; Hawley, Adrian; Boyd, Ben J

    2015-04-01

    In vitro lipolysis experiments are used to assess digestion of lipid-based formulations, and probe solubilisation by colloidal phases during digestion. However, proteins and other biological components in the pancreatin often used as the lipase result in high-background scattering when interrogating structures using scattering approaches, complicating the resolution of colloidal structures. In this study, to circumvent this problem, a modified in vitro digestion model employing lipase immobilised on polymer beads, which allows for separation of the lipid digestion components during lipolysis, was investigated. Titration of the fatty acids released during digestion of medium chain triglycerides using pancreatin compared with immobilised lipase, combined with HPLC was used to follow the digestion, and small-angle X-ray scattering was used to determine colloidal structure formation. Digestion of medium chain triglycerides at the same nominal activity revealed that for the immobilised lipase, a longer digestion time was required to achieve the same extent of digestion. However, the same structural endpoint was observed, indicating that structure formation was not affected by the choice of lipase used. Lipolysis with immobilised lipase led to the reduction of parasitic scattering, resulting in clearer and more defined scattering from the structures generated by the lipolysis products. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. Diacylglycerol synthesis by enzymatic glycerolysis: Screening of commercially available lipases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Xu, X.B.; Mu, Huiling

    2005-01-01

    yield (approx. 60 wt%) was achieved with Novozym 435 and Lipase PS-D after 7 h, and an equilibrium was obtained. Stepwise addition of glycerol allowed catalysis with Novozym CALB L (immobilized) to take place in spite of the hydrophilic carrier; however, the DAG yield was only 19 wt%. This result...... suggests that glycerol forms a layer around the hydrophilic lipase particles, limiting contact between the lipases and the hydrophobic oil phase. With glycerol absorbed on silica gel, all lipases catalyzed the glycerolysis reaction. Faster conversion of TAG was obtained with Lipase PS-D, Lipase AK...

  2. Immobilization of Isolated Lipase From Moldy Copra (Aspergillus Oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seniwati Dali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme immobilization is a recovery technique that has been studied in several years, using support as a media to help enzyme dissolutions to the reaction substrate. Immobilization method used in this study was adsorption method, using specific lipase from Aspergillus oryzae. Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus oryzae. Enzyme was immobilized by adsorbed on silica gel. Studies on free and immobilized lipase systems for determination of optimum pH, optimum temperature, thermal stability and reusability were carried out. The results showed that free lipase had optimum pH 8,2 and optimum temperature 35 °C while the immobilized lipase had optimum 8,2 and optimum temperature 45 °C. The thermal stability of the immobilized lipase, relative to that of the free lipase, was markedly increased. The immobilized lipase can be reused for at least six times.

  3. Classifying lipoproteins based on their polar profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Carlos; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Buhse, Thomas; Uversky, Vladimir N; Amkie, Rafael Zonana

    2016-01-01

    The lipoproteins are an important group of cargo proteins known for their unique capability to transport lipids. By applying the Polarity index algorithm, which has a metric that only considers the polar profile of the linear sequences of the lipoprotein group, we obtained an analytical and structural differentiation of all the lipoproteins found in UniProt Database. Also, the functional groups of lipoproteins, and particularly of the set of lipoproteins relevant to atherosclerosis, were analyzed with the same method to reveal their structural preference, and the results of Polarity index analysis were verified by an alternate test, the Cumulative Distribution Function algorithm, applied to the same groups of lipoproteins.

  4. The modulation of pancreatic lipase activity by alginates

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Matthew D.; Brownlee, Iain A.; Richardson, J. Craig; Dettmar, Peter W.; Jeffrey P. Pearson

    2014-01-01

    Alginates are comprised of mannuronic (M) and guluronic acid (G) and have been shown to inhibit enzyme activity. Pancreatic lipase is important in dietary triacylglycerol breakdown; reducing pancreatic lipase activity would reduce triacylglycerol breakdown resulting in lower amounts being absorbed by the body. Lipase activity in the presence of biopolymers was assessed by enzymatic assay using natural and synthetic substrates. Alginate inhibited pancreatic lipase by a maximum of 72.2% (±4.1) ...

  5. Mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger Karl E; Eggert Thorsten; Franken Benjamin; Pohl Martina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Microbial lipases represent the most important class of biocatalysts used for a wealth of applications in organic synthesis. An often applied reaction is the lipase-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl esters and alcohols resulting in the formation of acetaldehyde which is known to deactivate microbial lipases, presumably by structural changes caused by initial Schiff-base formation at solvent accessible lysine residues. Previous studies showed that several lipases were ...

  6. LIPOLYTIC ACTIVITY IN THE BLOOD AFTER LIPASE INGESTION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of the enzyme appearing in the blood after oral ingestion of pancreatic lipase has been studied by determining the effect of the presence...bile acid while the enzymic activity of both pancreatic lipase and the enzyme present in the blood after pancreatic lipase ingestion were greatly...enhanced by the presence of cholic acid. Although the rate of fat absorption has been shown to be affected by lipase ingestion , the possibility remains

  7. Lipolysis and lipases in white adipose tissue – An update

    OpenAIRE

    Bolsoni-Lopes,Andressa; Alonso-Vale, Maria Isabel C.

    2015-01-01

    Lipolysis is defined as the sequential hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) stored in cell lipid droplets. For many years, it was believed that hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) were the main enzymes catalyzing lipolysis in the white adipose tissue. Since the discovery of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in 2004, many studies were performed to investigate and characterize the actions of this lipase, as well as of other proteins and possible regulatory mechanism...

  8. Ion mobility analysis of lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, W. Henry; Krauss, Ronald M.; Blanche, Patricia J.

    2007-08-21

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  9. Aerosol preparation of intact lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA); Krauss, Ronald M (Berkeley, CA); Blanche, Patricia J (Berkeley, CA)

    2012-01-17

    A medical diagnostic method and instrumentation system for analyzing noncovalently bonded agglomerated biological particles is described. The method and system comprises: a method of preparation for the biological particles; an electrospray generator; an alpha particle radiation source; a differential mobility analyzer; a particle counter; and data acquisition and analysis means. The medical device is useful for the assessment of human diseases, such as cardiac disease risk and hyperlipidemia, by rapid quantitative analysis of lipoprotein fraction densities. Initially, purification procedures are described to reduce an initial blood sample to an analytical input to the instrument. The measured sizes from the analytical sample are correlated with densities, resulting in a spectrum of lipoprotein densities. The lipoprotein density distribution can then be used to characterize cardiac and other lipid-related health risks.

  10. Transendothelial lipoprotein exchange and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Jensen, Kurt Svarre

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria associates with increased risk of atherosclerosis in individuals without diabetes. We hypothesized that transendothelial lipoprotein exchange is elevated among such individuals, possibly explaining increased intimal lipoprotein accumulation and thus atherosclerosis....... METHODS: Using an in vivo isotope technique, transendothelial exchange of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was measured in 77 non-diabetic individuals. Autologous 131-iodinated LDL was reinjected intravenously, and the 1-h fractional escape rate was calculated as index of transendothelial exchange. RESULTS...... transformed) plasma insulin: beta=0.6 (95% CI: 0.1-1.1); R=0.22; Plipoproteins, LDL size, body mass index, plasma volume, and use of medicine, and it was unlikely caused by altered hepatic LDL receptor expression...

  11. Lipases as biocatalysts for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjanović Nevena D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases can be used for a variety of biotechnological applications: synthesis of fine chemicals, therapeutics, agrochemicals, cosmetics, flavors, biopolymers and biodiesel. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that is environmentally acceptable. Conventionally, biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides and short chain alcohols in the presence of an acid or an alkaline catalyst. There are several problems associated with this kind of production that can be resolved by using lipase as the biocatalyst. The usage of lipases has several advantages over the conventional chemical methods. It is considered as less energy intensive and environmentally friendly. However, there are two main obstacles associated with the effective utilization of lipases in the production of biodiesel. The main one is the cost of the enzyme and its poor stability in the presence of excess alcohol. Several strategies are proposed to overcome these drawbacks: immobilization of lipases, stepwise addition of alcohol, and the usage of novel acyl acceptors and the usage of whole cell biocatalysts.

  12. Stereoselectivity of lipases: esterification reactions of octadecylglycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusel, D; Weber, N; Mukherjee, K D

    1992-04-01

    Stereoselectivity of several triacylglycerol lipases (EC 3.1.1.3) has been investigated in the enzymatic esterification of rac-1-O-octadecylglycerol with oleic acid in the presence of organic solvents, such as hexane. X-1(3)-O-Octadecylmonooleoylglycerols were the only products formed with most lipases; considerable proportions of X-1(3)-O-octadecyldioleoylglycerols were also formed with the lipase from Candida cylindracea. The mixtures of unesterified enantiomeric substrates, i.e., X-1(3)-O-octadecylglycerols were converted to their 3,5-dinitrophenylurethane derivatives and subsequently resolved into sn-1 and sn-3 enantiomers by HPLC on a chiral stationary phase (Sumichiral OA 2100). The data on enantiomeric excess (ee) and enantiomeric ratio (E) in the unesterified substrate revealed for the lipases from porcine pancreas, Rhizopus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Candida cylindracea, Chromobacterium viscosum and Penicillium cyclopium a distinct preference for 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycerol over its enantiomer indicating stereoselectivity for the sn-3 position. For the lipase from Rhizomucor miehei a slight stereoselectivity for the sn-1 position was observed. Solvents, such as diethyl ether and dichloromethane, strongly inhibited the esterification reaction, but the enzymatic activity could be restored upon removal of such solvents by washing with hexane indicating reversible inhibition.

  13. Comparison of lipases for in vitro models of gastric digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sassene, P J; Fanø, M; Mu, H;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find a lipase suitable as a surrogate for Human Gastric Lipase (HGL), since the development of predictive gastrointestinal lipolysis models are hampered by the lack of a lipase with similar digestive properties as HGL. Three potential surrogates for HGL; Rhizopus Oryzae...

  14. Single-Particle Tracking of Human Lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Messieres, Michel; Ng, Abby; Duarte, Cornelio J; Remaley, Alan T; Lee, Jennifer C

    2016-01-05

    Lipoproteins, such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL), play a critical role in heart disease. Lipoproteins vary in size and shape as well as in their apolipoprotein content. Here, we developed a new experimental framework to study freely diffusing lipoproteins from human blood, allowing analysis of even the smallest HDL with a radius of 5 nm. In an easily constructed confinement chamber, individual HDL, LDL, and VLDL particles labeled with three distinct fluorophores were simultaneously tracked by wide-field fluorescence microscopy and their sizes were determined by their motion. This technique enables studies of individual lipoproteins in solution and allows characterization of the heterogeneous properties of lipoproteins which affect their biological function but are difficult to discern in bulk studies.

  15. Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy individuals with background of diabetic sibling. ... As the prevalence of lipoprotein abnormalities in adolescents is increasing dramatically, the identification of ... Article Metrics.

  16. Lipase biocatalysis for useful biodegradable products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linko, Y.Y.; Wang, Zhuo Lin; Uosukainen, E.; Seppaelae, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Laemsae, M. [Raisio Group Oil Milling Industry, Raisio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    It was shown that lipases can be used as biocatalysts in the production of useful biodegradable compounds such as 1-butyl oleate by direct esterification of butanol and oleic acid to decrease viscosity of biodiesel in winter use. By enzymic transesterification, a mixture of 2-ethyl-1-hexyl esters from rapeseed oil fatty acids can be obtained in good yields for use as a solvent, and of trimethylolpropane esters for use as a lubricant. Finally, it was demonstrated that polyesters with a mass average molar mass in excess of 75,000 g mol{sup -}1 can be obtained by esterification or transesterification by using lipase as biocatalyst. (author) (3 refs.)

  17. Computational modeling of lipoprotein metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, Daniël Bernardus van

    2013-01-01

    This PhD thesis contains the following chapters. The first part, containing chapter 2 and 3 mainly concerns model development. Chapter 2 describes the development of a mathematical modeling framework within which different diagnostic models based on lipoprotein profiles can be developed, and a first

  18. Butter, margarine and serum lipoproteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Intake of trans fatty acids unfavorably affects blood lipoproteins. As margarines are a major source of trans, claims for the advantages of margarines over butter need to be scrutinized. Here we review dietary trials that directly compared the effects of butter and margarine on blood lipids. We iden

  19. Revisiting the gram-negative lipoprotein paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The processing of lipoproteins (lpps) in Gram-negative bacteria is generally considered to be an essential pathway. Mature lipoproteins in these bacteria are triacylated, with the final fatty acid addition performed by Lnt, an apolipoprotein n-acyltransferase. The mature lipoproteins are then sorted...

  20. Skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase: molecular regulation and physiological effects in relation to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, R L; Semenkovich, C F

    1998-01-01

    LPL directs the body wide distribution of fatty acids derived from circulating triglycerides. This is accomplished by tissue-specific regulation. In adipose tissue, LPLA per gram is higher than in muscle tissue. Eating increases adipose tissue LPLA and may increase blood flow. Exercise greatly increases SM blood flow and LPLA over a longer time frame as compared to the effect of eating on adipose tissue LPLA. The regulation of LPLA occurs at several levels and is better understood in adipose tissue models. In muscle, the study of regulation has been neglected. LPL expression in muscle may be more complex than in adipose tissue owing to the changes in blood flow and metabolism associated with contractile activity, as well as to other factors intrinsic to contraction, such as electrical events and cellular deformation. Sixty to 90 minutes of continuous leg exercise at 60% of VO2 max induces muscle LPL expression, increases LPL mRNA in humans with 4 hours of exercise, and raises immunoreactive mass by 8 hours post-exercise. Within 24 hours, both LPL and mRNA and mass have returned to normal levels. Increased muscle LPL mass following exercise may serve to replenish intramyofibral stores of triglyceride, which are depleted with endurance exercise and are greater in aerobically-trained individuals as compared to untrained individuals. The post-exercise increase in muscle LPL mass coincides with the post-exercise acute fall in circulating triglycerides typically observed in subjects capable of exercising for 60-90 minutes at 60% of VO2 max. The low fasting triglyceride levels often seen in highly trained individuals are due in part to their high levels of muscle LPLA. Both the physiological mediator and the molecular mediator of the exercised-induced induction of muscle LPL expression are known. Hopefully, the next decade will see careful studies aimed at better defining the molecular physiology of LPL expression in muscle.

  1. Progression and regression of coronary atherosclerosis : role of diet, lipoproteins and lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Barth (Jacques Dov)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThe evolution and natural course of human coronary artery disease and risk factor mitigation programs can be studied by comparing sequential coronary angiograms of the same patient at different moments in time.1 Although tens of thousands of angiograms are performed each year to elucidat

  2. CD36 deficiency in mice impairs lipoprotein lipase-mediated triglyceride clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, [No Value; den Boer, MAM; Rensen, PCN; Febbraio, M; Kuipers, F; Romijn, JA; Havekes, LM; Voshol, PJ

    2005-01-01

    CD36 is involved in high-affinity peripheral FFA uptake. CD36-deficient (cd36(-/-)) mice exhibit increased plasma FFA and triglyceride (TG) levels. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the cause of the increased plasma TG levels in cd36(-/-) mice. cd36(-/-) mice showed no differences in hep

  3. The effect of interaction between Lipoprotein Lipase and ApoVLDL-II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... non-significantly different in fat chicken. SNP in apoVLDL-II and ... stage in the control of adipose tissue accretion is the removal of triglycerides ..... of absorbed fat is the same, lower body fat deposition may be attributed to.

  4. Sex differences in obesity development in pair-fed neuronal lipoprotein lipase deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the mechanism underlying ERα regulation of body weight interacts with the LPL-dependent lipid processing in the hypothalamus in a sex specific way. ERα could provide the link between brain lipid sensing and sex differences in obesity development. This study has the potential important clinical implication to provide better management for women who suffer from obesity and obesity-related co-morbidities.

  5. Reduced kidney lipoprotein lipase and renal tubule triglyceride accumulation in cisplatin-mediated acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shenyang; Nagothu, K.; Ranganathan, G.; Ali, S.M.; Shank, B.; Gokden, N.; Ayyadevara, S.; Megysi, J.; Olivecrona, G.; Chugh, S.S.; Kersten, A.H.; Portilla, D.

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a (PPARa) activation attenuates cisplatin (CP)-mediated acute kidney injury by increasing fatty acid oxidation, but mechanisms leading to reduced renal triglyceride (TG) accumulation could also contribute. Here, we investigated the effects of PPARa and CP

  6. Lipoprotein Lipase is an Important Modulator of Lipid Uptake and Storage in Hypothalamic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Andrew E.; Wang, Hong; Mittal, Richa; Sungelo, Mitchell; Potma, Eric; Eckel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    LPL is the rate-limiting enzyme for uptake of TG-derived FFA in peripheral tissues, and the enzyme is expressed in the brain and CNS. We previously created a mouse which lacks neuronal LPL. This animal becomes obese on a standard chow, and we observed reduced lipid uptake in the hypothalamus at 3 months preceding obesity. In our present study, we replicated the animal phenotype in an immortalized mouse hypothalamic cell line (N41) to examine how LPL affects expression of AgRP as well as entry and storage of lipids into neurons. We show that LPL is able to modulate levels of the orexigenic peptide AgRP. LPL also exerts effects on lipid uptake into culture neurons, and that uptake of neutral lipid can be enhanced even by mutant LPL lacking catalytic activity. N41 cells also accumulate neutral lipid in droplets, and this is at least in part regulated by LPL. These data in addition to those published in mice with neuron-specific deletion of LPL suggest that neuronal LPL is an important regulator of lipid homeostasis in neurons and that alterations in LPL levels may have important effects on systemic metabolism and neuronal lipid biology. PMID:26265042

  7. Hormonal regulation of lipoprotein lipase in adipose tissue (studies in the rat and in humans)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.A. Baggen (Marinus)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractCurrent data strongly suggest the most important role for insulin in the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue LPL activity. It is not clear from the literature what the role is of glucocorticoids in the regulation of the enzyme. Stress hormones as ACTH and adrenalin for example seem to

  8. CD36 deficiency in mice impairs lipoprotein lipase-mediated triglyceride clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, [No Value; den Boer, MAM; Rensen, PCN; Febbraio, M; Kuipers, F; Romijn, JA; Havekes, LM; Voshol, PJ

    2005-01-01

    CD36 is involved in high-affinity peripheral FFA uptake. CD36-deficient (cd36(-/-)) mice exhibit increased plasma FFA and triglyceride (TG) levels. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the cause of the increased plasma TG levels in cd36(-/-) mice. cd36(-/-) mice showed no differences in

  9. Hormonal regulation of lipoprotein lipase in adipose tissue (studies in the rat and in humans)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.A. Baggen (Marinus)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractCurrent data strongly suggest the most important role for insulin in the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue LPL activity. It is not clear from the literature what the role is of glucocorticoids in the regulation of the enzyme. Stress hormones as ACTH and adrenalin for example seem to

  10. Lipoprotein(a) and dietary proteins: casein lowers lipoprotein(a) concentrations as compared with soy protein1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilausen, Karin Johanne; Meinertz, H.

    1999-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a), plasma lipoproteins, dietary proteins, soy protein, casein, liquid-formula, coronary artery disease, men, Denmark......Lipoprotein(a), plasma lipoproteins, dietary proteins, soy protein, casein, liquid-formula, coronary artery disease, men, Denmark...

  11. Porcine Pancreatic Lipase Related Protein 2 has High Triglyceride Lipase Activity in the Absence of Colipase

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Efficient dietary fat digestion is essential for newborns who consume more dietary fat per body weight than at any other time of life. In many mammalian newborns, pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2) is the predominant duodenal lipase. Pigs may be an exception since PLRP2 expression has been documented in the intestine but not in the pancreas. Because of the differences in tissue-specific expression, we hypothesized that the kinetic properties of porcine PLRP2 would differ from those o...

  12. [Lipoprotein receptors. Old acquaintances and newcomers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducobu, J

    1997-02-01

    Lipoprotein receptors are plasma membrane proteins of high affinity which interact with circulating lipoprotein particles. The well characterized LDL receptor continues to be analysed and some new findings on its intracellular mechanisms of action have emerged. New lipoprotein receptors have recently been described: the chylomicron remnant receptor or LDL-related protein (LRP), the lipolysis stimulated receptor (LSR), the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), the HDL receptor (HDLR) and the scavenger receptor (SR). The molecular details of the receptors will facilitate the development of new therapeutic means to improve receptor-mediated clearance of lipoproteins.

  13. Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of Biochemical Changes in Individual Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins in the Pre- and Postprandial State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J; Motton, D; Rutledge, J; Keim, N; Huser, T

    2004-09-13

    Individual triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL) particles derived from human volunteers are non-destructively analyzed by laser tweezers Raman microspectroscopy and information on their composition and distribution is obtained. The Raman signature of single optically trapped very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), a subclass of TGRL, which play an important role in cardiovascular disease, exhibits distinct peaks associated with molecular vibrations of fatty acids, proteins, lipids, and structural rearrangements of lipids. Our analysis of pre- and postprandial VLDL exhibits the signature of biochemical changes in individual lipoprotein particles following the consumption of meals. Interaction of VLDL with endothelium leads to the breakdown of complex triacylglycerols and the formation of a highly ordered core of free saturated fatty acids in the particle. A particle distribution analysis reveals trends in the degree to which this process has occurred in particles at different times during the postprandial period. Differences in particle distributions based on the different ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated fats in the consumed meals are also easily discerned. Individual lipoprotein particles hydrolyzed in-vitro through addition of lipoprotein lipase (LpL) exhibit strikingly similar changes in their Raman spectra. These results demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring the dynamics of lipid metabolism of individual TGRL particles as they interact with LpL in the endothelial cell wall using Raman spectroscopy.

  14. Diet quality determines lipase gene expression and lipase/esterase activity in Daphnia pulex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos-Manuel Koussoroplis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the short- (12 h and long-term (144 h response of Daphnia pulex lipases to quality shifts in diets consisting of different mixtures of the green alga Scenedesmus with the cyanobacterium Synechococcus, two species with contrasting lipid compositions. The lipase/esterase activity in both the gut and the body tissues had fast responses to the diet shift and increased with higher dietary contributions of Synechococcus. When screening the Daphnia genome for TAG lipases, we discovered a large gene-family expansion of these enzymes. We used a subset of eight genes for mRNA expression analyses and distinguished between influences of time and diet on the observed gene expression patterns. We identified five diet-responsive lipases of which three showed a sophisticated short- and long-term pattern of expression in response to small changes in food-quality. Furthermore, the gene expression of one of the lipases was strongly correlated to lipase/esterase activity in the gut suggesting its potentially major role in digestion. These findings demonstrate that the lipid-related enzymatic machinery of D. pulex is finely tuned to diet and might constitute an important mechanism of physiological adaptation in nutritionally complex environments.

  15. Amylase and lipase values in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, H.G. van

    In 146 hospitalized individuals (71 men and 75 women), the simultaneous fasting serum amylase and lipase concentrations and the urinary amylase excretion per 24 h were determined. Patients with pancreatic abnormalities or other diseases which might produce abnormal enzyme values were ruled out from

  16. Microbial lipases: Production, properties and biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josana Maria Messias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipases belong to the group of hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol lipids to free fatty acids and glycerol. They have significant potential biotechnological applications in catalyzing organic synthesis reactions in non-aqueous solvents using simplified procedures resulting in conversions of high yields. Lipase production has conventionally been performed by submerged fermentation; however, solid-state fermentation processes have been prominent when residues are used as substrates because they serve as low-cost nutrient sources. Microbial lipases can be used as additives in foods to modify and enhance organoleptic properties, as well as in detergents to hydrolyse fats in the treatment of oily effluents, and also have value for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, and oil chemical industries. More recently, they are used in transesterification reactions to convert plant seed oils into biodiesel. The objective of this work was to review the published literature on the production, properties and applications of microbial lipases, and its biotechnological role in producing biodiesel.

  17. New extremophilic lipases and esterases from metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Olalla; Cerdán, Maria E; González Siso, Maria I

    2014-01-01

    Lipolytic enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in the presence of water. In media with low water content or in organic solvents, they can catalyze synthetic reactions such as esterification and transesterification. Lipases and esterases, in particular those from extremophilic origin, are robust enzymes, functional under the harsh conditions of industrial processes owing to their inherent thermostability and resistance towards organic solvents, which combined with their high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivity make them very attractive biocatalysts for a variety of industrial applications. Likewise, enzymes from extremophile sources can provide additional features such as activity at extreme temperatures, extreme pH values or high salinity levels, which could be interesting for certain purposes. New lipases and esterases have traditionally been discovered by the isolation of microbial strains producing lipolytic activity. The Genome Projects Era allowed genome mining, exploiting homology with known lipases and esterases, to be used in the search for new enzymes. The Metagenomic Era meant a step forward in this field with the study of the metagenome, the pool of genomes in an environmental microbial community. Current molecular biology techniques make it possible to construct total environmental DNA libraries, including the genomes of unculturable organisms, opening a new window to a vast field of unknown enzymes with new and unique properties. Here, we review the latest advances and findings from research into new extremophilic lipases and esterases, using metagenomic approaches, and their potential industrial and biotechnological applications.

  18. Gastric Lipase Secretion in Children with Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Sztefko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10, the second including patients with superficial gastritis caused by pathogens other than H. pylori (non-HPG; n = 14 and the control group including healthy adolescents (n = 14. Activity of HGL was measured in gastric juice collected during endoscopy. Plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP were measured in all adolescents. Activity of HGL in the non-HPG group was significantly lower than in the HPG group (p < 0.005 and the control group (p < 0.005. Mean plasma GIP levels in the control group were lower than in the non-HPG group (p < 0.003 and the HPG group (p < 0.01. We conclude that the regulation of HGL secretion by GLP-1 and CCK is altered in patients with gastritis. Moreover, GIP is a potent controller of HGL activity, both in healthy subjects and in patients with gastritis.

  19. Gastric lipase secretion in children with gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Przemyslaw J; Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Rogatko, Iwona; Zając, Andrzej; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Sztefko, Krystyna

    2013-07-29

    Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL) in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10), the second including patients with superficial gastritis caused by pathogens other than H. pylori (non-HPG; n = 14) and the control group including healthy adolescents (n = 14). Activity of HGL was measured in gastric juice collected during endoscopy. Plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured in all adolescents. Activity of HGL in the non-HPG group was significantly lower than in the HPG group (p gastritis. Moreover, GIP is a potent controller of HGL activity, both in healthy subjects and in patients with gastritis.

  20. In silico modeling of lipase H

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amara

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... ... and tertiary structure lipase H gene (LIPH) at molecular level were analyzed in the current study. ... Tertiary structure of LIPH was predicted through homology modeling. Mutations ... absence of axillary hair, and affected males usually have .... color, while in mutated LIPH, amino acid is shown in pink color.

  1. Amylase and lipase values in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, H.G. van

    1968-01-01

    In 146 hospitalized individuals (71 men and 75 women), the simultaneous fasting serum amylase and lipase concentrations and the urinary amylase excretion per 24 h were determined. Patients with pancreatic abnormalities or other diseases which might produce abnormal enzyme values were ruled out from

  2. Acrylamide-quenching of Rhizomucor miehei lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobiecka, Agnieszka

    2005-07-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence-quenching measurements have been performed to study multitryptophan lipase from filamentous fungus Rhizomucor miehei. Using the steady-state acrylamide fluorescence quenching data and the fluorescence-quenching-resolved-spectra (FQRS) method, the total emission spectrum of native ("closed-lid") lipase has been decomposed into two distinct spectral components accessible to acrylamide. According to FQRS analysis, more quenchable component has a maximum of fluorescence emission at about 352 nm whereas less quenchable component emits at about 332 nm. The redder component participates in about 60-64% of the total lipase fluorescence and may be characterized by the dynamic and static quenching constants equal to K(1) = 3.75 M(-1) and V(1) = 1.12 M(-1), respectively. The bluer component is quenchable via dynamic mechanism with K(2) = 1.97 M(-1). Significant difference in the values of acrylamide bimolecular rate quenching constants estimated for redder and bluer component (i.e., k(q) = 1.2 x 10 (9) M(-1)s (-1) vs. k(q) = 4.3 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), respectively), suggests that tryptophan residues in fungal lipase are not uniformly exposed to the solvent.

  3. Increased Hepatic Expression of Endothelial Lipase Inhibits Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis in Transgenic Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Nishijima, Kazutoshi; Kitajima, Shuji; Niimi, Manabu; Yan, Haizhao; Chen, Yajie; Ning, Bo; Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Liu, Enqi; Zhang, Jifeng; Chen, Y Eugene; Fan, Jianglin

    2017-07-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a key determinant in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. However, functional roles of EL on the development of atherosclerosis have not been clarified. We investigated whether hepatic expression of EL affects plasma lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis. We generated transgenic (Tg) rabbits expressing the human EL gene in the liver and then examined the effects of EL expression on plasma lipids and lipoproteins and compared the susceptibility of Tg rabbits with cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis with non-Tg littermates. On a chow diet, hepatic expression of human EL in Tg rabbits led to remarkable reductions in plasma levels of total cholesterol, phospholipids, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared with non-Tg controls. On a cholesterol-rich diet for 16 weeks, Tg rabbits exhibited significantly lower hypercholesterolemia and less atherosclerosis than non-Tg littermates. In Tg rabbits, gross lesion area of aortic atherosclerosis was reduced by 52%, and the lesions were characterized by fewer macrophages and smooth muscle cells compared with non-Tg littermates. Increased hepatic expression of EL attenuates cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and protects against atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.

    1991-12-01

    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  5. Lipoprotein (a: Structure, Pathophysiology and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Cavalcante Maranhão

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical structure of lipoprotein (a is similar to that of LDL, from which it differs due to the presence of apolipoprotein (a bound to apo B100 via one disulfide bridge. Lipoprotein (a is synthesized in the liver and its plasma concentration, which can be determined by use of monoclonal antibody-based methods, ranges from 1,000 mg/dL. Lipoprotein (a levels over 20-30 mg/dL are associated with a two-fold risk of developing coronary artery disease. Usually, black subjects have higher lipoprotein (a levels that, differently from Caucasians and Orientals, are not related to coronary artery disease. However, the risk of black subjects must be considered. Sex and age have little influence on lipoprotein (a levels. Lipoprotein (a homology with plasminogen might lead to interference with the fibrinolytic cascade, accounting for an atherogenic mechanism of that lipoprotein. Nevertheless, direct deposition of lipoprotein (a on arterial wall is also a possible mechanism, lipoprotein (a being more prone to oxidation than LDL. Most prospective studies have confirmed lipoprotein (a as a predisposing factor to atherosclerosis. Statin treatment does not lower lipoprotein (a levels, differently from niacin and ezetimibe, which tend to reduce lipoprotein (a, although confirmation of ezetimibe effects is pending. The reduction in lipoprotein (a concentrations has not been demonstrated to reduce the risk for coronary artery disease. Whenever higher lipoprotein (a concentrations are found, and in the absence of more effective and well-tolerated drugs, a more strict and vigorous control of the other coronary artery disease risk factors should be sought.

  6. Lipoprotein apheresis: present and future uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Patrick M

    2015-12-01

    For the past 40 years, apheresis, in particular, lipoprotein apheresis, has been the therapy of choice to lower LDL-C for familial hypercholesterolemia patients with uncontrolled dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. With the advent of recent and future lipid-modifying agents and their ability to lower LDL-C, the question arises on what will be the future of lipoprotein apheresis. Lipoprotein apheresis lowers not only plasma levels of apolipoprotein B lipoproteins but also markers of vascular inflammation and blood rheology. Other vascular diseases, not necessarily associated with familial hypercholesterolemia, such as nephrotic syndrome and peripheral arterial disease have profited from lipoprotein apheresis therapy. In 2013, the Food and Drug Administration approved lipoprotein apheresis therapy for patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Since 2010, the German healthcare ministry has approved lipoprotein apheresis therapy for patients with an elevated lipoprotein(a) and ongoing cardiovascular disease irrespective of LDL-C levels. Recent and future lipid-modifying therapies will most likely reduce the practice of lipoprotein apheresis therapy for familial hypercholesterolemia patients. Future implications for lipoprotein apheresis will involve vascular diseases that are at present lacking clinically effective therapy, whereas acute and chronic reductions of lipids, vascular inflammation, and/or rheology may improve the clinical outcome.

  7. In silico and experimental characterization of chimeric Bacillus thermocatenulatus lipase with the complete conserved pentapeptide of Candida rugosa lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Karkhane, Ali Asghar; Yakhchali, Bagher; Shamsara, Mehdi; Aminzadeh, Saeed; Morshedi, Dena; Haghbeen, Kamahldin; Torktaz, Ibrahim; Karimi, Esmat; Safari, Zahra

    2013-02-01

    Lipases are one of the highest value commercial enzymes as they have broad applications in detergent, food, pharmaceutical, and dairy industries. To provide chimeric Bacillus thermocatenulatus lipase (BTL2), the completely conserved pentapeptide (¹¹²Ala-His-Ser-Gln-Gly¹¹⁶) was replaced with similar sequences (²⁰⁷Gly-Glu-Ser-Ala-Gly²¹¹) of Candida rugosa lipase (CLR) at the nucleophilic elbow region. For this purpose, three mutations including A112G, H113E, and Q115A were inserted in the conserved pentapeptide sequence of btl2 gene. Based on the crystal structures of 2W22, the best structure of opened form of the chimeric lipases were garnered using the MODELLER v9.10 software. The native and chimeric lipases were docked to a set of ligands, and a trial version of Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD) software was used to obtain the energy values. Docking results confirmed chimeric lipase to be better than the native lipase. Following the in silico study, cloning experiments were conducted and expression of native and chimeric btl2 gene in Pichia pastoris was performed. The native and chimeric lipases were purified, and the effect of these mutations on characteristics of chimeric lipase studied and then compared with those of native lipase. Chimeric lipase exhibited 1.6-fold higher activity than the native lipase at 55 °C. The highest percentage of both lipases activity was observed at 60 °C and pH of 8.0. The ion Ca²⁺ slightly inhibited the activity of both lipases, whereas the organic solvent enhanced the lipase stability of chimeric lipase as compared with the native lipase. According to the results, the presence of two glycine residues at the conserved pentapeptide region of this chimeric lipase (¹¹²Gly-Glu-Ser-Ala-Gly¹¹⁶) may increase the flexibility of the nucleophilic elbow region and affect the enzyme activity level.

  8. FRAKSINASI ENZIM LIPASE DARI ENDOSPERM KELAPA DENGAN METODE SALTING OUT (Lipase fractionation of Coconut Endosperm by Salting out Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Su'i

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research learns about fractionation of lipases activity from coconut endosperm by using ammonium sulphate of 0–15%; 15-30 %, 30–45 %, 45–60 %, 60–75 % and 75–90 %. The results showed that the fractions of 0–15% ; 30–45 %, 45–60 % and 60–75 % have lipase activity. Meanwhile, the highest activity was fractions of 60-75%. fractions of 15-30% and 75-90%  have no lipase enzym activity. Molecule weigh of lipase enzyme was 72 kDa. Keywords: Lipases, endosperm, coconut, fractionation, ammonium sulphate   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mempelajari fraksinasi enzim lipase dari endosperm kelapa menggunakan ammonium sulfat. fraksinasi dilakukan dengan variasi konsentrasi ammonium sulfat 0–15% ; 15-30%; 30–45 %, 45–60 %, 60–75 % dan 75–90 %. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa enzim lipase terdapat pada fraksi 0–15% ; 30–45 %, 45–60 % dan fraksi 60–75 % dengan aktivitas enzim tertinggi pada fraksi 60-75%. Sedangkan fraksi 15-30% dan 75-90% tidak ada enzim lipase. Berat molekul enzim lipase pada semua fraksi 72 kDa. Kata kunci: Lipase, endosperm, fraksinasi, ammonium sulfat

  9. Mechanisms of Cellular Uptake of Thrombin-Antithrombin II Complexes Role of the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein as a Serpin-Enzyme Complex Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, D K; Kounnas, M Z

    1997-01-01

    Serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) such as antithrombin III inhibit target proteinases by forming a stable complexwith the enzyme. Once formed, several serpin-enzyme complexes (SECs) are removed from the circulation by a receptor, termed the SEC receptor, that is present in the liver. Until recently, the identity of this clearance receptor remained unknown; however, data are now available that strongly implicates one member of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family as a candidate for the SEC receptor. This receptor, known as the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP), is a prominent liver receptor that is known to bind numerous ligands that include proteinase-inhibitor complexes, matrix proteins, and certain apolipoprotein E- and lipoprotein lipase-enriched lipoproteins. © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:9-16).

  10. Comparative studies of canine colipase and lipases from bovine, porcine, canine, human and rat pancreases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P C

    1978-01-01

    1. Colipase was purified from canine pancreatic juice and found to have certain specificity in its reaction with various pancreatic lipases. 2. This colipase will stimulate the lipolytic activities of lipases isolated from canine, bovine and porcine pancreas but not lipases from a fungus, or from human and rat pancreases. 3. Characterization of these lipases showed (a) the molecular dimension of rat lipase is very different from the other lipases; (b) the pIs of canine, porcine and bovine lipases are almost identical but different from the pIs of rat, human and Candida (a fungus) lipases; and (c) the antiserum prepared against canine lipase will also react with lipases from human, hog and cow pancreases but not with rat and Candida lipases. 4. These physical differences can explain partly the difference in reaction between the various lipases and the canine colipase.

  11. Dependency of water concentration on ethanolysis of trioleoylglycerol by lipases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piyatheerawong, W.; Iwasaki, Y; Xu, Xuebing

    2004-01-01

    The effects of water concentration on ethanolysis of trioleoylglycerol catalyzed by four different lipases were studied. The target product of the ethanolysis was 2-monooleoylglycerol (2-MO). Novozym 435 (a commercially available preparation of immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B, CALB......) exhibited both the highest product yield and the reaction rate at very low (less than 1 wt.%) free water concentration. Its catalytic activity did not drop even in dry state, i.e. in the system of dry CALB in dry ethanol (water concentration was ca. 0.1 wt.%). In contrast, other three immobilized lipases...... tested (Rhizomucor miehei lipase, Burkholderia cepacia lipase and Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase) required larger amounts of free water (ca. 7-9 wt.%) for their best performance and exhibited no ethanolysis reaction at low free water concentrations. The CALB's anomalous behavior was also observed...

  12. Porcine pancreatic lipase related protein 2 has high triglyceride lipase activity in the absence of colipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xunjun; Ross, Leah E; Sevilla, Wednesday A; Wang, Yan; Lowe, Mark E

    2013-09-01

    Efficient dietary fat digestion is essential for newborns who consume more dietary fat per body weight than at any other time of life. In many mammalian newborns, pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2) is the predominant duodenal lipase. Pigs may be an exception since PLRP2 expression has been documented in the intestine but not in the pancreas. Because of the differences in tissue-specific expression, we hypothesized that the kinetic properties of porcine PLRP2 would differ from those of other mammals. To characterize its properties, recombinant porcine PLRP2 was expressed in HEK293T cells and purified to homogeneity. Porcine PLRP2 had activity against tributyrin, trioctanoin and triolein. The activity was not inhibited by bile salts and colipase, which is required for the activity of pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL), minimally stimulated PLRP2 activity. Similar to PLRP2 from other species, PLRP2 from pigs had activity against galactolipids and phospholipids. Importantly, porcine PLRP2 hydrolyzed a variety of dietary substrates including pasteurized human mother's milk and infant formula and its activity was comparable to that of PTL. In conclusion, porcine PLRP2 has broad substrate specificity and has high triglyceride lipase activity even in the absence of colipase. The data suggest that porcine PLRP2 would be a suitable lipase for inclusion in recombinant preparations for pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy.

  13. Expression and Mutagenesis studies of Candida antactica lipase B

    OpenAIRE

    Rotticci-Mulder, Johanna C.

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant Candida antarctica lipase B was successfullyproduced in the methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris. Thespecific activities of Candida antarctica lipase B produced inPichia pastoris and commercial Candida antarctica lipase B fromNovozymes were the same. In shake-flask cultivations theexpression levels were about 25 mg L-1. Production levels couldbe increased to 1.5 g L-1, using a fermentor. A model tosimulate growth and oxygen consumption was described. The highcell density growth cou...

  14. Pressure stability of lipases and their use in different systems

    OpenAIRE

    Knez, Željko; Leitgeb, Maja

    2015-01-01

    For the investigation of the solvent impact on the enzymes, lipases from different sources (Pseudomonas fluorescences, Rhizopus javanicus, Rhizopus niveus, Candida rugose and Porcine pancreas) were used. Stability and activity of these lipases in aqueous medium in supercritical $CO_2$ and liquid propane at 100 bar and 40°C were studied. On the basis of previous results lipases were used for their application in two different systems. The application of the polysulphone membrane in the cont...

  15. Genetic differences between the determinants of lipid profile phenotypes in African and European Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul C Deo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association analysis in populations of European descent has recently found more than a hundred genetic variants affecting risk for common disease. An open question, however, is how relevant the variants discovered in Europeans are to other populations. To address this problem for cardiovascular phenotypes, we studied a cohort of 4,464 African Americans from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS, in whom we genotyped both a panel of 12 recently discovered genetic variants known to predict lipid profile levels in Europeans and a panel of up to 1,447 ancestry informative markers allowing us to determine the African ancestry proportion of each individual at each position in the genome. Focusing on lipid profiles -- HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG -- we identified the lipoprotein lipase (LPL locus as harboring variants that account for interethnic variation in HDL-C and TG. In particular, we identified a novel common variant within LPL that is strongly associated with TG (p = 2.7 x 10(-6 and explains nearly 1% of the variability in this phenotype, the most of any variant in African Americans to date. Strikingly, the extensively studied "gain-of-function" S447X mutation at LPL, which has been hypothesized to be the major determinant of the LPL-TG genetic association and is in trials for human gene therapy, has a significantly diminished strength of biological effect when it is found on a background of African rather than European ancestry. These results suggest that there are other, yet undiscovered variants at the locus that are truly causal (and are in linkage disequilibrium with S447X or that work synergistically with S447X to modulate TG levels. Finally, we find systematically lower effect sizes for the 12 risk variants discovered in European populations on the African local ancestry background in JHS, highlighting the need for caution in the use of genetic variants for risk assessment across different

  16. Lipase-catalyzed production of lysophospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnasri Taha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lysophospholipids, such as lysophosphatidic acid or lysophosphatidylcholine, are important bioactive lipids, involved in various normal and pathological cellular processes. They also have industrial and pharmaceutical uses such as emulsifiers or components of drug delivery systems. Lipases, which natural substrates are long chain triacylglycerols, are important biocatalysts for organic synthesis mainly due to their broad substrate specificity and their ability to display high catalytic activity in organic media. This paper describes the various lipase-catalyzed reactions implemented for the production of lysophospholipids. They include hydrolysis or alcoholysis of phospholipids and acylation of the glycerophosphoryl moiety. Special emphasis is made on our work dealing with the production of lysophospholipids rich in dososahexaenoic acid, an important dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid via the hydrolysis of phospholipids extracted from the microalga Isochrysis galbana.

  17. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2003-01-01

    In the process of wastewater treatment hydrolysis of polymeric substances is the first and rate-limiting step. A closer study of the enzymes catalysing these reactions is essential for a better understanding of the microbial activity in the wastewater treatment process. Therefore, development...... of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...... and negligible protease activity was extracted in the presence of buffer alone, indicating that enzyme extraction was not due to shear force alone. The highest lipase activity was extracted using 0.1% Triton X-100 above which the activity was gradually decreasing. For proteases, the highest activity was obtained...

  18. [Adipose triglyceride lipase regulates adipocyte lipolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chong; Xu, Guo-Heng

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes are associated with elevated concentration of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs), which are critically governed by the process of triglyceride lipolysis in adipocytes. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) are two major enzymes in the control of triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue. ATGL expressed predominantly in white adipose tissue specifically initiates triacylglycerol hydrolysis to generate diacylglycerols and FFA, a role distinguished from HSL that mainly hydrolyzes diacylglycerols. The transcription of ATGL is regulated by several factors. ATGL activity is regulated by CGI-58. Under basal conditions, interaction of CGI-58 with a lipid droplet associating protein, perilipin, results in an inactivation of ATGL activity. During PKA-stimulated lipolysis, CGI-58 is released from phosphorylated perilipin and in turn, binds to ATGL. This action facilitates triglyceride lipolysis. This review focuses on the regulation and function of ATGL in adipose lipolysis and metabolism.

  19. Seed lipases: sources, applications and properties - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barros

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview regarding the main aspects of seed lipases, such as the reactions catalyzed, physiological functions, specificities, sources and applications. Lipases are ubiquitous in nature and are produced by several plants, animals and microorganisms. These enzymes exhibit several very interesting features, such as low cost and easy purification, which make their commercial exploitation as industrial enzymes a potentially attractive alternative. The applications of lipases in food, detergents, oils and fats, medicines and fine chemistry, effluent treatment, biodiesel production and in the cellulose pulp industry, as well as the main sources of oilseed and cereal seed lipases, are reviewed.

  20. [Synthesis of biodiesel from crude oil by immobilized lipase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junkui; Lu, Jike; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei; Deng, Li

    2009-06-01

    We used immobilized lipase from Candida sp. 99-125 to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from crude oil and methanol. We studied the effects of phospholipids on activity of immobilized lipase, reaction velocity, stability of immobilized lipase and the stability of immobilized lipase in crude and refined oil. Results showed that the activity of the lipase immersed in petroleum ether with 1% phospholipids dropped more quickly than the lipase in petroleum ether without phospholipids. When soybean oil was used without phospholipids as material, the FAMEs yield of 15 min was 26.2%, whereas the yield decreased to 12.4% when there were 5% phospholipids in the soybean oil. However when the phospholipids content was below 1%, the stability of the lipase did not change obviously. The lipase was stable when used to catalyze crude soybean oil and crude jatropha oil, after 10 cycles the FAMEs yield was still above 70%. This lipase showed great potential for industrial production of biodiesel from crude oil.

  1. Esterification of phenolic acids catalyzed by lipases immobilized in organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoumpanioti, M; Merianou, E; Karandreas, T; Stamatis, H; Xenakis, A

    2010-10-01

    Lipases from Rhizomucor miehei and Candida antarctica B were immobilized in hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose organogels based on surfactant-free microemulsions consisting of n-hexane, 1-propanol and water. Both lipases kept their catalytic activity, catalyzing the esterification reactions of various phenolic acids including cinnamic acid derivatives. High reaction rates and yields (up to 94%) were obtained when lipase from C. antarctica was used. Kinetic studies have been performed and apparent kinetic constants were determined showing that ester synthesis catalyzed by immobilized lipases occurs via the Michaelis-Menten mechanism.

  2. Immobilization of Lipase by Covalent Binding on Crosslinked Ally Dextran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangChen; SongGuoqiang; 等

    1998-01-01

    Lipase was immobilized by covalent binding on crosslinked allyl dextran using SESA as coupling agent.It is shown that this immobilization approach is an efficient one for lipase.The activity of the immobilized lipase can reach to 300-450U/g(dry weight).It exhibits good temperature stability,can retain 88% activity after being incubated at 70℃ for 2h.Special effects will be expected from our immobilized lipase in its applications in organic media due to the nature of the support.

  3. Comparative and functional genomics of lipases in holometabolous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Irene; Haritos, Victoria S; Oakeshott, John G

    2009-08-01

    Lipases have key roles in insect lipid acquisition, storage and mobilisation and are also fundamental to many physiological processes underpinning insect reproduction, development, defence from pathogens and oxidative stress, and pheromone signalling. We have screened the recently sequenced genomes of five species from four orders of holometabolous insects, the dipterans Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae, the hymenopteran Apis mellifera, the moth Bombyx mori and the beetle Tribolium castaneum, for the six major lipase families that are also found in other organisms. The two most numerous families in the insects, the neutral and acid lipases, are also the main families in mammals, albeit not in Caenorhabditis elegans, plants or microbes. Total numbers of the lipases vary two-fold across the five insect species, from numbers similar to those in mammals up to numbers comparable to those seen in C. elegans. Whilst there is a high degree of orthology with mammalian lipases in the other four families, the great majority of the insect neutral and acid lipases have arisen since the insect orders themselves diverged. Intriguingly, about 10% of the insect neutral and acid lipases have lost motifs critical for catalytic function. Examination of the length of lid and loop regions of the neutral lipase sequences suggest that most of the insect lipases lack triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis activity, although the acid lipases all have intact cap domains required for TAG hydrolysis. We have also reviewed the sequence databases and scientific literature for insights into the expression profiles and functions of the insect neutral and acid lipases and the orthologues of the mammalian adipose triglyceride lipase which has a pivotal role in lipid mobilisation. These data suggest that some of the acid and neutral lipase diversity may be due to a requirement for rapid accumulation of dietary lipids. The different roles required of lipases at the four discrete life stages of

  4. Characterization of Cross-Linked Lipase Aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhavathi Devi, Bethala Lakshmi Anu; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available microbial lipases from different sources were immobilized as cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) using different precipitants and glutaraldehyde as cross-linkers. These CLEAs were assayed based on esterification between lauric acid and n-propanol in solvent-free systems...... change upon CLEA formation. This work presents a characterization of CLEAs based on an esterification activity assay, which is useful for exploring the synthetic application potential of CLEA technology with favorable perspectives....

  5. Resveratrol regulates lipolysis via adipose triglyceride lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, Arrate; Schweiger, Martina; Kotzbeck, Petra; Churruca, Itziar; Simón, Edurne; Zechner, Rudolf; Portillo, María del Puy

    2012-04-01

    Resveratrol has been reported to increase adrenaline-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The general aim of the present work was to gain more insight concerning the effects of trans-resveratrol on lipid mobilization. The specific purpose was to assess the involvement of the two main lipases: adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), in the activation of lipolysis induced by this molecule. For lipolysis experiments, 3T3-L1 and human SGBS adipocytes as well as adipose tissue from wild-type, ATGL knockout and HSL knockout mice were used. Moreover, gene and protein expressions of these lipases were analyzed. Resveratrol-induced free fatty acids release but not glycerol release in 3T3-L1 under basal and isoproterenol-stimulating conditions and under isoproterenol-stimulating conditions in SGBS adipocytes. When HSL was blocked by compound 76-0079, free fatty acid release was still induced by resveratrol. By contrast, in the presence of the compound C, an inhibitor of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, resveratrol effect was totally blunted. Resveratrol increased ATGL gene and protein expressions, an effect that was not observed for HSL. Resveratrol increased fatty acids release in epididymal adipose tissue from wild-type and HSL knockout mice but not in that adipose tissue from ATGL knockout mice. Taking as a whole, the present results provide novel evidence that resveratrol regulates lipolytic activity in human and murine adipocytes, as well as in white adipose tissue from mice, acting mainly on ATGL at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Enzyme activation seems to be induced via adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Immobilization of lipase from Fusarium solani FS1 Imobilização de lipase de Fusarium solani FS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Knight

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipase from Fusarium solani FS1 was immobilized by covalent attachment to polyacrylamide beads and onto magnetized Dacron, retaining 12% and 97% of activity, respectively. Lipase was also entrapped within polyacrylamide beads, retaining 53% of activity. Investigations of the kinetic characteristics of the immobilized derivatives using triolein as substrate showed that lipase immobilized onto polyacrilamide beads and Dacron did not follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics.Lipase de Fusarium solani FS1 foi imobilizada por ligação covalente usando esferas de poliacrilamida e Dacron magnetizado, retendo 12%, e 97% de atividade, respectivamente. A lipase foi também enclausurada em esferas de poliacrilamida e reteve 53% de sua atividade específica. Investigações sobre o comportamento cinético usando trioleína como substrato mostraram que as lipases imobilizadas não seguem a cinética de Michaelis-Menten.

  7. Biodiesel production by transesterification using immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Reena

    2013-04-01

    Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of vegetable or waste oil catalysed by lipases. Biodiesel is an alternative energy source to conventional fuel. It combines environmental friendliness with biodegradability, low toxicity and renewability. Biodiesel transesterification reactions can be broadly classified into two categories: chemical and enzymatic. The production of biodiesel using the enzymatic route eliminates the reactions catalysed under acid or alkali conditions by yielding product of very high purity. The modification of lipases can improve their stability, activity and tolerance to alcohol. The cost of lipases and the relatively slower reaction rate remain the major obstacles for enzymatic production of biodiesel. However, this problem can be solved by immobilizing the enzyme on a suitable matrix or support, which increases the chances of re-usability. The main factors affecting biodiesel production are composition of fatty acids, catalyst, solvents, molar ratio of alcohol and oil, temperature, water content, type of alcohol and reactor configuration. Optimization of these parameters is necessary to reduce the cost of biodiesel production.

  8. Lipase production by recombinant strains of Aspergillus niger expressing a lipase-encoding gene from Thermomyces lanuginosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prathumpai, Wai; Flitter, S.J.; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2004-01-01

    Two recombinant strains of Aspergillus niger (NW 297-14 and NW297-24) producing a heterologous lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus were constructed. The heterologous lipase was expressed using the TAKA amylase promoter from Aspergillus oryzae. The production kinetics of the two strains on different...... shows that it is possible to obtain high productivities of heterologous fungal enzymes in A. niger. However, SDS-PAGE analysis showed that most of the produced lipase was bound to the cell wall....

  9. Immobilization of a Commercial Lipase from Penicillium camembertii (Lipase G by Different Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano A. Mendes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to select the most suitable procedure to immobilize lipase from Penicillium camembertii (Lipase G. Different techniques and supports were evaluated, including physical adsorption on hydrophobic supports octyl-agarose, poly(hydroxybutyrate and Amberlite resin XAD-4; ionic adsorption on the anionic exchange resin MANAE-agarose and covalent attachment on glyoxyl-agarose, MANAE-agarose cross-linked with glutaraldehyde, MANAE-agarose-glutaraldehyde, and epoxy-silica-polyvinyl alcohol composite. Among the tested protocols, the highest hydrolytic activity (128.2 ± 8.10 IU·g−1 of support was achieved when the lipase was immobilized on epoxy-SiO2-PVA using hexane as coupling medium. Lipase immobilized by ionic adsorption on MANAE-agarose also gave satisfactory result, attaining 55.6 ± 2.60 IU·g−1 of support. In this procedure, the maximum loading of immobilized enzyme was 9.3 mg·g−1 of gel, and the highest activity (68.8 ± 2.70 IU·g−1 of support was obtained when 20 mg of protein·g−1 was offered. Immobilization carried out in aqueous medium by physical adsorption on hydrophobic supports and covalent attachment on MANAE-agarose-glutaraldehyde and glyoxyl-agarose was shown to be unfeasible for Lipase G. Thermal stability tests revealed that the immobilized derivative on epoxy-SiO2-PVA composite using hexane as coupling medium had a slight higher thermal stability than the free lipase.

  10. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

    Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de

  11. Hepatic trans-Golgi action coordinated by the GTPase ARFRP1 is crucial for lipoprotein lipidation and assembly[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Deike; Radloff, Katrin; Jaschke, Alexander; Lagerpusch, Merit; Chung, Bomee; Tailleux, Anne; Staels, Bart; Schürmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a major organ in whole body lipid metabolism and malfunctioning can lead to various diseases including dyslipidemia, fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes. Triglycerides and cholesteryl esters are packed in the liver as very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs). Generation of these lipoproteins is initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum and further maturation likely occurs in the Golgi. ADP-ribosylation factor-related protein 1 (ARFRP1) is a small trans-Golgi-associated guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that regulates protein sorting and is required for chylomicron lipidation and assembly in the intestine. Here we show that the hepatocyte-specific deletion of Arfrp1 (Arfrp1liv−/−) results in impaired VLDL lipidation leading to reduced plasma triglyceride levels in the fasted state as well as after inhibition of lipoprotein lipase activity by Triton WR-1339. In addition, the concentration of ApoC3 that comprises 40% of protein mass of secreted VLDLs is markedly reduced in the plasma of Arfrp1liv−/− mice but accumulates in the liver accompanied by elevated triglycerides. Fractionation of Arfrp1liv−/− liver homogenates reveals more ApoB48 and a lower concentration of triglycerides in the Golgi compartments than in the corresponding fractions from control livers. In conclusion, ARFRP1 and the Golgi apparatus play an important role in lipoprotein maturation in the liver by influencing lipidation and assembly of proteins to the lipid particles. PMID:24186947

  12. Pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 digests fats in human milk and formula in concert with gastric lipase and carboxyl ester lipase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karin; Ross, Leah; Miller, Rita; Xiao, Xunjun; Lowe, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Dietary fats must be digested into fatty acids and monoacylglycerols prior to absorption. In adults, colipase-dependent pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL) contributes significantly to fat digestion. In newborn rodents and humans, the pancreas expresses low levels of PTL. In rodents, a homologue of PTL, pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2) and carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) compensate for the lack of PTL. In human newborns, the role for PLRP2 in dietary fat digestion is unclear. To clarify the potential of human PLRP2 to influence dietary fat digestion in newborns, we determined PLRP2 activity against human milk and infant formula. METHODS The activity of purified recombinant PLRP2, gastric lipase and CEL against fats in human milk and formula was measured with each lipase alone and in combination with a standard pH-stat assay. RESULTS Colipase added to human milk stimulated fat digestion. PLRP2 and CEL had activity against human milk and formula. Pre-digestion with gastric lipase increased PLRP2 activity against both substrates. Together, CEL and PLRP2 activity was additive with formula and synergistic with human milk. CONCLUSIONS PLRP2 can digest fats in human milk and formula. PLRP2 acts in concert with CEL and gastric lipase to digest fats in human milk in vitro. PMID:23732775

  13. Diagnostic markers based on a computational model of lipoprotein metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Ommen, B. van; Freidig, A.P.; Greef, J. van der; Graaf, A.A. de

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Lipoprotein diagnostics, such as LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, help to diagnose these diseases. Lipoprotein profile measurements could improve lipoprotein diagnostics, but interpreta

  14. Variations in plasma lipids and lipoproteins among cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in plasma lipids and lipoproteins among cardiovascular disease patients in ... This study was designed to assess the changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins, in particular highdensity lipoprotein (HDLC) in patients ... Article Metrics.

  15. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Plasma lipoproteins are responsible for carrying triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood and ensuring their delivery to target organs. Regulation of lipoprotein metabolism takes place at numerous levels including via changes in gene transcription. An important group of transcription factors that

  16. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Plasma lipoproteins are responsible for carrying triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood and ensuring their delivery to target organs. Regulation of lipoprotein metabolism takes place at numerous levels including via changes in gene transcription. An important group of transcription factors that

  17. Computational studies of plasma lipoprotein lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lurong; Segrest, Jere P

    2016-10-01

    Plasma lipoproteins are macromolecular assemblies of proteins and lipids found in the blood. The lipid components of lipoproteins are amphipathic lipids such as phospholipids (PLs), and unesterified cholesterols (UCs) and hydrophobic lipids such as cholesteryl esters (CEs) and triglycerides (TGs). Since lipoproteins are soft matter supramolecular assemblies easily deformable by thermal fluctuations and they also exist in varying densities and protein/lipid components, a detailed understanding of their structure/function is experimentally difficult. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has emerged as a particularly promising way to explore the structure and dynamics of lipoproteins. The purpose of this review is to survey the current status of computational studies of the lipid components of the lipoproteins. Computational studies aim to explore three levels of complexity for the 3-dimensional structural dynamics of lipoproteins at various metabolic stages: (i) lipoprotein particles consist of protein with minimal lipid; (ii) lipoprotein particles consist of PL-rich discoidal bilayer-like lipid particles; (iii) mature circulating lipoprotein particles consist of CE-rich or TG-rich spheroidal lipid-droplet-like particles. Due to energy barriers involved in conversion between these species, other biomolecules also participate in lipoprotein biological assembly. For example: (i) lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) interacts with ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) to produce nascent discoidal high density lipoprotein (dHDL) particles; (ii) lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) mediates the conversion of UC to CE in dHDL, driving spheroidal HDL (sHDL) formation; (iii) transfer proteins, cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), transfer both CE and TG and PL, respectively, between lipoprotein particles. Computational studies have the potential to explore different lipoprotein particles at each metabolic stage in

  18. In vivo structure-function studies of human hepatic lipase: the catalytic function rescues the lean phenotype of HL-deficient (hl −/−) mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jeffrey; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Lam, Jennifer; Agrawal, Nalini; Nguyen, Lisa; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Spencer, Dean; Morton, Gregory J.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Dichek, Helén L.

    2015-01-01

    The lean body weight phenotype of hepatic lipase (HL)–deficient mice (hl −/−) suggests that HL is required for normal weight gain, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. HL plays a unique role in lipoprotein metabolism performing bridging as well as catalytic functions, either of which could participate in energy homeostasis. To determine if both the catalytic and bridging functions or the catalytic function alone are required for the effect of HL on body weight, we studied (hl −/−) mice ...

  19. The iron-regulated staphylococcal lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eSheldon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipoproteins fulfill diverse roles in antibiotic resistance, adhesion, protein secretion, signaling and sensing, and many also serve as the substrate binding protein (SBP partner to ABC transporters for the acquisition of a diverse array of nutrients including peptides, sugars, and scarcely abundant metals. In the staphylococci, the iron-regulated SBPs are significantly upregulated during iron starvation and function to sequester and deliver iron into the bacterial cell, enabling staphylococci to circumvent iron restriction imposed by the host environment. Accordingly, this subset of lipoproteins has been implicated in staphylococcal pathogenesis and virulence. Lipoproteins also activate the host innate immune response, triggered through Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2 and, notably, the iron-regulated subset of lipoproteins are particularly immunogenic. In this review, we discuss the iron-regulated staphylococcal lipoproteins with regard to their biogenesis, substrate specificity, and impact on the host innate immune response.

  20. A Computational Model for the Analysis of Lipoprotein Distributions in the Mouse : Translating FPLC Profiles to Lipoprotein Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, Fianne L. P.; Tiemann, Christian A.; Oosterveer, Maaike H.; Groen, Albert K.; Hilbers, Peter A. J.; van Riel, Natal A. W.

    Disturbances of lipoprotein metabolism are recognized as indicators of cardiometabolic disease risk. Lipoprotein size and composition, measured in a lipoprotein profile, are considered to be disease risk markers. However, the measured profile is a collective result of complex metabolic interactions,

  1. Properties of an immobilized lipase of Bacillus coagulans BTS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwari, S S; Srivastava, M; Chimni, S S; Ghazi, I A; Kaushal, R K; Joshi, G K

    2004-01-01

    Lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) is a tri-acylglycerol ester hydrolase, catalysing the hydrolysis of tri-, di-, and mono-acylglycerols to glycerol and fatty acids. To study the effect of adsorption of a lipase obtained from Bacillus coagulans BTS-1, its lipase was immobilized on native and activated (alkylated) matrices, i.e. silica and celite. The effect of pH, temperature, detergents, substrates, alcohols, organic solvent etc. on the stability of the immobilized enzyme was evaluated. The gluteraldahyde or formaldehyde (at 1% and 2% concentration, v/v) activated matrix was exposed to the Tris buffered lipase. The enzyme was adsorbed/entrapped more rapidly on to the activated silica than on the activated celite. The immobilized lipase showed optimal activity at 50 degrees C following one-hour incubation. The lipase was specifically more hydrolytic to the medium C-length ester (p-nitro phenyl caprylate than p-nitro phenyl laurate). The immobilization/entrapment enhanced the stability of the lipase at a relatively higher temperature (50 degrees C) and also promoted enzyme activity at an acidic pH (pH 5.5). Moreover, the immobilized lipase was quite resistant to the denaturing effect of SDS.

  2. pH-optima in lipase-catalysed esterification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buthe, Andreas; Recker, Tobias; Heinemann, Matthias; Hartmeier, Winfried; Büchs, Jochen; Ansorge-Schumacher, Marion B.

    2005-01-01

    Though lipases are frequently applied in ester synthesis, fundamental information on optimal pH or substrate concentration, can almost only be found for the reverse reaction - hydrolysis. This study demonstrates that the pH-optima of lipase-catalysed esterifications differ significantly from the opt

  3. pH-optima in lipase-catalysed esterification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buthe, Andreas; Recker, Tobias; Heinemann, Matthias; Hartmeier, Winfried; Büchs, Jochen; Ansorge-Schumacher, Marion B.

    2005-01-01

    Though lipases are frequently applied in ester synthesis, fundamental information on optimal pH or substrate concentration, can almost only be found for the reverse reaction - hydrolysis. This study demonstrates that the pH-optima of lipase-catalysed esterifications differ significantly from the

  4. Surfactant-activated lipase hybrid nanoflowers with enhanced enzymatic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiandong; Zhao, Yamin; Liu, Ronglin; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of materials have been extensively used as platforms for enzyme immobilization to improve catalytic performance. However, activity of the most of the enzymes was declined after immobilization. Here, we develop a surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic flowerlike hybrid nanomaterials with rational design based on interfacial activation and self-assembly. The resulting surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (activated hNF-lipase) exhibited 460% and 200% higher activity than native lipase and conventional lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (hNF-lipase). Furthermore, the activated hNF-lipase displayed good reusability due to its monodispersity and mechanical properties, and had excellent long-time stability. The superior catalytic performances were attributed to both the conformational modulation of surfactants and hierarchical structure of nanoflowers, which not only anchored lipases in an active form, but also decreased the enzyme-support negative interaction and mass-transfer limitations. This new biocatalytic system is promising to find widespread use in applications related to biomedicine, biosensor, and biodiesel. PMID:27297609

  5. Lipase-Catalyzed Modification of Canola Oil with Caprylic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yingyao; Luan, Xia; Xu, Xuebing

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid was performed to produce structured lipids. Six commercial lipases from different sources were screened for their ability to incorporate the caprylic acid into the canola oil. The positional distribution of FA on the glycerol backbone o...

  6. THE EFFECT OF LIPASE INGESTION UPON BLOOD LIPID LEVELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    levels. The optical density and hence lipid levels of the blood plasmas were lowered in all subjects when sufficient lipase was ingested . The total...obtain this effect. The blood cholesterol values of normal subjects were not affected, nor was that of a hyperlipemic subject who ingested the lipase

  7. Characteristics of lipase isolated from coconut (Cocos nucifera linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... Lipase from coconut plant grown under complete nutrient ... exceptionally high lipolytic activity probably in order to ... in chocolate crumb, in improvement of egg white .... fat. Berner and Hammond (1970) found that the lipase from oat .... isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues J. Biol. Chem ...

  8. Papaya (Carica papaya) lipase with some distinct acyl and alkyl specificities as compared with microbial lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, N N; Mukherjee, K D

    2000-12-01

    Lipase from papaya (Carica papaya) latex (CPL), Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435, NOV) and Rhizomucor miehei lipase (Lipozyme IM 20, LIP) were used as biocatalysts for the esterification of caprylic acid with straight-chain saturated C(4)-C(18) alcohols and unsaturated C(18) alcohols, such as cis-9-octadecenyl (oleyl, C(18:1), n-9), cis-6-octadecenyl (petroselinyl, C(18:1), n-12), cis-9,cis-12-octadecadienyl (linoleyl, C(18:2), n-6), all-cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienyl (alpha-linolenyl, C(18:3), n-3) and all-cis-6,9,12-octadecatrienyl (gamma-linolenyl, C(18:3), n-6) alcohols. With CPL, highest activity was found in the esterification of octanol and decanol, whereas both NOV and LIP showed a broad chain-length-specificity for the alcohols. CPL, as opposed to the microbial lipases, strongly discriminated against all the saturated long-chain ( > C(12)) and unsaturated C(18) alcohols.

  9. Activity and stability of immobilized lipases in lipase-catalyzed modification of peanut oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumanou Mohamed M.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid release during lipolysis of peanut oil using microbial free and immobilized lipases in aqueous media was developed. Immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RML gave the best result from its ability to clive different fatty acids from peanut oil in such media. In organic solvent, interesterification of peanut oil with tricaprylin using immobilized lipases from RML, Chromobacterium viscosum (CVL and Candida rugosa (CRL was performed. The best substrate molar ratio of tricaprylin to peanut oil found was in the range 0.7 to 0.8. Using substrate molar ratio 0.7, high amount of structured triglyceride ST (about 35% MLM, 44% LML triglyceride fractions was obtained with lipase from RML in n-hexane. The results found in solvent free system were in some cases quite similar to that obtained in organic solvent. In nine successive batch interesterification in solvent free medium using immobilized RML and CRL, no significant loss of amount of both produced triacylglycerol fractions until batch 7 was observed with RML.

  10. Process Technology for Immobilized LipaseProcess Technology for Immobilized Lipase-catalyzed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yuan

    evaluation has been performed for six processes composed of transesterification and product purification for making ‘in-spec’ biodiesel and the conventional chemical process is taken as a bench mark for comparison. The optimal process is a process composed of lipase-catalyzed transesterification with ‘in...

  11. Kinetic model of biodiesel production using immobilized lipase Candida antarctica lipase B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey; Brask, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders K.

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a kinetic model of biodiesel production using Novozym 435 (Nz435) with immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) as a catalyst. The scheme assumed reversibility of all reaction steps and imitated phase effects by introducing various molecular species of water and methanol...

  12. Streptozotocin-Treated High Fat Fed Mice: A New Type 2 Diabetes Model Used to Study Canagliflozin-Induced Alterations in Lipids and Lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian; Sungelo, Mitchell J; Goldberg, Ira J; Wang, Hong; Eckel, Robert H

    2017-05-01

    The pharmacological effects of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) medications on lipoprotein metabolism are difficult to assess in preclinical models because those created failure to replicate the human condition in which insulin deficiency is superimposed on obesity-related insulin resistance. To create a better model, we fed mice with high fat (HF) diet and treated the animals with low dose streptozotocin (STZ) to mimic T2DM. We used this model to evaluate the effects of canagliflozin (CANA), a drug that reduces plasma glucose by inhibiting the sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2), which mediates ~90% of renal glucose reabsorption] on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. After 6 weeks of CANA (30 mg/kg/day) treatment, the increase in total plasma cholesterol in HF-STZ diabetic mice was reversed, but plasma triglycerides were not affected. Lipoprotein fractionation and cholesterol distribution analysis showed that CANA kept HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, and IDL-Cholesterol levels steady while these lipoprotein species were increased in placebo- and insulin-treated control groups. CANA treatment of HF-STZ mice reduced post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity at 2 (-40%) and 5 (-30%) weeks compared to placebo. Tissue-specific LPL activity following CANA treatment showed similar reduction. In summary, CANA prevented the total cholesterol increase in HF-STZ mice without effects on plasma lipids or lipoproteins, but did decrease LPL, implying a potential role of LPL-dependent lipoprotein metabolism in CANA action. These effects did not recapitulate the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on lipids and lipoproteins in human, suggesting that a better murine T2DM model (such as the ApoB100 humanized CETP-overexpressing mouse) is needed next. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. A Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet decreases atherogenic lipoproteins and reduces lipoprotein (a) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer L; Comperatore, Michael; Barona, Jacqueline; Calle, Mariana C; Andersen, Catherine; McIntosh, Mark; Najm, Wadie; Lerman, Robert H; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2012-03-01

    The objective was to assess the impact of a Mediterranean-style, low-glycemic-load diet (control group, n = 41) and the same diet plus a medical food (MF) containing phytosterols, soy protein, and extracts from hops and Acacia (MF group, n = 42) on lipoprotein atherogenicity in women with metabolic syndrome. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (apos), lipoprotein subfractions and particle size, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, and lipoprotein (a) were measured at baseline, week 8, and week 12 of the intervention. Three-day dietary records were collected at the same time points to assess compliance. Compared with baseline, women decreased energy intake from carbohydrate (P lipoproteins, large very low-density lipoprotein (P lipoprotein to smaller high-density lipoprotein particles was increased (P lipoprotein (a) (P lipoproteins, oxidized LDL, and apo B. Inclusion of an MF may have an additional effect in reducing apo B. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Applications of immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase in interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Tiankui; Fruekilde, Maj-Britt; Xu, Xuebing

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the catalytic functions of a new immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase in interesterification and to optimize the conditions of interesterification for the production of human milk fat substitutes (HMFS) containing n-3 PUFA by response surface methodology...... (RSM). Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase had an activity similar to that of immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase (Lipozyme RM IM) in the glycerolysis of sunflower oil, but the former had higher activity at a low reaction temperature (5degreesC). Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase was found to have much lower...... catalytic activity than Lipozyme RM IM in the acidolysis of sunflower oil with caprylic acid. However, the activity of T. lanuginosa lipase was only slightly lower than that of Lipozyme RM IM in the ester-ester exchange between tripalmitin (PPP) and the ethyl esters of EPA and DHA (EE). For this reason...

  15. Microwave-assisted rapid characterization of lipase selectivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradoo, Sapna; Rathi, Pooja; Saxena, R K; Gupta, Rani

    2002-04-18

    A rapid screening procedure for characterization of lipase selectivities using microwaves was developed. The rate of reaction of various commercial lipases (porcine pancreas, Mucor miehei, Candida rugosa, Pseudomonas cepacia) as well as lipases from laboratory isolates-Bacillus stearothermophilus and Burkholderia cepacia RGP-10 for triolein hydrolysis was 7- to 12-fold higher in a microwave oven as compared to that by pH stat. The esterification of sucrose/methanol and ascorbic acid with different fatty acids was also achieved within 30 s in a microwave using porcine pancreas, B. stearothermophilus SB-1 and B. cepacia RGP-10 lipases. The relative rates and selectivity of the lipases both for hydrolytic and synthesis reactions remains unaltered. However, the rate of reaction was dynamically enhanced when exposed to microwaves. Microwave-assisted enzyme catalysis can become an attractive procedure for rapid characterization of large number of enzyme samples and substrates, which otherwise is a cumbersome and time-consuming exercise.

  16. Monoolein production by triglycerides hydrolysis using immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Nesrine; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib; Salah, Abderraouf Ben

    2014-07-01

    Lipase extracted from Rhizopus oryzae was immobilized in alginate gel beads. The effects of the immobilization conditions, such as, alginate concentration, CaCl2 concentration and amount of initial enzyme on retained activity (specific activity ratio of entrapped active lipase to free lipase) were investigated. The optimal conditions for lipase entrapment were determined: 2% (w/v) alginate concentration, 100mM CaCl2 and enzyme ratio of 2000IU/mL.In such conditions, immobilized lipase by inclusion in alginate showed a highest stability and activity, on olive oil hydrolysis reaction where it could be reused for 10 cycles. After 15min of hydrolysis reaction, the mass composition of monoolein, diolein and triolein were about 78%, 10% and 12%. Hydrolysis' products purification by column chromatography lead to a successful separation of reaction compounds and provide a pure fraction of monoolein which is considered as the widest used emulsifier in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Inhibitory activity of benzophenones from Anemarrhena asphodeloides on pancreatic lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yang Hee; Kim, Seon Beom; Ahn, Jong Hoon; Liu, Qing; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2013-04-01

    Pancreatic lipase is a key enzyme for lipid absorption by hydrolysis of total dietary fats. Therefore, inhibition of pancreatic lipase is suggested to be an effective therapy in the regulation of obesity. The EtOAc-soluble fraction of Anemarrhena asphodeloides rhizomes significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase activity as assessed using porcine pancreatic lipase as an in vitro assay system. Further fractionation of the EtOAc-soluble fraction of A. asphodeloides led to the isolation of a new benzophenone glycoside, zimoside A (1), together with the eleven known compounds iriflophenone (2), 2,4',6-trihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (3), foliamangiferoside A (4), (2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)(4-hydroxyphenyl)-methanone (5), 1,4,5,6,-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6), isosakuranetin (7), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (8), 4-hydroxyacetophenone (9), vanillic acid (10), tyrosol (11) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (12). Among the isolated compounds, 3, 5 and 10 showed significant inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity.

  18. Bacterial lipases: A review on purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Saira; Azeem, Farrukh; Hussain, Sabir; Rasul, Ijaz; Siddique, Muhammad Hussnain; Riaz, Muhammad; Afzal, Muhammad; Kouser, Ambreen; Nadeem, Habibullah

    2017-08-01

    Lipase (E.C.3.1.1.3) belongs to the hydrolases and is also known as fat splitting, glycerol ester hydrolase or triacylglycerol acylhydrolase. Lipase catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides converting them to glycerol and fatty acids in an oil-water interface. These are widely used in food, dairy, flavor, pharmaceuticals, biofuels, leather, cosmetics, detergent, and chemical industries. Lipases are of plant, animal, and microbial origin, but microbial lipases are produced at industrial level and represent the most widely used class of enzymes in biotechnological applications and organic chemistry. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison of residues around GxSxG motif provided an insight to the diversity among bacterial lipases. A variety of para-Nitrophenyl (p-NP) esters having C2 to C16 (p-NP acetate to p-NP palmitate) in their fatty acid side chain can be hydrolyzed by bacterial lipases. Large heterogeneity has been observed in molecular and catalytic characteristics of lipases including molecular mass; 19-96 kDa, Km; 0.0064-16.58 mM, Kcat; 0.1665-1.0 × 10(4) s(-1) and Kcat/Km; 26.02-7377 s(-1)/mM. Optimal conditions of their working temperature and pH have been stated 15-70 °C and 5.0-10.8, respectively and are strongly associated with the type and growth conditions of bacteria. Surface hydrophobicity, enzyme activity, stability in organic solvents and at high temperature, proteolytic resistance and substrate tolerance are the properties of bacterial lipases that have been improved by engineering. Bacterial lipases have been extensively studied during last decade. However, their wider applications demand a detailed review on purification, catalytic characterization and applications of lipases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. La lipase de Candida rugosa : caractérisation biochimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtibaa Hounaida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Les lipases ou triacylglycérols hydrolases (EC 3.1.1.3 sont des enzymes qui agissent en milieu hétérogène. Ces enzymes catalysent l’hydrolyse des liaisons esters des triacylglycérols à l’interface huile/eau [1]. Leur particularité vient du fait que ces enzymes sont plus actives sur les lipides qui sont sous forme agrégée [2]. Les lipases sont présentes dans la plupart des tissus animaux et végétaux ainsi que chez les microorganismes qui constituent une source importante de production de lipases à grande échelle. À ce jour, de nombreuses lipases de microorganismes ont été purifiées et caractérisées et certaines d’entres elles ont été cristallisées (lipase de Pseudomonas glumae [3], lipase de Rhizomucor miehei [4], lipase Geotrichum candidum [5], lipase de Candida rugosa [6].... La lipase de Candida cylindracea (qui est l’ancien nom de Candida rugosa a été cristallisée en présence et en l’absence d’inhibiteurs [7]. Il s’agit d’une alpha/beta hydrolase comprenant 11 brins beta entourés par 8 hélices alpha [6]. La triade catalytique est cachée sous un flap constitué de 26 résidus d’aminoacides. Dans le présent travail, nous avons cherché à étudier quelques caractéristiques biochimiques de la lipase de Candida rugosa (CRL qui a été purifiée dans notre laboratoire à partir de la poudre commercialisée.

  20. Mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeger Karl E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipases represent the most important class of biocatalysts used for a wealth of applications in organic synthesis. An often applied reaction is the lipase-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl esters and alcohols resulting in the formation of acetaldehyde which is known to deactivate microbial lipases, presumably by structural changes caused by initial Schiff-base formation at solvent accessible lysine residues. Previous studies showed that several lipases were sensitive toward acetaldehyde deactivation whereas others were insensitive; however, a general explanation of the acetaldehyde-induced inactivation mechanism is missing. Results Based on five microbial lipases from Candida rugosa, Rhizopus oryzae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis we demonstrate that the protonation state of lysine ε-amino groups is decisive for their sensitivity toward acetaldehyde. Analysis of the diverse modification products of Bacillus subtilis lipases in the presence of acetaldehyde revealed several stable products such as α,β-unsaturated polyenals, which result from base and/or amino acid catalyzed aldol condensation of acetaldehyde. Our studies indicate that these products induce the formation of stable Michael-adducts at solvent-accessible amino acids and thus lead to enzyme deactivation. Further, our results indicate Schiff-base formation with acetaldehyde to be involved in crosslinking of lipase molecules. Conclusions Differences in stability observed with various commercially available microbial lipases most probably result from different purification procedures carried out by the respective manufacturers. We observed that the pH of the buffer used prior to lyophilization of the enzyme sample is of utmost importance. The mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases involves the generation of α,β-unsaturated polyenals from acetaldehyde which subsequently form stable Michael-adducts with the

  1. A novel organic solvent tolerant lipase from Bacillus sphaericus 205y: extracellular expression of a novel OST-lipase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulong, Moohamad Ropaning; Abdul Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran

    2006-10-01

    An organic solvent tolerant (OST) lipase gene from Bacillus sphaericus 205y was successfully expressed extracellularly. The expressed lipase was purified using two steps purification; ultrafiltration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) to 8-fold purity and 32% recovery. The purified 205y lipase revealed homogeneity on denaturing gel electrophoresis and the molecular mass was at approximately 30 kDa. The optimum pH for the purified 205y lipase was 7.0-8.0 and its stability showed a broad range of pH value between pH 5.0 to 13.0 at 37 degrees C. The purified 205y lipase exhibited an optimum temperature of 55 degrees C. The activity of the purified lipase was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) has no effect on its activity; however inhibition was observed with phenylmethane sulfonoyl fluoride (PMSF) a serine hydrolase inhibitor. Organic solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), methanol, p-xylene and n-decane enhanced the activity. Studies on the effect of oil showed that the lipase was most active in the presence of tricaprin (C10). The lipase exhibited 1,3 positional specificity. Bacter

  2. Enzymatic interesterification of palm stearin and coconut oil by a dual lipase system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2008-01-01

    Enzymatic interesterification of palm stearin with coconut oil was conducted by applying a dual lipase system in comparison with individual lipase-catalyzed reactions. The results indicated that a synergistic effect occurred for many lipase combinations, but largely depending on the lipase species...

  3. Interesterification of Milk Fat with Oleic Acid Catalyzed by Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae Lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OBA, T; Witholt, B.

    1994-01-01

    Milk fat was interesterified with oleic acid by catalysis of an immobilized lipase in a microaqueous two-phase system. A commercial lipase from Rhizopus oryzae and a controlled pore glass carrier were selected for preparation of an immobilized lipase. The prepared immobilized lipase showed a Michael

  4. INTERESTERIFICATION OF MILK-FAT WITH OLEIC-ACID CATALYZED BY IMMOBILIZED RHIZOPUS-ORYZAE LIPASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OBA, T; WITHOLT, B

    1994-01-01

    Milk fat was interesterified with oleic acid by catalysis of an immobilized lipase in a microaqueous two-phase system. A commercial lipase from Rhizopus oryzae and a controlled pore glass carrier were selected for preparation of an immobilized lipase. The prepared immobilized lipase showed a Michael

  5. Lipases as Tools in the Synthesis of Prodrugs from Racemic 9-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyladenine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Krečmerová

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipases from Geotrichum candidum 4013 (extracellular lipase and cell-bound lipase were immobilized by adsorption on chitosan beads. The enzyme preparations were tested in the synthesis of ester prodrugs from racemic 9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyladenine in dimethylformamide with different vinyl esters (acetate, butyrate, decanoate, laurate, palmitate. The transesterification activities of these immobilized enzymes were compared with commercially available lipases (lipase from hog pancreas, Aspergillus niger, Candida antarctica, Pseudomonas fluorescens. Lipase from Candida antarctica was found to be the most efficient enzyme regarding chemical yield of the desired products, while transesterification by lipase from Aspergillus niger resulted in lower yields.

  6. Molecular characterization of a proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sangeetha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteolysis-resistant lipases can be well exploited by industrial processes which employ both lipase and protease as biocatalysts. A proteolysis resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2 was isolated, purified and characterized earlier. The lipase was resistant to native and commercial proteases. In the present work, we have characterized the lip gene which encodes the proteolysis-resistant lipase from Bacillus pumilus SG2. The parameters and structural details of lipase were analysed. The lip gene consisted of 650 bp. The experimental molecular weight of SG2 lipase was nearly double that of its theoretical molecular weight, thus suggesting the existence of the functional lipase as a covalent dimer. The proteolytic cleavage sites of the lipase would have been made inaccessible by dimerisation, thus rendering the lipase resistant to protease.

  7. IMMOBILIZATION OF LIPASE FROM PORCINE PANCREAS ON POLY (METHYL ACRYLATE)COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuHuixian; LiMinqin; 等

    1994-01-01

    A series of poly(methyl acrylate) copolymers of different pore structures were synthesized and functionalized by polyethylene polyamine.The lipase from porcine pancreas was adsorbed on these polymer carriers. It was found that the proe structure and functional group were basic factors which affected the activity of immobilized lipase,The optimal conditions for adsorbing lipase were studied and the effects of pH,ionic strength and temperature on the immobilized lipase were compared with those on the dissolved lipase.

  8. Culture Conditions of Psychrotrophic Fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Its Lipase Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Bsncerz, Renata; Ginalska, Grazyna; Leonowicz, Andrzej; Oga, Shoji

    2007-01-01

    Among 97 fungal strains from the soil collected from the high mountain areas in the Jeju Island, Korea, Penicillium chrysogenum 9 was found to be the best lipase producer. Its lipase productivity reached 42 U/ml in the culture medium. Factors affecting lipase production by Penicillium chrysogenum 9 were studied using fermentation media of different chemical compositions. Under optimal conditions we noted a 1.6-fold increase of lipase activity. The maximum lipase activity was 68 U/ml of cultur...

  9. Lysophosphatidylcholine synthesis by lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guolong; Yang, Ruoxi; Hu, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is amphiphilic substance, and possesses excellent physiological functions. In this study, LPC was prepared through ethanolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in n-hexane or solvent free media catalyzed by Novozym 435 (from Candida antarctica), Lipozyme TLIM (from Thermomcyces lanuginosus) and Lipozyme RMIM (from Rhizomucor miehei). The results showed that three immobilized lipases from Candida Antarctica, Thermomcyces lanuginosus and Rhizomucor miehei could catalyze ethanolysis of PC efficiently. In n-hexane, the LPC conversions of ethanolysis of PC catalyzed by Novozyme 435, Lipozyme TLIM and Lipozyme RMIM could reach to 98.5 ± 1.6%, 94.6 ± 1.4% and 93.7 ± 1.8%, respectively. In solvent free media, the highest LPC conversions of ethanolysis of PC catalyzed by Novozyme 435, Lipozyme TL IM and Lipozyme RM IM were 97.7 ± 1.7%, 93.5 ± 1.2% and 93.8 ± 1.9%, respectively. The catalytic efficiencies of the three lipases were in the order of Novozyme 435 > Lipozyme TLIM > Lipozyme RMIM. Furthermore, their catalytic efficiencies in n-hexane were better than those in solvent free media.

  10. Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Effects of Mangosteen Pericarps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjie Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic lipase plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of lipids, inhibition of Pancreatic Lipase (PL is considered as a new approach to obesity treatment. The objective of the present study was to find PL inhibitors from natural food sources. Eighteen natural food products sampled from local supermarkets in Zhuhai were tested for PL inhibitory activity using a copper-soap photometric method. Among the samples tested, the crude extracts from mangosteen pericarp, lemon pulp, celery, cucumber and dry longan were found to be able to suppress the PL activity to different extents, while dry red chili, fresh green chili and dry clove exhibited a promotion effect on the PL. Shiitake mushroom, green bell pepper, lemon peel and spices (ginger, oregano leaf, bay leaf, cinnamon and dry tangerine showed no significant influence either on the inhibition or promotion. The crude extract of mangosteen pericarp was further fractioned to trace active fractions. It was found that the n-butanol fraction was the major contributor to the PL-inhibitory effect of mangosteen pericarp and the inhibition rate was 43.9% at the concentration of 1 mg/mL, the IC50 value was 0.918 mg/mL. Mangosteen pericarp is worthy of utilization as functional food constituents for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  11. Influence of environmental factors on lipase production by Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M de F; Cunha, A E; Clemente, J J; Carrondo, M J; Crespo, M T

    1999-02-01

    A strain of Lactobacillus plantarum, DSMZ 12028 (Deutsch Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen), isolated from a Portuguese dry fermented sausage, "chouriço", was found to produce true lipase, producing free fatty acids from triolein (olive oil). This enzymatic activity was found in whole cells, but was negligible in comparison to lipolytic activity in culture supernatant. Therefore, only extracellular activity was studied. The effect of pH, temperature and glucose concentration on extracellular lipase production was studied in continuously stirred tank reactors, the first time this technology has been used to study the production of this enzyme in lactobacilli. Maximum lipase production was achieved at a pH of 5.5 and 30 degrees C and was kept at a significant level over a wide range of dilution rates (0.05-0.4 h-1); the production of lipase was still significant for low pH values, temperature and glucose concentration, conditions that are close to the ones present during chouriço ripening. The effect of glucose concentration was also studied in a batch system. The control of lipase production was found to be related both to glucose concentration in the medium and to the growth rate/dilution rate. Glucose concentration was found to be important for fast lipase production, although it did not influence the maximum lipase activity reached in a batch culture.

  12. Lipase production in lipolytic yeast from Wonorejo mangrove area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Nur Hidayatul; Nasihah, Liziyatin; Umar, Rurin Luswidya Artaty; Kuswytasari, Nengah Dwianita; Zulaika, Enny; Shovitri, Maya

    2017-06-01

    Lipase is an enzyme that is often used in industry and become a commercial enzyme. One group of microorganisms capable of producing lipase is a yeast. This study aims to screen yeast from Wonorejo mangrove that potential to produce lipase and to optimize the production of these enzymes. Screening test include the measurement of lipolytic index and value of fatty acid. Yeast with the best value of fatty acid will be continued to the measurement of lipase activity. It is affected by several environmental factors, such as pH, temperature, and incubation time. This research was conducted to observe the optimization variation on environmental factors combination to produce lipase. Lipase activity was tested by using p-Nitrophenyl Palmitate (pNPP). Absorbency was measured by spectrofotometer on wavelength of 410 nm. Measurement of the enzyme activity was done by interpolating the absorbance values on the p-nitrophenol standard curve then calculated by the formula. All data were analyzed by using descriptive quantitative method. The results show that the highest lypolityc index was 2.08. The highest value of fatty acid was 0.49 that was reached on 168 hours of incubation. Candida W3.8 expressed the highest lypolylitic potential. The optimum environment to produce lipase by Candida W 3.8 was on 120 hours of incubation time, in temperature range of 27°C - 45°C and pH range of 4,5 - 7.

  13. Understanding Lipoproteins as Transporters of Cholesterol and Other Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Kyle D.; Wooten, Joshua S.

    2004-01-01

    A clear picture of lipoprotein metabolism is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Many students are taught that low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol is "bad" and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol is "good." This misconception leads to students thinking that lipoproteins are types of cholesterol rather than…

  14. Low-density lipoprotein analysis in microchip capillary electrophoresis systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceriotti, Laura; Shibata, Takayuki; Folmer, Britta; Weiller, Bruce H.; Roberts, Matthew A.; De Rooij, Nico F.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    Due to the mounting evidence for altered lipoprotein and cholesterol-lipoprotein content in several disease states, there has been an increasing interest in analytical methods for lipoprotein profiling for diagnosis. The separation of low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL, respectively)

  15. A Newly Isolated Thermostable Lipase from Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Salleh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A thermophilic lipolytic bacterium identified as Bacillus sp. L2 via 16S rDNA was previously isolated from a hot spring in Perak, Malaysia. Bacillus sp. L2 was confirmed to be in Group 5 of bacterial classification, a phylogenically and phenotypically coherent group of thermophilic bacilli displaying very high similarity among their 16S rRNA sequences (98.5–99.2%. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR cloning of L2 lipase gene was conducted by using five different primers. Sequence analysis of the L2 lipase gene revealed an open reading frame (ORF of 1251 bp that codes for 417 amino acids. The signal peptides consist of 28 amino acids. The mature protein is made of 388 amino acid residues. Recombinant lipase was successfully overexpressed with a 178-fold increase in activity compared to crude native L2 lipase. The recombinant L2 lipase (43.2 kDa was purified to homogeneity in a single chromatography step. The purified lipase was found to be reactive at a temperature range of 55–80 °C and at a pH of 6–10. The L2 lipase had a melting temperature (Tm of 59.04 °C when analyzed by circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy studies. The optimum activity was found to be at 70 °C and pH 9. Lipase L2 was strongly inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA (100%, whereas phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF, pepstatin-A, 2-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol (DTT inhibited the enzyme by over 40%. The CD spectra of secondary structure analysis showed that the L2 lipase structure contained 38.6% α-helices, 2.2% ß-strands, 23.6% turns and 35.6% random conformations.

  16. Computational models for analyzing lipoprotein profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, A.A. de; Schalkwijk, D.B. van

    2011-01-01

    At present, several measurement technologies are available for generating highly detailed concentration-size profiles of lipoproteins, offering increased diagnostic potential. Computational models are useful in aiding the interpretation of these complex datasets and making the data more accessible f

  17. The Human Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes Releases Lipoproteins as Lipoprotein-rich Membrane Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Massimiliano; Garibaldi, Manuela; Aprea, Susanna; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Doro, Francesco; Becherelli, Marco; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tani, Chiara; Tavarini, Simona; Mora, Marirosa; Teti, Giuseppe; D'Oro, Ugo; Nuti, Sandra; Soriani, Marco; Margarit, Immaculada; Rappuoli, Rino; Grandi, Guido; Norais, Nathalie

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are attractive vaccine candidates because they represent a major class of cell surface-exposed proteins in many bacteria and are considered as potential pathogen-associated molecular patterns sensed by Toll-like receptors with built-in adjuvanticity. Although Gram-negative lipoproteins have been extensively characterized, little is known about Gram-positive lipoproteins. We isolated from Streptococcus pyogenes a large amount of lipoproteins organized in vesicles. These vesicles were obtained by weakening the bacterial cell wall with a sublethal concentration of penicillin. Lipid and proteomic analysis of the vesicles revealed that they were enriched in phosphatidylglycerol and almost exclusively composed of lipoproteins. In association with lipoproteins, a few hypothetical proteins, penicillin-binding proteins, and several members of the ExPortal, a membrane microdomain responsible for the maturation of secreted proteins, were identified. The typical lipidic moiety was apparently not necessary for lipoprotein insertion in the vesicle bilayer because they were also recovered from the isogenic diacylglyceryl transferase deletion mutant. The vesicles were not able to activate specific Toll-like receptor 2, indicating that lipoproteins organized in these vesicular structures do not act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In light of these findings, we propose to name these new structures Lipoprotein-rich Membrane Vesicles. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Contribution of lipoproteins and lipoprotein processing to endocarditis virulence in Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sankar; Kanamoto, Taisei; Ge, Xiuchun; Xu, Ping; Unoki, Takeshi; Munro, Cindy L; Kitten, Todd

    2009-07-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is an important cause of infective endocarditis. Previous studies have identified lipoproteins as virulence determinants in other streptococcal species. Using a bioinformatic approach, we identified 52 putative lipoprotein genes in S. sanguinis strain SK36 as well as genes encoding the lipoprotein-processing enzymes prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (lgt) and signal peptidase II (lspA). We employed a directed signature-tagged mutagenesis approach to systematically disrupt these genes and screen each mutant for the loss of virulence in an animal model of endocarditis. All mutants were viable. In competitive index assays, mutation of a putative phosphate transporter reduced in vivo competitiveness by 14-fold but also reduced in vitro viability by more than 20-fold. Mutations in lgt, lspA, or an uncharacterized lipoprotein gene reduced competitiveness by two- to threefold in the animal model and in broth culture. Mutation of ssaB, encoding a putative metal transporter, produced a similar effect in culture but reduced in vivo competiveness by >1,000-fold. [(3)H]palmitate labeling and Western blot analysis confirmed that the lgt mutant failed to acylate lipoproteins, that the lspA mutant had a general defect in lipoprotein cleavage, and that SsaB was processed differently in both mutants. These results indicate that the loss of a single lipoprotein, SsaB, dramatically reduces endocarditis virulence, whereas the loss of most other lipoproteins or of normal lipoprotein processing has no more than a minor effect on virulence.

  19. Contribution of Lipoproteins and Lipoprotein Processing to Endocarditis Virulence in Streptococcus sanguinis▿ §

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sankar; Kanamoto, Taisei; Ge, Xiuchun; Xu, Ping; Unoki, Takeshi; Munro, Cindy L.; Kitten, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is an important cause of infective endocarditis. Previous studies have identified lipoproteins as virulence determinants in other streptococcal species. Using a bioinformatic approach, we identified 52 putative lipoprotein genes in S. sanguinis strain SK36 as well as genes encoding the lipoprotein-processing enzymes prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (lgt) and signal peptidase II (lspA). We employed a directed signature-tagged mutagenesis approach to systematically disrupt these genes and screen each mutant for the loss of virulence in an animal model of endocarditis. All mutants were viable. In competitive index assays, mutation of a putative phosphate transporter reduced in vivo competitiveness by 14-fold but also reduced in vitro viability by more than 20-fold. Mutations in lgt, lspA, or an uncharacterized lipoprotein gene reduced competitiveness by two- to threefold in the animal model and in broth culture. Mutation of ssaB, encoding a putative metal transporter, produced a similar effect in culture but reduced in vivo competiveness by >1,000-fold. [3H]palmitate labeling and Western blot analysis confirmed that the lgt mutant failed to acylate lipoproteins, that the lspA mutant had a general defect in lipoprotein cleavage, and that SsaB was processed differently in both mutants. These results indicate that the loss of a single lipoprotein, SsaB, dramatically reduces endocarditis virulence, whereas the loss of most other lipoproteins or of normal lipoprotein processing has no more than a minor effect on virulence. PMID:19395487

  20. Characterization of a highly thermostable extracellular lipase from Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria de Fátima Silva; Leitão, Ana Lúcia; Regalla, Manuela; Marques, J J Figueiredo; Carrondo, Manuel José Teixeira; Crespo, Maria Teresa Barreto

    2002-06-01

    After screening for the presence of lipase activity in lactobacilli isolated from "chouriço", a traditional Portuguese dry fermented sausage, a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum (DSMZ 12028) was chosen for extracellular lipase characterisation and purification. Proteinase K did not significantly affect lipolytic activity, as opposed to trypsin, which completely eliminated this activity. Among NaCl, Ca2+, EDTA, BSA, glycerol, Mn2+ and Mg2+, only Mn2+ and Mg2+ stimulated the lipase. Purification by gel filtration chromatography and gel electrophoresis revealed four bands, between 98 and 45 kDa, all with lipolytic activity against olive oil.

  1. Stability of Surfactant—coated Candida Rugosa Lipase in Isooctane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宝东; 邢爱华; 吴金川; 王世昌

    2003-01-01

    The stability of Candida rugosa lipase coated with glutamic acid didodecyl ester ribitol amide was investigated taking esterification of lauryl alcohol and lauric acid in isooctane as a model reaction.At 30℃,the half-life of the activity of the coated lipase was ca 10h,the enzyme activity became less changed after 12h and the residual activity was 39% of the initial value ,The coated lipase obeyed a first-order deactivation model with a deactivation energy of 29.9 J.mol-1.

  2. Obtaining lipases from byproducts of orange juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino-Delgado, Clarissa Hamaio; Fleuri, Luciana Francisco

    2014-11-15

    The presence of lipases was observed in three byproducts of orange juice processing: peel, core and frit. The enzymes were characterised biochemically over a wide pH range from neutral (6-7) to alkaline (8-9). The optimal temperature for the activity of these byproducts showed wide range at 20°C to 70°C, indicating fairly high thermostability. The activities were monitored on p-NP-butyrate, p-NP-laurate and p-NP-palmitate. For the first time, lipase activity was detected in these residues, reaching 68.5 lipase U/g for the crude extract from fractions called frit.

  3. Genetic determinants of LDL, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL: concordance and discordance with cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance...... of such genetic determinants with cardiovascular disease risk will either favor or disfavor that these lipoproteins are causally related to cardiovascular disease....

  4. Maximization of Intracellular Lipase Production in a Lipase-Overproducing Mutant Derivative of Rhizopus oligosporus DGM 31: A Kinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehreema Iftikhar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation and maximization of lipase production in a mutant derivative of R. oligosporus has been investigated using different substrates, inoculum sizes, pH of the medium, temperature, and nitrogen sources in shake flask experiments and batch fermentation in a fermentor. The production of intracellular lipase was improved 3 times following medium optimization involving one-at-a-time approach and aeration in the fermentor. Interestingly, intracellular lipase was poorly induced by oils, instead its production was induced by sugars, mainly starch, lactose, sucrose, xylose, glucose and glycerol. Dependent variables studied were cell mass, lipase activity, lipase yield, lipase specific and volumetric rate of formation. It was confirmed that lipase production in the derepressed mutant is sufficiently uncoupled from catabolite repression. The results of average specific productivities at various temperatures worked out according to the Arrhenius equation revealed that mutation decreased the magnitude of enthalpy and entropy demand in the inactivation equilibrium during product formation, suggesting that mutation made the metabolic network of the organism thermally more stable. The highest magnitudes of volumetric productivity (QP=490 IU/(L·h and other product attributes of lipase formation occurring on optimized medium in the fermentor are greater than the values reported by other workers. The purified enzyme is monomeric in nature and exhibits stability up to 80 °C and pH=6.0–8.0. Activation energy, enthalpy and entropy of catalysis at 50 °C, and magnitudes of Gibbs free energy for substrate binding, transition state stabilization and melting point indicated that this lipase is highly thermostable.

  5. In vitro lipolysis tests on lipid nanoparticles: comparison between lipase/co-lipase and pancreatic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannin, Vincent; Dellera, Eleonora; Chevrier, Stéphanie; Chavant, Yann; Voutsinas, Christophe; Bonferoni, Cristina; Demarne, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are lipid nanocarriers aimed to the delivery of drugs characterized by a low bioavailability, such as poorly water-soluble drugs and peptides or proteins. The oral administration of these lipid nanocarriers implies the study of their lipolysis in presence of enzymes that are commonly involved in dietary lipid digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, a comparison between two methods was performed: on one hand, the lipase/co-lipase assay, commonly described in the literature to study the digestion of lipid nanocarriers, and on the other hand, the lipolysis test using porcine pancreatic extract and the pH-stat apparatus. This pancreatic extract contains both the pancreatic lipase and carboxyl ester hydrolase (CEH) that permit to mimic in a biorelevant manner the duodenal digestive lipolysis. The test was performed by means of a pH-stat apparatus to work at constant pH, 5.5 or 6.25, representing respectively the fasted or fed state pH conditions. The evolution of all acylglycerol entities was monitored during the digestion by sampling the reaction vessel at different time points, until 60 min, and the lipid composition of the digest was analyzed by gas chromatography. SLN and NLC systems obtained with long-chain saturated acylglycerols were rapidly and completely digested by pancreatic enzymes. The pH-stat titration method appears to be a powerful technique to follow the digestibility of these solid lipid-based nanoparticles.

  6. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Yoshio; Seki, Nobuyoshi; Nagano, Tomohisa; Abe, Hiroshi

    2015-09-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotrophic virus and a major cause of chronic liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma, worldwide. The life cycle of HCV is closely associated with the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. The main function of lipoproteins is transporting lipids throughout the body. Triglycerides, free cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids are the major components of the transported lipids. The pathway of HCV assembly and secretion is closely linked to lipoprotein production and secretion, and the infectivity of HCV particles largely depends on the interaction of lipoproteins. Moreover, HCV entry into hepatocytes is strongly influenced by lipoproteins. The key lipoprotein molecules mediating these interactions are apolipoproteins. Apolipoproteins are amphipathic proteins on the surface of a lipoprotein particle, which help stabilize lipoprotein structure. They perform a key role in lipoprotein metabolism by serving as receptor ligands, enzyme co-factors, and lipid transport carriers. Understanding the association between the life cycle of HCV and lipoprotein metabolism is important because each step of the life cycle of HCV that is associated with lipoprotein metabolism is a potential target for anti-HCV therapy. In this article, we first concisely review the nature of lipoprotein and its metabolism to better understand the complicated interaction of HCV with lipoprotein. Then, we review the outline of the processes of HCV assembly, secretion, and entry into hepatocytes, focusing on the association with lipoproteins. Finally, we discuss the clinical aspects of disturbed lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and the significance of dyslipoproteinemia in chronic HCV infection with regard to abnormal apolipoproteins.

  7. Endothelial lipase concentrations are increased in metabolic syndrome and associated with coronary atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen O Badellino

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endothelial lipase (EL, a new member of the lipase family, has been shown to modulate high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C metabolism and atherosclerosis in mouse models. We hypothesized that EL concentrations would be associated with decreased HDL-C and increased atherosclerosis in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Healthy individuals with a family history of premature coronary heart disease (n = 858 were recruited as part of the Study of the Inherited Risk of Atherosclerosis. Blood was drawn in the fasting state before and, in a subgroup (n = 510, after administration of a single dose of intravenous heparin. Plasma lipids were measured enzymatically, lipoprotein subclasses were assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance, and coronary artery calcification (CAC was quantified by electron beam computed tomography. Plasma EL mass was measured using a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median EL mass in pre-heparin plasma was 442 (interquartile range = 324-617 ng/ml. Median post-heparin mass was approximately 3-fold higher, 1,313 (888-1,927 ng/ml. The correlation between pre-heparin EL mass and post-heparin EL mass was 0.46 (p < 0.001. EL mass concentrations in both pre- and post-heparin plasma significantly correlated with all NCEP ATPIII-defined metabolic syndrome factors: waist circumference (r = 0.28 and 0.22, respectively, p < 0.001 for each, blood pressure (r = 0.18 and 0.24, p < 0.001 for each, triglycerides (r = 0.22, p < 0.001; and 0.13, p = 0.004, HDL cholesterol (r = -0.11, p = 0.002; and -0.18, p < 0.001, and fasting glucose (r = 0.11 and 0.16, p = 0.001 for both. EL mass in both routine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.67, p = 0.01 and post-heparin (OR = 2.42, p = 0.003 plasma was associated with CAC as determined by ordinal regression after adjustment for age, gender, waist circumference, vasoactive medications, hormone replacement therapy (women, and established cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: We report, to our knowledge

  8. Endothelial Lipase Concentrations Are Increased in Metabolic Syndrome and Associated with Coronary Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endothelial lipase (EL, a new member of the lipase family, has been shown to modulate high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C metabolism and atherosclerosis in mouse models. We hypothesized that EL concentrations would be associated with decreased HDL-C and increased atherosclerosis in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Healthy individuals with a family history of premature coronary heart disease (n = 858 were recruited as part of the Study of the Inherited Risk of Atherosclerosis. Blood was drawn in the fasting state before and, in a subgroup (n = 510, after administration of a single dose of intravenous heparin. Plasma lipids were measured enzymatically, lipoprotein subclasses were assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance, and coronary artery calcification (CAC was quantified by electron beam computed tomography. Plasma EL mass was measured using a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median EL mass in pre-heparin plasma was 442 (interquartile range = 324-617 ng/ml. Median post-heparin mass was approximately 3-fold higher, 1,313 (888-1,927 ng/ml. The correlation between pre-heparin EL mass and post-heparin EL mass was 0.46 (p < 0.001. EL mass concentrations in both pre- and post-heparin plasma significantly correlated with all NCEP ATPIII-defined metabolic syndrome factors: waist circumference (r = 0.28 and 0.22, respectively, p < 0.001 for each, blood pressure (r = 0.18 and 0.24, p < 0.001 for each, triglycerides (r = 0.22, p < 0.001; and 0.13, p = 0.004, HDL cholesterol (r = -0.11, p = 0.002; and -0.18, p < 0.001, and fasting glucose (r = 0.11 and 0.16, p = 0.001 for both. EL mass in both routine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.67, p = 0.01 and post-heparin (OR = 2.42, p = 0.003 plasma was associated with CAC as determined by ordinal regression after adjustment for age, gender, waist circumference, vasoactive medications, hormone replacement therapy (women, and established cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: We report, to our knowledge

  9. [Serum lipoprotein profile in newly recognized arterial hypertension. The role of atherogenic lipoproteins in the pathogenesis of disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravec, S; Dukát, A; Gavorník, P; Caprdna, M; Kucera, M

    2010-09-01

    New examination approaches in biochemical analysis of lipoproteins can identify and quantify atherogenic plasma lipoproteins, including small dense LDL and characterise a lipoprotein spectrum as a non-atherogenic lipoprotein profile phenotype A, respectively as an atherogenic lipoprotein profile phenotype B. Identification of a non-aterogenic hypercholesterolemia (48%), atherogenic hypertriglyceridemia (93%), atherogenic normolipemia (13%) in patients with arterial hypertension and an atherogenic normolipemia in control group of healthy subjects (7%), is an essential contribution of this new laboratory diagnostics.

  10. A lipase with broad temperature range from an alkaliphilic gamma-proteobacterium isolated in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mariane; Larsen, Dorte Møller; Stougaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A gamma-proteobacterium related to the genera Alteromonadales and Pseudomonadales , isolated from a cold and alkaline environment in Greenland, has been shown to produce a lipase active between 5 ° C and 80 ° C, with optimal activity at 55 ° C and pH 8. PCR-based screening of genomic DNA from...... the isolated bacterium, followed by genome walking, resulted in two complete open reading frames, which were predicted to encode a lipase and its helper protein, a lipase foldase. The amino acid sequence derived for the lipase showed resemblance to lipases from Pseudomonas , Rhodoferax, Aeromonas and Vibrio...... . The two genes were cloned into different expression systems in E. coli with or without a putative secretion sequence, but despite the fact that both recombinant lipase and lipase foldase were observed on SDS–PAGE, no recombinant lipase activity was detected. Attempts to refold the recombinant lipase...

  11. Stability of immobilized candida sp. 99-125 Lipase for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J. [Beijing Bioprocess Key Laboratory, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China); Bioengineering Department, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Deng, L.; Nie, K.; Wang, F.; Tan, T. [Beijing Bioprocess Key Laboratory, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    The stability of the immobilized lipase from Candida sp. 99-125 during biodiesel production was investigated. The lipase was separately incubated in the presence of various reaction components such as soybean oil, oleic acid methyl ester, n-hexane, water, methanol, and glycerol, or the lipase was stored at 60, 80, 100 and 120 C. Thereafter the residual lipase activity was determined by methanolysis reaction. The results showed that the lipase was rather stable in the reaction media, except for methanol and glycerol. The stability study performed in a reciprocal shaker indicated that enzyme desorption from the immobilized lipase mainly contributed to the lipase inactivation in the water system. So the methanol and glycerol contents should be controlled more precisely to avoid lipase inactivation, and the immobilization method should be improved with regard to lipase desorption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Selection and optimization of extracellular lipase production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pedro

    2014-01-22

    Jan 22, 2014 ... in their catalytic properties, and can be obtained by solid- state fermentation or by submerged fermentation. (Annibale et al., 2006; Rigo et al., 2010; ..... A microwave-assisted micro- assay for lipases. Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

  13. Recent developments in lipase-catalyzed synthesis of polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shiro

    2009-02-18

    Polyester synthesis by lipase catalyst involves two major polymerization modes: i) ring-opening polymerization of lactones, and, ii) polycondensation. Ring-opening polymerization includes the finding of lipase catalyst; scope of reactions; polymerization mechanism; ring-opening polymerization reactivity of lactones; enantio-, chemo- and regio-selective polymerizations; and, chemoenzymatic polymerizations. Polycondensation includes polymerizations involving condensation reactions between carboxylic acid and alcohol functional groups to form an ester bond. In most cases, a carboxylic acid group is activated as an ester form, such as a vinyl ester. Many recently developed polymerizations demonstrate lipase catalysis specific to enzymatic polymerization and appear very useful. Also, since lipase-catalyzed polyester synthesis provides a good opportunity for conducting "green polymer chemistry", the importance of this is described.

  14. Lipase-producing fungi for potential wastewater treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipase-producing fungi for potential wastewater treatment and bioenergy production. ... as well as for the production of biodiesel from oil and residual grease, due to its greater stability, possibility of reuse, and lower cost. ... Article Metrics.

  15. Isolation, purification and properties of lipase from Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation, purification and properties of lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ... medium agar containing Tween 80 or olive oil as the only source of carbon. ... through the purification procedure of ammonium sulphate precipitation and diethyl ...

  16. Lipase Activity among Bacteria Isolated from Amazonian Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Willerding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to select lipase-producing bacteria collected from different counties of the Amazon region. Of the 440 bacteria strains, 181 were selected for the lipase assay in qualitative tests at Petri dishes, being 75 (41% lipase positive. The enzymatic index was determined during fifteen days at different temperatures (30°, 35°, 40°, and 45°C. The highest lipase activity was observed within 72 hours at 30°C. Twelve bacteria strains presented an index equal to or greater than the standard used like reference, demonstrating the potential of microbial resource. After the bioassay in Petri dishes, the selected bacteria strains were analyzed in quantitative tests on p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP. A group of the strains was selected for other phases of study with the use in oleaginous substrates of the Amazonian flora, aiming for the application in processes like oil biotransformation.

  17. Lipase catalyzed synthesis of epoxy-fatty acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN, Qian; LI, Zu-Yi

    2000-01-01

    Lipase catalyzed synthesis of epoxy-fatty acidas from unsaturated carboxylic acids was investigated.Under mild conditions unsaturated arboxylic acids were convcveed to peroxide,then the unsaturated peroxycarboxylic acids epoxidised the C=C bond of themselves

  18. Isolation and characterization of lipase-producing Bacillus strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    spilled areas of the coconut oil extracting industry in a sterile container for the ... By using different substrates sources such as olive oil, coconut oil and sunflower oil, their ..... characterization and application of lipases. Biotechnol.

  19. Production of extracellular lipase by a new strain Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-09

    Jul 9, 2014 ... detrimental effect on microorganisms and so they lose their activity and .... +. Oxidase. -. Urease. -. Nitrate Reduction Test. +. Glucose Fermentation. + ... on lipase production which might be due to the inhibition by fatty acid ...

  20. Lipase Activity in Fermented Oil Seeds of Africa Locust Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Castor Seeds (Ricinu Communis) and African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra Macrophylla). A.A. Liman*, P. ... The peak lipase activity for fermented Africa locust bean, Castor seed, and African oil bean were ..... fermented vegetable proteins. World.

  1. Lipolysis and lipases in white adipose tissue - An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsoni-Lopes, Andressa; Alonso-Vale, Maria Isabel C

    2015-08-01

    Lipolysis is defined as the sequential hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) stored in cell lipid droplets. For many years, it was believed that hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) were the main enzymes catalyzing lipolysis in the white adipose tissue. Since the discovery of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in 2004, many studies were performed to investigate and characterize the actions of this lipase, as well as of other proteins and possible regulatory mechanisms involved, which reformulated the concept of lipolysis. Novel findings from these studies include the identification of lipolytic products as signaling molecules regulating important metabolic processes in many non-adipose tissues, unveiling a previously underestimated aspect of lipolysis. Thus, we present here an updated review of concepts and regulation of white adipocyte lipolysis with a special emphasis in its role in metabolism homeostasis and as a source of important signaling molecules.

  2. KINETICS OF HYDROLYSIS OF TRIBUTYRIN BY LIPASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULAIMAN AL-ZUHAIR

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of the enzymatic hydrolysis of tributyrin using lipase has been investigated. The initial rate of reaction was determined experimentally at different substrate concentration by measuring the rate of butyric acid produced. Michaels-Menten kinetic model has been proposed to predict the initial rate of hydrolysis of tributyrin in micro-emulsion system. The kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting the data to the model using three methods, namely, the Lineweaver-Burk, Edie-Hofstee and Hanes methods. The Michaels-Menten model with the constant predicted by Edie-Hofstee and Hanes methods predicted the initial rate of reaction at various substrate concentrations better than the model with the constant predicted Lineweaver-Burk method, especially at high substrate concentrations.

  3. LIPASE-CATALYZED TRANSESTERIFICATION OF PALM KERNEL OIL WITH DIALKYLCARBONATES

    OpenAIRE

    Tjahjono Herawan; M. Rüsch Gen. Klaas

    2014-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed transesterifications-especially in a solvent-free medium-are important for industrial applications because such systems would have an enormous advantage by avoiding the problem of separation, toxicity and flammability of organic solvents. However, the organic solvent-free alcoholysis, especially methanolysis, does not give high conversions. The same problem also occurs when ethyl or methyl acetate are used as acyl acceptors. The main problems of lipase-catalyzed organic solve...

  4. Anaerobic biodegradability of dairy wastewater pretreated with porcine pancreas lipase

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Lipids-rich wastewater was partial hydrolyzed with porcine pancreas lipase and the efficiency of the enzymatic pretreatment was verified by the comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated wastewater). Alternatively, simultaneous run was carried out in which hydrolysis and digestion was performed in the same reactor. Wastewater from dairy industries and low cost lipase preparation at two concentrations (0.05 and 0.5% w.v-1) were used. All the samples pretreated with enzyme showed a p...

  5. Investigation of Lipase Production by Milk Isolate Serratia rubidaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanichamy Esakkiraj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of extracellular lipase in submerged culture of Serratia rubidaea has been investigated. The lipase production was optimized in shake flask experiments. The observed pH and temperature range optimum for maximum lipase production were 7–8 and 30–40 °C, respectively. With a selected nitrogen source, casein ((6.5±0.015 U/mL and soytone ((9.4±0.02 U/mL were suitable substrates for accelerating lipase production. The optimized concentration of casein and soytone was 24 g/L ((9.95±0.02 U/mL and 5 g/L ((14.8±0.03 U/mL, respectively. The effect of carbon source on lipase production indicated that starch was suitable substrate to maximize lipase production ((15.60±0.20 U/mL and the optimum concentration registered was 4 g/L ((17.46±0.20 U/mL. Investigating the effect of lipids and surfactants showed that the gingily oil ((20.52±0.20 U/mL and Tween 20 ((27.10±0.01 U/mL were suitable substrates for maximizing lipase production, and the optimum concentrations registered were 15 mL/L ((23.15±0.24 U/mL and 6 mL/L ((34.20±0.01 U/mL, respectively. Partial purification of lipase indicated that the molecular mass of partially purified enzyme was 54 kDa.

  6. Lipoprotein profile, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolla, Roberta; De Mauri, Andreana; Valsesia, Ambra; Vidali, Matteo; Chiarinotti, Doriana; Bellomo, Giorgio

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients; the increased risk of cardiovascular disease is due to accelerated atherosclerosis, inflammation and impaired lipoprotein metabolism. We aimed to evaluate lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and some pro-inflammatory aspects of the lipoprotein profile in dialyzed patients in order to evaluate the relationship with the accelerated atherosclerosis and vascular accidents. In 102 dialysis patients and 40 non-uremic controls, we investigated the lipoprotein plasma profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), ceruloplasmin and serum amyloid A protein (SAA), and followed patients for 1 year to analyze the risk of acute cardiovascular events. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein plasma levels were significantly lower in uremic patients than controls, whereas CRP, SAA, ceruloplasmin, Lp-PLA2 and their ratio with apolipoprotein A1 were significantly higher. Patients with Lp-PLA2 levels >194 nmol/min/ml had more acute cardiovascular events than patients with lower values. Our results show that in dialysis subjects: (1) low-density lipoproteins show a more atherogenic phenotype than in the general population; (2) high-density lipoproteins are less anti-inflammatory; (3) Lp-PLA2 could potentially be used to evaluate cardiovascular risk.

  7. Revisiting the Gram-Negative Lipoprotein Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoVullo, Eric D.; Wright, Lori F.; Isabella, Vincent; Huntley, Jason F.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The processing of lipoproteins (Lpps) in Gram-negative bacteria is generally considered an essential pathway. Mature lipoproteins in these bacteria are triacylated, with the final fatty acid addition performed by Lnt, an apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase. The mature lipoproteins are then sorted by the Lol system, with most Lpps inserted into the outer membrane (OM). We demonstrate here that the lnt gene is not essential to the Gram-negative pathogen Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis strain Schu or to the live vaccine strain LVS. An LVS Δlnt mutant has a small-colony phenotype on sucrose medium and increased susceptibility to globomycin and rifampin. We provide data indicating that the OM lipoprotein Tul4A (LpnA) is diacylated but that it, and its paralog Tul4B (LpnB), still sort to the OM in the Δlnt mutant. We present a model in which the Lol sorting pathway of Francisella has a modified ABC transporter system that is capable of recognizing and sorting both triacylated and diacylated lipoproteins, and we show that this modified system is present in many other Gram-negative bacteria. We examined this model using Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which has the same Lol architecture as that of Francisella, and found that the lnt gene is not essential in this organism. This work suggests that Gram-negative bacteria fall into two groups, one in which full lipoprotein processing is essential and one in which the final acylation step is not essential, potentially due to the ability of the Lol sorting pathway in these bacteria to sort immature apolipoproteins to the OM. IMPORTANCE This paper describes the novel finding that the final stage in lipoprotein processing (normally considered an essential process) is not required by Francisella tularensis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The paper provides a potential reason for this and shows that it may be widespread in other Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25755189

  8. Les lipases immobilisées et leurs applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonart P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized lipases and their applications. Lipases are able to catalyse the hydrolysis of glyceridic esters in aqueous media and the synthesis of esters in non-aqueous media. They are thus able to catalyse numerous reactions of industrial interest. Whether it is by inclusion, by adsorption or by covalent link, the immobilisation of lipases aims at conferring them a good stability that enables a reuse of the enzymes after a reaction and the development of continuous processes. The reactions of triglycerides hydrolysis constitute main applications for immobilised lipases, however their use in different types of esterification reactions has also arose: there exist processes involving reactions of transesterification, of interesterification or of esters synthesis. The production of structured lipids by interesterification is one example. Although the reaction conditions dissent from those of hydrolysis, the same lipases have been used in both cases. A lipase specifically adapted for esterification though would be a highly capable tool: a series of strategies is in progress in order to reach this goal.

  9. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from canola oil using immobilized lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizge, Nadir; Keskinler, Buelent [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze 41400 (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    In the present work, a novel method for immobilization of lipase within hydrophilic polyurethane foams using polyglutaraldehyde was developed for the immobilization of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase to produce biodiesel with canola oil and methanol. The enzyme optimum conditions were not affected by immobilization and the optimum pH for free and immobilized enzyme were 6, resulting in 80% immobilization yield. Using the immobilized lipase T. lanuginosus, the effects of enzyme loading, oil/alcohol molar ratio, water concentration, and temperature in the transesterification reaction were investigated. The optimal conditions for processing 20 g of refined canola oil were: 430 {mu}g lipase, 1:6 oil/methanol molar ratio, 0.1 g water and 40 C for the reactions with methanol. Maximum methyl esters yield was 90% of which enzymatic activity remained after 10 batches, when tert-butanol was adopted to remove by-product glycerol during repeated use of the lipase. The immobilized lipase proved to be stable and lost little activity when was subjected to repeated uses. (author)

  10. Lipases at interfaces: unique interfacial properties as globular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, P; Miller, R; Krägel, J; Leser, M; Fainerman, V B; Watzke, H; Holmberg, K

    2008-06-01

    The adsorption behavior of two globular proteins, lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and beta-lactoglobulin, at inert oil/water and air/water interfaces was studied by the pendant drop technique. The kinetics and adsorption isotherms were interpreted for both proteins in different environments. It was found that the adopted mathematical models well describe the adsorption behavior of the proteins at the studied interfaces. One of the main findings is that unique interfacial properties were observed for lipase as compared to the reference beta-lactoglobulin. A folded drop with a "skinlike" film was formed for the two proteins after aging followed by compression. This behavior is normally associated with protein unfolding and covalent cross-linking at the interface. Despite this, the lipase activity was not suppressed. By highlighting the unique interfacial properties of lipases, we believe that the presented work contributes to a better understanding of lipase interfacial activation and the mechanisms regulating lipolysis. The results indicate that the understanding of the physical properties of lipases can lead to novel approaches to regulate their activity.

  11. The modulation of pancreatic lipase activity by alginates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Matthew D; Brownlee, Iain A; Richardson, J Craig; Dettmar, Peter W; Pearson, Jeffrey P

    2014-03-01

    Alginates are comprised of mannuronic (M) and guluronic acid (G) and have been shown to inhibit enzyme activity. Pancreatic lipase is important in dietary triacylglycerol breakdown; reducing pancreatic lipase activity would reduce triacylglycerol breakdown resulting in lower amounts being absorbed by the body. Lipase activity in the presence of biopolymers was assessed by enzymatic assay using natural and synthetic substrates. Alginate inhibited pancreatic lipase by a maximum of 72.2% (±4.1) with synthetic substrate (DGGR) and 58.0% (±9.7) with natural substrate. High-G alginates from Laminaria hyperborea seaweed inhibited pancreatic lipase to a significantly higher degree than High-M alginates from Lessonia nigrescens, showing that inhibition was related to alginate structure. High-G alginates are effective inhibitors of pancreatic lipase and are used in the food industry at low levels. They could be included at higher levels in foods without altering organoleptic qualities, potentially reduce the uptake of dietary triacylglycerol aiding in weight management.

  12. Karakterisasi ekstrak kasar lipase Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sumiarsih

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing commercial interest in enzymatic production of biologically active component, because there are a number of well-known advantages compared to chemical synthesis. One of the most valuable synthetic features of enzyme is their ability to discriminate between enantiomers of racemic substrates. Lipase have become of great interest to the chemical industries wing their usefulness in both hydrolytic and synthesis reactions. The aim of this work was to study the production of lipase by Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137, and determine the crude lipase preparation characteristics. The lipolytic activity was determined by titrimetric method toward oil-arabic gum emultion as a substrate. The strain produced lipase at appreciable lipolytic when cultivated for 72 hours in medium containing 3% glucose and 1% olive oil. Our data suggest that the strain produced lipase since the exponential phase of its growth. Lipase with optimum lipolytic activity was obtained at late stationary phase. The optimum condition for lipolytic activity measurement were pH of 7.5 and temperature 37oC, the crude enzyme had a specific activity 20.2 unit/ mg protein, the Vmax was 15.1 mol/ min and KM was 12.5 mg/ ml. The crude enzyme retained 79.9%, 68.0% and 52.6% of its lipolytic activity, when incubated for 90 minutes at temperature of 40, 50, and 60oC respectively.

  13. OPTIMASI ISOLASI LIPASE INDIGENOUS BIJI KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L. The Optimizing of Isolation of Cocoa Bean Indogenous Lipase (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I D. G. Mayun Permana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to optimize the isolation method of cocoa bean lipase. The research is held by determining the position of lipase on cocoa bean, varying extraction medium and isolation process. The result shows that the lipase of cocoa bean is   cytosolic enzyme. The defatting process do not increase the lipase activity. Polyphenols inhibit the lipase activity, so that removal of the polyphenol will increase the activity. Blocking the polyphenol with polyvinilpolypirrolidone (PVPP will also increase the activity.The optimum consentration of PVPP is 8 %. The lipase activity will reach the highest when homogenized for 10 menit at 10,000 rpm. The best medium extraction for lipase isolation is 0.15 M phosphate buffer pH 7.5 containing sucrose 0.6 M and CaCl  1.0 mM.   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengoptimasi isolasi lipase indigenous biji kakao. Optimasi diawali dengan menentukan keberadaan lipase kemudian optimasi medium ekstraksi dan proses ekstraksi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lipase berada dalam sitosol. Penghilangan lemak tidak meningkatkan aktivitas lipase. Senyawa polifenol menghambat aktivitas lipase dan penghilangan polifenol dapat meningkatkan aktivitas lipase. Polyvinilpolypirrolidone (PVPP dapat menghambat polifenol sehingga dapat meningkatkan aktivitas lipase. Konsentrasi PVPP optimum adalah 8 % dari berat biji kakao. Proses homogenisasi optimum diperoleh dalam waktu 10 menit pada kecepatan 10.000 rpm. Medium ekstraksi untuk isolasi lipase biji kakao terbaik adalah bufer fosfat 0,15 M  dan pH 7,5 yang mengandung sukrosa 0,6 M dan 1,0 mM CaCl .

  14. Silk-Cocoon Matrix Immobilized Lipase Catalyzed Transesterification of Sunflower Oil for Production of Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Sushovan Chatterjee; Dipti Yadav; Lepakshi Barbora; Pinakeswar Mahanta; Pranab Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel from sunflower oil using lipase chemically immobilized on silk-cocoon matrix in a packed-bed bioreactor was investigated. The immobilization was demonstrated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and activity study. The lipase loading was 738.74 U (~0.01 g lipase powder)/g-lipase-immobilized matrix. The Km (Michaelis-Menten constant) of the free and the immobilized lipase was 451.26 μM and 257.26 μM, respectively. Low Km value of the immobilized lipase is attributed to the ...

  15. Current situation of lipoprotein apheresis in Saxony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, U; Taseva, K; Fischer, S; Passauer, J; Bornstein, S R

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the situation pertinent to treatment via lipoprotein apheresis in the federal state of Saxony, Germany in 2010. In total, 119 predominately male patients were treated in 10 centers; the majority of the patients was older than the mean age of the general population. Several risk factors were present, particularly a familial predisposition and hypertension. All patients had experienced cardiovascular events and the majority was taking statins. Patient data from the University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus in Dresden concurred with data derived from patients treated at nephrological practices. In the mean, patients attended the centers for about 6 years, the majority weekly. LDL cholesterol concentrations prior to apheresis were clearly higher than target levels; apheresis sessions decreased LDL cholesterol by 69%. Lipoprotein(a) levels could be measured in 75 patients and were effectively reduced by lipoprotein apheresis. In Saxony, 29 patients per 1 million inhabitants received lipoprotein apheresis, which is higher than the proportion of patients treated in Germany as a whole. The need for this extracorporeal treatment seems to be much greater than its current utilization. Among the patients only one homozygous patient with familial hypercholesterolemia was observed. Physicians should be actively informed about this therapeutic possibility to reduce the cardiovascular risk efficiently. The introduction of new drugs may alter the position of lipoprotein apheresis within the therapeutic spectrum.

  16. Screening of lipase inhibitors from Scutellaria baicalensis extract using lipase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles and study on the inhibitory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li-Hong; Jiang, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Yi-Ming; Hu, Jin-Jie; Liang, Jian; Liao, Xun

    2016-03-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant possessing a wide variety of biological activities. In this work, lipase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles (LMNPs) was used as solid phase extract absorbent for screening of lipase inhibitors from this plant. Three flavonoids were found to bind to LMNPs and were identified as baicalin, wogonin, and oroxylin A by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Their IC50 values were determined to be 229.22 ± 12.67, 153.71 ± 9.21, and 56.07 ± 4.90 μM, respectively. Fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking were used to probe the interactions between these flavonoids and lipase. All the flavonoids quenched the fluorescence of lipase statically by forming new complexes, implying their affinities with the enzyme. The thermodynamic analysis suggested that van der Waals force and hydrogen bond were the main forces between wogonin and lipase, while hydrophobic force was the main force for the other two flavonoids. The results from a molecular docking study further revealed that all of them could insert into the pocket of lipase binding to a couple of amino acid residues.

  17. Potencial de biocatálise enantiosseletiva de lipases microbianas Potential of enantioselective biocatalysis by microbial lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de O. Carvalho

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial lipases have a great potential for commercial applications due to their stability, selectivity and broad substrate specificity because many non-natural acids, alcohols or amines can be used as the substrate. Three microbial lipases isolated from Brazilian soil samples (Aspergillus niger; Geotrichum candidum; Penicillium solitum were compared in terms of their stability and as biocatalysts in the enantioselective esterification using racemic substrates in organic medium. The lipase from Aspergillus niger showed the highest activity (18.2 U/mL and was highly thermostable, retaining 90% and 60% activity at 50 ºC and 60 ºC after 1 hour, respectively. In organic medium, this lipase provided the best results in terms of enantiomeric excess of the (S-active acid (ee = 6.1% and conversion value (c = 20% in the esterification of (R,S-ibuprofen with 1-propanol in isooctane. The esterification reaction of the racemic mixture of (R,S-2-octanol with decanoic acid proceeded with high enantioselectivity when lipase from Aspergillus niger (E = 13.2 and commercial lipase from Candida antarctica (E = 20 were employed.

  18. Study the effect of F17S mutation on the chimeric Bacillus thermocatenulatus lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Khaleghinejad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipases (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3 are one of the highest value commercial enzymes as they have potential applications in biotechnology for detergents, food, pharmaceuticals, leather, textiles, cosmetics, and paper industries; and are currently receiving considerable attention because of their potential applications in biotechnology. Bacillus thermocatenulatus Lipase 2 (BTL2 is one of the most important research targets, because of its potential industrial applications. In this study, the effect of substitution Phe17 with Ser in mutated BTL2 lipase, which conserved pentapeptide (112Ala-His-Ser-Gln-Gly116 was replaced with similar sequences (207Gly-Glu-Ser-Ala-Gly211 of Candida rugosa lipase (CLR at the nucleophilic elbow region. Docking results confirmed the mutated lipase to be better than the chimeric lipase. So, cloning was conducted, and the mutated and chimeric btl2 genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and then the enzymes were purified by anion exchange chromatography. The mutation increased lipase lipolytic activity against most of the applied substrates, with the exception of tributyrin when compared with chimeric lipase. Further, the mutated lipase exhibited higher activity than the chimeric lipase at all temperatures. Optimum pH of the mutated lipase was obtained at pH 9.5, which was more than the chimeric one. Enzyme activity of the mutated lipase in the presence of organic solvents, detergents, and metal ions was also improved than the chimeric lipase.

  19. Increased transvascular lipoprotein transport in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Diabetes is associated with a highly increased risk of atherosclerosis, especially if hypertension or albuminuria is present. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the increased transvascular lipoprotein transport in diabetes may be further accelerated if hypertension or albuminuria is present......, possibly explaining increased intimal lipoprotein accumulation and thus atherosclerosis. DESIGN: The study was cross-sectional and was performed in 1999-2002. SETTING: The study took place in the referral center. PATIENTS: The patients included 60 with diabetes mellitus (27 with type 1 diabetes and 33...... with type 2 diabetes) and 42 healthy controls. All were randomly recruited. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: We used an in vivo method for measurement of transvascular transport of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Autologous 131I-LDL was reinjected iv, and the 1-h fractional escape rate was taken as an index...

  20. Immune response to lipoproteins in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Sonia; Mundkur, Lakshmi; Kakkar, Vijay V

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, is characterized by chronic inflammation and altered immune response. Cholesterol is a well-known risk factor associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Elevated serum cholesterol is unique because it can lead to development of atherosclerosis in animals and humans even in the absence of other risk factors. Modifications of low-density lipoproteins mediated by oxidation, enzymatic degradation, and aggregation result in changes in their function and activate both innate and adaptive immune system. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been identified as one of the most important autoantigens in atherosclerosis. This escape from self-tolerance is dependent on the formation of oxidized phospholipids. The emerging understanding of the importance of immune responses against oxidized LDL in atherosclerosis has focused attention on the possibility of development of novel therapy for atherosclerosis. This review provides an overview of immune response to lipoproteins and the fascinating possibility of developing an immunomodulatory therapy for atherosclerosis.

  1. The T111I variant in the endothelial lipase gene and risk of coronary heart disease in three independent populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M. K.; Rimm, E. B.; Mukamal, K. J.;

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial lipase (LIPG) is implicated in the metabolism of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Small studies in selected populations have reported higher HDL-C levels among carriers of the common T111I variant in LIPG, but whether this variant is associated with plasma lipids and risk......-control studies of CHD nested within the Diet, Cancer, and Health study with 998 cases, Nurses' Health Study with 241 cases, and Health Professionals Follow-up Study with 262 cases. The minor allele frequency in the combined pool of controls was 0.29. The T111I variant was not associated with HDL-C or any other...... lipid and lipoprotein measures. Compared with wildtype homozygotes, the pooled estimate for risk of CHD was 0.95 (0.85-1.06) per T111I allele. Our analysis among healthy Caucasian men and women from three independent studies does not support an association between the T111I variant and HDL-C, other...

  2. Apolipoprotein A-V Deficiency Results in MarkedHypertriglyceridemia Attributable to Decreased Lipolysis ofTriglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Removal of Their Remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosskopf, Itamar; Baroukh, Nadine; Lee, Sung-Joon; Kamari,Yehuda; Harats, Dror; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Cooper, AllenD.

    2005-09-01

    Objective--ApoAV, a newly discovered apoprotein, affectsplasma triglyceride level. To determine how this occurs, we studiedtriglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) metabolism in mice deficient inapoAV. Methods and Results No significant difference in triglycerideproduction rate was found between apoa5_/_ mice and controls. Thepresence or absence of apoAV affected TRL catabolism. After the injectionof 14C-palmitate and 3H-cholesterol labeled chylomicrons and 125I-labeledchylomicron remnants, the disappearance of 14C, 3H, and 125I wassignificantly slower in apoa5_/_ mice relative to controls. This wasbecause of diminished lipolysis of TRL and the reduced rate of uptake oftheir remnants in apoa5_/_ mice. Observed elevated cholesterol level wascaused by increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol inapoa5_/_ mice. VLDL from apoa5_/_ mice were poor substrate forlipoprotein lipase, and did not bind to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)receptor as well as normal very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). LDLreceptor levels were slightly elevated in apoa5_/_ mice consistent withlower remnant uptake rates. These alterations may be the result of thelower apoE-to-apoC ratio found in VLDL isolated from apoa5_/_mice.Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that the absence ofapoAV slows lipolysis of TRL and the removal of their remnants byregulating their apoproteins content after secretion.

  3. Genetic determinants of LDL, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL: concordance and discordance with cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance of such gene......To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance...

  4. Lipoprotein apheresis for the treatment of elevated circulating levels of lipoprotein(a): a critical literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Capuzzo, Enrico; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M.

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a), which consists of a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle linked to an apolipoprotein(a) moiety, is currently considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease due to its atherogenic (LDL-like) and prothrombotic (plasminogen-like) properties. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current and newer therapies for lowering increased lipoprotein(a) levels, focusing on lipoprotein apheresis. After a systematic literature search, we identified ten studies which, overall, documented that lipoprotein apheresis is effective in reducing increased lipoprotein(a) levels and cardiovascular events. PMID:26710351

  5. Analysis of individual lipoproteins and liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, D.L.; Keller, R.A.; Nolan, J.P. [and others

    1997-08-01

    We describe the application of single molecule detection (SMD) technologies for the analysis of natural (serum lipoproteins) and synthetic (liposomes) transport systems. The need for advanced analytical procedures of these complex and important systems is presented with the specific enhancements afforded by SMD with flowing sample streams. In contrast to bulk measurements which yield only average values, measurement of individual species allows creation of population histograms from heterogeneous samples. The data are acquired in minutes and the analysis requires relatively small sample quantities. Preliminary data are presented from the analysis of low density lipoprotein, and multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles.

  6. Acute changes in lipoprotein subclasses during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Poulsen, Marianne K; Jensen, Michael D; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Lipids are important substrates for oxidation in the basal fasting state and during exercise. Studies have demonstrated beneficial changes in lipoprotein subclass composition the day after an exercise bout. However, the acute effect of exercise on TG concentration and lipoprotein subclass composition remains unclear. Sixteen lean, healthy individuals (8 men and 8 women) were recruited (age 20-30 years, BMILipoprotein subclass composition was measured with (1)H NMR spectroscopy. During exercise, LDL and HDL particle concentration increased significantly (plipoprotein subclass composition. These changes are similar to the effects of exercise training. © 2013.

  7. Attachment of Lipase on Amino Functionalized Titania Submicrospheres via Covalent Binding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong; LIANG Yan-peng; SHI Jia-fu; WANG Xiao-li

    2013-01-01

    A facile and effective method for immobilized lipase was presented.The titania submicrospheres were synthesized via a modified sol-gel method followed by amino functionalization through the chelation between dopamine and titania.Lipase was covalently attached on the functionalized titania surface using glutaraldehyde as the cross linking agent.The loading ratio and relative activity of the immobilized lipase were 230 mg/g titania submicrospheres and 65%,respectively.The kinetic parameters including the Michaelis constant (Km) and the maximum reaction rate (Vmax) changed slightly after immobilization.Compared to free lipase,the immobilized lipase showed favorable pH stability,thermostability,recycling stability and storage stability.The immobilized lipase retained 90% activity after incubation at 50 ℃ for 2 h,while the free lipase retained only 60% activity.The immobilized lipase retained more than 80% activity after 8 batches.

  8. Biochemical characterization of the surface-associated lipase of Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakinç, Türkân; Kleine, Britta; Gatermann, Sören G

    2007-09-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus, an important cause of urinary tract infections, produces a surface-associated lipase, Ssp. In contrast to other lipases, Ssp is a protein that is present in high amounts on the surface of the bacteria and it was shown that it is a true lipase. Characterization of S. saprophyticus lipase (Ssp) showed that it is more similar to Staphylococcus aureus lipase and Staphylococcus epidermidis lipase than to Staphylococcus hyicus lipase and Staphylococcus simulans lipase. Ssp showed an optimum of lipolytic activity at pH 6 and lost its activity at pH>8 or pH<5. The present results show that Ssp activity is dependent on Ca(2+). Consequently, activity increased c. 10-fold in the presence of 2 mM Ca(2+). Optimal activity was reached at 30 degrees C. It was also observed that the enzymatic activity of Ssp depends strongly on the acyl chain length of the substrate molecule.

  9. Bacterial biocatalysts : Molecular Biology, Three-Dimensional Structures, and Biotechnological Applications of Lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, K-E.; Dijkstra, B.W.; Reetz, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    Bacteria produce and secrete lipases, which can catalyze both the hydrolysis and the synthesis of long-chain acylglycerols. These reactions usually proceed with high regioselectivity and enantioselectivity, and, therefore, lipases have become very important stereoselective biocatalysts used in organ

  10. The usefulness of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The usefulness of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein - cholesterol ratio in ... cholesterol and/or highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol ratios in the interpretation of lipid profile result in clinical practice. ... Article Metrics.

  11. Lipoprotein profiling methodology based on determination of apolipoprotein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroaki; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Tomita, Atsumi; Koike, Tomonari; Shiomi, Masashi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Matsuda, Fumio; Bamba, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal lipid metabolism results in the alteration of lipid compositions in lipoproteins; therefore an accurate and quantitative analytical approach is required for the detailed structural characterization of lipoproteins. However, the specific lipid composition of each lipoprotein particle is poorly understood. Lipid composition of very-low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein particles derived from myocardial infarction-prone rabbits was determined by normalization of lipidomics data using apoB-100 levels. The ratio of lipid levels between very-low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein particles was different according to not only lipid classes, but also phosphatidylethanolamine subclasses by applying our developed methodology to myocardial infarction-prone rabbits. Our novel analytical approach represents to be a potentially useful tool to obtain particle-specific lipid components of lipoproteins.

  12. Evaluation of Homocysteine, Lipoprotein(a) and Endothelin as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Homocysteine, Lipoprotein(a) and Endothelin as diagnostic markers of Coronary Artery Disease in Indian population. ... The objective of this study was to assess the role of endothelin, lipoprotein(a), ... Article Metrics.

  13. Correlation between serum lipoproteins and abdominal fat pad in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation between serum lipoproteins and abdominal fat pad in broiler chickens. ... The high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration in birds fed fish oil diet was higher than other treatments, but the serum low density ... Article Metrics.

  14. Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels and Selected Trace Metals In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels and Selected Trace Metals In Newly ... This study aim to determine the serum levels of trace metals and correlate same with serum levels of lipoproteins (an established marker of HBP) in ... Article Metrics.

  15. Effects of dietary turmeric supplementation on plasma lipoproteins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary turmeric supplementation on plasma lipoproteins, meat quality and fatty acid composition in broilers. ... dietary supplementation of turmeric rhizome powder (TRP) on plasma lipoprotein concentrations, and the ... Article Metrics.

  16. Human Low Density Lipoprotein as a Vehicle of Atherosclerosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Low Density Lipoprotein as a Vehicle of Atherosclerosis. ... Low-density lipoproteins have been sufficiently established as an important precursor of atherosclerosis. The actual mechanism is still ... Article Metrics. Metrics Loading .

  17. Evaluation of plasma lipids and lipoproteins in nigerians suffering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of plasma lipids and lipoproteins in nigerians suffering from depressive illness. ... Very little is known about the lipid and lipoprotein status in Nigerian adults suffering from depression. One hundred subjects ... Article Metrics.

  18. Apolipoprotein (A) Isoform Distribution and Plasma Lipoprotein (a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apolipoprotein (A) Isoform Distribution and Plasma Lipoprotein (a) Levels In Nigerian Subjects With and Without Coronary Heart Disease. ... Plasma lipoprotein (a) Concentrations and apo(a) isoforms were determined in 101 ... Article Metrics.

  19. Interference of phenol during quantification of a bacterial lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interference of phenol during quantification of a bacterial lipoprotein. ... bacterial Braun liporotein (BLP) from E. coli (a Toll-2 receptor ligand) is purified via phenol extraction on the basis of selective extraction of the lipoprotein. ... Article Metrics.

  20. NEW LIPASE-PRODUCERS MICROORGANISMS FROM PERUVIAN AMAZONIA WHICH HYDROLYZE PALM OIL AND DERIVATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Trujillo; Pedro Peláez; Josep-Vicent Sinisterra

    2014-01-01

    Two yeasts: Cryptococcus uchicensis TMY9 and Pichia uchicensis TMY10 and one fungus Verticillium tingalensis TMFMB are described for the first time as lipase producer microorganisms. The strains have been isolated after an ecological screening in a palm oil industry. The yeasts- C. uchicensis and Pichia uchicensis - mainly produce extracellular lipases as active as those produced by traditional lipase producing microorganisms. The extracellular lipases are active in the hydrolysis of crude pa...

  1. Three-Dimensional Structure of Arabidopsis thaliana Lipase Predicted by Homology Modeling Method

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Triacylglycerol lipases have been thoroughly characterized in mammals and microorganisms. By contrast, very little is known about plant lipases. In this investigation, a homology model of Arabidopsis thaliana lipase (NP_179126) was constructed using a human gastric lipase (PDB ID: 1HLG), as a template for model building. This model was then assessed for stereochemical quality and side chain environment. Natural substrates: tributyrin, trioctanoin and triolen were docked into the model to inve...

  2. Anaerobic biodegradability of dairy wastewater pretreated with porcine pancreas lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Aguiar Mendes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipids-rich wastewater was partial hydrolyzed with porcine pancreas lipase and the efficiency of the enzymatic pretreatment was verified by the comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated wastewater. Alternatively, simultaneous run was carried out in which hydrolysis and digestion was performed in the same reactor. Wastewater from dairy industries and low cost lipase preparation at two concentrations (0.05 and 0.5% w.v-1 were used. All the samples pretreated with enzyme showed a positive effect on organic matter removal (Chemical Oxygen Demand-COD and formation of methane. The best results were obtained when hydrolysis and biodegradation were performed simultaneously, attaining high COD and color removal independent of the lipase concentration. The enzymatic treatment considerably improved the anaerobic operational conditions and the effluent quality (lower content of suspended solids and less turbidity. Thus, the use of enzymes such as lipase seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating the wastewaters having high fat and grease contents, such as those from the dairy industry.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o pré-tratamento de efluente da indústria de laticínios na hidrólise de lipídeos, empregando lipase de fonte de células animais de baixo custo disponível comercialmente (pâncreas de porco na formação de gás metano por biodegradabilidade anaeróbia empregando diferentes concentrações de lipase (0,05 e 0,5 % w.v-1. A utilização de lipase no pré-tratamento do efluente acelerou a hidrólise de lipídeos e, conseqüentemente, auxiliou o tratamento biológico resultando na redução da matéria orgânica em termos de Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO, cor e sólidos em suspensão como lipídeos. Os melhores resultados em termos de remoção de DQO e cor foram obtidos quando a hidrólise e biodigestão foram realizadas simultaneamente, independente da concentração de lipase empregada. Estes resultados

  3. Estolides synthesis catalyzed by immobilized lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguieiras, Erika C G; Veloso, Cláudia O; Bevilaqua, Juliana V; Rosas, Danielle O; da Silva, Mônica A P; Langone, Marta A P

    2011-01-01

    Estolides are vegetable-oil-based lubricants obtained from oleic acid or any source of hydroxy fatty acids. In this work, the estolides synthesis from oleic acid and methyl ricinoleate (biodiesel from castor oil), using immobilized commercial lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM-IM, and Lipozyme TL-IM) in a solvent-free medium was investigated. Acid value was used to monitor the reaction progress by determining the consumption of acid present in the medium. Novozym 435 showed the best performance. Water removal improved the conversion. Novozym 435 was more active at atmospheric pressure. Novozym 435 was reused four times with conversion reaching 15% after the fourth reaction at 80°C. Estolides produced under the reaction conditions used in this work presented good properties, such as, low temperature properties as pour point (-24°C), viscosity (23.9 cSt at 40°C and 5.2 cSt at 100°C), and viscosity index (153).

  4. Estolides Synthesis Catalyzed by Immobilized Lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika C. G. Aguieiras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Estolides are vegetable-oil-based lubricants obtained from oleic acid or any source of hydroxy fatty acids. In this work, the estolides synthesis from oleic acid and methyl ricinoleate (biodiesel from castor oil, using immobilized commercial lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM-IM, and Lipozyme TL-IM in a solvent-free medium was investigated. Acid value was used to monitor the reaction progress by determining the consumption of acid present in the medium. Novozym 435 showed the best performance. Water removal improved the conversion. Novozym 435 was more active at atmospheric pressure. Novozym 435 was reused four times with conversion reaching 15% after the fourth reaction at 80°C. Estolides produced under the reaction conditions used in this work presented good properties, such as, low temperature properties as pour point (−24°C, viscosity (23.9 cSt at 40°C and 5.2 cSt at 100°C, and viscosity index (153.

  5. Angiopoietin-Like Protein 4 Is a High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Component for HDL Metabolism and Function in Nondiabetic Participants and Type-2 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long-Yan; Yu, Cai-Guo; Wang, Xu-Hong; Yuan, Sha-Sha; Zhang, Li-Jie; Lang, Jia-Nan; Zhao, Dong; Feng, Ying-Mei

    2017-06-23

    ANGPTL4 (angiopoietin-like protein 4) is a LPL (lipoprotein lipase) inhibitor and is present in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). However, it is not defined whether ANGPTL4 in HDLs could affect HDL metabolism and function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ANGPTL4 levels in the circulation and HDLs were quantified in nondiabetic participants (n=201, 68.7% females) and T2DM patients (n=185, 66.5% females). HDLs were isolated from nondiabetic controls and T2DM patients to assess cholesterol efflux or subjected to endothelial lipase (EL)-overexpressed HEK293 cells for EL hydrolysis in vitro. The association between ANGPTL4 in HDLs and HDL components and function was analyzed in nondiabetic participants or diabetic patients, respectively. Plasma or HDLs of ANGPTL4+/+ and ANGPTL4-/- mice was subjected for cholesterol efflux or EL hydrolysis, respectively. ANGPTL4 levels in the plasma and HDLs were 1.7- and 2.0-fold higher in T2DM patients than nondiabetic controls, respectively (PHDL hydrolysis and dysfunction. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  6. Application of lipase technology for transesterification of fatty acid ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOKO SULISTYO

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We have reported the potency of microbial extracellular enzyme for synthesis of fatty acid ester. Further investigation was aimed to study capacity of the enzyme on bioprocess of crude palm oil by transesterification of saturated fatty acid to fatty acid ester. We have studied some lipases from culture filtrate of Candida rugosa FM-9301, Bacillus subtilis FM-9101 and Pseudomonas aerogenes FM-9201, which were preincubated in a medium containing olive oil as inducers, using a shaker under conditions that allowed for lipase production at pH 4.5-6.5 and room temperature for 5 days. Those strains shown different activities during the hydrolysis of substrates, which resulted in decreasing or increasing free fatty acids those, were liberated from media containing crude palm oil and organic solvents. The optimal transesterification condition was at temperature of 45-50C and at pH 4.5 for C. rugosa and pH 6.0 to 7.0 for P. aerogenes and B. subtilis. Under the enzyme concentration of 50% (v/v, the transesterification was rapidly occurred, while at the concentration of 20% (v/v the enzymatically biosynthesis required longer incubation period. The substrates incubated with C. rugosa lipase exhibited higher linoleic and linolenic acid (7.16 and 2.15%, respectively, than that of B. subtilis lipase (4.85% and 1.43%, respectively, while P. aerogenes lipase (3.73% and 1.11%, respectively.

  7. Genome shuffling enhances lipase production of thermophilic Geobacillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalopagorn, Pornchanok; Charoenpanich, Jittima; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee

    2014-10-01

    Thermostable lipases are potential enzymes for biocatalytic application. In this study, the lipase production of Geobacillus sp. CF03 (WT) was improved by genome shuffling. After two rounds of genome shuffling, one fusant strain (FB1) achieved increase lipase activity from the populations generated by ultraviolet irradiation and ethyl methylsulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis. The growth rate and lipase production of FB1 increased highest by 150 and 238 %, respectively, in comparison to the wild type. The fusant enzyme had a significant change in substrate specificity but still prefers the long-chain length substrates. It had an optimum activity at 60 °C, pH at 7.0-8.0, with p-nitrophenyl palmitate (C16) as a substrate and retained about 50 % of their activity after 15 min at 70 °C, pH 8.0. Furthermore, the fusant lipase showed the preference of sesame oil, waste palm oil, and canola oil. Therefore, the genome shuffling strategy has been successful to strain improvement and selecting strain with multiple desirable characteristics.

  8. Lipase-catalyzed polyester synthesis--a green polymer chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shiro

    2010-01-01

    This article is a short comprehensive review describing in vitro polyester synthesis catalyzed by a hydrolysis enzyme of lipase, most of which has been developed for these two decades. Polyesters are prepared by repeated ester bond-formation reactions; they include two major modes, ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic monomers such as cyclic esters (lactones) and condensation polymerization via the reaction between a carboxylic acid or its ester group and an alcohol group. Polyester synthesis is, therefore, a reaction in reverse way of in vivo lipase catalysis of ester bond-cleavage with hydrolysis. The lipase-catalyzed polymerizations show very high chemo-, regio-, and enantio-selectivities and involve various advantageous characteristics. Lipase is robust and compatible with other chemical catalysts, which allows novel chemoenzymatic processes. New syntheses of a variety of functional polyesters and a plausible reaction mechanism of lipase catalysis are mentioned. The polymerization characteristics are of green nature currently demanded for sustainable society, and hence, desirable for conducting 'green polymer chemistry'.

  9. Exploring the conformational states and rearrangements of Yarrowia lipolytica Lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, Florence; Barbe, Sophie; Escalier, Pierre; Mourey, Lionel; André, Isabelle; Marty, Alain; Tranier, Samuel

    2010-10-06

    We report the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structure of the Lip2 lipase from Yarrowia lipolytica in its closed conformation. The Lip2 structure is highly homologous to known structures of the fungal lipase family (Thermomyces lanuginosa, Rhizopus niveus, and Rhizomucor miehei lipases). However, it also presents some unique features that are described and discussed here in detail. Structural differences, in particular in the conformation adopted by the so-called lid subdomain, suggest that the opening mechanism of Lip2 may differ from that of other fungal lipases. Because the catalytic activity of lipases is strongly dependent on structural rearrangement of this mobile subdomain, we focused on elucidating the molecular mechanism of lid motion. Using the x-ray structure of Lip2, we carried out extensive molecular-dynamics simulations in explicit solvent environments (water and water/octane interface) to characterize the major structural rearrangements that the lid undergoes under the influence of solvent or upon substrate binding. Overall, our results suggest a two-step opening mechanism that gives rise first to a semi-open conformation upon adsorption of the protein at the water/organic solvent interface, followed by a further opening of the lid upon substrate binding.

  10. Identification and characterization of a lipase gene from Antrodia cinnamomea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fang-Hua; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Lee, Li-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2008-12-01

    A partial (634 bp) cDNA clone, AF1229, obtained from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of solid-cultured basidiomes of Antrodia cinnamomea is homologous to the lipase gene in Rhizomucor miehei. 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and 3'-RACE amplification showed that the full-length lipase gene, Ac-LIP, has a 912bp open reading frame (ORF), a 183bp 5' non-coding region, and a 144bp 3' non-coding region. Ac-LIP contains the lipase consensus sequence, VTVVGHSLGA, and encodes a 303-amino acid polypeptide that appears to be an extracellular protein with a calculated molecular mass of 31.8 kDa. RT-PCR analysis suggested that Ac-LIP was strongly expressed during the basidiomatal formation stage of A. cinnamomea. When over-expressed in Escherichia coli, Ac-LIP yielded a protein that was capable of performing hydrolysis of trilinolein by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. A. cinnamomea lipase represents the first enzyme of the lipase family from a basidiomycetous fungus, which has been characterized at the molecular level.

  11. Lipase-catalyzed polyester synthesis – A green polymer chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shiro

    2010-01-01

    This article is a short comprehensive review describing in vitro polyester synthesis catalyzed by a hydrolysis enzyme of lipase, most of which has been developed for these two decades. Polyesters are prepared by repeated ester bond-formation reactions; they include two major modes, ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic monomers such as cyclic esters (lactones) and condensation polymerization via the reaction between a carboxylic acid or its ester group and an alcohol group. Polyester synthesis is, therefore, a reaction in reverse way of in vivo lipase catalysis of ester bond-cleavage with hydrolysis. The lipase-catalyzed polymerizations show very high chemo-, regio-, and enantio-selectivities and involve various advantageous characteristics. Lipase is robust and compatible with other chemical catalysts, which allows novel chemo-enzymatic processes. New syntheses of a variety of functional polyesters and a plausible reaction mechanism of lipase catalysis are mentioned. The polymerization characteristics are of green nature currently demanded for sustainable society, and hence, desirable for conducting ‘green polymer chemistry’. PMID:20431260

  12. Effect of fermentation conditions on lipase production by Candida utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJA Z. GRBAVCIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A wild yeast strain isolated from spoiled soybean oil and identified as Candida utilis initially presented rather low lipase activity (approximately 4 IU dm-3 in submerged culture in a universal yeast medium containing 2 % malt extract. Stu­dies were undertaken to improve the lipase production. The best yields of lipase were obtained with a medium supplemented with caprylic and oleic acids as indu­cers, but higher concentrations of the former (> 0.5 % had a negative effect on the lipase production and cell growth. The type of nitrogen source seemed also to be very important. The highest lipolytic activity of 284 IU dm-3 was achieved after 5 days of fermentation in a medium containing oleic acid and hydrolyzed casein as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, and supplemented with Tween 80®. It was shown that optimization of the fermentation conditions can lead to a significant improvement in the lipase production (more than 70-fold higher compared to the initial value obtained in the non-optimized medium.

  13. High cell density fed-batch fermentations for lipase production: feeding strategies and oxygen transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehmin, M N I; Annuar, M S M; Chisti, Y

    2013-11-01

    This review is focused on the production of microbial lipases by high cell density fermentation. Lipases are among the most widely used of the enzyme catalysts. Although lipases are produced by animals and plants, industrial lipases are sourced almost exclusively from microorganisms. Many of the commercial lipases are produced using recombinant species. Microbial lipases are mostly produced by batch and fed-batch fermentation. Lipases are generally secreted by the cell into the extracellular environment. Thus, a crude preparation of lipases can be obtained by removing the microbial cells from the fermentation broth. This crude cell-free broth may be further concentrated and used as is, or lipases may be purified from it to various levels. For many large volume applications, lipases must be produced at extremely low cost. High cell density fermentation is a promising method for low-cost production: it allows a high concentration of the biomass and the enzyme to be attained rapidly and this eases the downstream recovery of the enzyme. High density fermentation enhances enzyme productivity compared with the traditional submerged culture batch fermentation. In production of enzymes, a high cell density is generally achieved through fed-batch operation, not through perfusion culture which is cumbersome. The feeding strategies used in fed-batch fermentations for producing lipases and the implications of these strategies are discussed. Most lipase-producing microbial fermentations require oxygen. Oxygen transfer in such fermentations is discussed.

  14. The structure-function relationship of the lipases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misset, Onno; Gerritse, Gijs; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Winkler, Ulrich; Colson, Charles; Schanck, Karin; Lesuisse, Emmanuel; Dartois, Véronique; Blaauw, Mieke; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    1994-01-01

    Within the BRIDGE T-project on lipases we investigate the structure-function relationships of the lipases from Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Construction of an overproducing Bacillus strain allowed the purification of > 100 mg lipase from 30 I culture supernatant. After testing a lar

  15. 21 CFR 184.1420 - Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus... preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus. (a) Lipase enzyme preparation contains lipase enzyme (CAS Reg. No... nonpathogenic and nontoxigenic strain of Rhizopus niveus. The enzyme preparation also contains...

  16. Unfavorable apoAI-containing lipoproteins profile in Tunisian obese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    be more sensitive to obesity effect than traditional lipid and lipoprotein parameters. The nature of .... The glucose assay was immediate, while other parameters were quantified ..... Regulation of plasma high-density lipoprotein levels by the ABCA1 transporter ... regulator of very low density lipoprotein metabolism and insulin.

  17. Metabolism of high density lipoproteins in liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Ting Jiang; Ning Xu; Chang-Ping Wu

    2007-01-01

    Liver plays a vital role in the production and catabolism of plasma lipoproteins. It depends on the integrity of cellular function of liver, which ensures homeostasis of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. When liver cancer occurs these processes are impaired and high-density lipoproteins are changed.

  18. 人类肝脂肪酶基因研究概述%Overview of the Study on Human Hepatic Lipase Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧

    2012-01-01

    Human hepatic lipase is one of the three key enzymes in plasma lipoprotein metabolism, which mainly participates in reconstruction of high-density lipoprotein( HDL ), metabolism of chylomi-crons wreckage,low-density lipoprotein( LDL),and reverse cholesterol transport (CT). Domestic and foreign scholars have researched it from its role in RCT,gene mutations,single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype. It provides reference materials for deep exploring the pathogenesis of some complex disease and possible gene therapy in future.%人类肝脂肪酶是血浆脂蛋白代谢中的三个关键酶之一,主要参与高密度脂蛋白的重构和乳糜微粒残骸、低密度脂蛋白的代谢以及胆固醇逆向转运.国内外的学者从其在胆固醇逆向转运中的作用、基因突变及单核苷酸多态性、单倍型等诸方面开展了深入研究,为深入探索某些复杂疾病的发病机制及未来可能的基因治疗提供参考.

  19. A Computational Model for the Analysis of Lipoprotein Distributions in the Mouse: Translating FPLC Profiles to Lipoprotein Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sips, Fianne L. P.; Tiemann, Christian A.; Oosterveer, Maaike H.; Groen, Albert K.; Hilbers, Peter A. J.; van Riel, Natal A. W.

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances of lipoprotein metabolism are recognized as indicators of cardiometabolic disease risk. Lipoprotein size and composition, measured in a lipoprotein profile, are considered to be disease risk markers. However, the measured profile is a collective result of complex metabolic interactions, which complicates the identification of changes in metabolism. In this study we aim to develop a method which quantitatively relates murine lipoprotein size, composition and concentration to the molecular mechanisms underlying lipoprotein metabolism. We introduce a computational framework which incorporates a novel kinetic model of murine lipoprotein metabolism. The model is applied to compute a distribution of plasma lipoproteins, which is then related to experimental lipoprotein profiles through the generation of an in silico lipoprotein profile. The model was first applied to profiles obtained from wild-type C57Bl/6J mice. The results provided insight into the interplay of lipoprotein production, remodelling and catabolism. Moreover, the concentration and metabolism of unmeasured lipoprotein components could be determined. The model was validated through the prediction of lipoprotein profiles of several transgenic mouse models commonly used in cardiovascular research. Finally, the framework was employed for longitudinal analysis of the profiles of C57Bl/6J mice following a pharmaceutical intervention with a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. The multifaceted regulatory response to the administration of the compound is incompletely understood. The results explain the characteristic changes of the observed lipoprotein profile in terms of the underlying metabolic perturbation and resultant modifications of lipid fluxes in the body. The Murine Lipoprotein Profiler (MuLiP) presented here is thus a valuable tool to assess the metabolic origin of altered murine lipoprotein profiles and can be applied in preclinical research performed in mice for analysis of lipid fluxes and

  20. A computational model for the analysis of lipoprotein distributions in the mouse: translating FPLC profiles to lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sips, Fianne L P; Tiemann, Christian A; Oosterveer, Maaike H; Groen, Albert K; Hilbers, Peter A J; van Riel, Natal A W

    2014-05-01

    Disturbances of lipoprotein metabolism are recognized as indicators of cardiometabolic disease risk. Lipoprotein size and composition, measured in a lipoprotein profile, are considered to be disease risk markers. However, the measured profile is a collective result of complex metabolic interactions, which complicates the identification of changes in metabolism. In this study we aim to develop a method which quantitatively relates murine lipoprotein size, composition and concentration to the molecular mechanisms underlying lipoprotein metabolism. We introduce a computational framework which incorporates a novel kinetic model of murine lipoprotein metabolism. The model is applied to compute a distribution of plasma lipoproteins, which is then related to experimental lipoprotein profiles through the generation of an in silico lipoprotein profile. The model was first applied to profiles obtained from wild-type C57Bl/6J mice. The results provided insight into the interplay of lipoprotein production, remodelling and catabolism. Moreover, the concentration and metabolism of unmeasured lipoprotein components could be determined. The model was validated through the prediction of lipoprotein profiles of several transgenic mouse models commonly used in cardiovascular research. Finally, the framework was employed for longitudinal analysis of the profiles of C57Bl/6J mice following a pharmaceutical intervention with a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. The multifaceted regulatory response to the administration of the compound is incompletely understood. The results explain the characteristic changes of the observed lipoprotein profile in terms of the underlying metabolic perturbation and resultant modifications of lipid fluxes in the body. The Murine Lipoprotein Profiler (MuLiP) presented here is thus a valuable tool to assess the metabolic origin of altered murine lipoprotein profiles and can be applied in preclinical research performed in mice for analysis of lipid fluxes and

  1. QSAR study and the hydrolysis activity prediction of three alkaline lipases from different lipase-producing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haikuan; Wang, Xiaojie; Li, Xiaolu; Zhang, Yehong; Dai, Yujie; Guo, Changlu; Zheng, Heng

    2012-09-28

    The hydrolysis activities of three alkaline lipases, L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 secreted by different lipase-producing microorganisms isolated from the Bay of Bohai, P. R. China were characterized with 16 kinds of esters. It was found that all the lipases have the ability to catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycerides, methyl esters, ethyl esters, especially for triglycerides, which shows that they have broad substrate spectra, and this property is very important for them to be used in detergent industry. Three QSAR models were built for L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 respectively with GFA using Discovery studio 2.1. The models equations 1, 2 and 3 can explain 95.80%, 97.45% and 97.09% of the variances (R(2)(adj)) respectively while they could predict 95.44%, 89.61% and 93.41% of the variances (R(2)(cv)) respectively. With these models the hydrolysis activities of these lipases to mixed esters were predicted and the result showed that the predicted values are in good agreement with the measured values, which indicates that this method can be used as a simple tool to predict the lipase activities for single or mixed esters.

  2. QSAR study and the hydrolysis activity prediction of three alkaline lipases from different lipase-producing microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haikuan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The hydrolysis activities of three alkaline lipases, L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 secreted by different lipase-producing microorganisms isolated from the Bay of Bohai, P. R. China were characterized with 16 kinds of esters. It was found that all the lipases have the ability to catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycerides, methyl esters, ethyl esters, especially for triglycerides, which shows that they have broad substrate spectra, and this property is very important for them to be used in detergent industry. Three QSAR models were built for L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 respectively with GFA using Discovery studio 2.1. The models equations 1, 2 and 3 can explain 95.80%, 97.45% and 97.09% of the variances (R2adj respectively while they could predict 95.44%, 89.61% and 93.41% of the variances (R2cv respectively. With these models the hydrolysis activities of these lipases to mixed esters were predicted and the result showed that the predicted values are in good agreement with the measured values, which indicates that this method can be used as a simple tool to predict the lipase activities for single or mixed esters.

  3. Investigation of the Reuse of Immobilized Lipases in Biodiesel Synthesis: Influence of Different Solvents in Lipase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguieiras, Erika C G; Ribeiro, Douglas S; Couteiro, Pedro P; Bastos, Caenam M B; de Queiroz, Danielle S; Parreira, Juliana M; Langone, Marta A P

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel production catalyzed by immobilized lipases offers the possibility of easy reuse of the catalyst, which is very important to minimize costs and to make this process economically feasible. In this study, the reuse of three commercial immobilized lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM IM, and Lipozyme TL IM) was investigated in ethanolysis of soybean oil. The effect of the use of solvents (ethanol, butanol, and hexane) to wash the immobilized lipases before the enzyme reuse was evaluated, as well as the lipase reuse without solvent washing. The washing with butanol and ethanol led to the lowest decrease in ester yield after the first batch and allowed the highest glycerol removal (>85 %) from biocatalysts. The biocatalysts were incubated at 50 °C for 2 h in these three solvents. Esterification activities of the enzyme preparations, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses of the beads, and protein content in organic phase were evaluated before and after incubation in the solvent. SEM analysis showed a significant change in beads morphology of Novozym 435 after contact with hexane. For Lipozyme TL IM lipase, this effect was visualized with ethanol.

  4. Synthesis of Wax Esters by Lipase-catalyzed Esterification with Immobilized Lipase from Candida sp. 99-125

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓利; 王晓静; 聂开立; 王芳; 刘军峰; 王璞; 谭天伟

    2011-01-01

    Wax esters were synthesized in a solvent free system catalyzed by immobilized lipase from Candida sp. 99-125, with oleic acid and cetyl alcohol. The effects of substrate molar ratio, lipase dosage and water removal were investigated in a 50 ml flask incubated in a thermostatic cultivation cabinet. The optimized conditions were: temperature 40 ℃, shaking at 170 r·min-1, acid/alcohol molar ratio 1:0.9, lipase dosage in 10% (by mass) of oleic acid, and open reaction for water removal. As a result, the conversion rate reached 98% for reaction of 8 h. The volume of reactor was scaled up to 1 L three-neck flask. The optimized parameters were: 200 r·min-1 agitation speed, 2.5% (by mass) lipase dosage, others were the same as the parameters described above. The conversion rate reached 95% for reaction of 24 h. The lipase retained 46% conversion rate after reuse for 6, 7 batches. The products were purified by removing remained cetyl alcohol and fatty acids with ethanol and saturated sodium carbonate so-lution, respectively. The purity of the wax ester, cetyl oleate, was 96%. The physical and chemical properties of cetyl oleate were tested and compared with those of jojoba oil. The results show that the product cetyl oleate has great potential to use as the substitute of natural jojoba oil.

  5. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) deficiencies affect expression of lipolytic activities in mouse adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morak, Maria; Schmidinger, Hannes; Riesenhuber, Gernot; Rechberger, Gerald N; Kollroser, Manfred; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Kronenberg, Florian; Hermetter, Albin

    2012-12-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are key enzymes involved in intracellular degradation of triacylglycerols. It was the aim of this study to elucidate how the deficiency in one of these proteins affects the residual lipolytic proteome in adipose tissue. For this purpose, we compared the lipase patterns of brown and white adipose tissue from ATGL (-/-) and HSL (-/-) mice using differential activity-based gel electrophoresis. This method is based on activity-recognition probes possessing the same substrate analogous structure but carrying different fluorophores for specific detection of the enzyme patterns of two different tissues in one electrophoresis gel. We found that ATGL-deficiency in brown adipose tissue had a profound effect on the expression levels of other lipolytic and esterolytic enzymes in this tissue, whereas HSL-deficiency hardly showed any effect in brown adipose tissue. Neither ATGL- nor HSL-deficiency greatly influenced the lipase patterns in white adipose tissue. Enzyme activities of mouse tissues on acylglycerol substrates were analyzed as well, showing that ATGL-and HSL-deficiencies can be compensated for at least in part by other enzymes. The proteins that responded to ATGL-deficiency in brown adipose tissue were overexpressed and their activities on acylglycerols were analyzed. Among these enzymes, Es1, Es10, and Es31-like represent lipase candidates as they catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain acylglycerols.

  6. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis with different acyl acceptors

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    Ognjanović Nevena D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engine that is environmentally acceptable. Conventionally, biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides and short alcohols in the presence of an acid or an alkaline catalyst. There are several problems associated with this kind of production that can be resolved by using lipase as the biocatalyst. The aim of the present work was to investigate novel acyl acceptors for biodiesel production. 2-Propanol and n-butanol have a less negative effect on lipase stability, and they also improve low temperature properties of the fuel. However, excess alcohol leads to inactivation of the enzyme, and glycerol, a major byproduct, can block the immobilized enzyme, resulting in low enzymatic activity. This problem was solved by using methyl acetate as acyl acceptor. Triacetylglycerol is produced instead of glycerol, and it has no negative effect on the activity of the lipase.

  7. Lactobacillus sps. lipase mediated poly (ε-caprolactone) degradation.

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    Khan, Imran; Ray Dutta, Jayati; Ganesan, Ramakrishnan

    2017-02-01

    Polymer degradation through lipase appears to be an enthralling alternative to bulk chemical routes. Poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is an artificial polyester that can be degraded by microbes and enzymes like lipases and esterases. The environmental degradation of PCL is dependent on the activity of bacteria that characterization techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal are widely present in the ecosystem. In this study, three different lipases derived from Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum and their co-culture have been utilized to explore their efficiency towards PCL enzymatic degradation. The effect of parameters such as enzyme loading and degradation time has been explored to understand the efficiency of the enzymes used in this study. Various analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy have been employed to study the enzymatic degradation and its possible mechanistic insight.

  8. Lipase-immobilized biocatalytic membranes for biodiesel production.

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    Kuo, Chia-Hung; Peng, Li-Ting; Kan, Shu-Chen; Liu, Yung-Chuan; Shieh, Chwen-Jen

    2013-10-01

    Microbial lipase from Candida rugosa (Amano AY-30) has good transesterification activity and can be used for biodiesel production. In this study, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane was grafted with 1,4-diaminobutane and activated by glutaraldehyde for C. rugosa lipase immobilization. After immobilization, the biocatalytic membrane was used for producing biodiesel from soybean oil and methanol via transesterification. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in combination with a 5-level-5-factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to evaluate the effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, enzyme amount, substrate molar ratio and water content on the yield of soybean oil methyl ester. By ridge max analysis, the predicted and experimental yields under the optimum synthesis conditions were 97% and 95%, respectively. The lipase-immobilized PVDF membrane showed good reuse ability for biodiesel production, enabling operation for at least 165 h during five reuses of the batch, without significant loss of activity.

  9. The immobilization of lipase on PVDF-co-HFP membrane

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    Kayhan, Naciye; Eyüpoǧlu, Volkan; Adem, Şevki

    2016-04-01

    Lipase is an enzyme having a lot of different industrial applications such as biodiesel production, biopolymer synthesis, enantiopure pharmaceutical productions, agrochemicals, etc. Its immobilized form on different substances is more conventional and useful than its free form. Supporting material was prepared using PVDF-co-HFP in laboratory conditions and attached 1,4-diaminobutane (DA) and epichlorohydrin (EPI) ligands to the membrane to immobilize lipase enzyme. The immobilization conditions such as enzyme amount, pH, the concentration of salt, thermal stability and activity were stabilized for our experimental setup. Then, biochemical characterizations were performed on immobilized lipase PVDF-co-HFP regarding optimal pH activity, temperature and thermal stability. Also, the desorption ratios of immobilized enzyme in two different pathway were investigated to confirm immobilization stability for 24 hours.

  10. Biodiesel production from microalgae oil catalyzed by a recombinant lipase.

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    Huang, Jinjin; Xia, Ji; Jiang, Wei; Li, Ying; Li, Jilun

    2015-03-01

    A recombinant Rhizomucor miehei lipase was constructed and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The target enzyme was termed Lipase GH2 and it can be used as a free enzyme for catalytic conversion of microalgae oil mixed with methanol or ethanol for biodiesel production in an n-hexane solvent system. Conversion rates of two major types of biodiesel, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE), reached maximal values (>90%) after 24h. The process of FAME production is generally more simple and economical than that of FAEE production, even though the two processes show similar conversion rates. In spite of the damaging effect of ethanol on enzyme activity, we successfully obtained ethyl ester by the enzymatic method. Our findings indicate that Lipase GH2 is a useful catalyst for conversion of microalgae oil to FAME or FAEE, and this system provides efficiency and reduced costs in biodiesel production.

  11. Effects of temperature and pressure on Rhizomucor miehei lipase stability.

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    Noel, Marilyne; Combes, Didier

    2003-04-10

    Both high temperature and high hydrostatic pressure induce irreversible deactivation of enzymes. They enable the enzyme's thermodynamic parameters to be determined and are used to study the mechanisms involved in biochemical systems. The effect of these two factors on the stability of Rhizomucor miehei lipase have been investigated. The stability criterion used was residual hydrolytic activity of the lipase. Experimental and theoretical parameters, obtained by linear regression analysis, were compared with theoretical kinetics in order to validate the series-type inactivation model. The lipase of R. miehei was deactivated by either thermal or pressure treatment. Moreover conformational studies made by fluorescence spectroscopy suggest that the conformational changes induced by pressure were different from those induced by temperature. In addition they show that after thermal deactivation there were less intermolecular hydrogen bonded structures formed than was the case for deactivation by high pressure.

  12. [Structure and Activity of Fungal Lipases in Bile Salt Solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, L R; Bakirova, D R; Valiullina, Yu A; Idiyatullin, B Z; Faizullin, D A; Zueva, O S; Zuev, Yu F

    2016-01-01

    The changes in structure and catalytic properties of fungal lipases (Candida rugosa, Rhizomucor miehei, Mucor javanicus) were investigated in micellar solutions of bile salts that differ in hydrophilic-lypophilic balance and reaction medium properties. The methods of circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence were applied to estimate the changes in peptide structure within complexes with bile salt micelles. Bile salts do not exert a significant influence on the structure of the enzymes under study: in Rh. miehei and M. javanicus lipases the alpha helix content slightly decreased, the influence of bile salts on the C. rugosa structure was not revealed. Despite negligible structural modifications in the enzymes, in bile salt solutions a considerable change in their catalytic properties was observed: an abrupt decrease in catalytic effectiveness. Substrate-bile salts micelles complex formation was demonstrated by the NMR self-diffusion method. The model of a regulation of fungal lipase activity was proposed.

  13. Alginate-chaperoned facile refolding of Chromobacterium viscosum lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Kalyani; Bohidar, Himadri B; Roy, Rajendra P; Gupta, Munishwar N

    2006-05-01

    Urea denatured lipase from Chromobacterium viscosum lipase could be refolded by addition of alginate with high guluronic acid content. The refolded molecule could be recovered by affinity precipitation. This approach resulted in recovery of 80% (of original activity) as compared to classical dilution method which gave only 21% activity recovery. Dynamic light scattering showed that binding required about 45 min and activity data obtained from affinity precipitation experiments indicated that refolding was almost instantaneous after binding. Circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence data showed that refolded molecule was identical to the native molecule. It also showed that refolding takes place at the binding stage and not at the precipitation stage. Preliminary studies showed that the refolding strategy worked equally well with lipases from wheat germ and porcine pancreas.

  14. Adipose triglyceride lipase contributes to cancer-associated cachexia.

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    Das, Suman K; Eder, Sandra; Schauer, Silvia; Diwoky, Clemens; Temmel, Hannes; Guertl, Barbara; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Tamilarasan, Kuppusamy P; Kumari, Pooja; Trauner, Michael; Zimmermann, Robert; Vesely, Paul; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Hoefler, Gerald

    2011-07-08

    Cachexia is a multifactorial wasting syndrome most common in patients with cancer that is characterized by the uncontrolled loss of adipose and muscle mass. We show that the inhibition of lipolysis through genetic ablation of adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) or hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl) ameliorates certain features of cancer-associated cachexia (CAC). In wild-type C57BL/6 mice, the injection of Lewis lung carcinoma or B16 melanoma cells causes tumor growth, loss of white adipose tissue (WAT), and a marked reduction of gastrocnemius muscle. In contrast, Atgl-deficient mice with tumors resisted increased WAT lipolysis, myocyte apoptosis, and proteasomal muscle degradation and maintained normal adipose and gastrocnemius muscle mass. Hsl-deficient mice with tumors were also protected although to a lesser degree. Thus, functional lipolysis is essential in the pathogenesis of CAC. Pharmacological inhibition of metabolic lipases may help prevent cachexia.

  15. Screening of supports for immobilization of commercial porcine pancreatic lipase

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    Robison Scherer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to report the performance of different supports for the immobilization of commercial porcine pancreatic lipase. The immobilization tests were carried out in several types of Accurel, activated alumina, kaolin, montmorillonite, ion exchange resins and zeolites. The characterization of the supports showed differences in terms of specific area and morphology. The characteristics of the supports influenced the amount of enzyme adsorbed, yield of immobilization and esterification activity of the resulting immobilized catalyst. The clays KSF and natural and pillared montmorillonites presented potential for use as support for lipase immobilization in terms of yield and esterification activity. Yields of immobilization of 76.32 and 52.01% were achieved for clays KSF and natural montmorillonite, respectively. Esterification activities of 754.03, 595.51, 591.88 and 515.71 U.g-1 were obtained for lipases immobilized in Accurel MP-100, Amberlite XAD-2, mordenite and pillared montmorillonite, respectively.

  16. Lipase assay in duodenal juice using a conductimetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballot, C; Favre-Bonvin, G; Wallach, J M

    1984-11-15

    Lipase activity in duodenal juice is known to undergo important variations in pathologic states, especially in cases of chronic pancreatitis. Almost all of the current assay methods are based on the measurement of hydrolysis of olive oil or triolein, mainly by potentiometry. As we have developed a conductimetric method for enzyme activity measurements, we have applied it to lipase assay. A higher experimental conductimetric sensitivity is obtained when liberated acids have a short chain (higher limiting equivalent conductivity). We have therefore used triacetin as a substrate and compared out method with potentiometry (pH-stat) and spectrophotometry. The correlation coefficients of both methods with conductimetry were 0.94 and 0.97, respectively, indicating that the conductimetric method may be used for lipase assay in duodenal juice, using triacetin as a substrate.

  17. Lagenaria siceraria ameliorates atheromatous lesions by modulating HMG–CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase enzymes activity in hypercholesterolemic rats

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    Mithun Singh Rajput

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that ethanolic extract of fruits of L. siceraria contains active components which ameliorates the atheromatous lesions in rat aorta and lowers the risk of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  18. Analysis of the association Hind III Polymorphism of Lipoprotein Lipase gene on the risk of coronary artery disease

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    Mahdieh Imeni

    2013-11-01

    Results: In this survey, a highly significant association between the frequent H+/+ genotype and unfavorable TG levels was observed in our population . For the Hind III genotypes, within the healthy subjects (n=88, the H+/+ genotype was found in 67 individuals (58.8%, H-/+ genotype in 38 individuals (33.3% , and 9 individuals (7.8% carried the H-/- genotype. Within the CAD group (n=114, 47 individuals (53.4% with H+/+ genotype, 36 (41% with H-/+ genotype, and 5 (5.6% carried the H-/- genotype. Conclusion: There was a significant difference between the distribution of LPL–Hind III genotypes and the healthy subjects and the patients with CAD (P<0.05, 0. 645. LPL–Hind III polymorphisms were not detected as independent risk factors for CAD in this study group, but had significant associations with TG levels (P<0.05.

  19. Resveratrol attenuates triglyceride accumulation associated with upregulation of Sirt1 and lipoprotein lipase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

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    Haruki Imamura

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The present results suggest that Rsv may augment synthesis and oxidation of fatty acid, and possibly increases energy utilization efficiency in adipocytes through activation of Sirt1. The present study may provide meaningful evidence supporting the efficacy of Rsv in the treatment of obesity.

  20. [Overexpression of Penicillium expansum lipase gene in Pichia pastoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cai; Lin, Lin; Shi, Qiao-Qin; Wu, Song-Gang

    2003-03-01

    The alkaline lipase gene of Penicillium expansum (PEL) was coloned into the yeast integrative plasmid pPIC3.5K, which was then transformed into His4 mutant yeast GS115. Recombinant Pichia strains were obtained by minimal olive oil-methanol plates screening and confirmed by PCR. The expression producus of PEL gene was analysis by SDS-PAGE and olive oil plate, the result indicated that PEL gene was functionally overexpressed in Pichia pastoris and up to 95% of the secreted protein. Recombinant lipase had a molecular mass of 28kD, showing a range similar to that of PEL, could hydrolyze olive oil and formed clear halos in the olive oil plates. Four different strategies (different media, pH, glycerol and methanol concentration) were applied to optimize the cultivation conditions, the activity of lipase was up to 260 u/mL under the optimal cultivation conditions. It is pointed out that the absence of the expensive biotin and yeast nitrogen base in the medium increased the lipase production. The possible reason of this result is absence of yeast nitrogen base increased the medium pH during cultivation, and PEL shows a higher stability at this condition. The lipase activity of the supernatant from the culture grown at pH 7 was higher than the one from the culture in the same medium at pH 6.0 is due to the pH stability of PEL too. The results also showed that the methanol and glycerol concentration had a marked effect on the production of lipase.