International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sigrist, S.
2008-01-01
The aim of this work was to determine what are the prognosis factors in term of global expectation of life at patient receiving a treatment by Lipiocis, to estimate the tolerance at this treatment in order to choose patient which will be the best candidates to this treatment and to define more precisely the criteria of patient inclusion and follow-up. A study including 35 patient having received one or several Lipiocis injections between May 2003 and May 2007 has been carried out. The results of this study are given. Lipiocis seems to be a well tolerated treatment which has proved its efficiency. (O.M.)
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Sigrist, S
2008-07-01
The aim of this work was to determine what are the prognosis factors in term of global expectation of life at patient receiving a treatment by Lipiocis, to estimate the tolerance at this treatment in order to choose patient which will be the best candidates to this treatment and to define more precisely the criteria of patient inclusion and follow-up. A study including 35 patient having received one or several Lipiocis injections between May 2003 and May 2007 has been carried out. The results of this study are given. Lipiocis seems to be a well tolerated treatment which has proved its efficiency. (O.M.)
Intravascular Lipiodol Presenting as an Atrial Mass
Kootte, Ruud S.; Haeck, Joost D. E.; van Lienden, Krijn P.; van Boven, Wim J. P.; van der Wal, Allard C.; de Boer, Hans H.
2017-01-01
A 68-year-old woman, previously treated with embolization of the thoracic duct with Lipiodol (an ethiodized oil injection) and cyanoacrylate glue (a topical tissue adhesive), was admitted with an asymptomatic mass in the inferior vena cava (IVC) and right atrium. The mass was surgically removed, and
Garin, Elienne; Rakotonirina, Hervé; Lejeune, Florence; Denizot, Benoit; Roux, Jerome; Noiret, Nicolas; Mesbah, Habiba; Herry, Jean-Yues; Bourguet, Patrick; Lejeune, Jean-Jacques
2006-04-01
It has been shown that the use of a cocktail of isotopes of different ranges of action leads to an increase in the effectiveness of metabolic radiotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to compare with a control group the effectiveness of three different treatments in rats bearing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), using (1) a mixture of lipiodol labelled with both I and Re, (2) lipiodol labelled with I alone and (3) lipiodol labelled with Re alone. Four groups were made up, each containing 14 rats with the N1-S1 tumour cell line. Group 1 received a mixture composed of 22 MBq of Re-SSS lipiodol and 7 MBq I-lipiodol. Group 2 received 14 MBq I-lipiodol. Group 3 received 44 MBq of Re-SSS lipiodol and group 4 acted as the control. The survival of the various groups was compared by a non-parametric test of log-rank, after a follow-up of 60, 180 and 273 days. Compared with the controls, the rats treated with a mixture of Re-SSS lipiodol and I-lipiodol show an increase in survival, but only from day 60 onwards (P=0.05 at day 60 and 0.13 at days 180 and 273). For the rats treated with I-lipiodol, there was a highly significant increase in survival compared with the controls at day 60, day 180 and day 273 (P=0.03, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively). There is no significant increase in survival for the rats treated with Re-SSS lipiodol, irrespective of the follow-up duration (P=0.53 at day 60, 0.48 at day 180, and 0.59 at day 273). In this study, I-lipiodol is the most effective treatment in HCC-bearing rats, because this is the only method that leads to a prolonged improvement of survival. These results cannot necessarily be extrapolated to humans because of the relatively small size and unifocal nature of the lesions in this study. It appears necessary to carry out a study in humans with larger tumours in order to compare these three treatments, particularly with a view to replacing I-labelled lipiodol by Re-labelled lipiodol. However, this study clearly demonstrated that
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Wei; Wan Yi; Liang Zhihui; Duan Yunyou; Liu Xi; Wang Zhimin; Liu Yiyong; Zhu Jia; Liu Xiongtao; Zhang Hongxin
2010-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of heated (60 deg. C) lipiodol via hepatic artery administration in a rabbit model of VX2 liver cancer. Materials and methods: Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups with 10 rabbits assigned to each group. VX2 carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left hepatic lobe. The tumors were allowed to grow for 2 weeks, and studies were performed until the diameter of the tumors detected by ultrasonograph reached 2-3 cm. Under anesthesia, trans-catheter hepatic arterial embolization was performed and doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) (1 mL), lipiodol (60 deg. C) (1 mL) or control (physiological saline (37 deg. C) (1 mL)) solution was injected into the hepatic arteries of animals in the three groups. One week later, the volume of the tumor was measured by ultrasonograph again. The serum of all rabbits was collected before injection and at 4 and 7 days after injection, and the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was checked. The survival period of the three groups of rabbits after treatment was also recorded. During the last course of their disease, the rabbits were given analgesics to relieve suffering. Results: The tumor growth rate in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (0.92 ± 0.21, tumor volume from 1811 ± 435 to 1670 ± 564 mm 3 ) was significantly lower than that in the control group (3.48 ± 1.17, tumor volume from 1808 ± 756 to 5747 ± 1341 mm 3 ) (P 3 ) (P -1 ) and the doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) group (139.7 ± 12.3 U L -1 ) (P > 0.05). However, the serum AST level in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group was significantly higher at 4 days after injection (P -1 ). Conclusions: Treatment with lipiodol (60 deg. C) resulted in an effect on serum AST levels similar to that caused by treatment with doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C). Thus, lipiodol (60 deg. C) treatment could greatly prolong the survival period of rabbits with VX2 cancer by inhibiting tumor growth.
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Cao Wei [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China)], E-mail: zjfurong2008@126.com; Wan Yi [Department of Health Statistics, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 17 West Changle Road, Xi' an 710032 (China); Liang Zhihui [Department of Radiology, Bethune International Peace Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province 050082 (China); Duan Yunyou; Liu Xi [Department of Ultrasonography, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 1 Xinshi Road, Xi' an 710038 (China); Wang Zhimin; Liu Yiyong; Zhu Jia; Liu Xiongtao [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhang Hongxin [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China)], E-mail: cawe-001@163.com
2010-02-15
Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of heated (60 deg. C) lipiodol via hepatic artery administration in a rabbit model of VX2 liver cancer. Materials and methods: Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups with 10 rabbits assigned to each group. VX2 carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left hepatic lobe. The tumors were allowed to grow for 2 weeks, and studies were performed until the diameter of the tumors detected by ultrasonograph reached 2-3 cm. Under anesthesia, trans-catheter hepatic arterial embolization was performed and doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) (1 mL), lipiodol (60 deg. C) (1 mL) or control (physiological saline (37 deg. C) (1 mL)) solution was injected into the hepatic arteries of animals in the three groups. One week later, the volume of the tumor was measured by ultrasonograph again. The serum of all rabbits was collected before injection and at 4 and 7 days after injection, and the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was checked. The survival period of the three groups of rabbits after treatment was also recorded. During the last course of their disease, the rabbits were given analgesics to relieve suffering. Results: The tumor growth rate in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (0.92 {+-} 0.21, tumor volume from 1811 {+-} 435 to 1670 {+-} 564 mm{sup 3}) was significantly lower than that in the control group (3.48 {+-} 1.17, tumor volume from 1808 {+-} 756 to 5747 {+-} 1341 mm{sup 3}) (P < 0.05) and in the doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) group (1.69 {+-} 0.26, tumor volume from 1881 {+-} 641 to 2428 {+-} 752 mm{sup 3}) (P < 0.05). Consequently, the survival period of the animals in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (41.0 {+-} 3.0 days) was significantly greater than that in the doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) group (38.0 {+-} 2.5 days) (P < 0.05). On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference in serum AST levels between the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (148.2 {+-} 11
Study on stability of labeled yttrium-90 with lipiodol by chemical extraction for liver cancer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mu, P.Y.; Jiang, X.L.; Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.J.
2005-01-01
Liver cancer, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma, is one of the most common malignant diseases in many developed and developing countries. It is also one of the most common diseases endangering the people's lives and health heavily. Surgery is very effective in early-stage patients. Unfortunately, there is less than 10% of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma fitting for surgical therapy. Instead of surgical therapy, other methods are considered for patients in whom surgery may not work well. Systemic administration of chemotherapeutic agents is not often considered in liver cancer patients, due to discouraging result and adverse side effects. Also, hepatocellular carcinoma is not keen on usual radioactive therapy. However, method of inner interventional radioactive nuclide is a potential way to cure liver tumors. Hepatocellular carcinoma would be cured with inner interventional radioactive nuclide, which is a hot topic in experimental research on hepatocellular carcinoma at home and abroad. The purpose of the study is to label Yttrium-90 with lipiodol by means of the chemical extraction method and research the stability of labeled Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y-P204-Lipiodol) in serum of a newly-born cattle and human's blood. We chose to label steady yttrium with lipiodol, because radioactive yttrium has great nuclear character for liver cancer, yttrium-90 can eradiate pure β radial, and it's half time is 64 hours. Average energy of it is 0.93 Mev, the highest energy is 2.27 Mev. Yttrium-90 can be labeled with lipiodol by means of the chemical extraction method, which is mature in chemical techniques, combined with method of radioactive nuclide labeled in. nuclear medicine. At first, yttrium-90 is extracted in certain condition(pH, temperature, whisk time, whisk frequency, etc ) after adding yttrium-90 solution. We use some distilled water to balance the labeled organic phase twice, and test the stability of labeled yttrium-90 in serum of a newly-born cattle and
Targeting cancer chemotherapeutic agents by use of lipiodol contrast medium
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Konno, T.
1990-01-01
Arterially administered Lipiodol Ultrafluid contrast medium selectively remained in various malignant solid tumors because of the difference in time required for the removal of Lipiodol contrast medium from normal capillaries and tumor neovasculature. Although blood flow was maintained in the tumor, even immediately after injection Lipiodol contrast medium remained in the neovasculature of the tumor. To target anti-cancer agents to tumors by using Lipiodol contrast medium as a carrier, the characteristics of the agents were examined. Anti-cancer agents had to be soluble in Lipiodol, be stable in it, and separate gradually from it so that the anti-cancer agents would selectively remain in the tumor. These conditions were found to be necessary on the basis of the measurement of radioactivity in VX2 tumors implanted in the liver of 16 rabbits that received arterial injections of 14C-labeled doxorubicin. Antitumor activities and side effects of arterial injections of two types of anti-cancer agents were compared in 76 rabbits with VX2 tumors. Oily anti-cancer agents that had characteristics essential for targeting were compared with simple mixtures of anti-cancer agents with Lipiodol contrast medium that did not have these essential characteristics. Groups of rabbits that received oily anti-cancer agents responded significantly better than groups that received simple mixtures, and side effects were observed more frequently in the groups that received the simple mixtures. These results suggest that targeting of the anti-cancer agent to the tumor is important for treatment of solid malignant tumors
Treatment of liver cancer with Rhenium-188 Lipiodol: Colombian experience
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernal, P.; Osorio, M.; Mendoza, M.; Esguerra, R.; Ucros, G.; Gutierrez, C.; Velez, O.; Cerquera, A.M.; Padhy, A.K.
2002-01-01
Aim:Trans-arterial Radio-conjugate therapy plays an important role in the palliative treatment of inoperable liver cancer. It also helps in reduction of the tumor to an operable state from an inoperable one. As a part of an IAEA sponsored coordinated research project, a new radiopharmaceutical, Rhenium-188 Lipiodol has been developed. The aim of this study was to establish the safety of the radiopharmaceutical and to find out the efficacy of treatment. Materials and Methods: Eight patients suffering from various forms of liver cancer (Hepatocellular carcinoma-4, Metastases from carcinoma of colon-3 and Carcinoid- 1) were treated with Rhenium -188 Lipiodol. Seven out of the eight patients were classified as ECOG- 1 and one as ECOG- 3. Labelling of Rhenium-188 with Lipiodol was carried out according to a protocol developed under the CRP and standardized in our service. Rhenium-188 Lipiodol was administered through the trans-arterial route by either selective (75%) or ultra selective (25%) hepatic arteriography. Administered therapeutic doses ranged between 170 MBq and 4181 MBq. Dosimetric evaluations were made using the IAEA developed dosimetry spreadsheet. All patients were followed up (1-5 months, average = 2 months) after treatment by clinical examination, liver function tests, haematological examinations and CT scans of liver to determine the size of hepatic tumor. Results: Rhenium-188 Lipiodol treatment was well tolerated by all patients. No immediate systemic complications were noted in any of the patients within 72 hrs. following therapy. Only two patients had mild rise in temperature in the immediate post-therapy period, which subsided subsequently. One patient who was classified as Child B and ECOG 3, developed encephalopathy on the seventh day after treatment. He died of hepatic failure. Another one present depressive syndrome, didn't accept food and died Follow-up CT scans in all the surviving (6/8) patients revealed significant reduction of the tumours
Treatment of Liver Tumors with Lipiodol TACE: Technical Recommendations from Experts Opinion
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Baere, Thierry de, E-mail: thierry.debaere@gustaveroussy.fr [Gustave Roussy, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Arai, Yasuaki, E-mail: arai-y3111@mvh.biglobe.ne.jp [National Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Lencioni, Riccardo, E-mail: riccardo.lencioni@med.unipi.it [Pisa University School of Medicine, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Intervention (R.L.) (Italy); Geschwind, Jean-Francois, E-mail: jfg@jhmi.edu [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Rilling, William, E-mail: wrilling@mcw.edu [Medical College of Wisconsin, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology Rm2803 (United States); Salem, Riad, E-mail: r-salem@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology (United States); Matsui, Osamu, E-mail: matsuio@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Advanced Medical Imaging (Japan); Soulen, Michael C., E-mail: michael.soulen@uphs.upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania, Division of Interventional Radiology (MCS) (United States)
2016-03-15
Transarterial chemoembolization with Lipiodol (Lipiodol TACE), also called conventional TACE, was developed in the early 1980s and widely adopted worldwide after randomized control trials and meta-analysis demonstrated superiority of Lipiodol TACE to best supportive care. Presently, there is no level one evidence that other TACE techniques are superior to Lipiodol TACE for intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which includes patients with preserved liver function and nonsurgical large or multinodular HCC without distant metastases. In addition, TACE is part of the treatment for progressive or symptomatic liver metastases from gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. When injected into the hepatic artery, Lipiodol has the unique property of selective uptake and retention in hyperarterialyzed liver tumors. Lipiodol/drug emulsion followed by particle embolization has been demonstrated to improve the pharmacokinetic of the drug and tumor response. Radio opacity of Lipiodol helps to monitor treatment delivery, with retention of Lipiodol serving as an imaging biomarker for tumor response. For 30 years, Lipiodol TACE has been inconsistently referenced in many publications with various levels of details for the method of preparation and administration, with reported progressive outcomes following improvements in the technique and the devices used to deliver the treatment and better patient selection. Consequently, there is no consensus on the standard method of TACE regarding the use of anticancer agents, embolic material, technical details, and the treatment schedule. In order to develop an internationally validated technical recommendation to standardize the Lipiodol TACE procedure, a worldwide panel of experts participated in a consensus meeting held on May 10, 2014.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yamin; Sun Gangqing; Qin Hao; Wang Chongbao
2010-01-01
Objective: To discuss the effects and the complications of partial splenic artery embolization with gelatin sponge or with lipiodol for hypersplenism, to provide scientific information helpful for the selection of embolization materials in clinical practice. Methods: Partial splenic artery embolization with gelatin sponge was performed in forty patients with hypersplenism due to cirrhosis (gelatin sponge group) and partial splenic artery embolization with lipiodol was carried out in another thirty-nine patients (lipiodol group). The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The laboratory studies, complications and recurrence were observed and compared between two groups. Results: No significant difference in the reduction of splenic size, in the hemoglobin levels and in the thrombocyte and leucocyte counts existed between two groups (P > 0.05). However, the platelet count in lipiodol group was obviously decreased three months after the treatment. The occurrence of complications in gelatin sponge group was much higher than that in lipiodol group (P < 0.05). The toxic reaction of the liver and gastrointestinal tract in lipiodol group was significantly slighter than that in gelatin sponge group. Conclusion: Partial splenic artery embolization with lipiodol should be employed for the treatment of hypersplenism when the patient is elder and the disease is accompanied by poor liver function, massive ascites, severe dysfunction of blood coagulation and serious portal hypertension. (authors)
Lipiodol as a Fiducial Marker for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer
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Freilich, Jessica M.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Shi, Ellen J.; Hunt, Dylan C.; Gupta, Shilpa; Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richard.wilder@moffitt.org [Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States)
2014-03-15
Purpose: To evaluate Lipiodol as a liquid, radio-opaque fiducial marker for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for bladder cancer; Materials and Methods: Between 2011 and 2012, 5 clinical T2a-T3b N0 M0 stage II-III bladder cancer patients were treated with maximal transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT) and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to 64.8 Gy in 36 fractions ± concurrent weekly cisplatin-based or gemcitabine chemotherapy. Ten to 15mL Lipiodol, using 0.5mL per injection, was injected into bladder submucosa circumferentially around the entire periphery of the tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. The authors looked at inter-observer variability regarding the size and location of the tumor bed (CTVboost) on computed tomography scans with versus without Lipiodol. Results: Median follow-up was 18 months. Lipiodol was visible on every orthogonal two-dimensional kV portal image throughout the entire, 7-week course of IGRT. There was a trend towards improved inter-observer agreement on the CTVboost with Lipiodol (p = 0.06). In 2 of 5 patients, the tumor bed based upon Lipiodol extended outside a planning target volume that would have been treated with a radiation boost based upon a cystoscopy report and an enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan for staging. There was no toxicity attributable to Lipiodol: Conclusions: Lipiodol constitutes a safe and effective fiducial marker that an urologist can use to demarcate a tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. Lipiodol decreases inter-observer variability in the definition of the extent and location of a tumor bed on a treatment planning CT scan for a radiation boost. (author)
Lipiodol as a Fiducial Marker for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer
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Jessica M. Freilich
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate Lipiodol as a liquid, radio-opaque fiducial marker for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT for bladder cancer.Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2012, 5 clinical T2a-T3b N0 M0 stage II-III bladder cancer patients were treated with maximal transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT to 64.8 Gy in 36 fractions ± concurrent weekly cisplatin-based or gemcitabine chemotherapy. Ten to 15mL Lipiodol, using 0.5mL per injection, was injected into bladder submucosa circumferentially around the entire periphery of the tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. The authors looked at inter-observer variability regarding the size and location of the tumor bed (CTVboost on computed tomography scans with versus without Lipiodol.Results Median follow-up was 18 months. Lipiodol was visible on every orthogonal two-dimensional kV portal image throughout the entire, 7-week course of IGRT. There was a trend towards improved inter-observer agreement on the CTVboost with Lipiodol (p = 0.06. In 2 of 5 patients, the tumor bed based upon Lipiodol extended outside a planning target volume that would have been treated with a radiation boost based upon a cystoscopy report and an enhanced computed tomography (CT scan for staging. There was no toxicity attributable to Lipiodol.Conclusions Lipiodol constitutes a safe and effective fiducial marker that an urologist can use to demarcate a tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. Lipiodol decreases inter-observer variability in the definition of the extent and location of a tumor bed on a treatment planning CT scan for a radiation boost.
Automation of labelling of Lipiodol with high-activity generator-produced 188Re
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lepareur, Nicolas; Ardisson, Valerie; Noiret, Nicolas; Boucher, Eveline; Raoul, Jean-Luc; Clement, Bruno; Garin, Etienne
2011-01-01
This work describes optimisation of the kit formulation for labelling of Lipiodol with high-activity generator-produced rhenium-188. Radiochemical purity (RCP) was 92.52±2.3% and extraction yield was 98.56±1.2%. The synthesis has been automated with a TADDEO module (Comecer) giving a mean final yield of 52.68±9.6%, and reducing radiation burden to the radiochemist by 80%. Radiolabelled Lipiodol ( 188 Re-SSS/Lipiodol) is stable for at least 7 days (RCP=91.07±0.9%).
Preparation of [[sup 131]I]lipiodol as a hepatoma therapeutic agent
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Jiunnguang Lo; Aiyih Wang; Yuanyaw Wei (National Tsinghua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan). Inst. of Nuclear Science); Wingyiu Lui; Chinwen Chi (Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)); Wingkai Chan (Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. of Biomedical Sciences)
1992-12-01
An isotopic exchange method was used to label lipiodol with [sup 131]I. The labelling efficiency was > 92.5%, and the radiochemical purity of [[sup 131]I]lipiodol was above 98% as determined by ITLC. The influencing factors e.g. the heating temperature, reaction, pH and storage conditions were studied and the optimum conditions were determined. In a pilot study injecting [[sup 131]I]lipiodol for the treatment of hepatoma, about 70% of hepatoma patients had a response to the treatment with a reduction of [alpha]-fetoprotein and decrease of hepatoma sizes. The overall median survival was 9 months (range 2-17 months). (author).
Matsui, Yusuke; Horikawa, Masahiro; Jahangiri Noudeh, Younes; Kaufman, John A; Kolbeck, Kenneth J; Farsad, Khashayar
2017-12-01
The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between baseline Lipiodol uptake in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with early tumor recurrence, and to identify a threshold baseline uptake value predicting tumor response. A single-institution retrospective database of HCC treated with Lipiodol-TACE was reviewed. Forty-six tumors in 30 patients treated with a Lipiodol-chemotherapy emulsion and no additional particle embolization were included. Baseline Lipiodol uptake was measured as the mean Hounsfield units (HU) on a CT within one week after TACE. Washout rate was calculated dividing the difference in HU between the baseline CT and follow-up CT by time (HU/month). Cox proportional hazard models were used to correlate baseline Lipiodol uptake and other variables with tumor response. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the optimal threshold for baseline Lipiodol uptake predicting tumor response. During the follow-up period (mean 5.6 months), 19 (41.3%) tumors recurred (mean time to recurrence = 3.6 months). In a multivariate model, low baseline Lipiodol uptake and higher washout rate were significant predictors of early tumor recurrence ( P = 0.001 and Baseline Lipiodol uptake and washout rate on follow-up were independent predictors of early tumor recurrence. A threshold value of baseline Lipiodol uptake > 270.2 HU was highly sensitive and specific for tumor response. These findings may prove useful for determining subsequent treatment strategies after Lipiodol TACE.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Motoi Kato
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Postoperative chylothorax in infants prolongs hospital stay and possibly causes developmental delay because of its conservative treatment including inanition. Several medical and surgical treatments may be applied, but none constitute the absolute solution. Treatment with lipiodol during lymphangiography for postoperative chylothorax has been reported to be highly effective and less invasive in adults. On the other hand, few cases have been reported in infants. We demonstrate successful blockage of chyle leakage with lipiodol injection through the inguinal lymph node in a 2-year-old infant. The patient had undergone on-pump coarctectomy and chylothorax developed soon after surgery. Several medical treatments were partially effective, but the chest tube could not be removed because sequential aspiration was required to maintain a normal respiratory status. With the patient under general anesthesia, lipiodol injection combined with indocyanine green (ICG lymphography was performed. Lymphography combined with ICG significantly contributed not only to intraoperative detection of the inguinal lymph nodes but also to postoperative early detection of lymphedema caused by this procedure. This procedure required a simple maneuver and is probably applicable to other cases of traumatic chylothorax, such as after surgeries on the esophagus, trachea, or other components of the posterior mediastinum.
SU-D-BRB-07: Lipiodol Impact On Dose Distribution in Liver SBRT After TACE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawahara, D; Ozawa, S; Hioki, K; Suzuki, T; Lin, Y; Okumura, T; Ochi, Y; Nakashima, T; Ohno, Y; Kimura, T; Murakami, Y; Nagata, Y
2015-01-01
Purpose: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) combining transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with Lipiodol is expected to improve local control. This study aims to evaluate the impact of Lipiodol on dose distribution by comparing the dosimetric performance of the Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm, anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and Monte Carlo (MC) method using a virtual heterogeneous phantom and a treatment plan for liver SBRT after TACE. Methods: The dose distributions calculated using AAA and AXB algorithm, both in Eclipse (ver. 11; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA), and EGSnrc-MC were compared. First, the inhomogeneity correction accuracy of the AXB algorithm and AAA was evaluated by comparing the percent depth dose (PDD) obtained from the algorithms with that from the MC calculations using a virtual inhomogeneity phantom, which included water and Lipiodol. Second, the dose distribution of a liver SBRT patient treatment plan was compared between the calculation algorithms. Results In the virtual phantom, compared with the MC calculations, AAA underestimated the doses just before and in the Lipiodol region by 5.1% and 9.5%, respectively, and overestimated the doses behind the region by 6.0%. Furthermore, compared with the MC calculations, the AXB algorithm underestimated the doses just before and in the Lipiodol region by 4.5% and 10.5%, respectively, and overestimated the doses behind the region by 4.2%. In the SBRT plan, the AAA and AXB algorithm underestimated the maximum doses in the Lipiodol region by 9.0% in comparison with the MC calculations. In clinical cases, the dose enhancement in the Lipiodol region can approximately 10% increases in tumor dose without increase of dose to normal tissue. Conclusion: The MC method demonstrated a larger increase in the dose in the Lipiodol region than the AAA and AXB algorithm. Notably, dose enhancement were observed in the tumor area; this may lead to a clinical benefit
SU-D-BRB-07: Lipiodol Impact On Dose Distribution in Liver SBRT After TACE
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Kawahara, D; Ozawa, S; Hioki, K; Suzuki, T; Lin, Y; Okumura, T; Ochi, Y; Nakashima, T; Ohno, Y; Kimura, T; Murakami, Y; Nagata, Y [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)
2015-06-15
Purpose: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) combining transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with Lipiodol is expected to improve local control. This study aims to evaluate the impact of Lipiodol on dose distribution by comparing the dosimetric performance of the Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm, anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and Monte Carlo (MC) method using a virtual heterogeneous phantom and a treatment plan for liver SBRT after TACE. Methods: The dose distributions calculated using AAA and AXB algorithm, both in Eclipse (ver. 11; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA), and EGSnrc-MC were compared. First, the inhomogeneity correction accuracy of the AXB algorithm and AAA was evaluated by comparing the percent depth dose (PDD) obtained from the algorithms with that from the MC calculations using a virtual inhomogeneity phantom, which included water and Lipiodol. Second, the dose distribution of a liver SBRT patient treatment plan was compared between the calculation algorithms. Results In the virtual phantom, compared with the MC calculations, AAA underestimated the doses just before and in the Lipiodol region by 5.1% and 9.5%, respectively, and overestimated the doses behind the region by 6.0%. Furthermore, compared with the MC calculations, the AXB algorithm underestimated the doses just before and in the Lipiodol region by 4.5% and 10.5%, respectively, and overestimated the doses behind the region by 4.2%. In the SBRT plan, the AAA and AXB algorithm underestimated the maximum doses in the Lipiodol region by 9.0% in comparison with the MC calculations. In clinical cases, the dose enhancement in the Lipiodol region can approximately 10% increases in tumor dose without increase of dose to normal tissue. Conclusion: The MC method demonstrated a larger increase in the dose in the Lipiodol region than the AAA and AXB algorithm. Notably, dose enhancement were observed in the tumor area; this may lead to a clinical benefit.
Therapeutic value of hysterosalpingography with Lipiodol ultra fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasmussen, F.; Justesen, P.; Toenner Nielsen, D.
1987-01-01
Hysterosalpingography (HSG) with Lipiodol ultra fluid was performed in 294 infertile women with a normal ovulatory temperature curve and at least two years of infertility and a partner with normal sperm. In 21%, pregnancy occurred within 6 months after the examination, and about one third of the women with a normal finding or with intraperitoneal adhesions at HSG conceived. The pregnancy rate was especially high in the first two cycles after HSG. The spontaneous pregnancy rate was 8%, and the difference between this and the total number of pregnancies must be attributed to a therapeutic effect of the procedure. Previous pelvic inflammatory disease was present in 40% of those who did not become pregnant, while only 11% of those who conceived had previous inflammation. Of the women without previous gynecologic disease 30% conceived. (orig.)
Study on blood supply of lung metastasis with trans-pulmonary arterial lipiodol infusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Jianqin; Dong Weihua; Dong Weihua; Ouyang Chang; Chang Heng; Xiao Xiangsheng
2008-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the blood supply of pulmonary metastases using small volume of lipiodol through pulmonary arterial infusion. Methods: 10 cases of lung metastasis were enroled including the primary tumors of liver cancer (n=5), renal carcinoma (n=3), chordoma (n=1) and malignant neurofibroma (n=1). Plain CT scan was performed to exclude calcification or ossification within metastasis and then pulmonary arterial DSA was undertaken to evaluate tumor vessels or staining. After pulmonary arteriovenous fistula or other anomalous circulation was excluded by lobar arterial DSA, small volume of lipiodol was infused under fluoroscopy (0.5-1.5 ml for each lobar artery, total volume less than 3.0 ml). CT scan was immediately performed. Blood supply of the pulmonary metastases was assessed according to the accumulation of lipiodol on CT scans. Results: No cases but one experienced cough, expectoration, suffocating or dyspnea. No complication of cerebral or visceral embolism occurred. Totally 27 nodules were studied including 6 nodules with cloudy lipiodol accumulation and 6 nodules with tiny granules of lipiodol accumulation. No enlarged tumor vessel or tumor stain was observed within all 27 nodules on pulmonary arterial DSA. Conclusions: Pulmonary artery supplys only parts of pulmonary metastases, especially those sited at the peripheral region of the lung. Infusion of small volume of lipiodol through pulmonary artery is safe, and the increased density of lung field could return normal after several days. (authors)
Experiment of embolizing hepatocarcinoma with heated lipiodol via hepatic artery in VX2 rabbit model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Wei; Wang Zhimin; Zhang Hongxin; Wan Yi
2006-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the anti-tumour effect of 60 degree C Lipiodol in the embolization of VX 2 hepatocarcinoma in rabbits. Methods: VX 2 carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left liver lobe in 30 male New Zealand white rabbits, which were randomly divided into 3 groups by figure and table method with 10 rabbits in each group. Physiological saline, Lipiodol (37 degree C), and Lipiodol (60 degree C) were injected in each group via hepatic artery and liver cancer was embolized. The volume of tumour and serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were observed after one week, and the survival period of VX 2 rabbits was also observed. Results: In the group of Lipiodol (60 degree C), the growth rate of tumour (0.92± 0.21) was significantly lower than that of control group (3.48±) and Lipiodol (37 degree C) groups (1.69±0.26), respectively (F=34.95, P 0.05), but was significantly higher than the control group (68.6±6.6) U/L (t=19.24, P<0.05). Conclusion: Lipiodol (60 degree C) greatly decreases the tumour's growth rate and prolongs the survival period. It is a safe method and has stronger inhibitory effect than other groups. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Simon Chun Ho; Leung, Thomas Wai Tong; Lau, Wan Yee; Lee, Nelson; Hui, Edwin Pun; Yeo, Winnie; Lai, Paul Bo San; Mok, Tony Shu Kam
2008-01-01
This study aimed to evaluate and compare the biodistribution properties of three transarterial Lipiodol-based therapeutic regimens in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this prospective study with 13 patients randomly allocated to one of three study groups, each of the patients received transcatheter intra-arterial administration into a solitary HCC with one of three different Lipiodol-based formulations: Lipiodol-ethanol mixture (LEM; Group A), Lipiodol alone (Group B), and Lipiodol and gelatin pledgets (Group C). With the use of radioactive iodine-131-labeled Lipiodol, each group was assessed for (1) pattern of Lipiodol accumulation in the lungs within the first 2 weeks as evaluated by single-photon emission computed tomography and (2) decomposition of Lipiodol formulation within the first 2 weeks as evaluated by radioactivity detected in peripheral blood and urine. The degree of Lipiodol retention in the tumor within the first 4 weeks was evaluated with CT. No statistically significant difference in Lipiodol accumulation in the lungs was detected among the three groups. However, the peak accumulation in the lungs was delayed 3 days for Group A compared to Groups B and C. The degree of Lipiodol retention within the tumor in Group A was significantly greater than that in Groups B and C on day 14 (p = 0.014) and day 28 (p = 0.013). This study showed that LEM is associated with a greater embolic effect in intrahepatic HCC at 4 weeks, and a comparable degree of lung shunting and decomposition rates, compared with ethanol-free Lipiodol formulations
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Ohishi, Hajime; Ohgami, Syoichi; Katsuragi, Masami
1985-02-01
The detectability of daughter nodules in 80 hepatocellular carcinomas was compared between CT assisted by Lipiodol Ultra Fluid (Lipiodol) infused via the hepatic artery and IHA (Infusion hepatic angiography). Lipiodol infused via the hepatic artery was selectively accumulated in the tumor vessels and the tumors and small daughter nodules appeared as markedly high density areas by CT. 18 cases in which the daughter nodules were detected were identified only by CT. Furthermore, in 38 cases CT demonstrated superior detectability of the daughthr nodules than IHA. In 15 cases the daughter nodules were newly detected in areas other than the invaded area where the primary tumor existed. This method is very effective in the diagnosis of daughter nodules of hepatocellular carcinoma. (author).
(188)Re-SSS/Lipiodol: Development of a Potential Treatment for HCC from Bench to Bedside.
Lepareur, Nicolas; Ardisson, Valérie; Noiret, Nicolas; Garin, Etienne
2012-01-01
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 5th most common tumour worldwide and has a dark prognosis. For nonoperable cases, metabolic radiotherapy with Lipiodol labelled with β-emitters is a promising therapeutic option. The Comprehensive Cancer Centre Eugène Marquis and the National Graduate School of Chemistry of Rennes (ENSCR) have jointly developed a stable and efficient labelling of Lipiodol with rhenium-188 (E(βmax) = 2.1 MeV) for the treatment of HCC. The major "milestones" of this development, from the first syntheses to the recent first injection in man, are described.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan Lilian; Li Yangbing; Li Shuxin; Jiang Jindai; Li Zhimin; Liang Tongjie; Zhou Shaoping; Han Minjun
2005-01-01
Objective: To investigate the relationship between enhancement in arterial-phase, indicating arterial blood supply of the lesions of hepatocellular carcinoma and lipiodol accumulation after the trans-arterial chemoembotherapy. Methods: CT images of primary hepatocellular carcinoma in 32 cases during the hepatic arterial-phase were retrospectively compared with the CT images of lipiodol distribution within the tumor after the trans-arterial chemoembotherapy. Results: The lipiodol distribution was classified into five types: homogeneous and compact(n=11), inhomogeneous though compact (n=7), scanty(n=5), poorly filled(n=3) and miscellaneous (n=3). The lipiodol has a homogeneous or inhomogeneous but compact distribution when remarkable enhancement of the tumor or dominant neoplastic vascularity was demonstrated during hepatic arterial-phase. The lipiodol distribution was scanty, poorly filled, or miscellaneous distributed in the nidus of the hepatocellular carcinoma with no or poor enhancement, or with hypo-vascularity during hepatic arterial-phase. Where there was abundant vascularity of the tumor, there would be a satisfying accumulation of the lipiodol. Conclusion: The CT assessmant of the arterial-phase vascularity of the hepatocellular provides valuable information of lipiodol accumulation after the trans-arterial chemoembotherapy. (authors)
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Araki, Takuji; Okada, Taiki; Kimura, Kazufumi; Sawada, Eiichi; Sano, Katushiro; Araki, Tsutomu
2012-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term adverse events and therapeutic efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a miriplatin-lipiodol suspension in comparison with a cisplatin-lipiodol suspension. Of patients who underwent TACE for unresectable HCCs in 2009 and 2010, twenty-nine and twenty-seven patients underwent TACE using cisplatin-lipiodol suspension (C-LS) and miriplatin-lipiodol suspension (M-LS), respectively. Adverse events of fever, pain, nausea, anorexia, elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, creatinine and a decrease in platelet count were evaluated by the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Ver.4. to compare the C-LS and M-LS groups. The short-term therapeutic efficacy of both groups was evaluated by the treatment effect (TE) on the CT images three months after TACE according to the General Rules for the Clinical and Pathological Study of Primary Liver Cancer (the 5th edition, Revised Version). With regard to the adverse events, the M-LS group had significantly less fever and anorexia than the C-LS group. No critical adverse events were observed in either group. The therapeutic efficacy was not significantly different between the groups. TACE with M-LS had fewer adverse events than TACE with C-LS, but neither TACE led to any critical adverse events. The short-term therapeutic efficacy of TACE with M-LS was equivalent to that of TACE with C-LS. (author)
Garin, Etienne; Denizot, Benoit; Noiret, Nicolas; Lepareur, Nicolas; Roux, Jerome; Moreau, Myriam; Herry, Jean-Yves; Bourguet, Patrick; Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Lejeune, Jean-Jacques
2004-10-01
Although intra-arterial radiation therapy with 131I-lipiodol is a useful therapeutic approach to the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, various disadvantages limit its use. To describe the development of a method for the labelling of lipiodol with 188Re-SSS (188Re (S2CPh)(S3CPh)2 complex) and to investigate its biodistribution after injection into the hepatic artery of rats with hepatoma. 188Re-SSS lipiodol was obtained after dissolving a chelating agent, previously labelled with 188Re, in cold lipiodol. The radiochemical purity (RCP) of labelling was checked immediately. The 188Re-SSS lipiodol was injected into the hepatic artery of nine rats with a Novikoff hepatoma. They were sacrificed 1, 24 and 48 h after injection, and used for ex vivo counting. Labelling of 188Re-SSS lipiodol was achieved with a yield of 97.3+/-2.1%. The immediate RCP was 94.1+/-1.7%. Ex vivo counting confirmed a predominantly hepatic uptake, with a good tumoral retention of 188Re-SSS lipiodol, a weak pulmonary uptake and a very faint digestive uptake. The 'tumour/non-tumoral liver' ratio was high at 1, 24 and 48 h after injection (2.9+/-1.5, 4.1+/-/4.1 and 4.1+/-0.7, respectively). Using the method described here, 188Re-SSS lipiodol can be obtained with a very high yield and a satisfactory RCP. The biodistribution in rats with hepatoma indicates a good tumoral retention of 188Re-SSS lipiodol associated with a predominant hepatic uptake, a weak pulmonary uptake and a very faint digestive uptake. This product should be considered for intra-arterial radiation therapy in human hepatoma.
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Wei, Cao; Zhimin, Wang; Hongxin, Zhang [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical Univ., Xi' an (China); Yi, Wan
2006-09-15
Objective: To evaluate the anti-tumour effect of 60 degree C Lipiodol in the embolization of VX{sub 2} hepatocarcinoma in rabbits. Methods: VX{sub 2} carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left liver lobe in 30 male New Zealand white rabbits, which were randomly divided into 3 groups by figure and table method with 10 rabbits in each group. Physiological saline, Lipiodol (37 degree C), and Lipiodol (60 degree C) were injected in each group via hepatic artery and liver cancer was embolized. The volume of tumour and serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were observed after one week, and the survival period of VX{sub 2} rabbits was also observed. Results: In the group of Lipiodol (60 degree C), the growth rate of tumour (0.92{+-} 0.21) was significantly lower than that of control group (3.48{+-}) and Lipiodol (37 degree C) groups (1.69{+-}0.26), respectively (F=34.95, P<0.05). The survival period of Lipiodol (60 degree C) group (41.0{+-}3.0) d was significantly longer than the control group (31.5{+-}3.0) d (t=29.18, P<0.05). Four days after the embolization, the serum level of AST of Lipiodol (60 degree C) (148.2{+-}11.3) U/L was not higher than that of Lipiodol (37 degree C) (139.7{+-}12.3) U/L (t=1.61, P>0.05), but was significantly higher than the control group (68.6{+-}6.6) U/L (t=19.24, P<0.05). Conclusion: Lipiodol (60 degree C) greatly decreases the tumour's growth rate and prolongs the survival period. It is a safe method and has stronger inhibitory effect than other groups. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Joon Koon; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Man Chung
1992-01-01
To evaluate the effectiveness of superselective transcatheter arterial embolization (STAE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a mixture of ethanol and Lipiodol, STAE was done in 12 male patients with HCC. There were diagnosed clinically with angiographic findings and elevated alphafetprotein levels and three were recurrent tumors after surgery. Sono-guided aspiration biopsy proved the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in another six patients. The tumor was a small single nodule (2-5cm in diameter) in 11 patients. In one patient, two nodules were found. Superselective catheterization was done using 3F Tracker catheter (Target Therapeutics USA) coaxially through 6F catheter into the feeding hepatic artery, usually the third order branch. One to four cc of 75% ethanol mixed with Lipiodol was infused under fluoroscopy immediately after injection of 2% lidocaine. Immediate angiography and CT after 2 weeks were undertaken. Complete segmental or subsegmental devascularization including feeding arteries and tumor vascularities occurred in all patients. Follow-up angiography after 6 to 15 months revealed the tumor opacified by Lipiodol. The tumor decreased in 5 cases and recurrence was found in three patients. CT taken 2 weeks after STAE showed low density halo around the tumor in 5 cases. Subsequent segmentectomy in four patients revealed total or near total necrosis of the tumor and no evidence of damage in surrounding parenchyma. STAE for HCC with a mixture of ethanol and Lipiodol is an effective and safe measure for small HCC
BEHAVIOR OF LIPIODOL MARKERS DURING IMAGE GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY OF BLADDER CANCER
Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.; Remeijer, Peter; Bex, Axel; Betgen, Anja; de Reijke, Theo M.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Pos, Floris J.; Bel, Arjan
2010-01-01
Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Risse, J.H.; Ponath, C.; Palmedo, H.; Biersack, H.J.; Menzel, C.; Gruenwald, F.
2001-01-01
Intra-arterial iodine-131 labelled Lipiodol therapy for liver cancer has been investigated for safety and efficacy over a number of years, but data on radiation exposure of personnel have remained unavailable to date. The aim of this study was to assess the radiation exposure of the physician during intra-arterial 131 I-Lipiodol therapy for liver malignancies and to develop appropriate radiation protection measures and equipment. During 20 intra-arterial administrations of 131 I-Lipiodol (1110-1924 MBq), radiation dose equivalents (RDE) to the whole body, fingers and eyes of the physician were determined for (a) conventional manual administration through a shielded syringe, (b) administration with an automatic injector and (c) administration with a lead container developed in-house. Administration by syringe resulted in a finger RDE of 19.5 mSv, an eye RDE of 130-140 μSv, and a whole-body RDE of 108-119 μSv. The injector reduced the finger RDE to 5 mSv. With both technique (a) and technique (b), contamination of angiography materials was observed. The container allowed safe transport and administration of the radiopharmaceutical from 4 m distance and reduced the finger RDE to 131 I-Lipiodol was administered by syringe or injector, but was significantly reduced with the lead container. (orig.)
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Youn, In Young; Chong, Se Min; Kwak, Byung Kook; Shin, Hyung Jin; Seo, Gi Young; Seo, Jae Seung; Kim, Jae Kyun [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University Medical Center, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2011-12-15
To evaluate CT findings and radiologic outcomes of pulmonary lipiodol accumulation (PLA) after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). This retrospective study involved 488 TACEs for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n = 160) and hepatic metastasis for non-hepatic malignancies (n = 7) in 167 patients. We reviewed the patient clinicoradiologic findings before and after TACE and calculated the incidence of PLA and PLA resolution time after initial CT and after TACE. Lipiodol accumulation in the lungs was seen under CT after TACE in seven patients (M : F = 6 : 1, mean age 61 years). The incidence of PLA at CT was 4.1% (7/167 patients). In five patients, associated intrathoracic abnormalities including pleural effusion with (n 3) or without consolidation (n = 2) were revealed at CT scans. The CT resolution time and PLA recovery time were 56 {+-} 54 days and 66 {+-} 52 days, respectively. The recovery time for lipiodol accumulation was 66 days. It is believed that the clinical and radiologic outcome of PLA without respiratory failure is promising, and conservative treatment will suffice when lipiodol accumulation in the lungs is seen in CT images after TACE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Anle; Yan Zhiping; Zhou Kangrong; Wang Jianhua; Cheng Jiemin; Qian Sheng; Luo Jianjun; Chen Yi
2004-01-01
Objective: To assess the feasibility and efficacy of transarterial lidocaine-lipiodol emulsion administration for controlling abdominal pain and preventing the arterial spasm resulting from TACE, and to evaluate the optimal amount of lidocaine administration. Methods: In a prospective trial of 120 consecutive patients with malignant tumor who underwent TACE were divided into three groups, those who received lidocaine-lipiodol emulsion administration (group A, n=40), those who received lidocaine bolus intraarterial infusion immediately before TACE (group B, n=40) and those who received no lidocaine injection before TACE, (group C, n=40). The degree of post-procedure pain was evaluated by a subjective method (using visual analogue scales from 0 to 10), and an objective method (amount of post-procedure analgesics). Incidence and degree of arterial spasm were assessed by DSA. Results: The correlative pain incidences between the three groups showed significant difference (P 0.05). Mean dose of intramuscular analgesics for controlling intolerable pain in group A and B was significantly lower than that of group C (P<0.05). There was no difference in the incidence of arterial spasm between group A and B but it was much lower in group C. Lipiodol deposit in malignant mass was densest in group A, especially in the metastatic nodules of the liver. Conclusions: Transarterial administration of lidocaine-lipiodol emulsion can not only reduce the incidence of pain during TACE, but also prevent the arterial spasm. It is much more effective than pre-TACE administration of pethidine and intraarterial infusion of lidocaine. The authors recommond routinely for the administration of lidocaine-lipiodol emulsion. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, M.; Iimuro, Y.; Mogaki, M.; Kachi, K.; Fujii, H.; Matsumoto, Y.
1994-01-01
In trying to clarify the high recurrence rate after removal of small hepatocellular carconoma (HCC), we assessed the postoperative evolution of minute hepatic Lipiodol deposits which had been diagnosed as artifacts on the preoperative Lipiodol-CT. Of 27 patients with solitary HCC less than 5 cm in diameter, 14 had such Lipiodol deposits in the preoperative CT and 9 of them (64%) developed recurrent tumors. On the other hand, 6 of the 13 patients without deposits (46%) suffered recurrence, but in 5 of these 6 patients the HCC was metachronous multicentric. The cumulative survival rate of the non-deposit group was better than that of the deposit group (p<0.1). The present study suggested that, even in patients with small HCC, minute concomitant tumors invisible by conventional imaging techniques may exist at the time of surgery. Some of these lesions without sufficient tumor vasculature showing a hypervascular blush on angiography appear to retain small, vague Lipiodol deposits. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dong Ik; Suh, Jung Ho; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Chan Il; Kim, Byung Ro
1989-01-01
Iodized oil has been used as a contrast agent in lymphangiography. One of the commercially available compounds is Lipidol Ultra-fluid(LUF) which contains 38% iodine by weight. Nakakuma et al(1979) reported that LUF was selectively retained in the hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma when injected directly into the ligated hepatic artery. Since that time, it has been widely utilized in the detection as well as the therapeutic attempts of hepatocellular carcinoma, where it has been mixed with chemotherapeutic agents or labeled with radioactive I-131. Like all significant advances, the mechanism of lipid retention within the hepatocellular carcinoma is not clearly understood, and also there is a lack of information about the biodistribution and kinetics of I-131 Lipiodol. The apparent safety of this technique require confirmation. The present study was aimed to assess the biodistribution and kinetics of intraarterially injected I-131 Lipiodol and the histologic changes in canine livers. It was also to verify the safety of this technique in clinical applications. Radioactive iodized oil was obtained by simple exchange method . 518 ± 19 MBq(14 mCi, about 1 mCi/kg body weight) of I-131 Lipiodol was injected intraarterially in 12 dogs as a experimental group. Serial count rates over the livers under gamma camera were measured, and then it was compared with quantitative analysis of radioactivities distributed in liver, lung, spleen, kidney, thyroid, bile and circulating blood using dose calibrator after sacrifice at various time intervals. Cumulative radiation doses were calculated by Quimby method. The effect of I-131 lipiodol on hepatic function were analysed by serial liver function tests after intrahepatic injection of I-131 Lipiodol and compared with preinjection values. Liver tissue obtained after sacrifice were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Oil red-O, and also election microscopic examinations were performed. The results were summarized as follows; 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, F.I.; Chung, H.P.; Chung, R.J.; Wen, H.W.; Wei, Y.Y.; Kai, J.J.; Lui, W.Y.; Chi, C.W.
2000-01-01
In our research, a radioactive boron compound, B-I-131-lipiodol, that can be selectively retained in hepatoma cells was prepared. Combining the effect of α particles produced by boron neutron capture reaction with the β particles released by radionuclides in the radioactive boron compounds will produce a synergistic killing effect on cancer cells. Human hepatoma HepG2 cell cultures were used to examine the stability and the intracellular distribution of the radioactive boron drug. Microscopes were used to examine the interaction and retention of B-I-131-lipiodol globules in the individual hepatoma cell. Moreover, ICP-AES and NaI scintillation counter were performed to determine boron concentrations and I-131 radioactivity, respectively. Results showed that B-I-131-lipiodol with a boron concentration and a specific radioactivity ranged from 500-2000 ppm and 0.05-10 mCi/mL respectively was stably retained in serum. The radiochemical purity of B-I-131-lipiodol was 98%. After supplement with a medium containing B-I-131-lipiodol, the HepG2 cells had intracellular B-I-131-lipiodol globules in the cytoplasm as seen by inverted light microscope, the I-131 and boron can be stably retained in HepG2 cells. (author)
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Wen-jin JIANG
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Objective:To explore the clinical manifestations, therapeutic methods and preventive measures of pulmonary lipiodol embolism (PLE induced by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE so as to improve the cognition and management of PLE. Methods:A total of 2 613 patients with hepatic cancer without history of pulmonary disease who were treated with TACE in our hospital from Sept., 2004 to Mar., 2013 were selected. The clinical manifestations, therapeutic methods and preventing measures of the 9 patients who were accompanied with PLE were observed to analyze the pre-operative hepatic computed tomography (CT and chest X-ray, intra-operative contrast examination, dosage of lipiodol and chemotherapeutic drugs, clinical manifestation and therapeutic progression as well as the postoperative follow-up.Results: Nine patients accompanied by PLE had different-severity cough, hemoptysis and progressive dyspnea, and chest X-ray and/or CT showed flaky high-density radiography. After treated with oxygen inhalation, bronchus expansion and inflammation alleviation, 8 patients were improved but 1 died. Of the 8 patients, 2 were given ventilator to assist breath, and the clinical symptoms of 8 patients disappeared within 3-15 d. The re-examined chest X-ray showed normal after 20-60 d follow-up observation. Additionally, 6 patients were with nidus diameter ≥10 cm, 6 with hepatic artery-vein fistula and 7 with lipiodol dosage ≥20 mL.Conclusion: PLE often occurs in patients with giant hepatic carcinoma accompanied by hepatic artery-vein fistula, whose lipiodol dosage is ≥20 mL. Accurate and correct management during operation can effectively reduce the development of PLE.
Intra-arterial injection of iodine-131-labeled lipiodol for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boucher, Eveline; Garin, Etienne; Guylligomarc'h, Anne; Olivie, Damien; Boudjema, Karim; Raoul, Jean-Luc
2007-01-01
Background/Aim: The therapeutic effect of intra-arterial injection of 131-iodine-labeled lipiodol for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in palliative or adjuvant settings has been promising. We report, the results of an open study of this therapy in cirrhotic patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients and method: Forty patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were given intra-arterial injections of 131-iodine-labeled lipiodol. These injections were repeated if necessary every 3 months. Tumor response (WHO criteria) was determined on CT scans performed after each treatment and every 3 months during the follow-up. Side effects and the cause of death were recorded. Therapeutic response and survival were analyzed. Results: The median number of treatment was 2 (1-4). There was one complete response, 18 partial responses (47.5% response rate); 19 had stable disease and 2 progressions. Overall survival rates (±CI 95%) at 1, 2 and 3 years were: 90 ± 4.7%, 60.3 ± 8%, and 39 ± 8.3%, respectively. Median survival was 27 months; 25 patients have died (4-56 months), 8 of tumor progression with a multifocal spread in the liver. Tolerance was good except for 2 patients who develop a fatal drug-related pulmonary insufficiency. Conclusion: These data suggest that intra-arterial therapeutic injection of 131-iodine-labeled lipiodol for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma can provide high rate response and long survival for individuals not eligible for surgery or local treatment
A new technique for labeling of Lipiodol with 188Re in the treatment of hepatic tumor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shyh-Jen Wang; Wan-Yu Lin; Bor-Tsung Hsieh; Kai-Yuan Cheng; Lie-Hang Shen; Ming-Ja Su
2004-01-01
A new method for the synthesis of 188 Re-Lipiodol without using a chelating agent and to evaluate the stability and biodistribution of the new agent in rats with hepatic tumors was attempted. Eighteen male Sprague -Dawley rats with liver tumors were sacrificed at 1, 24, and 48 hours (six rats at each time) after injection of approximately 7.4 MBq (0.2 mCi) of 188 Re Lipiodol via the hepatic artery. Samples of tumor, liver and other organs were collected and tissue concentration (%ID/g) of the markers were calculated. A high level of radioactivity in the hepatic tumors was found at every time of the study. The ratios of tumor to normal liver tissue concentration (T/N ratio) were 7.62 at 1 hour, 8.03 at 24 hours, and 7.70 at 48 hours. Except for the liver, kidneys and lungs, concentrations in other organs were low. The new method for labeling Lipiodol with 188 Re is simple and has potential for the treatment of hepatic tumors. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soendergaard, Jimmi; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Elstroem, Ulrik Vindelev; Grau, Cai; Hoeyer, Morten; Oerding Olsen, Kasper
2010-01-01
Purpose. We have tested a procedure of focal injection of the contrast medium Lipiodol as a fiducial marker for image-guided boost of the tumor in bladder cancer radiotherapy (RT). In this study, we have evaluated the feasibility and the safety of the method as well as the inter- and intra-fraction shift of the bladder tumor. Materials and methods. Five patients with muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer were included in the study. Lipiodol was injected during flexible cystoscopy into the submucosa of the bladder wall at the periphery of the tumor or the post resection tumor-bed. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans were acquired daily throughout the course of RT. Results. Lipiodol demarcation of the bladder tumor was feasible and safe with only a minimum of side effects related to the procedure. The Lipiodol spots were visible on CT and CBCT scans for the duration of the RT course. More than half of all the treatment fractions required a geometric shift of 5 mm or more to match on the Lipiodol spots. The mean intra-fraction shift (3D) of the tumor was 3 mm, largest in the anterior-posterior and cranial-caudal directions. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that Lipiodol can be injected into the bladder mucosa and subsequently visualized on CT and CBCT as a fiducial marker. The relatively large inter-fraction shifts in the positions of Lipiodol spots compared to the intra-fraction movement indicates that image-guided RT based on radio-opaque markers is important for RT of the bladder cancer tumor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed Mahidi, N.
1992-10-01
We have evaluated the radiation dose received by the liver and lungs for 10 patients with a hepatic carcinoma after surgical operation followed by a therapeutic dose of Lipiodol labelled with iodine 131. The cumulated activities have been obtained by using a calibrated gamma camera. Fixation and kinetics of the I 131 Lipiodol in normal and cancers livers have been measured with the determination of the effective and biological half-lives. The calculated doses are based on the MIRD method. Results confirm that Lipiodol fixation is important in the liver at J1 (about 74% of the injected activity). Its elimination is essentially urinary, pulmonary fixation remained low, the dose received by the healthy part of liver is acceptable. These values have been compared with those obtained by another method using a thermoluminescent dosimeter (LiF) installed on the skin over the liver. Comparison between results obtained by the 2 methods shows a good correlation
{sup 188}Re-HDD/lipiodol therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: an activity escalation study
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Lambert, Bieke; Vos, Filip de; Wiele, Christophe van de [Ghent University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Division, Gent (Belgium); Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert [Ghent University, Department of Medical Physics, Gent (Belgium); Defreyne, Luc [Ghent University Hospital, Division of Interventional Radiology, Gent (Belgium); Vlierberghe, Hans van [Ghent University Hospital, Division of Gastroenterology, Gent (Belgium); Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea); Wang, Rong Fu [Beijing University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Beijing (China); Meerbeeck, Jan van [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Diseases, Gent (Belgium); Smeets, Peter [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Gent (Belgium); Troisi, Roberto [Ghent University Hospital, Division of Abdominal Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Gent (Belgium)
2006-03-15
The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of administering increasing activities of {sup 188}Re-4-hexadecyl-1-2,9,9-tetramethyl-4,7-diaza-1,10-decanethiol/lipiodol ({sup 188}Re-HDD/lipiodol) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well-compensated cirrhosis. The activity levels were increased by 1.1 GBq/step after a 6-week interval without unacceptable adverse events in at least five consecutive patients. Absorbed doses to the various organs were calculated according to the MIRD formalism, based on three gamma-scintigraphic studies. Response was assessed by means of MRI and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) monitoring. Thirty-five treatments were carried out in 28 patients. Activities from 4.8 to 7.0 GBq {sup 188}Re-HDD/lipiodol were administered via a transfemoral catheter. The mean absorbed dose to the liver (including tumour) was 7.6{+-}2.2, 9.8{+-}4.9 and 15.2{+-}4.9 Gy for the 4.8-, 5.9- and 7.0-GBq groups, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated at all activity levels. Further escalation of the administered activity was not feasible owing to limitations related to the radiolabelling procedure. Response assessment on MRI showed partial response, stable disease and disease progression in 1, 28 and 2 assessable treatments, respectively. In 8 of 17 treatment sessions with an initially elevated AFP, a reduction ranging from 19% to 97% was observed 6 weeks later. (orig.)
Behavior of Lipiodol Markers During Image Guided Radiotherapy of Bladder Cancer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chai Xiangfei; Herk, Marcel van; Kamer, Jeroen B. van de; Remeijer, Peter; Bex, Axel; Betgen, Anja; De Reijke, Theo M.; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Pos, Floris J.; Bel, Arjan
2010-01-01
Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to identify the tumor. A planning CT scan was made, followed by daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans during treatment. To study the accuracy of using these markers for image guidance, uncertainties U1 and U2 were calculated, which were defined as the difference between submask registration (covering single marker) and the average of all submask registrations and the difference between the submask registration and the general mask registration (including all markers), respectively. Finally, to study tumor deformation, the relative movement of each marker pair was correlated with the relative bladder volume (RBV). Results: The analyzed patients had 2.3 marker injections on average. The lipiodol spot size was 0.72 ± 1.1 cm 3 . The intensity of spots in both CT and CBCT was significantly higher than the surrounding bladder tissue. The uncertainties U1 and U2 were comparable, and the uncertainties in left-right direction (0.14-0.19 cm) were smaller than those in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior directions (0.19-0.32 cm). The relative marker movement of within-zone marker pairs was much smaller (and has less dependence on the RBV) than across-zones marker pairs. Conclusions: Lipiodol markers are a feasible method to track bladder tumor by using online CBCT. Tumor deformation is observed, especially for tumors that cross the defined bladder zones.
Behavior of Lipiodol Markers During Image Guided Radiotherapy of Bladder Cancer
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Chai Xiangfei, E-mail: x.chai@amc.uva.n [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kamer, Jeroen B. van de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Remeijer, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bex, Axel [Department of Urology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Betgen, Anja [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Reijke, Theo M [Department of Urology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2010-05-01
Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to identify the tumor. A planning CT scan was made, followed by daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans during treatment. To study the accuracy of using these markers for image guidance, uncertainties U1 and U2 were calculated, which were defined as the difference between submask registration (covering single marker) and the average of all submask registrations and the difference between the submask registration and the general mask registration (including all markers), respectively. Finally, to study tumor deformation, the relative movement of each marker pair was correlated with the relative bladder volume (RBV). Results: The analyzed patients had 2.3 marker injections on average. The lipiodol spot size was 0.72 +- 1.1 cm{sup 3}. The intensity of spots in both CT and CBCT was significantly higher than the surrounding bladder tissue. The uncertainties U1 and U2 were comparable, and the uncertainties in left-right direction (0.14-0.19 cm) were smaller than those in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior directions (0.19-0.32 cm). The relative marker movement of within-zone marker pairs was much smaller (and has less dependence on the RBV) than across-zones marker pairs. Conclusions: Lipiodol markers are a feasible method to track bladder tumor by using online CBCT. Tumor deformation is observed, especially for tumors that cross the defined bladder zones.
Do the benefits of iodine-131 lipiodol therapy for HCC outweigh the radiation safety issues?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitchener, M.I.; Barnden, L.R.
2005-01-01
Introduction: lodine-131 Lipiodol is a well recognised palliative treatment option for Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) unsuitable for surgical resection/transplantation. However, the biological and physical half-life of lodine-131 Lipiodol in this situation has significant implications for radiation protection. Methods: A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the practical radiation issues and treatment efficacy. 22 patients were referred for assessment and 12 received Lipiodol therapy, 5 having multiple doses. Administered doses ranged from 1.0-2.2 GBq. Results: Patients were hospitalised between 4 and 8 days, with discharge rates ranging between 16 and 61uSv/hr at 1 metre. The shorter hospital stays and highest discharge rates related to 2 patients (multiple doses) who had difficulty tolerating the in-hospital isolation. Only 4 patients had discharge rates < 25uSv/hr at 1 metre. 2 with reduced doses. Special exemption was required from the State Radiation Protection Branch (RPB) to allow early discharge. Patients were given a radiation precaution sheet on discharge (as per the FMC program) and asked to observe the restrictions including not returning to work for 14-24 days and avoiding close contact with young children for 25-44 days post-discharge. The measured radiation dose for a patient's spouse/carer was < lOOuSv on 2 occasions. The mean exposure for nurses per patient admission was 9.1 uSv. The TLD readings for the Interventional Radiologist and treating Nuclear Physician remained well within acceptable levels. 4 of the 12 patients have died at a mean of 16.25 months (range 13-20 months) after their first dose of lodine-131 Lipiodol. Of the other 7, 3 now have progressive disease but are alive 18, 36 and 41 months following their first dose. 4 are less than 12 months post-therapy. With the co-operation of the State RPB. the issues relating to radiation protection are manageable and these patients do receive a therapeutic benefit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xuan; Chen Xiaofei; Dong Weihua
2007-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-lipiodol embolization in treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma(PHC). Methods: One hundred and sixteen cases of PHC were divided into three groups. Group A (38 cases)was treated with normal temperature chemotherapy and normal temperature lipiodol, Group B(40 cases)with thermo-chemotherapy and normal temperature lipiodol and group C (38 cases)with thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-lipiodol. Group B and group C were called the thermotherapy group. Results: In the thermotherapy groups, the rates of tumor size reduction were significantly greater than those in the normal group. There were no significant different in the hepatic function tests among the three groups. The 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24- month survival rates of the normal group and thermotherapy groups were 97%, 58%, 39% and 18%, versus 99%, 79%, 57% and 36%, respectively. No significant differences were found in the rates of reduction of tumor size and survival rates between group B and group C. Conclusion: Thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-embolization possess significant effect on PHC but without conspicuous damage to liver function. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xuan; Chen Xiaofei
2009-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of transcatheter hepatic arterial thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-lipiodol embolization in the treatment of hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma. Methods: Sixty-eight cases with hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma were equally and randomly divided into two groups. The patients in study group were treated with transcatheter hepatic arterial thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-lipiodol embolization, while the patients in control group were treated with conventional (normal temperature) transcatheter hepatic arterial chemotherapy lipiodol embolization. Results: The effective rate of study group and control group was 65%(22/34) and 32%(11/34) respectively, the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). No significant difference in the postoperative changes of hepatic function tests was found between the two groups. The survival rate at 6,12,18 and 24 months after the treatment was 100%, 82%, 44% and 18% respectively in study group, while it was 91%, 47%, 15% and 6% respectively in control group. Conclusion: Transcatheter hepatic arterial thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-lipiodol embolization is an effective and safe treatment for the hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma and has no obvious damage to the hepatic function. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sundram, Felix
2004-01-01
Full text: In this paper we present our early experience with a new radio-conjugate, namely rhenium-188 HDD Lipiodol (Re-188 lipiodol). Imported radiopharmaceuticals are generally expensive, particularly for developing countries. A Tungsten (W-188-Re 188) generator obtained from ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, USA) allows us on-site production of a beta emitting therapeutic isotope (Re-188) for up to 6 months from a single generator. The objectives of this study were to establish the safety of trans-arterial Re-188 lipiodol in patients with inoperable HCC, and determine the adverse effects and efficacy for this radio-conjugate treatment in a multi-center study of patients with advanced HCC. A multi-center study was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna) to assess the safety and efficacy of trans-arterial Re-188 HDD conjugated lipiodol (radio-conjugate) in the treatment of patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), The radio-conjugate was prepared by using a HDD (4-hexadecyl 1-2, 9, 9-tetramethyl-4, 7-diaza-1, 10-decanethiol) kit developed in Korea, and lipiodol. Over a period of eighteen months seventy patients received at least one treatment of radio-conjugate. Some patients were re-treated if there was no evidence of disease progression. The level of radio-conjugate administered was based on radiation-absorbed dose to critical normal organs, calculated following a 'scout' dose of radio-conjugate. The organs at greatest risk for radiation toxicity are the normal liver, the lung and the bone marrow. A specially designed spreadsheet was used to determine maximum tolerated activity (MTA), defined as the amount of radioactivity calculated to deliver no more than 12 Gray (Gy) to lungs, or 30 Gy to liver, or 1.5 Gy to bone marrow. These doses have been found to be safe in multiple trials using external beam therapy and systemically administered radiopharmaceuticals. Patients were followed for at least twelve weeks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padhy, A.K.; Bernal, P.; Buscombe, R.J.
2007-01-01
Full text: A multi-centre study was sponsored by the IAEA to assess the safety and efficacy of trans-arterial Rhenium-188 HDD Lipiodol in the treatment of inoperable Hepatocellular Carcinoma. The radioconjugate was prepared by using an HDD kit and Lipiodol. Over three years, 185 patients received at least one treatment. The dose administered was based on radiation absorbed dose to critical normal organs, calculated following a ''scout'' dose (approximately 4 mCi) of radioconjugate. The organs at greatest risk for radiation toxicity are the liver, the lung and the bone marrow. An Excel spreadsheet was used to determine maximum tolerated activity, defined as the amount of radioactivity calculated to deliver no more than 12 Gy to lungs, 30 Gy to liver, or 1.5 Gy to bone marrow. A single treatment was given to 134 patients, 42 patients received two doses, 8 received three and one patient received four treatments. The total injected activity including the scout dose during the first treatment ranged from 21 to 364 mCi (average 108 mCi). Patients were followed for at least l2 weeks after therapy. The clinical parameters evaluated included toxicity, response as determined objectively by contrast enhanced computed tomography, palliation of symptoms, overall survival, performance status (Karnofsky), and hepatic function (Child's classification). Liver function tests, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and complete blood counts were done at each follow-up visit. Side effects were minimal and usually presented as loss of appetite, right hypochondrial discomfort and low-grade fever. Liver function tests at 24 and 72 hours showed no significant changes and complete blood counts at 1 week, 4 weeks and 12 weeks showed no changes (no bone marrow suppression). Data on largest tumour diameter after therapy and/or tumour response as evaluated from CT scans are available for 88 patients. Complete disappearance of tumour was recorded in 3 (3%), partial response in 19 (22%), stable
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Kawahara, D [Radiation Therapy Section, Department of Clinical Support, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Medical and Dental Sciences Course, Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Ozawa, S; Nagata, Y [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Hiroshima High-Precision Radiotherapy Cancer Center, Hiroshima (Japan); Saito, A; Nishio, T; Suzuki, T [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Hioki, K; Masuda, H; Okumura, T; Ochi, Y; Nakashima, T; Ohno, Y [Radiation Therapy Section, Department of Clinical Support, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Tanaka, S [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)
2016-06-15
Purpose: SBRT combining transarterial chemoembolization with Lipiodol is expected to improve local control. Our showed that the dose enhancement effect in the Lipiodol with 10X flattening filter free (FFF) was inserted. This study was to investigate the energy fluence variations of electron in the Lipiodol using flattened (FF) and FFF beams. Methods: FF and FFF for 6X and 10X beams by TrueBeam were used in this study. The Lipiodol (3 X 3 X 3 cm{sup 3}) was located at the depth of 5 cm in water, the dose enhancement factor (DEF) and energy fluence were calculated by Monte Carlo (MC) calculations (PHITS). Results: DEFs with FF and FFF of 6X were 17.1% and 24.3% at rebuild-up region in the Lipiodol (5.3cm depth), 7.0% and 17.0% at the center of Lipiodol (6.5cm depth), and −13.2% and −8.2% at behind Lipiodol (8.3cm depth). DEFs with FF and FFF of 10X were 21.7% and 15.3% at rebuild-up region, 8.2% and 10.5% at the center of Lipiodol, and −14.0% and −8.6% at behind Lipiodol. Spectral results showed that the FFF beam contained more low-energy (0–0.3MeV) component of electrons than FF beam, and FF beam contained more high-energy (over 0.3MeV) electrons than FFF beam in Lipiodol. Behind the Lipiodol, build-down effect with FF beam was larger than FFF beam because FF beam contained more high energy electrons. The difference of DEFs between FFF and FF beams for 6X were larger than for 10X. This is because 10X beam contained more high-energy electrons. Conclusion: It was found that the 6XFFF beam gives the largest change of energy fluence and the largest DEF in this study. These phenomena are mainly caused by component of low-energy electrons, and this energy is almost correspond to the boundary of photo electronic dominant and Compton scattering dominant region for photon beams.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng Qingle; Chen Yong; Zhao Jianbo; Zhang Kewei; Li Yanhao
2009-01-01
Objective: To analyze the factors that might affect the therapeutic results of pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion intra-arterial sclerosing embolization (PLE-IASE) in treating symptomatic cavernous hemangioma of liver (SCHL). Methods: PLE-IASE was performed in 89 patients with SCHL (32 males and 57 females). Before treatment the mean diameter of the hemangioma was (8.3±3.8) cm. Of 89 patients, 53 experienced anxiety, 35 suffered from right upper abdominal pain and the remaining one developed Kasabach-Merrit syndrome. Before PLE-IASE, the arteriographic classification was conducted based on hepatic arteriographic findings. Then pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion (PLE) was injected through the feeding artery. The dosage of pingyangmycin (PYM) was (9.8 ± 4.4) mg and the dosage of lipiodol (LP) was (5.9 ± 2.9) ml. The lipiodol deposition status was judged by the follow-up spot film taken immediately after PLE-IASE. The observations of the occurrence of complications, the relief of symptoms and the minification of SCHL were followed for 6-72 months after PLE-IASE. The linear regression analysis statistics was conducted by taking the minification as dependent variable and taking the arteriographic classification, lipiodol deposition status, the dosage of PYM, the dosage of lipiodol and the preoperative SCHL diameter as independent variable. Results: Of all 89 cases of SCHL, hypervascular type was seen in 51, hypovascular type in 26 and arteriovenous shunt (AVS) type in 12. Good lipiodol deposition status was found in 64 patients and poor deposition in 25 patients after PLE-IASE. After PLE-IASE, the symptom of anxiety in 53 patients was relieved and the right upper abdominal pain was reduced in 33 cases although intermittent pain still remained in 2 patients. The blood platelet count of the patient with Kasabach-Merrit syndrome returned to normal after the treatment. The symptomatic relieve rate was 98.7%. No serious complications occurred in the follow-up period. The linear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brans, B.; Lambert, B.; De Beule, E.; De Winter, F.; Dierckx, R.A.; Van Belle, S.; Van Vlierberghe, H.; De Hemptinne, B.
2002-01-01
The good tolerance of radionuclide therapy has frequently been proposed as a major advantage. This study explored the feasibility of using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire in palliative iodine-131 lipiodol therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Questionnaires were completed during interviews in which all symptoms, co-morbidity and medication were assessed at baseline within 1 week before 131 I-lipiodol therapy, and subsequently after 1 and 3 months, in 20 patients treated with locoregional, intra-arterial 131 I-lipiodol therapy with or without cisplatin. Principal observations were that (1) a number of important scales, i.e. overall quality of life, physical functioning and pain, worsened between 0 and 3 months after 131 I-lipiodol therapy, irrespective of tumour response, and (2) the occurrence of clinical side-effects was associated with a negative impact on quality of life and physical functioning 1 and 3 months after 131 I-lipiodol. The QLQ-C30 can be regarded as a feasible method for quality of life assessment in 131 I-lipiodol therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma and possibly in other radionuclide therapies. These observations should be related to the impact of other treatment modalities on quality of life. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kong Weidong; Li Yanhao; He Xiaofeng; Chen Yong; Zeng Qingle; Zhao Jianbo
2004-01-01
Objective: To observe the angiographic manifestations of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) and to treat it by intra-arterial injection of pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion (PLE). Methods: Seven young patients (age range 12-19 years, mean 15.2 years) with KTS in the single low limb were examined by arteriography. Then, PLE (mixed with pingyangmycin 6-12 mg, lipiodol 4-8 ml) was injected by transcatheter into the femoral artery. The effects, side-effects, and complications of the therapy were observed. Results: The arteriography revealed a few distended small arteries with staining of venous sinus of different size in the soft tissue (5/7), as well as drainage vein enlargement (4/7) and superficial varicose vein (5/7). PLE deposited visibly in the abnormal sinus except one case. During 13-30 months' follow-up, 6 cases had good effects on limb hypertrophy after the treatment, and the limbs with lesions were obviously shrank and the thigh circumference became near to the normal limb. Another case had no obvious change. One had mild recurring around the knee one year later. The major side-effects included medium to extreme swelling of the limbs (7/7), serum transaminase elevation (2/7), and numbness of the distal end of the limb (1/7). The complications included a small piece of skin necrosis (1/7) and the first toe-drop (1/7). Conclusion: The arteriography in KTS can demonstrate a part of vascular malformations. Transcatheter intra-arterial PLE injection was effective in treating the hypertrophy of the limb caused by KTS. Because the therapy could result in some serious side-effects and complications, it should be used carefully
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Wanjun; Deng Li; Ai Lixin; Li Jiaping
2005-01-01
Objective: To investigate the effect of the Oleum of Brucea javanica lipiodol compound (BJLC), a anticancerous agent of traditional Chinese medicine, in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through transhepatic arterial embolization (TAE). Methods: BJLC was made by the mixed oleum of Brucea javanica and lipiodol was injected through hepatic artery by catheter to treat 56 patients with HCC. Results: After treatment, the tumors were shrunk 33.8% averagely. 1,2,3 year survival rates were 87.5%, 48.2% and 30.4% respectively. No marrow depression caused by the treatment were found. Conclusion: BJLC has a definite effect in treatment of HCC by TAE. As a oily anticancerous agent of traditional Chinese medicine, its conspicuous characteristic include low toxicity, embolizability and remainability in tumor tissue. so, it has a great superiority to become a satisfactory embolic agent for the treatment of HCC. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Dazhong; Yin Jianlin; Liu Hairi; Zhang Fuqiang; Huang Hai; Gu Youmei
2010-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of embolization of uterine fibroids by using pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion or polyvinyl alcohol particles as embolismic materials. Methods: Seventy-three patients with uterine fibroids were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (29 cases) were treated with pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion as embolismic materials, while patients in group B (44 cases) with polyvinyl alcohol particles (with a diameter of 300-700 μm) as embolismic materials. Embolization therapy of uterine fibroids was performed in all patients. The uterus volume, the size of uterine fibroid and sex hormone level both before and after the treatment were estimated and the results were compared between two groups. The occurrence of complications was observed. Results: The technical success of catheterization and embolization was 100% in both groups. After the therapy,both the uterus volume and the uterine fibroid size decreased significantly, but no significant difference in the size reduction existed between the two groups (P>0.05). The clinical symptoms showed a marked improvement in all patients, while the sex hormone level showed no obvious changes. No serious complications occurred. Conclusion: In treating uterine fibroids with embolization technique, both pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion and polyvinyl alcohol particles are safe and effective embolismic materials. However, use of polyvinyl alcohol particles may be safer than pingyangmycin, as pingyangmycin is a kind of chemotherapeutic drugs, which might potentially cause some short-term or long-term complications. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jin Gyoo; Moon, Tae Young; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo; Choi, Sang Yul; Park, Choong Hoon
1998-01-01
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of renal CT scanning and to histologically correlate renal damage induced by renal arterial infusion of 0.2 ml/kg of doxorubicin-lipiodol emulsion. Renal CT scans of 20 rabbit kidneys were obtained 15 days after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and were classified into four grades, as follows: grade 0 - no fleck, grade 1 - one to three nodular flecks; grade 2 - four or more nodular flecks, or one semilunar fleck; and grade 3 - two or more semilunar flecks. The percentage of histological section occupied by lesion was determined using squared paper, and compared with the grades determined on the basis of CT. The histologic findings were interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration, intratubular lipiodol droplets, dystrophic calcification, and and cellular necrosis. The mean sizes of grade 0, 1, 2 and 3 histological lesions were 2.2 % (n=5), 4.5 % (n=4), 21.9 % (n=7), and 24% (n=4), respectively. Grades 0 and 1 accounted for nine cases (3.2%), while grades 2 and 3 accounted for 11 (22.6%); this difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). CT findings showing nodular or semilunar flecks 15 days after infusion into the renal artery of doxorubicin-lipiodol emulsion correlate with the size of the damaged kidney, as seen on histological specimens. (author). 19 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs
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Sundram, Felix [Nuclear Medicine Department (The PET Centre), Singapore General Hospital, Block 2 Basement 1, Outram Road, 169608 (Singapore); Chau, Tran Chi Minh [Nuclear Medicine Department, Cho Ray Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Onkhuudai, Peljee [Nuclear Medicine Department, First Central University Hospital, Ulaanbatax (Mongolia); Bernal, Patricia [Nuclear Medicine Department, Fundacion Santa Fe, Bogota (Colombia); Padhy, Ajit Kumar [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
2004-02-01
The radioconjugate was prepared by using an HDD (4-hexadecyl 1-2,9,9-tetramethyl-4,7-diaza-1,10-decanethiol) kit, and lipiodol. Over a period of 18 months, 70 patients received at least one treatment of radioconjugate. Some patients were re-treated if there was no evidence of disease progression. The level of radioconjugate administered was based on radiation-absorbed dose to critical normal organs, calculated following a ''scout'' dose of radioconjugate. The organs at greatest risk for radiation toxicity are the normal liver, the lung and the bone marrow. An Excel spreadsheet was used to determine maximum tolerated activity (MTA), defined as the amount of radioactivity calculated to deliver no more than 12 Gy to lungs, or 30 Gy to liver, or 1.5 Gy to bone marrow. Patients were followed for at least 12 weeks after therapy, until recovery from all toxicity. The clinical parameters evaluated included toxicity, response as determined by contrast-enhanced CT, palliation of symptoms, overall survival, performance status (Karnofsky) and hepatic function (Child's classification). Liver function tests, serum {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and complete blood counts were done at each follow-up visit. In the majority of patients, the scout dose studies indicated the radiation absorbed dose to normalliver to be the limiting factor to the treatment dose, while in a few patients dose to lung was the limiting factor. Radiation dose to bone marrow was negligible and was thus not a factor for the MTA calculations. Side-effects were minimal and usually presented as loss of appetite, right hypochondrial discomfort and low-grade fever, even at high levels of administered radioactivity. The symptoms resolved with simple supportive therapy within 3 days of onset. Liver function tests at 24 and 72 h showed no significant changes and complete blood counts at 1 week, 4 weeks and 12 weeks showed no changes (no bone marrow suppression). Sixteen patients were
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sundram, Felix; Chau, Tran Chi Minh; Onkhuudai, Peljee; Bernal, Patricia; Padhy, Ajit Kumar
2004-01-01
The radioconjugate was prepared by using an HDD (4-hexadecyl 1-2,9,9-tetramethyl-4,7-diaza-1,10-decanethiol) kit, and lipiodol. Over a period of 18 months, 70 patients received at least one treatment of radioconjugate. Some patients were re-treated if there was no evidence of disease progression. The level of radioconjugate administered was based on radiation-absorbed dose to critical normal organs, calculated following a ''scout'' dose of radioconjugate. The organs at greatest risk for radiation toxicity are the normal liver, the lung and the bone marrow. An Excel spreadsheet was used to determine maximum tolerated activity (MTA), defined as the amount of radioactivity calculated to deliver no more than 12 Gy to lungs, or 30 Gy to liver, or 1.5 Gy to bone marrow. Patients were followed for at least 12 weeks after therapy, until recovery from all toxicity. The clinical parameters evaluated included toxicity, response as determined by contrast-enhanced CT, palliation of symptoms, overall survival, performance status (Karnofsky) and hepatic function (Child's classification). Liver function tests, serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and complete blood counts were done at each follow-up visit. In the majority of patients, the scout dose studies indicated the radiation absorbed dose to normalliver to be the limiting factor to the treatment dose, while in a few patients dose to lung was the limiting factor. Radiation dose to bone marrow was negligible and was thus not a factor for the MTA calculations. Side-effects were minimal and usually presented as loss of appetite, right hypochondrial discomfort and low-grade fever, even at high levels of administered radioactivity. The symptoms resolved with simple supportive therapy within 3 days of onset. Liver function tests at 24 and 72 h showed no significant changes and complete blood counts at 1 week, 4 weeks and 12 weeks showed no changes (no bone marrow suppression). Sixteen patients were treated in the dose escalation phase
Transcatheter lipiodol chemo-embolization of the inferior phrenic artery in hepatocellular carcinoma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Fanghong; Luo Zuyan; Yuan Jianhua; Yu Wenqiang; Cai Xuexiang; Hu Tingyang; Liu Zijiang
2002-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of transcatheter lipiodol chemo-embolization therapy (TOCE) for HCC via inferior phrenic artery (IPA) and to analyse the location of the tumor feeding inferior phrenic artery. Methods: Twenty-five cases of HCC underwent the procedure of TOCE via the IPA, as well as the hepatic artery using Seldinger's method. The patterns of tumor growth included huge type in 12 cases, solitary nodular type in 8 cases and multiple nodular type in 5 cases. Hepatic artery and inferior phrenic artery chemo-embolization were performed in all cases. Results: Inferior phrenic artery originated from celiac trunk in 16 cases (64%); abdomen aorta around celiac trunk in 8(32%). The site-sort tumors supplied by IPA in right lobe (VII, VIII segment) were 23 cases and left lobe (IV segment) 2 cases. The cumulative survival rates of IPA chemo-embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma were 84%(1 year) and 68%(2 years). No severe complications occurred. Conclusions: TOCE of the IPA is a safe and effective method in the management of HCC supplied by IPA. When the tumor site is adjacent to diaphragm, hepatic ligaments or bare area, may arouse the blood supply by IPA, especially in no tumor staining or staining defect in hepatic artery angiography but tumor enhancement on CT, and increase of the level of serum α-fetoprotein
Lymphangiogram of the pelvic limb in normal dogs with Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide
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Tachibana, F.; Nishikawa, T.; Kudo, T.; Otomo, K.; Koike, T.
1982-01-01
Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide (0.2 ml/kg) was injected directly into the lymphatic vessels of the pelvic limbs in 28 healthy adult mongrel dogs. The contrast medium appeared on the roentgenogram in the popliteal, lateral iliac, medial iliac, sacral and lumbar aortic lymph nodes (LN). It was also visible in the iliofemoral, superficial inguinal and cranial mediastinal LN in several dogs. It diffused from the popliteal into the sacral, medial iliac and lateral iliac LN to fill the cisterna chyli and thoracic duct system. The features of the popliteal, lateral iliac and lumbar aortic LN were shown in the lymphangiograms of all the animals. The incidence of the other LN was different. Depending on the incidence of these LN in the lymphangiogram, the pictures of the canine lymphatic system were classified into three types:(1) medial iliac and sacral LN were visible on both sides (16%);(2) one of these LN was not observed (36%);(3) medial iliac and/or sacral lymph node was not observed on both sides (48%). (author)
A novel method of modifying immune responses by vaccination with lipiodol-siRNA mixtures
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Yijian Li
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract The dendritic cell (DC possesses the ability to stimulate both T helper 1 (Th1 and Th2 responses depending on activation stimuli. Although it is known that chemically or genetically modified DC can be used therapeutically to steer immune responses towards either Th1 or Th2, cellular therapy with ex vivo manipulated DC is clinically difficult. Here we demonstrate a novel method of switching immune responses from Th1 to Th2 through in vivo immune modulation by administration of siRNA. We demonstrate that siRNA targeting of the IL-12p35 gene leads to a Th2 bias in vitro through an IL-10 dependent mechanism. In vivo administration of siRNA admixed with the oil-based contrast agent lipiodol in the presence of antigen and adjuvant induced a deviation in recall response to reduced production of IFN-γ and augmented IL-4 response using either KLH or ovalbumin. This simple method of in vivo modification of immune response possesses therapeutic potential in Th1-mediated diseases such as multiple sclerosis and autoimmune diabetes.
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Li Yanhao; Liu Biao; Zeng Qingle; Jiang Zhongpu; Chen Yong; Huang Weilang; Shen Qi; Zhao Zhongqing
2000-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of uterine arterial embolization with Pingyangmycin(a homogenous bleomycin) lipiodol emulsion(PLE) for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Methods: Uterine arterial embolization with PLE was performed in 25 patients. The improvement of symptoms and uterine size changes were followed up in 3-18 months(mean 6 months) after the procedure. Results: All but 2 cases were successfully treated bilaterally. Super-selective angiography showed enlargement of uterine artery, accompanied by tortuous branches. The uterine size was increased. The uterus itself was significantly stained and emptied slowly. Coagulation necrosis was found in resected fibroids after embolization in 3 patients. One month after the procedure, a mean 40% reduction of uterine volume was obtained in 18 followed-up cases. The clinical symptoms were relieved significantly. The main side effects were hypogastric pain(13/25),which was intense in 6 cases. Conclusion: Uterine arterial embolization with PLE is a good non-surgical therapy in symptomatic uterine fibroids with mild side effects
Superselective renal artery embolization with lipiodol and absolute alcohol emulsion for renal tumor
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Yu Miao; Li Jiakai; Sun Minglu; Wang Huixian
2008-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the renal arterial embolization with lipidol and absolute alcohol emulsion in the treatment of renal tumors. Methods: The superselective renal arterial embolization by using coaxial-cathaterization with infusion of lipiodol and absolute alcohol (in proportion of 2 :1) emulsion was performed in twenty patients with malignant and benign kidney tumors. 4 weeks later, the renal arteriography was taken routinely and repeated embolization was performed in case of necessary; and follow up was carried out periodically. Results: The imaging findings showed thorough tumor necrosis and feeding vessel abruption in 18 cases after one session of treatment. The volume of tumors decreased more than a half in 13 patients (82.25%, 13/18) associated with a well-distributed lipidol inside the tumors. The second session of treatment was performed in other 2 patients and the clinical symptoms relieved obviously. Conclusions: The superselective renal artery embolization with lipidol and absolute alcohol emulsion can permanently embolize all tumor feeding arteries in capillary vessel level with maximum reservation of renal function, providing definitively efficacy and worthwhile to be recommended widely. (authors)
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Haderlein, Marlen; Merten, Ricarda; Stojanovic, Andrea; Speer, Stefan; Fietkau, Rainer; Ott, Oliver J. [University Hospitals of Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Scherl, Claudia [University Hospitals of Erlangen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Erlangen (Germany)
2015-08-15
Lipiodol injections were administered in the head and neck area to improve gross tumor volume (GTV) definition for small-volume re-irradiation of a 63-year-old previously irradiated patient with a second tumor of the oropharynx in the posterior wall with longitudinal ligament infiltration (cT4cN0cM0). The patient had dialysis-depending renal failure. On diagnostic computed tomography (CT), which was performed with intravenous contrast agent, the tumor in the oropharynx was not detectable. Because of dialysis-depending renal failure comorbidity, no contrast agent was applied in the planning CT and in the diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. In each cross-sectional imaging study performed, the GTV, especially in craniocaudal extensions, was not safely delineable. Therefore, craniocaudal tumor margins were pharyngoscopically marked with Lipiodol injections, an iodine-containing contrast agent. In a second planning CT, the GTV could be defined with the help of the Lipiodol marks and small-volume re-irradiation was performed. No Lipiodol-associated side effects occurred in the patient. In the present case, the use of Lipiodol injections at the tumor margins facilitated the definition of the GTV. (orig.) [German] Anwendung von Lipiodolinjektionen im Kopf-Hals-Bereich zur Verbesserung der GTV-Definition bei einer kleinvolumigen Re-Bestrahlung eines 63-jaehrigen, vorbestrahlten Patienten mit einem Zweitmalignom im Oropharynx mit Infiltration des hinteren Laengsbandes (cT4cN0cM0). Nebenbefundlich bestand bei dem Patienten eine dialysepflichtige Niereninsuffizienz. Im initialen diagnostischen Kontrastmittel-CT der Hals und Thoraxregion war der Tumor nicht abgrenzbar, so dass das Bestrahlungsplanungs-CT in Anbetracht des diagnostischen CTs und der bekannten Niereninsuffizienz ohne intravenoeses Kontrastmittel durchgefuehrt wurde. Das diagnostische MRT (vgl. Abb. 1) wurde ebenfalls ohne intravenoeses Kontrastmittel durchgefuehrt wurden. In allen durchgefuehrten
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Toru Ishikawa
Full Text Available The amount of drug-loaded lipiodol in an HCC tumor post-transarterial chemoembolization (TACE correlates with the risk of local tumor recurrence. Lipiodol enhancement of a tumor on conventional CT, measured in Hounsfield units (HU, can predict tumor response. Here we investigate whether cone-beam CT (CBCT can also be used to predict tumor response, providing the benefit of being able to optimize the patient's treatment plan intra-procedurally.A total of 82 HCC nodules (82 patients, ≤5 cm in diameter, were treated with balloon-occluded TACE using miriplatin between December 2013 and November 2014. For each patient, both CBCT and conventional CT images were obtained post-TACE. The degree of correlation between CBCT and conventional CT was determined by comparing identical regions of interest for each imaging modality using pixel values.The pixel values from conventional CT and CBCT were highly correlated, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.912 (p<0.001. The location of the nodules within the liver did not affect the results; the correlation coefficient was 0.891 (p<0.001 for the left lobe and 0.926 (p<0.001 for the right lobe. The mean pixel value for conventional CT was 439 ± 279 HU, and the mean pixel value for CBCT was 416 ± 311 HU.CBCT may be used as a substitute for conventional CT to quantitatively evaluate the amount of drug-loaded lipiodol within an HCC nodule and, hence, the efficacy of TACE treatment. The major benefit of using CBCT is the ability to predict the likelihood of local recurrence intra-procedurally, enabling subsequent treatment optimization.
Transarterial Re-188 labeled Lipiodol therapy in cases of inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Ajay; Pant, G.S.; Bandopadhyaya, G.P.; Bal, C.S.; Srivastava, D.N.; Acharya, S.K.; Pandey, G.K.; DattaGupta, S.; Sundaram, K.R.; Zanzonicog, Pat; Sundaram, Felix X.; Padhy, A.K.
2004-01-01
Full text: Most of the patients of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) present late with inoperable disease, cirrhosis of the liver and sometimes with portal vein thrombosis. In these circumstances, chemoembolisation is not possible. Similarly, if tumor is not accessible percutaneously, percutaneous ablative procedures are also ruled out. Such patients can be offered internal radionuclide therapy. In the internal radionuclide therapy, it is desirable to deliver the maximum possible radiation to the tumor, while protecting the critical organs such as normal liver parenchyma, lungs and the bone marrow (for which critical levels of radiation doses are predetermined as 30, 12 and 1.5 Gy, respectively). This is possible with individual dosimetry, by which radiation-absorbed dose/MBq to the various organs including the tumor is calculated and the 'maximum tolerated activity (MTA)', which can be safely administered to the patient, is estimated. However, this MTA should be able to deliver enough radiation to the tumor to ablate it completely (considered to be 80-100 Gy). We conducted trans-arterial Re-188 lipiodol therapy in patients with inoperable HCC after calculating MTA with individual dosimetry, in a multi-centric trial conducted by IAEA, and tried to evaluate whether calculated MTA could deliver tumoricidal radiation dose. With a transarterially injected scout dose (185 MBq) of Re-188, radiation absorbed dose to above mentioned organs including tumor were calculated in ten patients after acquiring planar gamma camera images, using conjugate view method (images taken up to 3 hrs post-injection along with a standard source) and performing first-order corrections for scatter (by taking images both in photopeak and scatter window) and attenuation (by taking a flood source and a transmission scan of the patents prior to the administration of Re-188). Images were acquired on gamma camera(Siemens-ORBITOR or GE- Millennium VG) with high/medium-energy collimator and radiation
Computed tomography after administration of SMANCS-Lipiodol to liver cancers
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Maki, Shojiro; Konno, Toshimitsu; Iwai, Ken; Uchida, Mitsukuni; Tashiro, Seiki; Miyauchi, Yoshimasa; Maeda, Hiroshi [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine
1984-08-01
Sixty-eight cases of liver cancer, 48 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and 20 cases of metastatic liver cancer, were treated by injection of SMANCS-Lipiodol (S-L) via tumor feeding arteries. Abdominal CT was carried out on the 3 rd day, 1 week, 2 and 4 weeks after the administration. These CT images were compared with those before the administration. Both primary and metastatic liver cancers were visualized as high density area due to the selective stay of S-L. Thus, the method became useful as a diagnostic tool; several tumors were newly visualized after the administration. S-L stayed in primary tumors and metastatic tumors. There were three types of the remaining of S-L in metastatic tumors for a long period: Type A, in which S-L remained in entire tumors; Types B, in which it remained primarily in circumference of tumor and Mixed type of A and B. The anticancer effect of S-L paralleled with the extent of the remaining of S-L in tumors, which was classified from Grade 0 to Grade IV. Grade IV means that S-L was recognized in the entire areas of tumors in the every slice of CT, and in the Grade IV tumors size reduced effectively after several months period. The dosage which was necessary to attain Grade IV was 0.08 ml per square centimeters calculated by the largest slice of every tumor. From Grade 0 to III, they need additional administration of S-L until to attain Grade IV in the tumor for the effective tumor regression.
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Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Aikata, Hiroshi; Takaki, Shintaro; Katamura, Yoshio; Hiramatsu, Akira; Waki, Koji; Takahashi, Shoichi; Hieda, Masashi; Toyota, Naoyuki; Ito, Katsuhide; Chayama, Kazuaki
2009-01-01
We evaluate the long-term prognosis and prognostic factors in patients treated with transarterial infusion chemotherapy using cisplatin-lipiodol (CDDP/LPD) suspension with or without embolization for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Study subjects were 107 patients with HCC treated with repeated transarterial infusion chemotherapy alone using CDDP/LPD (adjusted as CDDP 10mg/LPD 1ml). The median number of transarterial infusion procedures was two (range, one to nine), the mean dose of CDDP per transarterial infusion chemotherapy session was 30 mg (range, 5.0-67.5 mg), and the median total dose of transarterial infusion chemotherapy per patient was 60 mg (range, 10-390 mg). Survival rates were 86% at 1 year, 40% at 3 years, 20% at 5 years, and 16% at 7 years. For patients with >90% LPD accumulation after the first transarterial infusion chemotherapy, rates were 98% at 1 year, 60% at 3 years, and 22% at 5 years. Multivariate analysis identified >90% LPD accumulation after the first transarterial infusion chemotherapy (p = 0.001), absence of portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT; p < 0.001), and Child-Pugh class A (p = 0.012) as independent determinants of survival. Anaphylactic shock was observed in two patients, at the fifth transarterial infusion chemotherapy session in one and the ninth in the other. In conclusion, transarterial infusion chemotherapy with CDDP/LPD appears to be a useful treatment option for patients with unresectable HCC without PVTT and in Child-Pugh class A. LPD accumulation after the first transarterial infusion chemotherapy is an important prognostic factor. Careful consideration should be given to the possibility of anaphylactic shock upon repeat infusion with CDDP/LPD.
Computed tomography after administration of SMANCS-Lipiodol to liver cancers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maki, Shojiro; Konno, Toshimitsu; Iwai, Ken; Uchida, Mitsukuni; Tashiro, Seiki; Miyauchi, Yoshimasa; Maeda, Hiroshi
1984-01-01
Sixty-eight cases of liver cancer, 48 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and 20 cases of metastatic liver cancer, were treated by injection of SMANCS-Lipiodol (S-L) via tumor feeding arteries. Abdominal CT was carried out on the 3 rd day, 1 week, 2 and 4 weeks after the administration. These CT images were compared with those before the administration. Both primary and metastatic liver cancers were visualized as high density area due to the selective stay of S-L. Thus, the method became useful as a diagnostic tool; several tumors were newly visalized after the administration. S-L stayed in primary tumors and metastatic tumors. There were three types of the remaining of S-L in metastatic tumors for a long period: Type A, in which S-L remained in entire tumors; Types B, in which it remained primarily in circumference of tumor and Mixed type of A and B. The anticancer effect of S-L paralleled with the extent of the remaining of S-L in tumors, which was classified from Grade 0 to Grade IV. Grade IV means that S-L was recognized in the entire areas of tumors in the every slice of CT, and in the Grade IV tumors size reduced effectively after several months period. The dosage which was necessary to attain Grade IV was 0.08 ml per square centimeters calculated by the largest slice of every tumor. From Grade 0 to III, they need additional administration of S-L until to attain Grade IV in the tumor for the effective tumor regression. (author)
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Lee, Mee Ran; Kim, Yun Hwan; Cha, In Ho; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuk; Um, Soon Ho; Choi, Young Hee
1999-01-01
To investigate the safety and usefulness of Lipiodol-percutaneous transhepatic ethanol injection(LPEI) and to determine the appropriate concentration of Lipiodol during L-PEI. This was achieved by evalvating CT findings and histopathologic changes according to the concentration of Lipiodol, amount of ethanol, and the time interval after injection into normal rabbit liver. This experimental study involved 18 New Zealand rabbits under US guidance. They were divided into five groups according to injected materials; two rabbits with 0.4cc of normal saline(group I), six with 0.4cc of ethanol in the left hepatic lobe(group II), and 0.4cc of Lipiodol in the right hepatic lobe(group III), five rabbits with 5% Lipiodol-ethanol(5% vol. of Lipiodol+95% vol. of ethanol), 0.2cc in the right hepatic lobe, and 0.4cc in the left(group IV); and five rabbits with 10% Lipiodol-ethanol as per group IV(group V). CT was performed immediately, one week, two weeks, and three-four weeks after injection, and pathologic specimens were obtained on the third day(acute phase) and during the third or fourth week(chronic phase) after injection. On CT, intrahepatic localization of the L-PEI injection site was well demonstrated as a focal high attenuated area which gradually decreased in attenuation on follow up CT. The opacification of the inferior vena cava by Lipiodol, the linear distribution of Lipiodol along portal veins or fissures, and peritoneal leakage were clearly demonstrated in groups III-V, though the effects gradually disappeared during follow-up CT. There was no remarkable difference in gross CT attenuation between group IV and group V. The main pathologic findings during the acute phase of group II were coagulation necrosis surrounded by macrophage, inflammatory reaction, and early periportal and subcapsular fibrosis. The findings in group IV and V were similar to those in group II and additional fat vacuole accumulations in the necrotic area were also seen. During the chronic phase
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Wu Hanping; Feng Gansheng; Li Xin; Liang Huimin; Zheng Chuansheng
2003-01-01
Objective: To study the inhibitory effects of VEGF antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (asODN) on cultured Walker-256 cells' VEGF expression, and to observe the anti-tumor effects of intraarterial infusion of asODN mixed with lipiodol on rat liver cancer. Methods: VEGF asODN and sense ODN were added to the media of non-serum cultured Walker-256 cells, and the VEGF concentrations of the supernatants were detected by using ELISA 48 hours later. Cells of endothelial cell line ECV-304 were cultured in the supernatants. The growth of ECV-304 cells was observed by MTT method. 30 rats with Walker-256 carcinoma cells implanted into left liver lobe were randomly divided into 3 groups. 0.2 ml ultra-fluid lipiodol (UFLP group, n=10), 3OD asODN mixed with 0.2 ml ultra-fluid lipiodol (UFLP + asODN group, n=10), and 0.2 ml normal saline (control group, n=10) were infused into the hepatic artery. The volumes of tumors were measured by using MRI before and 7 days after the treatment. VEGF mRNA in cancerous and peri-cancerous tissues was detected by RT-PCR. The microvessel density (MVD) and VEGF expression were observed by immunohistochemistry. Results: asODN could inhibit Walker-256 cells' VEGF expression. The tumor growth rate was lower in UFLP + asODN group than that in UFLP and control groups [(140.1±33.8)%, (177.9±64.9)%, and (403.9± 69.4)%, respectively, F=60.02, P 0.05). The MVD in UFLP + asODN group (53.1±18.4) was significantly less than that of control group (73.2±20.4) and UFLP group (80.3±18.5) (F=5.44, P<0.05). Conclusion: VEGF asODN could inhibit VEGF expression of Walker-256 cells. It may be an antiangiogenesis therapy drug in malignant tumor. VEGF asODN mixed with UFLP in embolizing liver cancer could decrease liver cancer growth, VEGF expression, and microvessel density better than UFLP alone
Chan, Mark; Chiang, Chi Leung; Lee, Venus; Cheung, Steven; Leung, Ronnie; Wong, Matthew; Lee, Frankle; Blanck, Oliver
2017-01-01
Aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the accuracy of respiration-correlated (4D) and uncorrelated (3D) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in localizing lipiodolized hepatocellular carcinomas during stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). 4D-CBCT scans of eighteen HCCs were acquired during free-breathing SBRT following trans-arterial chemo-embolization (TACE) with lipiodol. Approximately 1320 x-ray projections per 4D-CBCT were collected and phase-sorted into ten bins. A 4D registration workflow was followed to register the reconstructed time-weighted average CBCT with the planning mid-ventilation (MidV) CT by an initial bone registration of the vertebrae and then tissue registration of the lipiodol. For comparison, projections of each 4D-CBCT were combined to synthesize 3D-CBCT without phase-sorting. Using the lipiodolized tumor, uncertainties of the treatment setup estimated from the absolute and relative lipiodol position to bone were analyzed separately for 4D- and 3D-CBCT. Qualitatively, 3D-CBCT showed better lipiodol contrast than 4D-CBCT primarily because of a tenfold increase of projections used for reconstruction. Motion artifact was observed to subside in 4D-CBCT compared to 3D-CBCT. Group mean, systematic and random errors estimated from 4D- and 3D-CBCT agreed to within 1 mm in the cranio-caudal (CC) and 0.5 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP) and left-right (LR) directions. Systematic and random errors are largest in the CC direction, amounting to 4.7 mm and 3.7 mm from 3D-CBCT and 5.6 mm and 3.8 mm from 4D-CBCT, respectively. Safety margin calculated from 3D-CBCT and 4D-CBCT differed by 2.1, 0.1 and 0.0 mm in the CC, AP, and LR directions. 3D-CBCT is an adequate alternative to 4D-CBCT when lipoid is used for localizing HCC during free-breathing SBRT. Similar margins are anticipated with 3D- and 4D-CBCT.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meijer, Gert Johan; Toorn, Peter-Paul van der; Bal, Matthieu; Schuring, Danny; Weterings, Jan; Wildt, Michel de
2012-01-01
Purpose: To increase local control and decrease side effects for urinary bladder cancer patients by integrating a library planning procedure with image guidance using lipiodol markers. Methods and materials: Twenty patients with T2-T4N0M0 grade 2–3 invasive bladder carcinoma were treated according to an online adaptive protocol. Initially, the gross tumour volume (GTV) was demarcated during cystoscopy by injecting several drops of lipiodol in the submucosa around the tumour. Subsequently two CT scans were acquired with a full bladder and a voided bladder. On both scans, the boost volume (GTV) and the low-risk bladder volume were delineated. Using an interpolation tool, six concomitant boost IMRT plans with increasing bladder volumes were generated. For each fraction the procedure at the treatment unit was as follows: Firstly, a ConeBeam-CT was acquired and based on the amount of bladder filling the best fitting bladder contours and corresponding GTV and IMRT plans were selected. Secondly, the lipiodol markers were registered using the corresponding GTV contours and it was verified that the corresponding 95%-isodose surface covered the entire bladder. Finally, an online setup correction was applied based on this registration and the corresponding treatment plan was irradiated. Results: The lipiodol markers were very useful in outlining the GTV at the planning CT and for daily setup correction. While the patients strived for a full bladder filling at time of the treatment, this was seldom accomplished. Due to our protocol an appropriate plan with adequate coverage of the PTV and without excessive dose to healthy tissue was delivered every day. The treatment was very well tolerated by all patients. At the end of the treatment no grade 3 urinary or gastro-intestinal toxicity was observed. After a median follow-up of 28 months two local relapses occurred. Conclusion: Using the library planning approach combined with online image guidance using lipiodol markers, we
Meijer, Gert Johan; van der Toorn, Peter-Paul; Bal, Matthieu; Schuring, Danny; Weterings, Jan; de Wildt, Michel
2012-11-01
To increase local control and decrease side effects for urinary bladder cancer patients by integrating a library planning procedure with image guidance using lipiodol markers. Twenty patients with T2-T4N0M0 grade 2-3 invasive bladder carcinoma were treated according to an online adaptive protocol. Initially, the gross tumour volume (GTV) was demarcated during cystoscopy by injecting several drops of lipiodol in the submucosa around the tumour. Subsequently two CT scans were acquired with a full bladder and a voided bladder. On both scans, the boost volume (GTV) and the low-risk bladder volume were delineated. Using an interpolation tool, six concomitant boost IMRT plans with increasing bladder volumes were generated. For each fraction the procedure at the treatment unit was as follows: Firstly, a ConeBeam-CT was acquired and based on the amount of bladder filling the best fitting bladder contours and corresponding GTV and IMRT plans were selected. Secondly, the lipiodol markers were registered using the corresponding GTV contours and it was verified that the corresponding 95%-isodose surface covered the entire bladder. Finally, an online setup correction was applied based on this registration and the corresponding treatment plan was irradiated. The lipiodol markers were very useful in outlining the GTV at the planning CT and for daily setup correction. While the patients strived for a full bladder filling at time of the treatment, this was seldom accomplished. Due to our protocol an appropriate plan with adequate coverage of the PTV and without excessive dose to healthy tissue was delivered every day. The treatment was very well tolerated by all patients. At the end of the treatment no grade 3 urinary or gastro-intestinal toxicity was observed. After a median follow-up of 28 months two local relapses occurred. Using the library planning approach combined with online image guidance using lipiodol markers, we were able to deliver a highly conformal dose distribution
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Yu Miao; Zhang Jinshan; Deng Liping
2010-01-01
Objective: To further reduce the adverse reactions of vascular embolization therapy for cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL) in order to find better embolizing agents. Methods: Sixty CHL patients were randomly and evenly divided into three groups: embolization therapy with sodium alginate microsphere(SAM) + pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion (PLE) (group SAM + PLE), PLE (group PLE) and SAM (group SAM). The routine postoperative symptomatic treatments were conducted, including odynolysis, liver-protection and antiinflammatory therapy. The liver function and the intraoperative or postoperative discomfort symptoms before and 7 days after operation, and the changes in tumors were examined with CT scan. Clinical symptoms 3 months after operation were respectively compared. Results: The greatest impact on liver function was seen in group PLE among the three groups. The maximum intraoperative or postoperative discomfort symptoms were seen in group SAM, but the therapeutic effectiveness of the three groups had no significant difference. Conclusion: SAM + PLE is a safe and effective embolizing agent, being user-friendly, minor in the effect on liver function and light in the intraoperative and postoperative reaction. It is recommended that SAM + PLE be widely used for cavernous hemangioma of the liver. (authors)
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Jinno, Kenji; Tokuyama, Katuyuki; Yumoto, Yasuhiro
1988-01-01
In 20 lesions of 17 patients treated with arterial infusion of SMANCS dissolved in lipiodol (Lp) and transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), Lp deposition within the tumor were depicted on CT (Lp-CT). The findings of Lp-CT were compared with those of macroscopic, soft X-ray, and histologic examinations for resected specimens. Lp-CT appearance of HCC fell into four types: (I) complete type - round and homogeneous high density area (HDA) - in which Lp was deposited over the whole area; (II) defective type - inhomogeneous HDA - in which Lp was deposited in part of the tumor; (III) aggregated type - aggregation of small HDA; (IV) deficient type - no HDA - in which little or no Lp was deposited. Type I was found in 20 % of the lesions, type II in 25 %, type III in 20 %, and type IV in 35 %. In type I, HCC was of macroscopically nodular form with expansive growth and pseudocapsule and of histologically trabecular form with broad blood spaces and inviable cancer cells. In the other types, similar findings were seen in the necrotic area in which Lp was deposited, whereas scirrhous or compact type of HCC was histologically seen in the area containing viable cancer cells in which no Lp was deposited. The presence or not of Lp deposition, as depicted on CT, was closely correlated with histologic findings, which has significant implications for the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of TAE with Lp. (Namekawa, K.)
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Liu, Yi Sheng; Ou, Ming Ching; Tsai, Yi Shan; Lin, Xi Zhang; Wang, Chien Kuo; Tsai, Hong Ming; Chuang, Ming Tsung
2015-01-01
To retrospectively compare treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) using gelatin sponges or microspheres plus lipiodol-doxorubicin vs. doxorubicin-loaded drug-eluting beads (DEB). A total of 158 patients with HCC received TACE from November 2010 to November 2011 were enrolled in this study, including 64 (40.5%) received TACE with lipiodol-doxorubicin and gelatin sponges (group A), 41 (25.9%) received TACE with lipiodol-doxorubicin and microspheres (group B), and 53 (33.5%) received TACE with doxorubicin-loaded DEB (group C). Tumor response and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. No significant difference was found at baseline among the three groups. The doxorubicin dosage in group C was significantly (p < 0.001) higher compared to the dose used in groups A or B (median, 50 mg vs. 31 mg or 25 mg). Significantly (p < 0.001) more patients in group C achieved complete response compared to those in groups A or B (32.1% vs. 6.3% or 2.4%). Significantly (p < 0.001) less patients in group C had progressive disease compared to those in groups A or B (34.0% vs. 57.8% or 68.3%). Minor AEs were more common in groups A and B compared to group C, with rates of 54.7%, 34.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. In patients with HCC, TACE with DEB offers better safety and efficacy profiles compared to either TACE with gelatin sponges or TACE with microspheres.
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Chaudakshetrin, P.; Osorio, M.; Padhy, A.K.; Divgi, C.; Zanzonico, P.
2004-01-01
Full text: Intrahepatic artery Lipiodol labeled with generator-produced, β-emitting 188Re (17 hr; Eβ=0.53-0.70 MeV; Range=4 mm) localizes in and may effectively treat inoperable liver tumors. Although 188Re emits an imageable 155-keV γ ray (15%), its 478- and 633-keV β rays (2.3%) complicate imaging. Our objective was to optimize 188Re image quality and conjugate-view accuracy for quantitative imaging-based patient-specific dosimetry for 188Re-Lipiodol. Using an ADAC dual-EpicO-circumflex-detector gamma camera, 188Re intrinsic and extrinsic (with LEGP, MEGP, and HEGP collimation) uniformities using either 99mTc intrinsic or 188Re extrinsic flood corrections were evaluated. 188Re conjugate view count rate vs. activity concentration linearity as a function of scattering/attenuating medium thickness was then evaluated with and without corrections for attenuation (a 188Re transmission image) and for scatter and septal penetration, subtracting a fraction of counts in a lower-energy (109-140 keV)- and a higher-energy (170-201 keV)-window image, respectively, from the 20% (140-171 keV) photopeak image. Our phantom consisted of 5 10-ml vials containing 25 to 400 μCi/ml of 188Re with 0 to 6 cm at different positions (∼5 cm apart) between the detectors (60 cm apart) and with a 0- to 6-cm thickness of non-radioactive water between the vials and each detector. With a 99mTc intrinsic correction, 188Re intrinsic uniformity was excellent ( 10% and 'tubey'), and was poorer the lower the energy rating of the collimation. Uniformity with HEGP collimation and an extrinsic 188Re correction was acceptable ( 0.95) and the slope (cps/pixel/μCi/ml) was constant +25% (vs +10% for 99mTc) for 0- to 6-cm thicknesses of water. Regardless of the fraction of counts subtracted, neither scatter nor septal-penetration correction improved the slope constancy. Conclusion: Downscatter/septal penetration of the 478- and 633-keV 188Re γ-rays complicates imaging of its 155-keV γ-ray. Using HEGP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deschamps, F., E-mail: frederic.deschamps@gustaveroussy.fr; Farouil, G. [Université Paris-Saclay, Département de radiologie Interventionnelle, Gustave Roussy (France); Gonzalez, W.; Robic, C. [Guerbet France, Guerbet (France); Paci, A.; Mir, L. M. [Université Paris-Saclay, UMR 8203 (France); Tselikas, L.; Baère, T. de [Université Paris-Saclay, Département de radiologie Interventionnelle, Gustave Roussy (France)
2017-06-15
PurposeTo demonstrate that stability is a crucial parameter for theranostic properties of Lipiodol{sup ®}-based emulsions during liver trans-arterial chemo-embolization.Materials and MethodsWe compared the theranostic properties of two emulsions made of Lipiodol{sup ®} and doxorubicin in two successive animal experiments (One VX2 tumour implanted in the left liver lobe of 30 rabbits). Emulsion-1 reproduced one of the most common way of preparation (ratio of oil/water: 1/1), and emulsion-2 was designed to obtain a water-in-oil emulsion with enhanced stability (ratio of oil/water: 3/1, plus an emulsifier). The first animal experiment compared the tumour selectivity of the two emulsions: seven rabbits received left hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of emulsion-1 and eight received HAI of emulsion-2. 3D-CBCT acquisitions were acquired after HAI of every 0.1 mL to measure the densities’ ratios between the tumours and the left liver lobes. The second animal experiment compared the plasmatic and tumour doxorubicin concentrations after HAI of 1.5 mg of doxorubicin administered either alone (n = 3) or in emulsion-1 (n = 6) or in emulsion-2 (n = 6).ResultsEmulsion-2 resulted in densities’ ratios between the tumours and the left liver lobes that were significantly higher compared to emulsion-1 (up to 0.4 mL infused). Plasmatic doxorubicin concentrations (at 5 min) were significantly lower after HAI of emulsion-2 (19.0 μg/L) than emulsion-1 (275.3 μg/L, p < 0.01) and doxorubicin alone (412.0 μg/L, p < 0.001), and tumour doxorubicin concentration (day-1) was significantly higher after HAI of emulsion-2 (20,957 ng/g) than in emulsion-1 (8093 ng/g, p < 0.05) and doxorubicin alone (2221 ng/g, p < 0.01).ConclusionStabilization of doxorubicin in a water-in-oil Lipiodol{sup ®}-based emulsion results in better theranostic properties.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du Juan; Zuo Yuewei; Hong Nanhua; Chen Xiaoming; Li Yong
2009-01-01
Objective: To investigate the long-term efficiency and safety of trans-catheter uterine artery embolization using lipiodol-pingyingmycin emulsion (LPE-TUAE) for uterine fibroids. Methods: Two hundred and forty-three patients with uterine fibroids were treated by LPE-TUAE. Fourteen of them underwent hysterectomy or myomectomy 3 days to 6 months after LPE-TUAE. The specimens were studied pathologically. Another 229 patients were followed up for 1 to 4 years to observe the long-term outcomes. Results: Menorrhagia became normal or improved markedly in 96.0% (193/201). Lumbago and lower abdominal pain disappeared or relieved markedly in 949% (94/99). Bulk-related symptoms disappeared or lessened markedly in 96.0% (48/50). Ultrasound revealed that the average decreased rate in the largest fibroid volume were 60.7% at 1 year, 63.3% at 2 year, 65.6% at 3 year and 67.4% at 4 year after embolization, and the average decreased rate in the largest uterine volume were 49.6% at 1 year, 54.3% at 2 year, 55.2% at 3 year and 57.1% at 4 year after embolization. Reoccurrence rate of myoma was 10.8% 3-4 year after embolization. No significant difference was found in hormone level between pre- and post-embolization. Pathological studies of specimens showed that lipiodol was only accumulated in fibroids and was not seen in myometrium. Spotty necrosis 2 weeks after embolization and extensive patchy necrosis 3 weeks after embolization were occurred in fibroids. Necrosis was not showed in myometrium. No serious complications occurred. Conclusion: LPE-TUAE possesses a good long-term effectiveness for uterine fibroids, which doesn't cause the damage on ovarian function and normal myometrium or serious complications. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, F.I.; Chung, H.P.; Liu, H.M.; Wen, H.W.; Chi, C.W.; Lin, Shanyang; Lui, W.Y.; Kai, J.J.
2006-01-01
This study attempted to increase BNCT efficiency for hepatoma by a combined treatment of phenylboric acid derivative entrapped lipiodol nanoparticles (PBAD-L nanoparticles) with boric acid. The size of PBAD-L nanoparticles were 400-750 nm at the boron concentrations of 0.3-2.7 mg/ml. After 24 hours the boron concentration in PBAD-L nanoparticles treated human hepatoma HepG2 cells was 112 ppm, while that in rat liver Clone 9 cells was 52 ppm. With the use of 25 μg B/ml boric acid, after 6 hours the boron concentration in HepG2 and Clone 9 cells were 75 ppm and 40 ppm, respectively. In a combined treatment, boron concentration in HepG2 cells which were treated with PBAD-L nanoparticles for 18 hours and then combined with boric acid for 6 hours was 158 ppm. After neutron irradiation, the surviving fraction of HepG2 cells treated with PBAD-L nanoparticles was 12.6%, while that in the ones with a combined treatment was 1.3%. In conclusion, the combined treatment provided a higher boron concentration in HepG2 cells than treatments with either PBAD-L nanoparticles or boric acid, resulting in a higher therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in hepatoma cells. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamei, Tsuyoshi
1994-01-01
LEL38 (lipiodol emulsion emulsified by lecithin 38 mgI/ml, mean diameter 200 nm) is a new intravenously injectable oil contrast agent for liver CT. The aim of this report was to evaluate its ability to enhance contrast in the liver of 46 rabbits with regard to the correlation of density with time at an injected dose of 76 mgI/kg (before to 120 minutes after), the correlation of density with dose (0-760 mgI/kg) and the detectability of liver mass. The time-density correlation of LEL38 in the liver, that is, peak density, was achieved after 30 minutes, and it was elevated to 20.9 H. U. Thereafter, it decreased slowly. In the blood vessels, it reached a sharp peak after immediately being elevated to 14. 7 H. U. Thereafter detectability decreased quickly. The maximum difference in density between liver and blood vessels was 34 H. U. after 60 minutes. The dose-density correlation in the liver and blood vessels was linear. Tumors were detected as clear areas of low density. The minimal detectability was about 3 mm. LEL38 may be an effective contrast agent for screening CT studies of liver disease. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okayasu, I.; Hatakeyama, S.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshimatsu, S.; Tsuruta, K.; Miyamoto, H.; Kimula, Y.
1988-01-01
The selective and long-term deposition of iodized oil in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its gradual drainage were clinicopathologically analyzed in 13 cases. All patients were Japanese and had an intrahepatic arterial injection of Lipiodol (LIP) mixed with Mitomycin C. The comparison among the follow-up computerized tomography (CT) findings, the observation of the soft x-ray radiogram, and histopathologic studies of the surgical or autopsy materials revealed that the selective deposition of LIP in HCC lasted for a long term, particularly in cases treated by LIP combined with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Also revealed was an extremely gradual decrease of LIP from the HCC. It was thus postulated that, mainly, the accumulated macrophages surrounding LIP around the necrotic cancer tissue and, partially, the intrahepatic lymphatic system itself contributed to this drainage. Further, in histologic sections with lipid staining, x-ray microanalysis proved that the lipid droplets in the cancer tissue included highly concentrated iodine, as a deposition of LIP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng Qingle; Li Yanhao; Chen Yong; Ouyang Yong; He Xiang; Zhang Heping
2004-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion (PLE) intra-arterial embolization for treating gigantic cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL).Methods: Three hospitals (Nanfang Hospital, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region's Hospital and Huai He Hospital) participated in the study during 1997-2001. A total of 98 patients with CHL were embolized with PLE via the hepatic artery. The therapeutic effects including changes in tumor diameter, symptomatic improvement and occurrence of complications were evaluated for a period of 12 months after the procedure.Results: The tumor diameters decreased significantly from 9.7 ± 2.3 cm to 5.6 ± 1.6 cm 6 months after the treatment (P < 0.01), and then to 3.0 ± 1.2 cm at 12 months (P < 0.01). Transient impairment of liver function was found in 77 cases after embolization, 69 cases of which returned to normal in 2 weeks, and the other eight cases of which recovered 1 month later. The clinical symptoms were significantly relieved in all 53 symptomatic patients. Persistent pain in the hepatic region was found in two cases, and these two patients resorted to surgery eventually.Conclusion: Intra-arterial PLE embolization proves to be effective and safe in treating patients with CHL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jeong Woo, E-mail: pridebio@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Hee, E-mail: chlee86@korea.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yang Shin, E-mail: pys797979@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Tae Seok, E-mail: g1q1papa@korea.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Myung Gyu, E-mail: acube808@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hoon, E-mail: kjhhepar@naver.com [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Ah, E-mail: kahkim@korea.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol Min, E-mail: radpic@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-04-15
Highlights: • HCC{sub para} shows more frequent initial compact lipiodol uptake after TACE than HCC{sub def}. • HCC{sub para} demonstrates less frequent early local recurrence after TACE. • HCC{sub para} has larger mean size, lower AER, and more frequent capsule appearance. - Abstract: Purpose: To compare the response to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with paradoxical uptake on the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) (HCC{sub para}) and HCC with defect on the HBP (HCC{sub def}), and to identify some imaging features that can differentiate between two groups. Materials and methods: Ninety-three HCCs from 54 patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to TACE were included. HCCs were classified into two groups according to the signal intensity (SI) on the HBP: HCC{sub para} and HCC{sub def}. Using post-TACE computed tomography (CT) as a reference standard, initial compact lipiodol uptake was assessed and compared between groups. The arterial enhancement ratio (AER), SI ratios of the arterial phase and HBP, and presence of the capsule appearance were compared between groups. After initial response, local tumor recurrence within 6 and 18 months was evaluated based on follow-up CT or MRI. Results: Fifteen HCC{sub para} and 78 HCC{sub def} were included. Compared to HCC{sub def}, HCC{sub para} showed more frequent initial compact lipiodol uptake (p = 0.009), larger mean size (p = 0.019), lower AER (p = 0.005), higher SI ratio of the HBP (p < 0.0001), and more frequent capsule appearance (p < 0.0001). Local tumor recurrence rate within 6 months was also significantly lower in HCC{sub para} than in HCC{sub def} (p = 0.008). Conclusion: Despite larger size and lower AER, HCC{sub para} showed more frequent initial compact lipiodol uptake and lower early local recurrence rate after TACE than did HCC{sub def}.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Xuejun; Ouyang Yong; Ma Heping; Chao Lumeng; Zhen Yanli; Gu Subin; Zhou Qunhui; Liu Pengzhi; Wang Hong
2010-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the long-term effect of hepatic arterial embolization with pingyanmycin-lipiodol emulsion (PLE) in patients with cavernous hemangiomas of the liver (CHL) and its influence factors. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six hemangiomas that were diagnosed by imaging examinations or confirmed pathologically by surgery in 105 patients with integral follow-up data were analyzed retrospectively in this paper. All hemangiomas were divided into 4 groups according to their size (the largest size of hemangioma) by the authors as follows: A group (≤3 cm, n=25); B group (>3 cm and 2 test respectively. And the influence factors, included of the variant size of hemangiomas, abundant or sparse of abnormal sinusoids and the number of treatment procedures, were also analyzed respectively. Results: The total effective rate of the 156 hemangiomas in 105 patients was 92.95% (145/156). After single procedure of hepatic arterial embolization with PLE, the total effective rate of A and B groups were 100% (57/57), that of C and D groups were 85.86% (85/99), and the difference reach significant (X 2 =8.8553, P 2 =5.2642, P<0.05) than those of group with single procedure (72.73%, 8/11). Conclusions: A best long-term curative effect (complete cure) is usually obtained in the small hemangiomas with abundant abnormal sinusoids, and a satisfactory long-term curative effect can also be achieved in the larger or multiple hemangiomas, particularly in those hemangiomas with abundant abnormal sinusoids by using the repeat procedures of hepatic arterial embolization with PLE. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharipov, A U; Yangirov, I Z
1982-01-01
A clay-powder, cement, and water-base plugging solution is proposed having reduced solution viscosity characteristics while maintaining tensile strength in cement stone. This solution utilizes silver graphite and its ingredients, by mass weight, are as follows: cement 51.2-54.3%; claypowder 6.06-9.1%; silver graphite 0.24-0.33%; with water making up the remainder.
Microlithiasis pulmonum after iodine-lipiodol lymphography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tiedjen, K.U.; Kosberg, R.; Krueger, G.
1986-01-01
A pulmonary fibrosis with marked calcifications in a 83 year old female patient is reported. With previous unconspicuous thoracic x-ray findings (1975 and 1978) a bipedal oily lymphography was carried out for diagnosis of a systemic malignant lymphoma. The calcifiing pulmonary fibrosis was investigated with the help of tomographhy, xeroradiography, scintigraphy of the lung and the sceletal system as well as magnetic resonance imaging. A biopsy was denied by the patient. The etiological possibilities of an idiopathic disease as well as an induction by the oily contrast medium and a concomitant affection of a malignant lymphoma are discussed. (orig./WL) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seitz, M.G.
1982-01-01
Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results
Giammarile, Francesco; Bodei, Lisa; Chiesa, Carlo; Flux, Glenn; Forrer, Flavio; Kraeber-Bodere, Françoise; Brans, Boudewijn; Lambert, Bieke; Konijnenberg, Mark; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Tennvall, Jan; Luster, Markus
2011-07-01
Primary liver cancers (i.e. hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma) are worldwide some of the most frequent cancers, with rapidly fatal liver failure in a large majority of patients. Curative therapy consists of surgery (i.e. resection or liver transplantation), but only 10-20% of patients are candidates for this. In other patients, a variety of palliative treatments can be given, such as chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation or recently introduced tyrosine kinase inhibitors, e.g. sorafenib. Colorectal cancer is the second most lethal cancer in Europe and liver metastases are prevalent either at diagnosis or in follow-up. These patients are usually treated by a sequence of surgery, chemotherapy and antibody therapy [Okuda et al. (Cancer 56:918-928, 1985); Schafer and Sorrell (Lancet 353:1253-1257, 1999); Leong et al. (Arnold, London, 1999)]. Radioembolization is an innovative therapeutic approach defined as the injection of micron-sized embolic particles loaded with a radioisotope by use of percutaneous intra-arterial techniques. Advantages of the use of these intra-arterial radioactive compounds are the ability to deliver high doses of radiation to small target volumes, the relatively low toxicity profile, the possibility to treat the whole liver including microscopic disease and the feasibility of combination with other therapy modalities. Disadvantages are mainly due to radioprotection constraints mainly for (131)I-labelled agents, logistics and the possibility of inadvertent delivery or shunting [Novell et al. (Br J Surg 78:901-906, 1991)]. The Therapy, Oncology and Dosimetry Committees have worked together in order to revise the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines on the use of the radiopharmaceutical (131)I-Lipiodol (Lipiocis®, IBA, Brussels, Belgium) and include the newer medical devices with (90)Y-microspheres. (90)Y is either bound to resin (SIR-Spheres®, Sirtex Medical, Lane Cove, Australia) or embedded in a glass
Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.
2009-01-01
The characteristics of the soil solution in the root environment in the greenhouse industry differ much from those for field grown crops. This is caused firstly by the growing conditions in the greenhouse, which strongly differ from those in the field and secondly the function attributed to the soil
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
The Crucible Group operates on the basis of good faith –– producing best effort non-consensus texts. ..... science and technology-based solutions to agricultural production constraints, it is ...... In 1997 researchers at Case Western Reserve Medical School in Ohio (US) ...... Is there a need to update the system-wide IP audit?
Annevelink, E.; Bos, H.L.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Haas, de W.; Kuikman, P.J.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Sikirica, N.
2016-01-01
The fifth part of this report on Circular Solutions is about the circular principle From Waste to Resource. The purpose of this study is to select promising options for the implementation of this circular principle and to elaborate these options further.
Geoghegan, Michael W
2005-01-01
Podcasting is the art of recording radio show style audio tracks, then distributing them to listeners on the Web via podcasting software such as iPodder. From downloading podcasts to producing a track for fun or profit, ""Podcast Solutions"" covers the entire world of podcasting with insight, humor, and the unmatched wisdom of experience.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel
2013-01-01
This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven......’s research framework seems to fit this purpose. Van de Ven allows for an iterative research approach to problem solving with flexible starting point. The research activity is the result between the iteration of two dimensions. This framework focuses on the natural evaluation, particularly on ex...
Klijn, F.; Slikker, M.; Tijs, S.H.
2000-01-01
In this note we introduce an egalitarian solution, called the dual egalitarian solution, that is the natural counterpart of the egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray (1989).We prove, among others, that for a convex game the egalitarian solution coincides with the dual egalitarian solution for its
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papoyan, V.V.
1989-01-01
A Kerr generalized solution for a stationary axially-symmetric gravitational field of rotating self-gravitational objects is given. For solving the problem Einstein equations and their combinations are used. The particular cases: internal and external Schwarzschild solutions are considered. The external solution of the stationary problem is a Kerr solution generalization. 3 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noakes, J.E.; Culp, R.A.
1983-01-01
A radiochromic solution which is sensitive to small dosages of ionizing and ultraviolet radiation is described. It consists of a solution of a leucocyanide dye in a clear polar solvent with enough organic acid added to make the solution at least slightly acidic and responds to radiation by permanently changing color. Up to one half of the solution by weight can be replaced by a second solution of an aromatic solvent and an organic fluor. Another modification of the invention is a solution of a leucocyanide dye in a clear polar solvent having an aromatic group, an organic fluor, and enough organic acid to make the solution at least slightly acidic. (author)
Liquid scintillation solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long, E.C.
1976-01-01
The liquid scintillation solution described includes a mixture of: a liquid scintillation solvent, a primary scintillation solute, a secondary scintillation solute, a variety of appreciably different surfactants, and a dissolving and transparency agent. The dissolving and transparency agent is tetrahydrofuran, a cyclic ether. The scintillation solvent is toluene. The primary scintillation solute is PPO, and the secondary scintillation solute is dimethyl POPOP. The variety of appreciably different surfactants is composed of isooctylphenol-polyethoxyethanol and sodium dihexyl sulphosuccinate [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, Mainuddin
2005-01-01
A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aftanas, B.L.
1996-01-01
This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage
Classical solutions in supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baaklini, N.S.; Ferrara, S.; Nieuwenhuizen Van, P.
1977-06-01
Classical solutions of supergravity are obtained by making finite global supersymmetry rotation on known solutions of the field equations of the bosonic sector. The Schwarzschild and the Reissner-Nordstoem solutions of general relativity are extended to various supergravity systems and the modification to the perihelion precession of planets is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long, E.C.
1977-01-01
A liquid scintillation solution is described which includes (1) a scintillation solvent (toluene and xylene), (2) a primary scintillation solute (PPO and Butyl PBD), (3) a secondary scintillation solute (POPOP and Dimethyl POPOP), (4) a plurality of substantially different surfactants and (5) a filter dissolving and/or transparentizing agent. 8 claims
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neace, J.C.
1986-01-01
This patent describes a process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution comprising an admixture of an organic extractant for uranium and plutonium and a non-polar organic liquid diluent, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. Comprising combining a wash solution consisting of: (a) water; and (b) a positive amount up to about, an including, 50 volume percent of at least one highly-polar water-miscible organic solvent, based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent, with the solvent extraction solution after uranium and plutonium values have been stripped from the solvent extraction solution, the diluent degradation products dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent and the extractant and diluent of the extraction solution not dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent, and separating the highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solution to obtain a purified extraction solution
Proteins in solution: Fractal surfaces in solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Tscheliessnig
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The concept of the surface of a protein in solution, as well of the interface between protein and 'bulk solution', is introduced. The experimental technique of small angle X-ray and neutron scattering is introduced and described briefly. Molecular dynamics simulation, as an appropriate computational tool for studying the hydration shell of proteins, is also discussed. The concept of protein surfaces with fractal dimensions is elaborated. We finish by exposing an experimental (using small angle X-ray scattering and a computer simulation case study, which are meant as demonstrations of the possibilities we have at hand for investigating the delicate interfaces that connect (and divide protein molecules and the neighboring electrolyte solution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Showalter, W.E.
1984-01-01
A solution mining process which may be used for uranium, thorium, vanadium, copper, nickel, molybdenum, rhenium, and selenium is claimed. During a first injection-and-production phase of between 6 months and 5 years, a leaching solution is injected through at least one well into the formation to solubilize the mineral values and form a pregnant liquor. This liquor is recovered through another well. The leaching solution contains sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, carbonic acid, an alkali metal carbonate, an alkali metal bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate. Subsequently during a first production-only phase of between about 2 weeks and one year, injection of the leaching solution is suspended but pregnant liquor is still recovered. This stage is followed by a second injection-and-production phase of between 6 months and 5 years and a second production-only phase. The mineral values are separated from the pregnant liquor to form a barren liquor. The leaching agent is introduced into this liquor, and the solution is recycled. In a second claim for the solution mining of uranium, dilute carbonic acid is used as the leaching solution. The solution has a pH less than 7 and a bicarbonate ion concentration between about 380 ppm and 1000 ppm. The injection-and-production phase lasts between one and two years and the production only phase takes between one and four months. Carbon dioxide is introduced into the barren liquor to form a dilute carbonic acid solution and the solution is recycled
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long, E.C.
1976-01-01
The invention deals with a liquid scintillation solution which contains 1) a scintillation solvent (toluol), 2) a primary scintillation solute (PPO), 3) a secondary scintillation solute (dimethyl POPOP), 4) several surfactants (iso-octyl-phenol polyethoxy-ethanol and sodium di-hexyl sulfosuccinate) essentially different from one another and 5) a filter resolution and/or transparent-making agent (cyclic ether, especially tetrahydrofuran). (HP) [de
PERVASIVE BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE SOLUTIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rocsana Tonis (Bucea-Manea
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The utility of BI solutions is accepted all over the world in the modern organizations. However, the BI solutions do not offer a constant feedback in line with the organizational activities. In this context, there have been developed pervasive BI solutions which are present at different levels of the organization, so that employees can observe only what is most relevant to their day-to-day tasks. They are organized in vertical silos, with clearly identified performance and expectations. The paper emphasizes the role of pervasive BI solutions in reaching the key performance indicators of the modern organizations, more important in the context of crisis.
Solute-solute interactions in intermetallic compounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, Debashis; Murray, Ryan; Collins, Gary S., E-mail: collins@wsu.edu [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States); Zacate, Matthew O. [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States)
2017-11-15
Experiments were carried out on highly ordered GdAl{sub 2} samples containing extremely dilute mole fractions of{sup 111}In/Cd probe-atom solutes (about 10{sup −11}), intrinsic antisite atoms Al{sub Gd} having mole fractions of order 0-10{sup −2}, and doped with Ag solutes at mole fractions of order 10{sup −2}. Three types of defect interactions were investigated. (1) Quadrupole interactions caused by Ag-solute atoms neighboring{sup 111}In/Cd solute probe atoms were detected using the method of perturbed angular correlation of gamma rays (PAC). Three complexes of pairs of In-probes and Ag-solutes occupying neighboring positions on Gd- and Al-sublattices were identified by comparing site fractions in Gd-poor and Gd-rich GdAl{sub 2}(Ag) samples and from the symmetry of the quadrupole interactions. Interaction enthalpies between solute-atom pairs were determined from temperature dependences of observed site fractions. Repulsive interactions were observed for close-neighbor complexes In{sub Gd}+Ag{sub Gd} and In{sub Gd}+Ag{sub Al} pairs, whereas a slightly attractive interaction was observed for In{sub Al}+Ag{sub Al}. Interaction enthalpies were all small, in the range ±0.15 eV. (2) Quadrupole interactions caused by intrinsic antisite atoms Al{sub Gd} neighboring In{sub Gd} probes were also detected and site fractions measured as a function of temperature, as in previous work on samples not doped with Ag-solutes [Temperature- and composition-driven changes in site occupation of solutes in Gd{sub 1+3x}Al{sub 2−3x}, Zacate and Collins (Phys. Rev. B69, 174202 (1))]. However, the effective binding enthalpy between In{sub Gd} probe and Al{sub Gd} antisite was found to change sign from -0.12 eV (attractive interaction) in undoped samples to + 0.24 eV (repulsive) in Ag-doped samples. This may be attributed to an attractive interaction between Al{sub Gd} antisite atoms and Ag-dopants that competes with the attractive interaction between In{sub Gd} and Al{sub Gd
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balantekin, A. B.; Pehlivan, Y.
2007-01-01
We give the exact solution of orbit dependent nuclear pairing problem between two nondegenerate energy levels using the Bethe ansatz technique. Our solution reduces to previously solved cases in the appropriate limits including Richardson's treatment of reduced pairing in terms of rational Gaudin algebra operators
Dadhich, Naresh
2010-01-01
We show that the asymptotic large $r$ limit of all Lovelock vacuum and electrovac solutions with $\\Lambda$ is always the Einstein solution in $d \\geq 2n+1$ dimensions. It is completely free of the order $n$ of the Lovelock polynomial indicating universal asymptotic behaviour.
Rational Solutions and Lump Solutions of the Potential YTSF Equation
Sun, Hong-Qian; Chen, Ai-Hua
2017-07-01
By using of the bilinear form, rational solutions and lump solutions of the potential Yu-Toda-Sasa-Fukuyama (YTSF) equation are derived. Dynamics of the fundamental lump solution, n1-order lump solutions, and N-lump solutions are studied for some special cases. We also find some interaction behaviours of solitary waves and one lump of rational solutions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bena, Iosif [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bossard, Guillaume [Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Katmadas, Stefanos; Turton, David [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)
2017-01-30
We introduce a solvable system of equations that describes non-extremal multicenter solutions to six-dimensional ungauged supergravity coupled to tensor multiplets. The system involves a set of functions on a three-dimensional base metric. We obtain a family of non-extremal axisymmetric solutions that generalize the known multicenter extremal solutions, using a particular base metric that introduces a bolt. We analyze the conditions for regularity, and in doing so we show that this family does not include solutions that contain an extremal black hole and a smooth bolt. We determine the constraints that are necessary to obtain smooth horizonless solutions involving a bolt and an arbitrary number of Gibbons-Hawking centers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Minamitsuji, Masato; Folomeev, Vladimir
2010-01-01
This paper gives a comprehensive review on thick brane solutions and related topics. Such models have attracted much attention from many aspects since the birth of the brane world scenario. In many works, it has been usually assumed that a brane is an infinitely thin object; however, in more general situations, one can no longer assume this. It is also widely considered that more fundamental theories such as string theory would have a minimal length scale. Many multidimensional field theories coupled to gravitation have exact solutions of gravitating topological defects, which can represent our brane world. The inclusion of brane thickness can realize a variety of possible brane world models. Given our understanding, the known solutions can be classified into topologically non-trivial solutions and trivial ones. The former class contains solutions of a single scalar (domain walls), multi-scalar, gauge-Higgs (vortices), Weyl gravity and so on. As an example of the latter class, we consider solutions of two interacting scalar fields. Approaches to obtain cosmological equations in the thick brane world are reviewed. Solutions with spatially extended branes (S-branes) and those with an extra time-like direction are also discussed.
Lublinsky, Boris; Yakubovich, Alexey
2013-01-01
The go-to guidebook for deploying Big Data solutions with Hadoop Today's enterprise architects need to understand how the Hadoop frameworks and APIs fit together, and how they can be integrated to deliver real-world solutions. This book is a practical, detailed guide to building and implementing those solutions, with code-level instruction in the popular Wrox tradition. It covers storing data with HDFS and Hbase, processing data with MapReduce, and automating data processing with Oozie. Hadoop security, running Hadoop with Amazon Web Services, best practices, and automating Hadoop processes i
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
TUTUNEA MIHAELA FILOFTEIA
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The integration of activities, the business processes as well as their optimization, bring the perspective of profitable growth and create significant and competitive advantages in any company. The adoption of some ERP integrated software solutions, from SMEs’ perspective, must be considered as a very important management decision in medium and long term. ERP solutions, along with the transparent and optimized management of all internal processes, also offer an intra and inter companies collaborative platform, which allows a rapid expansion of activities towards e- business and mobile-business environments. This material introduces ERP solutions for SMEs from commercial offer and open source perspective; the results of comparative analysis of the solutions on the specific market, can be an useful aid to the management of the companies, in making the decision to integrate business processes, using ERP as a support.
Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER, SPILL GREEN LS, this miscellaneous oil spill control agent used in cleanups initially behaves like a synthetic sorbent, then as a solidifier as the molecular microencapsulating process occurs.
Conductometry of electrolyte solutions
Safonova, Lyubov P.; Kolker, Arkadii M.
1992-09-01
A review is given of the theories of the electrical conductance of electrolyte solutions of different ionic strengths and concentrations, and of the models of ion association. An analysis is made of the methods for mathematical processing of experimental conductometric data. An account is provided of various theories describing the dependence of the limiting value of the ionic electrical conductance on the properties of the solute and solvent. The bibliography includes 115 references.
Lü, H; Mei, Jianwei; Pope, C N
2009-08-28
Recently Horava proposed a nonrelativistic renormalizable theory of gravitation, which reduces to Einstein's general relativity at large distances, and that may provide a candidate for a UV completion of Einstein's theory. In this Letter, we derive the full set of equations of motion, and then we obtain spherically symmetric solutions and discuss their properties. We also obtain solutions for the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmological metric.
Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Solutions
Caliò, Renato; Rongala, Udaya Bhaskar; Camboni, Domenico; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; de Petris, Gianluca; Oddo, Calogero Maria
2014-01-01
This paper reviews the state of the art in piezoelectric energy harvesting. It presents the basics of piezoelectricity and discusses materials choice. The work places emphasis on material operating modes and device configurations, from resonant to non-resonant devices and also to rotational solutions. The reviewed literature is compared based on power density and bandwidth. Lastly, the question of power conversion is addressed by reviewing various circuit solutions. PMID:24618725
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habersbergerova, A.; Janovsky, I.
1985-01-01
The factors were studied affecting thiosulfate radiolysis in the so-called spray solution for nuclear power plant containments. The reaction mechanism of primary radiolytic reactions leading to thiosulfate decomposition was studied using pulse radiolysis. Also measured was hydrazine loss in the irradiation of the bubbling solution intended for the capture of volatile chemical forms of radioiodine. Pulse radiolysis was used to study the kinetics of hydrazine reaction with elemental iodine. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radiuk, M I; Iushkova, N E; Kozubovskii, A I
1979-10-25
A boring solution is being patented for boring for oil and gas, which can be used in wells, where the temperature of the circulating liquid reaches 100/sup 0/. Polyvinyl acetate emulsion (PVE) is added for the purpose of decreasing viscosity of the solution at a temperature of agression into the boring solution containing clay, water, carboxymethylcellulose (CBC), a chloride from the number of sodium, potassium, or magnesium chlorides. The solution has the following composition in %: clay, 10 to 20; CBC, 1.5 to 2.0; chloride, 5 to 20; PVE, 0.5 to 2; water, up to 100. In accordance to GOST 1000-62 for the accepted PVE, the compound has the following composition, in %: monomer, 0.8; dry residue, greater than or equal to 50; plasticizer (tributyl phthalate), 5 to 15. The boring solution is processed according to the following method. The original solution, containing clay, water, salts, receives 1.5 to 2% CBC and afterwards it is processed with 0.5 to 2% PVE.
Social information solution; Shakai joho solution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2000-01-10
An information system for government offices is developed, a system that integrally supports operations inside government offices and the staff service operations by combining Intra Net as the basis of an information system with Internet. The objective of the system is as follows: (1) Information sharing in the place of work and utilization of information resources. (2) Improvement in administrative services and vitalization of an interchange of residents through the preparation of Internet environment. (3) Rationalization of staff operations through groupeware. In addition, by building a network system for the entire region, information communication service is to be provided as a solution between the residents and the administration in the occurrence of a disaster as well as for home care, medical and nursing assistance in the health, medical and welfare fields. (translated by NEDO)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)
2006-05-15
PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.
Siemens IT solutions for power sector. PROFIT solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lunter, P.
2004-01-01
The cost reduction, flexibility and revenue increase, potential exploitation, productivity increase, and business opportunities exploitation - that is all what can be required in the races for the promonent positioning on the electricity power market. These requirements can be realized by the sophisticated IT solutions hand-tailored to the special requirements of the electric power producers and tradesmen. This approach makes it possible to achieve greater profit. Our solutions 'PROFIT Solutions', that are symbiosis of the most progressive information technologies and the power plant techniques of the company Siemens, satisfy submitted specifications in substantial measure. The system solutions 'PROFIT Solutions' comprise three solution groups: process, operation a business. The solutions of the group 'IT Process Solutions' increase flexibility and manoeuvrability of equipment, improve the efficiency and contribute to more economical operation of the power generation. Solutions 'IT Process Solutions' simplify and shorten the period of power cycles and conduce to higher labour productivity. Solutions group 'IT Process Solutions' approaches equipment to the market - supports the profit strategies, helps quickly and expertly to determine and predict hazards. The extension PROFIT Cockpit means the nuance to the solutions world 'PROFIT Solutions'. The survey about the whole installation is within reach at the simple touch of a button. It is possible to compile the total system part by part from single solutions 'PROFIT Solutions'. As a matter of fact all single parts can be interconnected with already existing solutions. Routines 'PROFIT Solutions' cooperate with all modern control systems. (author)
Solute segregation during irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiedersich, H.; Okamoto, P.R.; Lam, N.Q.
1977-01-01
Irradiation at elevated temperature induces redistribution of the elements in alloys on a microstructural level. This phenomenon is caused by differences in the coupling of the various alloy constituents to the radiation-induced defect fluxes. A simple model of the segregation process based on coupled reaction-rate and diffusion equations is discussed. The model gives a good description of the experimentally observed consequences of radiation-induced segregation, including enrichment or depletion of solute elements near defect sinks such as surfaces, voids and dislocations; precipitation of second phases in solid solutions; precipitate redistribution in two-phase alloys; and effects of defect-production rates on void-swelling rates in alloys with minor solute additions
Superstrings fermionic solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rausch de Traubenberg, M.
1990-06-01
The solutions proposed by the superstring theory are classified and compared. In order to obtain some of the equivalences, the demonstration is based on the coincidence of the excitation spectrum and the quantum numbers from different states. The fermionic representation of the heterotical strings is discussed. The conformal invariance and the supersymmetric results extended to two dimensions are investigated. Concerning the fermionic strings, the formalism and a phenomenological solution involving three families of quarks, chiral leptons and leptons from the E 6 gauge group are presented. The equivalence between real and complex fermions is discussed. The similarity between some of the solutions of the Wess-Zumino-Witten model and the orbifolds is considered. The formal calculation program developed for reproducing the theory's low energy spectra, in the fermionic string formalism is given [fr
Decontamination solution development studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Kjarmo, H.E.; Pool, K.H.
1993-09-01
This study was conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Hanford Grout Technology Program (HGTP). The objective of this study was to identify decontamination solutions capable of removing radioactive contaminants and grout from the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) process equipment and to determine the impact of these solutions on equipment components and disposal options. The reference grout used in this study was prepared with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) and a dry blend consisting of 40 wt % limestone flour, 28 wt % blast furnace slag, 28 wt % fly ash, and 4 wt % type I/II Portland cement
Calculus problems and solutions
Ginzburg, Abraham
2011-01-01
Ideal for self-instruction as well as for classroom use, this text helps students improve their understanding and problem-solving skills in analysis, analytic geometry, and higher algebra. More than 1,200 problems appear in the text, with concise explanations of the basic notions and theorems to be used in their solution. Many are followed by complete answers; solutions for the others appear at the end of the book. Topics include sequences, functions of a single variable, limit of a function, differential calculus for functions of a single variable, fundamental theorems and applications of dif
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ørding Olsen, Anders
when pursuing minor performance improvements in existing technologies. However, reliance on internal knowledge sources carries a risk of organizational inertia related to problem understanding and solution development in the shape of path-dependencies and preferences for exploitation and reapplication...... of existing knowledge. Such inertia may imbue innovation processes related to the development of new technologies with reduced novelty and an inability to recognize alternative and potentially more attractive solutions. As a result, over-reliance on internal knowledge sources is likely to inhibit the ability...
Business Intelligence Integrated Solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristescu Marian Pompiliu
2017-12-01
Full Text Available A Business Intelligence solution concerns the simple, real-time access to complete information about the business shown in a relevant format of the report, graphic or dashboard type in order help the taking of strategic decisions regarding the direction in which the company goes. Business Intelligence does not produce data, but uses the data produced by the company’s applications. BI solutions extract their data from ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning, CRM (Customer Relationship Management, HCM (Human Capital Management, and Retail, eCommerce or other databases used in the company.
Jorgensen, Adam; Welch, John; Clark, Dan; Price, Christopher; Mitchell, Brian
2014-01-01
Tap the power of Big Data with Microsoft technologies Big Data is here, and Microsoft's new Big Data platform is a valuable tool to help your company get the very most out of it. This timely book shows you how to use HDInsight along with HortonWorks Data Platform for Windows to store, manage, analyze, and share Big Data throughout the enterprise. Focusing primarily on Microsoft and HortonWorks technologies but also covering open source tools, Microsoft Big Data Solutions explains best practices, covers on-premises and cloud-based solutions, and features valuable case studies. Best of all,
Phenomenology of polymer solution dynamics
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Phillies, George D. J
2011-01-01
... solutions, not dilute solutions or polymer melts. From centrifugation and solvent dynamics to viscosity and diffusion, experimental measurements and their quantitative representations are the core of the discussion...
Aliteracy : causes and solutions
Nielen, Thijs Martinus Johannes
2016-01-01
The reading motivation of the majority of students declines in the upper half of primary school, which implies a risk for aliteracy: Students can read but, due to lack of practice, their skills remain underdeveloped (Chapter 2). In this thesis we have explored causes and solutions for this important
Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Leijnse, A.
2013-01-01
Solute transport is of importance in view of the movement of nutrient elements, e.g. towards the plant root system, and because of a broad range of pollutants. Pollution is not necessarily man induced, but may be due to geological or geohydrological causes, e.g. in the cases of pollution with
An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter
Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter
2008-01-01
We describe the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element. This has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute, which led to minimal heat losses. Small temperature changes of 1 K associated with enthalpies of…
Aqueous polyethylene oxide solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breen, J.
1987-01-01
A number of aspects concerning the reorientation of polymer, water and ion hydration complexes have been studied in aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide (PEO). The polymer dynamics are investigated by 1 H-PEO and 13 C-PEO nuclear relaxation experiments. 162 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs
Weak solutions of magma equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krishnan, E.V.
1999-01-01
Periodic solutions in terms of Jacobian cosine elliptic functions have been obtained for a set of values of two physical parameters for the magma equation which do not reduce to solitary-wave solutions. It was also obtained solitary-wave solutions for another set of these parameters as an infinite period limit of periodic solutions in terms of Weierstrass and Jacobian elliptic functions
Earnest Rutherford, the solution
2003-01-01
If you did not make it to the Science & Society talk by John Campbell last week and are still wondering about the spelling of "Earnest", here is the solution: Two months after the birth of his fourth child on 30 August 1871 in Spring Grove, New Zealand, James Rutherford registered his son, who was recorded as "Earnest" in the Birth Register. Presumably the Registrar wrote the name down as it sounded and the father failed to notice the mistake when signing the Register.
Molybdenum from uranium solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gardner, H.E.
1981-01-01
A method of removing molybdenum from a uranium bearing solution is claimed. It comprises adding sufficient reactive lead compound to supply at least 90 percent of the stoichiometric quantity of lead ion required to fully react with the molybdenum present to form insoluble lead molybdate and continuing the reaction with agitation until the desired percentage of the molybdenum present has reacted with the lead ion
Severe service sealing solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metcalfe, R.; Wensel, R.
1994-09-01
Successful sealing usually requires much more than initial leak-tightness. Friction and wear must also be acceptable, requiring a good understanding of tribology at the sealing interface. This paper describes various sealing solutions for severe service conditions. The CAN2A and CAN8 rotary face seals use tungsten carbide against carbon-graphite to achieve low leakage and long lifetime in nuclear main coolant pumps. The smaller CAN6 seal successfully uses tungsten carbide against silicon carbide in reactor water cleanup pump service. Where friction in CANDU fuelling machine rams must be essentially zero, a hydrostatic seal using two silicon carbide faces is the solution. In the NRU reactor moderator pumps, where pressure is much lower, eccentric seals that prevent boiling at the seal faces are giving excellent service. All these rotary face seals rely on supplementary elastomer seals between their parts. An integrated engineering approach to high performance sealing with O-rings is described. This is epitomized in critical Space Shuttle applications, but is increasingly being applied in CANDU plants. It includes gland design, selection and qualification of material, quality assurance, detection of defects and the effects of lubrication, surface finish, squeeze, stretch and volume constraints. In conclusion, for the severe service applications described, customized solutions have more than paid for themselves by higher reliability, lower maintenance requirements and reduced outage time. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hunkin, G.G.
1980-01-01
The field of application of in-situ solution mining of uranium is described and areas of competition with open pit and underground mining identified. The influence of high interest rates and dollar inflation on present values and rate of return is shown to be minimized by low capitalization and short construction lead times typical of in-situ leaching ventures. A scheme of three major project account divisions is presented and basic parameters necessary for mine planning are listed. 1979 cost ranges and useful methods of estimation of capital and operating costs are given for the in-situ uranium mining method
Total Logistic Plant Solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dusan Dorcak
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chakkol, Mehmet; Johnson, Mark; Raja, Jawwad
2014-01-01
Purpose – This paper aims to adopt service-dominant logic (SDL) to empirically explore network configurations resulting from the provision of goods, goods and services, and solutions. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses a single, in-depth, exploratory case study in a truck manufacturer......: dyadic, triadic and tetradic. The extent to which different network actors contribute to value co-creation varies across the offerings. Research limitations/implications – This paper is based on a single, in-depth case study developed in one industrial context. Whilst this represents an appropriate...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gen, O P; Azhigaliyev, G K; Dodonova, S Ye; Dyaltlova, N M; Novokhatskaya, I D; Ryabova, L I
1984-01-01
The purpose of the invention is to increase the durability of cement stone at 150 to 200C. The patent covers a plugging solution which consists of Portlandcement, sand and water. It additionally contains metal organic complexes of nitrylotrimethylphosphonic acid and organosiliconates of alkali or alkaline earth metals with the following component relationship in percent by mass: Portland cement, 42 to 43; sand, 27 to 28; metal organic complexes of nitrylotrimethylphosphonic acid, 0.01 to 1.5; organosiliconates of alkaline or alkaline earthmetals, 0.0025 to 0.375 and water, the remainder.
Classical solutions and extended supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
de Alfaro, V.; Fubini, S.; Furlan, G.
1980-03-01
The existence and properties of classical solutions for gravity coupled to matter fields have been investigated previously with the limitation to conformally flat solutions. In the search for a guiding criterion to determine the form of the coupling among the fields, one is led to consider supersymmetric theories, and the question arises whether classical solutions persist in these models. It is found that a discrepancy persists between supergravity and standard meron solutions. Owing to the appearance of the scalar field, a new set of meron solutions exists for particular Lagrangian models. In conclusion, the form of solutions in Minkowski space is discussed
Radioactive waste management solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siemann, Michael
2015-01-01
One of the more frequent questions that arise when discussing nuclear energy's potential contribution to mitigating climate change concerns that of how to manage radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is produced through nuclear power generation, but also - although to a significantly lesser extent - in a variety of other sectors including medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education. The amount, type and physical form of radioactive waste varies considerably. Some forms of radioactive waste, for example, need only be stored for a relatively short period while their radioactivity naturally decays to safe levels. Others remain radioactive for hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Public concerns surrounding radioactive waste are largely related to long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Countries around the world with existing nuclear programmes are developing longer-term plans for final disposal of such waste, with an international consensus developing that the geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) is the most technically feasible and safe solution. This article provides a brief overview of the different forms of radioactive waste, examines storage and disposal solutions, and briefly explores fuel recycling and stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management decision making
2001-01-01
REI Systems, Inc. developed a software solution that uses the Internet to eliminate the paperwork typically required to document and manage complex business processes. The data management solution, called Electronic Handbooks (EHBs), is presently used for the entire SBIR program processes at NASA. The EHB-based system is ideal for programs and projects whose users are geographically distributed and are involved in complex management processes and procedures. EHBs provide flexible access control and increased communications while maintaining security for systems of all sizes. Through Internet Protocol- based access, user authentication and user-based access restrictions, role-based access control, and encryption/decryption, EHBs provide the level of security required for confidential data transfer. EHBs contain electronic forms and menus, which can be used in real time to execute the described processes. EHBs use standard word processors that generate ASCII HTML code to set up electronic forms that are viewed within a web browser. EHBs require no end-user software distribution, significantly reducing operating costs. Each interactive handbook simulates a hard-copy version containing chapters with descriptions of participants' roles in the online process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boersma, M.
2001-01-01
The need to consider the Middle East as a group of distinct countries and not as one single market and to tailor the services offered by companies is stressed. The cultures, political and social conditions, forms of the oil and gas industry in the countries making up the Middle East and their technology requirements are different and vary widely. The approach taken by Shell Global Solutions to these differences is described and illustrated with Shell's experiences in Oman and Saudi Arabia. Shell has found that Omanis are keen to work in their oil and gas industry, and to protect their country's natural environment. Saudi also have intense pride in their oil industry and here Shell supports refinery operators reduce costs while maintaining strict quality control. Shell has been selected to help Saudi Arabia develop its natural gas reserves; as part of the Core Venture 3 project, Shell will build a power desalination plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urbanczyk, A.; Kalinowski, M.K.
1983-01-01
The electronic absorption spectrum of vanadyl acetylacetonate has been studied in 15 organic solvents. It has been found that wavenumbers and molar absorptivities of the long-wavelength bands (d-d transitions) can be well described by a complementary Lewis acid-base model including Gutmann's donor number [Gutmann V., Wychera E., Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Letters 2, 257 (1966)] and acceptor number [Mayer U., Gutmann V., Gerger W., Monatsh. Chem. 106, 1235 (1975)] of a solvent. This model describes also the solvent effect of the hyperfine splitting constant, Asub(iso)( 51 V), from e.s.r. spectra of VOacac 2 . These observations are discussed in terms of the donor-acceptor concept for solvent-solute interactions. (Author)
2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dor Ben-Amotz
2010-08-13
Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).
Diffusion of aqueous solutions of ionic, zwitterionic, and polar solutes
Teng, Xiaojing; Huang, Qi; Dharmawardhana, Chamila Chathuranga; Ichiye, Toshiko
2018-06-01
The properties of aqueous solutions of ionic, zwitterionic, and polar solutes are of interest to many fields. For instance, one of the many anomalous properties of aqueous solutions is the behavior of water diffusion in different monovalent salt solutions. In addition, solutes can affect the stabilities of macromolecules such as proteins in aqueous solution. Here, the diffusivities of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, tri-methylamine oxide (TMAO), urea, and TMAO-urea are examined in molecular dynamics simulations. The decrease in the diffusivity of water with the concentration of simple ions and urea can be described by a simple model in which the water molecules hydrogen bonded to the solutes are considered to diffuse at the same rate as the solutes, while the remainder of the water molecules are considered to be bulk and diffuse at almost the same rate as pure water. On the other hand, the decrease in the diffusivity of water with the concentration of TMAO is apparently affected by a decrease in the diffusion rate of the bulk water molecules in addition to the decrease due to the water molecules hydrogen bonded to TMAO. In other words, TMAO enhances the viscosity of water, while urea barely affects it. Overall, this separation of water molecules into those that are hydrogen bonded to solute and those that are bulk can provide a useful means of understanding the short- and long-range effects of solutes on water.
Griscom, Bronson W.; Adams, Justin; Ellis, Peter W.; Houghton, Richard A.; Lomax, Guy; Miteva, Daniela A.; Schlesinger, William H.; Shoch, David; Siikamäki, Juha V.; Smith, Pete; Woodbury, Peter; Zganjar, Chris; Blackman, Allen; Campari, João; Conant, Richard T.; Delgado, Christopher; Elias, Patricia; Gopalakrishna, Trisha; Hamsik, Marisa R.; Herrero, Mario; Kiesecker, Joseph; Landis, Emily; Laestadius, Lars; Leavitt, Sara M.; Minnemeyer, Susan; Polasky, Stephen; Potapov, Peter; Putz, Francis E.; Sanderman, Jonathan; Silvius, Marcel; Wollenberg, Eva; Fargione, Joseph
2017-10-01
Better stewardship of land is needed to achieve the Paris Climate Agreement goal of holding warming to below 2 °C; however, confusion persists about the specific set of land stewardship options available and their mitigation potential. To address this, we identify and quantify “natural climate solutions” (NCS): 20 conservation, restoration, and improved land management actions that increase carbon storage and/or avoid greenhouse gas emissions across global forests, wetlands, grasslands, and agricultural lands. We find that the maximum potential of NCS—when constrained by food security, fiber security, and biodiversity conservation—is 23.8 petagrams of CO2 equivalent (PgCO2e) y‑1 (95% CI 20.3–37.4). This is ≥30% higher than prior estimates, which did not include the full range of options and safeguards considered here. About half of this maximum (11.3 PgCO2e y‑1) represents cost-effective climate mitigation, assuming the social cost of CO2 pollution is ≥100 USD MgCO2e‑1 by 2030. Natural climate solutions can provide 37% of cost-effective CO2 mitigation needed through 2030 for a >66% chance of holding warming to below 2 °C. One-third of this cost-effective NCS mitigation can be delivered at or below 10 USD MgCO2‑1. Most NCS actions—if effectively implemented—also offer water filtration, flood buffering, soil health, biodiversity habitat, and enhanced climate resilience. Work remains to better constrain uncertainty of NCS mitigation estimates. Nevertheless, existing knowledge reported here provides a robust basis for immediate global action to improve ecosystem stewardship as a major solution to climate change.
Location Intelligence Solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, D.
2015-01-01
Location Intelligence (LI) means using the spatial dimension of information as a key to support business processes. This spatial dimension has to be defined by geographic coordinates. Storing these spatial objects in a database allows for attaching a 'meaning' to them, like 'current position', 'border', 'building' or 'room'. Now the coordinates represent real-world objects, which can be relevant for the measurement, documentation, control or optimization of (parameters of) business processes aiming at different business objectives. But LI can only be applied, if the locations can be determined with an accuracy (in space and time) appropriate for the business process in consideration. Therefore the first step in any development of a LI solution is the analysis of the business process itself regarding its requirements for spatial and time resolution and accuracy. The next step is the detailed analysis of the surrounding conditions of the process: Does the process happen indoor and/or outdoor? Are there moving objects? If yes, how fast are they? How does the relevant environment look like? Is technical infrastructure available? Is the process restricted by regulations? As a result, a proper Location Detection Technology (LDT) has to be chosen in order to get reliable and accurate positions of the relevant objects. At the highly challenging conditions of the business processes IAEA inspectors are working with, the chosen LDTs have to deliver reliable positioning on ''room-level'' accuracy, even if there is no location enabling infrastructure in place, the objects (people) mostly are indoors and have to work under strong regulations. The presentation will give insights into innovative LI solutions based on technologies of different LDT providers. Pros and cons of combinations of different LDT (like multi- GNSS, IMU, camera, and human interaction based positioning) will be discussed from the
Solute diffusivity in undisturbed soil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lægdsmand, Mette; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per
2012-01-01
Solute diffusivity in soil plays a major role in many important processes with relation to plant growth and environmental issues. Soil solute diffusivity is affected by the volumetric water content as well as the morphological characteristics of water-filled pores. The solute diffusivity in intact...
Future climate. Engineering solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferdinand, J.F.; Hagedorn-Rasmussen, P.; Fonnesbech, B.
2009-09-15
Future Climate Engineering Solutions - Joint Report is the common output and a documentation of more than 1 year's effort by 13 engineering associations - in 12 countries - to demonstrate how technologies can combat climate change. The report consists of three parts: Summaries of 10 national climate plans and technology prospects, 5 Key Common Findings, and a Climate Call from Engineers to create a new global climate treaty. The basic assumption of the project is recognition that GHG emissions, and their concentration in the atmosphere, must be reduced to a sustainable level. The project definition of a sustainable level is equivalent to the best-case stabilisation scenario which was presented in the 4th Assessment Report (AR4) by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), whereby the global mean temperature is most likely to stabilise at 2.0-2.4 deg. C. The Future Climate website www.futureclimate.info holds more information about the project, including possibility to download project material, including the full national climate plans.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burns, D.A.
1994-09-01
A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silverstein, Eva
2008-01-01
We present a framework for de Sitter model building in type IIA string theory, illustrated with specific examples. We find metastable de Sitter (dS) minima of the potential for moduli obtained from a compactification on a product of two nil three-manifolds (which have negative scalar curvature) combined with orientifolds, branes, fractional Chern-Simons forms, and fluxes. As a discrete quantum number is taken large, the curvature, field strengths, inverse volume, and four-dimensional string coupling become parametrically small, and the de Sitter Hubble scale can be tuned parametrically smaller than the scales of the moduli, Kaluza Klein (KK), and winding mode masses. A subtle point in the construction is that although the curvature remains consistently weak, the circle fibers of the nilmanifolds become very small in this limit (though this is avoided in illustrative solutions at modest values of the parameters). In the simplest version of the construction, the heaviest moduli masses are parametrically of the same order as the lightest KK and winding masses. However, we provide a method for separating these marginally overlapping scales, and more generally the underlying supersymmetry of the model protects against large corrections to the low-energy moduli potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burns, D.A.
1994-09-01
A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).
Insight solutions are correct more often than analytic solutions
Salvi, Carola; Bricolo, Emanuela; Kounios, John; Bowden, Edward; Beeman, Mark
2016-01-01
How accurate are insights compared to analytical solutions? In four experiments, we investigated how participants’ solving strategies influenced their solution accuracies across different types of problems, including one that was linguistic, one that was visual and two that were mixed visual-linguistic. In each experiment, participants’ self-judged insight solutions were, on average, more accurate than their analytic ones. We hypothesised that insight solutions have superior accuracy because they emerge into consciousness in an all-or-nothing fashion when the unconscious solving process is complete, whereas analytic solutions can be guesses based on conscious, prematurely terminated, processing. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that participants’ analytic solutions included relatively more incorrect responses (i.e., errors of commission) than timeouts (i.e., errors of omission) compared to their insight responses. PMID:27667960
Properties of scintillator solutes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fluornoy, J.M.
1998-06-01
This special report summarizes measurements of the spectroscopic and other properties of the solutes that were used in the preparation of several new liquid scintillators developed at EG and G/Energy Measurements/Santa Barbara Operations (the precursor to Bechtel Nevada/Special Technologies Laboratory) on the radiation-to-light converter program. The data on the individual compounds are presented in a form similar to that used by Prof. Isadore Berlman in his classic handbook of fluorescence spectra. The temporal properties and relative efficiencies of the new scintillators are presented in Table 1, and the efficiencies as a function of wavelength are presented graphically in Figure 1. In addition, there is a descriptive glossary of the abbreviations used herein. Figure 2 illustrates the basic structures of some of the compounds and of the four solvents reported in this summary. The emission spectra generally exhibit more structure than the absorption spectra, with the result that the peak emission wavelength for a given compound may lie several nm away from the wavelength, λ avg , at the geometric center of the emission spectrum. Therefore, the author has chosen to list absorption peaks, λ max , and emission λ avg values in Figures 3--30, as being most illustrative of the differences between the compounds. The compounds, BHTP, BTPB, ADBT, and DPTPB were all developed on this program. P-terphenyl, PBD, and TPB are commercially available blue emitters. C-480 and the other longer-wavelength emitters are laser dyes available commercially from Exciton Corporation. 1 ref., 30 figs
CEFR information management system solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Fei; Zhao Jia'ning
2011-01-01
Based on finished information resources planning scheme for China sodium cooled experimental fast breeder reactor and the advanced information resources management solution concepts were applied, we got the building solution of CEFR information management systems. At the same time, the technical solutions of systems structures, logic structures, physical structures, development platforms and operation platforms for information resources management system in fast breeder reactors were developed, which provided programmatic introductions for development works in future. (authors)
Indium flotation from hydrometallurgical solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sviridov, V.V.; Mal'tsev, G.I.; Petryakova, N.K.; Gomzikov, A.I.
1980-01-01
The principal possibility of flotation of indium small quantities (10 -4 gxion/l) is established from sulphuric-acid solutions of leaching converter dusts of the copper melting production in the form of complex compounds with sodium hexametaphosphate and cation-active nitrogen-containing surfactants. It is shown that the flotation process effectiveness is determined by the molar ratio of hexametaphosphate and collector introduced into the solution, solution oxidity and surfactant nature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larkin, K.A.
1994-01-01
This test plan describes the activities associated with the High Gradient Magnetic Filtration (HGMF) of plutonium-bearing solutions (10-L). The 10-L solutions were received from Argonne National Laboratories in 1972, are highly acidic, and are considered unstable. The purpose of the testing is to show that HGMF is an applicable method of removing plutonium precipitates from solution. The plutonium then can be stored safely in a solid form
Structure and dynamics of solutions
Ohtaki, H
2013-01-01
Recent advances in the study of structural and dynamic properties of solutions have provided a molecular picture of solute-solvent interactions. Although the study of thermodynamic as well as electronic properties of solutions have played a role in the development of research on the rate and mechanism of chemical reactions, such macroscopic and microscopic properties are insufficient for a deeper understanding of fast chemical and biological reactions. In order to fill the gap between the two extremes, it is necessary to know how molecules are arranged in solution and how they change their pos
Enhanced safeguards via solution monitoring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burr, T.; Wangen, L.
1996-09-01
Solution monitoring is defined as the essentially continuous monitoring of solution level, density, and temperature in all tanks in the process that contain, or could contain, safeguards-significant quantities of nuclear material. This report describes some of the enhancements that solution monitoring could make to international safeguards. The focus is on the quantifiable benefits of solution monitoring, but qualitatively, solution monitoring can be viewed as a form of surveillance. Quantitatively, solution monitoring can in some cases improve diversion detection probability. For example, the authors show that under certain assumptions, solution monitoring can be used to reduce the standard deviation of the annual material balance, σ MB , from approximately 17 kg to approximately 4 kg. Such reduction in σ MB will not always be possible, as they discuss. However, in all cases, solution monitoring would provide assurance that the measurement error models are adequate so that one has confidence in his estimate of σ MB . Some of the results in this report were generated using data that were simulated with prototype solution monitoring software that they are developing. An accompanying document describes that software
Mckee, N
1983-10-01
Dr. Mujibur Rahaman, senior scientist at the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research in Bangladesh, was interviewed recently in regard to oral rehydration therapy (ORT), a simple and inexpensive way of treating the loss of essential fluids and minerals that accompanies diarrhea. According to Rahaman, ORT, developed quite a while ago, is recently gaining more publicity and wider acceptance as a menas of replacing the water and electrolytes lost during acute diarrhea attack. The standard ingredients of the ORT mixture, as it is used in Bangladesh, are 3.5 gm of sodium chloride, or common salt, 2.5 gm sodium bicarbonate, and 1 gm of potassium chloride. To this one should add either 20 gm of glucose or 40 gm of sugar. This mixture should be dissolved in 1 liter of plain drinking water. Plain sugar is good enough. How much is needed depends on the severity and the duration of diarrhea. Calculations have shown that, as a rule of thumb, a child of 10-12 kg may require little more than a liter in about 24 hours. If the child has diarrhea of sufficient severity, it may require more than a liter. If the diarrhea is prolonged, it may require 2 liters. For children who are in danger of dying from dehydration, parents are warned to be watchful because further treatment and follow-up may be required. In Bangladesh a national program is currently providing the ORT in remote rural areas. At present about 1/3 of Bangladesh is covered. The national health service is distributing the solution free of cost in the villages where they have health volunteers. Although ORT is simple to make and simple to administer, one has to exercise some degree of caution with it in order to prevent infants getting dangerous symptoms like hypernatremia. ORT makes it possible for health educators to enter into the family. It is not totally correct to say water is the main problem or causative factor in producing diarrhea. In infantile diarrhea, the cause is most often a virus. Viral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galan Valera, M. P.; Acena Berrenechea, M. L.
1988-01-01
A method for as certain the activity by alpha spectroscopy with semiconductor detectors, of a solution of 232U is presented. It consists of the comparison with a 233U solution activity previously measured in a gridded ionization chamber of 2π geometry. The total measurement uncertainty is about + - 0,02. (Author) 9 refs
Calibration of uranium 232 solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galan, M.P.; Acena, M.L.
1988-01-01
A method for acertainning the activity by alpha spectroscopy with semiconductor detectors, of a solution of Uranium-232 is presented. It consists of the comparison with a Uranium-233 solution activity previously measured in a gridded ionization chamber of 2 π geometry. The total measurement uncertainty is about +- 0,02. (Author)
Requirements Engineering: Solutions and Trends
Ebert, C.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Aurum, A.; Wohlin, C.
2005-01-01
This last chapter of the book describes solutions and trends in the discipline of RE. Starting from a wrap-up of what was presented throughout this book, it suggests a framework of requirements engineering and indicates what current solutions are available in this framework. Beyond providing a short
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corona-Corona, Gulmaro
2004-01-01
Based on the standard fact that any matrix potential u=u(x) determines a family of Jost solutions whose parameter runs analytically (continuously) on the (closed) half planes, respectively, the zeros of a suitable matrix valued Wronskian of a Jost solution pair are explored
Some exact Bradlow vortex solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gudnason, Sven Bjarke [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou 730000 (China); Nitta, Muneto [Department of Physics, and Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University,Hiyoshi 4-1-1, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)
2017-05-08
We consider the Bradlow equation for vortices which was recently found by Manton and find a two-parameter class of analytic solutions in closed form on nontrivial geometries with non-constant curvature. The general solution to our class of metrics is given by a hypergeometric function and the area of the vortex domain by the Gaussian hypergeometric function.
Exploring manufacturing solutions for SMEs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Radziwon, Agnieszka; Blichfeldt, Henrik; Bilberg, Arne
This exploratory study provides an overview over current state of manufacturing solutions in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in region of Southern Denmark. Building on manufacturing paradigms, this paper reveals relevant aspects for the development and implementation of improving SMEs...... of manufacturing solutions, which are required to increase their competitiveness and assure sustainable growth....
Thermotransport in interstitial solid solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fogel'son, R.L.
1982-01-01
On the basis of literature data the problem of thermotransport of impurities (H, N, O, C) in interstitial solid solutions is considered. It is shown that from experimental data on the thermotransport an important parameter of dissolved atoms can be found which characterizes atom state in these solutions-enthalpy of transport
Analytic solutions of hydrodynamics equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coggeshall, S.V.
1991-01-01
Many similarity solutions have been found for the equations of one-dimensional (1-D) hydrodynamics. These special combinations of variables allow the partial differential equations to be reduced to ordinary differential equations, which must then be solved to determine the physical solutions. Usually, these reduced ordinary differential equations are solved numerically. In some cases it is possible to solve these reduced equations analytically to obtain explicit solutions. In this work a collection of analytic solutions of the 1-D hydrodynamics equations is presented. These can be used for a variety of purposes, including (i) numerical benchmark problems, (ii) as a basis for analytic models, and (iii) to provide insight into more complicated solutions
Whole analogy between Daniel Bernoulli solution and direct kinematics solution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filipović Mirjana
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the relationship between the original Euler-Bernoulli's rod equation and contemporary knowledge is established. The solution which Daniel Bernoulli defined for the simplest conditions is essentially the solution of 'direct kinematics'. For this reason, special attention is devoted to dynamics and kinematics of elastic mechanisms configuration. The Euler-Bernoulli equation and its solution (used in literature for a long time should be expanded according to the requirements of the mechanisms motion complexity. The elastic deformation is a dynamic value that depends on the total mechanism movements dynamics. Mathematical model of the actuators comprises also elasticity forces.
Solutions for the food processing industry; Shokuhin seizogyo solution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toda, T; Iwami, N [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1999-09-10
To improve quality control and maintain stable operation, the food processing industry requires problem solutions in total, including not only processing and operation control divisions but also quality control, design and production technology, and maintenance divisions. This paper describes solutions for HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point) support, quality control, and maintenance, in order to improve the quality level, ensure traceability and realize stable processing operations. (author)
Anisotropic solutions by gravitational decoupling
Ovalle, J.; Casadio, R.; da Rocha, R.; Sotomayor, A.
2018-02-01
We investigate the extension of isotropic interior solutions for static self-gravitating systems to include the effects of anisotropic spherically symmetric gravitational sources by means of the gravitational decoupling realised via the minimal geometric deformation approach. In particular, the matching conditions at the surface of the star with the outer Schwarzschild space-time are studied in great detail, and we describe how to generate, from a single physically acceptable isotropic solution, new families of anisotropic solutions whose physical acceptability is also inherited from their isotropic parent.
Solution of the Baxter equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janik, R.A.
1996-01-01
We present a method of construction of a family of solutions of the Baxter equation arising in the Generalized Leading Logarithmic Approximation (GLLA) of the QCD pomeron. The details are given for the exchange of N = 2 reggeons but everything can be generalized in a straightforward way to arbitrary N. A specific choice of solutions is shown to reproduce the correct energy levels for half integral conformal weights. It is shown that the Baxter's equation must be supplemented by an additional condition on the solution. (author)
Anisotropic solutions by gravitational decoupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ovalle, J. [Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Opava (Czech Republic); Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Fisica, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Casadio, R. [Alma Mater Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Rocha, R. da [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Sotomayor, A. [Universidad de Antofagasta, Departamento de Matematicas, Antofagasta (Chile)
2018-02-15
We investigate the extension of isotropic interior solutions for static self-gravitating systems to include the effects of anisotropic spherically symmetric gravitational sources by means of the gravitational decoupling realised via the minimal geometric deformation approach. In particular, the matching conditions at the surface of the star with the outer Schwarzschild space-time are studied in great detail, and we describe how to generate, from a single physically acceptable isotropic solution, new families of anisotropic solutions whose physical acceptability is also inherited from their isotropic parent. (orig.)
Analytic Solutions and Resonant Solutions of Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations
Wagenmaker, Timothy Roger
This dissertation contains two main subject areas. The first deals with solutions to the wave equation Du/Dt + a Du/Dx = 0, where D/Dt and D/Dx represent partial derivatives and a(t,x) is real valued. The question I studied, which arises in control theory, is whether solutions which are real analytic with respect to the time variable are dense in the space of all solutions. If a is real analytic in t and x, the Cauchy-Kovalevsky Theorem implies that the solutions real analytic in t and x are dense, since it suffices to approximate the initial data by polynomials. The same positive result is valid when a is continuously differentiable and independent of t. This is proved by regularization in time. The hypothesis that a is independent of t cannot be replaced by the weaker assumption that a is real analytic in t, even when it is infinitely smooth. I construct a(t,x) for which the solutions which are analytic in time are automatically periodic in time. In particular these solutions are not dense in the space of all solutions. The second area concerns the resonant interaction of oscillatory waves propagating in a compressible inviscid fluid. An asymptotic description given by Andrew Majda, Rodolfo Rosales, and Maria Schonbek (MRS) involves the genuinely nonlinear quasilinear hyperbolic system Du/Dt + D(uu/2)/Dt + v = 0, Dv/Dt - D(vv/2)/Dt - u = 0. They performed many numerical simulations which indicated that small amplitude solutions of this system tend to evade shock formation, and conjectured that "smooth initial data with a sufficiently small amplitude never develop shocks throughout a long time interval of integration.". I proved that for smooth periodic U(x), V(x) and initial data u(0,x) = epsilonU(x), v(0,x) = epsilonV(x), the solution is smooth for time at least constant times | ln epsilon| /epsilon. This is longer than the lifetime order 1/ epsilon of the solution to the decoupled Burgers equations. The decoupled equation describes nonresonant interaction of
Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Dry Eye The SSF thanks J. Daniel Nelson, MD, Associate Medical Director, Specialty Care HealthPartners Medical Group & Clinics, and Professor of Ophthalmology, University of ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atkinson, James; Nijhoff, Frank; Hietarinta, Jarmo
2008-01-01
We construct N-soliton solutions to the equation called Q3 in the recent Adler-Bobenko-Suris classification. An essential ingredient in the construction is the relationship of (Q3) δ=0 to the equation proposed by Nijhoff, Quispel and Capel in 1983 (the NQC equation). This latter equation has two extra parameters, and depending on their sign choices we get a 4-to-1 relationship from NQC to (Q3) δ=0 . This leads to a four-term background solution, and then to a 1-soliton solution using a Baecklund transformation. Using the 1SS as a guide allows us to get the N-soliton solution in terms of the τ-function of the Hirota-Miwa equation. (fast track communication)
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2016-03-01
The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.
Exact cosmological solutions for MOG
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roshan, Mahmood
2015-01-01
We find some new exact cosmological solutions for the covariant scalar-tensor-vector gravity theory, the so-called modified gravity (MOG). The exact solution of the vacuum field equations has been derived. Also, for non-vacuum cases we have found some exact solutions with the aid of the Noether symmetry approach. More specifically, the symmetry vector and also the Noether conserved quantity associated to the point-like Lagrangian of the theory have been found. Also we find the exact form of the generic vector field potential of this theory by considering the behavior of the relevant point-like Lagrangian under the infinitesimal generator of the Noether symmetry. Finally, we discuss the cosmological implications of the solutions. (orig.)
Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Aghogho
2010-12-27
Dec 27, 2010 ... This paper reviews the solute carrier transporters and highlights the fact that there is much to be learnt from .... transporters, drug targets, effect or proteins and meta- ... basolateral or apical plasma membrane of polarized cells,.
Transnistria: Prospects for a Solution
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Urse, Cristian
2007-01-01
.... After the conclusion of the agreement that ended the armed conflict, Chisinau and Tiraspol made efforts to find a political solution, under the supervision of a negotiation mechanism that included...
Anthology of dry storage solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allimann, Nathalie; Otton, Camille [AREVA, Paris (France)
2012-03-15
Around 35,000 PWR, BWR or Veer used fuel elements with various enrichment value up to 5%, various cooling time down to 2 years and various burn-ups up to 60,000 Mwd/tU are currently stored in AREVA dry storage solutions. These solutions are delivered in the United States, in Japan and in many European countries like Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Armenia and Germany. With more than 1000 dry storage solutions delivered all over the world AREVA is the leader on this market. Dealing with dry storage is not an easy task. Products have to be flexible, to be adapted to customer needs and to the national regulations which may stipulate very strict tests such as airplane crash or simulation of earthquake. To develop a dry storage solution for a foreign country means to deal with its national competent authorities. All the national competent authorities do not have the same requirements. Storage conditions may also be different.
Anthology of dry storage solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allimann, Nathalie; Otton, Camille
2012-01-01
Around 35,000 PWR, BWR or Veer used fuel elements with various enrichment value up to 5%, various cooling time down to 2 years and various burn-ups up to 60,000 Mwd/tU are currently stored in AREVA dry storage solutions. These solutions are delivered in the United States, in Japan and in many European countries like Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Armenia and Germany. With more than 1000 dry storage solutions delivered all over the world AREVA is the leader on this market. Dealing with dry storage is not an easy task. Products have to be flexible, to be adapted to customer needs and to the national regulations which may stipulate very strict tests such as airplane crash or simulation of earthquake. To develop a dry storage solution for a foreign country means to deal with its national competent authorities. All the national competent authorities do not have the same requirements. Storage conditions may also be different
Rapidly Deployable Mobile Security Solution
2016-03-01
Chapter V, but Android provides default onboard encryption and it is an optional feature for removable media. Wipe the device (to scrub its stored...Mobile Data Solution Since Android has removed the ability to control mobile data, and it is unknown if a creative solution to shut this feature...down exists, then some exploration on this topic is warranted. Android removed the access to this feature under the auspices of preventing
Reuse of hydroponic waste solution.
Kumar, Ramasamy Rajesh; Cho, Jae Young
2014-01-01
Attaining sustainable agriculture is a key goal in many parts of the world. The increased environmental awareness and the ongoing attempts to execute agricultural practices that are economically feasible and environmentally safe promote the use of hydroponic cultivation. Hydroponics is a technology for growing plants in nutrient solutions with or without the use of artificial medium to provide mechanical support. Major problems for hydroponic cultivation are higher operational cost and the causing of pollution due to discharge of waste nutrient solution. The nutrient effluent released into the environment can have negative impacts on the surrounding ecosystems as well as the potential to contaminate the groundwater utilized by humans for drinking purposes. The reuse of non-recycled, nutrient-rich hydroponic waste solution for growing plants in greenhouses is the possible way to control environmental pollution. Many researchers have successfully grown several plant species in hydroponic waste solution with high yield. Hence, this review addresses the problems associated with the release of hydroponic waste solution into the environment and possible reuse of hydroponic waste solution as an alternative resource for agriculture development and to control environmental pollution.
Radiolysis of Aqueous Toluene Solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christensen, H C; Gustafson, R
1971-04-15
Aqueous toluene solutions have been irradiated with Co gamma-rays. In unbuffered solutions the various cresol isomers are formed in a total yield of 0.45, 0.87 and 0.94 molecules/100 eV absorbed energy in argon-, N{sub 2}O- and air - saturated solutions, respectively. The yields are reduced in acid (pH 3) solutions (G = 0.14, 0.14 and 0.52, respectively) but the reduction is compensated by the formation of 1,2-di-phenylethane in yields of 0.49 and 1.60 in argon- and N{sub 2}O-saturated solutions, respectively. Benzyl radicals are formed through an acid catalysed water elimination reaction from the initially formed hydroxymethylcyclohexadienyl radical. Phenyltolylmethanes, dimethylbiphenyls and partly reduced dimers are also formed during the radiolysis. Hydrogen is formed in the same yield as the molecular yield, g(H{sub 2}). Xylene isomers and benzene are formed in trace quantities. The most remarkable effects of the addition of Fe(III) ions to deaerated acid toluene solutions are the formation of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde and an increase in the yield of 1,2-diphenylethane
Radiolysis of Aqueous Toluene Solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christensen, H.C.; Gustafson, R.
1971-04-01
Aqueous toluene solutions have been irradiated with Co γ-rays. In unbuffered solutions the various cresol isomers are formed in a total yield of 0.45, 0.87 and 0.94 molecules/100 eV absorbed energy in argon-, N 2 O- and air - saturated solutions, respectively. The yields are reduced in acid (pH 3) solutions (G 0.14, 0.14 and 0.52, respectively) but the reduction is compensated by the formation of 1,2-di-phenylethane in yields of 0.49 and 1.60 in argon- and N 2 O-saturated solutions, respectively. Benzyl radicals are formed through an acid catalysed water elimination reaction from the initially formed hydroxymethylcyclohexadienyl radical. Phenyltolylmethanes, dimethylbiphenyls and partly reduced dimers are also formed during the radiolysis. Hydrogen is formed in the same yield as the molecular yield, g(H 2 ). Xylene isomers and benzene are formed in trace quantities. The most remarkable effects of the addition of Fe(III) ions to deaerated acid toluene solutions are the formation of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde and an increase in the yield of 1,2-diphenylethane
Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nash, Charles A.
2016-07-12
Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.
Radiolysis of Aqueous Benzene Solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christensen, H
1964-05-15
Aerated and deaerated aqueous solutions of benzene have been irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays. The products of radiolysis in deaerated, unbuffered or acid, solutions were phenol, biphenyl, hydrogen and in acid solutions also hydrogen peroxide with the following yields: G(phenol) = 0. 37 (0. 37), G(biphenyl) = 1.3 (1.7), G(H{sub 2}) = 0.44 (0. 43) and G(H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) = 0 (0.60), the figures in brackets giving the results for acid solutions. The results are shown to agree with the conclusion that k(e{sup -}{sub aq} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) >> k(H + H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Furthermore, the results indicate that a competition takes place between the reactions: 2 C{sub 6}H{sub 6}OH {center_dot} -> dimer -> biphenyl. C{sub 6}H{sub 7} {center_dot} + C{sub 6}H{sub 6}OH {center_dot} -> dimer -> biphenyl. The yields in aerated, unbuffered or acid, solutions were: G(phenol) = 2.1 (2.3), G(biphenyl) = 0 (0), and G(H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) = 2.2 (3.1), the figures in brackets being valid for acid solutions. The ratio k(H + C{sub 6}H{sub 6})/k(H + O{sub 2}) was 1.4x10{sup -2}. The results indicate that peroxides, or more probably hydroperoxides, take part in the reactions. After the addition of Fe{sup 2+} or Fe{sup 3+} to aerated acid solutions G(phenol) was increased to 6.6 and 3.4 respectively. Oxygen was consumed more rapidly in the presence of Fe. Reaction mechanisms are discussed.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena
2012-01-01
Roč. 42, SI (2012), s. 1682-1691 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2012 and 15th Conference PRES 2012 /20./. Prague, 25.08.2012-29.08.2012] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fluid extraction * sea buckthom leaves * solute-solute interaction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering
Solidification of radioactive aqueous solution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aikawa, Hideaki; Kato, Kiyoshi; Wadachi, Yoshiki
1970-09-07
A process for solidifying a radioactive waste solution is provided, using as a solidifying agent a mixture of calcined gypsum and burnt vermiculite. The quantity ratio of the mixture is preferred to be 1:1 by volume. The quantity of impregnation is 1/2 of the volume of the total quantity of the solidifying agent. In embodiments, 10 liters of plutonium waste solution was mixed with a mixture of 1:1 calcined gypsum and burnt vermiculite contained in a 20-liter cylindrical steel container lined with asphalt. The plutonium waste solution from the laboratory was neutralized with a caustic soda aqueous solution to prevent explosion due to the nitration of organic compounds. The neutralization is not always necessary. A market available dental gypsum was calcined at 400 to 500/sup 0/C and a vermiculite from Illinois was burnt at 1,100/sup 0/C to prepare the agents. The time required for the impregnation with 10 liters of plutonium solution was four minutes. After impregnation, the temperature rose to 40/sup 0/C within 30 minutes to one hour. Next, it was cooled to room temperature by standing for 3-4 hours. Solidification time was about 1 hour. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Insitute had treated and disposed about 1,000 tons of plutonium waste by this process as of August 19, 1970.
Project Management Plan Solution Stabilization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
SATO, P.K.
1999-08-31
This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Solutions Stabilization subproject. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP) for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Stabilization and Deactivation Project, HNF-3617. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP Solution Stabilization subproject. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the Solution Stabilization subproject. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process.
Project Management Plan Solution Stabilization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SATO, P.K.
1999-01-01
This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Solutions Stabilization subproject. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP) for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Stabilization and Deactivation Project, HNF-3617. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP Solution Stabilization subproject. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the Solution Stabilization subproject. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process
Plagiarism Detection by Online Solutions.
Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Dobraca, Amra
2017-01-01
The problem of plagiarism represents one of the burning issues of the modern scientific world. Detection of plagiarism is a problem that the Editorial Board encounters in their daily work. Software solutions represent a good solution for the detection of plagiarism. The problem of plagiarism will become most discussed topic of the modern scientific world, especially due to the development of standard measures, which rank the work of one author. Investment in education, education of young research personnel about the importance of scientific research, with paying particular attention on ethical behavior, becomes an imperative of academic staff. Editors have to invest additional effort in the development of the base of reviewers team as well as in their proper guidance, because after all, despite the software solutions, they are the best weapon to fight plagiarism. Peer review process should be a key of successful operation of each journal.
Device for analyzing a solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchand, Joseph.
1978-01-01
The device enables a solution containing an antigen to be analyzed by the radio-immunology technique without coming up against the problems of antigen-antibody complex and free antigen separation. This device, for analyzing a solution containing a biological compound capable of reacting with an antagonistic compound specific of the biological compound, features a tube closed at its bottom end and a component set and immobilized in the bottom of the tube so as to leave a capacity between the bottom of the tube and its lower end. The component has a large developed surface and is so shaped that it allows the solution to be analyzed to have access to the bottom of the tube; it is made of a material having some elastic deformation and able to take up a given quantity of the biological compound or of the antagonistic compound specific of the biological compound [fr
Analytical Solution of Multicompartment Solute Kinetics for Hemodialysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Przemysław Korohoda
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. To provide an exact solution for variable-volume multicompartment kinetic models with linear volume change, and to apply this solution to a 4-compartment diffusion-adjusted regional blood flow model for both urea and creatinine kinetics in hemodialysis. Methods. A matrix-based approach applicable to linear models encompassing any number of compartments is presented. The procedure requires the inversion of a square matrix and the computation of its eigenvalues λ, assuming they are all distinct. This novel approach bypasses the evaluation of the definite integral to solve the inhomogeneous ordinary differential equation. Results. For urea two out of four eigenvalues describing the changes of concentrations in time are about 105 times larger than the other eigenvalues indicating that the 4-compartment model essentially reduces to the 2-compartment regional blood flow model. In case of creatinine, however, the distribution of eigenvalues is more balanced (a factor of 102 between the largest and the smallest eigenvalue indicating that all four compartments contribute to creatinine kinetics in hemodialysis. Interpretation. Apart from providing an exact analytic solution for practical applications such as the identification of relevant model and treatment parameters, the matrix-based approach reveals characteristic details on model symmetry and complexity for different solutes.
Solution chemistry and separation of metal ions in leached solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shibata, J.
1991-01-01
The method to presume a dissolved state of metal ions in an aqueous solution and the technology to separate and concentrate metal ions in a leached solution are described in this paper. It is very important for the separation of metal ions to know the dissolved state of metal ions. If we know the composition of an aqueous solution and the stability constants of metal-ligand complexes, we can calculate and estimate the concentration of each species in the solution. Then, we can decide the policy to separate and concentrate metal ions. There are several methods for separation and purification; hydroxide precipitation method, sulfide precipitation method, solvent extraction method and ion exchange resin method. Solvent extraction has been used in purification processes of copper refinery, uranium refinery, platinum metal refinery and rare earth metal refinery. Fundamental process of solvent extraction, a kind of commercial extractants, a way of determining a suitable extractant and an equipment are discussed. Finally, it will be emphasized how the separation of rare earths is improved in solvent extraction. (author) 21 figs., 8 tabs., 8 refs
Fundamental solutions of singular SPDEs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selesi, Dora
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Fundamental solutions of linear SPDEs are constructed. → Wick-convolution product is introduced for the first time. → Fourier transformation maps Wick-convolution into Wick product. → Solutions of linear SPDEs are expressed via Wick-convolution with fundamental solutions. → Stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved. - Abstract: This paper deals with some models of mathematical physics, where random fluctuations are modeled by white noise or other singular Gaussian generalized processes. White noise, as the distributional derivative od Brownian motion, which is the most important case of a Levy process, is defined in the framework of Hida distribution spaces. The Fourier transformation in the framework of singular generalized stochastic processes is introduced and its applications to solving stochastic differential equations involving Wick products and singularities such as the Dirac delta distribution are presented. Explicit solutions are obtained in form of a chaos expansion in the Kondratiev white noise space, while the coefficients of the expansion are tempered distributions. Stochastic differential equations of the form P(ω, D) ◊ u(x, ω) = A(x, ω) are considered, where A is a singular generalized stochastic process and P(ω, D) is a partial differential operator with random coefficients. We introduce the Wick-convolution operator * which enables us to express the solution as u = s*A ◊ I ◊(-1) , where s denotes the fundamental solution and I is the unit random variable. In particular, the stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved, which in physical interpretation describes waves propagating with a random speed from randomly appearing point sources.
Study of liquids and solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellissent-Funel, M.C.
1994-01-01
A critical review of what has been achieved on the structure of liquids and solutions and the capabilities and developments of neutron scattering in this domain, are presented. A great variety of simple to complex systems has been investigated with the aim of obtaining a full microscopic description of the structure. Selected examples demonstrate the neutron scattering determination of interaction potentials, intermolecular structures and partial structure factors of complex systems. The isotopic substitution method is illustrated by the application to the study of the solvation of ions in aqueous and non aqueous solutions. (author). 9 figs., 32 refs
Schwarzschild Solution: A Historical Perspective
Bartusiak, Marcia
2016-03-01
While eighteenth-century Newtonians had imagined a precursor to the black hole, the modern version has its roots in the first full solution to Einstein's equations of general relativity, derived by the German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild on a World War I battlefront just weeks after Einstein introduced his completed theory in November 1915. This talk will demonstrate how Schwarzschild's solution is linked to the black hole and how it took more than half a century for the physics community to accept that such a bizarre celestial object could exist in the universe.
Electrodialysis operation with buffer solution
Hryn, John N [Naperville, IL; Daniels, Edward J [Orland Park, IL; Krumdick, Greg K [Crete, IL
2009-12-15
A new method for improving the efficiency of electrodialysis (ED) cells and stacks, in particular those used in chemical synthesis. The process entails adding a buffer solution to the stack for subsequent depletion in the stack during electrolysis. The buffer solution is regenerated continuously after depletion. This buffer process serves to control the hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion concentration so as to protect the active sites of electrodialysis membranes. The process enables electrodialysis processing options for products that are sensitive to pH changes.
Magnetic Half-Monopole Solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teh, Rosy; Lim, Kok-Geng; Koh, Pin-Wai
2009-01-01
We present exact SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs monopole solutions of one half topological charge. These non-Abelian solutions possess gauge potentials which are singular along either the positive or the negative z-axis and common magnetic fields that are singular only at the origin where the half-monopole is located. These half-monopoles are actually a half Wu-Yang monopole and they can possess a finite point electric charge and become half-dyons. They do not necessarily satisfy the first order Bogomol'nyi equations and they possess infinite energy density at r = 0.
Teaching sustainable solutions in engineering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Stig Irving; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Ejlertsen, Marina
2015-01-01
's study lines. The objectives of the course 'Sustainability in engineering solutions', is for the participants to understand the basic concept of sustainability and its three dimensions (people, profit, planet), as well as to analyse problems and synthesise solutions that are sustainable throughout...... their life cycle. The course runs over a full time 3-week period and employs project-based learning with several sub-projects/-problems. This paper takes an in-depth discussion of the considerations concerning how to teach such a complicated subject to students of widely differing backgrounds, and reflects...
Fluid mechanics problems and solutions
Spurk, Joseph H
1997-01-01
his collection of over 200 detailed worked exercises adds to and complements the textbook Fluid Mechanics by the same author, and illustrates the teaching material through examples. In the exercises the fundamental concepts of Fluid Mechanics are applied to obtaining the solution of diverse concrete problems, and in doing this the student's skill in the mathematical modeling of practical problems is developed. In addition, 30 challenging questions without detailed solutions have been included, and while lecturers will find these questions suitable for examinations and tests, the student himself can use them to check his understanding of the subject.
Zeglinski, Jacek; Kuhs, Manuel; Khamar, Dikshitkumar; Hegarty, Avril C; Devi, Renuka K; Rasmuson, Åke C
2018-04-03
The influence of the solvent in nucleation of tolbutamide, a medium-sized, flexible and polymorphic organic molecule, has been explored by measuring nucleation induction times, estimating solvent-solute interaction enthalpies using molecular modelling and calorimetric data, probing interactions and clustering with spectroscopy, and modelling solvent-dependence of molecular conformation in solution. The nucleation driving force required to reach the same induction time is strongly solvent-dependent, increasing in the order: acetonitrilenucleation difficulty is a function of the strength of solvent-solute interaction, with emphasis on the interaction with specific H-bonding polar sites of importance in the crystal structure. A clear exception from this rule is the most difficult nucleation in toluene despite the weakest solvent-solute interactions. However molecular dynamics modelling predicts that tolbutamide assumes an intramolecularly H-bonded conformation in toluene, substantially different from and more stable than the conformation in the crystal structure, and thus presenting an additional barrier to nucleation. This explains why nucleation in toluene is the most difficult and why the relatively higher propensity for aggregation of tolbutamide molecules in toluene solution, as observed with FTIR spectroscopy, does not translate into easier nucleation. Thus, our combined experimental and molecular modelling study suggests that the solvent can influence on the nucleation not only via differences in the desolvation but also through the influence on molecular conformation. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Numerical Asymptotic Solutions Of Differential Equations
Thurston, Gaylen A.
1992-01-01
Numerical algorithms derived and compared with classical analytical methods. In method, expansions replaced with integrals evaluated numerically. Resulting numerical solutions retain linear independence, main advantage of asymptotic solutions.
Siemens IT solutions for power sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lunter, P.
2004-01-01
The cost reduction, flexibility and revenue increase, potential exploitation, productivity increase, and business opportunities exploitation - that is all what can be required in the races for the promonent positioning on the electricity power market. These requirements can be realized by the sophisticated IT solutions hand-tailored to the special requirements of the electric power producers and tradesmen. This approach makes it possible to achieve greater profit. Our solutions 'PROFIT Solutions', that are symbiosis of the most progressive information technologies and the power plant techniques of the company Siemens, satisfy submitted specifications in substantial measure. The system solutions 'PROFIT Solutions' comprise three solution groups: process, operation a business. The solutions of the group 'IT Process Solutions' increase flexibility and manoeuvrability of equipment, improve the efficiency and contribute to more economical operation of the power generation. Solutions 'IT Process Solutions' simplify and shorten the period of power cycles and conduce to higher labour productivity. Solutions group 'IT Process Solutions' approaches equipment to the market - supports the profit strategies, helps quickly and expertly to determine and predict hazards. The extension PROFIT Cockpit means the nuance to the solutions world 'PROFIT Solutions'. The survey about the whole installation is within reach at the simple touch of a button. It is possible to compile the total system part by part from single solutions 'PROFIT Solutions'. As a matter of fact all single parts can be interconnected with already existing solutions. Routines 'PROFIT Solutions' cooperate with all modern control systems. (author)
Some new radiating Kerr-Newman solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patel, L.K.; Singh, Tajinder; Koppar, S.S.
1991-01-01
Three exact non-static solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations corresponding to a field of flowing null radiation plus an electromagnetic field are presented. These solutions are non-static generalizations of the well known Kerr-Newman solution. The current vector is null in all the three solutions. These solutions are the electromagnetic generalizations of the three generalized radiating Kerr solutions discussed by Vaidya and Patel. The solutions discussed here describe the exterior gravitational fields of rotating radiating charged bodies. Many known solutions are derived as particular cases. (author). 12 refs
Business value of solution architecture
Slot, R.; Dedene, G.; Maes, R.; Proper, E.; Harmsen, F.; Dietz, J.L.G.
2009-01-01
The theory and especially the practice of IT architecture have been developed quite vigorously the last years. However, hardly any quantitative data about the value of IT architecture is available. This paper presents the results of a study, which measures the value of IT solution architecture for
COMPOSITE SOLUTIONS IN RAILROAD ENGINEERING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panfilova Marina Ivanovna
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Present-day methods of recovery of used wooden railway ties, including burial, chemical neutralization, gasification and subsequent burning, utilization in the capacity of composite materials, are expensive and unsafe for the environment. The authors propose a new method of their utilization. Ash generated in the course of their burning may replace a portion of cement in composite solutions and act as an additive to grouting mortars designated for the filling of the annulus space of manifold tunnels. The chemical composition of the ash was identified by the x-ray method applied to three samples taken during various periods of time from out of a dry-type dust collector. The level of human health/environmental hazard of the ash is based on its chemical composition. Changes in the rheological properties of composite solutions that contained concrete fractions, various ratios of ash, and 5% of liquid glass were studied in the course of the research. The experiments have proven that in the event of replacement of 20% of cement by ash, the strength of the composite solution is approximately the same as the one of the benchmark sample; therefore, this ash content ratio is deemed acceptable. The finding demonstrate that the ash has no toxic effect, and the ecological safety of this solution is thus confirmed. The authors have proven that 20% of cement may be replaced by the ash generated in the course of burning of waste railway ties.
Aqueous Solution Chemistry of Plutonium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clark, David L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-01-28
Things I have learned working with plutonium: Chemistry of plutonium is complex; Redox equilibria make Pu solution chemistry particularly challenging in the absence of complexing ligands; Understanding this behavior is key to successful Pu chemistry experiments; There is no suitable chemical analog for plutonium.
Negative energy solutions and symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sidharth, B.G.
2011-01-01
We revisit the negative energy solutions of the Dirac (and Klein–Gordon) equation, which become relevant at very high energies in the context of the Feshbach–Villars formulation, and study several symmetries which follow therefrom. Significant consequences are briefly examined. (author)
Scorpion toxins prefer salt solutions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Nikouee, A.; Khabiri, Morteza; Cwiklik, Lukasz
2015-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 11 (2015), 287/1-287/14 ISSN 1610-2940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06181S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : ionic solutions * molecular dynamics * nonaqueous media * secondary structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.438, year: 2015
In situ solution mining technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Learmont, R.P.
1978-01-01
A method of in situ solution mining is disclosed in which a primary leaching process employing an array of 5-spot leaching patterns of production and injection wells is converted to a different pattern by converting to injection wells all the production wells in alternate rows
A pyramid solution at Chernobyl
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1994-01-01
In the Kiev '92 competition to find a solution to the problem of containing the stricken Chernobyl unit 4, the PPROTECTOR proposal, put forward by a British-led international consortium, ranked fifth after the first round of judging. It made extensive use of advanced CAD techniques. (Author)
Solution chemistry of lanthanide complexes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brittain, H.G.
1979-01-01
Intermolecular energy transfer from Tb 3+ to Eu 3+ , luminescence intensity measurements, potentiometric titrations, differential absorption spectroscopy, and spectroscopic titrations were all used to study the binding of lanthanide ions by serine and threonine. At low pH (3.0 to 6.0) the complexes are mononuclear and ligand is only weakly bound. In the pH interval of 6.0 to 8.5 stronger interaction takes place between the ligand and the metal (with possible coordination of the undissociated hydroxyl group), and self-association of complexes becomes important. Above pH 8.5, base hydrolysis of the complexes leads to highly associated species in solution and shortly above this pH an insoluble precipitate is formed. It was found that energy could be transferred from Tb 3+ to Eu 3+ more efficiently among complexes prepared from racemic ligands than in complexes made from resolved ligand, but this stereoselectivity was only observed at pH values greater than 6.5 and in solutions having a 1:10 ratio of metal-to-ligand. No stereoselectivity was found in solutions having 1:5 ratios, and this observation was explained by the existence of 1:2 metal-ligand complexes existing in solutions having the higher ratio of metal-to-ligand (only 1:1 complexes are then found at lower ratios of metal-to-ligand). (author)
Hospitality lighting solutions communication framework
Blanch, Anna
2014-01-01
Hospitality customers are looking for systems that involve more than just turning the light on and off. They want lighting solutions that are energy-efficient, flexible and that will help enhance the guest experience. Based on on-going research about the impact that light can have in different
Looking to nature for solutions
Turner, Will R.
2018-01-01
Completely stopping fossil fuel use may not be enough to avoid dangerous climate change. Recent research on the mitigation potential of conservation, restoration, and improved land management demonstrates that natural solutions can reduce emissions and remove atmospheric CO2 while safeguarding food security and biodiversity.
Decomposition of metal nitrate solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haas, P.A.; Stines, W.B.
1982-01-01
Oxides in powder form are obtained from aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates (e.g. U, Pu, Th, Ce) by thermal decomposition at 300 to 800 deg C in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal. (author)
Statistical mechanics of protein solutions
Prinsen, P.
2007-01-01
We study theoretically thermodynamic properties of spherical globular proteins in aqueous solution with added monovalent salt. We show how one can determine an effective interaction potential between the proteins from experimental data as a function of salt concentration and we apply this to the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ormancey, E
2008-01-01
The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his Active Directory group membership can be checked before allowing access to a specific web page
Grover, Saurabh
2015-01-01
This book is aimed at IT admins, consultants, and architects alike who wish to deploy, manage, and maintain Hyper-V solutions in organizations of various sizes. You are expected to have a working knowledge of managing Windows Server and a fair understanding of networking and storage concepts.
Climate Change. Solutions for Australia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coleman, T.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Karoly, D.; Lowe, I.; McMichael, T.; Mitchell, C.; Pearman, G.; Scaife, P.; Reynolds, A. (eds.)
2004-06-01
The Australian Climate Group was convened in late 2003 by WWF Australia and the Insurance Australia Group (IAG) in response to the increasing need for action on climate change in Australia. This group proposes a set of solutions to lower the risk that climate change will reach a dangerous level.
Archival storage solutions for PACS
Chunn, Timothy
1997-05-01
While they are many, one of the inhibitors to the wide spread diffusion of PACS systems has been robust, cost effective digital archive storage solutions. Moreover, an automated Nearline solution is key to a central, sharable data repository, enabling many applications such as PACS, telemedicine and teleradiology, and information warehousing and data mining for research such as patient outcome analysis. Selecting the right solution depends on a number of factors: capacity requirements, write and retrieval performance requirements, scaleability in capacity and performance, configuration architecture and flexibility, subsystem availability and reliability, security requirements, system cost, achievable benefits and cost savings, investment protection, strategic fit and more.This paper addresses many of these issues. It compares and positions optical disk and magnetic tape technologies, which are the predominant archive mediums today. Price and performance comparisons will be made at different archive capacities, plus the effect of file size on storage system throughput will be analyzed. The concept of automated migration of images from high performance, high cost storage devices to high capacity, low cost storage devices will be introduced as a viable way to minimize overall storage costs for an archive. The concept of access density will also be introduced and applied to the selection of the most cost effective archive solution.
Solution properties of hydrophobically modified
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.M. Al-Sabagh
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We tested nine hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides with molecular weights situated between 1.58 and 0.89 × 106 g/mol for enhanced oil recovery applications. Their solution properties were investigated in the distilled water, brine solution, formation water and sea water. Their critical association concentrations were determined from the relationship between their concentrations and the corresponding apparent viscosities (ηapp at 30 °C at shear rate 6 s−1. They were between 0.4 and 0.5 g/dl. The brine solutions of 0.5 g/dl of HM-PAMs were investigated at different conditions regarding their apparent viscosities. Such conditions were mono and divalent cations, temperature ranging from 30 to 90 °C, the shear rate ranging from 6 to 30 s−1 and the aging time for 45 days. The surface and interfacial tensions for the HM-PAMs were measured for concentration range from 0.01 to 1 g/dl brine solutions at 30 °C and their emulsification efficiencies were investigated for 7 days. The discrepancy in the properties and efficiencies of the tested copolymers was discussed in the light of their chemical structure.
Solutions of Einstein's field equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomonaga, Y [Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education
1978-12-01
In this paper the author investigates the Einstein's field equations of the non-vacuum case and generalizes the solution of Robertson-Walker by the three dimensional Einstein spaces. In Section 2 the author shortly generalizes the dynamic space-time of G. Lemetre and A. Friedmann by a simple transformation.
Fundamental solutions in piezoelectricity. Penny-shaped crack solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dyka, Ewa; Rogowski, Bogdan
2006-01-01
The problem of electroelasticity for piezoelectric materials is considered. For axially symmetric states three potentials are introduced, which determine the displacements, the electric potentials, the stresses, the components of the electric field vector and the electric displacements in a piezoelectric body. These fundamental solutions are utilized to solve the penny-shaped crack problem. Two cases of boundary-value problems are considered, namely the permeable and impermeable crack boundary conditions. Exact solutions are obtained for elastic and electric fields. The main results are the stress intensity factor for singular stress and the electric displacement intensity factor. The numerical results are presented graphically to show the influence of applied mechanical and electrical loading on the analyzed quantities and to clarify the effect of anisotropy of piezoelectric materials. It is show that the influence of anisotropy of the materials on these fields is significant
Compacton solutions and multiple compacton solutions for a continuum Toda lattice model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan Xinghua; Tian Lixin
2006-01-01
Some special solutions of the Toda lattice model with a transversal degree of freedom are obtained. With the aid of Mathematica and Wu elimination method, more explicit solitary wave solutions, including compacton solutions, multiple compacton solutions, peakon solutions, as well as periodic solutions are found in this paper
Fissile solution dynamics: Student research
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hetrick, D.L.
1994-09-01
There are two research projects in criticality safety at the University of Arizona: one in dynamic simulation of hypothetical criticality accidents in fissile solutions, and one in criticality benchmarks using transport theory. We have used the data from nuclear excursions in KEWB, CRAC, and SILENE to help in building models for solution excursions. An equation of state for liquids containing gas bubbles has been developed and coupled to point-reactor dynamics in an attempt to predict fission rate, yield, pressure, and kinetic energy. It appears that radiolytic gas is unimportant until after the first peak, but that it does strongly affect the shape of the subsequent power decrease and also the dynamic pressure.
Automatic validation of numerical solutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stauning, Ole
1997-01-01
This thesis is concerned with ``Automatic Validation of Numerical Solutions''. The basic theory of interval analysis and self-validating methods is introduced. The mean value enclosure is applied to discrete mappings for obtaining narrow enclosures of the iterates when applying these mappings...... differential equations, but in this thesis, we describe how to use the methods for enclosing iterates of discrete mappings, and then later use them for discretizing solutions of ordinary differential equations. The theory of automatic differentiation is introduced, and three methods for obtaining derivatives...... are described: The forward, the backward, and the Taylor expansion methods. The three methods have been implemented in the C++ program packages FADBAD/TADIFF. Some examples showing how to use the three metho ds are presented. A feature of FADBAD/TADIFF not present in other automatic differentiation packages...
Dynamic viscosity of polymer solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peterlin, A
1982-03-01
The dynamic viscosity investigation of solutions of long chain polymers in very viscous solvents has definitely shown the existence of the low and high frequency plateau with the gradual transition between them. In both extreme cases the extrapolation of the measured Newtonian viscosities of the plateaus to the infinite dilution yields the limiting intrinsic viscosities. Such a behavior is expected from the dynamic intrinsic viscosity of the necklace model of the linear polymer with finite internal viscosity. The plateau at low frequency shows up in any model of polymer solution. This work shows the constant dynamic intrinsic viscosity in both extreme cases is well reproducible by the necklace model with the internal viscosity acting only between the beads on the same link. 20 references.
Solution assay instrument operations manual
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, T.K.; Marks, T.; Parker, J.L.
1983-09-01
An at-line solution assay instrument (SAI) has been developed and installed in a plutonium purification and americium recovery process area in the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument was designed for accurate, timely, and simultaneous nondestructive analysis of plutonium and americium in process solutions that have a wide range of concentrations and americium/plutonium ratios and for routine operation by process technicians who lack instrumentation background. The SAI, based on transmission-corrected, high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, has two measurement stations attached to a single multichannel analyzer/computer system. To ensure the quality of assay results, the SAI has an internal measurement control program, which requires daily and weekly check runs and monitors key aspects of all assay runs. For a 25-ml sample, the assay precision is 5 g/l within a 2000-s count time
Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.
1982-01-01
A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal
Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions
Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev; Renata R. Iskhakova; Zamzagul D. Dosymbaeva; Esen N. Sulejmenov
2014-01-01
There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.
Restoration of uranium solution mining deposits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Devries, F.W.; Lawes, B.C.
1982-01-19
A process is provided for restoring an ore deposit after uranium solution mining using ammonium carbonate leaching solutions has ceased. The process involves flushing the deposit with an aqueous solution of a potassium salt during which potassium ions exchange with ammonium ions remaining in the deposit. The ammonium containing flushing solution is withdrawn from the deposit for disposal.
Exact solutions to quadratic gravity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pravda, Vojtěch; Pravdová, Alena; Podolský, J.; Švarc, J.
2017-01-01
Roč. 95, č. 8 (2017), č. článku 084025. ISSN 2470-0010 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37086G Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : quadratic gravity * exact solutions * Kundt spacetimes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 4.568, year: 2016 https://journals.aps.org/prd/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevD.95.084025
Providing solutions to engineering problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connop, R.P.P.
1991-01-01
BNFL has acquired unique experience over a period of 40 years in specifying, designing and constructing spent fuel reprocessing and associated waste management plant. This experience is currently used to support a pound 5.5 billion capital investment programme. This paper reviews a number of engineering problems and their solutions to highlight BNFL experience in providing comprehensive specification, design and engineering and project management services. (author)
New regular black hole solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.
2011-01-01
In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.
ATM security via "Stargate" solution
Hensley, Katrina; Ludden, Fredrick
1999-01-01
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. In today's world of integrating voice, video and data into a single network, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks have become prevalent in the Department of Defense. The Department of Defense's critical data will have to pass through public networks, which causes concern for security. This study presents an efficient solution aimed at authenticating communications over public ATM networks. The authenticating device, Stargate, utiliz...
Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reategui, S.
2012-07-01
The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.
Combinatorial solutions to integrable hierarchies
Kazarian, M. E.; Lando, S. K.
2015-06-01
This paper reviews modern approaches to the construction of formal solutions to integrable hierarchies of mathematical physics whose coefficients are answers to various enumerative problems. The relationship between these approaches and the combinatorics of symmetric groups and their representations is explained. Applications of the results to the construction of efficient computations in problems related to models of quantum field theories are described. Bibliography: 34 titles.
Exact solutions to quadratic gravity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pravda, Vojtěch; Pravdová, Alena; Podolský, J.; Švarc, J.
2017-01-01
Roč. 95, č. 8 (2017), č. článku 084025. ISSN 2470-0010 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37086G Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : quadratic gravity * exact solutions * Kundt spacetimes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 4.568, year: 2016 https://journals. aps .org/prd/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevD.95.084025
Solution Prototyping with Design Thinking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel
2014-01-01
are tried to be broken and Design Thinking advantages are increasingly preferred by man- agement. This case study based paper provides key insights into how DT phases and behavior can be changed for creating synergy across employees, manage- ment and products from which the end-consumer benefits. The Social...... Media for SAP store case study combines a conceptual and product oriented solution deri- vation with Design Thinking....
Solution Prototyping with Design Thinking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel
are tried to be broken and Design Thinking advantages are increasingly preferred by man- agement. This case study based paper provides key insights into how DT phases and behavior can be changed for creating synergy across employees, manage- ment and products from which the end-consumer benefits. The Social...... Media for SAP store case study combines a conceptual and product oriented solution deri- vation with Design Thinking....
Renormgroup symmetry for solution functionals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirkov, D.V.; Kovalev, V.F.
2004-01-01
The paper contains generalization of the renormgroup algorithm for boundary value problems of mathematical physics and related concept of the renormgroup symmetry, formulated earlier by the authors with reference to models based on differential equations. These algorithm and symmetry are formulated now for models with nonlocal (integral) equations. We discuss in detail and illustrate by examples the applications of the generalized algorithm to models with nonlocal terms which appear as linear functionals of the solution. (author)
Experimental Designs Exercises and Solutions
Kabe, DG
2007-01-01
This volume provides a collection of exercises together with their solutions in design and analysis of experiments. The theoretical results, essential for understanding, are given first. These exercises have been collected during the authors teaching courses over a long period of time. These are particularly helpful to the students studying the design of experiments and instructors and researchers engaged in the teaching and research of design by experiment.
One Monopole-Antimonopole Pair Solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teh, Rosy; Wong, K.-M.
2009-01-01
We present new classical generalized one monopole-antimonopole pair solutions of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with the Higgs field in the adjoint representation. We show that in general the one monopole-antimonopole solution need not be solved by imposing mθ-winding number to be integer greater than one. We also show that this solution can be solved when m = 1 by transforming the large distance asymptotic solutions to general solutions that depend on a parameter p. Secondly we show that these large distance asymptotic solutions can be further generalized to the Jacobi elliptic functions. We focus our numerical calculation on the Jacobi elliptic functions solution when the nφ-winding number is one and show that this generalized Jacobi elliptic 1-MAP solution possesses lower energy. All these solutions are numerical finite energy non-BPS solutions of the Yang-Mills-Higgs field theory.
Linear superposition solutions to nonlinear wave equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yu
2012-01-01
The solutions to a linear wave equation can satisfy the principle of superposition, i.e., the linear superposition of two or more known solutions is still a solution of the linear wave equation. We show in this article that many nonlinear wave equations possess exact traveling wave solutions involving hyperbolic, triangle, and exponential functions, and the suitable linear combinations of these known solutions can also constitute linear superposition solutions to some nonlinear wave equations with special structural characteristics. The linear superposition solutions to the generalized KdV equation K(2,2,1), the Oliver water wave equation, and the k(n, n) equation are given. The structure characteristic of the nonlinear wave equations having linear superposition solutions is analyzed, and the reason why the solutions with the forms of hyperbolic, triangle, and exponential functions can form the linear superposition solutions is also discussed
Exact Solutions for Two Equation Hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song-Lin, Zhao; Da-Jun, Zhang; Jie, Ji
2010-01-01
Bilinear forms and double-Wronskian solutions are given for two hierarchies, the (2+1)-dimensional breaking Ablowitz–Kaup–Newell–Segur (AKNS) hierarchy and the negative order AKNS hierarchy. According to some choices of the coefficient matrix in the Wronskian condition equation set, we obtain some kinds of solutions for these two hierarchies, such as solitons, Jordan block solutions, rational solutions, complexitons and mixed solutions. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Lixin; Yin Jiuli
2004-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the fully nonlinear generalized Camassa-Holm equation C(m,n,p) and by using four direct ansatzs, we obtain abundant solutions: compactons (solutions with the absence of infinite wings), solitary patterns solutions having infinite slopes or cups, solitary waves and singular periodic wave solutions and obtain kink compacton solutions and nonsymmetry compacton solutions. We also study other forms of fully nonlinear generalized Camassa-Holm equation, and their compacton solutions are governed by linear equations
Commercial Lighting Solutions Webtool Peer Review Report, Office Solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beeson, Tracy A.; Jones, Carol C.
2010-02-01
The Commercial Lighting Solutions (CLS) project directly supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance efforts to design high performance buildings. CLS creates energy efficient best practice lighting designs for widespread use, and they are made available to users via an interactive webtool that both educates and guides the end user through the application of the Lighting Solutions. This report summarizes the peer review of the CLS webtool for offices. The methodology for the peer review process included data collection (stakeholder input), analysis of the comments, and organization of the input into categories for prioritization of the comments against a set of criteria. Based on this process, recommendations were developed for the release of version 2.0 of the webtool at the Lightfair conference in Las Vegas in May 2010. The report provides a list of the top ten most significant and relevant improvements that will be made within the webtool for version 2.0 as well as appendices containing the comments and short-term priorities in additional detail. Peer review comments that are considered high priority by the reviewers and the CLS team but cannot be completed for Version 2.0 are listed as long-term recommendations.
Approximate solutions to Mathieu's equation
Wilkinson, Samuel A.; Vogt, Nicolas; Golubev, Dmitry S.; Cole, Jared H.
2018-06-01
Mathieu's equation has many applications throughout theoretical physics. It is especially important to the theory of Josephson junctions, where it is equivalent to Schrödinger's equation. Mathieu's equation can be easily solved numerically, however there exists no closed-form analytic solution. Here we collect various approximations which appear throughout the physics and mathematics literature and examine their accuracy and regimes of applicability. Particular attention is paid to quantities relevant to the physics of Josephson junctions, but the arguments and notation are kept general so as to be of use to the broader physics community.
Fuel cell vehicles: technological solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez Martinez, J. M.
2004-01-01
Recently it takes a serious look at fuel cell vehicles, a leading candidate for next-generation vehicle propulsion systems. The green house effect and air quality are pressing to the designers of internal combustion engine vehicles, owing to the manufacturers to find out technological solutions in order to increase the efficiency and reduce emissions from the vehicles. On the other hand, energy source used by currently propulsion systems is not renewable, the well are limited and produce CO 2 as a product from the combustion process. In that situation, why fuel cell is an alternative of internal combustion engine?
Greenhouse effect: there are solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1997-01-01
A review of solutions that may be undertaken in order to reduce the greenhouse effect gas emissions is presented: clean energy generation through municipal, agricultural and industrial waste processing, reducing energy consumption through public transportation promotion, clean fuel buses and vehicles, or using energy efficient boilers, reduction of carbon dioxide emission from industry through process optimization, waste recycling, energy substitution and conservation, diminution of CO 2 emissions in commercial and residential sectors through space heating and air conditioning retrofitting, lighting substitution. Pollution abatement potentials are evaluated in each case, notably in France
Integrated solution for field operations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aubin, Renaud; Dionis, Francois [EDF, Chatou (France)
2014-08-15
This document presents our approach to design and to implement mobile applications for field operations. Internal on-field studies yield to the fact that the value added by mobile solutions is correlated with the easiness of their integration with each other and with the underlying information systems. Moreover, the fast-growing mobile market brings new concepts to the mass and industrial applications design can benefit from these. As a consequence, a simple components-based approach has been applied to design and develop mobile applications for field operations and on-site experiments of the resulting applications have been conducted.
Integrated solution for field operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aubin, Renaud; Dionis, Francois
2014-01-01
This document presents our approach to design and to implement mobile applications for field operations. Internal on-field studies yield to the fact that the value added by mobile solutions is correlated with the easiness of their integration with each other and with the underlying information systems. Moreover, the fast-growing mobile market brings new concepts to the mass and industrial applications design can benefit from these. As a consequence, a simple components-based approach has been applied to design and develop mobile applications for field operations and on-site experiments of the resulting applications have been conducted
Silverlight 4 Problem - Design - Solution
Lecrenski, Nick
2010-01-01
A hands-on guide to Microsoft's latest rich application development technology: Silverlight 4. Silverlight 4 is the newest version of the rich Internet application toolkit that provides support for .NET capabilities over the Internet. With this latest release of Silverlight, Microsoft has revolutionized the way that Web applications can be created. This book uses the popular Problem – Design – Solution strategy to demonstrate how to harness the power and abilities of Silverlight 4 to add value to the overall user experience of a Web site. Using a Web site created by the author as a reference p
Symmetries and Dirac equation solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza, Marcio Lima de.
1991-06-01
The purpose of this thesis is the extension to be relativistic case of a method that has proved useful for the solution of various potential problems in non relativistic situation. This method, the method of dynamical symmetries, is based on the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorf formulae and developed first for the particular example of the relativistic Coulomb problem. Here we generalize the method for a Hamiltonian that can be written as a linear combination of generators of the SO(2,1) group. As illustrative examples, we solve the problem of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field and the exponential magnetic field. (author). 21 refs
Integrated solution for field operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aubin, Renaud; Dionis, Francois
2014-01-01
This paper presents the authors' approach to design and to implement mobile applications for field operations. Internal on-field studies can yield the fact that the value-added by mobile solutions is correlated with the easiness of their integration with each other and with the underlying information systems. Moreover, the fast-growing mobile market brings new concepts to the mass and industrial applications design can benefit from these. As a consequence, a simple components-based approach has been applied to design and develop mobile applications for field operations and on-site experiments of the resulting applications have been conducted. (author)
MIGRATION – EFFECTS AND SOLUTIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raluca Cruceru
2012-12-01
Full Text Available There are three main flows that influence workforce performance—worker migration, the dissemination of knowledge, and overseas development assistance. For the present paper we decided to deal with the analyses of these three, yet mainly migration. We considered it to be one of the most important phenomenon existent on the market at this hour and with the highest negative impact on the economic and social situation. We presented a case study regarding the situation of migration in Romania and the main candidates to Romanian intelligence imports, the main issues and possible solutions to the problems encountered.
Transition state structures in solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertran, J.; Lluch, J. M.; Gonzalez-Lafont, A.; Dillet, V.; Perez, V.
1995-01-01
In the present paper the location of transition state structures for reactions in solution has been studied. Continuum model calculations have been carried out on the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction and a proton transfer through a water molecule between two oxygen atoms in formic acid. In this model the separation between the chemical system and the solvent has been introduced. On the other hand, the discrete Monte Carlo methodology has also been used to simulate the solvent effect on dissociative electron transfer processes. In this model, the hypothesis of separability is not assumed. Finally, the validity of both approaches is discussed
Lanthanide complexation in aqueous solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choppin, G.R.
1984-01-01
The lanthanide elements form an extended series of cations with the same charge, slightly varying radii and useful magnetic and spectroscopic properties. Their use in technology is growing rapidly as their properties are more fully explored. The lanthanides also offer scientists valuable and often unique probes for investigating a variety of chemical and physical phenomena. This review has attempted to call attention to these latter uses without trying to provide a thorough discussion of all the relevant literature. Hopefully, awareness of the more interesting facets of present studies of lanthanide complexes in aqueous solution will spur even more advances in the use of these elements. (Auth.)
Research on cloud computing solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liudvikas Kaklauskas
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Cloud computing can be defined as a new style of computing in which dynamically scala-ble and often virtualized resources are provided as a services over the Internet. Advantages of the cloud computing technology include cost savings, high availability, and easy scalability. Voas and Zhang adapted six phases of computing paradigms, from dummy termi-nals/mainframes, to PCs, networking computing, to grid and cloud computing. There are four types of cloud computing: public cloud, private cloud, hybrid cloud and community. The most common and well-known deployment model is Public Cloud. A Private Cloud is suited for sensitive data, where the customer is dependent on a certain degree of security.According to the different types of services offered, cloud computing can be considered to consist of three layers (services models: IaaS (infrastructure as a service, PaaS (platform as a service, SaaS (software as a service. Main cloud computing solutions: web applications, data hosting, virtualization, database clusters and terminal services. The advantage of cloud com-puting is the ability to virtualize and share resources among different applications with the objective for better server utilization and without a clustering solution, a service may fail at the moment the server crashes.DOI: 10.15181/csat.v2i2.914
Peritoneal solute transport and inflammation.
Davies, Simon J
2014-12-01
The speed with which small solutes cross the peritoneal membrane, termed peritoneal solute transport rate (PSTR), is a key measure of individual membrane performance. PSTR can be quantified easily by using the 4-hour dialysate to plasma creatinine ratio, which, although only an approximation to the diffusive characteristics of the membrane, has been well validated clinically in terms of its relationship to patient survival and changes in longitudinal membrane function. This has led to changes in peritoneal dialysis modality use and dialysis prescription. An important determinant of PSTR is intraperitoneal inflammation, as exemplified by local interleukin 6 production, which is largely independent of systemic inflammation and its relationship to comorbid conditions and increased mortality. There is no strong evidence to support the contention that the peritoneal membrane in some individuals with high PSTR is qualitatively different at the start of treatment; rather, it represents a spectrum that is determined in part by genetic factors. Both clinical and experimental evidence support the view that persistent intraperitoneal inflammation, detected as a continuously high or increasing PSTR, may predispose the membrane to progressive fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
INTERCULTURAL MISUNDERSTANDINGS: CAUSES AND SOLUTIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Майкл Б Хиннер
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Intercultural misunderstandings involve a number of complex causes which can easily escalate into conflicts. Since conflicts are also complex, it is not easy to find solutions because there is no one solution for all problems. Systems Theory, transdisciplinarity, and the social ecological model take a holistic approach in investigating complex phenomena. They permit the creation of a theoretical framework based on previous empirical research and theories across scientific disciplines to identify the relevant elements of complex phenomena and to understand the interrelationship of these elements. Intercultural misunderstandings and conflicts are very complex phenomena because they include culture, perception, identity, ethnocentrism, relationships, trust building and conflict management as well as intercultural commu-nication competence which entails cognition, metacognition, and social metacognition. Since most em-pirical studies focus on isolated, individual elements in specific contexts, this article describes the theoretical framework of how the various findings and theories developed in different scientific disciplines can be used to form a cohesive framework to help circumvent intercultural misunderstandings and conflicts. In so doing, it follows the general principles of Systems Theory, transdisciplinarity, and the social ecological model.
Solute-vacancy binding in aluminum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolverton, C.
2007-01-01
Previous efforts to understand solute-vacancy binding in aluminum alloys have been hampered by a scarcity of reliable, quantitative experimental measurements. Here, we report a large database of solute-vacancy binding energies determined from first-principles density functional calculations. The calculated binding energies agree well with accurate measurements where available, and provide an accurate predictor of solute-vacancy binding in other systems. We find: (i) some common solutes in commercial Al alloys (e.g., Cu and Mg) possess either very weak (Cu), or even repulsive (Mg), binding energies. Hence, we assert that some previously reported large binding energies for these solutes are erroneous. (ii) Large binding energies are found for Sn, Cd and In, confirming the proposed mechanism for the reduced natural aging in Al-Cu alloys containing microalloying additions of these solutes. (iii) In addition, we predict that similar reduction in natural aging should occur with additions of Si, Ge and Au. (iv) Even larger binding energies are found for other solutes (e.g., Pb, Bi, Sr, Ba), but these solutes possess essentially no solubility in Al. (v) We have explored the physical effects controlling solute-vacancy binding in Al. We find that there is a strong correlation between binding energy and solute size, with larger solute atoms possessing a stronger binding with vacancies. (vi) Most transition-metal 3d solutes do not bind strongly with vacancies, and some are even energetically strongly repelled from vacancies, particularly for the early 3d solutes, Ti and V
A competitive solution for cooperative truckload delivery
Hezarkhani, B.; Slikker, M.; Woensel, van T.
2016-01-01
This paper introduces a solution for gain sharing in consortia of logistic providers where joint planning of truckload deliveries enables the reduction of empty kilometers. The highly competitive nature of freight transport markets necessitates solutions that distinguish among the logistics
Mean-field learning for satisfactory solutions
Tembine, Hamidou; Tempone, Raul; Vilanova, Pedro
2013-01-01
One of the fundamental challenges in distributed interactive systems is to design efficient, accurate, and fair solutions. In such systems, a satisfactory solution is an innovative approach that aims to provide all players with a satisfactory payoff
Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baran, S.A.
1982-10-01
Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)
Gold and Silver Extraction from Leach Solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bagdaulet K. Kenzhaliyev
2014-03-01
Full Text Available There has been carried out an investigation on the extraction of gold and silver from thiosulfate solutions: standard test and technological solutions of chemical and electrochemical leaching. The influence of related metals on the process of extracting gold from solution was studied. There has been conducted a comparative study of the IR spectra of solutions after the sorption of gold, silver and related metals.
Engineering report (conceptual design) PFP solution stabilization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witt, J.B.
1997-07-17
This Engineering Report (Conceptual Design) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.
Engineering report (conceptual design) PFP solution stabilization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witt, J.B.
1997-01-01
This Engineering Report (Conceptual Design) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage
Exact solutions and singularities in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horowitz, G.T.; Tseytlin, A.A.
1994-01-01
We construct two new classes of exact solutions to string theory which are not of the standard plane wave of gauged WZW type. Many of these solutions have curvature singularities. The first class includes the fundamental string solution, for which the string coupling vanishes near the singularity. This suggests that the singularity may not be removed by quantum corrections. The second class consists of hybrids of plane wave and gauged WZW solutions. We discuss a four-dimensional example in detail
On polynomial solutions of the Heun equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurappa, N; Panigrahi, Prasanta K
2004-01-01
By making use of a recently developed method to solve linear differential equations of arbitrary order, we find a wide class of polynomial solutions to the Heun equation. We construct the series solution to the Heun equation before identifying the polynomial solutions. The Heun equation extended by the addition of a term, -σ/x, is also amenable for polynomial solutions. (letter to the editor)
Mobility needs and wireless solutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saugstrup, Dan; Henten, Anders
The main purpose of this report is to spell out a methodological approach to the analysis of user needs with respect to mobility. Furthermore, this methodological approach is used in an exemplary analysis of the relationship between user needs and technology solutions offered by different wireless...... technologies. The report is based on a research approach, emphasizing important aspects in relation to developing more user oriented mobile services and applications in a heterogeneous network environment. As a staring point, Scandinavian research within the field of social science concerning mobility...... is described and discussed. Furthermore different wireless technologies are briefly described and discussed in relation to possible transmission capacities and coverage areas. In addition to this, a preliminary framework regarding the implications of mobility on the use and development of mobile services...
Multivariate statistics exercises and solutions
Härdle, Wolfgang Karl
2015-01-01
The authors present tools and concepts of multivariate data analysis by means of exercises and their solutions. The first part is devoted to graphical techniques. The second part deals with multivariate random variables and presents the derivation of estimators and tests for various practical situations. The last part introduces a wide variety of exercises in applied multivariate data analysis. The book demonstrates the application of simple calculus and basic multivariate methods in real life situations. It contains altogether more than 250 solved exercises which can assist a university teacher in setting up a modern multivariate analysis course. All computer-based exercises are available in the R language. All R codes and data sets may be downloaded via the quantlet download center www.quantlet.org or via the Springer webpage. For interactive display of low-dimensional projections of a multivariate data set, we recommend GGobi.
Solution synthesis of germanium nanocrystals
Gerung, Henry [Albuquerque, NM; Boyle, Timothy J [Kensington, MD; Bunge, Scott D [Cuyahoga Falls, OH
2009-09-22
A method for providing a route for the synthesis of a Ge(0) nanometer-sized material from. A Ge(II) precursor is dissolved in a ligand heated to a temperature, generally between approximately 100.degree. C. and 400.degree. C., sufficient to thermally reduce the Ge(II) to Ge(0), where the ligand is a compound that can bond to the surface of the germanium nanomaterials to subsequently prevent agglomeration of the nanomaterials. The ligand encapsulates the surface of the Ge(0) material to prevent agglomeration. The resulting solution is cooled for handling, with the cooling characteristics useful in controlling the size and size distribution of the Ge(0) materials. The characteristics of the Ge(II) precursor determine whether the Ge(0) materials that result will be nanocrystals or nanowires.
A solution to nonlinearity problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neuffer, D.V.
1989-01-01
New methods of correcting dynamic nonlinearities resulting from the multipole content of a synchrotron or transport line are presented. In a simplest form, correction elements are places at the center (C) of the accelerator half-cells as well as near the focusing (F) and defocusing (D) quadrupoles. In a first approximation, the corrector strengths follow Simpson's Rule, forming an accurate quasi-local canceling approximation to the nonlinearity. The F, C, and D correctors may also be used to obtain precise control of the horizontal, coupled, and vertical motion. Correction by three or more orders of magnitude can be obtained, and simple solutions to a fundamental problem in beam transport have been obtained. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab
Pure energy solutions - pure tomorrows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allison, J.
2006-01-01
HTC is an energy technology company whose mandate is to deliver 'Carbon Clear Solutions' to address the pending challenges the energy sector is facing in meeting the environmental impact of Greenhouse Gas emissions, and energy security. HTC will speak on its comprehensive suite of technologies including hydrogen production, CO 2 capture and CO 2 sequestration. HTC has patented technologies that produce H 2 from a broad variety of feedstocks such as Natural gas, Diesel, Gasoline, Bio-fuels i.e. ethanol, methanol and Coal Gasification. HTC Hydrogen reformation systems are unique in their method of delivering pure Hydrogen. Dry Reformation Reactor - New catalyst system designed to eliminate contamination problems (i.e. coking) while at the same time operate at a low temperature. Water Gas Shift Reactor - Plus - improved and redesigned catalyst that improves operating temperature and hydrogen production efficiency. Two stage catalyst reactor that provides near balance of the endothermic and exothermic reaction temperatures for efficient energy balance
Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
The Keystone Center
2005-06-15
The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association
New interior solution describing relativistic fluid sphere
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Anewexact solution of embedding class I is presented for a relativistic anisotropicmassive fluid sphere. The new exact solution satisfies Karmarkar condition, is well-behaved in all respects, and therefore is suitable for the modelling of superdense stars. Consequently, using this solution, we have studied in detail two ...
Extremal black holes as exact string solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horowitz, G.T.; Tseytlin, A.A.
1994-01-01
We show that the leading order solution describing an extremal electrically charged black hole in string theory is, in fact, an exact solution to all orders in α' when interpreted in a Kaluza-Klein fashion. This follows from the observation that it can be obtained via dimensional reduction from a five-dimensional background which is proved to be an exact string solution
Homoclinic solutions for Davey-Stewartson equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Jian; Dai Zhengde
2008-01-01
In this paper, we firstly prove the existence of homoclinic solutions for Davey-Stewartson I equation (DSI) with the periodic boundary condition. Then we obtain a set of exact homoclinic solutions by the novel method-Hirota's method. Moreover, the structure of homoclinic solutions has been investigated. At the same time, we give some numerical simulations which validate these theoretical results
Special solutions of neutral functional differential equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Győri István
2001-01-01
Full Text Available For a system of nonlinear neutral functional differential equations we prove the existence of an -parameter family of "special solutions" which characterize the asymptotic behavior of all solutions at infinity. For retarded functional differential equations the special solutions used in this paper were introduced by Ryabov.
Requirements elicitation for geo-information solutions
Robbi Sluter, Claudia; van Elzakker, Corné P.J.M.; Ivanova, Ivana
2017-01-01
Geo-information solutions can achieve a higher level of quality if they are developed in accordance with a user-centred design that requires definition of the user requirements in the first step of solution construction. We treat a geo-information solution as a system designed to support human-based
Exact solution of super Liouville model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Zhanying; Zhao Liu; Zhen Yi
2000-01-01
Using Leznov-Saveliev algebraic analysis and Drinfeld-Sokolov construction, the authors obtained the explicit solutions to the super Liouville system in super covariant form and component form. The explicit solution in component form reduces naturally into the Egnchi-Hanson instanton solution of the usual Liouville equation if all the Grassmann odd components are set equal to zero
The stability of the strong gravity solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baran, S.A.
1978-01-01
The perturbation of the classical solution to a strong gravity model given by Salam and Strathdee is investigated. Using the Hamiltonian formalism it is shown that this static and spherically symmetric solution is stable under the odd parity perturbations provided some parameters in the solution are suitably restricted
21 CFR 522.900 - Euthanasia solution.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Euthanasia solution. 522.900 Section 522.900 Food... Euthanasia solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains: (1) 390 milligrams (mg.... For humane, painless, and rapid euthanasia. (2) Amount. One mL per 10 pounds of body weight. (3...
Unique specification of Yang-Mills solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, W.B.; Joseph, D.W.; Morgan, T.A.
1980-01-01
Screened time-independent cylindrically-symmetric solutions of Yang-Mills equations are given which show that the source does not uniquely determine the field. However, these particular solutions suggest a natural way of uniquely specifying solutions in terms of a physical realization of a symmetry group. (orig.)
Electrochemical regeneration of chrome etching solution
Andel, van Y.; Janssen, L.J.J.
2002-01-01
A metal surface is chromatized with a chromic acid solution to obtain a good adherence of polymer coatings. In this process Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III). The oxidation strength of the solution decreases during use. The chrome solution needs to be regenerated and purified. A new anode material,
Classical solutions in lattice gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitrjushkin, V.K.
1996-08-01
The solutions of the classical equations of motion on a periodic lattice are found which correspond to abelian single and double Dirac sheets. These solutions exist also in non-abelian theories. Possible applications of these solutions to the calculation of gauge dependent and gauge invariant observables are discussed. (orig.)
Axisymmetric solution with charge in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arutyunyan, G.G.; Papoyan, V.V.
1989-01-01
The possibility of generating solutions to the equations of general relativity from known solutions of the generalized theory of gravitation and vice versa is proved. An electrovac solution to Einstein's equations that describes a static axisymmetric gravitational field is found. 14 refs
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2014-04-01
The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.
Hyperscaling violating solutions in generalised EMD theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Li
2017-04-01
Full Text Available This short note is devoted to deriving scaling but hyperscaling violating solutions in a generalised Einstein–Maxwell-Dilaton theory with an arbitrary number of scalars and vectors. We obtain analytic solutions in some special case and discuss the physical constraints on the allowed parameter range in order to have a well-defined holographic ground-state solution.
Hyperscaling violating solutions in generalised EMD theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Li, E-mail: lil416@lehigh.edu [Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute for Theoretical and Computational Physics, Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Crete Center for Quantum Complexity and Nanotechnology, Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, 18018 (United States)
2017-04-10
This short note is devoted to deriving scaling but hyperscaling violating solutions in a generalised Einstein–Maxwell-Dilaton theory with an arbitrary number of scalars and vectors. We obtain analytic solutions in some special case and discuss the physical constraints on the allowed parameter range in order to have a well-defined holographic ground-state solution.
Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iroulard, M.G.
2007-04-01
The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and
Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iroulard, M.G
2007-04-15
The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and
Oerlemans, Chris; Seevinck, Peter R.; Smits, Maarten L.; Hennink, Wim E.; Bakker, Chris J G; Van Den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Nijsen, J. Frank W
2015-01-01
Embolotherapy is a minimally invasive transcatheter technique aiming at reduction or complete obstruction of the blood flow by infusion of micro-sized particles in order to induce tumor regression. A major drawback of the current commercially available and clinically used microspheres is that they
Stability studies of oxytetracycline in methanol solution
Wang, Wei; Wu, Nan; Yang, Jinghui; Zeng, Ming; Xu, Chenshan; Li, Lun; Zhang, Meng; Li, Liting
2018-02-01
As one kind of typical tetracycline antibiotics, antibiotic residues of oxytetracycline have been frequently detected in many environmental media. In this study, the stability of oxytetracycline in methanol solution was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with UV-vis (HPLC-UV). The results show that the stability of oxytetracycline in methanol solution is highly related to its initial concentration and the preserved temperature. Under low temperature condition, the solution was more stable than under room temperature preservation. Under the same temperature preservation condition, high concentrations of stock solutions are more stable than low concentrations. The study provides a foundation for preserving the oxytetracycline-methanol solution.
Solution Focused Approach and Usage of Nursing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nurcan AKGUL GUNDOGDU
2016-12-01
Full Text Available "Problem talk creates problems; solution talk creates solutions " Steve de Shazer In recent years, concern for solution-oriented approach has increased in nursing practice. In this review it is aimed to give information about nursing application of solution-oriented approach whose efficacy has been proved with many studies. In addition, solution-oriented approach is what how it turned out, the answer to the question of principle, and that is what the management strategy and what the nursing relationship will be sought. [JCBPR 2016; 5(3.000: 145-152
Pollution! Find a STEM solution!
Takač, Danijela; Moćan, Marina
2016-04-01
Primary and secondary school Pantovčak is an innovative school in downtown Zagreb, Croatia. The school is involved in many projects concerning STEM education. Pollution! Find a STEM solution! is a two year long cross-curricular project that grew out of identified need to develop STEM and ICT skills more. Pisa results make evident that students' knowledge is poor and motivation for math and similar subjects is low. Implying priorities of European Commission, like e-learning, raises motivation and also develops basic skills and improves knowledge in science, math, physic, ICT. Main objectives are to increase students' interest in STEM education and careers and introduce them to all available new trends in technology, engineering and science in their region by visiting clean technology industries and strengthening links with them, to introduce some future digital jobs and prepare students for rapid technological changes by integrating ICT into classroom practice more, to highlight the importance of global environmental issues and improve the knowledge in the areas of sustainable development and renewable energy, to develop collaborative partnership between schools and the wider community in formal, non-formal and informal learning, to support multilingualism by publishing Open Educational Resources in 8 different languages and to strengthen the professional profile of the teaching profession. The project brings together 231 teachers and 2729 students from five different European countries in learning to think globally and work on activities that contribute to the community's well-being. There are altogether 33 activities, divided in 4 categories. STEM activities are focused on students building the devices for measuring air, light and noise pollution in their school and homes. They use the scientific method to analyze the data and compare the results with their peers to find a solution. Eskills, digital literacy and digital jobs are focused on introducing career
Exact solutions in three-dimensional gravity
Garcia-Diaz, Alberto A
2017-01-01
A self-contained text, systematically presenting the determination and classification of exact solutions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity. This book explores the theoretical framework and general physical and geometrical characteristics of each class of solutions, and includes information on the researchers responsible for their discovery. Beginning with the physical character of the solutions, these are identified and ordered on the basis of their geometrical invariant properties, symmetries, and algebraic classifications, or from the standpoint of their physical nature, for example electrodynamic fields, fluid, scalar field, or dilaton. Consequently, this text serves as a thorough catalogue on 2+1 exact solutions to the Einstein equations coupled to matter and fields, and on vacuum solutions of topologically massive gravity with a cosmological constant. The solutions are also examined from different perspectives, enabling a conceptual bridge between exact solutions of three- and four-dimensional gravit...
Innovative Solution to Video Enhancement
2001-01-01
Through a licensing agreement, Intergraph Government Solutions adapted a technology originally developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for enhanced video imaging by developing its Video Analyst(TM) System. Marshall's scientists developed the Video Image Stabilization and Registration (VISAR) technology to help FBI agents analyze video footage of the deadly 1996 Olympic Summer Games bombing in Atlanta, Georgia. VISAR technology enhanced nighttime videotapes made with hand-held camcorders, revealing important details about the explosion. Intergraph's Video Analyst System is a simple, effective, and affordable tool for video enhancement and analysis. The benefits associated with the Video Analyst System include support of full-resolution digital video, frame-by-frame analysis, and the ability to store analog video in digital format. Up to 12 hours of digital video can be stored and maintained for reliable footage analysis. The system also includes state-of-the-art features such as stabilization, image enhancement, and convolution to help improve the visibility of subjects in the video without altering underlying footage. Adaptable to many uses, Intergraph#s Video Analyst System meets the stringent demands of the law enforcement industry in the areas of surveillance, crime scene footage, sting operations, and dash-mounted video cameras.
Software Solutions for Agile Business
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viorel LUPU
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Businesses, like people, are continuously evolving and as such face rapid and continual change. As markets and customer needs evolve, enterprises must respond with new ways to attract and retain customers and partners, increase operational efficiency, and achieve greater visibility into their business processes. IT staff see business processes through the lens of the low-level parts of the flow, rather than at the business level. As a result, they aren't capable of implementing the processes so that they will meet continuously changing business requirements, thus impeding business agility. Business users are increasingly demanding that they have control over their own business processes - and so, are requiring systems that put control of the flow and logic into their hands, not those of IT. An Enterprise Service Bus based on a Service Oriented Architecture could be a solution and tie together the notions of service oriented process, service oriented integration and event-driven, message based interaction into a single environment that enables users to combine their assets and information from multiple points of view.
Numerical solution of Boltzmann's equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sod, G.A.
1976-04-01
The numerical solution of Boltzmann's equation is considered for a gas model consisting of rigid spheres by means of Hilbert's expansion. If only the first two terms of the expansion are retained, Boltzmann's equation reduces to the Boltzmann-Hilbert integral equation. Successive terms in the Hilbert expansion are obtained by solving the same integral equation with a different source term. The Boltzmann-Hilbert integral equation is solved by a new very fast numerical method. The success of the method rests upon the simultaneous use of four judiciously chosen expansions; Hilbert's expansion for the distribution function, another expansion of the distribution function in terms of Hermite polynomials, the expansion of the kernel in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Hilbert operator, and an expansion involved in solving a system of linear equations through a singular value decomposition. The numerical method is applied to the study of the shock structure in one space dimension. Numerical results are presented for Mach numbers of 1.1 and 1.6. 94 refs, 7 tables, 1 fig
Energy solutions for sports facilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Artuso, Paola; Santiangeli, Adriano [CIRPS: Inter-University Research Centre for Sustainable Development, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Eudossiana, 18, Rome (Italy)
2008-06-15
The sports facilities are characterized by special energy needs different from any other user and they are characterized by high heat and electricity loads. For this reason, the aim of this work has been to propose a tool to provide a preliminary estimation of the power and energy required by the sports centres. In addition, the possibility to make the building self-energy sufficient has been considered, thanks to the exploitation of renewable energy sources (RES). The overall work has been performed following three steps: energy needs analysis; local RES availability analysis; energy balance of Sport Centres. Considering that each sport facility is characterized by different energy needs depending on the sport typology itself, the analysis started from the features established by the CONI (National Italian Olympic Committee) standardization. For calculations a program in LabVIEW has been developed to evaluate the energy requirements of the sports centre considering as inputs the sport halls, the playgrounds and the supporting rooms, the level of the sport activity (e.g. agonistic) and the climatic conditions of the area where the facilities are located. The locally available RES are evaluated in order to decide which one can be exploited to feed the Sport Centre. The proposed solution for the energy production refers to a combination of different and innovative technologies which involve, in particular, hydrogen technologies. The energy and costs analysis has been finally carried out for an application case in Dubai. (author)
Zirconium for nitric acid solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yau, T.L.
1984-01-01
The excellent corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid has been known for over 30 years. Recently, there is an increasing interest in using zirconium for nitric acid services. Therefore, an extensive research effort has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the corrosion properties of zirconium in nitric acid. Particular attention is paid to the effect of concentration, temperature, structure, solution impurities, and stress. Immersion, autoclave, U-bend, and constant strain-rate tests were used in this study. Results of this study indicate that the corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid is little affected by changes in temperature and concentration, and the presence of common impurities such as seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, iron, and stainless steel. Moreover, the presence of seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, and stainless steel has little effect on the stress corrosion craking (SCC) susceptibility of zirconium in 70% nitric acid at room temperatures. However, zirconium could be attacked by fluoride-containing nitric acid and the vapors of chloride-containing nitric acid. Also, high sustained tensile stresses should be avoided when zirconium is used to handle 70% nitric acid at elevated temperatures or > 70% nitric acid
Electrovacuum solutions in nonlocal gravity
Fernandes, Karan; Mitra, Arpita
2018-05-01
We consider the coupling of the electromagnetic field to a nonlocal gravity theory comprising of the Einstein-Hilbert action in addition to a nonlocal R □-2R term associated with a mass scale m . We demonstrate that in the case of the minimally coupled electromagnetic field, real corrections about the Reissner-Nordström background only exist between the inner Cauchy horizon and the event horizon of the black hole. This motivates us to consider the modified coupling of electromagnetism to this theory via the Kaluza ansatz. The Kaluza reduction introduces nonlocal terms involving the electromagnetic field to the pure gravitational nonlocal theory. An iterative approach is provided to perturbatively solve the equations of motion to arbitrary order in m2 about any known solution of general relativity. We derive the first-order corrections and demonstrate that the higher order corrections are real and perturbative about the external background of a Reissner-Nordström black hole. We also discuss how the Kaluza reduced action, through the inclusion of nonlocal electromagnetic fields, could also be relevant in quantum effects on curved backgrounds with horizons.
Counterterms for static Lovelock solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehdizadeh, M.R.; Dehghani, M.H.; Zangeneh, M.K.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences of the action of Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of static black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. Next, we calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. Furthermore, we find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there exists no uncharged extreme black hole, third order Lovelock gravity can have these kind of black holes. Finally, we investigate the stability of static charged black holes of Lovelock gravity in canonical ensemble and find that small black holes show a phase transition between very small and small black holes, while the large ones are stable. (orig.)
Counterterms for static Lovelock solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mehdizadeh, M.R. [Shahid Bahonar University, Department of Physics, PO Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehghani, M.H. [Research Institute for Astrophysics and Astronomy of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zangeneh, M.K. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-06-15
In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences of the action of Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of static black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. Next, we calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. Furthermore, we find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there exists no uncharged extreme black hole, third order Lovelock gravity can have these kind of black holes. Finally, we investigate the stability of static charged black holes of Lovelock gravity in canonical ensemble and find that small black holes show a phase transition between very small and small black holes, while the large ones are stable. (orig.)
Dynamics of dilute polymer solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicholson, L.K.; Higgins, J.S.
1980-01-01
Neutrons scattered by nuclei undergoing slow motion e.g. the internal motion within polymer chains, lose or gain very small amounts of energy. It is therefore the quasi-elastic region of the neutron scattering spectrum which is of interest and in particular the time correlation function (or intermediate scattering law S(Q,t)) which is ideally required to define the motion. The neutron spin echo spectrometer (IN11) at the ILL facilitates the measurement of very small energy changes (down to 10 neV) on scattering from a sample, by changing and keeping track of neutron beam polarization non-parallel to the magnetic guide-field (1). The resultant neutron beam polarization, when normalized against a standard (totally elastic) scatterer is directly proportional to the cosine Fourier Transform of the scattering law S(Q,ω), which is to say the time correlation function is measured directly. Dilute solutions of deuterated polystyrene (PSD) and deuterated polytetrahydrofuran (PTDF) in carbon disulphide, and of their hydrogeneous counterparts (PSH and PTHF respectively) in deuterated benzene were investigated in the range 0.027 A -1 -1 , at 30 0 C. (orig./FKS)
Uranium recovery from phosphonitric solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunus, F.T.; Miu, I.
1997-01-01
A new technology for uranium and rare earth recovery applied in a semi-industrial plant processing 5 m 3 /h phosphoric acid has been extended to phosphonitric solution, resulting in the process of nitric acid attack of phosphate rock for complex fertilizer production. In this process uranium and rare earths are obtained at larger quantities due to the complete dissolution of elements involved. The method is based on a one cycle extraction-stripping process using as extractants: di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (DEPA) in mixture either with tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) or tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in view of obtaining a synergic effect for U (VI). A mixer-settler extractor in four steps was used. Two stripping steps are involved for the elements mentioned. Before uranium stripping a scrubbing with urea was introduced to eliminate nitric acid extracted. Uranium was obtained as green cake (hydrated uranium tetrafluoride) which can be easily transformed in hexfluoride or converted to a diuranate. At the same time the radium is also eliminated leading to a non-radioactive fertilizer product. (author),. 8 refs, 4 figs
Aeromedical solutions for aerospace safety.
Kapoor, Pawan; Gaur, Deepak
2017-10-01
All facets of activity in the speciality of Aviation Medicine are essentially aimed at enhancing aerospace safety. This paper highlights some innovative changes brought about by Aerospace Medicine in the three major fields of the speciality namely, medical evaluation, aeromedical training and research. Based on lab and field studies, military aircrew are now permitted flying with Modifinil as 'Go' Pill and Zolpidem as 'No-Go' Pill during sustained operations. Several other drugs for disabilities like Hypertension and CAD are now permitted for aviators. Comprehensive revision of policy permitting early return to flying is an on-going process. OPRAM courses for all three streams of aircrew in IAF have contributed to reduce aircraft accident rates. Human Engineering Consultancy and expert advice is provided by specialists at IAM as well as those in the field. In future, the country needs to provide better post-service opportunities to aerospace medicine specialists. This, in turn, will attract bright young minds to the specialty. The ISRO Humanin-Space programme will be an exciting challenge for all in this unique field. Aerospace Medicine continues to provide aerospace safety solutions to the IAF and the aviation industry. The nation needs to continue to utilize and support this specialty.
Firnstahl, T W
1993-01-01
Timothy Firnstahl owns five successful restaurants in Seattle, but he recently came very close to owning none. In the early 1990s, he found himself, like so many restauranteurs, facing rising costs, inefficient management, and a recession. Confronting financial annihilation, Firnstahl had to act quickly: since he had no peripherals to trim, he cut off the head of his company. Remarkably, it worked. Firnstahl's problem was his new and innovative restaurant, Sharps Fresh Roasting. The heart of the Sharps concept was a unique long-roasting technique that made lean, inexpensive meats taste as juicy and delicious as fattier, expensive cuts. The process also lent itself to faster service and lower labor costs. But it wasn't working. Sharps wasn't breaking even, and his other restaurants couldn't make up the difference. He needed a solution fast. Firnstahl got his answer from Mikhail Gorbachev: slash the centralized command and liberate the company. In doing so, he would also transfer virtually all power and responsibility to his line managers. And after five months of intensive study and planning, he accomplished what he set out to do. He fired most of his corporate staff, empowered his restaurant managers with "100% Power and Responsibility," and, finally, undertook a massive promotion campaign. A year later, Sharps Fresh Roasting is the gold mine Firnstahl always believed it could be. He's done away with bureaucracy and turned business around in a down market. All this because his managers are managing themselves.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Setoguchi, T.; Manchu, Y.; Katsumata, M. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
2000-04-01
Toshiba provides a range of information technology (IT) solutions called SmartEC Solution, which includes business-to-business electronic commerce systems and services based on international standards and industrial know-how, especially our electronic data interchange (EDI) know-how as a manufacturer. These IT solutions are supplied as services covering strategy planning, system integration, and application service provider based on five types of business-to-business electronic commerce. (author)
Technical solutions to nonproliferation challenges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Satkowiak, Lawrence [Director, Nonproliferation, Safeguards and Security Programs, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)
2014-05-09
The threat of nuclear terrorism is real and poses a significant challenge to both U.S. and global security. For terrorists, the challenge is not so much the actual design of an improvised nuclear device (IND) but more the acquisition of the special nuclear material (SNM), either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, to make the fission weapon. This paper provides two examples of technical solutions that were developed in support of the nonproliferation objective of reducing the opportunity for acquisition of HEU. The first example reviews technologies used to monitor centrifuge enrichment plants to determine if there is any diversion of uranium materials or misuse of facilities to produce undeclared product. The discussion begins with a brief overview of the basics of uranium processing and enrichment. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its safeguard objectives and how the technology evolved to meet those objectives will be described. The second example focuses on technologies developed and deployed to monitor the blend down of 500 metric tons of HEU from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons to reactor fuel or low enriched uranium (LEU) under the U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement. This reactor fuel was then purchased by U.S. fuel fabricators and provided about half the fuel for the domestic power reactors. The Department of Energy established the HEU Transparency Program to provide confidence that weapons usable HEU was being blended down and thus removed from any potential theft scenario. Two measurement technologies, an enrichment meter and a flow monitor, were combined into an automated blend down monitoring system (BDMS) and were deployed to four sites in Russia to provide 24/7 monitoring of the blend down. Data was downloaded and analyzed periodically by inspectors to provide the assurances required.
Technical solutions to nonproliferation challenges
Satkowiak, Lawrence
2014-05-01
The threat of nuclear terrorism is real and poses a significant challenge to both U.S. and global security. For terrorists, the challenge is not so much the actual design of an improvised nuclear device (IND) but more the acquisition of the special nuclear material (SNM), either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, to make the fission weapon. This paper provides two examples of technical solutions that were developed in support of the nonproliferation objective of reducing the opportunity for acquisition of HEU. The first example reviews technologies used to monitor centrifuge enrichment plants to determine if there is any diversion of uranium materials or misuse of facilities to produce undeclared product. The discussion begins with a brief overview of the basics of uranium processing and enrichment. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its safeguard objectives and how the technology evolved to meet those objectives will be described. The second example focuses on technologies developed and deployed to monitor the blend down of 500 metric tons of HEU from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons to reactor fuel or low enriched uranium (LEU) under the U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement. This reactor fuel was then purchased by U.S. fuel fabricators and provided about half the fuel for the domestic power reactors. The Department of Energy established the HEU Transparency Program to provide confidence that weapons usable HEU was being blended down and thus removed from any potential theft scenario. Two measurement technologies, an enrichment meter and a flow monitor, were combined into an automated blend down monitoring system (BDMS) and were deployed to four sites in Russia to provide 24/7 monitoring of the blend down. Data was downloaded and analyzed periodically by inspectors to provide the assurances required.
Mass transport in polyelectrolyte solutions
Schipper, F. J. M.; Leyte, J. C.
1999-02-01
The self-diffusion coefficients of the three components of a salt-free heavy-water solution of polymethacrylic acid, completely neutralized with tetra-methylammonium hydroxide, were measured over a broad concentration range. Three concentration regions were observed for the self-diffusion of both the polyions and the counterions. At polyion concentrations below 0.01 mol monomer kg-1, the dilute concentration regime for the polymer, the polyion self-diffusion coefficient approaches the self-diffusion coefficient of a freely diffusing rod upon dilution. At polyelectrolyte concentrations above 0.1 mol monomer kg-1, the self-diffusion coefficients of the solvent, the counterions and the polymer decreased with concentration, suggesting that this decrease is due to a topological constraint on the motions of the components. In the intermediate-concentration region, the self-diffusion coefficients of the polyions and the counterions are independent of the concentration. The polyion dynamic behaviour is, in the intermediate- and high-concentration regions, reasonably well described by that of a hard sphere, with a radius of 3.7 nm. A correct prediction for the solvent dynamics is given by the obstruction effect of this hard sphere on the solvent. The relative counterion self-diffusion coefficient is predicted almost quantitatively over the entire concentration range with the Poisson-Boltzmann-Smoluchowski model for the spherical cell, provided that the sphere radius and the number of charges are chosen appropriately (approximately the number of charges in a persistence length). Using this model, the dependence of the counterion self-diffusion coefficient on the ionic strength, polyion concentration and counterion radius is calculated quantitatively over a large concentration range.
Modified Bateman solution for identical eigenvalues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dreher, Raymond
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Solving indeterminacies due to identical eigenvalues in Bateman’s solution. ► Exact analytical solution of Bateman’s equations for identical eigenvalues. ► Algorithm calculating higher order derivatives appearing in this solution. ► Alternative evaluation of the derivatives through the Taylor polynomial. ► Implementation of an example program demonstrating the developed solution. - Abstract: In this paper we develop a general solution to the Bateman equations taking into account the special case of identical eigenvalues. A characteristic of this new solution is the presence of higher order derivatives. It is shown that the derivatives can be obtained analytically and also computed in an efficient manner
Osmosis and thermodynamics explained by solute blocking.
Nelson, Peter Hugo
2017-01-01
A solute-blocking model is presented that provides a kinetic explanation of osmosis and ideal solution thermodynamics. It validates a diffusive model of osmosis that is distinct from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis. Osmotic equilibrium occurs when the fraction of water molecules in solution matches the fraction of pure water molecules that have enough energy to overcome the pressure difference. Solute-blocking also provides a kinetic explanation for why Raoult's law and the other colligative properties depend on the mole fraction (but not the size) of the solute particles, resulting in a novel kinetic explanation for the entropy of mixing and chemical potential of ideal solutions. Some of its novel predictions have been confirmed; others can be tested experimentally or by simulation.
On rotational solutions for elliptically excited pendulum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belyakov, Anton O.
2011-01-01
The author considers the planar rotational motion of the mathematical pendulum with its pivot oscillating both vertically and horizontally, so the trajectory of the pivot is an ellipse close to a circle. The analysis is based on the exact rotational solutions in the case of circular pivot trajectory and zero gravity. The conditions for existence and stability of such solutions are derived. Assuming that the amplitudes of excitations are not small while the pivot trajectory has small ellipticity the approximate solutions are found both for high and small linear dampings. Comparison between approximate and numerical solutions is made for different values of the damping parameter. -- Highlights: → We study rotations of the mathematical pendulum when its pivot moves along an ellipse. → There are stable exact solutions for a circular pivot trajectory and zero gravity. → Asymptotic solutions are found for an elliptical pivot trajectory
Exact solution of the hidden Markov processes
Saakian, David B.
2017-11-01
We write a master equation for the distributions related to hidden Markov processes (HMPs) and solve it using a functional equation. Thus the solution of HMPs is mapped exactly to the solution of the functional equation. For a general case the latter can be solved only numerically. We derive an exact expression for the entropy of HMPs. Our expression for the entropy is an alternative to the ones given before by the solution of integral equations. The exact solution is possible because actually the model can be considered as a generalized random walk on a one-dimensional strip. While we give the solution for the two second-order matrices, our solution can be easily generalized for the L values of the Markov process and M values of observables: We should be able to solve a system of L functional equations in the space of dimension M -1 .
Osmosis and thermodynamics explained by solute blocking
Nelson, Peter Hugo
2016-01-01
A solute-blocking model is presented that provides a kinetic explanation of osmosis and ideal solution thermodynamics. It validates a diffusive model of osmosis that is distinct from the traditional convective flow model of osmosis. Osmotic equilibrium occurs when the fraction of water molecules in solution matches the fraction of pure water molecules that have enough energy to overcome the pressure difference. Solute-blocking also provides a kinetic explanation for why Raoult’s law and the other colligative properties depend on the mole fraction (but not the size) of the solute particles, resulting in a novel kinetic explanation for the entropy of mixing and chemical potential of ideal solutions. Some of its novel predictions have been confirmed, others can be tested experimentally or by simulation. PMID:27225298
Cosmological string solutions by dimensional reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behrndt, K.; Foerste, S.
1993-12-01
We obtain cosmological four dimensional solutions of the low energy effective string theory by reducing a five dimensional black hole, and black hole-de Sitter solution of the Einstein gravity down to four dimensions. The appearance of a cosmological constant in the five dimensional Einstein-Hilbert produces a special dilaton potential in the four dimensional effective string action. Cosmological scenarios implement by our solutions are discussed
New exact solutions of the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagrov, V.G.; Gitman, D.M.; Zadorozhnyj, V.N.; Lavrov, P.M.; Shapovalov, V.N.
1980-01-01
Search for new exact solutions of the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations are in progress. Considered are general properties of the Dirac equation solutions for an electron in a purely magnetic field, in combination with a longitudinal magnetic and transverse electric fields. New solutions for the equations of charge motion in an electromagnetic field of axial symmetry and in a nonstationary field of a special form have been found for potentials selected concretely
New solutions of Heun's general equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishkhanyan, Artur; Suominen, Kalle-Antti
2003-01-01
We show that in four particular cases the derivative of the solution of Heun's general equation can be expressed in terms of a solution to another Heun's equation. Starting from this property, we use the Gauss hypergeometric functions to construct series solutions to Heun's equation for the mentioned cases. Each of the hypergeometric functions involved has correct singular behaviour at only one of the singular points of the equation; the sum, however, has correct behaviour. (letter to the editor)
Anodizing And Sealing Aluminum In Nonchromated Solutions
Emmons, John R.; Kallenborn, Kelli J.
1995-01-01
Improved process for anodizing and sealing aluminum involves use of 5 volume percent sulfuric acid in water as anodizing solution, and 1.5 to 2.0 volume percent nickel acetate in water as sealing solution. Replaces process in which sulfuric acid used at concentrations of 10 to 20 percent. Improved process yields thinner coats offering resistance to corrosion, fatigue life, and alloy-to-alloy consistency equal to or superior to those of anodized coats produced with chromated solutions.
Spurious Numerical Solutions Of Differential Equations
Lafon, A.; Yee, H. C.
1995-01-01
Paper presents detailed study of spurious steady-state numerical solutions of differential equations that contain nonlinear source terms. Main objectives of this study are (1) to investigate how well numerical steady-state solutions of model nonlinear reaction/convection boundary-value problem mimic true steady-state solutions and (2) to relate findings of this investigation to implications for interpretation of numerical results from computational-fluid-dynamics algorithms and computer codes used to simulate reacting flows.
The supply solutions for isolated rural consumers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazi, Gheorghe; Solomon, Petre; Hazi, Aneta
2004-01-01
This paper establishes the supply optimal solutions for isolated rural consumers. A complex technical-economical calculation method is developed for selection of the best solutions. This analysis is based on the minimization of the net present value, NPV, criterion. Using the results of this calculation, one can select easily the supply solution for a given active power and for a given distance separating the power source and the isolated consumer. (authors)
Exact solutions for rotating charged dust
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Islam, J.N.
1984-01-01
Earlier work by the author on rotating charged dust is summarized. An incomplete class of exact solutions for differentially rotating charged dust in Newton-Maxwell theory for the equal mass and charge case that was found earlier is completed. A new global exact solution for cylindrically symmetric differentially rotating charged dust in Newton-Maxwell theory is presented. Lastly, a new exact solution for cylindrically symmetric rigidly rotating charged dust in general relativity is given. (author)
Supersymmetric solutions for non-relativistic holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.
2009-01-01
We construct families of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB and D=11 supergravity that are invariant under the non-relativistic conformal algebra for various values of dynamical exponent z≥4 and z≥3, respectively. The solutions are based on five- and seven-dimensional Sasaki-Einstein manifolds and generalise the known solutions with dynamical exponent z=4 for the type IIB case and z=3 for the D=11 case, respectively. (orig.)
Processing Solutions for Big Data in Astronomy
Fillatre, L.; Lepiller, D.
2016-09-01
This paper gives a simple introduction to processing solutions applied to massive amounts of data. It proposes a general presentation of the Big Data paradigm. The Hadoop framework, which is considered as the pioneering processing solution for Big Data, is described together with YARN, the integrated Hadoop tool for resource allocation. This paper also presents the main tools for the management of both the storage (NoSQL solutions) and computing capacities (MapReduce parallel processing schema) of a cluster of machines. Finally, more recent processing solutions like Spark are discussed. Big Data frameworks are now able to run complex applications while keeping the programming simple and greatly improving the computing speed.
Risk transfer solutions for the insurance industry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Njegomir Vladimir
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the traditional and alternative mechanisms for insurance risk transfer that are available to global as well as to domestic insurance companies. The findings suggest that traditional insurance risk transfer solutions available to insurance industry nowadays will be predominant in the foreseeable future but the increasing role of alternative solutions is to be expected as the complementary rather than supplementary solution to traditional transfer. Additionally, findings suggest that it is reasonable to expect that future development of risk transfer solutions in Serbia will follow the path that has been passed by global insurance industry.
Scaling solutions for dilaton quantum gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henz, T.; Pawlowski, J.M., E-mail: j.pawlowski@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de; Wetterich, C.
2017-06-10
Scaling solutions for the effective action in dilaton quantum gravity are investigated within the functional renormalization group approach. We find numerical solutions that connect ultraviolet and infrared fixed points as the ratio between scalar field and renormalization scale k is varied. In the Einstein frame the quantum effective action corresponding to the scaling solutions becomes independent of k. The field equations derived from this effective action can be used directly for cosmology. Scale symmetry is spontaneously broken by a non-vanishing cosmological value of the scalar field. For the cosmology corresponding to our scaling solutions, inflation arises naturally. The effective cosmological constant becomes dynamical and vanishes asymptotically as time goes to infinity.
Monopole Solutions in Topologically Massive Gauge Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teh, Rosy; Wong, Khai-Ming; Koh, Pin-Wai
2010-01-01
Monopoles in topologically massive SU(2) Yang-Mils-Higgs gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions with a Chern-Simon mass term have been studied by Pisarski some years ago. He argued that there is a monopole solution that is regular everywhere, but found that it does not possess finite action. There were no exact or numerical solutions being presented by him. Hence it is our purpose to further investigate this solution in more detail. We obtained numerical regular solutions that smoothly interpolates between the behavior at small and large distances for different values of Chern-Simon term strength and for several fixed values of Higgs field strength.
Geometrical and Graphical Solutions of Quadratic Equations.
Hornsby, E. John, Jr.
1990-01-01
Presented are several geometrical and graphical methods of solving quadratic equations. Discussed are Greek origins, Carlyle's method, von Staudt's method, fixed graph methods and imaginary solutions. (CW)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model on schistosomiasis governed by periodic differential equations with a time delay was studied. By discussing boundedness of the solutions of this model and construction of a monotonic sequence, the existence of positive periodic solution was shown. The conditions under which the model admits a periodic solution and the conditions under which the zero solution is globally stable are given, respectively. Some numerical analyses show the conditional coexistence of locally stable zero solution and periodic solutions and that it is an effective treatment by simply reducing the population of snails and enlarging the death ratio of snails for the control of schistosomiasis.
Polynomial solutions of nonlinear integral equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dominici, Diego
2009-01-01
We analyze the polynomial solutions of a nonlinear integral equation, generalizing the work of Bender and Ben-Naim (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 F9, 2008 J. Nonlinear Math. Phys. 15 (Suppl. 3) 73). We show that, in some cases, an orthogonal solution exists and we give its general form in terms of kernel polynomials
Mixed Solutions of Electrical Energy Storage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chioncel Cristian Paul
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents electrical energy storage solutions using electricbatteries and supercapacitors powered from photovoltaic solarmodules, with possibilities of application in electric and hybrid vehicles.The future development of electric cars depends largely on electricalenergy storage solutions that should provide a higher range of roadand operating parameters comparable to those equipped with internalcombustion engines, that eliminate pollution.
Properties of general relativistic kink solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kodama, T.; Oliveira, L.C.S. de; Santos, F.C.
1978-12-01
Properties of the general relativistic kink solution of a nonlinear scalar field recently obtained, are discussed. It has been shown that the kink solution is stable against radical perturbations. Possible applications to Hadron physics from the geometrodynamic point of view are suggested [pt
AdS solutions through transgression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Kim, Nakwoo
2008-01-01
We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or 'transgression' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS 3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial.
Polynomial solutions of nonlinear integral equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dominici, Diego [Department of Mathematics, State University of New York at New Paltz, 1 Hawk Dr. Suite 9, New Paltz, NY 12561-2443 (United States)], E-mail: dominicd@newpaltz.edu
2009-05-22
We analyze the polynomial solutions of a nonlinear integral equation, generalizing the work of Bender and Ben-Naim (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 F9, 2008 J. Nonlinear Math. Phys. 15 (Suppl. 3) 73). We show that, in some cases, an orthogonal solution exists and we give its general form in terms of kernel polynomials.
Neutron scattering study of dilute supercritical solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cochran, H.D.; Wignall, G.D.; Shah, V.M.; Londono, J.D.; Bienkowski, P.R.
1994-01-01
Dilute solutions in supercritical solvents exhibit interesting microstructures that are related to their dramatic macroscopic behavior. In typical attractive solutions, solutes are believed to be surrounded by clusters of solvent molecules, and solute molecules are believed to congregate in the vicinity of one another. Repulsive solutions, on the other hand, exhibit a local region of reduced solvent density around the solute with solute-solute congregation. Such microstructures influence solubility, partial molar volume, reaction kinetics, and many other properties. We have undertaken to observe these interesting microstructures directly by neutron scattering experiments on dilute noble gas systems including Ar. The three partial structure factors for such systems and the corresponding pair correlation functions can be determined by using the isotope substitution technique. The systems studied are uniquely suited for our objectives because of the large coherent neutron scattering length of the isotope 36 Ar and because of the accurate potential energy functions that are available for use in molecular simulations and theoretical calculations to be compared with the scattering results. We will describe our experiment, the unique apparatus we have built for it, and the neutron scattering results from our initial allocations of beam time. We will also describe planned scattering experiments to follow those with noble gases, including study of long-chain molecules in supercritical solvents. Such studies will involve hydrocarbon mixtures with and without deuteration to provide contrast
Numerically satisfactory solutions of Kummer recurrence relations
J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)
2008-01-01
textabstractPairs of numerically satisfactory solutions as $n\\rightarrow \\infty$ for the three-term recurrence relations satisfied by the families of functions $_1\\mbox{F}_1(a+\\epsilon_1 n; b +\\epsilon_2 n;z)$, $\\epsilon_i \\in {\\mathbb Z}$, are given. It is proved that minimal solutions always
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2016-03-01
This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.
21 CFR 178.1010 - Sanitizing solutions.
2010-04-01
... aqueous solution containing potassium iodide, sodium p-toluenesulfonchloroamide, and sodium lauryl sulfate...), trisodium phosphate (CAS Reg. No. 7601-54-9), sodium lauryl sulfate (CAS Reg. No. 151-21-3), and potassium...) An aqueous solution of citric acid, disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and...
Development of standardized radioactive 46Sc solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du Hongshan; Jia Zhang; Yu Yiguang; Sun Naiyao
1988-01-01
A method of preparation of standardized radioactive 46 Sc solution is developed. The separation of 46 Sc, the composition of 46 Sc solution and its stability, and radioactivity measurement of 46 Sc are systematically studied. The results obtained in the study and in the applications in many laboratories have shown that our method is effective and reliable
Discrete Riccati equation solutions: Distributed algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. G. Lainiotis
1996-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper new distributed algorithms for the solution of the discrete Riccati equation are introduced. The algorithms are used to provide robust and computational efficient solutions to the discrete Riccati equation. The proposed distributed algorithms are theoretically interesting and computationally attractive.
Thermodynamic properties of potassium chloride aqueous solutions
Zezin, Denis; Driesner, Thomas
2017-04-01
Potassium chloride is a ubiquitous salt in natural fluids, being the second most abundant dissolved salt in many geological aqueous solutions after sodium chloride. It is a simple solute and strong electrolyte easily dissociating in water, however the thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions were never correlated with sufficient accuracy for a wide range of physicochemical conditions. In this communication we propose a set of parameters for a Pitzer-type model which allows calculation of all necessary thermodynamic properties of KCl solution, namely excess Gibbs free energy and derived activity coefficient, apparent molar enthalpy, heat capacity and volume, as well as osmotic coefficient and activity of water in solutions. The system KCl-water is one of the best studied aqueous systems containing electrolytes. Although extensive experimental data were collected for thermodynamic properties of these solutions over the years, the accurate volumetric data became available only recently, thus making possible a complete thermodynamic formulation including a pressure dependence of excess Gibbs free energy and derived properties of the KCl-water liquids. Our proposed model is intended for calculation of major thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions at temperatures ranging from freezing point of a solution to 623 K, pressures ranging from saturated water vapor up to 150 MPa, and concentrations up to the salt saturation. This parameterized model will be further implemented in geochemical software packages and can facilitate the calculation of aqueous equilibrium for reactive transport codes.
Chemical stability of oseltamivir in oral solutions.
Albert, K; Bockshorn, J
2007-09-01
The stability of oseltamivir in oral aqueous solutions containing the preservative sodium benzoate was studied by a stability indicating HPLC-method. The separation was achieved on a RP-18 ec column using a gradient of mobile phase A (aqueous solution of 50 mM ammonium acetate) and mobile phase B (60% (v/v) acetonitrile/40% (v/v) mobile phase A). The assay was subsequently validated according to the ICH guideline Q2(R1). The extemporaneously prepared "Oseltamivir Oral Solution 15 mg/ml for Adults or for Children" (NRF 31.2.) according to the German National Formulary ("Neues Rezeptur-Formularium") was stable for 84 days if stored under refrigeration. After storage at 25 degrees C the content of oseltamivir decreased to 98.4%. Considering the toxicological limit of 0.5% of the 5-acetylamino derivative (the so-called isomer I) the solution is stable for 46 days. Oseltamivir was less stable in a solution prepared with potable water instead of purified water. Due to an increasing pH the stability of this solution decreased to 14 days. Furthermore a white precipitate of mainly calcium phosphate was observed. The addition of 0.1% anhydrous citric acid avoided these problems and improved the stability of the solution prepared with potable water to 63 days. Sodium benzoate was stable in all oral solutions tested.
Exact Solutions for Einstein's Hyperbolic Geometric Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Chunlei
2008-01-01
In this paper we investigate the Einstein's hyperbolic geometric flow and obtain some interesting exact solutions for this kind of flow. Many interesting properties of these exact solutions have also been analyzed and we believe that these properties of Einstein's hyperbolic geometric flow are very helpful to understanding the Einstein equations and the hyperbolic geometric flow
DIUx Commercial Solutions Opening: How to Guide
2016-11-30
technology development; today, that trend has shifted: commercial investment now propels the preponderance of ground -breaking technology development...contracts. This is normally accomplished through a job order cost accounting system, whereby the books and records segregate direct costs by agreement...or figure (s) to depict the essence of the proposed solution is strongly encouraged. 5) Multiple solution briefs addressing different topic areas
Power Series Solution to the Pendulum Equation
Benacka, Jan
2009-01-01
This note gives a power series solution to the pendulum equation that enables to investigate the system in an analytical way only, i.e. to avoid numeric methods. A method of determining the number of the terms for getting a required relative error is presented that uses bigger and lesser geometric series. The solution is suitable for modelling the…
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2016-03-01
This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.
Solution space assessment for mass customization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn
2012-01-01
literature study and analysis of solution space characteristics a number of metrics are described which can be used for solution space assessment. They are divided into five caterories: Profitability, Utilization, Variety Demand satisfaction, Architecture and Responsiveness. The metrics and be applied as KPI’s...
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2016-03-01
This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.
A solution for the narrow rectangular punch
Panek, C.F.; Kalker, J.J.
1977-01-01
This paper considers the problem of a rectangular flat ended punch acting on an elastic half-space. An approximate solution is generated through application of the elastic line integral equations. The results produced by this method are then compared with another approximate solution already
Extremal solutions of measure differential equations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Monteiro, Giselle Antunes; Slavík, A.
2016-01-01
Roč. 444, č. 1 (2016), s. 568-597 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : measure differential equations * extremal solution * lower solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X16302724
Solutions for 80 km DWDM systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dochhan, Annika; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Nicklas
2016-01-01
Currently discussed solutions for 80 km DWDM transmission targeting inter-data center connections at 100G and 400G line rates are reviewed. PDM-64QAM, PAM4, and discrete multi-tone transmission (DMT) are investigated, while the focus lies on directly detected solutions. For DMT, the vestigial...
Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2016-03-01
This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.
The Pizza Problem: A Solution with Sequences
Shafer, Kathryn G.; Mast, Caleb J.
2008-01-01
This article addresses the issues of coaching and assessing. A preservice middle school teacher's unique solution to the Pizza problem was not what the professor expected. The student's solution strategy, based on sequences and a reinvention of Pascal's triangle, is explained in detail. (Contains 8 figures.)
A spherical collapse solution with neutrino outflow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glass, E.N.
1990-01-01
A three-parameter family of solutions of Einstein's field equations is given that represents a collapsing perfect fluid with outgoing neutrino flux. Solutions with ''naked'' singularities are exhibited. They can be forbidden by requiring pressure less than or equal to the density as a condition of cosmic censorship
A class of Yang-Mills solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castillejo, L.; Kugler, M.
1980-09-01
We investigate a class of solutions of the classical SU(2) Yang-Mills equations. The symmetry of this class prescribes a natural set of gauge invariant degrees of freedom. Using these degrees of freedom we obtain a simple set of equations which enables us to find all the solutions belonging to the class under discussion. (Author)
Analytic solutions of nonlinear Cournot duopoly game
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akio Matsumoto
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We construct a Cournot duopoly model with production externality in which reaction functions are unimodal. We consider the case of a Cournot model which has a stable equilibrium point. Then we show the existence of analytic solutions of the model. Moreover, we seek general solutions of the model in the form of nonlinear second-order difference equation.
Positive integer solutions of certain diophantine equations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
BIJAN KUMAR PATEL
2018-03-19
Mar 19, 2018 ... integer solutions. They also found all the positive integer solutions of the given equations in terms of Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. Another interesting number sequence which is closely related to the sequence of. Fibonacci numbers is the sequence of balancing numbers. In 1999, Behera et al. [1] intro-.
Treatment of uranyl nitrate and flouride solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigo Otero, A.; Rodrigo Vilaseca, F.; Morales Calvo, G.
1977-01-01
A theoretical study on the fluoride complexes contained in uranyl and aluminium solutions has been carried out. Likewise concentration limits and Duhring diagrams for those solutions have been experimentally established. As a result, the optimum operation conditions for concentration by evaporation in the treatment plant, have been deduced. (Author) 12 refs
Type III Einstein-Yang-Mills solutions
Fuster, A.; Holten, van J.W.
2005-01-01
Exact solutions of Einstein equations have always attracted much attention. It is somewhat surprising to find exact solutions of such nonlinear equations. Many of them were collected in the by now classic book by Kramer et al. which has recently been revised [1]. Among others one finds the
Exact solutions, numerical relativity and gravitational radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winicour, J.
1986-01-01
In recent years, there has emerged a new use for exact solutions to Einstein's equation as checks on the accuracy of numerical relativity codes. Much has already been written about codes based upon the space-like Cauchy problem. In the case of two Killing vectors, a numerical characteristic initial value formulation based upon two intersecting families of null hypersurfaces has successfully evolved the Schwarzschild and the colliding plane wave vacuum solutions. Here the author discusses, in the context of exact solutions, numerical studies of gravitational radiation based upon the null cone initial value problem. Every stage of progress in the null cone approach has been associated with exact solutions in some sense. He begins by briefly recapping this history. Then he presents two new examples illustrating how exact solutions can be useful
Solute redistribution studies in oxidised zirconium alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khera, S K; Kale, G B; Gadiyar, H S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Metallurgy Div.
1977-01-01
Electron microprobe studies on solute distribution in oxide layers and in the regions near oxide metal interface have been carried out in the case of zircaloy-2 and zirconium binary alloys containing niobium, tin, iron, copper, chromium and nickel and oxidised in steam at 550 deg C. In the case of alloys having higher oxidation rates, the oxide of solute element was found to dissolve in ZrO/sub 2/ without any composition variation. However, for solute addition with limited solubility like Cr, Cu and Fe, solute enrichment at metal/oxide interface and depletion of the same matrix has been observed. The intensity profiles for nickel distribution were also found to be identical to Fe or Cr distribution. The mode of solute distribution has been discussed in relation to oxidation behaviour of these alloys.
Euclidean supergravity and multi-centered solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W.A. Sabra
2017-04-01
Full Text Available In ungauged supergravity theories, the no-force condition for BPS states implies the existence of stable static multi-centered solutions. The first solutions to Einstein–Maxwell theory with a positive cosmological constant describing an arbitrary number of charged black holes were found by Kastor and Traschen. Generalisations to five and higher dimensional theories were obtained by London. Multi-centered solutions in gauged supergravity, even with time-dependence allowed, have yet to be constructed. In this letter we construct supersymmetry-preserving multi-centered solutions for the case of D=5, N=2 Euclidean gauged supergravity coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets. Higher dimensional Einstein–Maxwell multi-centered solutions are also presented.
Attenuation measurements in solutions of some carbohydrates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gagandeep; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.
2000-01-01
The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), maltose monohydrate (C 12 H 22 O 11 ·H 2 O), and sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1,173, and 1,332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm 3 ) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form
Attenuation Measurements in Solutions of Some Carbohydrates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gagandeep; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.
2000-01-01
The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), maltose monohydrate (C 12 H 22 O 11 .H 2 O), and sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173, and 1332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm 3 ) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form
Removal of radium from aqueous sulphate solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weir, D.R.; Masters, J.T.; Neven, M.
1983-01-01
Radium is often present in ores and an aqueous solution associated with the ore may consequently contain dissolved radium. It is frequently necessary to remove radium from such solutions to reduce the total radium content to a prescribed low level before the solution can be returned to the environment. The present invention is based on the discovery that the total radium content can be reduced to a satisfactory level within a reasonable time by adding a soluble barium salt to a radium-containing sulphate solution which also contains dissolved magnesium at a pH not greater than about 0 to precipitate radium as barium radium sulphate, raising the pH to at least 11 to precipitate an insoluble magnesium compound which collects the barium radium sulphate precipitate, and separating substantially all of the precipitates from the solution
Extraction of thorium from solution using tribenzylamine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitehead, N.E.; Ditchburn, R.G.
1975-01-01
A method is described for isolating thorium from solutions in a state sufficiently pure for alpha spectroscopy. It parallels the method described by Moore and Thern (Radiochemical Radioanalytical Letters 19(2), 117-125, 1974), but uses tribenzylamine instead of Adogen 364. The method involves extracting thorium from a solution in 8M nitric acid, into a 6% w/v solution of tribenzylamine in toluene. The thorium is concentrated in a third, interfacial layer which forms. This layer is isolated, diluted with chloroform, and back extracted with 10M HC1. Overall yields range between 83 and 90% for one extraction. The acidic solution is taken down to near dryness, diluted until the pH is 2 and extracted into 1.2 ml of thenoyltrifluoroacetone in toluene. This solution is evaporated onto a stainless steel disk, flamed, and the disk may be used for alpha spectroscopy of thorium isotopes. (auth.)
Activity coefficients of solutes in binary solvents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gokcen, N.A.
1982-01-01
The activity coefficients in dilute ternary systems are discussed in detail by using the Margules equations. Analyses of some relevant data at high temperatures show that the sparingly dissolved solutes in binary solvents follow complex behavior even when the binary solvents are very nearly ideal. It is shown that the activity data on the solute or the binary system cannot permit computation of the remaining activities except for the regular solutions. It is also shown that a fourth-order equation is usually adequate in expressing the activity coefficient of a solute in binary solvents at high temperatures. When the activity data for a binary solvent are difficult to obtain in a certain range of composition, the activity data for a sparingly dissolved solute can be used to supplement determination of the binary activities
Real solutions to equations from geometry
Sottile, Frank
2011-01-01
Understanding, finding, or even deciding on the existence of real solutions to a system of equations is a difficult problem with many applications outside of mathematics. While it is hopeless to expect much in general, we know a surprising amount about these questions for systems which possess additional structure often coming from geometry. This book focuses on equations from toric varieties and Grassmannians. Not only is much known about these, but such equations are common in applications. There are three main themes: upper bounds on the number of real solutions, lower bounds on the number of real solutions, and geometric problems that can have all solutions be real. The book begins with an overview, giving background on real solutions to univariate polynomials and the geometry of sparse polynomial systems. The first half of the book concludes with fewnomial upper bounds and with lower bounds to sparse polynomial systems. The second half of the book begins by sampling some geometric problems for which all ...
Effect of iodine solutions on polyaniline films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayad, M.M.; Amer, W.A.; Stejskal, J.
2009-01-01
Polyaniline (PANI) emeraldine-base films have been exposed to iodine solutions. The interaction between the films and the iodine solution was studied using the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique and the UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The iodine-treated film of emeraldine base was subjected to dedoping process using 0.1 M ammonia solution. The resulting film was exposed again to the previously used iodine solution. Iodine was found to play multiple roles: the ring-iodination of PANI film, the oxidation of PANI to pernigraniline base, and iodine doping to PANI salt. A sensor based on PANI-coated electrode of QCM was developed to monitor the presence of iodine in solution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Young; Lee, Jong Hoon; Lee, Kong Hoon; Kim, Yu-Chang; Oh, Dong Wook; Lee, Jungho
2013-01-01
Although forward osmosis desalination technology has drawn substantial attention as a next-generation desalination method, the energy efficiency of its draw solution treatment process should be improved for its commercialization. When ammonium bicarbonate is used as the draw solute, the system consists of forward-osmosis membrane modules, draw solution separation and recovery processes. Mixed gases of ammonia and carbon dioxide generated during the draws solution separation, need to be recovered to re-concentrate ammonium bicarbonate solution, for continuous operation as well as for the economic feasibility. The diluted ammonium bicarbonate solution has been proposed as the absorbent for the draw solution regeneration. In this study, experiments are conducted to investigate performance and features of the absorption corresponding to absorbent concentration. It is concluded that ammonium bicarbonate solution can be used to recover the generated ammonia and carbon dioxide. The results will be applied to design and operation of pilot-scale forward-osmosis desalination system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Young; Lee, Jong Hoon; Lee, Kong Hoon; Kim, Yu-Chang; Oh, Dong Wook; Lee, Jungho [Korea Institute of Machinery Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2013-04-15
Although forward osmosis desalination technology has drawn substantial attention as a next-generation desalination method, the energy efficiency of its draw solution treatment process should be improved for its commercialization. When ammonium bicarbonate is used as the draw solute, the system consists of forward-osmosis membrane modules, draw solution separation and recovery processes. Mixed gases of ammonia and carbon dioxide generated during the draws solution separation, need to be recovered to re-concentrate ammonium bicarbonate solution, for continuous operation as well as for the economic feasibility. The diluted ammonium bicarbonate solution has been proposed as the absorbent for the draw solution regeneration. In this study, experiments are conducted to investigate performance and features of the absorption corresponding to absorbent concentration. It is concluded that ammonium bicarbonate solution can be used to recover the generated ammonia and carbon dioxide. The results will be applied to design and operation of pilot-scale forward-osmosis desalination system.
Stability of tacrolimus solutions in polyolefin containers.
Lee, Jun H; Goldspiel, Barry R; Ryu, Sujung; Potti, Gopal K
2016-02-01
Results of a study to determine the stability of tacrolimus solutions stored in polyolefin containers under various temperature conditions are reported. Triplicate solutions of tacrolimus (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mg/mL) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection were prepared in polyolefin containers. Some samples were stored at room temperature (20-25 °C); others were refrigerated (2-8 °C) for 20 hours and then stored at room temperature for up to 28 hours. The solutions were analyzed by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay at specified time points over 48 hours. Solution pH was measured and containers were visually inspected at each time point. Stability was defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial tacrolimus concentration. All tested solutions retained over 90% of the initial tacrolimus concentration at all time points, with the exception of the 0.001-mg/mL solution prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, which was deemed unstable beyond 24 hours. At all evaluated concentrations, mean solution pH values did not change significantly over 48 hours; no particle formation was detected. During storage in polyolefin bags at room temperature, a 0.001-mg/mL solution of tacrolimus was stable for 24 hours when prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and for at least 48 hours when prepared in 5% dextrose injection. Solutions of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/mL prepared in either diluent were stable for at least 48 hours, and the 0.01-mg/mL tacrolimus solution was also found to be stable throughout a sequential temperature protocol. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Periodic Solutions and S-Asymptotically Periodic Solutions to Fractional Evolution Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jia Mu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the existence and uniqueness of periodic solutions, S-asymptotically periodic solutions, and other types of bounded solutions for some fractional evolution equations with the Weyl-Liouville fractional derivative defined for periodic functions. Applying Fourier transform we give reasonable definitions of mild solutions. Then we accurately estimate the spectral radius of resolvent operator and obtain some existence and uniqueness results.
Selling value with the business solutions : Konica Minolta Business Solutions Finland Ltd.
Piira, Antti
2013-01-01
Abstract Konica Minolta aims to develop its sales from product sales to solution sales. This is a challenging transition that requires resources and new ideas from the company and its people. The thesis attempted to explore the current situation of solution sales at Konica Minolta Business Solutions Finland and to produce ideas on how to develop and support solution sales. In addition motivation factors and the utilization of customer references in sales was examinated. The triangulat...
Perturbation Solutions of the Quintic Duffing Equation with Strong Nonlinearities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet Pakdemirli
Full Text Available The quintic Duffing equation with strong nonlinearities is considered. Perturbation solutions are constructed using two different techniques: The classical multiple scales method (MS and the newly developed multiple scales Lindstedt Poincare method (MSLP. The validity criteria for admissible solutions are derived. Both approximate solutions are contrasted with the numerical solutions. It is found that MSLP provides compatible solution with the numerical solution for strong nonlinearities whereas MS solution fail to produce physically acceptable solution for large perturbation parameters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oyelami, Benjamin Oyediran
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, criteria for the existence of weak solutions and uniformly weak bounded solution of impulsive heat equation containing maximum temperature are investigated and results obtained. An example is given for heat flow system with impulsive temperature using maximum temperature simulator and criteria for the uniformly weak bounded of solutions of the system are obtained.
Americium separations from high salt solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barr, Mary E.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Schulte, Louis D.; Stark, Peter C.; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Abney, Kent D.; Ricketts, Thomas E.; Valdez, Yvette E.; Bartsch, Richard A.
2000-01-01
Americium (III) exhibits an unexpectedly high affinity for anion-exchange material from the high-salt evaporator bottoms solutions--an effect which has not been duplicated using simple salt solutions. Similar behavior is observed for its lanthanide homologue, Nd(III), in complex evaporator bottoms surrogate solutions. There appears to be no single controlling factor--acid concentration, total nitrate concentration or solution ionic strength--which accounts for the approximately 2-fold increase in retention of the trivalent ions from complex solutions relative to simple solutions. Calculation of species activities (i.e., water, proton and nitrate) in such concentrated mixed salt solutions is difficult and of questionable accuracy, but it is likely that the answer to forcing formation of anionic nitrate complexes of americium lies in the relative activities of water and nitrate. From a practical viewpoint, the modest americium removal needs (ca. 50--75%) from nitric acid evaporator bottoms allow sufficient latitude for the use of non-optimized conditions such as running existing columns filled with older, well-used Reillex HPQ. Newer materials, such as HPQ-100 and the experimental bifunctional resins, which exhibit higher distribution coefficients, would allow for either increased Am removal or the use of smaller columns. It is also of interest that one of the experimental neutral-donor solid-support extractants, DHDECMP, exhibits a similarly high level of americium (total alpha) removal from EV bottoms and is much less sensitive to total acid content than commercially-available material
Quantized gauge invariant periodic TDHF solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kan, K.-K.; Griffin, J.J.; Lichtner, P.C.; Dworzecka, M.
1979-01-01
Time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) is used to study steady state large amplitude nuclear collective motions, such as vibration and rotation. As is well known the small amplitude TDHF leads to the RPA equation. The analysis of periodicity in TDHF is not trivial because TDHF is a nonlinear theory and it is not known under what circumstances a nonlinear theory can support periodic solutions. It is also unknown whether such periodic solution, if they exist, form a continuous or a discrete set. But, these properties may be important in obtaining the energy spectrum of the collective states from the TDHF description. The periodicity and Gauge Invariant Periodicity of solutions are investigated for that class of models whose TDHF solutions depend on time through two parameters. In such models TDHF supports a continuous family of periodic solutions, but only a discrete subset of these is gauge invariant. These discrete Gauge Invariant Periodic solutions obey the Bohr-Summerfeld quantization rule. The energy spectrum of the Gauge Invariant Periodic solutions is compared with the exact eigenergies in one specific example
Ions, solutes and solvents, oh my!
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kemp, Daniel David [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2009-08-01
Modern methods in ab initio quantum mechanics have become efficient and accurate enough to study many gas-phase systems. However, chemists often work in the solution phase. The presence of solvent molecules has been shown to affect reaction mechanisms1, lower reaction energy barriers2, participate in energy transfer with the solute3 and change the physical properties of the solute4. These effects would be overlooked in simple gas phase calculations. Careful study of specific solvents and solutes must be done in order to fully understand the chemistry of the solution phase. Water is a key solvent in chemical and biological applications. The properties of an individual water molecule (a monomer) and the behavior of thousands of molecules (bulk solution) are well known for many solvents. Much is also understood about aqueous microsolvation (small clusters containing ten water molecules or fewer) and the solvation characteristics when bulk water is chosen to solvate a solute. However, much less is known about how these properties behave as the cluster size transitions from the microsolvated cluster size to the bulk. This thesis will focus on species solvated with water clusters that are large enough to exhibit the properties of the bulk but small enough to consist of fewer than one hundred solvent molecules. New methods to study such systems will also be presented.
Method of continuously regenerating decontaminating electrolytic solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Toshio; Wada, Koichi.
1985-01-01
Purpose: To continuously recover radioactive metal ions from the electrolytic solution used for the electrolytic decontamination of radioactive equipment and increased with the radioactive dose, as well as regenerate the electrolytic solution to a high concentration acid. Method: A liquid in an auxiliary tank is recycled to a cathode chamber containing water of an electro depositing regeneration tank to render pH = 2 by way of a pH controller and a pH electrode. The electrolytic solution in an electrolytic decontaminating tank is introduced by way of an injection pump to an auxiliary tank and, interlocking therewith, a regenerating solution is introduced from a regenerating solution extracting pump by way of a extraction pipeway to an electrolytic decontaminating tank. Meanwhile, electric current is supplied to the electrode to deposit radioactive metal ions dissolved in the cathode chamber on the capturing electrode. While on the other hand, anions are transferred by way of a partition wall to an anode chamber to regenerate the electrolytic solution to high concentration acid solution. While on the other hand, water is supplied by way of an electromagnetic valve interlocking with the level meter to maintain the level meter constant. This can decrease the generation of the liquid wastes and also reduce the amount of the radioactive secondary wastes. (Horiuchi, T.)
Membrane separation of ionic liquid solutions
Campos, Daniel; Feiring, Andrew Edward; Majumdar, Sudipto; Nemser, Stuart
2015-09-01
A membrane separation process using a highly fluorinated polymer membrane that selectively permeates water of an aqueous ionic liquid solution to provide dry ionic liquid. Preferably the polymer is a polymer that includes polymerized perfluoro-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxole (PDD). The process is also capable of removing small molecular compounds such as organic solvents that can be present in the solution. This membrane separation process is suitable for drying the aqueous ionic liquid byproduct from precipitating solutions of biomass dissolved in ionic liquid, and is thus instrumental to providing usable lignocellulosic products for energy consumption and other industrial uses in an environmentally benign manner.
LABOUR TAXATION: FORMAL AND INFORMAL SOLUTIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioana Maria Costea
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The present study aims to create a panorama of doctrinal, legal and jurisprudential solutions, which determine the heterogeneity of labour market’s fiscal hypotheses’. The study identifies a progressive series of interactions between economic and social factors, which generate at the juridical level a specific series of fiscal solutions, both traditional and innovating for the qualification and taxation of labour revenues. Heterogeneity of working forms is presently a complex, main direction in business with effects both at economic and legal level. This study provides an overview of statutory and case-law solutions for the legal classification and therefore tax classification of personal income.
Evaluation of Security Solutions for Android Systems
Shabtai, Asaf; Mimran, Dudu; Elovici, Yuval
2015-01-01
With the increasing usage of smartphones a plethora of security solutions are being designed and developed. Many of the security solutions fail to cope with advanced attacks and are not aways properly designed for smartphone platforms. Therefore, there is a need for a methodology to evaluate their effectiveness. Since the Android operating system has the highest market share today, we decided to focus on it in this study in which we review some of the state-of-the-art security solutions for A...
Spectrophotometric determination of zinc in impure solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez Hernandez, B.; Reyes Tamaral, A.
1972-01-01
A dithizone colorimetric method is described for determining zinc concentrations of 0.001 to 5 g/l in aqueous solutions from Rio Tinto Mines, containing copper, iron and other impurities. Citrate, cyanide and bis-2hydroxyethyl)-dithiocarbamate are added to the aqueous sample of masking several metals, and zinc is extracted at pH 5 with a solution of dithizone in carbon tetrachloride. Excess of dithizone is removed with sodium sulphide, and optical density of zinc dithionate in organic solution is measured at 5.35 nm. Calibration curves obey Beer's law up to 0.5 micro Zn/ml. (Author) 5 refs
Mechatronics ideas, challenges, solutions and applications
Kaliński, Krzysztof; Szewczyk, Roman; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata
2016-01-01
This book presents recent advances and developments in control, automation, robotics, and measuring techniques. It presents contributions of top experts in the fields, focused on both theory and industrial practice. In particular the book is devoted to new ideas, challenges, solutions and applications of Mechatronics. The particular chapters present a deep analysis of a specific technical problem which is in general followed by a numerical analysis and simulation, and results of an implementation for the solution of a real world problem. The presented theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines will be useful for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and for practitioners solving industrial problems. .
Travelling wave solutions in delayed cooperative systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Bingtuan; Zhang, Liang
2011-01-01
We establish the existence of travelling wave solutions for delayed cooperative recursions that are allowed to have more than two equilibria. We define an important extended real number that is used to determine the speeds of travelling wave solutions. The results can be applied to a large class of delayed cooperative reaction–diffusion models. We show that for a delayed Lotka–Volterra reaction–diffusion competition model, there exists a finite positive number c * + that can be characterized as the slowest speed of travelling wave solutions connecting two mono-culture equilibria or connecting a mono-culture with the coexistence equilibrium
Exact Solutions in Three-Dimensional Gravity
García-Díaz, Alberto A.
2017-09-01
Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Point particles; 3. Dust solutions; 4. AdS cyclic symmetric stationary solutions; 5. Perfect fluid static stars; 6. Static perfect fluid stars with Λ; 7. Hydrodynamic equilibrium; 8. Stationary perfect fluid with Λ; 9. Friedmann–Robertson–Walker cosmologies; 10. Dilaton-inflaton FRW cosmologies; 11. Einstein–Maxwell solutions; 12. Nonlinear electrodynamics black hole; 13. Dilaton minimally coupled to gravity; 14. Dilaton non-minimally coupled to gravity; 15. Low energy 2+1 string gravity; 16. Topologically massive gravity; 17. Bianchi type spacetimes in TMG; 18. Petrov type N wave metrics; 19. Kundt spacetimes in TMG; 20. Cotton tensor in Riemannian spacetimes; References; Index.
Pole solutions for flame front propagation
Kupervasser, Oleg
2015-01-01
This book deals with solving mathematically the unsteady flame propagation equations. New original mathematical methods for solving complex non-linear equations and investigating their properties are presented. Pole solutions for flame front propagation are developed. Premixed flames and filtration combustion have remarkable properties: the complex nonlinear integro-differential equations for these problems have exact analytical solutions described by the motion of poles in a complex plane. Instead of complex equations, a finite set of ordinary differential equations is applied. These solutions help to investigate analytically and numerically properties of the flame front propagation equations.
Adsorption from solutions of non-electrolytes
Kipling, J J
1965-01-01
Adsorption from Solutions of Non-Electrolytes provides a general discussion of the subject, which has so far been given little or no attention in current textbooks of physical chemistry. A general view of the subject is particularly needed at a time when we wish to see how far it will be possible to use theories of solutions to explain the phenomena of adsorption. The book opens with an introductory chapter on the types of interface, aspects of adsorption from solution, types of adsorption, and classification of systems. This is followed by separate chapters on experimental methods, adsorption
Novel third-order Lovelock wormhole solutions
Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2016-06-01
In this work, we consider wormhole geometries in third-order Lovelock gravity and investigate the possibility that these solutions satisfy the energy conditions. In this framework, by applying a specific equation of state, we obtain exact wormhole solutions, and by imposing suitable values for the parameters of the theory, we find that these geometries satisfy the weak energy condition in the vicinity of the throat, due to the presence of higher-order curvature terms. Finally, we trace out a numerical analysis, by assuming a specific redshift function, and find asymptotically flat solutions that satisfy the weak energy condition throughout the spacetime.
Logical gaps in the approximate solutions of the social learning game and an exact solution.
Dai, Wenjie; Wang, Xin; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan
2014-01-01
After the social learning models were proposed, finding solutions to the games becomes a well-defined mathematical question. However, almost all papers on the games and their applications are based on solutions built either upon an ad-hoc argument or a twisted Bayesian analysis of the games. Here, we present logical gaps in those solutions and offer an exact solution of our own. We also introduce a minor extension to the original game so that not only logical differences but also differences in action outcomes among those solutions become visible.
Unintended Positional Drift and Its Potential Solutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Niels Christian; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf
2013-01-01
many users unintentionally move forward while walking in place. We refer to this phenomenon accidental movement as Unintended Positional Drift. The poster presents evidence of the phenomenon's existence and subsequently discusses different design solutions which potentially could circumvent the problem....
Technology Solutions for School Food Service.
Begalle, Mary
2002-01-01
Considers ways to include schools' food service departments in technology planning. Discusses school food service software applications, considerations and challenges of automating food service operations, and business-to-business Internet solutions. (EV)
Exercises and solutions in statistical theory
Kupper, Lawrence L; O'Brien, Sean M
2013-01-01
""I have found the book useful in preparing homework and exam questions in my current course, and I could see students benefiting from such a trove of problems with solutions.""-The American Statistician, February 2015
Surface solitons in waveguide arrays: Analytical solutions.
Kominis, Yannis; Papadopoulos, Aristeidis; Hizanidis, Kyriakos
2007-08-06
A novel phase-space method is employed for the construction of analytical stationary solitary waves located at the interface between a periodic nonlinear lattice of the Kronig-Penney type and a linear or nonlinear homogeneous medium as well as at the interface between two dissimilar nonlinear lattices. The method provides physical insight and understanding of the shape of the solitary wave profile and results to generic classes of localized solutions having either zero or nonzero semi-infinite backgrounds. For all cases, the method provides conditions involving the values of the propagation constant of the stationary solutions, the linear refractive index and the dimensions of each part in order to assure existence of solutions with specific profile characteristics. The evolution of the analytical solutions under propagation is investigated for cases of realistic configurations and interesting features are presented such as their remarkable robustness which could facilitate their experimental observation.
Quantized Lax equations and their solutions
Jurco, B
1997-01-01
Integrable systems on quantum groups are investigated. The Heisenberg equations possessing the Lax form are solved in terms of the solution to the factorization problem on the corresponding quantum group.
Photochemical decomposition of Formaldehyde in solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garrido Z, G.
1995-01-01
In this work was studied the effect of ultraviolet radiation produced by a mercury low pressure lamp in solutions of formaldehyde. These solutions were exposed to ultraviolet rays at different times. In some of these series of solutions was added a photosensibilizer in order to obtain a high photodecomposition of formaldehyde. The techniques used for determine the products of the decomposition were the following: 1. In order to measure the residual formaldehyde and glioxal, the Hantzsch and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine methods were used. 2. pH's measurements of the solutions, before and after exposition. 3. Paper's chromatography for determine presence of formed acids. 4. Acid-base tritiations for measure total acidification. We observed that when the time of exposition to UV rays was increased, a high photodecomposition of formaldehyde was formed and, besides, a greater quantity of another products. Of the reagents used like photosensibilizers, with the ruthenium reagent, the best results were obtained. (Author)
Application of thermodynamics to silicate crystalline solutions
Saxena, S. K.
1972-01-01
A review of thermodynamic relations is presented, describing Guggenheim's regular solution models, the simple mixture, the zeroth approximation, and the quasi-chemical model. The possibilities of retrieving useful thermodynamic quantities from phase equilibrium studies are discussed. Such quantities include the activity-composition relations and the free energy of mixing in crystalline solutions. Theory and results of the study of partitioning of elements in coexisting minerals are briefly reviewed. A thermodynamic study of the intercrystalline and intracrystalline ion exchange relations gives useful information on the thermodynamic behavior of the crystalline solutions involved. Such information is necessary for the solution of most petrogenic problems and for geothermometry. Thermodynamic quantities for tungstates (CaWO4-SrWO4) are calculated.
Solution treatment of fast reactor claddings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miura, Makoto; Nagaki, Hiroshi; Koyama, Masahiro
1974-01-01
The fuel cladding tubes for Joyo (experimental FBR) are required to be a material corresponding to AISI Type 316 and cold-rolled after solution treatment. It is necessary to have no precipitation of carbide and to make the grain size smaller than ASTM No.6. It is very difficult to obtain the fine grains without the precipitation, however. In this connection, the behavior of carbide solution at high temperature and the annealing behavior of the material cold-worked and solution-treated were studied. The following matters are described: the solid solubility line of AISI Type 316; the behavior of carbide at solution treatment temperature; and the annealing behavior of the cold-worked material. (Mori, K.)
Renewable energy integration challenges and solutions
Hossain, Jahangir
2014-01-01
This book examines challenges involved in the integration of renewable energy into existing electricity grids. It provides models of power systems to show how the integration will effect conventional grids and various solutions to minimize the impacts.
Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho
2010-01-01
Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.
Mean-field learning for satisfactory solutions
Tembine, Hamidou
2013-12-01
One of the fundamental challenges in distributed interactive systems is to design efficient, accurate, and fair solutions. In such systems, a satisfactory solution is an innovative approach that aims to provide all players with a satisfactory payoff anytime and anywhere. In this paper we study fully distributed learning schemes for satisfactory solutions in games with continuous action space. Considering games where the payoff function depends only on own-action and an aggregate term, we show that the complexity of learning systems can be significantly reduced, leading to the so-called mean-field learning. We provide sufficient conditions for convergence to a satisfactory solution and we give explicit convergence time bounds. Then, several acceleration techniques are used in order to improve the convergence rate. We illustrate numerically the proposed mean-field learning schemes for quality-of-service management in communication networks. © 2013 IEEE.
EXACT TRAVELLING WAVE SOLUTIONS TO BBM EQUATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Abundant new travelling wave solutions to the BBM (Benjamin-Bona-Mahoni) equation are obtained by the generalized Jacobian elliptic function method. This method can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations.
Fashion design solutions for environmentally conscious consumers
Wagner, M.; Chen, Y.; Curteza, A.; Thomassey, S.; Perwuelz, A.; Zeng, X.
2017-10-01
This paper intends to give an overview of the design solutions in fashion for environmentally conscious consumers, presenting green and ethical practices in contemporary clothing design. The results introduce the concept of slow fashion and discuss available fashion design solutions, giving most prominent examples of sustainable products and brands, these contain one or more design features. By this, the discussion extracts the main contemporary ideas. The presented examples of current offers are all envisioning less impact on the environment and society. Sustainable design solutions use more environmentally friendly materials such as organic cotton, incorporate circular design or design for recycling, e.g., replacing button closures with alternative closing possibilities or leather labels with printed versions, or ensure long product life through durability, among other methods. There are differing designs due to creators’ individuality. This overview can be beneficial for the future development of new solutions for more environmentally friendly fashion.
Supersymmetric Janus solutions in four dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bobev, Nikolay; Pilch, Krzysztof; Warner, Nicholas P.
2014-01-01
We use maximal gauged supergravity in four dimensions to construct the gravity dual of a class of supersymmetric conformal interfaces in the theory on the world-volume of multiple M2-branes. We study three classes of examples in which the (1+1)-dimensional defects preserve (4,4), (0,2) or (0,1) supersymmetry. Many of the solutions have the maximally supersymmetric AdS 4 vacuum dual to the N=8 ABJM theory on both sides of the interface. We also find new special classes of solutions including one that interpolates between the maximally supersymmetric vacuum and a conformal fixed point with N=1 supersymmetry and G 2 global symmetry. We find another solution that interpolates between two distinct conformal fixed points with N=1 supersymmetry and G 2 global symmetry. In eleven dimensions, this G 2 to G 2 solution corresponds to a domain wall across which a magnetic flux reverses orientation
Pseudoclassical fermionic model and classical solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smailagic, A.
1981-08-01
We study classical limit of fermionic fields seen as Grassmann variables and deduce the proper quantization prescription using Dirac's method for constrained systems and investigate quantum meaning of classical solutions for the Thirring model. (author)
Dry solution to a sticky problem
KARP, JEFFREY M.; LANGER, ROBERT
2011-01-01
Sticking plasters revolutionized the protection of minor wounds, but they’re not ideal for fragile skin. A material that mimics the adhesive properties of certain beetles’ feet might provide a solution.
Electro-ultrafiltration of industrial enzyme solutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enevoldsen, Ann Dorrit; Hansen, Erik Børresen; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil
2007-01-01
To reduce the problems with fouling and concentration polarization during crossflow ultrafiltration of industrial enzyme solutions an electric field is applied across the membrane. The filtration performance during electro-ultrafiltration (EUF) has been tested with several enzymes. Results show...
International young physicists' tournament problems & solutions 2014
Gao, Wenli
2016-01-01
International Young Physicists' Tournament (Iypt), is one of the most prestigious international physics contests among high school students. This book is based on the solutions of 2014 Iypt problems. The authors are undergraduate students who participated in the Cupt (Chinese Undergraduate Physics Tournament). It is intended as a college level solution to the challenging open-ended problems. It provides original, quantitative solutions in fulfilling seemingly impossible tasks. This book is not limited to the tasks required by the problems and it is not confined to the models and methods in present literatures. Many of the articles include modification and extension to existing models in references, or derivation and computation based on fundamental physics. This book provides quantitative solutions to practical problems in everyday life. This is a good reference book for undergraduates, advanced high-school students, physics educators and curious public interested in the intriguing phenomena in daily life.
From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity
Guermond, Jean-Luc; Pasquetti, Richard; Popov, Bojan
2010-01-01
This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i
Classes of exact Einstein Maxwell solutions
Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.
2007-12-01
We find new classes of exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell system of equations for a charged sphere with a particular choice of the electric field intensity and one of the gravitational potentials. The condition of pressure isotropy is reduced to a linear, second order differential equation which can be solved in general. Consequently we can find exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell field equations corresponding to a static spherically symmetric gravitational potential in terms of hypergeometric functions. It is possible to find exact solutions which can be written explicitly in terms of elementary functions, namely polynomials and product of polynomials and algebraic functions. Uncharged solutions are regainable with our choice of electric field intensity; in particular we generate the Einstein universe for particular parameter values.
Critical solution for a Hill's type problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabral, Hildeberto; Castilho, Cesar
2001-08-01
We studied the problem of two satellites attracted by a center of force. Assuming the motion of the center of mass of the two satellites describes a keplerian circular motion around the center of force we regularized the collision between them using the Levi-Civita procedure. The existence of a constant of motion in the extended phase space allowed us to study the stability of the solution where the two satellites are tied together in their circular motion around the center of force. We call this solution the critical solution. A theorem of M Kummer is applied to prove, in specific conditions, the existence of two one-parametric families of almost periodic orbits for the satellites motion that bifurcates from the critical solution. (author)
Considerations Regarding Designing and Administrating SOA Solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vlad DIACONITA
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Solutions like SOA, Cloud, SaaS, Iaas or PaaS are not only buzzwords, they became a business reality because they are relative cheap and easy to use. SOA and Cloud are tightly linked because most cloud solutions are being defined using SOA making them feasible from the business perspective, because it’s hard to move to cloud when you are using a tightly coupled architecture. Big companies such as Oracle, Microsoft, IBM or Amazon offer many commercial solutions providing software as a service, as well as hosted and managed alternatives to classical deployment. For firms that are building private clouds and for service providers that are building public clouds, diverse solutions are offered by the big players for platform as a service and infrastructure as a service.
Analytical solution of one dimensional temporally dependent ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
transfer of heat in fluids, flow through porous media, and the spread of ... In present paper, advection-dispersion equation is considered one dimensional longitudinal initially solute free semi- .... free. Thus initial and boundary conditions for eq.
Buyer-supplier relationships and planning solutions
Hvolby, H.H.; Trienekens, J.H.; Steger-Jensen, K.
2007-01-01
The paper focuses on supply chain relationships and segmented planning and ICT concepts. Major supplier segments are distinguished based on literature: capacity suppliers, standard suppliers, system suppliers and key suppliers. Next, current supply chain planning solutions are distinguished: vendor
Solutions to variational inequalities of parabolic type
Zhu, Yuanguo
2006-09-01
The existence of strong solutions to a kind of variational inequality of parabolic type is investigated by the theory of semigroups of linear operators. As an application, an abstract semi permeable media problem is studied.
Formal solutions of inverse scattering problems. III
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prosser, R.T.
1980-01-01
The formal solutions of certain three-dimensional inverse scattering problems presented in papers I and II of this series [J. Math. Phys. 10, 1819 (1969); 17 1175 (1976)] are obtained here as fixed points of a certain nonlinear mapping acting on a suitable Banach space of integral kernels. When the scattering data are sufficiently restricted, this mapping is shown to be a contraction, thereby establishing the existence, uniqueness, and continuous dependence on the data of these formal solutions
Standardization of {sup 32}P radioactive solution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marques, Caio Pinheiros; Koskinas, Marina Fallone; Almeida, Jamille da Silveira; Yamazaki, Ione M.; Dias, Mauro da Silva, E-mail: cpmarques@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2016-07-01
The standardization of {sup 32}P radioactive solution using three different methods is presented. The disintegration rate was determined by the CIEMAT/NIST and TDCR methods in liquid scintillator systems and self-absorption extrapolation method using 4π(PC)-β system. The results obtained for the activity of the {sup 32}P solution were compared and they agree within the experimental uncertainties. (author)
Production of Plutonium Metal from Aqueous Solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orth, D.A.
2003-01-16
The primary separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium by the Purex solvent extraction process at the Savannah River Plant produces a dilute plutonium solution containing residual fission products and uranium. A cation exchange process is used for concentration and further decontamination of the plutonium, as the first step in the final preparation of metal. This paper discusses the production of plutonium metal from the aqueous solutions.
Towards combined global monthly gravity field solutions
Jaeggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Beutler, Gerhard; Weigelt, Matthias; van Dam, Tonie; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Flury, Jakob; Flechtner, Frank; Dahle, Christoph; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Bruinsma, Sean
2014-05-01
Currently, official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. This procedure seriously limits the accessibility of these valuable data. Combinations are well established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Regularly comparing and combining space-geodetic products has tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. Therefore, we propose in a first step to mutually compare the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions, e.g., by assessing the signal content over selected regions, by estimating the noise over the oceans, and by performing significance tests. We make the attempt to assign different solution characteristics to different processing strategies in order to identify subsets of solutions, which are based on similar processing strategies. Using these subsets we will in a second step explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the potential benefits for the GRACE and GRACE-FO user community, but also address minimum processing
General Relativity solutions in modified gravity
Motohashi, Hayato; Minamitsuji, Masato
2018-06-01
Recent gravitational wave observations of binary black hole mergers and a binary neutron star merger by LIGO and Virgo Collaborations associated with its optical counterpart constrain deviation from General Relativity (GR) both on strong-field regime and cosmological scales with high accuracy, and further strong constraints are expected by near-future observations. Thus, it is important to identify theories of modified gravity that intrinsically possess the same solutions as in GR among a huge number of theories. We clarify the three conditions for theories of modified gravity to allow GR solutions, i.e., solutions with the metric satisfying the Einstein equations in GR and the constant profile of the scalar fields. Our analysis is quite general, as it applies a wide class of single-/multi-field scalar-tensor theories of modified gravity in the presence of matter component, and any spacetime geometry including cosmological background as well as spacetime around black hole and neutron star, for the latter of which these conditions provide a necessary condition for no-hair theorem. The three conditions will be useful for further constraints on modified gravity theories as they classify general theories of modified gravity into three classes, each of which possesses i) unique GR solutions (i.e., no-hair cases), ii) only hairy solutions (except the cases that GR solutions are realized by cancellation between singular coupling functions in the Euler-Lagrange equations), and iii) both GR and hairy solutions, for the last of which one of the two solutions may be selected dynamically.
Approximative solutions of stochastic optimization problem
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lachout, Petr
2010-01-01
Roč. 46, č. 3 (2010), s. 513-523 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Stochastic optimization problem * sensitivity * approximative solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/SI/lachout-approximative solutions of stochastic optimization problem.pdf
Image charges revisited: a closed form solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choy, T. C.
2000-01-01
We demonstrate that the corrections to the classical Kelvin image theory due to finite electron screening length )λ, recently discussed by Roulet and Saint Jean, Am. J. Phys. 68(4) 319, is amenable to an exact closed form solution in terms of an integral involving Bessel functions. An error arising from an incorrect choice of boundary conditions is rectified as well, enabling also a complete solution for all potentials - both inside and outside the metal surface
Similarity solutions for phase-change problems
Canright, D.; Davis, S. H.
1989-01-01
A modification of Ivantsov's (1947) similarity solutions is proposed which can describe phase-change processes which are limited by diffusion. The method has application to systems that have n-components and possess cross-diffusion and Soret and Dufour effects, along with convection driven by density discontinuities at the two-phase interface. Local thermal equilibrium is assumed at the interface. It is shown that analytic solutions are possible when the material properties are constant.
Soliton solutions in a diatomic lattice system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yajima, Nobuo; Satsuma, Junkichi.
1979-04-01
A continuum limit is considered for a diatomic lattice system with a cubic nonlinearity. A long wave equation describing the interaction of acoustic and optical modes is obtained. It reduces, in certain approximations, to equations having coupled wave solutions. The solutions exhibit trapping of an optical mode by an acoustic soliton. The form of the trapped optical wave depends on the mass ratio of adjacent particles in the diatomic lattice. (author)
Chemical-milling solution for invar alloy
Batiuk, W.
1980-01-01
Excellent surface finishes and tolerances are achieved using two formulations. Solution A gives finish of 3.17 micrometers after milling at 57 to 63 deg C. Constituents of A are: Hydrofluoric acid (70%), 5,8 oz/gal; nitric acid (40-42) degrees Baume), 40 oz/gal. Alternative solution gives 2.16 micrometer finish, and differs from A by addition of 7% phosphoric acid. Formulations eliminate channeling at root fillets, dishing, island formation, and overhangs.
General solution of string inspired nonlinear equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bandos, I.A.; Ivanov, E.; Kapustnikov, A.A.; Ulanov, S.A.
1998-07-01
We present the general solution of the system of coupled nonlinear equations describing dynamics of D-dimensional bosonic string in the geometric (or embedding) approach. The solution is parametrized in terms of two sets of the left- and right-moving Lorentz harmonic variables providing a special coset space realization of the product of two (D-2) dimensional spheres S D-2 = SO(1,D-1)/SO(1,1)xSO(D-2) contained in K D-2 . (author)
VMware Horizon 6 desktop virtualization solutions
Cartwright, Ryan; Langone, Jason; Leibovici, Andre
2014-01-01
If you are a desktop architect, solution provider, end-user consultant, virtualization engineer, or anyone who wants to learn how to plan and design the implementation of a virtual desktop solution based on Horizon 6, then this book is for you. An understanding of VMware vSphere fundamentals coupled with experience in the installation or administration of a VMware environment would be a plus during reading.
The Krafft temperature of surfactant solutions
Manojlović Jelena Ž.
2012-01-01
Our main motivation to revisit the solution properties of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide is related to the clear requirement for better control of the adsorption parameters to form uniform self-assembled monolayers on muscovite mica substrates. To readily monitor the temporal evolution of structural details in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide solutions, we realized a rather simple conductivity experiment. Conductivity measurements were carried out as a function of temperature, to look clo...
Postradiation destruction of dextran in solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondarenko, N.T.; Sharpatyj, V.A.
1989-01-01
Methods of pH-metry, UV absorption and ESR spectroscopy were used to study the oxidation destruction of dextran solutions, stored in the air after gamma irradiation ( 60 Co) bydoses of up to 200 kGy. It is shown that polymer destruction under mentioned conditions is initiated by hydroperoxide decomposition with successive radical transformation into peroxides. Experimentally observed periodical change of acidity of irradiated dextran solutions is also explained by transformations of peroxy radicals
General solution of linear vector supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blasi, Alberto; Maggiore, Nicola
2007-01-01
We give the general solution of the Ward identity for the linear vector supersymmetry which characterizes all topological models. Such a solution, whose expression is quite compact and simple, greatly simplifies the study of theories displaying a supersymmetric algebraic structure, reducing to a few lines the proof of their possible finiteness. In particular, the cohomology technology, usually involved for the quantum extension of these theories, is completely bypassed. The case of Chern-Simons theory is taken as an example
Vertical structures in vibrated wormlike micellar solutions
Epstein, Tamir; Deegan, Robert
2008-11-01
Vertically vibrated shear thickening particulate suspensions can support a free-standing interfaces oriented parallel to gravity. We find that shear thickening worm-like micellar solutions also support such vertical interfaces. Above a threshold in acceleration, the solution spontaneously accumulates into a labyrinthine pattern characterized by a well-defined vertical edge. The formation of vertical structures is of interest because they are unique to shear-thickening fluids, and they indicate the existence of an unknown stress bearing mechanism.
Radiolysis of solutions in anthraquinone derivatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kriminskaya, Z.K.
1996-01-01
Stationary radiolysis of anthraquinones in solutions of ethanol, propanol-2 and water by gamma-radiation (dose rate of 1.6 Gy/s) is studied. It is shown that anthraquinones are reduced in the above solutions up to anthrahydroquinones, whereby all reduction particles participate in the reduction process. The reverse process of the post-radiation oxidation of anthrahydroquinones up to anthraquinones is a radical process
The removal of actinide metals from solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hancock, R.D.; Howell, I.V.
1980-01-01
A process is specified for removing actinide metals (e.g. uranium) from solutions. The solution is contacted with a substrate comprising the product obtained by reacting an inorganic solid containing surface hydroxyl groups (e.g. silica gel) with a compound containing a silane grouping, a nitrogen-containing group (e.g. an amine) and other specified radicals. After treatment, the actinide metal is recovered from the substrate. (U.K.)
Crystal growth from low-temperature solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sangwal, K.
1994-01-01
The state of the art in crystal growth from solutions at low-temperatures has been done. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters have been discussed in respect to different systems. The methods of crystal growth from water and organic solutions and different variants of their technical realizations have been reviewed. Also the growth by chemical reactions and gel growth have been described. The large number of examples have been shown. 21 refs, 30 figs, 3 tabs
Intrinsic neutron source strengths in uranium solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, R.E.; Robba, A.A.; Seale, R.L.; Rutherford, D.A.; Butterfield, K.B.; Brunson, G.S.
1991-01-01
Neutron production rates for 5% enriched uranyl fluoride and 93% uranyl nitrate solutions have been measured using a high-efficiency neutron well counter. Measurements were made for both solution types as a function of sample volume. These results were extrapolated to zero sample volume to eliminate sample size effects, such as multiplication and absorption. For the 5% enriched uranyl fluoride solution, a neutron production rate of 0.0414 ± 0.0041 n/s/ml was measured; for the 93% enriched uranyl nitrate solution, a neutron production rate of 0.0232 ± 0.0023 n/s/ml was measured. The biggest uncertainty is in measuring the detector efficiency, and further work on this aspect of the experiment is planned. Calculations for the neutron production rates based on measured thick-target (alpha, n) production rates and shown alpha stopping powers are in reasonable agreement with the data for the uranyl nitrate solution, but are in poor agreement with the data for the uranyl fluoride solution. 8 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Els Sunarsih Budipramana
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The remineralization potential of fluoride and calcifying solution was studiedas in situ model. Matched enamel discs of artifically demineralized human enamel were attached to an acrylic mandibular removable appliance of 6 adult volunteers who rinsed their mouth with a solution containing either 50 ppm F-, 200 ppm F- in amine fluoride, calcifying solution (formula BR21 or placebo as a control. The volunteers were asked to rinse 3 times a day for 3 minutes with 15 ml of the solution for 6 days (18 times. On the 7th day enamel discs were taken out from the partial denture. Three kinds of measurements were done: enamel permeability testing, depth lesion testing and fluoride retention testing. New demineralized enamel discs were attached to the partial dentures and the volunteers were asked to start rinsing with other solutions using the same protocols. The purpose of this study was to answer the question why the calcifying solutions were no more used as a remineralizing solution. The data ws analyzed using SPSS/PC for two factors Anova and one way Anova for enamel permeability and Kruskal Wallis for studying enamel depth lesion and fluoride retention. There was no significant difference after rinsing with calcifying solution and placebo in enamel permeability, depth lesions, and fluoride retention when compared to fluoride solution. To get a better result in remineralizing carious teeth fluoride contents in solution must be higher than 50 ppm F-.
Quasi-exact solutions of nonlinear differential equations
Kudryashov, Nikolay A.; Kochanov, Mark B.
2014-01-01
The concept of quasi-exact solutions of nonlinear differential equations is introduced. Quasi-exact solution expands the idea of exact solution for additional values of parameters of differential equation. These solutions are approximate solutions of nonlinear differential equations but they are close to exact solutions. Quasi-exact solutions of the the Kuramoto--Sivashinsky, the Korteweg--de Vries--Burgers and the Kawahara equations are founded.
Radionuclide solubility control by solid solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandt, F.; Klinkenberg, M.; Rozov, K.; Bosbach, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (IEK-6); Vinograd, V. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geosciences
2015-07-01
The migration of radionuclides in the geosphere is to a large extend controlled by sorption processes onto minerals and colloids. On a molecular level, sorption phenomena involve surface complexation, ion exchange as well as solid solution formation. The formation of solid solutions leads to the structural incorporation of radionuclides in a host structure. Such solid solutions are ubiquitous in natural systems - most minerals in nature are atomistic mixtures of elements rather than pure compounds because their formation leads to a thermodynamically more stable situation compared to the formation of pure compounds. However, due to a lack of reliable data for the expected scenario at close-to equilibrium conditions, solid solution systems have so far not been considered in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories. In recent years, various solid-solution aqueous solution systems have been studied. Here we present state-of-the art results regarding the formation of (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} solid solutions. In some scenarios describing a waste repository system for spent nuclear fuel in crystalline rocks {sup 226}Ra dominates the radiological impact to the environment associated with the potential release of radionuclides from the repository in the future. The solubility of Ra in equilibrium with (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} is much lower than the one calculated with RaSO{sub 4} as solubility limiting phase. Especially, the available literature data for the interaction parameter W{sub BaRa}, which describes the non-ideality of the solid solution, vary by about one order of magnitude (Zhu, 2004; Curti et al., 2010). The final {sup 226}Ra concentration in this system is extremely sensitive to the amount of barite, the difference in the solubility products of the end-member phases, and the degree of non-ideality of the solid solution phase. Here, we have enhanced the fundamental understanding regarding (1) the thermodynamics of (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} solid solutions and (2) the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwata, K.; Matsumiya, T.; Sawada, H.; Kawakami, K.
2003-01-01
The method is presented to predict the activity coefficients and the interaction parameters of the solute elements in infinite dilute Si solutions by the use of first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. In this method, the regular solution model is assumed. The calculated activity coefficients in solid Si are converted to those in molten Si by the use of the solid-liquid partition coefficients. Furthermore, the interaction parameters in solid Si solutions are calculated and compared with reported experimental values of those in liquid Si solutions. The results show that the calculated activity coefficients and interaction parameters of Al, Fe, Ti and Pb in Si solutions are in good agreement with the tendency of the experiments. However, the calculations have some quantitative discrepancy from the experiments. It is expected that consideration of the excess entropy would reduce this discrepancy
Density of nitric acid solutions of plutonium; Densite des solutions nitriques de plutonium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guibergia, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1960-07-01
The report is intended to furnish an expression making it possible to determine the density of a nitric acid solution of plutonium. Under certain defined experimental conditions, the equation found makes it possible to deduce, for a solution whose concentration, free acidity and temperature are known, the corresponding value of the density of that solution. (author) [French] L'expose a pour but de donner une formule permettant la determination de la densite d'une solution nitrique de plutonium. Suivant certaines conditions experimentales precisees, l'equation trouvee permet, pour une solution dont la concentration, l'acidite libre nitrique et la temperature sont donnees, de deduire la valeur correspondant de la densite de cette solution. (auteur)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1999-10-01
The occurrence of voltage drops and cuts can lead to major malfunctions in electrical installations with sometimes important economical impacts. Thus, the use of solutions of desensitization are needed to avoid such disturbances. This technical paper gives a summary of the basic solutions elaborated by Electricite de France (EdF) with the participation of electrical engineering associations in order to solve the problems encountered in existing installations and to provide specifications for the newly designed installations: the desensitization process (origin of voltage drops, solutions, costs), the diagnosis of industrial installations (identification, quantitative analysis and recording of disturbances, complementary informations, causes, economical impact, solutions, costs, remedial action), the general and specific solutions of desensitization (instrumentation and control systems, switches, relays, motors, speed regulators and variators), specific solutions for computerized and electronic systems, and the role of batteries. (J.S.)
Hot 56Mn reactions in permanganate solutions: a quasi solution state study [Paper No. NC-6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dedgaonkar, V.G.; Mitra, S.
1982-01-01
Neutron activation of aqueous solutions of transition metal and ammonium permanganates over the concentration range 1-10 -3 M has been performed. Retentions for concentrated solutions were much higher than the solid state values, and upon dilution, a limiting value of approx. 4 per cent was attained. Activation of 1-10 -1 M permanganate quasi solutions containing either alumina or a polystyrene cation exchanger allowed continuous extraction of the recoil species before their recombination. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Davi Lopes do Carmo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil solution samplers may have the same working principle, but they differ in relation to chemical and physical characteristics, cost and handling, and these aspects exert influence on the chemical composition of the soil solution obtained. This study was carried out to evaluate, over time, the chemical composition of solutions extracted by Suolo Acqua, with the hydrophilic membrane (HM as a standard, using soils with contrasting characteristics, and to determine the relationship between electrical conductivity (EC and concentration of ions and pH of soil solution samples. This study was carried out under laboratory conditions, using three soils samples with different clay and organic matter (OM contents. Soil solution contents of F−, Cl−, NO−3, Br−, SO42−, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, were analyzed, as well as inorganic, organic, and total C contents, pH, and EC, in four successive sampling times. Soil solution chemical composition extracted by the Suolo Acqua sampler is similar to that collected by the HM, but the Suolo Acqua extracted more Na+ and soluble organic C than the HM solution. Solution EC, cation and anion concentrations, and soluble C levels are higher in the soil with greater clay and OM contents (Latossolo and Cambissolo in this case. Soil solution composition varied over time, with considerable changes in pH, EC, and nutrient concentrations, especially associated with soil OM. Thus, single and isolated sampling of the soil solution must be avoided, otherwise composition of the soil solution may not be correctly evaluated. Soil solution EC was regulated by pH, as well as the sum of cation and anion concentrations, and the C contents determined in the soil liquid phase.
Non-orthogonally transitive G2 spike solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, Woei Chet
2015-01-01
We generalize the orthogonally transitive (OT) G 2 spike solution to the non-OT G 2 case. This is achieved by applying Geroch’s transformation on a Kasner seed. The new solution contains two more parameters than the OT G 2 spike solution. Unlike the OT G 2 spike solution, the new solution always resolves its spike. (fast track communication)
Influence of Ophthalmic Solutions on Tear Components.
Shigeyasu, Chika; Yamada, Masakazu; Akune, Yoko
2016-11-01
Tear fluids are a mixture of secretions derived from lacrimal glands, accessory lacrimal glands, conjunctiva, and meibomian glands. Compositional changes to tears occur in the normal state and during ocular surface disease, such as dry eye conditions. We have investigated compositional changes to tears after topical application of ophthalmic solutions, with regard to tear-specific proteins (secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lipocalin-1, and lysozyme) and ocular surface mucin in normal and dry eye conditions using high-performance liquid chromatography. After application of saline solution (0.9% sodium chloride) in normal subjects, transient but significant decreases in all tear components were observed. The recovery of protein concentrations took up to 30 minutes and lasted longer when the saline solution was applied more frequently. When applying ophthalmic solutions, a balance between washout and dilutional effects should be considered in addition to the therapeutic effect. Investigation of the effect of diquafosol solution (3%) in normal subjects revealed a significant increase in sialic acid concentration, a marker of ocular mucin, at 5 minutes after application, whereas a significant decrease was observed with saline. This result indicates the accelerated secretion of mucin from ocular tissues induced by diquafosol. A clinical study to determine the efficacy of diquafosol in patients with dry eye revealed improvements in tear breakup time, keratoconjunctival staining scores, and Schirmer test score, accompanied by an increase in sialic acid concentration in tears. Investigating normal and dry eye conditions through tear analysis may clarify the pathophysiology of dry eye conditions and support the efficacy of treatments.
An Optimum Solution for Electric Power Theft
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aamir Hussain Memon
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Electric power theft is a problem that continues to plague power sector across the whole country. Every year, the electricity companies face the line losses at an average 20-30% and according to power ministry estimation WAPDA companies lose more than Rs. 125 billion. Significantly, it is enough to destroy the entire power sector of country. According to sources 20% losses means the masses would have to pay extra 20% in terms of electricity tariffs. In other words, the innocent consumers pay the bills of those who steal electricity. For all that, no any permanent solution for this major issue has ever been proposed. We propose an applicable and optimum solution for this impassable problem. In our research, we propose an Electric power theft solution based on three stages; Transmission stage, Distribution stage, and User stage. Without synchronization among all, the complete solution can not be achieved. The proposed solution is simulated on NI (National Instruments Circuit Design Suite Multisim v.10.0. Our research work is an implicit and a workable approach towards the Electric power theft, as for conditions in Pakistan, which is bearing the brunt of power crises already
Analysis of numerical solutions for Bateman equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loch, Guilherme G.; Bevilacqua, Joyce S.
2013-01-01
The implementation of stable and efficient numerical methods for solving problems involving nuclear transmutation and radioactive decay chains is the main scope of this work. The physical processes associated with irradiations of samples in particle accelerators, or the burning spent nuclear fuel in reactors, or simply the natural decay chains, can be represented by a set of first order ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients, for instance, the decay radioactive constants of each nuclide in the chain. Bateman proposed an analytical solution for a particular case of a linear chain with n nuclides decaying in series and with different decay constants. For more complex and realistic applications, the construction of analytical solutions is not viable and the introduction of numerical techniques is imperative. However, depending on the magnitudes of the decay radioactive constants, the matrix of coefficients could be almost singular, generating unstable and non convergent numerical solutions. In this work, different numerical strategies for solving systems of differential equations were implemented, the Runge-Kutta 4-4, Adams Predictor-Corrector (PC2) and the Rosenbrock algorithm, this last one more specific for stiff equations. Consistency, convergence and stability of the numerical solutions are studied and the performance of the methods is analyzed for the case of the natural decay chain of Uranium-235 comparing numerical with analytical solutions. (author)
Spurious solutions in few-body equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikari, S.K.; Gloeckle, W.
1979-01-01
After Faddeev and Yakubovskii showed how to write connected few-body equations which are free from discrete spurious solutions various authors have proposed different connected few-body scattering equations. Federbush first pointed out that Weinberg's formulation admits the existence of discrete spurious solutions. In this paper we investigate the possibility and consequence of the existence of spurious solutions in some of the few-body formulations. Contrary to a proof by Hahn, Kouri, and Levin and by Bencze and Tandy the channel coupling array scheme of Kouri, Levin, and Tobocman which is also the starting point of a formulation by Hahn is shown to admit spurious solutions. We can show that the set of six coupled four-body equations proposed independently by Mitra, Gillespie, Sugar, and Panchapakesan, by Rosenberg, by Alessandrini, and by Takahashi and Mishima and the seven coupled four-body equations proposed by Sloan and related by matrix multipliers to basic sets which correspond uniquely to the Schroedinger equation. These multipliers are likely to give spurious solutions to these equations. In all these cases spuriosities are shown to have no hazardous consequence if one is interested in studying the scattering problem
Analytic solution for a quartic electron mirror
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Straton, Jack C., E-mail: straton@pdx.edu
2015-01-15
A converging electron mirror can be used to compensate for spherical and chromatic aberrations in an electron microscope. This paper presents an analytical solution to a diode (two-electrode) electrostatic mirror including the next term beyond the known hyperbolic shape. The latter is a solution of the Laplace equation to second order in the variables perpendicular to and along the mirror's radius (z{sup 2}−r{sup 2}/2) to which we add a quartic term (kλz{sup 4}). The analytical solution is found in terms of Jacobi cosine-amplitude functions. We find that a mirror less concave than the hyperbolic profile is more sensitive to changes in mirror voltages and the contrary holds for the mirror more concave than the hyperbolic profile. - Highlights: • We find the analytical solution for electron mirrors whose curvature has z4 dependence added to the usual z{sup 2} – r{sup 2}/2 terms. • The resulting Jacobi cosine-amplitude function reduces to the well-known cosh solution in the limit where the new term is 0. • This quartic term gives a mirror designer additional flexibility for eliminating spherical and chromatic aberrations. • The possibility of using these analytical results to approximately model spherical tetrode mirrors close to axis is noted.
Method of processing plutonium and uranium solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otsuka, Katsuyuki; Kondo, Isao; Suzuki, Toru.
1989-01-01
Solutions of plutonium nitrate solutions and uranyl nitrate recovered in the solvent extraction step in reprocessing plants and nuclear fuel production plants are applied with low temperature treatment by means of freeze-drying under vacuum into residues containing nitrates, which are denitrated under heating and calcined under reduction into powders. That is, since complicate processes of heating, concentration and dinitration conducted so far for the plutonium solution and uranyl solution are replaced with one step of freeze-drying under vacuum, the process can be simplified significantly. In addition, since the treatment is applied at low temperature, occurrence of corrosion for the material of evaporation, etc. can be prevented. Further, the number of operators can be saved by dividing the operations into recovery of solidification products, supply and sintering of the solutions and vacuum sublimation. Further, since nitrates processed at a low temperature are powderized by heating dinitration, the powderization step can be simplified. The specific surface area and the grain size distribution of the powder is made appropriate and it is possible to obtain oxide powders of physical property easily to be prepared into pellets. (N.H.)
SOME UNUSUAL SOLUTIONS FOR EUROPEAN NETWORKS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vernescu V
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Authors present several non-conventional solutions unused in Europe which are, however, frequently adopted in some medium (M and low (L voltages (V networks from North-American and Australian countries, especially in low density areas of consumption in rural and urban distribution. The proposed solutions may assure diversified supply possibilities in our middle and South–Eastern regions, as regards modernizing and upgrading the distribution networks. The solutions try to propose to adapt our European practice to the North-American experience, aiming at developing more flexible, cheaper and safer supply of the consumers, both at MV and at LV networks. Several original solutions promoted in Romanian networks and their peculiarities are also described. The paper presents distribution schemes at medium voltage in connection with low voltage supply in different condition of neutral treatment at MV or LV. It also shows the measures to be adopted in order to diminish the investment expenses in low voltage at the supplied consumers. The technical condition of co-existence of OHEL at MV and LV on the same poles, without jeopardizing the LV equipment, is necessary. Among the solutions proposed, the authors also describe the unconventional one, consisting in the supply of isolated monophase consumer at MV by ground return and also the conditions necessary for sure and safe operation of this particularly connection. Finally, there are shown some conclusions about the necessity to assure imposed environmental conditions.
Automated MAD and MIR structure solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Berendzen, Joel
1999-01-01
A fully automated procedure for solving MIR and MAD structures has been developed using a scoring scheme to convert the structure-solution process into an optimization problem. Obtaining an electron-density map from X-ray diffraction data can be difficult and time-consuming even after the data have been collected, largely because MIR and MAD structure determinations currently require many subjective evaluations of the qualities of trial heavy-atom partial structures before a correct heavy-atom solution is obtained. A set of criteria for evaluating the quality of heavy-atom partial solutions in macromolecular crystallography have been developed. These have allowed the conversion of the crystal structure-solution process into an optimization problem and have allowed its automation. The SOLVE software has been used to solve MAD data sets with as many as 52 selenium sites in the asymmetric unit. The automated structure-solution process developed is a major step towards the fully automated structure-determination, model-building and refinement procedure which is needed for genomic scale structure determinations
Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.
1993-01-01
Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model
Diffusiophoresis in one-dimensional solute gradients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ault, Jesse T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warren, Patrick B. [Unilever R& D Port Sunlight, Bebington (United Kingdom); Shin, Sangwoo [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stone, Howard A. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)
2017-11-06
Here, the diffusiophoretic motion of suspended colloidal particles under one-dimensional solute gradients is solved using numerical and analytical techniques. Similarity solutions are developed for the injection and withdrawal dynamics of particles into semi-infinite pores. Furthermore, a method of characteristics formulation of the diffusion-free particle transport model is presented and integrated to realize particle trajectories. Analytical solutions are presented for the limit of small particle diffusiophoretic mobility Γ_{p} relative to the solute diffusivity D_{s} for particle motions in both semi-infinite and finite domains. Results confirm the build up of local maxima and minima in the propagating particle front dynamics. The method of characteristics is shown to successfully predict particle motions and the position of the particle front, although it fails to accurately predict suspended particle concentrations in the vicinity of sharp gradients, such as at the particle front peak seen in some injection cases, where particle diffusion inevitably plays an important role. Results inform the design of applications in which the use of applied solute gradients can greatly enhance particle injection into and withdrawal from pores.
Diffusiophoresis in one-dimensional solute gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ault, Jesse T.; Warren, Patrick B.; Shin, Sangwoo; Stone, Howard A.
2017-01-01
Here, the diffusiophoretic motion of suspended colloidal particles under one-dimensional solute gradients is solved using numerical and analytical techniques. Similarity solutions are developed for the injection and withdrawal dynamics of particles into semi-infinite pores. Furthermore, a method of characteristics formulation of the diffusion-free particle transport model is presented and integrated to realize particle trajectories. Analytical solutions are presented for the limit of small particle diffusiophoretic mobility Γ p relative to the solute diffusivity D s for particle motions in both semi-infinite and finite domains. Results confirm the build up of local maxima and minima in the propagating particle front dynamics. The method of characteristics is shown to successfully predict particle motions and the position of the particle front, although it fails to accurately predict suspended particle concentrations in the vicinity of sharp gradients, such as at the particle front peak seen in some injection cases, where particle diffusion inevitably plays an important role. Results inform the design of applications in which the use of applied solute gradients can greatly enhance particle injection into and withdrawal from pores.
Application of solution-mineral equilibrium chemistry to solution mining of uranium ores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riese, A.C.; Popp, C.J.
1979-01-01
The tests described were undertaken to determine the extent to leach solution-rock interactions with uranium-bearing ore obtained from the Mariano Lake mine. Leach solutions of an acidic (H/sub 2/O/sub 4/-sulfuric acid) and basic (NaHCO/sub 3/-sodium bicarbonate) nature were tested, in addition to a leach solution containing potassium chloride and sulfuric acid (KCl/H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The latter solution was chosen in an attempt to equilibrate the aqueous phase with the rock-forming silicate minerals and minimize adverse effects such as clay formation, porosity loss, and lixiviant loss. 29 refs
Approximated solutions to Born-Infeld dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA),Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires,Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigro, Mauro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires,Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2016-02-01
The Born-Infeld equation in the plane is usefully captured in complex language. The general exact solution can be written as a combination of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions. However, this solution only expresses the potential in an implicit way. We rework the formulation to obtain the complex potential in an explicit way, by means of a perturbative procedure. We take care of the secular behavior common to this kind of approach, by resorting to a symmetry the equation has at the considered order of approximation. We apply the method to build approximated solutions to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We solve for BI electromagnetic waves traveling in opposite directions. We study the propagation at interfaces, with the aim of searching for effects susceptible to experimental detection. In particular, we show that a reflected wave is produced when a wave is incident on a semi-space containing a magnetostatic field.
The radiolysis of solutions containing Pu(6)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rance, P.J.W.; Zilberman, B.Y.
2000-01-01
The reduction of Pu(VI) in nitric acid solutions containing uranium and various fission product elements as a result of both its inherent alpha radiation and also external gamma irradiation at dose rates similar to those experienced by dissolved fuel solutions has been investigated. The presence of the additional metals has been shown to eliminate the induction periods required prior to the reduction of Pu(VI) in nitric acid. G values for the auto-radiolytic reduction of Pu(VI) have been found to be between 0.6 and 1.1 for 3 g/1 Pu solutions containing between 0.12 and 9.2 % 238 Pu (balance 239 Pu). Uranium and palladium have been found to accelerate the reduction of Pu(VI) during gamma irradiation at dose rates of between 0.41 and 1.64 kGy/hour. (authors)
The radiolysis of solutions containing Pu(6)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rance, P.J.W. [BNFL British Nuclear Fuels, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, Research and Technology (United Kingdom); Zilberman, B.Y. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2000-07-01
The reduction of Pu(VI) in nitric acid solutions containing uranium and various fission product elements as a result of both its inherent alpha radiation and also external gamma irradiation at dose rates similar to those experienced by dissolved fuel solutions has been investigated. The presence of the additional metals has been shown to eliminate the induction periods required prior to the reduction of Pu(VI) in nitric acid. G values for the auto-radiolytic reduction of Pu(VI) have been found to be between 0.6 and 1.1 for 3 g/1 Pu solutions containing between 0.12 and 9.2 % {sup 238}Pu (balance {sup 239}Pu). Uranium and palladium have been found to accelerate the reduction of Pu(VI) during gamma irradiation at dose rates of between 0.41 and 1.64 kGy/hour. (authors)
Heat of solution of hydrogen in aluminium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahajan, S.; Prakash, S.
1984-01-01
The heat of solution of hydrogen in aluminium is investigated accounting for both, the lattice dilation and its relaxation. The lattice contribution is evaluated using a linearly screened local model potential for the ions. The non-linear screening in the density functional formalism along with the exchange and correlation corrections in the jellium model is used to evaluate the proton contribution. The dilation enhances the lattice contribution by about 12 % and decreases the protonic contribution by about 5 %. The relaxation energy is reduced by about 40 % for the dilated lattice. Adding all the contributions, the heat of solution is found to be 20 % larger for the dilated lattice than that for the undilated lattice. The calculated heat of solution is found in good agreement with the experimental value. Comparing the results with the calculations of Perrot and Rasolt, the spherical solid model correction is estimated and it is found that it further improves the results. (author)
Solution of a simple inelastic scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knudson, S.K.
1975-01-01
Simple examples of elastic scattering, typically from square wells, serve as important pedagogical tools in discussion of the concepts and processes involved in elastic scattering events. An analytic solution of a model inelastic scattering system is presented here to serve in this role for inelastic events. The model and its solution are simple enough to be of pedagogical utility, but also retain enough of the important physical features to include most of the special characteristics of inelastic systems. The specific model chosen is the collision of an atom with a harmonic oscillator, interacting via a repulsive square well potential. Pedagogically important features of inelastic scattering, including its multistate character, convergence behavior, and dependence on an ''inelastic potential'' are emphasized as the solution is determined. Results are presented for various energies and strengths of inelastic scattering, which show that the model is capable of providing an elementary representation of vibrationally inelastic scattering
Environmental impact of solution mining for uranium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hunkin, G.G.
1975-01-01
Compared with most other mining systems, uranium solution mining has a negligible effect on such environmental factors as surface disturbance, interference with natural groundwater quality and distribution, and aerial discharge of radionuclides. The following topics are discussed: the process, personnel safety and health, tailings disposal, impact on groundwater, operating licenses and controls, legislation, and economics. It is concluded that engineered well systems and controlled input/production flow rates, combined with full recirculation systems that maintain constant fluid volumes in the mineralized formations, result in containment of leach solutions within the operating area. The very dilute leach solutions, compatible with natural groundwaters, ensure that no environmental damage results, even if a loss of control occurred. Reduction in the number of processing steps and virtual elimination of operator hazards, waste disposal and land rehabilitation costs help in reducing overall costs
Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.M. El-Naggar
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter ε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to α. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance method, homotopy perturbation method, global error minimization method and lastly numerical solution. We observe from the results that this method is very simple, easy to apply, and gives a very good accuracy not only for small parameter εbut also for large values of ε.
High-Z organic-scintillation solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berlman, I.B.; Fluornoy, J.M.; Ashford, C.B.; Lyons, P.B.
1983-01-01
In the present experiment, an attempt is made to raise the average Z of a scintillation solution with as little attendant quenching as possible. Since high-Z atoms quench by means of a close encounter, such encounters are minimized by the use of alkyl groups substituted on the solvent, solute, and heavy atoms. The aromatic compound 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (pseudocumene) is used as the solvent; 4,4''-di(5-tridecyl)-p-terphenyl (SC-180) as the solute; and tetrabutyltin as the high-Z material. To establish the validity of our ideas, various experiments have been performed with less protected solvents, and heavy atoms. These include benzene, toluene, p-terphenyl, bromobutane, and bromobenzene
Molecular thermodynamics using fluctuation solution theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ellegaard, Martin Dela
. The framework relates thermodynamic variables to molecular pair correlation functions of liquid mixtures. In this thesis, application of the framework is illustrated using two approaches: 1. Solubilities of solid solutes in mixed solvent systems are determined from fluctuation solution theory application......Properties of chemicals and their mutual phase equilibria are critical variables in process design. Reliable estimates of relevant equilibrium properties, from thermodynamic models, can form the basis of good decision making in the development phase of a process design, especially when access...... to relevant experimental data is limited. This thesis addresses the issue of generating and using simple thermodynamic models within a rigorous statistical mechanical framework, the so-called fluctuation solution theory, from which relations connecting properties and phase equilibria can be obtained...
Uranium in aqueous solutions by colorimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1981-01-01
The method covers the quantitative determination of uranium in known volumes of aqueous solutions that contain radioactive nuclides. These solutions arise from processing of irradiated nuclear fuel and from laboratory studies on irradiated uranium. The method is applicable to solutions containing a minimum of 30 μg of uranium per sample although as little as 0.5 μg can be detected but with lower precision. Highest precision is obtained with 50 to 75 μg of uranium in the test sample. Dilutions must be made at concentrations above 750 μg/ml. The method includes a discussion of photometers and photometric practice, apparatus, reagents, cell matching, preparation of standard curves, calibration by the method of internal standards, procedure, calculation, and precision
Path integral solution of the Dirichlet problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LaChapelle, J.
1997-01-01
A scheme for functional integration developed by Cartier/DeWitt-Morette is first reviewed and then employed to construct the path integral representation for the solution of the Dirichlet problem in terms of first exit time. The path integral solution is then applied to calculate the fixed-energy point-to-point transition amplitude both in configuration and phase space. The path integral solution can also be derived using physical principles based on Feynman close-quote s original reasoning. We check that the Fourier transform in energy of the fixed-energy point-to-point transition amplitude gives the well known time-dependent transition amplitude, and calculate the WKB approximation. copyright 1997 Academic Press, Inc
Approximated solutions to Born-Infeld dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferraro, Rafael; Nigro, Mauro
2016-01-01
The Born-Infeld equation in the plane is usefully captured in complex language. The general exact solution can be written as a combination of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions. However, this solution only expresses the potential in an implicit way. We rework the formulation to obtain the complex potential in an explicit way, by means of a perturbative procedure. We take care of the secular behavior common to this kind of approach, by resorting to a symmetry the equation has at the considered order of approximation. We apply the method to build approximated solutions to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We solve for BI electromagnetic waves traveling in opposite directions. We study the propagation at interfaces, with the aim of searching for effects susceptible to experimental detection. In particular, we show that a reflected wave is produced when a wave is incident on a semi-space containing a magnetostatic field.
Areva solutions for management of defective fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morlaes, I.; Vo Van, V.
2014-01-01
Defective fuel management is a major challenge for nuclear operators when all fuel must be long-term managed. This paper describes AREVA solutions for managing defective fuel. Transport AREVA performs shipments of defective fuel in Europe and proposes casks that are licensed for that purpose in Europe and in the USA. The paper presents the transport experience and the new European licensing approach of defective fuel transport. Dry Interim Storage AREVA is implementing the defective fuel storage in the USA, compliant with the Safety Authority's requirements. In Europe, AREVA is developing a new, more long-term oriented storage solution for defective fuel, the best available technology regarding safety requirements. The paper describes these storage solutions. Treatment Various types of defective fuel coming from around the world have been treated in the AREVA La Hague plant. Specific treatment procedures were developed when needed. The paper presents operational elements related to this experience. (authors)
Crossing-symmetric solutions to low equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLeod, R.J.; Ernst, D.J.
1985-01-01
Crossing symmetric models of the pion-nucleon interaction in which crossing symmetry is kept to lowest order in msub(π)/msub(N) are investigated. Two iterative techniques are developed to solve the crossing-symmetric Low equation. The techniques are used to solve the original Chew-Low equations and their generalizations to include the coupling to the pion-production channels. Small changes are found in comparison with earlier results which used an iterative technique proposed by Chew and Low and which did not produce crossing-symmetric results. The iterative technique of Chew and Low is shown to fail because of its inability to produce zeroes in the amplitude at complex energies while physical solutions to the model require such zeroes. We also prove that, within the class of solutions such that phase shifts approach zero for infinite energy, the solution to the Low equation is unique. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, P.M.; West, J.A.; Aziz, M.J.
1992-01-01
This paper reports on partitioning during rapid solidification of dilute Al-Ge alloys. Implanted thin films of Al have been pulsed-laser melted to obtain solidification at velocities in the range of 0.01 ms to 3.3 m/s, as measured by the transient conductance technique. Previous and subsequent Rutherford Backscattering depth profiling of the Ge solute in the Al alloys has been used to determine the nonequilibrium partition coefficient k. A significant degree of lateral film growth during solidification confines determination of k to the placing of an upper bound of 0.22 on k for solidification velocities in this range. The authors place a lower limit of 10 m/s on the diffusive velocity, which locates the transition from solute partitioning to solute trapping in the Continuous Growth Model
Radiolysis of concentrated nitric acid solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagaishi, R.; Jiang, P.Y.; Katsumura, Y.; Domae, M.; Ishigure, K.
1995-01-01
A study on electron pulse- and 60 Co γ-radiolysis of concentrated nitric acid and nitrate solutions has been carried out to elucidate the radiation induced reactions taking place in the solutions. Dissociation into NO 2 - and O( 3 P) was proposed as a direct action of the radiation on nitrate and gave the G-values were dependent on the chemical forms of nitrate: g s2 (-NO 3 - )=1.6 and g s2 (-HNO 3 )=2.2 (molecules/100eV). Based on the experimental yields of HNO 2 and reduced Ce IV , the primary yields of radiolysis products of water, g w , were evaluated to clarify the effects of nitrate on spur reactions of water in various nitrate solutions. (author)
Sustainable manufacturing challenges, solutions and implementation perspectives
Seliger, Günther; Bonvoisin, Jérémy
2017-01-01
Sustainability imposes an unprecedented challenge on society and has become the driving force of an urgent search for innovative solutions in all branches of economy. Manufacturing plays a key role in many areas of human living, and it is both part of the problem and of the solution. This book offers an overview of the broad field of research on sustainability in manufacturing with a particular focus on manufacturing technology and management. It summarizes the current challenges, describes best in class methods for development of sustainable manufacturing solutions and offers implementation perspectives. This volume covers areas of research such as production processes, product development, business model and corporate development, macro economy and education. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field of manufacturing, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .
Balancing Modularity and Solution Space Freedom
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vos, Maren A.; Raassens, Néomie; Van der Borgh, Michel
2018-01-01
that modularity reflects knowledge specialisation and solution space freedom reflects knowledge variety. Both of these dimensions affect organisational learning and, in turn, sustainable innovation. Second, we argue that the relationship between customisation and organisational learning is affected by supplier...... theory to provide insights into how TI firms can achieve ‘win-win’ situations where sustainable innovation is increased through customisation. First, we argue that customisation should be viewed two-dimensionally and identify both modularity and solution space freedom as important dimensions. We argue...... characteristics, specifically supplier sophistication. Survey data from 166 managers were used to empirically test the conceptual model and hypotheses. Polynomial response surface analysis confirms that customising by balancing high degrees of both modularity and solution space freedom results in superior...
Solitonlike solutions in loop current eddies
Nakamoto, Shoichiro
1989-01-01
The application of the nonlinear quasi-geostrophic equations to an isolated eddy in the western continental slope region in the Gulf of Mexico is examined for a two-layer ocean model with bottom topography. In the linear limit, solutions are topographic nondispersive waves. Form-preserving solutions, or solitons, have been found. The solution is shown to be a limiting form for a nonlinear dispersive system propagating northward along the topographic waveguide in the western continental slope region in the Gulf of Mexico. Using satellite-tracked drifter data, a linear relationship is found between the amplitude of the deduced stream function of the eddy and its observed translational velocity over the continental slope, which supports the hypothesis that some mesoscale eddies interacting with the continental slope behave as solitons.
Diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ribeiro, Ana C.F.; Barros, Marisa C.F.; Veríssimo, Luís M.P.; Santos, Cecilia I.A.V.; Cabral, Ana M.T.D.P.V.; Gaspar, Gualter D.; Esteso, Miguel A.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Mutual diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous dilute solutions. ► Influence of the thermodynamic factors on the variation of their mutual diffusion coefficients. ► Estimation of the mutual limiting diffusion coefficients of the molecular, D m 0 , and ionized forms, D ± 0 , of this drug. - Abstract: Binary mutual diffusion coefficients measured by the Taylor dispersion method, for aqueous solutions of paracetamol (PA) at concentrations from (0.001 to 0.050) mol·dm −3 at T = 298.15 K, are reported. From the Nernst–Hartley equation and our experimental results, the limiting diffusion coefficient of this drug and its thermodynamic factors are estimated, thereby contributing in this way to a better understanding of the structure of such systems and of their thermodynamic behaviour in aqueous solution at different concentrations.
Gelation on heating of supercooled gelatin solutions.
Guigo, Nathanaël; Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas; Vyazovkin, Sergey
2012-04-23
Diluted (1.0-1.5 wt%) aqueous gelatin solutions have been cooled to -10 °C at a cooling rate 20 °C min(-1) without freezing and detectable gelation. When heated at a constant heating rate (0.5 -2 °C min(-1)), the obtained supercooled solutions demonstrate an atypical process of gelation that has been characterized by regular and stochastically modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well as by isoconversional kinetic analysis. The process is detectable as an exothermic peak in the total heat flow of regular DSC and in the nonreversing heat flow of stochastically modulated DSC. Isoconversional kinetic analysis applied to DSC data reveals that the effective activation energy of the process increases from approximately 75 to 200 kJ mol(-1) as a supercooled solution transforms to gel on continuous heating. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Waste processing of chemical cleaning solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peters, G.A.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes that are difficult to reduce in volume using existing technology. Current methods for evaporating low-level radiative waste solutions often use high maintenance evaporators that can be costly and inefficient. The heat transfer surfaces of these evaporators are easily fouled, and their maintenance requires a significant labor investment. To address the volume reduction of spent, low-level radioactive, chelating-based chemical cleaning solutions, ECOSAFE Liquid Volume Reduction System (LVRS) has been developed. The LVRS is based on submerged combustion evaporator technology that was modified for treatment of low-level radiative liquid wastes. This system was developed in 1988 and was used to process 180,000 gallons of waste at Oconee Nuclear Station
Solution of problems of ETICS with biocorrosion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Belániová Barbora
2018-01-01
Full Text Available To find solutions for maintenance and repair of existing structures ETICS becomes the current another issue of improvement thermal insulation proprieties of external cladding, which need to be answered necessarily till December 2020. Double thermal insulation technology can be achieved by jointly increasing of thermal insulation properties and by repairing surface porosity ETICS. The aim of the research is the analysis of alternative insulation materials in plaster repair by technology "double thermal insulation" ETICS in terms of technology, humidity and temperature conditions in the layers. Technology of double thermal insulation is analyzed in the context with solution biocorrosion surface thermal insulation. In the end of the research there is obtained the data from the comparisson of technology double thermal insulation with different insulation materials expressed by graph. Obtained data can be the basis for decision to choosing a repair, to solution for the structural details of double thermal insulation and also for experimentally assess the lifespan of the double ETICS.
NIR spectroscopic properties of aqueous acids solutions.
Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Atan, Hanafi; Matjafri, Mohd Zubir
2012-06-15
Acid content is one of the important quality attributes in determining the maturity index of agricultural product, particularly fruits. Despite the fact that much research on the measurement of acidity in fruits through non-destructive spectroscopy analysis at NIR wavelengths between 700 to 1,000 nm has been conducted, the same response towards individual acids is not well known. This paper presents NIR spectroscopy analysis on aqueous citric, tartaric, malic and oxalic solutions through quantitative analysis by selecting a set of wavelengths that can best be used to measure the pH of the solutions. The aquaphotomics study of the acid solutions has generated R² above 0.9 for the measurement of all acids. The most important wavelengths for pH are located at 918-925 nm and 990-996 nm, while at 975 nm for water.
Pretreatment Solution for Water Recovery Systems
Muirhead, Dean (Inventor)
2018-01-01
Chemical pretreatments are used to produce usable water by treating a water source with a chemical pretreatment that contains a hexavalent chromium and an acid to generate a treated water source, wherein the concentration of sulfate compounds in the acid is negligible, and wherein the treated water source remains substantially free of precipitates after the addition of the chemical pretreatment. Other methods include reducing the pH in urine to be distilled for potable water extraction by pretreating the urine before distillation with a pretreatment solution comprising one or more acid sources selected from a group consisting of phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid, wherein the urine remains substantially precipitate free after the addition of the pretreatment solution. Another method described comprises a process for reducing precipitation in urine to be processed for water extraction by mixing the urine with a pretreatment solution comprising hexavalent chromium compound and phosphoric acid.
Periodic solutions of Volterra integral equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. N. Islam
1988-01-01
Full Text Available Consider the system of equationsx(t=f(t+∫−∞tk(t,sx(sds, (1andx(t=f(t+∫−∞tk(t,sg(s,x(sds. (2Existence of continuous periodic solutions of (1 is shown using the resolvent function of the kernel k. Some important properties of the resolvent function including its uniqueness are obtained in the process. In obtaining periodic solutions of (1 it is necessary that the resolvent of k is integrable in some sense. For a scalar convolution kernel k some explicit conditions are derived to determine whether or not the resolvent of k is integrable. Finally, the existence and uniqueness of continuous periodic solutions of (1 and (2 are btained using the contraction mapping principle as the basic tool.
Method of lines solution of Richards` equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kelley, C.T.; Miller, C.T.; Tocci, M.D.
1996-12-31
We consider the method of lines solution of Richard`s equation, which models flow through porous media, as an example of a situation in which the method can give incorrect results because of premature termination of the nonlinear corrector iteration. This premature termination arises when the solution has a sharp moving front and the Jacobian is ill-conditioned. While this problem can be solved by tightening the tolerances provided to the ODE or DAE solver used for the temporal integration, it is more efficient to modify the termination criteria of the nonlinear solver and/or recompute the Jacobian more frequently. In this paper we continue previous work on this topic by analyzing the modifications in more detail and giving a strategy on how the modifications can be turned on and off in response to changes in the character of the solution.
New technology for preparing drilling solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Proselkov, Y M; Minenkov, V M
1981-01-01
It is indicated that it is possible to provide the necessary indices of structural-mechanical properties of solution with additional dispersion of clay particles in water at the initial stage of preparation of solutions. In the process of dispersion the indices of rheological properties of the solution vary: static SNS and dynamic of shear stress, plastic viscosity. With consideration of the aforementioned a new technology has been developed for preparing solutions from powdery materials. To carry out the technological process we use serial blocks BPR-70 with ejector hydromixer, drilling or centrifuge pump, standard capacity of circulation system, and hydraulic dispersing agent. The technology for preparing the solution is as follow (see figure). Water is poured into tank 4 in an amount equal to half the volume of the prepared portion of solution. In hydraulic disperser 6 packing is installed with a diameter in accordance with the productivity of the drilling pump 5. After this aeration is switched on for 5-7 minutes in the silo 1 of BPR with excess air pressure of 0.2-0.3 kg/cm/sup 2/. Then the drilling pump is switched on and water is pumped through in the following order: tank 4, hydraulic disperser 6, ejector hydromixer 3, tank 4. Pressure at the pump discharge should be 120-150 kg/cm/sup 2/, and the vacuum in the chamber of the electronic hydromixer is at least 0.2 kg/cm/sup 2/. With the aid of a regulating fan 2 we must create a vacuum in the chamber of the hydromixer amounting to 0.08-0.12 kg/cm/sup 2/, and as a consequence of this the fan can regulate the rate and evenness of clay powder feed.