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Sample records for lipid peroxidation rates

  1. LIPID PEROXIDATION IN PREECLAMPSIA

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    T.Sharmila Krishna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension in pregnancy is a leading cause of both maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Preeclampsia is characterised by hypertension and proteinuria. Lipid peroxidation is an important factor in the pathophysiology of Preeclampsia. The present study was undertaken to determine Serum Malondialdehyde (MDA levels , a product of lipid peroxidation , in clinically diagnosed Preeclamptic women(n=30 and the values were compared with that of Normotensive pregnant women (n=30 aged between 18-30yrs. All of them were in their third trimester and were primigravida. Serum MDA was estimated by TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. We observed that Serum MDA levels were significantly increased in Preeclamptic women (p <0.000 as compared to that of Normotensive pregnant women . Increased levels of lipid peroxiation product - MDA may contribute to the pathophysiology of Preeclampsia.

  2. Microsomal lipid peroxidation as a mechanism of cellular damage. [Dissertation

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    Kornbrust, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The NADPH/iron-dependent peroxidation of lipids in rat liver microsomes was found to be dependent on the presence of free ferrous ion and maintains iron in the reduced Fe/sup 2 +/ state. Chelation of iron by EDTA inhibited peroxidation. Addition of iron, after preincubation of microsomes in the absence of iron, did not enhance the rate of peroxidation suggesting that iron acts by initiating peroxidative decomposition of membrane lipids rather than by catalyzing the breakdown of pre-formed hydroperoxides. Liposomes also underwent peroxidation in the presence of ferrous iron at a rate comparable to intact microsomes and was stimulated by ascorbate. Carbon tetrachloride initiated lipid peroxidation in the absence of free metal ions. Rates of in vitro lipid peroxidation of microsomes and homogenates were found to vary widely between different tissues and species. The effects of paraquat on lipid peroxidation was also studied. (DC)

  3. [Nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation].

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    Cristol, J P; Maggi, M F; Guérin, M C; Torreilles, J; Descomps, B

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical produced enzymatically in biological systems from the guanidino group of L-arginine. Its large spectrum of biological effects is achieved through chemical interactions with different targets including oxygen (O2), superoxide (O2o-) and other oxygen reactive species (ROS), transition metals and thiols. Superoxide anions and other ROS have been reported to react with NO to produce peroxynitrite anions that can decompose to form nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and hydroxyl radial (OHo). Thus, NO has been reported to have a dual effect on lipid peroxidation (prooxidant via the peroxynitrite or antioxydant via the chelation of ROS). In the present study we have investigated in different models the in vitro and in vivo action of NO on lipid peroxidation. Copper-induced LDL oxidation were used as an in vitro model. Human LDL (100 micrograms ApoB/ml) were incubated in oxygene-saturated PBS buffer in presence or absence of Cu2+ (2.5 microM) with increasing concentrations of NO donnors (sodium nitroprussiate or nitroso-glutathione). LDL oxidation was monitored continuously for conjugated diene formation (234 nm) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) accumulation. Exogenous NO prevents in a dose dependent manner the progress of copper-induced oxidation. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury (I/R), characterized by an overproduction of ROS, is used as an in vivo model. Anaesthetized rats were submitted to 1 hour renal ischaemia following by 2 hours of reperfusion. Sham-operated rats (SOP) were used as control. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the HNE accumulated in rats kidneys in presence or absence of L-arginine or D-arginine infusion. L-arginine, but not D-arginine, enhances HNE accumulation in I/R but not in SOP (< 0.050 pmol/g tissue in SOP versus 0.6 nmol/g tissue in I/R), showing that, in this experimental conditions, NO produced from L-arginine, enhances the toxicity of ROS. This study shows that the pro- or antioxydant effects of NO are different

  4. Lipid peroxides level in the Indonesian elderly

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    Purwantyastuti Purwantyastuti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was done to see the possible association of plasma lipid peroxides in the elderly with age and other factors. Plasma lipid peroxides is a product of free radical reactions which according to the latest theory of aging is the cause of aging process. Lipid peroxides were also found high in coronary heart disease. Four hundred forty relatively healthy elderly, age 55-85 years, were randomly chosen from free living elderly under guidance of health care centers (PUSKESMAS in Jakarta. Anamnesis and physical examination were done in the morning in the health centers. Blood samples were taken in fasting conditions, plasma lipids and lipid peroxides were measured according to standard methods. There was an age difference of lipid peroxides level in the elderly, which increased with age up to 70 years old. Elderly 70 years old and over had low plasma lipid peroxides. The level was not related to high plasma lipids. Higher level was found when more chronic degenerative diseases were found. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 71-7Keywords: lipid peroxides, aging

  5. [Dynamics of lipid peroxidation and steroidogenesis in adrenal cortex during stress].

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    Doroshkevich, N A; Antsulevich, S N; Vinogradov, V V

    1990-01-01

    The phase character of lipid peroxidation has been found in the rabbit adrenal cortex in the process of adaptation to extreme loads. Under acute stress the activation of lipid peroxidation is directly dependent on the hormonal synthesis processes. Under conditions of the prolonged stress factor an enhancement of the lipid peroxidation intensity in the adrenal cortex coincides with a decrease in the steroidogenesis rate.

  6. Lipid peroxidation in experimental uveitis: sequential studies.

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    Goto, H; Wu, G S; Chen, F; Kristeva, M; Sevanian, A; Rao, N A

    1992-06-01

    Previously we have detected the occurrence of retinal lipid peroxidation initiated by phagocyte-derived oxygen radicals in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). In the current studies, the confirmation of inflammation-mediated lipid peroxidation was proceeded further to include measurement of multiple parameters, including conjugated dienes, ketodienes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and fluorescent chromolipids. The assay for myeloperoxidase, a measure for the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the inflammatory sites was also carried out. The levels of all these parameters were followed through the course of EAU development. The sequential evaluation of histologic changes using both light and electron microscopy was also carried out and the results were correlated with lipid peroxidation indices. These data suggest that the retinal lipid peroxidation plays a causative role in the subsequent retinal degeneration.

  7. Reactive Oxygen Species, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Defense Mechanism

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    Hossam S. EL-BELTAGI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lipid peroxidation can be defined as the oxidative deterioration of lipids containing any number of carbon-carbon double bonds. Lipid peroxidation is a well-established mechanism of cellular injury in both plants and animals, and is used as an indicator of oxidative stress in cells and tissues. Lipid peroxides are unstable and decompose to form a complex series of compounds including reactive carbonyl compounds. The oxidation of linoleates and cholesterol is discussed in some detail. Analytical methods for studying lipid peroxidation were mentioned. Various kinds of antioxidants with different functions inhibit lipid peroxidation and the deleterious effects caused by the lipid peroxidation products.

  8. Assessment of growth rate, chlorophyll a fluorescence, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity in Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Pediastrum simplex and Synedra acus exposed to cadmium.

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    Ran, Xiaofei; Liu, Rui; Xu, Sha; Bai, Fang; Xu, Jinzhu; Yang, Yanjun; Shi, Junqiong; Wu, Zhongxing

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the effects of cadmium on the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, the green alga Pediastrum simplex and the diatom Synedra acus was evaluated on the basis of growth rate, chlorophyll a fluorescence, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity. The EC50 values (effective concentration inducing 50 % of growth inhibition) of cadmium in A. flos-aquae, P. simplex and S. acus were 1.18 ± 0.044, 4.32 ± 0.068 and 3.7 ± 0.055 mg/L, respectively. The results suggested that cadmium stress decreases growth rate and chlorophyll a concentration. The normalized chlorophyll a fluorescence transients significantly increased at cadmium concentrations of 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/L, but slightly decreased at concentrations of 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters showed considerable variation among the three species, while lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities showed a significant increase. Our results demonstrated that blockage of electron transport on the acceptor side of photosystem II is the mechanism responsible for cadmium toxicity in freshwater microalgae, and that the tolerance of the three species to cadmium was in the order green alga P. simplex > diatom S. acus > cyanobacterium A. flos-aquae.

  9. Analysis of lipid peroxidation kinetics. I

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    Doktorov, Alexander B.; Lukzen, Nikita N.; Pedersen, Jørgen Boiden

    2008-01-01

      The kinetics of the lipid peroxidation reaction is only partly under-  stood. Although the set of reactions constituting the overall reaction  is believed to be known, it has not been possible to predict how the  reaction will respond to a change of one or more of the parameters, e.g.  initial......· ,  but not for the peroxyl radicals LO·2 as assumed in previous works.  The method allows us to derive manageable analytical expressions.  Based on literature values of the rate constants we are able to intro-  duce specific simplifications that allow us to obtain simple analytical  expressions for the time dependence of all...

  10. Lipid peroxidation in adrenal and testicular microsomes.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the actions of and interactions between ascorbate, NADPH, Fe2+, and Fe3+ on lipid peroxidation in adrenal and testicular microsomes. Ascorbate-induced malonaldehyde production was maximal in adrenal and testicular microsomes at an ascorbate concentration of 1 X 10(-4)M. Fe2+, at levels between 10(-6) and 10(-3)M, produced concentration-dependent increases in lipid peroxidation in adrenal and testicular microsomes; Fe2+ had a far greater effect than Fe3+ i...

  11. Phytic Acid Inhibits Lipid Peroxidation In Vitro

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    Alicja Zajdel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytic acid (PA has been recognized as a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical formation under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate, with the use of HPLC/MS/MS, whether PA is capable of inhibiting linoleic acid autoxidation and Fe(II/ascorbate-induced peroxidation, as well as Fe(II/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in human colonic epithelial cells. PA at 100 μM and 500 μM effectively inhibited the decay of linoleic acid, both in the absence and presence of Fe(II/ascorbate. The observed inhibitory effect of PA on Fe(II/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation was lower (10–20% compared to that of autoxidation. PA did not change linoleic acid hydroperoxides concentration levels after 24 hours of Fe(II/ascorbate-induced peroxidation. In the absence of Fe(II/ascorbate, PA at 100 μM and 500 μM significantly suppressed decomposition of linoleic acid hydroperoxides. Moreover, PA at the tested nontoxic concentrations (100 μM and 500 μM significantly decreased 4-hydroxyalkenal levels in Caco-2 cells which structurally and functionally resemble the small intestinal epithelium. It is concluded that PA inhibits linoleic acid oxidation and reduces the formation of 4-hydroxyalkenals. Acting as an antioxidant it may help to prevent intestinal diseases induced by oxygen radicals and lipid peroxidation products.

  12. Phytic acid inhibits lipid peroxidation in vitro.

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    Zajdel, Alicja; Wilczok, Adam; Węglarz, Ludmiła; Dzierżewicz, Zofia

    2013-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) has been recognized as a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical formation under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate, with the use of HPLC/MS/MS, whether PA is capable of inhibiting linoleic acid autoxidation and Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced peroxidation, as well as Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in human colonic epithelial cells. PA at 100 μM and 500 μM effectively inhibited the decay of linoleic acid, both in the absence and presence of Fe(II)/ascorbate. The observed inhibitory effect of PA on Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation was lower (10-20%) compared to that of autoxidation. PA did not change linoleic acid hydroperoxides concentration levels after 24 hours of Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced peroxidation. In the absence of Fe(II)/ascorbate, PA at 100 μM and 500 μM significantly suppressed decomposition of linoleic acid hydroperoxides. Moreover, PA at the tested nontoxic concentrations (100 μM and 500 μM) significantly decreased 4-hydroxyalkenal levels in Caco-2 cells which structurally and functionally resemble the small intestinal epithelium. It is concluded that PA inhibits linoleic acid oxidation and reduces the formation of 4-hydroxyalkenals. Acting as an antioxidant it may help to prevent intestinal diseases induced by oxygen radicals and lipid peroxidation products.

  13. Phytic Acid Inhibits Lipid Peroxidation In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Zajdel; Adam Wilczok; Ludmiła Węglarz; Zofia Dzierżewicz

    2013-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) has been recognized as a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical formation under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate, with the use of HPLC/MS/MS, whether PA is capable of inhibiting linoleic acid autoxidation and Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced peroxidation, as well as Fe(II)/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in human colonic epithelial cells. PA at 100 μM and 500 μM effectively inhibited the deca...

  14. Peroxide-induced cell death and lipid peroxidation in C6 glioma cells.

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    Linden, Arne; Gülden, Michael; Martin, Hans-Jörg; Maser, Edmund; Seibert, Hasso

    2008-08-01

    Peroxides are often used as models to induce oxidative damage in cells in vitro. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of lipid peroxidation in peroxide-induced cell death. To this end (i) the ability to induce lipid peroxidation in C6 rat astroglioma cells of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) and t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) (ii) the relation between peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation and cell death in terms of time and concentration dependency and (iii) the capability of the lipid peroxidation chain breaking alpha-tocopherol to prevent peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation and/or cell death were investigated. Lipid peroxidation was characterised by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and, by HPLC, malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and hexanal. Within 2 h CHP, t-BuOOH and H2O2 induced cell death with EC50 values of 59+/-9 microM, 290+/-30 microM and 12+/-1.1 mM, respectively. CHP and t-BuOOH, but not H2O2 induced lipid peroxidation in C6 cells with EC50 values of 15+/-14 microM and 130+/-33 microM, respectively. The TBARS measured almost exclusively consisted of MDA. 4-HNE was mostly not detectable. The concentration of hexanal slightly increased with increasing concentrations of organic peroxides. Regarding time and concentration dependency lipid peroxidation preceded cell death. Pretreatment with alpha-tocopherol (10 microM, 24 h) prevented both, peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation and cell death. The results strongly indicate a major role of lipid peroxidation in the killing of C6 cells by organic peroxides but also that lipid peroxidation is not involved in H2O2 induced cell death.

  15. [Activation of lipid peroxidation in the adrenal cortex by metal ions].

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    Doroshkevich, N A; Antsulevich, S N; Vinogradov, V V

    1988-01-01

    The processes of lipid peroxidation have been studied in bovine adrenal cortex in vitro. The lipid peroxidation rate in this tissue is shown to be dependent on the content of metal ions. EDTA, deferroxamine and penicyllamine inhibit spontaneous lipid peroxidation by 25, 50 and 42%, respectively. The ability to activate the process permits arranging metal ions in the following sequence: Fe2+ greater than Fe3+ greater than Cu2+ greater than Mg2+ greater than Mn2+. The maximum activation of lipid peroxidation is observed at Fe2+ and Fe3+ concentrations within the range of 5 x 10(-6) x 10(-4) M.

  16. The lipid peroxidation in breast cancer patients.

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    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Piekarski, Janusz

    2010-06-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress (by using different biomarkers of lipid peroxidation--isoprostanes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) in patients with invasive breast cancer, patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group. We observed a statistically increased level of TBARS in plasma and isoprostanes in urine of patients with invasive breast cancer in comparison with a control group. The concentration of tested biomarkers in plasma or urine from patients with invasive breast cancer was also higher than in patients with benign breast diseases. Moreover, the levels of tested markers in patients with benign breast diseases and in a control group did not differ. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that free radicals induce peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acid in patients with breast cancer.

  17. Lipid peroxidation and water penetration in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elena; Megli, Francesco Maria; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation plays a key role in the alteration of cell membrane's properties. Here we used as model systems multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) made of the first two products in the oxidative cascade of linoleoyl lecithin, namely 1-palmitoyl-2-(13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecanedienoyl)-lecithin (Hp......PLPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-(13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecanedienoyl)-lecithin (OHPLPC), exhibiting a hydroperoxide or a hydroxy group at position 13, respectively. The two oxidized lipids were used either pure or in a 1:1 molar ratio mixture with untreated 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-lecithin (PLPC). The model membranes...... were doped with spin-labeled lipids to study bilayer alterations by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Two different spin-labeled lipids were used, bearing the doxyl ring at position (n) 5 or 16: γ-palmitoyl-β-(n-doxylstearoyl)-lecithin (n-DSPPC) and n-doxylstearic acid (n-DSA). Small...

  18. Lipid peroxidation in women with epilepsy

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    Deepa D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lipid peroxidation is an indicator of free radical metabolism and oxidative stress in human beings and other organisms. Malondialdehyde (MDA, an end product of lipid peroxidation, is a metabolite that can be readily estimated in serum samples. Excess oxidative stress may be a final common pathway through which anti epileptic drugs may exert their teratogenic potential in pregnant women with epilepsy. Our objective in this study was to ascertain the variations in malondialdehyde (MDA in women with epilepsy. Material and Methods: This study was carried out in the Kerala Registry of Epilepsy and pregnancy after obtaining clearance from the Institutional Ethics Committee. Informed consent was obtained from all the subjects. The quantitative examination of MDA was performed according to standard procedures. The ideal plasma level of MDA is below 2 nmol/ml. Results: Fifteen women with confirmed epilepsy (mean age 26.9 ± 3.5 were included in the study. Two women were pregnant. MDA levels ranged from 1.7 to 2.8 nmol/ml (mean level = 2.13 ± 0.37 nmol/ml. Eight women (53 % had MDA levels above the upper limit of normal. Three patients had levels above 2.5 nmol/ml, which corresponded to the 75 centile. Conclusions: This study had shown that the estimation of MDA levels in plasma is a convenient method to study lipid peroxidation and thereby oxidative stress in women with epilepsy. Over half of Women With Epilepsy (WWE have excess oxidative stress as indicated by high levels of MDA in the plasma. Correlations between MDA level and characteristics of epilepsy, AED therapy, nutritional status and other medical conditions need to be observed in a larger cohort.

  19. Application of simulation modeling to lipid peroxidation processes.

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    Tappel, A L; Tappel, A A; Fraga, C G

    1989-01-01

    A quantitative simulation model was developed that utilized present knowledge of lipid peroxidation in biological systems. The simulation model incorporated the following features: peroxidizability of polyunsaturated lipids, activation of inducers and their initiation of lipid peroxidation, concurrent autoxidation, inhibition of lipid peroxidation by vitamin E, reduction of some of the hydroperoxides by glutathione peroxidase, and formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Simulation calculations were done using a computer spreadsheet program. When the simulation program was applied to tissue slice and microsomal peroxidizing systems, the results of the stimulation were in agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed...... but at a dose of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation was higher in male mice than in female mice. The hepatic lipid peroxidation was not increased above the control level in 3 weeks old mice, while 6 weeks old mice responded with increased peroxidation as did 8-12 weeks old mice....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...

  1. [Lipid peroxidation in the adrenal cortex during exhausting stress].

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    Doroshkevich, N A; Antsulevich, S N; Naumov, A V; Vinogradov, V V

    1990-05-01

    Under prolonged stress which is connected with exhaustion of functional resources of adrenal cortex the activation of lipid peroxidation processes in this gland was found. It is possible that the reason for such lipid peroxidation activation is the decrease in the content of adrenal cortex ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol.

  2. Lipid peroxidation in type 2 diabetes : Relationship with macrovascular disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oranje, W A; Rondas-Colbers, G J; Swennen, G N; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    BACKGROUND: Macrovascular disease is the leading cause of death in diabetes. The increased risk of atherosclerosis in diabetes may be partly explained by increased lipid peroxidation. METHODS: We assessed lipid peroxidation in subjects with type 2 diabetes with (n = 23) and without (n = 23)

  3. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

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    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  4. Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Ceftazidime

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    Devbhuti P*,1

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid peroxidation is the oxidative deterioration of polyunsaturated lipids which is a free radical related process and responsible for thedevelopment of many diseases and disorders like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer etc. End products of lipid peroxidation aremalondialdehyde (MDA, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, etc. which are the ultimate mediator of toxicity. Antioxidants have the capability toinhibit lipid peroxidation. Keeping in mind this fact, the present in vitro study was carried out to evaluate lipid peroxidation induction potential of ceftazidime, a cephalosporin antibiotic and its suppression with ascorbic acid considering some laboratory markers of lipid peroxidation like MDA, 4-HNE and reduced glutathione (GSH. Goat liver was used as the lipid source. After treatment of the liver homogenate with drug and/or antioxidant the levels of 4-HNE, MDA and GSH were estimated in different samples at different hours of incubation. The results showed that the drug ceftazidime could significantly induce lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant ascorbic acid has the capability to inhibit ceftazidime-inducedlipid peroxidation.

  5. [Effect of acute alcohol intoxication on lipid peroxidation in testis and adrenal glands of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokha, A M; Kashko, M F; Antsulevich, S N; Doroshkevich, N A; Voronov, P P

    1993-01-01

    Hormones level and lipid peroxidation processes under influence of acute alcohol intoxication are tested in testes and adrenals of rats. Ethanol marker effects--the rise of corticosterone biosynthesis and depression of testosterone concentration--were reproduced in the experiment. At the moment of maximal changes in steroid levels indices characterising lipid peroxidation didn't differ from the control. At the early stage of the experiment transient shifts in malonic dialdehyde and dienic conjugates levels were noted. The data obtained does not agree with the hypothesis of acute ethanol effects in testes and adrenals being mediated through the changes of lipid peroxidation rate.

  6. Lipid peroxidation of plants under microgravity and its simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhadko, S. I.; Polulyakh, Yu. A.; Vorobyeva, T. V.; Baraboy, V. A.

    1994-08-01

    In series of space experiments a board the biosatellites ``Cosmos 1887'', ``Bion 9'', the orbital stations ``Salut'', ``Mir'' and under clinostating, changes of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidation activity (AOA) of Chlorella, Haplopappus tissue culture, wheat and pea roots were determined. The changes had a complex fluctuation character three steps of response were established; LPO decreasing accompanied by AOA increase; stabilization LPO⇄AOA balance; secondary LPO activation. Most early and highly amplitude decreasing of LPO were fixed in mitochondria. The rate of response have been increased on multicellular level of plants organization.

  7. [Comparative determination of the potential for activating lipid peroxidation of the adrenal cortex, liver and heart in various animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, N A; Antsulevich, S N; Vinogradov, V V

    1989-01-01

    Studies have been made on the rate of spontaneous, ascorbate- and NADP.H-dependent lipid peroxidation in the adrenal cortex, liver heart of rats, rabbits and cattle. It was shown that in spite of some species differences in predisposition of tissues to lipid peroxidation. The highest rate of this process is characteristic of the liver of all the animals investigated.

  8. Acute toxicity, lipid peroxidation and ameliorative properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OKEY

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... The lethal toxicity and lipid peroxidation studies of Alstonia boonei on alloxan induced diabetic rats were analysed. ... carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism (Sky, 2000;. Rother ..... as safe (GRAS) (Lorke, 1984). However ...

  9. Involvement of lipid peroxidation and organic peroxides in UVA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polte, Tobias; Tyrrell, Rex M

    2004-06-15

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation causes human skin aging and skin cancer at least partially through the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMP-1, the interstitial collagenase, is responsible for the degradation of collagen and is involved in tumor progression in human skin. The present study uses human skin fibroblast cells (FEK4) to investigate the involvement of lipid peroxidation and the role of peroxides as possible mediators in MMP-1 activation by UVA. Preincubation with the antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene and Trolox reduced UVA-dependent MMP-1 upregulation, suggesting that peroxidation of membrane lipids is involved. Blocking the iron-driven generation of lipid peroxides and hydroxyl radicals by different iron chelators led to a decrease in UVA-induced MMP-1 mRNA accumulation. Moreover, modulation of glutathione peroxidase activity by use of the specific inhibitor mercaptosuccinate (MS) or by the depletion of glutathione (using buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine, BSO), enhanced the UVA-dependent MMP-1 response. Finally, UVA irradiation generated a significant increase in intracellular peroxide levels which is augmented by pretreatment of the cells with BSO or MS. Our results demonstrate that lipid peroxidation and the production of peroxides are important events in the signalling pathway of MMP-1 activation by UVA.

  10. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in male infertility.

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    Dandekar S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Mammalian spermatozoa are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and are very susceptible to attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS and membrane lipid peroxide ion. Normally a balance is maintained between the amount of ROS produced and that scavenged. Cellular damage arises when this equilibrium is disturbed. A shift in the levels of ROS towards pro-oxidants in semen and vaginal secretions can induce an oxidative stress on spermatozoa. The aim was to study lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD and to correlate the same, with the ′water test′, in male infertility. SETTINGS: Experimental study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ejaculates from a total of 83 infertile and fertile healthy individuals were obtained. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels were studied and correlated with water test. RESULTS: The results indicate that (i the antioxidant enzyme catalase showed no significant changes in the various pathological samples, (ii antioxidant enzymes SOD and glutathione peroxidase correlate positively with asthenozoospermic samples and (iii the degree of lipid peroxidation also correlates positively with the poorly swollen sperm tails. The increase in SOD and glutathione peroxidase values, in the pathological cases represents an attempt made to overcome the reactive oxygen species. CONCLUSION: Water test could be used as a preliminary marker test for sperm tail damage by reactive oxygen species, since it correlates very well with lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis and sperm lipid peroxidation in infertile men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Segnini; M.I.Camejo; F.Proverbio

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To relate thepresence of anti-Chlamydial trachomatis IgA in semen with sperm lipid membrane peroxidation and changes in seminal parameters.Methods:Semen samples of the male partners of 52 couples assessed for undiagnosed infertility were examined for the presence of IgA antibody against C.trachomatis.The level of sperm membrane lipid peroxidation was estimated by determining the malondialdehyde(MDA) formation.Results:Sperm membrane of infertile males with positive IgA antibodies against C.trachomatis showed a higher level of lipid peroxidation than that of infertile males with negative IgA antibody(P<0.05).There was a positive correlation(P<0.01) between the level of C.trachomatis antibody and the magnitude of sperm membrane lipid peroxidation.All the other tested semen parameters were found to be similar in the two groups.Conclusion:The activation of immune system by C.trachomatis may promote lipid peroxidation of the sperm membrane.This could be the way by which C.trachomatis affects fertility.

  12. Nitric oxide consumption through lipid peroxidation in brain cell suspensions and homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynes, Robert G; Griffiths, Charmaine H; Hall, Catherine; Garthwaite, John

    2005-05-01

    Mechanisms which inactivate NO (nitric oxide) are probably important in governing the physiological and pathological effects of this ubiquitous signalling molecule. Cells isolated from the cerebellum, a brain region rich in the NO signalling pathway, consume NO avidly. This property was preserved in brain homogenates and required both particulate and supernatant fractions. A purified fraction of the particulate component was rich in phospholipids, and NO consumption was inhibited by procedures that inhibited lipid peroxidation, namely a transition metal chelator, the vitamin E analogue Trolox and ascorbate oxidase. The requirement for the supernatant was accounted for by its content of ascorbate which catalyses metal-dependent lipid peroxidation. The NO-degrading activity of the homogenate was mimicked by a representative mixture of brain lipids together with ascorbate and, under these conditions, the lipids underwent peroxidation. In a suspension of cerebellar cells, there was a continuous low level of lipid peroxidation, and consumption of NO by the cells was decreased by approx. 50% by lipid-peroxidation inhibitors. Lipid peroxidation was also abolished when NO was supplied at a continuously low rate (approximately 100 nM/min), which explains why NO consumption by this process is saturable. Part of the activity remaining after the inhibition of lipid peroxidation was accounted for by contaminating red blood cells, but there was also another component whose activity was greatly enhanced when the cells were maintained under air-equilibrated conditions. A similar NO-consuming process was present in cerebellar glial cells grown in tissue culture but not in blood platelets or leucocytes, suggesting a specialized mechanism.

  13. Exposure to oxidized nitrogen: lipid peroxidation and neonatal health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacova, S; Baird, D D; Balabaeva, L

    1998-01-01

    Pregnant women exposed to extensive environmental contamination by oxidized nitrogen compounds were studied at parturition, their neonatal health status was assessed and the involvement of oxidative stress in pathology was evaluated. Methemoglobin in maternal and cord blood was measured as a biomarker of individual exposure. Blood lipid peroxides and glutathione (reduced and total) were determined as oxidative stress biomarkers. Birthweight, Apgar scores, and clinical diagnosis at birth were used as neonatal health endpoints. Elevated exposure to oxidized nitrogen compounds was associated with increased lipid peroxidation in both maternal and cord blood. Poor birth outcome was associated with high blood lipid peroxides. Controlling for maternal age, parity, and smoking did not affect the relationships materially. The results showed that maternal/fetal exposure to oxidized nitrogen compounds is associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcome and suggest a role of oxidative damage in the pathogenic pathway.

  14. Cumene peroxide and Fe(2+)-ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation and effect of phosphoglucose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanyan, Z S; Dugin, S F; Dmitriev, L F

    2006-09-01

    Malondialdehyde (MDA) is one of cytotoxic aldehydes produced in cells as a result of lipid peroxidation and further MDA metabolism in cytoplasm is not known. In our experiments the liver fraction 10,000 g containing phosphoglucose isomerase and enzymes of the glyoxalase system was used and obtained experimental data shows that in this fraction there is an aggregate of reactions taking place both in membranes (lipid peroxidation) and outside membranes. MDA accumulation is relatively slow because MDA is a substrate of aldehyde isomerase (MDA methylglyoxal). The well known enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase acts as an aldehyde isomerase (Michaelis constant for this enzyme Km = 133 +/- 8 microM). MDA conversion to methylglyoxal and further to neutral product D-lactate (with GSH as a cofactor) occurs in cytoplasm and D-lactate should be regarded as the end product of two different parametabolic reactions: lipid peroxidation or protein glycation.

  15. LIPID PEROXIDATION AND JOB STRESS IN DENTAL HEALTHCARE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Melnikova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study devoted to the lipid peroxidation indices in dentists target group as a marker of psycho-emotional state. We revealed increase in the level of TBA-active products in female and male dentists during job stress. There was strong decrease in level of TBA-active products in control group of dentist that study during the lectures. Activation of lipid peroxidation in dentists during dentist examination can be considered as non-specific component of reactions towards the stressors of professional activities. We also revealed that the initial level of TBA-active products in female and male dentists before the outpatient dental reception was higher than that of dentists that study before lectures. This is indicates the mobilization of sympathetic nervous system before beginning of the working day. The contents of the level of TBA-active products in the oral fluid of female and male dentists after dental examination significantly increased, whereas these indices decreased in the group of dentists that study after the lectures. The increasing of TBA-active products in dentists after outpatient dental reception was by 42.5 % and 77 % higher compared with a group of dentists that study in the lecture classes. The results of correlation analysis suggest the influence of lipid peroxidation processes on the cardiovascular and blood system of dentists during job stress. Activation of lipid peroxidation in dentists during dental examination can be considered as non-specific component of the body's response to stressors influence in professional activities. Key words: dentists, activation of lipid peroxidation, psychoemotional stress, job stress.

  16. Study of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Background: The oxidative stress and inflammation are cooperative events involved in atherosclerosis ... reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipid status parameters in the patients with coronary artery .... Data were analyzed with t-test and expressed as mean ± SD. ... biomolecules including; lipids, proteins and DNA. Antioxidative ...

  17. Role of dyslipidaemia and lipid peroxidation in pregnancy induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH contributes greatly to maternal morbidity and mortality. Altered lipid profile and increased lipid peroxidation activate endothelial dysfunction and atherothrombosis leading to PIH. Therefore, estimation of lipid profile with serum malondialdehyde (MDA in pregnancy may be helpful in predicting the development of PIH and further progression. Material and methods: In this prospective case-control study, serum lipid profile and MDA were estimated in 70 PIH subjects with gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia; and 70 normotensive pregnant women aged 18 - 40 years, with gestational age of over 20 weeks. Results: A statistically significant higher serum total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides (TG, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and MDA, and a significantly lower HDL-C was noted in PIH subjects as compared to control subjects. When compared with the severity of PIH, all the lipoproteins (except HDL-C along with MDA were found to be higher in women with eclampsia when compared with gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia and normotensive pregnant women. Conclusions: An abnormal lipid metabolism along with oxidative stress may add to the promotion of vascular dysfunction leading to PIH. Lipoproteins and MDA alter significantly in eclampsia. Therefore, during pregnancy, early diagnosis and management of dyslipidaemia may prevent lipid peroxidation and progression of PIH thereby preventing obstetric complications.

  18. Blood antioxidant status and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation following distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, G G; Robertson, J D; Maughan, R J; Morrice, P C

    1990-10-01

    The relationship between prolonged exercise, oxidative stress, and the protective capacity of the antioxidant defense system has been determined. Venous blood samples were removed from seven trained athletes before and up to 120 h after completion of a half-marathon for measurements of blood antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes, and indices of lipid peroxidation. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, an index of muscle damage, increased (P less than 0.05) to a maximum 24 h after the race but this was not accompanied by changes in conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which are indices of lipid peroxidation. An increase (P less than 0.05) in plasma cholesterol concentration (4%) immediately after the race was similar to the change in plasma volume (6%). However, transient increases (P less than 0.05) immediately postrace in the plasma concentrations of uric acid (24%), vitamin A (18%), and vitamin C (34%) were only partly accounted for by the fluid shifts. The immediate postrace increases in alpha- and gamma-tocopherol did not attain statistical significance. Erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities were unaffected by the exercise but the alpha- and gamma-tocopherol concentrations progressively increased (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05, respectively) up to 48 h postrace. Paradoxically, 24 h after the race erythrocyte susceptibility to in vitro peroxidation was markedly elevated (P less than 0.01). This enhanced susceptibility to peroxidation was maintained even at 120 h postrace and did not correspond to changes in the age of the red cell population. A decrease (P less than 0.001) in total erythrocyte glutathione immediately after the half-marathon was mainly due to a reduction in the reduced form (GSH). The results show that when trained athletes run a comparatively short distance sufficient to result in some degree of muscle damage but which is insufficient to cause elevations in plasma indices of lipid peroxidation

  19. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANTS AND LIPID PEROXIDATION STATUS AMONG STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandh T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to estimate the changes in the plasma levels of lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA, non-enzymatic antioxidants: vitamin C and E and enzymatic antioxidant: superoxide dismutase (SOD. The population used were healthy students (100 male, 100 female; mean age 22.4 years, range 18- 25 years. The level of lipid peroxidation was found to be significantly increased among the students which were inversely related to the level of antioxidants (p<0.05. Increased antioxidant levels show a multiple link between fruit and vegetable intake among the study group. Diminished antioxidant status disturbed oxidant-antioxidant balance alleviating oxidative stress state in less fruit and vegetable intake group. Therefore, the alterations in the level of antioxidants in blood plasma could be used as biomarkers for nutritional tribulations.

  20. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium nuts on lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Y B; Singh, A V

    2001-08-01

    Alcoholic extract of pericarp showed significant protection against FeSO4 induced lipid peroxidation, as compared with whole native nut and seeds. Mechanism of action may be through metal chelation or activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, because the extract did not show hydroxyl and super oxide anion scavenging property. Further in vitro experiments against FeSO4, it did not maintain the level of reduced glutathione.

  1. Systemic complement activation, lung injury, and products of lipid peroxidation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, P. A.; Till, G O; Hatherill, J. R.; Annesley, T M; Kunkel, R G

    1985-01-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that systemic activation of the complement system after intravenous injection of cobra venom factor (CVF) results in acute lung injury as reflected by increases in the vascular permeability of the lung as well as by morphologic evidence of damage to lung vascular endothelial cells. In using the vascular permeability of the lung as the reference, the current studies show a quantitative correlation between lung injury and the appearance in plasma of lipid peroxid...

  2. Effect of intensive laser irradiation on lipid peroxidation in retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyakhnovich, G.V.; Guseynov, T.M.; Zheltov, G.I.; Glazkov, V.N.; Naumovich, A.S.; Koney, S.V.; Volotovskiy, I.D.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of intensive laser irradiation on the kinetics of lipid peroxidation in the retina in in vivo and in vitro conditions and also considered the possible influence on these processes of vitamin E and selenium, which have endogenous antioxidants and play an active part in the regulation of the oxidizing processes in membranes was considered. Tests in vitro were conducted on preparations of bovine eyes; in vivo studies were conducted on Chinchilla rabbits.

  3. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in avian semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Agnieszka; Lukaszewicz, Ewa; Niżański, Wojciech

    2012-10-01

    The present study compared the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in semen of two avian species: chicken and goose. The experiment was conducted on Greenleg Partridge roosters and White Koluda(®) ganders, each represented by 10 mature males. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in sperm cells and seminal plasma. In gander spermatozoa, the amount of MDA was 10 times greater (Pantioxidant enzymes had greater (Pactivity in goose than chicken sperm. Catalase activity was detected in seminal plasma and spermatozoa from both studied species for the first time. In seminal plasma, the activity of GPx was two times greater (Pactivity was less (Pactivity of antioxidant defense and LPO. The greater amount of lipid peroxidation and greater activity of antioxidant enzymes in goose semen might suggest that spermatozoa were under greater oxidative stress and the enzymes were not utilized for the protection of functionally and structurally impaired cells. In turn, in fresh chicken semen a lesser activity of antioxidant enzymes accompanied with a lesser lipid peroxidation amount and good semen quality could indicate that fowl spermatozoa were under oxidative stress, but the enzymes were employed to protect and maintain sperm quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Levels of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, Orla

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the presence of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia. METHODS: Using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry, we assessed levels of DNA damage (8-oxo-dG) and lipid peroxidation (4-HNE) in 71 follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), 45 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and 17 follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and matched normal thyroid tissue. RESULTS: Cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG and 4-HNE expression was significantly higher in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal tissue (all p values < .001). Similarly, elevated nuclear levels of 8-oxo-dG were seen in all in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal (p values < .07, < .001, < .001, respectively). In contrast, a higher level of 4-HNE expression was detected in normal thyroid tissue compared with matched tumor tissue (p < .001 for all groups). Comparing all 3 groups, 4-HNE levels were higher than 8-oxo-dG levels (p < .001 for all groups) except that cytoplasmic levels of 8-oxo-dG were higher than 4-HNE in all (p < .001). These results were independent of proliferation status. CONCLUSION: High levels of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia indicates this damage is an early event that may influence disease progression.

  5. Increased lipid peroxidation and neuron specific enolase in treatment refractory schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Hernández, V; Ramos-Loyo, J; Luquin, S; Sánchez, L F Cerdán; García-Estrada, J; Navarro-Ruiz, A

    2007-10-01

    It is well-known that increased lipid peroxidation and failure of antioxidant mechanisms leads to neuronal damage in schizophrenic patients. However, this neurodegenerative mechanism has not been studied in treatment refractory schizophrenics (TRS). Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine neuronal damage in TRS in comparison to non-refractory schizophrenics (NRS) by means of quantitative analysis of lipid peroxidation and neuron specific enolase (NSE) related to the psychopathology severity. Two groups of paranoid schizophrenics, TRS and NRS, and a group of healthy controls (CO) were assembled (n=13). Lipid peroxidation was analyzed through spectrophotometry for quantification of malonaldehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) serum concentrations. As well, serum NSE was quantified by radioimmunoassay (ELSA). Psychopathology was evaluated using the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and the positive and negative symptoms scale (PANSS). TRS showed significant higher concentrations of lipoperoxides by-products and NSE, than NRS and CO. Clinical scores also revealed a more severe pathology in TRS, than in NRS. Raised lipoperoxidation correlated with higher delusions and emotional withdrawal symptoms, and increased NSE correlated with a lower flow of the conversation and lack of spontaneity. All these results together suggest that TRS patients suffer a greater lipid peroxidation and neuronal damage than NRS, apparently related to worsening of some of the psychiatric symptoms.

  6. Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation by cumene hydroperoxide and its prevention by succinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindoli, A; Cavallini, L; Jocelyn, P

    1982-09-15

    Rat liver mitochondria form lipid hydroperoxides when they are incubated aerobically with cumene hydroperoxide. The rate of reaction is dependent on the initial concentration of the latter and involves the consumption of oxygen. Gradient-separated and cytochrome c-depleted mitochondria, mitoplasts and submitochondrial fractions also undergo this peroxidation. Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation by cumene hydroperoxide is strongly inhibited by SKF52A (an inhibitor of cytochrome P-450), by antioxidants and to a lesser extent by the enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. Conversely, rotenone and N-ethylmaleimide stimulate the reaction. Succinate protects against the lipid peroxidation and in some mitochondrial fractions the associated oxygen uptake is also inhibited. This protection by succinate is prevented by malonate but not by N-ethylmaleimide or antimycin. Lipid hydroperoxides present in previously peroxidised mitochondria are partly lost on reincubation with succinate and this reaction is also unaffected by N-ethylmaleimide but inhibited by both malonate and antimycin. The results suggest that reduction of mitochondrial ubiquinone may prevent the generation of lipid hydroperoxides but that their subsequent removal may require reduction at or beyond cytochrome b.

  7. Lycopene control of benzophenone-sensitized lipid peroxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Dragan; Marković, Dejan

    2012-05-01

    Lycopene antioxidant activity in the presence of two different mixtures of phospholipids in hexane solution, under continuous regime of UV-irradiation from three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C) has been evaluated in this work. Lycopene expected role was to control lipid peroxidation, by scavenging free radicals generated by UV-irradiation, in the presence and in the absence of selected photosensitizer, benzophenone. This work shows that lycopene undergoes to UV-induced destruction (bleaching), highly dependent on the incident photons energy input, more expressed in the presence than in the absence of benzophenone. The further increase ("excess") of its bleaching is undoubtedly related to the further increase of its antioxidant activity in the presence of benzophenone, having the same cause: increase of (phospholipids peroxidation) chain-breaking activities.

  8. Lipid Peroxidation and lipid Profile in Hypertensive Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of cardiovascular disease amounting to 30% of global death rate. In the current work, ... is estimated that 20% of the adult population have hypertension (Khosh and Khosh ..... Oxidative processes and. Antioxidant Defence Mechanism in Aging.

  9. Methods to create thermally oxidized lipids and comparison of analytical procedures to characterize peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Kerr, B J; Chen, C; Weber, T E; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate peroxidation in 4 lipids, each with 3 levels of peroxidation. Lipid sources were corn oil (CN), canola oil (CA), poultry fat, and tallow. Peroxidation levels were original lipids (OL), slow-oxidized lipids (SO), and rapid-oxidized lipids (RO). To produce peroxidized lipids, OL were either heated at 95°C for 72 h to produce SO or heated at 185°C for 7 h to produce RO. Five indicative measurements (peroxide value [PV], p-anisidine value [AnV], thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS] concentration, hexanal concentration, 4-hydroxynonenal [HNE] concentration, and 2,4-decadienal [DDE]) and 2 predictive tests (active oxygen method [AOM] stability and oxidative stability index [OSI]) were performed to quantify the level of oxidation of the subsequent 12 lipids with varying levels of peroxidation. Analysis showed that a high PV accurately indicated the high level of lipid peroxidation, but a moderate or low PV may be misleading due to the unstable characteristics of hydroperoxides as indicated by the unchanged PV of rapidly oxidized CN and CA compared to their original state (OL). However, additional tests, which measure secondary peroxidation products such as AnV, TBARS, hexanal, HNE, and DDE, may provide a better indication of lipid peroxidation than PV for lipids subjected to a high level of peroxidation. Similar to PV analysis, these tests may also not provide irrefutable information regarding the extent of peroxidation because of the volatile characteristics of secondary peroxidation products and the changing stage of lipid peroxidation. For the predictive tests, AOM accurately reflected the increased lipid peroxidation caused by SO and RO as indicated by the increased AOM value in CN and CA but not in poultry fat and tallow, which indicated a potential disadvantage of the AOM test. Oxidative stability index successfully showed the increased lipid peroxidation caused by SO and RO in all lipids, but it too may

  10. 4-Hydroxy-nonenal—A Bioactive Lipid Peroxidation Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf J. Schaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review on recent research advances of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-nonenal (HNE has four major topics: I. the formation of HNE in various organs and tissues, II. the diverse biochemical reactions with Michael adduct formation as the most prominent one, III. the endogenous targets of HNE, primarily peptides and proteins (here the mechanisms of covalent adduct formation are described and the (patho- physiological consequences discussed, and IV. the metabolism of HNE leading to a great number of degradation products, some of which are excreted in urine and may serve as non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  11. Melatonin Supplementation Decreases Aerobic Exercise Training Induced-Lipid Peroxidation and Malondialdehyde in Sedentary Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaadini Fatemeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Five percent of consumed oxygen produces a number of reactive oxygen species (ROS including free radicals and other chemical products such as malondialdehyde (MDA. MDA increases lipid peroxidation such as low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-c. Melatonin can decrease MDA and lipid peroxidation, but there are limited data about melatonin supplementation on MDA and lipid peroxidation of women. So the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of melatonin supplementation on exercise-induced MDA and lipid peroxidation of sedentary young women. Twenty sedentary young (20–25 years old women were selected and randomly divided into two exercise training-supplement (n=10 and exercise training (n=10 groups. Pretest/posttest body mass, BMI, rest heart rate (RHR, body fat percent, menstrual cycle, blood sampling for MDA and lipid profile were collected. Aerobic exercise training was performed for 8 weeks, triple weekly. Melatonin supplementation was ingested at 3 mg/day for exercise training-supplement. Results showed that the long term exercise training increased MDA concentrations, and melatonin supplementation significantly suppressed MDA surge (−25.2±2.87; 95% CI=−30.91 to −19.49. Moreover, post-exercise training LDL-c levels significantly declined due to melatonin supplementation in sedentary young women (19.5±2.41; 95% CI=12.272 to 25.728. We concluded that 3 mg melatonin supplementation following aerobic exercise training would attenuate ROS and improve lipid profile of young sedentary women.

  12. [Influence of ethanol and ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation on the steroidogenic activity of testicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashko, M F; Khokha, A M; Antsulevich, S N; Doroshkevich, N A; Voronov, P P

    1993-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intoxication results in the diminished testosterone level and activation of lipid peroxidation in rat testes. A significant decrease in 3 beta-hydroxysteroid-hydrogenase and 17-dehydrogenase activity has been observed in microsomes. Analogous shifts have been evoked in vitro by the induction of lipid peroxidation in microsomes. That permitted one to suppose that alcohol-induced alterations in tests are partially mediated by induction of lipid peroxidation.

  13. Antioxidant action of Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick) against antitubercular drugs induced lipid peroxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, N; Pari, L

    2003-01-01

    The protective effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) on hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidants was investigated during antitubercular drug (isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide)-induced toxicity in rats. Enhanced hepatic marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation of antitubercular drug treatment was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of vitamin C, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase. Administration of Moringa oleifera extract and silymarin significantly decreased hepatic marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation with a simultaneous increase in the level of antioxidants. We speculate that Moringa oleifera extract exerts its protective effects by decreasing liver lipid peroxides and enhancing antioxidants.

  14. INTERACTION OF ALDEHYDES DERIVED FROM LIPID PEROXIDATION AND MEMBRANE PROTEINS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania ePizzimenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A great variety of compounds are formed during lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids of membrane phospholipids. Among them, bioactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxyalkenals, malondialdehyde (MDA and acrolein, have received particular attention since they have been considered as toxic messengers that can propagate and amplify oxidative injury. In the 4-hydroxyalkenal class, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE is the most intensively studied aldehyde, in relation not only to its toxic function, but also to its physiological role. Indeed, HNE can be found at low concentrations in human tissues and plasma and participates in the control of biological processes, such as signal transduction, cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, at low doses, HNE exerts an anti-cancer effect, by inhibiting cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and by inducing differentiation and/or apoptosis in various tumor cell lines. It is very likely that a substantial fraction of the effects observed in cellular responses, induced by HNE and related aldehydes, be mediated by their interaction with proteins, resulting in the formation of covalent adducts or in the modulation of their expression and/or activity. In this review we focus on membrane proteins affected by lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, under physiological and pathological conditions.

  15. Increasing the rate of drying reduces metabolic imbalance, lipid peroxidation and critical water content in radicles of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, Tobias M; Pammenter, Norman W; Berjak, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Orthodox seeds become desiccation-sensitive as they undergo germination. As a result, germinating seeds serve as a model to study desiccation sensitivity in plant tissues. The effects of the rate of drying on the viability, respiratory metabolism and free radical processes were thus studied during dehydration and wet storage of radicles of Pisum sativum. For both drying regimes desiccation could be described by exponential and inverse modified functions. Viability, as assessed by germination capacity and tetrazolium staining, remained at 100% during rapid (water content for survival. Rapid desiccation was also associated with higher activities and levels of malate dehydrogenase and the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. It was also accompanied by lower hydroperoxide levels and membrane damage. In addition, the activitiy of glutathione reductase was greater during rapid drying. Ageing may have contributed to increased damage during slow dehydration, since viability declined even in wet storage after two weeks. The results presented are consistent with rapid desiccation reducing the accumulation of damage resulting from desiccation-induced aqueous-based deleterious reactions. In addition, they show that radicles are a useful model to study desiccation sensitivity in plant tissues.

  16. [Effect of phytic acid and its derivatives on blood lipid peroxidation state in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martusevich, A K; Sidorova, M V; Mel'nikova, N B; Solov'eva, A G; Peretiagin, S P

    2014-01-01

    We have studied specific features of lipid peroxidation in whole human blood under the action of aqueous solutions of xymedone (19.6 microM), phytic acid (117.9 microM) and its complex (237.6 microM) synthesized in distilled water and isotonic (0.9%) solution of sodium chloride. The estimated parameters included lipid peroxidation (LPO) rate, total antioxidant potential, superoxide dismutase (SOD) level, and malonic dialdehyde (MDA) level in blood plasma and erythrocytes. It was established that the effect of phytic acid on blood samples includes moderate stimulation of total antioxidant activity and SOD activity with predominant prooxidant effect. The phytic acid--xymedone complex synthesized in distilled water exhibits an antioxidant action, while its synthesis in saline solution yields a prooxidant.

  17. The lipid peroxidation intensity of fungi strains from the orders Agaricales and Polyporales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Fedotov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to investigation of the dynamics of growth and level of spontaneous and induced lipid peroxidation intensity of Basidiomycetes strains grown by surface cultivation on a glucose-peptone medium. The materials of the research are mycelium and culture filtrates (CF of 57 strains (5 belong to 5 species from the order Polyporales s.l., and 52 belong to 7 species of the order Agaricales s.l.. To study the dynamics of growth we used a weighing method for determining the accumulation of absolutely dry biomass. Intensity of lipid peroxidation was determined by a modified spectrophotometric method for content of active to thiobarbituric acid products. It was found that the most productive in absolutely dry biomass accumulation were the strains Flammulina velutipes (Curt.: Fr. Sing. F-610 and Pleurotus eryngii (DC.: Fr. Quél. P-er. The level of spontaneous and induced LPO intensity in mycelia of all strains was higher than this figure in the culture filtrate and increased with the duration of cultivation. Dependencies between the content of lipid peroxidation products in the mycelia and CF were not established. The lowest values were recorded for biomass accumulation by the strains Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr. P. Kumm. P-14, P-192 and P. citrinopileatus Singer. Р-сіtr. Groups of basidiomycete cultures with different levels of TBA-AP were identified. Spontaneous and induced intensivity of lipid peroxidation in all studied strains of mycelia was higher than the figure in the culture filtrate. The intensity of lipid peroxidation in both mycelia and culture filtrate constantly increased, which can be explained by the growing shortage of certain nutrients (primarily carbon and increased concentration of metabolic products in the medium. The ratio of spontaneous and induced lipid peroxidation intensity is specific to each strain and is independent of its systematic position. Shifting of prooxidant-antioxidant balance to a

  18. Ionizing radiation and lipid peroxidation in human body; Radiazioni ionizzanti e perossidazione lipidica nell`organismo umano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Roma (Italy)

    1997-07-01

    Lipids are organic compounds constituting the living cells. Lipid molecules can be disassembled through peroxidative pathways and hydrocarbons can be bred as end-product of lipid peroxidation in vivo. Lipid peroxidation can be started by an indirect effect of ionizing radiation. So a radioinduced cellular damage in human body can be detected by monitoring the production of specific hydrocarbons.

  19. The effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Mahjoub

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in the world. Thalassemic erythrocytes are exposed to higher oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-carotene and vitamin E on erythrocytes lipid peroxidation in beta-thalassemia patients.
    METHODS: A prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of beta-carotene and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes was performed on 120 beta-thalassemia major patients in four groups. The patients were supplemented for 4 weeks as follows: group 1 with beta-carotene (13 mg/day, group 2 with vitamin E (550 mg/day, group 3 with beta-carotene plus vitamin E and group 4 with placebo. We prepared all capsules for 4 roups in the same shape and color. Measurements of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were performed by high performance
    liquid chromatography. After preparation of ghost cells from blood specimens, malondialdehyde (MDA was determined as index of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes membranes before and after treatment. RESULTS: The levels of serum beta-carotene and vitamin E were significantly lower and MDA concentrations in erythrocytes membranes were significantly higher in beta-thalassemia patients compared to controls (P<0.001. In groups that treated with vitamin supplements for 4-weeks, lipid peroxidation rates were significantly reduced after treatment (P<0.001, but in placebo group there was not significant difference (P>0.05.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that an oral treatment with beta-carotene and vitamin E can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes membranes and could be useful in management of beta-thalassemia major patients. KEYWORDS: Beta-thalassemia major, beta-carotene, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, lipid peroxidation.

  20. Lipid peroxidation of rabbit small intestinal microvillus membrane vesicles by iron complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, I; Marx, J J

    1988-07-01

    Fe(II)- and Fe(III)-induced lipid peroxidation of rabbit small intestinal microvillus membrane vesicles was studied. Ferrous ammonium sulphate, ferrous ascorbate at a molar ratio of 10:1, and ferric citrate, at molar ratios of 1:1 and 1:20, did not stimulate lipid peroxidation. Ferrous ascorbate, 1:1, induced low stimulation, while ferrous ascorbate, 1:20 gave higher stimulation of lipid peroxidation. These results show that in our experimental system, ascorbate is a promotor rather than an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation. Ferric nitrilotriacetate (at molar ratios of 1:2 and 1:10), at an iron concentration of 200 microM, was by far the most effective in inducing lipid peroxidation. Superoxide dismutase, mannitol and glutathione had no effect, while catalase, thiourea and vitamin E markedly decreased ferrous ascorbate 1:20-induced lipid peroxidation. Ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced lipid peroxidation was slightly reduced by catalase and mannitol, significantly reduced by superoxide dismutase, and completely inhibited by thiourea. Glutathione caused a 100% increase in the ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that Fe(II) in the presence of trace amounts of Fe(III), or an oxidizing agent and Fe(III) in the presence of Fe(II) or a reducing agent, are potent stimulators of lipid peroxidation of microvillus membrane vesicles. Addition of deferoxamine completely inhibited both ferrous ascorbate, 1:20 and ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced lipid peroxidation, demonstrating the requirement for iron for its stimulation. Iron-induced peroxidation of microvillus membrane may have physiological significance because it could already be demonstrated at 2 microM iron concentration.

  1. Effects of Ferulago angulata Extract on Serum Lipids and Lipid Peroxidation

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    Mahmoud Rafieian-kopaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nowadays, herbs they are considered to be the main source of effective drugs for lowering serum lipids and lipid peroxidation. The present experimental animal study aimed to assess the impact of Ferulago angulata on serum lipid profiles, and on levels of lipid peroxidation. Methods. Fifty male Wistar rats, weighing 250–300 g, were randomly divided into five equal groups (ten rats in each. The rat groups received different diets as follows: Group I: fat-rich diet; Group II: fat-rich diet plus hydroalcoholic extracts of Ferulago angulata at a dose of 400 mg/kg; Group III: fat-rich diet plus hydroalcoholic extracts of Ferulago angulata at a dose of 600 mg/kg; Group IV: fat-rich diet plus atorvastatin; Group V: common stock diet. The levels of serum glucose and lipids and the atherogenic index were measured. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA, thiol oxidation, carbonyl concentrations, C-reactive proteins, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in each group of rats. Results. Interestingly, by adding a hydroalcoholic extract of Ferulago angulata to the high-fat diet, the levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDL in the high-fat diet rats were both significantly reduced. This result was considerably greater compared to when atorvastatin was added as an antilipid drug. The beneficial effects of the Ferulago angulata extract on lowering the level of triglycerides was observed only when a high dosage of this plant extraction was added to a high fat diet. Furthermore, the level of malondialdehyde, was significantly affected by the use of the plant extract in a high-fat diet, compared with a normal regimen or high-fat diet alone. Conclusion. Administration of a hydroalcoholic extract of Ferulago angulata can reduce serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. It can also inhibit lipid peroxidation.

  2. [Intensity of lipid peroxidation in the kidneys in nephrotoxic acute renal failure (experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, V S; Zhiznevskaia, N G; Koltygina, T I; Gapanovich, V M; Makarenko, E V

    2000-01-01

    Mercury chloride was injected cubcutaneously in rats to induce nephrotoxic acute renal failure (ARF). Renal dysfunction in ARF occurs under intensification of lipid peroxidation in the kidneys. Pretreatment with antioxidant ionol diminishes lipid peroxidation intensity in the kidneys in ARF and restricts the severity of renal dysfunction.

  3. Lipid Peroxides and α-Tocopherol in Rat Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus

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    Higuchi,Yoshimi

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of lipid peroxides and alpha-tocopherol was undertaken in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In sera and livers in diabetic rats, the lipid peroxides increased but alpha-tocopherol decreased. To study the effect of vitamin E deficiency in the diabetic state, diabetes was induced in rats maintained on a vitamin E deficient diet. Serum lipid peroxides increased greatly but alpha-tocopherol decreased. Lipid peroxides and alpha-tocopherol increased in the liver of vitamin E deficient states. In the liver, vitamin E deficient diabetic rats had lower lipid peroxides levels but higher alpha-tocopherol levels than vitamin E deficient non-diabetic rats. On the basis of the present experiments, it was considered that the decrease of alpha-tocopherol might be due to consumption as an antioxidant as lipid peroxides increased in sera and livers. The decrease of lipid peroxides in the liver was thought to play an important part of the increase in serum lipid peroxides.

  4. Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation as biomarker compounds for potato tuber stored by gamma radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Amina A Aly; Abeer E El-Ansary

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the capability of gamma irradiation for inhibiting sprouting of potato tubers.Methods:S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), in addition to lipid peroxidation level were tested in potato tubers stored for 3, 6 and 9 weeks. Gamma irradiation with five treatments (0, 30, 50, 100 and 200 Gy) was used to control germination process of potato tubers. Results: Gamma radiation was able to maintain potato tuber for 6 weeks. The main biomarkers for validity of potato tuber during storage were studying antioxidant enzyme activitiesi.e. The enzymes activities i.e. peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), glutathione-POD, PPO, GST, SOD, CAT enzyme activities as well as lipid peroxidation during storage time. Conclusions: The optimum dose was 50 Gy which prevented the sprouting initiation all over the storage period without casting undesirable rotting for potato tubers. At this dose all antioxidant enzyme activities i.e. POD, PPO, GST, SOD, CAT enzyme activities as well as lipid peroxidation level during storage time recorded the best rates.

  5. Drought stress induced changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Harish C; Baig, M J; Chandra, A; Bhatt, R K

    2010-07-01

    Seven species of genus Avena viz., Avena sativa, Avena strigosa, Avena brevis, Avena vaviloviana, Avena abyssinica, Avena marocana and Avena sterilis were used to study the impact of drought stress on lipid peroxidation and other antioxidant enzymes. Maximum increase in the catalase activity was recorded in A. vaviloviana (129.97%) followed by A. sativa (122.82%) and A. brevis (83.38%) at vegetative stage; however at flowering stage the maximum increase was reported in A. sativa (25.62%) followed by A. sterilis (20.46%) and A. brevis (18.53%). At vegetative stage drought, maximum increase in peroxidase activity was recorded in A. sativa (122.82%) followed by A. brevis (83.38%) and A. sterilis (49.78%). Flowering stage drought, showed maximum increase in A. Sativa (27.09%) followed by A. marocana (23.50%) and A. sterilis (20.46%). A. sativa and A. sterilis showed stress tolerance at both the stages by accumulating higher percentage of peroxidase followed by A. brevis at vegetative and A. marocana at flowering stage. Level of lipid peroxidation in terms of Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was increased in the leaves when plants were subjected to moisture stress. The rate of increase in lipid peroxidation occurs irrespective of stage however; maximum increase was recorded in A. strigosa at both the stages. Avena species which showed high level of MDA content, indicates more lipid peroxidation and more membrane permeability and are comparatively more susceptible for water stress than those which produce less Malondialdehyde (MDA) content at higher magnitude of water stress such species have better capability for moisture stress tolerance.

  6. Lipid peroxidation following superior mesenteric artery occlusion in rat intestine

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    P. Pasbakhsh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the level of lipid peroxidation and tissue protein after superior mesenteric artery occlusion tissue damage. The effect of melatonin as anti oxidant and free radical scavenger in prevention of tissue damage, were also evaluated. Methods: Thity six young male Wisatr-Albino rats (weight: 80-120 gr, were divided equally in 6 group with different concentrations of melatonin (10,20,30 mg/kg treatment. Group 1was control, group 2 the sham that surgical process was applied until superior mesenteric artery dissection and received vehicle solution only in equally volume by intra muscular route. Group 3 was ischemia- reperfusion (I/R, group 4 was I/R plus melatonin 10 mg/kg, group 5 I/R plus melatonin 20 mg/kg and finally group 6 I/R plus melatonin 30 mg/kg. After laparatomy, a microvascular atraumatic clip was placed across the superior mesenteric artery under general anaesthesia and itbremoved after ischemia for 30 minutes. The first dose of melatonin was applied just beforereperfusion, second dose, after reperfusion and third dose on the second day .On third day rats were killed and their bowels were removed. The level of tissue melandialdehyde (MDA as index of lipid peroxidation and tissue protein was determined. Results: The level of tissue MDA were significantly lower in group 4, 5, 6 than group 3 (p0, 05. Conclusion: These results suggest that melatonin 10 mg/kg has antioxidant effect in prevention of inducing tissue damage during SMA occlusion in rat intestine.

  7. Targeting lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial imbalance in Friedreich's ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeti, Rosella; Uzun, Ebru; Renganathan, Indhushri; Honda, Tadashi; Pook, Mark A; Giunti, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disorder, caused by reduced levels of the protein frataxin. This protein is located in the mitochondria, where it functions in the biogenesis of iron-sulphur clusters (ISCs), which are important for the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. Moreover, disruption in iron biogenesis may lead to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can be the cause and/or the consequence of mitochondrial energy imbalance, leading to cell death. Fibroblasts from two FRDA mouse models, YG8R and KIKO, were used to analyse two different categories of protective compounds: deuterised poly-unsaturated fatty acids (dPUFAs) and Nrf2-inducers. The former have been shown to protect the cell from damage induced by lipid peroxidation and the latter trigger the well-known Nrf2 antioxidant pathway. Our results show that the sensitivity to oxidative stress of YG8R and KIKO mouse fibroblasts, resulting in cell death and lipid peroxidation, can be prevented by d4-PUFA and Nrf2-inducers (SFN and TBE-31). The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) of YG8R and KIKO fibroblasts revealed a difference in their mitochondrial pathophysiology, which may be due to the different genetic basis of the two models. This suggests that variable levels of reduced frataxin may act differently on mitochondrial pathophysiology and that these two cell models could be useful in recapitulating the observed differences in the FRDA phenotype. This may reflect a different modulatory effect towards cell death that will need to be investigated further.

  8. Aldehydic lipid peroxidation products derived from linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, P; Kern, W; Reiner, J; Spiteller, G

    2001-04-30

    Lipid peroxidation (LPO) processes observed in diseases connected with inflammation involve mainly linoleic acid. Its primary LPO products, 9-hydroperoxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9-HPODE) and 13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE), decompose in multistep degradation reactions. These reactions were investigated in model studies: decomposition of either 9-HPODE or 13-HPODE by Fe(2+) catalyzed air oxidation generates (with the exception of corresponding hydroxy and oxo derivatives) identical products in often nearly equal amounts, pointing to a common intermediate. Pairs of carbonyl compounds were recognized by reacting the oxidation mixtures with pentafluorobenzylhydroxylamine. Even if a pure lipid hydroperoxide is subjected to decomposition a great variety of products is generated, since primary products suffer further transformations. Therefore pure primarily decomposition products of HPODEs were exposed to stirring in air with or without addition of iron ions. Thus we observed that primary products containing the structural element R-CH=CH-CH=CH-CH=O add water and then they are cleaved by retroaldol reactions. 2,4-Decadienal is degraded in the absence of iron ions to 2-butenal, hexanal and 5-oxodecanal. Small amounts of buten-1,4-dial were also detected. Addition of m-chloroperbenzoic acid transforms 2,4-decadienal to 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. 4,5-Epoxy-2-decenal, synthetically available by treatment of 2,4-decadienal with dimethyldioxirane, is hydrolyzed to 4,5-dihydroxy-2-decenal.

  9. Lipid Peroxidation: Production, Metabolism, and Signaling Mechanisms of Malondialdehyde and 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ayala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid peroxidation can be described generally as a process under which oxidants such as free radicals attack lipids containing carbon-carbon double bond(s, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Over the last four decades, an extensive body of literature regarding lipid peroxidation has shown its important role in cell biology and human health. Since the early 1970s, the total published research articles on the topic of lipid peroxidation was 98 (1970–1974 and has been increasing at almost 135-fold, by up to 13165 in last 4 years (2010–2013. New discoveries about the involvement in cellular physiology and pathology, as well as the control of lipid peroxidation, continue to emerge every day. Given the enormity of this field, this review focuses on biochemical concepts of lipid peroxidation, production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of two main omega-6 fatty acids lipid peroxidation products: malondialdehyde (MDA and, in particular, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, summarizing not only its physiological and protective function as signaling molecule stimulating gene expression and cell survival, but also its cytotoxic role inhibiting gene expression and promoting cell death. Finally, overviews of in vivo mammalian model systems used to study the lipid peroxidation process, and common pathological processes linked to MDA and 4-HNE are shown.

  10. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elzbieta Skrzydlewska; Stanislaw Sulkowski; Mariusz Koda; Bogdan Zalewski; Luiza Kanczuga-Koda; Mariola Sulkowska

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce carcinogenesis via DNA injury. Both enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters participate in cell protection against harmful influence of oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of final lipid peroxidation products like malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) in primary colorectal cancer. Moreover, we analysed the activity of main antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD),catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GSSRG-R) and the level of nonenzymatic antioxidants (glutathione, vitamins C and E).METHODS: Investigations were conducted in 81 primary colorectal cancers. As a control, the same amount of sample was collected from macroscopically unchanged colon regions of the most distant location to the cancer.Homogenisation of specimens provided 10% homogenates for our evaluations. Activity of antioxidant enzymes and level of glutathione were determined by spectrophotometry.HPLC revealed levels of vitamins C and E and served as a method to detect terminal products of lipid peroxidation in colorectal cancer.RESULTS: Our studies demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the level of lipid peroxidation products (MDA-Adc.muc.-2.65±0.48 nmol/g, Adc. G3-2.15±0.44 nmol/g, clinical Ⅳ stage 4.04±0.47 nmol/g, P<0.001 and 4-HNE-Adc.muc.-0.44±0.07 nmol/g, Adc. G3-0.44±0.10 nmol/g, clinical Ⅳstage 0.52±0.11 nmol/g, P<0.001) as well as increase of Cu,Zn-SOD (Adc.muc.-363±72 U/g, Adc. G3-318±48 U/g,clinical Ⅳ stage 421±58 U/g, P<0.001), GSH-Px (Adc.muc.-2143±623 U/g, Adc. G3-2005±591 U/g, clinical Ⅳ stage 2467±368 U/g, P<0.001) and GSSG-R (Adc. muc.-880±194 U/g,Adc. G3-795±228 U/g, dinical Ⅳ stage 951±243 U/g, P<0.001)in primary tumour comparison with normal colon (MDA1.39±0.15 nmol/g, HNE-0.29±0.03 nmol/g, Cu, Zn-SOD-117±25 U/g, GSH-Px-1723±189 U/g, GSSG-R-625±112 U/g)especially in mucinous and G3

  11. Arsenic increased lipid peroxidation in rat tissues by a mechanism independent of glutathione levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, O; Carrizales, L; Yáñez, L; Mejía, J; Batres, L; Ortíz, D; Díaz-Barriga, F

    1995-01-01

    The role of lipid peroxidation in the mechanism of arsenic toxicity was investigated in female rats pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a glutathione [GSH] inducer) or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a GSH depletor). Rats were challenged with sodium arsenite, and sacrificed 1 hr after this treatment. Results showed that arsenic decreased GSH levels and increased lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney, and heart, with a larger effect at 18.2 mg/kg than at 14.8 mg/kg for lipid peroxidation induction. In the liver of rats treated with arsenic, pretreatment with NAC increased the levels of GSH and decreased lipid peroxidation. In kidney and heart, NAC pretreatment protected the tissues against arsenic-induced depletion of GSH levels, but the same degree of protection was not found for lipid peroxidation induction. In its turn, BSO had an additive effect with arsenic in lowering the levels of GSH in the liver and kidney, but an inverse correlation between GSH levels and lipid peroxidation was found only in liver. Arsenic content in tissues of rats pretreated with NAC was lower than in rats treated only with arsenic. In rats with depleted levels of GSH (BSO-pretreated rats), a shift in arsenic tissue distribution was found, with higher levels in skin and lower levels in kidney. A clear tendency for a positive correlation between arsenic concentration and lipid peroxidation levels was found in liver, kidney, and heart. PMID:7621808

  12. Effect of vitamin E on lipid peroxidation and fertility after artificial insemination with liquid-stored turkey semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J A; Kramer, M

    2003-11-01

    Turkey sperm plasma membranes contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are susceptible to lipid peroxidation during in vitro storage at 4 degrees C. Herein we assessed the degree of lipid peroxidation and fertility potential of semen liquid-stored for 24 h with the antioxidant vitamin E. Semen was collected weekly from 44 males and pooled as pairs (total = 22); the individuals in paired samples exhibited similar semen quality parameters. After initial semen evaluation, pooled samples were extended with Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender containing no supplement (control) or 10 or 40 microg/mL vitamin E and then stored at 4 degrees C with constant aeration for 24 h. Lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring malonaldehyde (MDA) in aliquots (50 x 10(6) sperm) of fresh (0 h) and stored (24 h) semen. Sperm mobility was also evaluated. A total of 176 hens (8 hens/tom pair; 4 hens/0 h, 4 hens/24 h) were inseminated (150 x 10(6) sperm) weekly for 6 wk, and fertility was determined after 7 d of incubation. Initial MDA values of the 22 tom pairs ranged from 0.928 to 1.36 uM. Males varied in production of MDA during in vitro storage, with most pairs exhibiting a threefold increase. Results indicated that supplemental vitamin E did not reduce lipid peroxidation during liquid storage. Not surprisingly, artificial insemination with stored semen (with much higher MDA values) yielded lower fertility rates than control regardless of the presence of vitamin E. These results demonstrate that lipid peroxidation is a significant factor affecting the fertility of stored turkey sperm and that methods to prevent or reduce lipid peroxidation remain to be elucidated.

  13. Inhibiting effect of tea catechins on the lipid peroxidation induced in tritiated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, M. [Radiochemical Research Laboratory, University of Shizuoka, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka-shi 422-8529 (Japan); Takeuchi, Y. [Radiochemical Research Laboratory, University of Shizuoka, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka-shi 422-8529 (Japan); Okuno, K. [Radiochemical Research Laboratory, University of Shizuoka, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka-shi 422-8529 (Japan); Yoshioka, H. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Shizuoka-shi 422-8526 (Japan); Yoshioka, H. [Radiochemical Research Laboratory, University of Shizuoka, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka-shi 422-8529 (Japan)]. E-mail: srhyosi@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp

    2006-02-15

    Lipid peroxidation induced by {beta}-ray in tritiated water and the inhibiting effect of tea catechins on it were studied using a spin probe method. A hydrophobic spin probe, 16-doxylstearic acid (16NS), was incorporated into a liposome prepared from egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, which was dispersed in tritiated water; the catechins were added to the solution. The rate of the decrease of ESR intensity of 16NS was a measure of the peroxidation and of the inhibiting effect. Inhibiting activity increased with an increase in the concentration of the catechin. Inhibiting ability estimated from the slope of the curves was in the order of (-)-epicatechin gallate > (-)-epigallocatechin gallate > (-)-epicatechin > (-)-epigallocatechin. The activity decreased with increasing temperature and the temperature dependence increased with the catechin concentration. These results were explained by a model; the initiator of the peroxidation is the hydroxyl radical (OH) and catechin is adsorbed on the surface of the membrane and scavenges OH coming into there from the water phase. The activity depended on the ratio of the adsorbed catechin, namely the partition coefficient between the water and the lipid.

  14. Influence of cosmic radiationon lymphocyte micronucleus,serum lipid peroxide and antioxidation capacity inaircrew members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This study looks into the influence of cosmic radiation at high altitudes on human bodies. Results reveal that the cytokinesis-block micronuclei (CBMN) and conventional cultured micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes, serum levels of lipid peroxide, superoxide dismutase, and the total antioxidation capacity by chemical colorimetry all increased significantly in aircrew members. There exists a linear relationship between the CBMN and the average annual effective doses of radiation received or the average annual flying hours. With both of them, a trend shows that the serum lipid peroxide levels increase as well. Either the lipid peroxide or CBMN can sensitively reflect the recent changes in flight load. These findings indicate that cosmic radiation impairs the stability of chromosomes and genome, and induces lipid oxidative damage in aircrews; Lymphocyte CBMN and serum lipid peroxide can be used as monitoring indicators in the cosmic radiation protection for aircrew members.

  15. Nitroxide free radicals protect macular carotenoids against chemical destruction (bleaching) during lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareba, M; Widomska, J; Burke, J M; Subczynski, W K

    2016-12-01

    Macular xanthophylls (MXs) lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids that are selectively concentrated in the human eye retina, where they are thought to protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by multiple mechanisms, including filtration of phototoxic blue light and quenching of singlet oxygen and triplet states of photosensitizers. These physical protective mechanisms require that MXs be in their intact structure. Here, we investigated the protection of the intact structure of zeaxanthin incorporated into model membranes subjected to oxidative modification by water- and/or membrane-soluble small nitroxide free radicals. Model membranes were formed from saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines (PCs). Oxidative modification involved autoxidation, iron-mediated, and singlet oxygen-mediated lipid peroxidation. The extent of chemical destruction (bleaching) of zeaxanthin was evaluated from its absorption spectra and compared with the extent of lipid peroxidation evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid assay. Nitroxide free radicals with different polarity (membrane/water partition coefficients) were used. The extent of zeaxanthin bleaching increased with membrane unsaturation and correlated with the rate of PC oxidation. Protection of the intact structure of zeaxanthin by membrane-soluble nitroxides was much stronger than that by water-soluble nitroxides. The combination of zeaxanthin and lipid-soluble nitroxides exerted strong synergistic protection against singlet oxygen-induced lipid peroxidation. The synergistic effect may be explained in terms of protection of the intact zeaxanthin structure by effective scavenging of free radicals by nitroxides, therefore allowing zeaxanthin to quench the primary oxidant, singlet oxygen, effectively by the physical protective mechanism. The redox state of nitroxides was monitored using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both nitroxide free radicals and their reduced form

  16. Palm olein oil produces less lipid peroxidation products than soya bean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiton, Z; Merican, Z; Khalid, B A; Mohamed, J B; Baharom, S

    1997-06-01

    The soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats were used to investigate the effect of palm olein oil and soya bean oil on the production of lipid peroxidation products. It was found that palm olein oil but not soya bean oil significantly decreased malonaldehyde and conjugated diene levels of the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats. These findings suggest that palm olein per se produces less lipid peroxidation products than soya bean oil. Such an assay method gives a composite net picture of the propensity of an oil to produce lipid peroxidation products.

  17. Radioinduced lipid peroxidation: factors determining the oxidizability of lipids; De la peroxydation lipidique radioinduite: les facteurs determinant l'oxydabilite des lipides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remita, S. [Lab. de Chimie et Biochimie Pharmacologiques et Toxicologiques, Groupe de Chimie-Physique, Unite Mixte de Recherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Univ. Paris (France)

    2001-02-01

    Lipids are the essential components of cell membranes and lipoproteins. Their peroxidation plays an important role in numerous pathologies in which oxidative stress is involved. Lipid peroxidation occurs through a chain reaction that contributes to membrane damage in cells. It results in the conversion of fatty acids to polar hydroperoxides and leads to the breakdown or malfunction of the membrane. Lipids are amphiphilic molecules that aggregate in aqueous solutions into micelles and liposoms. The effect of this structural organization is significant in studies of radiation-induced peroxidation damage in highly ordered biological systems such as biological membranes. In this paper, a synthesis of the data concerning radioinduced lipid peroxidation is completed by an original review of the different parameters that determine lipid oxidizability. In addition, the influence of lipid aggregation and the effect of molecular packing are discussed. (author)

  18. Interactions of amiodarone with model membranes and amiodarone-photoinduced peroxidation of lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautereau, A M; Tournaire, C; Suares, M; Tocanne, J F; Paillous, N

    1992-06-23

    The potent antiarrhythmic drug, amiodarone (AMIO) exhibits phototoxicity, which is thought to be related to its interaction with biological membranes. We report here a spectroscopic study of the interactions of this drug with phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes used as membrane model systems. A linear increase in absorbance at 300 nm was observed with increasing addition of AMIO to dimyristoyl-DL-PC (DMPC) liposomes over all the drugs-lipid molar ratio (Ri)s tested. In contrast, in the dimyristoyl-DL-PG (DMPG) liposomes, there was a dramatic increase in absorbance at values of Ri above unity. Light scattering by DMPG liposomes at 350 nm increased with increasing AMIO concentration up to a Ri = 1, and then decreased with increasing drug concentration. Such changes were not observed with the DMPC liposomes. Moreover, addition of AMIO changed the fluorescence polarization rate of 1,6-diphenyl 1,3,5-hexatriene embedded in these liposomes. It reduced the rate below the phase transition temperature (Tt) of the lipid, but increased it above this temperature. These effects on the lipidic phases observed at low Ri were more pronounced on the DMPG than on the DMPC liposomes. The strong interactions of AMIO with phospholipids, especially the acidic ones, were confirmed by liposome size determinations. All these data strongly suggest that the drug was incorporated in the core of the lipid bilayers. Such a penetration would favor a drug-photoinduced peroxidation of lipids. Indeed, UV irradiation of AMIO-DOPG mixtures led to the disappearance of the unsaturated fatty acids of phospholipids, checked by gas chromatography measurements, which was correlated with the amount of oxygen consumed. This showed that AMIO did photosensitize phospholipid peroxidation.

  19. Oxidative stress: Lipid peroxidation products as predictors in disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suranjana Ray Halder

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous disease processes, including diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, ischemia reperfusion injury, rheumatoid arthritis, neurodegenerative diseases as well as in the aging process. Chemical modification of amino acids in protein during lipid peroxidation (LPO results in the formation of lipoxidation products, which may serve as indicators of oxidative stress in vivo. The various types of aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, acrolein and others produced during LPO may serve as potent oxidative stress biomarkers. Their activation in different signaling cascades lead to apoptosis, differentiation, proliferation, etc., Increased amount of these aldehydes in aging or with metabolic complications or in other diseases indicate their pathophysiological significance. Thus, LPO products or other oxidative stress biomarkers may open the way for the development of early detection, prevention, and therapeutic strategies for stress associated human diseases. Now-a-days, antioxidant supplementation has become an increasingly popular practice to restore the redox homeostatic condition of the cell. Disease specific, target directed, bioavailable antioxidants may be beneficial for sustenance of the quality-of-life in future days. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(3.000: 151-164

  20. Effect of Sodium Metabisulfite on Rat Ovary and Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Rezaee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many health problems are related to lifestyle and dietary factors. Since ancient times, food additives such as sulfites have been used to preserve foods. Diverse effects of sulfites on multiple organs have been reported but its effect on female reproductive organ has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium metabisulfite (SMB on ovarian tissue in adult rats. Methods: Four groups of female rats (n=32 were used. The experimental rats received 10, 100 and 260 mg/kg SMB for 28 days (S10, S100 and S260 groups, respectively. The control rats received distilled water for the same period. The ovarian volume, weight and the number of different types of follicles were estimated by stereological methods. Lipid peroxidation is assessed indirectly by the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA, using the thiobarbituric acid (TBA method. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the ovarian volume, the number of primordial, primary, secondary, grafian follicles and corpus luteum in the SMB-treated animals compared with the control group (P < 0.05. In comparison to the control group, the number of atretic follicles increased in the SMB-treated rats. MDA was significantly increased in S260 group compared to the control group. Conclusion: The present data confirm sulfite-induced structural changes in the ovary. Increased level of MDA because of SMB ingestion suggests that free radicals may have a critical role in these changes.

  1. Lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity induced by respirable volcanic ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera, E-mail: jcervini@correo.cua.uam.mx [Departamento de Procesos y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Cuajimalpa, México City (Mexico); Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nieto-Camacho, Antonio [Laboratorio de Pruebas Biológicas, Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México City (Mexico); Gomez-Vidales, Virginia [Laboratorio de Resonancia Paramagnética Electrónica, Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México City (Mexico); Ramirez-Apan, María Teresa [Laboratorio de Pruebas Biológicas, Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, México City (Mexico); Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención [Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (Mexico); Kaufhold, Stephan [BGR Bundesansaltfür Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany); and others

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Respirable volcanic ash induces oxidative degradation of lipids in cell membranes. • Respirable volcanic ash triggers cytotoxicity in murin monocyle/macrophage cells. • Oxidative stress is surface controlled but not restricted by surface- Fe{sup 3+}. • Surface Fe{sup 3+} acts as a stronger inductor in allophanes vs phyllosilicates or oxides. • Registered cell-viability values were as low as 68.5 ± 6.7%. - Abstract: This paper reports that the main component of respirable volcanic ash, allophane, induces lipid peroxidation (LP), the oxidative degradation of lipids in cell membranes, and cytotoxicity in murin monocyle/macrophage cells. Naturally-occurring allophane collected from New Zealand, Japan, and Ecuador was studied. The quantification of LP was conducted using the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay. The cytotoxic effect was determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. Electron-Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) determinations of naturally-occurring allophane confirmed the incorporation in the structure and clustering of structural Fe{sup 3+}, and nucleation and growth of small-sized Fe (oxyhydr)oxide or gibbsite. LP induced by allophane varied with time, and solid concentration and composition, reaching 6.7 ± 0.2 nmol TBARS mg prot{sup −1}. LP was surface controlled but not restricted by structural or surface-bound Fe{sup 3+}, because redox processes induced by soluble components other than perferryl iron. The reactivity of Fe{sup 3+} soluble species stemming from surface-bound Fe{sup 3+} or small-sized Fe{sup 3+} refractory minerals in allophane surpassed that of structural Fe{sup 3+} located in tetrahedral or octahedral sites of phyllosilicates or bulk iron oxides. Desferrioxamine B mesylate salt (DFOB) or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) inhibited LP. EDTA acted as a more effective inhibitor, explained by multiple electron transfer pathways. Registered cell

  2. The mechanism of cumene hydroperoxide-dependent lipid peroxidation: the function of cytochrome P-450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R H; Estabrook, R W

    1986-11-15

    The addition of limiting amounts of cumene hydroperoxide to rat liver microsomes resulted in the rapid uptake of molecular oxygen, the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive products, and the loss of hydroperoxide. The stoichiometry of lipid peroxidation and the yields of 2-phenyl-2-propanol (a major product of the reaction) and acetophenone (a minor product) observed with liver microsomes prepared from untreated rats is greater than that seen with liver microsomes from ciprofibrate-treated rats which, in turn, is greater than that observed with liver microsomes from phenobarbital-treated rats. The Km's and Vmax's of oxygen uptake varied with the type of rat liver microsomes used. Cytochrome P-450 substrates and inhibitors decreased the extents and initial rates of oxygen uptake and thiobarbituric acid reactive product formation. A mechanism is proposed involving the cytochrome P-450-catalyzed homolytic cleavage of the cumene hydroperoxide O-O bond to give the cumyloxyl radical. It is proposed that this oxygen-centered radical abstracts a hydrogen atom from an unsaturated fatty acid associated with a lipid (initiating lipid peroxidation) to give 2-phenyl-2-propanol or that the radical undergoes beta-scission to produce acetophenone and a methyl radical.

  3. Natural Antioxidants, Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes of Different Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eqbal M.A. Dauqan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant plays a very important role in the body defense system against Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. The free radicals also play an important role in combustion, atmospheric chemistry, biochemistry and biotechnology including human physiology. Fats and oils are energy sources that are composed mostly of triacylglycerols. Lipid ptofile are risk indicators of coronary heart disease. Various types of lipoproteins exist, but the two most abundant are Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL and High-density Lipoprotein (HDL. Lipid peroxidation is the introduction of a functional group containing two catenated oxygyen atomsinto unsturated fatty acids in a free radical reaction. Life in oxygen has led to the evolution of biochemical adaptations that exploit the reactivity of Active Oxygen Species (AOS. Antioxidant enzymes are an important protective mechanism ROS. This paper highlight the functions of antioxidants in the blood and selected organs associated with health.

  4. Glutathione protects liver and kidney tissue from cadmium- and lead-provoked lipid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jasmina M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cd and Pb represent a serious ecological problem due to their soluble nature, their mobility and ability to accumulate in the soil. The exposure to these heavy metals can originate from different sources (drinking water, food, air, and they can make their way into the human body through the respiratory and digestive system. We investigated the effects of glutathione on Cd and Pb accumulation and lipid peroxidation effects in the liver and kidneys of heavy metal intoxicated rats. The content of the marker of lipid peroxidation - malondialdehyde was increased several fold the in tissues of exposed animals, the effects being more pronounced in liver. The treatment of intoxicated animals with glutathione drastically suppressed lipid peroxidation. Our results imply that the application of glutathione may have protective role in heavy metal intoxication by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. However, precaution should be made when it comes to Cd, since it seems that glutathione promoted Cd accumulation in the liver.

  5. Amelioration of ionizing radiation induced lipid peroxidation in mouse liver by Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mahuya; Das, Dipesh Kr; Datta, Sanjukta; Ghosh, Santinath; Dey, Sanjit

    2012-03-01

    Protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MoLE) against radiation-induced lipid peroxidation has been investigated. Swiss albino mice, selected from an inbred colony, were administered with MoLE (300 mg/kg body wt) for 15 days before exposing to a single dose of 5 Gy 60Co-gamma radiation. After treatments, animals were necropsied at different post irradiation intervals (days 1, 7 and 15) and hepatic lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were estimated to observe the relative changes due to irradiation and its possible amelioration by MoLE. It was observed that, MoLE treatment restored GSH in liver and prevented radiation induced augmentation in hepatic lipid peroxidation. Phytochemical analysis showed that MoLE possess various phytochemicals such as ascorbic acid, phenolics (catechin, epicatechin, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, myricetin) etc., which may play the key role in prevention of hepatic lipid peroxidation by scavenging radiation induced free radicals.

  6. Effects of calmodulin antagonists on radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in microsomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshney, R.; Kale, R.K. (Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). School of Life Sciences)

    1990-11-01

    Rat liver microsomes were irradiated with {gamma}-rays at a dose of 1.31 Gy s{sup -1}. The extent of lipid peroxidation, measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) formed, increased with radiation dose. The presence of calmodulin antagonists during irradiation decreased lipid peroxidation. The order of their protective efficiency was: chlorpromazine (CPZ)>promethazine (PMZ)>trimeprazine (TMZ). Their protective effect was diminished in the presence of ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) ions and was restored on addition of EDTA. However, calmodulin antagonists considerably inhibited radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in the presence of ferric (Fe{sup 3+}) ions. Calmodulin antagonists also decreased the cytochrome P-450 content of microsomes. These results are discussed with respect to their applicability to radiotherapy. A possible mechanism for the inhibition of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation is suggested. (author).

  7. Effect of x-ray irradiation on lipid peroxide levels in the rat submandibular gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, M.; Takashima, H.; Oka, T.; Ohishi, N.; Yagi, K.

    1986-07-01

    We examined the effect of local x-ray irradiation on the changes in the lipid peroxide level in submandibular gland, liver, and blood plasma. Rats five weeks of age received a single low dose of 3 Gy x-ray irradiation to their neck regions. The lipid peroxide level in the submandibular gland was significantly enhanced at seven days after irradiation, as was the level in the blood plasma at two hours, seven and 14 days after irradiation. The lipid peroxide level in the liver decreased, as compared with levels in the controls. There was a slight tendency for acinar cells of the submandibular gland to show pyknosis and anomalous nuclei within three days after irradiation. These results suggest that radiation injury results in an elevation of the lipid peroxides in the submandibular gland, and an increased level in the blood.

  8. Platelet activation and lipid peroxidation in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. van Kooten (Fop); G. Ciabattoni; C. Patrono; D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Both platelet activation and lipid peroxidation are potential sources of vasoactive eicosanoids that can be produced via the cyclooxygenase pathway, ie, thromboxane (TX) A2, or by free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of arachidonic acid, ie, isoprostanes. We invest

  9. Relationship between parameters of lipid peroxidation during obstructive jaundice and after bile flow restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnik, L B; Tsupko, A N; Shupik, M A; Akhaladze, G G; Galperin, E I; Latonova, L V; Pantaz, E A; Alessenko, A V

    2008-01-01

    Restoration of bile flow after 9-day cholestasis in rat liver normalized the content of lipid peroxidation products. The removal of the cholestatic factor after 12-day cholestasis was not followed by recovery of these parameters. We showed that measurement of serum concentration of lipid peroxidation products in patients with cholelithiasis during the preoperative period holds promise for selection of the optimum time for surgical treatment and prediction of the risk of postoperative complications.

  10. Positive influence of Centchroman on cardiovascular system and tissue lipid peroxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatwa, Rameshwar; Kar, Anand

    2007-11-01

    Centchroman, a nonsteroidal oral contraceptive, was evaluated for its hitherto unstudied effect on cardiovascular system, thyroid function and tissue lipid peroxidation in rats. Wistar sperm-positive female rats were treated with Centchroman (1.5 mg/kg per day, po) for 10 days and the alterations in serum concentration of thyroid hormones [triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4))], insulin, glucose, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phospahatase (ALP) activity, hepatic type-1 iodothyronine 5'-monodeiodinase (5'D) enzyme activity and hepatic, renal, cardiac and serum lipid peroxidation (LPO) were studied. Simultaneously, alterations in endogenous antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD); catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH)], relative risk ratio (RR), atherogenic index (AI) and daily rate of food and water consumption were also investigated as supportive parameters. Centchroman administration resulted in the complete inhibition of pregnancy. It increased serum T(4) marginally and HDL-C levels, hepatic SOD, CAT and GSH; cardiac SOD and GSH and renal SOD and CAT activity significantly. However, it reduced LPO in all tissues; concentrations of other serum lipids; AI; RR and activity of ALP. As Centchroman administration did not alter the concentrations of most active thyroid hormone, T(3), serum insulin and glucose, it appears that the drug has no side effect on thyroid function and glucose metabolism. Rather, it possesses cardiovascular and anti-peroxidative benefits.

  11. Serum Iron, Haemoglobin and Serum Lipid Peroxidation in Neonates with Respiratory Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama P. Dhonde

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory disorders are the most common cause for higher morbidity and mortality rate in India. Higher oxygen concentration of extrauterine existence causes increased erythrocyte lysis lead to release of iron in neonates. Iron is known to catalyze the formation of Reactive oxygen species. Involvement of hemoglobin and iron in oxygen-mediated reactions stimulate us to study the role of these in neonates.Objectives :iTo estimate the concentration of Haemoglobin, serum iron, serum lipid peroxidation in neonates with respiratory disorders; and compare those with that of healthy controls. iiTo study the role of these parameters in neonates with respiratory disorders.Materials and Methods: Present study includes 50 neonates suffering from respiratory disorders and 50 healthy neonates as controls. Samples collected from these were used for the estimation of haemoglobin, serum iron, and serum lipid peroxidation.Observations: Significantly (p<0.001 increased levels of serum iron and lipid peroxidation were observed in neonates with respiratory disorders when compared those with control values. These levels were found significantly (p<0.001 higher in preterm than full-term neonates. Concentration of haemoglobin showed no significant difference in both groups.Conclusion: Exacerbation of oxidative stress in neonates with respiratory disorders may be due to hypoxia induced free radical generation, higher oxidative tendency of HbF and elevated iron. Premature neonates are probably unprepared for extra uterine life in an oxygen rich environment and due to this they are more prone to oxidative insult. Thus this study reveals the pro-oxidant role of HbF and iron, which enhances the oxidative stress in respiratory disorder.

  12. Inhibition of cumene hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation by a novel pyridoindole antioxidant in rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefek, M; Masarykova, M; Benes, L

    1992-06-01

    The ability of stobadine, a novel pyridoindole antioxidant, to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by cumene hydroperoxide was investigated in rat liver microsomes. In the micromolar range stobadine effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation as measured by the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive products. The peroxidation-related degradation of microsomal cytochrome P-450 was prevented by stobadine in the same pattern. Another line of evidence in support of the antioxidant action of stobadine was given by its inhibition of cumene hydroperoxide-induced oxygen consumption in microsomal incubations. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation was not a function of decreased bioactivation of cumene hydroperoxide, as stobadine did not affect the rate of cytochrome P-450 dependent cleavage of cumene hydroperoxide. Neither had stobadine any effect on cytochrome P-450 peroxidase function characterized by the rate of cumene hydroperoxide-dependent oxidation of TMPD, and no direct spectral interaction with microsomal cytochrome P-450 was observed in the micromolar region. We suggest that it is the ability of stobadine to scavenge alkoxyl and peroxyl radicals that is predominantly responsible for the observed antioxidant effect.

  13. Antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities of Tamarindus indica seed coat in human fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakchat, Oranuch; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Pongsamart, Sunanta

    2014-02-01

    Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of tamarind seed coat extracts (TSCEs) were compared between the two extracts using boiling-water (TSCE-W) and 70% ethanol (TSCE-E) for extraction. TSCE-W, consisting of the highest phenolic content, possessed 2,2-diphenyl-1 -picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activities much higher than TSCE-E and Trolox. Additionally, both TSCEs also exhibited superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities higher than Trolox and BHA. Anti-lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity of TSCE-W were also studied in human foreskin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells. Cytotoxic effect was not observed when exposed to TSCE-W up to 1 mg/mL for 12-48 h. However, TSCE-W significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation in H202-damaged cells. HPLC analysis showed the presence of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 in TSCE-W, which could be responsible for antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. The results suggest that an inexpensive and simple boiling-water extraction of TSCE-W may provide a valuable natural antioxidant source having anti-lipid peroxidation for health food additives, nutraceuticals as well as cosmeceuticals.

  14. Study on Mechanism of Soy Protein Oxidation Induced by Lipid Peroxidation Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative modification of soy protein by lipid peroxidation products, which was potentially present in a lipoxygenase-catalyzed polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation system, was investigated in this study. 13S-Hydroperoxy-9Z, 11E-Octadecadienoic acid (HPODE, malondialdehyde and acrolein were selected as representative primary product and secondary byproducts of lipid peroxidation and 2, 2’-azobis-(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH -derived peroxyl radical peroxyl radicals were chosen to simulate lipid peroxidation-derived free radical. Incubation of soy protein with increasing concentration of AAPH, HPODE, malondialdehyde and acrolein resulted in gradual generation of protein carbonyl derivatives, loss of free sulphydryl groups, total sulphydryl groups, free amine, available lysine, surface hydrophobicity and formation of oxidation aggregates. The average distribution model of protein accessible groups could explain majority mechanism of lipid peroxidation products-mediated soy protein oxidation. Primary oxidation aggregates further developed into insoluble aggregates by covalent cross-linking also may provide a partial mechanism of lipid peroxidation products-mediated soy protein oxidation.

  15. Induced lipid peroxidation in ram sperm: semen profile, DNA fragmentation and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Thais Rose dos Santos; de Castro, Letícia Signori; Delgado, Juliana de Carvalho; de Assis, Patrícia Monken; Siqueira, Adriano Felipe Perez; Mendes, Camilla Mota; Goissis, Marcelo Demarchi; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José Álvaro; Nichi, Marcílio; Visintin, José Antonio; D'Ávila Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz

    2016-04-01

    Action of reactive oxygen species, protamination failures and apoptosis are considered the most important etiologies of sperm DNA fragmentation. This study evaluated the effects of induced lipid peroxidation susceptibility on native semen profile and identified the mechanisms involved in sperm DNA fragmentation and testicular antioxidant defense on Santa Ines ram sperm samples. Semen was collected from 12 adult rams (Ovis aries) performed weekly over a 9-week period. Sperm analysis (motility, mass motility, abnormalities, membrane and acrosome status, mitochondrial potential, DNA fragmentation, lipid peroxidation and intracellular free radicals production); protamine deficiency; PRM1, TNP1 and TNP2 gene expression; and determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase activity and immunodetection in seminal plasma were performed. Samples were distributed into four groups according to the sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation after induction with ascorbate and ferrous sulfate (low, medium, high and very high). The results were analyzed by GLM test and post hoc least significant difference. We observed an increase in native GPx activity and CAT immunodetection in groups with high susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. We also found an increase in total sperm defects, acrosome and membrane damages in the group with the highest susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. Additionally, the low mitochondrial membrane potential, susceptible to chromatin fragmentation and the PRM1 mRNA were increased in the group showing higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Ram sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation may compromise sperm quality and interfere with the oxidative homeostasis by oxidative stress, which may be the main cause of chromatin damage in ram sperm. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  16. Effect of paraquat on microsomal lipid peroxidation in vitro and in vivo. [Rats, rabbits, man, mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornbrust, D.J.; Mavis, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Rat lung and liver microsomes did not undergo lipid peroxidation in the absence of iron when incubated with NADPH and concentrations of paraquat ranging from 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -2/ M. Paraquat also did not stimulate rat liver and lung microsomal peroxidation induced by added iron and NADPH, and was inhibitory at concentrations above 10 ..mu..M. Similarly, no stimulation of peroxidation was produced by paraquat in rabbit or human lung microsomes; however, under similar conditions, paraquat enhanced NADPH/iron-dependent peroxidation in mouse lung and liver microsomes obtained from rats sacrificed at 12, 18, and 24 hr following a lethal dose of paraquat (50 mg/kg, ip), there was no loss of vitamin E or increase in susceptibility to in vitro peroxidation which would be expected if lipid peroxidation had occurred in vivo although extensive lung damage developed during this time period. These results indicate that paraquat does not cause pulmonary toxicity by initiating peroxidation of lung lipids, and the decrease of palmitate in paraquat-damaged lungs is consistent with inhibition of fatty acid synthesis as an early event in the pathogenesis of paraquat toxicity.

  17. The Relationship Between Senescence and Ca2+-ATPase Activity of Microsomal Membrane and Lipid Peroxidation in Harvested Peach Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jun-feng; FAN Xiu-cai; DOU Shi-juan; ZHANG Ji-shu; LI Guang-min

    2006-01-01

    Peach fruit easily soften and have a short storage time at normal temperature. In this study, peach fruit (Prunus persica sieb et Zucc cv. Yingqing) were picked and stored at 25 and 4℃ to investigate the senescence in correlation with Ca2+- ATPase activity of microsomal membrane and lipid peroxidation during ripening and senescence. In comparison with that stored at 25℃, the fruit stored at 4℃ exhibited a higher flesh firmness, lower respiration rate, and generated the late bigger peak value of Ca2+-ATPase activity as well as maintained the higher activity of the enzyme. Meanwhile, the lower levels of super oxygen radical (O2-) production and content of malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of membrane lipid peroxidation were observed. Sodium orthovanadate (SO) and erythrosin B (EB), as Ca2+-ATPase inhibitors, could stimulate the respiration rate. The results suggested that the slower senescence rate of peach fruit was closely related to the higher peak value and longer duration of Ca2+-ATPase activity in microsomal membrane, with the slighter membrane lipid peroxidation and lower O2(-) production rate.

  18. Effect of combined pharmacotherapy lipid peroxidation and activity of enzymes antioxidant protection in rat livergepatoсancerogeneze

    OpenAIRE

    KASYMOVA GULMIRA GAFUROVNA

    2016-01-01

    When hepatitis carcinogenesis marked imbalance in the system of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system. Pharmacotherapy cytostatic leads to even greater intensification of lipid peroxidation. Thus activity of antioxidant defense enzymes even more oppressed. Roncoleukin results to some rebalancing of the system of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme systems. Which has a temporary nature. The combined use of doxorubicin and ronkolejkin some what reduces the marked of doxorubicin...

  19. Effects of diffusible products of peroxidation of rat liver microsomal lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angelo; Casini, Alessandro F.; Ferrali, Marco; Comporti, Mario

    1979-01-01

    The effects on cellular structures of products of peroxidation of rat liver microsomal lipids were investigated. A system containing actively peroxidizing liver microsomal fraction was separated from a revealing or target system by a dialysis membrane. The target system, contained in the dialysis tube, consisted of either intact cells (erythrocytes) or subcellular fractions (liver microsomal fraction). When liver microsomal fractions were incubated with NADPH (or an NADPH-generating system), lipid peroxidation, as measured by the amount of malonaldehyde formed, occurred very rapidly. The malon-aldehyde concentration tended to equilibrate across the dialysis membrane. When the target system consisted of erythrocytes, haemolysis occurred abruptly after a lag phase. The lysis was greatly accelerated when erythrocytes from vitamin E-deficient rats were used, but no haemolysis was observed when erythrocytes from vitamin E-treated rats were used. When, in the same system, freshly prepared liver microsomal fractions were exposed to diffusible factors produced by lipid peroxidation, the glucose 6-phosphatase activity markedly decreased. A similar decrease in glucose 6-phosphatase activity, as well as a smaller but significant decrease in cytochrome P-450, was observed when the target microsomal fractions were exposed to diffusible factors derived from the peroxidation of liver microsomal lipids in a separate preincubation step. These and additional experiments indicated that the toxicological activity is relatively stable. Experiments in which the hepatic microsomal fractions destined for lipid peroxidation contained radioactively labelled arachidonic acid, previously incorporated into the membranes, showed that part of the radioactivity released from the microsomal fraction into the incubation medium entered the dialysis tube and was recovered bound to the constituents of the microsomal fractions of the target system. These results indicate that during the course of the

  20. The protective effect of Aloysia triphylla aqueous extracts against brain lipid-peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagni Vitar, Romina M; Reides, Claudia G; Ferreira, Sandra M; Llesuy, Susana F

    2014-03-01

    In a normal diet, the use of herbs may contribute significantly to the total intake of plant antioxidants and even be a better source of dietary antioxidants than many other food groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extracts of Aloysia triphylla (infusion and decoction) against lipid-peroxidation of brain homogenates and to determine changes in the prooxidant/antioxidant balance when the plant material is added. In order to elucidate a possible antioxidant mechanism in vitro evaluation of total antioxidant capacity, oxygen species scavenging ability and reducing power (RP) were studied. Tested extracts had shown a strong inhibition of lipid-peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive products of lipid-peroxidation (TBARS) and chemiluminescence. Furthermore, infusion and decoction exhibited free radical trapping ability, expressed by the capacity to scavenge superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Additionally, both aqueous extracts presented antioxidant activity measured as total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS) scavenging activity and RP. These results suggest that the lipid-peroxidation inhibition mechanism proposed is that the antioxidants present in Aloysia triphylla could act as strong scavengers of reactive oxygen species not only at the initiation of the lipid-peroxidation chain reaction, but also at the propagation step. Therefore, they could be used as prophylactic and therapeutic agents for those diseases where the occurrence of oxidative stress and lipid-peroxidation contributes to the progression of damage.

  1. [Effect of Arnica montana on the state of lipid peroxidation and protective glutathione system of rat liver in experimental toxic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamemiĭ, I M; Grygor'iea, N P; Meshchyshen, I F

    1998-01-01

    Effects of Tinctura Arnica on lipids peroxidation and on the protective glutathions system of liver in rats in case of experimental toxic hepatitis have been studied. Toxic hepatitis is accompanied by deep alterations of the oxidant-antioxidant status of the body. Intoxication of the body by CCl4 results in intensification of the free radicals formation particularly in liver: accumulation of lipids peroxidation molecular products, glutathione system enzyme activity inhibition in early terms and its partial restoration in remote terms has been seen. Our studies revealed that Arnica montana infusion inhibits the rate of lipids perioxidation products formation, affects the glutathione system enzymes activity.

  2. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  3. Products of lipid peroxidation, but not membrane susceptibility to oxidative damage, are conserved in skeletal muscle following temperature acclimation

    OpenAIRE

    Grim, Jeffrey M.; Semones, Molly C.; Kuhn, Donald E.; Kriska, Tamas; Keszler, Agnes; Crockett, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Changes in oxidative capacities and phospholipid remodeling accompany temperature acclimation in ectothermic animals. Both responses may alter redox status and membrane susceptibility to lipid peroxidation (LPO). We tested the hypothesis that phospholipid remodeling is sufficient to offset temperature-driven rates of LPO and, thus, membrane susceptibility to LPO is conserved. We also predicted that the content of LPO products is maintained over a range of physiological temperatures. To assess...

  4. Siofor influence on the process of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status at patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Chernysheva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to research siofor influence (metformin on the activity of the process of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity of blood serum at patients with metabolic syndrome. Material and Methods — 62 patients with metabolic syndrome at the age from 30 till 60 were examined and treated by siofor (1700 mg per day during a year. The process of lipid peroxidation was studied due to the level of lipid hydroperoxide of blood serum. Antioxidant capacity was based on the antioxidant reaction in the blood serum with definite number of exogenic hydrogen dioxide (mkmole/l with the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results — Intensification of process of lipid peroxidation has been observed at patients with metabolic syndrome — the level of lipid hydroperoxide of blood serum has been 2.9 (1.9, 3.9 mkM (presented as median and interquartile range, antioxidant activity of blood serum has been decreased — 276.4 (239.0, 379.9 mkmole/l. In 12 months of siofor intake hydroperoxide level has been decreased till 1.1 (0.8, 1.9 mkМ, but antioxidant activity has been increased and amounted 320.0 (278.9, 334.3 mkmole/l. Conclusion — Siofor has been proved to be a highly effective medicine for correction of process of lipid peroxidation and for improvement of antioxidant activity of blood serum at patients with metabolic syndrome.

  5. Membrane Lipid Peroxidation in Copper Alloy-Mediated Contact Killing of Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Hong,Robert; Kang, Tae Y.; Michels, Corinne A.; Gadura, Nidhi

    2012-01-01

    Copper alloy surfaces are passive antimicrobial sanitizing agents that kill bacteria, fungi, and some viruses. Studies of the mechanism of contact killing in Escherichia coli implicate the membrane as the target, yet the specific component and underlying biochemistry remain unknown. This study explores the hypothesis that nonenzymatic peroxidation of membrane phospholipids is responsible for copper alloy-mediated surface killing. Lipid peroxidation was monitored with the thiobarbituric acid-r...

  6. The characteristic features of the relationship of thyroid, hemostasis and lipid peroxidation

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    Ольга Федорівна Мисник

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it is experimentally confirmed the change of activity of blood coagulation factors in hypothyroidism, connection of lipid peroxidation-thyroid (LP-T with hemostasis: T3 inhibits peroxidation in microsomal fraction of hepatocytes thyroliberyn limits the accumulation of LP products, concentration of enzymes-antioxidant varies at different stages of thyroid lesions, especially in thyroid oncology - accumulation of LP products. This indicates that the thyroid regulates the LP processes and its operation depends on the LP

  7. A meta-analysis of lipid peroxidation markers in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazereeuw G

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Graham Mazereeuw,1,2 Nathan Herrmann,1,3 Ana C Andreazza,2–4 Maisha M Khan,1 Krista L Lanctôt1–3 1Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 4Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD may be associated with oxidative damage to lipids, which can potentially affect mood-regulating pathways. This meta-analysis summarizes current knowledge regarding lipid peroxidation markers in clinical samples of MDD and the effects of antidepressant pharmacotherapy on those markers. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Collaboration were searched for original, peer-reviewed articles measuring markers of lipid peroxidation in patients with MDD and nondepressed healthy controls up to April 2015. Standardized mean differences (SMDs were generated from random effects models summarizing mean (± standard deviations concentrations of selected markers. Results: Lipid peroxidation was greater in MDD than in controls (studies =17, N=857 MDD/782 control, SMD =0.83 [0.56–1.09], z=6.11, P<0.01, I2=84.0% and was correlated with greater depressive symptom severity (B=0.05, df=8, P<0.01. Antidepressant treatment was associated with a reduction in lipid peroxidation in MDD patients (studies=5, N=222, SMD=0.71 [0.40–0.97], P<0.01; I2=42.5%. Limitations: Lipid peroxidation markers were sampled from peripheral blood, included studies comparing MDD to controls were all cross-sectional, and only five antidepressant treatment studies were eligible for inclusion. Conclusion: Increased lipid peroxidation was associated with MDD and may be normalized by antidepressants. Continued investigation of lipid peroxidation in MDD is warranted. Keywords: antidepressant treatment, biomarker

  8. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-05-01

    Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder.

  9. Clinical presentation, lipid peroxidation intensity, and features of nitric oxide production in patients with erysipelas

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    L. I. Ratnikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 65 patients with a diagnosis of erysipelas. Examination of the patients included an analysis of lipid peroxidation products (common polyene, diene conjugates, and conjugate ketodieny trieny, Schiff bases, antioxidant defense system (enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide metabolites (nitrates and nitrites. It was established that imbalance between excess activated lipid peroxidation and inadequate functioning of antioxidant defense system was remained during the entire period of the disease. The relationships between nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation were established. It was proved the advisability of developing and introducing new, improved schemes of pathogenetic therapy of erysipelas.

  10. Increase in plasma lipid peroxide in cats fed a fish diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoi, Y; Goto, Y; Tanide, K; Takahashi, N; Watari, T; Yamazo, K; Tsujimoto, H; Kudo, T

    2001-12-01

    Plasma lipid peroxide levels were examined in cats. Plasma lipid peroxide levels in 3 of 4 clinical cases which had been fed raw fish were higher than those in normal cats. When healthy cats were put on a raw fish diet in controlled conditions, a remarkable increase in plasma lipid peroxide was observed. This increase occurred within 1 to 3 weeks in cats without obvious clinical disorders. We also showed that a continuous raw fish diet is necessary to cause the increase, but the increase was transient and restored in spite of a continuous raw fish diet, indicating the development of an unidentified antioxidant process. Our results clearly indicate that intake of foods high in polyunsaturated fatty acid can induce oxidative stress in cats.

  11. Protective effect of Apocynum venetum (罗布麻) against lipid peroxidation damage of erythrocyte membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Benhong; Liu Gang; Hu Xianmin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of Apocynum venetum on lipid peroxidation damage of erythrocyte membrane. Methods: Model of lipid peroxidation of erythrocyte membrane was manufactured by three kinds of radicals generation systems. To set up a normal control group (NC), a model control group (MC), and four Apocynum venetum groups(A.V). Observation was made on the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Results: Compared with MC group, all of the four Apocynum venetum groups dose-dependently inhibited the increases of MDA content in the membrane induced by xanthine - xanthine oxidase system, H2O2 or UV light. Conclusions: Apocynum venetum may protect erythrocyte membrane from the lipid peroxidative damage induced by radicals.

  12. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semsang, Nuananong, E-mail: nsemsang@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, LiangDeng [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► Ion beam bombarded rice seeds in vacuum. ► Studied seed survival from the ion bombardment. ► Determined various antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level. ► Discussed vacuum, ion species and ion energy effects. ► Attributed the changes to free radical formation due to ion bombardment. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29–60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup −2}. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  13. Perioperative intravenous acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in adults undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic T Billings

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB lyses erythrocytes and induces lipid peroxidation, indicated by increasing plasma concentrations of free hemoglobin, F2-isoprostanes, and isofurans. Acetaminophen attenuates hemeprotein-mediated lipid peroxidation, reduces plasma and urine concentrations of F2-isoprostanes, and preserves kidney function in an animal model of rhabdomyolysis. Acetaminophen also attenuates plasma concentrations of isofurans in children undergoing CPB. The effect of acetaminophen on lipid peroxidation in adults has not been studied. This was a pilot study designed to test the hypothesis that acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in adults undergoing CPB and to generate data for a clinical trial aimed to reduce acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery.In a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, sixty adult patients were randomized to receive intravenous acetaminophen or placebo starting prior to initiation of CPB and for every 6 hours for 4 doses. Acetaminophen concentrations measured 30 min into CPB and post-CPB were 11.9 ± 0.6 μg/mL (78.9 ± 3.9 μM and 8.7 ± 0.3 μg/mL (57.6 ± 2.0 μM, respectively. Plasma free hemoglobin increased more than 15-fold during CPB, and haptoglobin decreased 73%, indicating hemolysis. Plasma and urinary markers of lipid peroxidation also increased during CPB but returned to baseline by the first postoperative day. Acetaminophen reduced plasma isofuran concentrations over the duration of the study (P = 0.05, and the intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that corresponded to peak hemolysis were attenuated in those subjects randomized to acetaminophen (P = 0.03. Perioperative acetaminophen did not affect plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostanes or urinary markers of lipid peroxidation.Intravenous acetaminophen attenuates the increase in intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that occurs during CPB, while urinary markers were unaffected.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  14. Identification of components of Prunus africana extract that inhibit lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, M A; Nowak, D M; Leonova, E; Levin, R M; Longhurst, P A

    1999-11-01

    Extractive and chromatographic separations were performed on V-1326, a chloroform extract from the bark of Prunus africana (also referred to as Pygeum africanum), which is used to treat the symptoms associated with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The relative amounts of eleven identified constituents in crude V-1326 and in separated fractions were determined using gas chromatographic analysis. The ability of V-1326 and its separated fractions to inhibit ferrous ion-induced stimulation of lipid peroxidation in microsomal preparations from rabbit livers was evaluated. The extract, V-1326, and fractions containing high levels of myristic acid potently inhibited lipid peroxidation.

  15. The effect of alpha-tocopherol on lipid peroxidation of microsomes and mitochondria from rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazza, M B; Catalá, A

    2006-04-01

    The testis is a remarkably active metabolic organ; hence it is suitable not only for studies of lipid metabolism in the organ itself but also for the study of lipid peroxidation processes in general. The content of fatty acids in testis is high with a prevalence of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which renders this tissue very susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of alpha-tocopherol in vitro on ascorbate-Fe(++) lipid peroxidation of rat testis microsomes and mitochondria. Chemiluminescence and fatty acid composition were used as an index of the oxidative destruction of lipids. Special attention was paid to the changes produced on the highly PUFA [C20:4 n6] and [C22:5 n6]. Lipid peroxidation of testis microsomes or mitochondria induced a significant decrease of both fatty acids. Total chemiluminescence was similar in both kinds of organelles when the peroxidized without (control) and with ascorbate-Fe(++) (peroxidized) groups were compared. Arachidonic acid was protected more efficiently than docosapentaenoic acid at all alpha-tocopherol concentrations tested when rat testis microsomes or mitochondria were incubated with ascorbate-Fe(++). The maximal percentage of inhibition in both organelles was approximately 70%; corresponding to an alpha-tocopherol concentration between 1 and 0.25 mM. IC50 values from the inhibition of alpha-tocopherol on the chemiluminescence were higher in microsomes (0.144 mM) than mitochondria (0.078 mM). The protective effect observed by alpha-tocopherol in rat testis mitochondria was higher compared with microsomes, associated with the higher amount of [C20:4 n6]+[C22:5 n6] in microsomes that in mitochondria. It is proposed that the vulnerability to lipid peroxidation of rat testis microsomes and mitochondria is different because of the different proportion of PUFA in these organelles The peroxidizability index (PI) was positively correlated with the level of long chain fatty acids. The

  16. Effects of Se on Reducing Membrane Lipid Peroxidation of Soybean under Continuous Cropping Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Reports the effects of selenium on lipid peroxidation of soybean under continuous cropping stress. Results of pot culture and plot experiment showed that appropriate amount of Se addition increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) significantly,and cleared away the excessive free radicals existing in soybean plant under continuous cropping stress,decreased the concentration of malonaldehyde (MDA),which is the end product of lipid peroxidation,maintained the perfection of chloroplast and mitochondrion structure,enhanced the resistance of continuous cropped soybean,and therefore increased the dry weight of seedlong and yield.

  17. Influence of tonifying kidney recipe on advanced glycation endproducts and lipid peroxidation in ova riectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuefen Wang; Chang'an Zhao; Li Guo; En Li

    2008-01-01

    .The contents of advanced glycation endproducts in the rat cerebral cortex,hippocampus,serum,and urine were detected by competitive ELISA and spectrofluorophotometer.The contents of lipid peroxidation in rat serum,cerebral cortex,and hippocampus were assayed using a biochemical method.RESULTS:Compared with the sham group,serum content of advanced glycation endproducts in the OVX group was significantly increased,and lipid peroxidation content increased in cerebral cortex,hippocampus,and serum(t=3.04-4.22,P<0.05-0.01).Both AG and TKR decreased the amount of AGE in cerebral cortex and serum(t=2.53,3.64,P<0.05,0.01),increased AGE urine content(t=3.25-=4.87,P<0.0 1),and decreased lipid peroxidation content in cerebral cortex,hippocampus,and serum (t=2.80-3.70,P<0.05-0.01).In comparison to the OVX and sham groups,the correct escape rate in the Y-electric maze was significantly increased(t=3.46,3.28,P<0.01),and escape latency was significantly decreased(t=3.12,2.48,P<0.05)in the AG and TKR groups,which indicated that both AG and TKR improved learning and memorv.The OVX group had a significantly lower correct escape compared with the sham group(t=4.21,P<0.01).CONCLUSION:The tonifying kidney recipe decreased deposition of advanced glycation endproducts and lipid peroxidation in ovariectomized rats,and concomitantly improved learning and memory.The effect of TKR was equal to that of AG.

  18. Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atig, Fatma; Raffa, Monia; Ali, Habib Ben; Abdelhamid, Kerkeni; Saad, Ali; Ajina, Mounir

    2012-01-01

    Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40), asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35). Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the levels of glutathione (GSH), zinc (Zn) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome. PMID:22211112

  19. Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Atig, Monia Raffa, Habib Ben Ali, Kerkeni Abdelhamid, Ali Saad, Mounir Ajina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40, asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45 and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35. Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX and the levels of glutathione (GSH, zinc (Zn and malondialdehyde (MDA were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome.

  20. The involvement of transition metal ions on iron-dependent lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Marisa G; Ferrarotti, Nidia F; Boveris, Alberto

    2010-04-01

    The metals iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are considered trace elements, and the metals cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) are known as ultra-trace elements, considering their presence in low to very low quantity in humans. The biologic activity of these transition metals is associated with the presence of unpaired electrons that favor their participation in redox reactions. They are part of important enzymes involved in vital biologic processes. However, these transition metals become toxic to cells when they reach elevated tissue concentrations and produce cellular oxidative damage. Phospholipid liposomes (0.5 mg/ml, phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylserine (PS), 60/40) were incubated for 60 min at 37 degrees C with 25 microM of Fe2+ in the absence and in the presence of Cu2+, Co2+, and Ni2+ (0-100 microM) with and without the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 5-50 microM). Iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in PC/PS liposomes was assessed by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) production. Metal transition ions promoted lipid peroxidation by H2O2 decomposition and direct homolysis of endogenous hydroperoxides. The Fe2+-H2O2-mediated lipid peroxidation takes place by a pseudo-second order process, and the Cu2+-mediated process by a pseudo-first order reaction. Co2+ and Ni2+ alone do not induce lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, when they are combined with Fe2+, Fe2+-H2O2-mediated lipid peroxidation was stimulated in the presence of Ni2+ and was inhibited in the presence of Co2+. The understanding of the effects of transition metal ions on phospholipids is relevant to the prevention of oxidative damage in biologic systems.

  1. LIPID PEROXIDATION IN MULTIPLE ORGAN FAILURE CAUSED BY ASSOCIATED CHEST AND HIP TRAUMA

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    M. I. Maruschak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The injured with polytrauma are classified as extremely severe patients, as their emergency care and intensive care is followed by significant difficulties, frequent development of complications, high mortality and survivors disability. Objective. This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of lipid peroxidation in heart, lungs, liver and blood of rats in early and late periods of combined traumatic injury of chest and hips and to establish their influence on the development of multiple organ failure. Methods. The study was conducted on 70 adult male white nonlinear rats. It was determined the content of lipid hydroperoxides and concentration of TBA-active products in erythrocyte mass, heart, lungs and liver. Results. The data prove activation of free radical oxidation at the first day of post-traumatic period. Analysis of the data evidences the increase in of lipid hydroperoxides (HPL rate in liver homogenate in group E1 in 1.5 times, in all subsequent periods of the research the increase in rate fluctuated within 1.9-2.0 times. In blood and heart the HPL rate increased twice in group E1, reached maximum in group E2 and gradually decreased till the end of the experiment, data exceeded the control group. The highest level of HPL was determined in lung tissues (r≤0.01. In the post traumatic period the highest TBA-AP was detected in lungs and liver. Conclusions. In case of simulated trauma (injury of chest with fractures of both hips hyperactivation processes of free radical oxidation is observed in 1 day, reaching a peak in 7-14 days of post-traumatic period in blood, tissues, liver, heart and lungs if compared to the control group causing multiple organ failure.

  2. [Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on membrane lipid peroxidation and photosynthetic characteristics of Cucumis sativus seedlings under drought stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jing-Hong; Yi, Yang; Shang, Qing-Mao; Dong, Chun-Juan; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2012-03-01

    To approach the related mechanisms of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in improving plant drought-resistance, this paper studied the effects of applying exogenous SA to the rhizosphere on the plant growth, membrane lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation, water use efficiency, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings under drought stresses (60% and 50% of saturated water capacity). Applying SA relieved the inhibitory effects of drought stress on plant growth, Pn, and water use efficiency, decreased membrane lipid peroxidation, and promoted proline accumulation. Meanwhile, the SA decreased the decrements of the maximum photochemical efficiency of PS II, actual photochemical efficiency of PS II, potential activity of PS II, effective photochemical efficiency of PS II, and photochemical quenching coefficient under drought stress significantly, and limited the increase of non-photochemical quenching coefficient. All the results suggested that applying exogenous SA could alleviate the oxidation damage of cell membrane resulted from the drought-caused membrane lipid peroxidation, improve the Pn by increasing PS II activity to benefit water utilization, enhance the regulation capability of osmosis to decrease water loss and increase water use efficiency, and thereby, improve the plant drought-resistance.

  3. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar M.; Sharma M.K.; Saxena P.S.; Kumar A. [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India)

    2003-03-01

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of

  4. Beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reduces plasma lipid peroxidation induced by haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich-Muszalska, Anna; Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta

    2011-07-01

    Since oxidative stress observed in schizophrenia may be caused partially by the treatment of patients with various antipsychotics, the aim of the study was to establish the effects of beta-d-glucan, polysaccharide derived from the yeast cell walls of species such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the antipsychotics (the first generation antipsychotic (FGA) - haloperidol and the second generation antipsychotic (SGA) - amisulpride) action on plasma lipid peroxidation in vitro. Lipid peroxidation in human plasma was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The samples of plasma from healthy subjects were incubated with haloperidol or amisulpride in the presence of beta-glucan (4 μg/ml). The action of beta-d-glucan was also compared with the properties of a well characterized commercial monomeric polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene, the final concentration - 4 μg/ml). The two-way analysis variance showed that the differences in TBARS levels were depended on the type of tested drugs (p=7.9 × 10(-6)). We observed a statistically increase of the level of biomarker of lipid peroxidation such as TBARS after 1 and 24h incubation of plasma with haloperidol compared to the control samples (p0.05). We showed that in the presence of beta-glucan, lipid peroxidation in plasma samples treated with haloperidol was significantly decreased. Moreover, we did not observe the synergistic action of beta-glucan and amisulpride on the inhibition of plasma lipid peroxidation. However, the beta-d-glucan was found to be more effective antioxidant, than the solution of pure resveratrol. The presented results indicate that beta-glucan seems to have distinctly protective effects against the impairment of plasma lipid molecules induced by haloperidol.

  5. Role of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in 3-methylindole pneumotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The cytochrome P-450-catalyzed metabolism of 3-methylindole (3-MI) results in acute lung injury in ruminants and horses. Experiments were conducted to determine the role of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in 3-MI pneumotoxicity in goats. Goats were given methylethylketone peroxide (MEKP), a potent peroxidant, 3-MI, indole, or cremophor-EL vehicle. The levels of shortchain hydrocarbons in expired air were measured for 6 hours post-dosing by gas chromatography. Exhaled hydrocarbons increased 20 to 30 fold within 1 hour in goats given MEKP. No significant changes were seen in goats given 3-Mi, indole or cremophor-EL. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, were significantly increased in lung tissue from goats given MEKP. In goats given 3-MI, indole or cremophor-EL, the levels were not significantly different from each other. Goats were killed at 6 hours post-dosing and examined post mortem. Bronchiolar epithelial necrosis was seen in goats given 3-MI but there were not lung lesions in other groups. The role of oxygen radicals in 3-MI pneumotoxicity was examined in a goat lung explant system using /sup 51/Cr release as an indicator of cytotoxicity. The results of these studies provide no evidence to support the view that 3-MI pneumotoxicity involves lipid peroxidation or oxidative stress as a result of formation of oxygen or xenobiotic radicals.

  6. Determination of serum aluminum, platelet aggregation and lipid peroxidation in hemodialyzed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.J.C. Neiva

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al3+ overload is frequently associated with lipid peroxidation and neurological disorders. Aluminum accumulation is also reported to be related to renal impairment, anemia and other clinical complications in hemodialysis patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the degree of lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and serum aluminum in patients receiving regular hemodialytic treatment. The level of plasma lipid peroxidation was evaluated on the basis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. Mean platelet peroxidation in patients undergoing hemodialysis was significantly higher than in normal controls (2.7 ± 0.03 vs 1.8 ± 0.06 nmol/l, P<0.05. Platelet aggregation and serum aluminum levels were determined by a turbidimetric method and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. Serum aluminum was significantly higher in patients than in normal controls (44.5 ± 29 vs 10.8 ± 2.5 µg/l, P<0.05. Human blood platelets were stimulated with collagen (2.2 µg/ml, adenosine diphosphate (6 µM and epinephrine (6 µM and showed reduced function with the three agonists utilized. No correlation between aluminum levels and platelet aggregation or between aluminum and peroxidation was observed in hemodialyzed patients.

  7. Clinical implications of lipid peroxidation in acne vulgaris: old wine in new bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Alan C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disorder, one that is frequently associated with depression, anxiety and other psychological sequelae. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the extent to which oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Emerging studies have shown that patients with acne are under increased cutaneous and systemic oxidative stress. Indeed, there are indications that lipid peroxidation itself is a match that lights an inflammatory cascade in acne. The notion that lipid peroxidation is a 'starter gun' in acne is not a new one; here we review the nearly 50-year-old lipid peroxidation theory and provide a historical perspective to the contemporary investigations and clinical implications. In addition, we present a novel hypothesis in which lipid peroxidation may be priming an increased susceptibility to co-morbid depression and anxiety in those with acne. The emerging research on the systemic burden of oxidative stress in acne sheds further light on the brain-skin axis. The recent findings also suggest potential avenues of approach for the treatment of acne via specific nutrients, dietary modifications, oral and topical interventions.

  8. Clinical implications of lipid peroxidation in acne vulgaris: old wine in new bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Whitney P; Logan, Alan C

    2010-12-09

    Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disorder, one that is frequently associated with depression, anxiety and other psychological sequelae. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the extent to which oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of acne. Emerging studies have shown that patients with acne are under increased cutaneous and systemic oxidative stress. Indeed, there are indications that lipid peroxidation itself is a match that lights an inflammatory cascade in acne. The notion that lipid peroxidation is a 'starter gun' in acne is not a new one; here we review the nearly 50-year-old lipid peroxidation theory and provide a historical perspective to the contemporary investigations and clinical implications.In addition, we present a novel hypothesis in which lipid peroxidation may be priming an increased susceptibility to co-morbid depression and anxiety in those with acne. The emerging research on the systemic burden of oxidative stress in acne sheds further light on the brain-skin axis. The recent findings also suggest potential avenues of approach for the treatment of acne via specific nutrients, dietary modifications, oral and topical interventions.

  9. Inhibitory Response of Raphanus sativus on Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats

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    P. Chaturvedi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, inhibitory effect of the methanol extract of Raphanus sativus root on lipid peroxidation has been carried out in normal rats. Graded doses of methanol extract of root of the plant (40, 80 and 120 mg kg−1 body weight were administered orally for 15 days to experimental treated rats. Distilled water was administered to experimental control rats. At the end of experiment, rats were killed by decapitation after ether anesthesia. Blood and liver were collected to measure thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, reduced glutathione and activity of catalase. Results indicated that the extract of R. sativus root reduced the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance significantly in all experimental treated groups (P < 0.05 as compared to the experimental control group. It also increased the levels of reduced glutathione and increased the activity of catalase. In vitro experiments with the liver of experimental control and experimental treated rats were also carried out against cumene hydroperoxide induced lipid peroxidation. The extract inhibited in vitro cumene hydroperoxide induced lipid peroxidation. R. sativus inhibits lipid peroxidation in vivo and in vitro. It provides protection by strengthening the antioxidants like glutathione and catalase. Inclusion of this plant in every day diet would be beneficial.

  10. Ameliorative effect of vitamin E on aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; Anita Nair

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the ameliorative effect of vitamin E on aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis. Methods: Adult male albino mice were orally administered 25 or 50 μg of aflatoxin in 0.2 mL olive oil per d for 45 d.The testis was isolated, blotted free of blood and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: There was a dose-dependent significantlyhigher lipid peroxidation in the testis of aflatoxin treated mice than in the controls. The levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione, total and reduced ascorbic acid, as well as the activities of enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were significantly lower in the testis of aflatoxin treated mice. Vitamin E (2 mg/d per animal; orally) pretreatment significantly ameliorates the aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation which could be due to higher enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the testis of mice as compared with those given aflatoxin alone. Conclusion: Vitamin E pretreatment significantly ameliorates aflatoxininduced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice.

  11. Changes in blood antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation following distance running

    OpenAIRE

    KELLE, Mustafa

    1998-01-01

    To examine the effects of increased O 2 utilization on blood antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation, ten trained male athletes took part in a 20 km distance race. Venous blood samples were removed before and immediately after completion of the half-marathon. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, an index of muscle damage, increased (p

  12. The influense of herbs origin drugs on lipid peroxidization during acute toxic damage of liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katikova, OY; Kostin, UV; Yagudina, RI; Tishcin, VC

    2001-01-01

    The influence of the original vegetable complexes (which include: juices of beet-rout and carrot, decoction of degrose berries, extracts of corn silk, leaves of peppermint and some other components) on the indicators of the cytolysis, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system of serum of the laborat

  13. Quality control of photosystem II: lipid peroxidation accelerates photoinhibition under excessive illumination.

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    Tiffanie Chan

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses lower the efficiency of photosynthesis and sometimes cause irreversible damage to plant functions. When spinach thylakoids and Photosystem II membranes were illuminated with excessive visible light (100-1,000 µmol photons m(-1 s(-1 for 10 min at either 20°C or 30°C, the optimum quantum yield of Photosystem II decreased as the light intensity and temperature increased. Reactive oxygen species and endogenous cationic radicals produced through a photochemical reaction at and/or near the reaction center have been implicated in the damage to the D1 protein. Here we present evidence that lipid peroxidation induced by the illumination is involved in the damage to the D1 protein and the subunits of the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II. This is reasoned from the results that considerable lipid peroxidation occurred in the thylakoids in the light, and that lipoxygenase externally added in the dark induced inhibition of Photosystem II activity in the thylakoids, production of singlet oxygen, which was monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping, and damage to the D1 protein, in parallel with lipid peroxidation. Modification of the subunits of the light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II by malondialdehyde as well as oxidation of the subunits was also observed. We suggest that mainly singlet oxygen formed through lipid peroxidation under light stress participates in damaging the Photosystem II subunits.

  14. Melatonin and pinoline prevent aluminium-induced lipid peroxidation in rat synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Plano, Sergio; García, Joaquin J; Martínez-Ballarín, Enrique; Reiter, Russel J; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Santiago; Lázaro, Rosa Maria; Escanero, Jesos Fernando

    2003-01-01

    The serum concentrations of aluminum, a metal potentially involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, increase with age. Also, intense and prolonged exposure to aluminum may result in dementia. Melatonin and pinoline are two well known antioxidants that efficiently reduce lipid peroxidation due to oxidative stress. Herein, we investigated the effects of melatonin and pinoline in preventing aluminum promotion of lipid peroxidation when the metal was combined with FeCl3 and ascorbic acid in rat synaptosomal membranes. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by quantifying malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyalkenal (4-HDA) concentrations in the membrane suspension. Under the experimental conditions used herein, the addition of aluminum (0.0001 to 1 mmol/L) enhanced MDA + 4-HDA formation in the synaptosomes. Melatonin and pinoline reduced, in a concentration-dependent manner, lipid peroxidation due to aluminum, FeCl3 and ascorbic acid in the synaptosomal membranes. These results suggest that the indoleamine melatonin and the beta-carboline pinoline may potentially act as neuroprotectant agents in the therapy of those diseases with elevated aluminum concentrations in the tissues.

  15. [Content of biological antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in the adrenal cortex in experimental circulatory insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, N A; Antsulevich, S N; Nadol'nik, L I; Naumov, A V; Beluga, V B; Vinogradov, V V

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen-week experimental insufficiency in rats causes exhaustion of adrenal cortex function. The number of diene conjugates in the adrenals increased, the alpha-tocopherol level decreased. It is suggested that reduced level of antioxidant protection and the associated activation of lipid peroxidation processes underlie the disorders of adrenal cortex function.

  16. FEATURES OF LIPID PEROXIDATION AND NEUROTROPHIC REGULATION IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Vilyanov

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the features of lipid peroxidation, activity of the antioxidative systems and level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Present study indicates associations between the studied parameters and type of progression, duration of disease and gender of patients.

  17. In situ detection of lipid peroxidation by-products in chronic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, V; Kollinger, M; Fabre, M; Holstege, A; Poynard, T; Bedossa, P

    1997-07-01

    Lipid peroxidation is an autocatalytic mechanism leading to oxidative destruction of cellular membranes. The deleterious consequences of this mechanism are related in part to the formation of reactive aldehydic products that bind to intra- or extracellular molecules to form adducts. Specific antibodies directed against malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) adducts, major aldehydic metabolites of lipid peroxidation, allowed us to investigate in situ, with an immunohistochemical procedure, the occurrence of lipid peroxidation in a panel of different chronic liver diseases. Intracellular HNE and MDA adducts were detected respectively in 24 of 39 cases (62%) and in 12 of 34 cases investigated (35%). They were localized mainly in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, with the strongest staining observed in hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease, and in areas of acute alcoholic hepatitis in cases of alcoholic liver diseases. A peculiar pattern of immunostaining was observed in primary biliary cirrhosis where biliary cells of destroyed but also intact bile ducts strongly expressed HNE adducts. The liver extracellular matrix also displayed MDA adducts (30 of 34 cases, 88%) and HNE adducts (23 of 39 cases, 59%). While HNE adducts were specifically localized on large bundles of collagen fibers, MDA adducts were detected in a thin reticular network and in sinusoidal cells around portal tracts or fibrous septa. In conclusion, lipid peroxidation by-products are detectable in chronic liver diseases. Immunohistochemical results suggest that this mechanism is implicated very early in the pathogenesis of some of these diseases.

  18. Sex-related differences in lipid peroxidation and photoprotection in Pistacia lentiscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvany, Marta; Müller, Maren; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-03-01

    Sex-related differences in the response of dioecious plants to abiotic stress have been poorly studied to date. This work explored to what extent sex may affect plant stress responses in Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae), a tree well adapted to Mediterranean climatic conditions. It was hypothesized that a greater reproductive effort in females may increase oxidative stress in leaves, particularly when plants are exposed to abiotic stress. Measurements of oxidative stress markers throughout the year revealed increased lipid peroxidation in females, but only during the winter. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in females was associated with reduced photoprotection, as indicated by reduced tocopherol levels and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in females was also observed at predawn, which was associated with increased lipoxygenase activity and reduced cytokinin levels. An analysis of the differences between reproductive (R) and nonreproductive (NR) shoots showed an enhanced photoprotective capacity in R shoots compared to NR shoots in females. This capacity was characterized by an increased NPQ and a better antioxidant protection (increased carotenoid and tocopherol levels per unit of chlorophyll) in R compared to NR shoots. It is concluded that (i) females exhibit higher lipid peroxidation in leaves than males, but only during the winter (when sex-related differences in reproductive effort are the highest), (ii) this is associated with a lower photoprotective capacity at midday, as well as enhanced lipoxygenase activity and reduced cytokinin levels at predawn, and (iii) photoprotection capacity is higher in R relative to NR shoots in females.

  19. Lipid peroxidation and cell death mechanisms in pulmonary epithelial cells induced by peroxynitrite and nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Yuan-Soon [School of Medical Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei (Taiwan); Liou, Hung-Bin; Lin, Yu-Ping; Guo, How-Ran; Ho, Sheng-Yow; Lee, Ching-Chang; Wang, Ying-Jan [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, 138 Sheng-Li Road, Tainan (Taiwan); Lin, Jen-Kun; Pan, Min-Hsiung [Institute of Biochemistry, National Taiwan University, Medical College, Taipei (Taiwan); Jeng, Jiiang-Huei [School of Dentistry, National Taiwan University and Hospital, Medical College, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2002-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an environmental pollutant found in smog and cigarette smoke. Recently, NO has been discovered to act as a molecular messenger, mediating various physiological functions. However, when an excess of NO is present, cytotoxic and mutagenic effects can also be induced. The reaction of NO with superoxide results in the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO{sup -}), which decomposes into the hydroxyl radical and nitrogen dioxide. Both of them are potent oxidant species that may initiate and propagate lipid peroxidation. In the present study, we examined the effects of NO and ONOO{sup -} on the induction of lipid peroxidation and cell death mechanisms in rats and in A549 pulmonary epithelial cells. The results showed that ONOO{sup -} is able to induce lipid peroxidation in pulmonary epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. 8-Epi-prostaglandin F{sub 2{alpha}} can serve as a good biomarker of lipid peroxidation both in vitro and in vivo. Postmitotic apoptosis was found in A549 cells exposed to NO, whereas ONOO{sup -} induced cell death more characteristic of necrosis than apoptosis. Apoptosis that occurred in cells may be related to the dysfunction of mitochondria, the release of cytochrome c into cytosol, and the activation of caspase-9. The relationship between caspase activation and the cleavage of other death substrates during postmitotic apoptosis in A549 cells needs further investigation. (orig.)

  20. Effects of UV radiation on hatching, lipid peroxidation, and fatty acid composition in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Yeonjung; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Un-Ki; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of UV radiation on the reproductive physiology and macromolecules in marine zooplankton, several doses of UV radiation were used to treat the copepod Paracyclopina nana, and we analyzed in vivo endpoints of their life cycle such as mortality and reproductive parameters with in vitro biochemical biomarkers such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), the modulated enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the production of a byproduct of peroxidation (e.g. malonedialdehyde, MDA). After UV radiation, the survival rate of P. nana was significantly reduced. Also, egg sac damage and a reduction in the hatching rate of offspring were observed in UV-irradiated ovigerous females. According to the assessed biochemical parameters, we found dose-dependent increases in ROS levels and high levels of the lipid peroxidation decomposition product by 2 kJ m(-2), implying that P. nana was under off-balanced status by oxidative stress-mediated cellular damage. Antioxidant enzyme activities of GST and SOD increased over different doses of UV radiation. To measure UV-induced lipid peroxidation, we found a slight reduction in the composition of essential fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These findings indicate that UV radiation can induce oxidative stress-triggered lipid peroxidation with modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity, leading to a significant effect on mortality and reproductive physiology (e.g. fecundity). These results demonstrate the involvement of UV radiation on essential fatty acids and its susceptibility to UV radiation in the copepod P. nana compared to other species.

  1. Aminoguanidine inhibits reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, and oxidant-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, I; Fard, A K; Hatchell, D L; Brownlee, M

    1998-07-01

    Aminoguanidine (AG) treatment, like nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment, prevents diabetes-induced apoptosis of retinal Müller cells in the rat eye, but the mechanism involved is unknown. In this study, the effects of preincubation with AG on oxidant-induced apoptosis, oxidant-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and lipid peroxidation were determined in rat retinal Müller cells and compared with the effects of NGF, a protein that protects neuronal cells from oxidative stress. The effect of AG on rabbit vitreous lipid peroxide levels was also determined. After exposure to increasing concentrations of H2O2, there was a corresponding increase in the percentage of apoptotic Müller cells. Preincubation with AG for 48 h completely inhibited oxidant-induced apoptosis in response to 10 micromol/l H2O2 (+AG 0 vs. 10 micromol/l, NS), and reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells in response to 50 micromol/l H2O2 by 50% (+AG vs. -AG, P NGF. Both AG and NGF preincubation prevented the twofold increase in oxidant-induced lipid peroxides. The fivefold increase in oxidant-induced ROS production was decreased 100% by NGF, but only 61% by AG preincubation. The twofold increase in vitreous lipid peroxide level in diabetic rabbits was completely prevented by AG treatment. AG reduced H2O2-induced benzoate hydroxylation in a dose-dependent manner. Intracellular glutathione content was unchanged. These data demonstrate that AG can act as an antioxidant in vivo, quenching hydroxyl radicals and lipid peroxidation in cells and tissues and preventing oxidant-induced apoptosis.

  2. Inhibition of rat microsomal lipid peroxidation by the oral administration of D002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menéndez R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of D002, a defined mixture of higher primary alcohols purified from bee wax, on in vivo and in vitro lipid peroxidation was studied. The extent of lipid peroxidation was measured on the basis of the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. When D002 (5-100 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to rats for two weeks, a partial inhibition of the in vitro enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation was observed in liver and brain microsomes. Maximal protection (46% occurred at a dose of 25 mg/kg. D002 behaved differently depending on both the presence of NADPH and the integrity of liver microsomes, which suggests that under conditions where microsomal metabolism was favored the protective effect of D002 was increased. D002 (25 mg/kg also completely inhibited carbon tetrachloride- and toluene-induced in vivo lipid peroxidation in liver and brain. Also, D002 significantly lowered in a dose-dependent manner the basal level of TBARS in liver (19-40% and brain (28-44% microsomes. We conclude that the oral administration of D002 (5, 25 and 100 mg/kg for two weeks protected rat liver and brain microsomes against microsomal lipid peroxidation in vitro and in vivo. Thus, D002 could be useful as a dietary natural antioxidant supplement. More studies are required before these data can be extrapolated to the recommendation for the use of D002 as a dietary antioxidant supplement for humans.

  3. Hydrophytes lack potential to exhibit cadmium stress induced enhancement in lipid peroxidation and accumulation of proline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhir, Bhupinder; Sharmila, P.; Saradhi, P. Pardha

    2004-02-10

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate if hydrophytes (viz. Ceratophyllum, Wolffia, and Hydrilla) can be used as markers to assess the level of heavy metal pollution in aquatic bodies. The potential of these hydrophytes for lipid peroxidation and accumulation of proline in response to cadmium (Cd{sup 2+}) pollution was studied. Hydrophytes were raised in artificial pond water (APW) supplemented with various levels of Cd{sup 2+}. Interestingly, unlike mesophytes none of the hydrophytes showed ability to accumulate proline. Infact, in response to Cd{sup 2+} pollution hydrophytes exhibited a decline in proline levels in comparison to controls but mesophytes (viz. Brassica juncea, Vigna radiata and Triticum aestivum) showed progressive increase in the level of proline with increase in the extent of Cd{sup 2+} pollution. Mesophytes showed six to nine-fold increase in the level of proline in response to 1 mM Cd{sup 2+}. The potential of the above hydrophytes for lipid peroxidation was also low under Cd{sup 2+} stress. In contrast, as expected a significant enhancement in the lipid peroxidation was observed in all three mesophytes in response to their exposure to Cd{sup 2+}. About two-fold increase in production of malondialdehyde (a cytotoxic product of lipid peroxidation) was recorded in mesophytes exposed to 1 mM Cd{sup 2+}. However, a decline in chlorophyll (Chl a and Chl b) levels was recorded in response to Cd{sup 2+}pollution both in hydrophytes as well as mesophytes. In summary, hydrophytes neither have potential to accumulate proline nor have ability to accelerate lipid peroxidation under heavy metal stress. This suggests that the adaptive mechanism(s) existing in hydrophytes to tackle heavy metal stress is distinct from that in mesophytes.

  4. Effects of lithium therapy on Na+-K+-ATPase activity and lipid peroxidation in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ushasi; Dasgupta, Anindya; Rout, Jayanta Kumar; Singh, Om Prakash

    2012-04-27

    Oxidative stress induced lipid peroxidation along with a reduced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorders (BPD). Although, lithium therapy results in significant improvement in the symptoms of the disease, studies regarding its effect on the altered sodium pump activity and lipid peroxidation status have come out with conflicting results. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the status of lipid peroxidation and analyze the role of lithium and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in its regulation in BPD patients in our region. We measured RBC membrane Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and serum thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) level in 73 BPD patients and serum lithium, in addition, in 48 patients receiving lithium therapy among them. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and serum TBARS level were significantly decreased and increased respectively in all BPD patients compared to age and sex matched healthy controls. Same trend was observed in the BPD patients stabilized on lithium therapy compared to the lithium naive ones. Although, the enzyme activity showed a reciprocal relationship with TBARS in all patients of BPD, a significant positive correlation and dependence of the enzyme activity was evident with serum lithium level only in the lithium stabilized BPD group. BPD patients showed significantly compromised Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and increased lipid peroxidation. Lithium induced improvement in the enzyme activity was associated with significant reduction in lipid peroxidation. Enhancement of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by optimum dosage of lithium may be a potential contributing factor for reducing oxidative stress in BPD patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An increase in lipoprotein oxidation and endogenous lipid peroxides in serum of obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu-Türkoğlu, U; Oztezcan, S; Telci, A; Orhan, Y; Aykaç-Toker, G; Sivas, A; Uysal, M

    2003-02-01

    Endogenous malondialdehyde and diene conjugate levels, the susceptibility of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins to copper-induced lipid peroxidation, and antibody titer against oxidized low-density lipoproteins were increased, but serum antioxidant activity was unchanged in obese women. Serum cholesterol, low-density lipoproteincholesterol, and trigliceride levels were also elevated, but high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels remained unchanged in obese women. In vitro, oxidation of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and levels of antibody against oxidized low-density lipoprotein correlated with body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteincholesterol levels in obese women. These results indicate that obesity is associated with increases in endogenous lipid peroxides, oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, and lipids in serum.

  6. [Lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system in imitation diving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrakhovich, E A; Vdovin, A V; Biziukin, A V; Pavlov, B N; Smolin, V V; Meshkov, D O

    1998-01-01

    Plasma lipid oxidation (LPO) and antioxidative system were examined in test divers who made imitation diving in the pressure chamber to the depth of 250 meters. Imitation diving showed higher iron levels, followed by a rise in the concentration of primary LPO products. There were no increases in the levels of secondary LPO products probably due to the fact that the ceruloplasmin-transferrin system released active iron from the reaction and that peroxy radicals were inactivated by SH groups.

  7. Regulation of NF-B-Induced Inflammatory Signaling by Lipid Peroxidation-Derived Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh C. S. Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of a wide range of diseases including cancer. This view has broadened significantly with the recent discoveries that reactive oxygen species initiated lipid peroxidation leads to the formation of potentially toxic lipid aldehyde species such as 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE, acrolein, and malondialdehyde which activate various signaling intermediates that regulate cellular activity and dysfunction via a process called redox signaling. The lipid aldehyde species formed during synchronized enzymatic pathways result in the posttranslational modification of proteins and DNA leading to cytotoxicity and genotoxicty. Among the lipid aldehyde species, HNE has been widely accepted as a most toxic and abundant lipid aldehyde generated during lipid peroxidation. HNE and its glutathione conjugates have been shown to regulate redox-sensitive transcription factors such as NF-B and AP-1 via signaling through various protein kinase cascades. Activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors and their nuclear localization leads to transcriptional induction of several genes responsible for cell survival, differentiation, and death. In this review, we describe the mechanisms by which the lipid aldehydes transduce activation of NF-B signaling pathways that may help to develop therapeutic strategies for the prevention of a number of inflammatory diseases.

  8. Resveratrol alters the lipid composition, metabolism and peroxide level in senescent rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momchilova, Albena; Petkova, Diana; Staneva, Galya; Markovska, Tania; Pankov, Roumen; Skrobanska, Ralica; Nikolova-Karakashian, Mariana; Koumanov, Kamen

    2014-01-25

    Investigations were performed on the influence of resveratrol on the lipid composition, metabolism, fatty acid and peroxide level in plasma membranes of hepatocytes, isolated from aged rats. Hepatocytes were chosen due to the central role of the liver in lipid metabolism and homeostasis. The obtained results showed that the level of sphingomyelin (SM) and phosphatidylserine (PS) was augmented in plasma membranes of resveratrol-treated senescent hepatocytes. The saturated/unsaturated fatty acids ratio of the two most abundant membrane phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), was decreased as a result of resveratrol treatment. The neutral sphingomyelinase was found to be responsible for the increase of SM and the decrease of ceramide in plasma membranes of resveratrol-treated senescent hepatocytes. Using labeled acetate as a precursor of lipid synthesis we demonstrated, that resveratrol treatment resulted in inhibition mainly of phospholipid synthesis, followed by fatty acids synthesis. Resveratrol induced reduction of specific membrane-associated markers of apoptosis such as localization of PS in the external plasma membrane monolayer and ceramide level. Finally, the content of lipid peroxides was investigated, because the unsaturated fatty acids, which were augmented as a result of resveratrol treatment, are an excellent target of oxidative attack. The results showed that the lipid peroxide level was significantly lower, ROS were slightly reduced and GSH was almost unchanged in resveratrol-treated hepatocytes. We suggest, that one possible biochemical mechanism, underlying the reported resveratrol-induced changes, is the partial inactivation of neutral sphingomyelinase, leading to increase of SM, the latter acting as a native membrane antioxidant. In conclusion, our studies indicate that resveratrol treatment induces beneficial alterations in the phospholipid and fatty acid composition, as well as in the ceramide and peroxide

  9. Compositional Factors that Influence Lipid Peroxidation in Beef Juice and Standard Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gu; Haug, Anna; Nordvi, Berit; Saarem, Kristin; Oostindjer, Marije; Langsrud, Øyvind; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2015-12-01

    In order to identify how different additives influenced lipid peroxidation formation, a sausage only using beef juice as pigment source and a standard beef-pork meat sausage were studied. The effects of different additives, including fish oil, myoglobin, nitrite, clove extract, and calcium sources on oxidation and sensory properties were examined. Both sausage systems were stored in 3 different manners prior to testing: (1) frozen immediately at -80 °C; (2) chilled stored for 2.5 weeks followed by fluorescent light illumination at 4 °C for another 2 wk; (3) frozen at -20 °C for 5 mo. The frozen group 3 showed the highest peroxide formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) for both sausage systems. Unpolar peroxides dominated in both systems. The clove extract could offset the peroxide formation from myoglobin/beef juice and/or fish oil, but the addition of clove flavor was recognized by the sensory panelists. Calcium addition reduced lipid peroxide formation. Added nitrite and fish oil seemed to interact to stimulate nitroso-myoglobin formation. Nitrite was identified to interact with clove addition and thereby, relatively speaking, increased TBARS. The 2 sausage systems generally ranked the additives similarly as pro- and antioxidants.

  10. Synergistic Protection of L-Arginine and Vitamin E On Lipid Peroxidation of Asthenospermic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Srivastava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lipid peroxidation is known to cause various impairments to sperm cells and mayplay a major role in the etiology of male infertility. Asthenospermia is the main factor of maleinfertility and has significantly higher level of peroxidation than in normozoospermic males.Materials and Methods: Using thiobarbituric acid (TBA assay procedure, we have determinedthe level of lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA in the spermatozoa obtainedfrom asthenospermic male semen.Results: An inverse correlation of MDA concentration with sperm motility is observed. Treatmentof cells with L-arginine and vitamin E significantly decreases the MDA concentration and improvesthe sperm motility as compared to that in case of control samples. A combination of L-arginine andvitamin E shows synergistic effect on sperm motility and prevention of lipid peroxidation.Conclusion: L-arginine and vitamin E protect the cells against the loss of sperm motility by lipidperoxidation. Therefore, supplementation of both L-arginine and vitamin E may improve spermmotility and increase the possibility of fertilization in asthenospermic subjects.

  11. Terazosin-induced alterations in catalase expression and lipid peroxidation in the rat seminal vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, D; Patris, E; Deliconstantinos, G; Kyroudi-Voulgari, A; Anastasiou, I; Perea, D

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonists may alter seminal vesicle contractility and impair fertility in male rats. This study was designed to investigate the effects of terazosin on the catalase expression in the seminal vesicles and the lipid peroxidation of the seminal fluid in normal adult rats. Wistar rats were treated with terazosin (1.2 mg kg(-1) body weight, given orally every second day) for 120 days. Catalase expression was assessed immunohistochemically in tissue sections of the seminal vesicles, and lipid peroxidation was estimated by measuring the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the seminal vesicles' fluid. The seminal vesicles in terazosin-treated rats were particularly distended in comparison with those of controls, and their secreting epithelium was suppressed. Cytoplasmic catalase expression in the secreting epithelial cells (% of cells) was increased in terazosin-treated specimens in comparison with controls (76.1 ± 17.1 versus 51.3 ± 25.1, P = 0.005). MDA levels (μm) were also higher in samples from treated subjects in comparison with controls (2.67 ± 1.19 versus 1.39 ± 0.19, P = 0.01). Although the direct effect of terazosin treatment on the seminal vesicles is that of impaired contractility, an indirect effect is that on fertility by increasing lipid peroxidation in the seminal fluid and/or through degrading of hydrogen peroxide that is essential for sperm capacitation.

  12. Hepatic Lipid Peroxidation and Cytochrome P-450 2E1 in Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and its Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lauren N; Molleston, Jean P; Morton, Michael J; Klipsch, Ann; Saxena, Romil; Vuppalanchi, Raj; Chalasani, Naga

    2017-01-01

    Background Elevated hepatic oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation levels caused by increased hepatic Cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) enzyme activity has been speculated to play a role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). But studies of lipid peroxidation and CYP2E1 in children are lacking. Aim To compare hepatic lipid peroxidation and hepatic CYP2E1 protein content in liver biopsies from children with NAFLD and two control groups. Study Liver biopsies from 59 children with NAFLD (49 with NASH), 10 children with normal liver histology, and 9 children with chronic hepatitis C infection (HCV) were examined. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA, a measure of lipid peroxidation) levels and CYP2E1 protein content were quantitated, as a percent of total area, by immunohistochemical staining of liver biopsy material followed by digital image quantitation. Results Lipid peroxidation was significantly greater in NAFLD liver biopsies (46.7 ± 20.8%) compared to liver biopsies from children with normal liver histology (7.6 ± 9.4%; pbiopsies compared to other groups (p=). Among children with NAFLD, lipid peroxidation and CYP2E1 protein content were not different between biopsies with and without NASH. The BMI was independently associated with hepatic lipid peroxidation (r=0.549; p<0.001). Conclusions Hepatic lipid peroxidation is increased in children with NAFLD but this is not related to hepatic CYP2E1. Lack of difference in lipid peroxidation among different NAFLD subgroups argues against its role in the disease progression. PMID:21602702

  13. Membrane lipid peroxidation in copper alloy-mediated contact killing of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Robert; Kang, Tae Y; Michels, Corinne A; Gadura, Nidhi

    2012-03-01

    Copper alloy surfaces are passive antimicrobial sanitizing agents that kill bacteria, fungi, and some viruses. Studies of the mechanism of contact killing in Escherichia coli implicate the membrane as the target, yet the specific component and underlying biochemistry remain unknown. This study explores the hypothesis that nonenzymatic peroxidation of membrane phospholipids is responsible for copper alloy-mediated surface killing. Lipid peroxidation was monitored with the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Survival, TBARS levels, and DNA degradation were followed in cells exposed to copper alloy surfaces containing 60 to 99.90% copper or in medium containing CuSO(4). In all cases, TBARS levels increased with copper exposure levels. Cells exposed to the highest copper content alloys, C11000 and C24000, exhibited novel characteristics. TBARS increased immediately at a very rapid rate but peaked at about 30 min. This peak was associated with the period of most rapid killing, loss in membrane integrity, and DNA degradation. DNA degradation is not the primary cause of copper-mediated surface killing. Cells exposed to the 60% copper alloy for 60 min had fully intact genomic DNA but no viable cells. In a fabR mutant strain with increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids, sensitivity to copper alloy surface-mediated killing increased, TBARS levels peaked earlier, and genomic DNA degradation occurred sooner than in the isogenic parental strain. Taken together, these results suggest that copper alloy surface-mediated killing of E. coli is triggered by nonenzymatic oxidative damage of membrane phospholipids that ultimately results in the loss of membrane integrity and cell death.

  14. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in endometrium of patients with polyps, myoma, hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajović Snežana B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been proposed as a potential factors involved in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states, including carcinogenesis. In this study, we explored the lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in women diagnosed with different forms of gynecological diseases in order to evaluate the antioxidant status in endometrium of such patients. Methods Endometrial tissues of gynecological patients with different diagnoses were collected and subjected to assays for superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and lipid hydroperoxides. Results Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased (50% in average in hyperplastic and adenocarcinoma patients. Activities of both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were increased 60% and 100% on average, in hyperplastic patients, while in adenocarcinoma patients only glutathione reductase activity was elevated 100%. Catalase activity was significantly decreased in adenocarcinoma patients (47%. Lipid hydroperoxides level was negatively correlated to superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and positively correlated to glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. Conclusions This study provided the first comparison of antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in endometrial tissues of patients with polyps, myoma, hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma. The results showed that patients with premalignant (hyperplastic and malignant (adenocarcinoma lesions had enhanced lipid peroxidation and altered uterine antioxidant enzyme activities than patients with benign uterine diseases, polyps and myoma, although the extent of disturbance varied with the diagnosis. Further investigation is needed to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the observed alterations and whether lipid hydroperoxide levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in uterus of gynecological patients

  15. Lipoxidation products as biomarkers of oxidative damage to proteins during lipid peroxidation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, J R; Fu, M X; Ahmed, M U; Jenkins, A J; Lyons, T J; Thorpe, S R

    1996-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous disease processes including diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, ischaemia reperfusion injury and rheumatoid arthritis. Chemical modification of amino acids in protein during lipid peroxidation results in the formation of lipoxidation products which may serve as indicators of oxidative stress in vivo. The focus of the studies described here was initially to identify chemical modifications of protein derived exclusively from lipids in order to assess the role of lipid peroxidative damage in the pathogenesis of disease. Malondialdehye (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) are well characterized oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and adducts of these compounds have been detected by immunological means in atherosclerotic plaque. Thus, we first developed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assays for the Schiff base adduct of MDA to lysine, the lysine-MDA-lysine diimine cross-link and the Michael addition product of HNE to lysine. Using these assays, we showed that the concentrations of all three compounds increased significantly in LDL during metal-catalysed oxidation in vitro. The concentration of the advanced glycation end-product N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) also increased during LDL oxidation, while that of its putative carbohydrate precursor the Amadori compound N epsilon-(1-deoxyfructose-1-yl)lysine did not change, demonstrating that CML is a marker of both glycoxidation and lipoxidation reactions. These results suggest that MDA and HNE adducts to lysine residues should serve as biomarkers of lipid modification resulting from lipid peroxidation reactions, while CML may serve as a biomarker of general oxidative stress resulting from both carbohydrate and lipid oxidation reactions.

  16. Biomedical studies on lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte fragility during the process of aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun; Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate oxidative stress,hemoglobin percentage and erythrocyte osmotic fragility in various aging groups.Methods:A total of 200 healthy volunteers of hoth genders between age group 20-65 years were selected by random method.Determination of hemoglobin percentage was done employing modified cyanide method of Dacie and Lewis.The erythrocyte lysis was observed in hypotonic solution of buffered saline at varying concentrations and optical density was measured at 540 nm.The extent of lipid peroxidation in form of malondialdehyde was measured by thiobarbituric acid method.Results:The study found a significant decrease in hemoglobin percentage,increase in erythrocyte osmotic fragility and increased lipid peroxidation in form of malondialdehyde with increasing age.Conclusions:Supplementation of antioxidants may prevent the oxidative injury in elderly group of subjects.

  17. Effect of pineapple peel extract on total phospholipids and lipid peroxidation in brain tissues of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erukainure OL; Ajiboye JA; Adejobi RO; Okafor OY; Kosoko SB; Owolabi FO

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the ability of the methanolic extract of pineapple peel to attenuate alcohol-induced changes in total phospholipids and lipid peroxidation in brain tissues. Methods:Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20%w/v) at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw in rats. After 28 days of treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Brain tissues were assayed for total phospholipid (TP) content and malondialdehyde (MDA). Results:Administration of alcohol significantly caused a reduction in TP content. Treatment with pineapple peel extract significantly increased the TP content. Significant high levels of MDA was observed in alcohol-fed rats, treatment with pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the MDA levels. Conclusions:Results obtained from this study indicates that pineapple peel extract protects against alcohol-induced changes in total phospholipids and lipid peroxidation in brain tissues.

  18. Functional disability of rat splenocytes provoked to lipid peroxidation by cumene hydroperoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, J; Shimura, F; Hosoya, N

    1985-04-22

    Rat splenocytes were provoked to lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner by cumene hydroperoxide. After exposure to cumene hydroperoxide, formation of high molecular weight protein, presumably through cross-linking of lower molecular weight protein, was stimulated in splenocytes as well as in erythrocyte ghosts. The mitogenic response to concanavalin A of splenocytes was remarkably depressed by addition of cumene hydroperoxide to cultures. This depression was due rather to failures of splenocytes in responding to concanavalin A than deactivation of concanavalin A molecules. It is notworthy that the viability of splenocytes was unaffected by cumene hydroperoxide under the culture conditions where the mitogenic response was depressed. The addition of alpha-tocopherol or thiourea could block the depression of mitogenic response by cumene hydroperoxide, indicating that the depressed response to concanavalin A was related to radical formation. Overall evidence suggests that the function of immunocompetent cells can be depressed through lipid peroxidation-associated mechanisms without suffering from lethal damage.

  19. Effect of vitamin E on human sperm motility and lipid peroxidation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AnilVerma

    1999-01-01

    Aim: To assess the protective efficacy of vitamin E to counteract the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated damage onsperm motility, viability and lipid peroxidation. Melhods: Human semen samplns were obtained from the local hospi-tal. The split seminal fractions freed of seminal plasma v, ere reeonstimted in Ringer-Tymde and subjected to varied vita-min E concentrations (0.1-2 mmol/L), Results: Dose-dependent improvement in both motility and viability accom-panied by concomitant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA an end product of lipid peroxidation) following vitamin Esuppllementation was noticed. Conclusion: Vitamin E protects against the ROS mediated damage on spermatozoa.Vimmth E supplementation could be of clinical importance for prolonged spermatozoal storage whenever needed.

  20. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by extracts/subfractions of Chickrassy ( Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Thind, Tarunpreet Singh; Singh, Bikram; Arora, Saroj

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenols and polyphenol-rich fractions of plants have been reported to have protective effects against lipid peroxidation, most probably by serving as scavengers of free radicals and/or by chelating metal ions. In the present study, the effect of different extracts/subfractions of Chickrassy ( Chukrasia tabularis) on peroxyl radical mediated damage to the polyunsaturated fatty acids was investigated. Liver homogenate was used as experimental material. The production of malondialdehyde served as a marker of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. It was observed that polyphenol-rich fractions, particularly the ethyl acetate fractions of bark and leaves, showed the highest protective activity of 83.02% and 88.62% inhibition, respectively. This study will help in knowing the scientific validation of this plant, for its use in ayurvedic formulations.

  1. Breath pentane as a marker for lipid peroxidation and adverse outcome in preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nycyk, J; Drury, J; Cooke, R

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To test the hypothesis that complications of neonatal intensive care are related to increased oxygen derived free radical activity, using breath pentane as a marker of lipid peroxidation.
METHODS—Exhaled breath was collected daily from 57 ventilated preterm infants and pentane concentration measured by gas chromatography.
RESULTS—High peak pentane exhalation was significantly associated with low gestational age, mortality, intraventricular haemorrhage and retinopathy of prematurity. Peak pentane was not significantly associated with the development of chronic lung disease.
CONCLUSIONS—The demonstration that pentane exhalation is related to the course of neonatal disease and its outcome is consistent with the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation is associated with these illnesses, and may contribute to their severity. If this is a causal relation, antioxidant treatments could prove useful in reducing their severity. Measurement of breath pentane might assist in the assessment of antioxidant strategies prior to more extensive clinical trials.

 PMID:9797630

  2. Role of Lipid Peroxidation-Derived α, β-Unsaturated Aldehydes in Vascular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular diseases are the most prominent cause of death, and inflammation and vascular dysfunction are key initiators of the pathophysiology of vascular disease. Lipid peroxidation products, such as acrolein and other α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, have been implicated as mediators of inflammation and vascular dysfunction. α, β-Unsaturated aldehydes are toxic because of their high reactivity with nucleophiles and their ability to form protein and DNA adducts without prior metabolic activation. This strong reactivity leads to electrophilic stress that disrupts normal cellular function. Furthermore, α, β-unsaturated aldehydes are reported to cause endothelial dysfunction by induction of oxidative stress, redox-sensitive mechanisms, and inflammatory changes such as induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and cytokines. This review provides an overview of the effects of lipid peroxidation products, α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, on inflammation and vascular dysfunction.

  3. Effects of Silica on Serum Phospholipid,Lipid Peroxide and Morphological Characteristics of Rat Lung

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOWEI-XIN; LIGUO-HUA; 等

    1995-01-01

    The effects of instilled silica have been studied on the serum-phospholipid(PL).lipid peroxide(LPO)and histopathology of rat lung up to 140 days from the first day of instillation.Silica induced relatively higher serum-PL throunghout the experiment.The level of LPO also increased appreciably.They presented positive linear correlation.The early lesion was acute alveolitis with silica particles.These lesions became silicotic nodules on the 30th day,which then were enlargen gradually and fused by fibrosis.Alveolar macrophages(AM)were activated and surface structure was damaged.These results indicate that instilled silica can induce lipid peroxidation of cell membrane and selective accumulation of lung PL.

  4. Influence of the Siberian larch extract on the processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids in experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateyuk Andrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions wood processing is one of the primary branches of production in Transbaikal region. In connection with big squares of logging the question of processing and utilizing waste products directly on the spot is particularly acute. We researched the activity of water extract from sawdust of Siberian larch "Ekstrapinus" on the power exchange and processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids against immobilized stress in experiment. The data provided in the article prove that the use of Ekstrapinus extract reduces the pathological violations arising under stress. So, Ekstrapinus extract restores energy potential of cages when modeling stress, restores energy potential of cells, normalizes balance in the system "peroxide oxidation of lipids – antioxidant protection" and supports the balance of tiol in an animal organism in the state of stress. Considering absence of toxicity in the recommended doses, it is possible to recommend their application under stress.

  5. Reconstitution studies on the involvement of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in damage to membrane enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, O; Nagatsuka, S; Nakazawa, T

    1983-04-01

    The effect of radiation on the drug-metabolizing enzyme system of microsomes, reconstituted with liposomes of microsomal phospholipids, NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase and cytochrome P-450, was examined to elucidate the role of lipid peroxidation of membranes in radiation-induced damage to membrane-bound enzymes. The reconstituted system of non-irradiated enzymes with irradiated liposomes showed a low activity of hexobarbital hydroxylation, whereas irradiated enzymes combined with non-irradiated liposomes exhibited an activity equal to that of unirradiated controls. Irradiation of liposomes caused a decrease in cytochrome P-450 content by destruction of the haem of cytochrome P-450 and also inhibited the binding capacity of cytochrome P-450 for hexobarbital. The relationship between radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and membrane-bound enzymes is discussed.

  6. Reconstitution studies on the involvement of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in damage to membrane enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukawa, O.; Nagatsuka, S.; Nakazawa, T. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1983-04-01

    The effect of ..gamma..-radiation on the drug-metabolizing enzyme system of microsomes, reconstituted with liposomes of microsomal phospholipids, NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase and cytochrome P-450, was examined to elucidate the role of lipid peroxidation of membranes in radiation-induced damage to membrane-bound enzymes. The reconstituted system of non-irradiated enzymes with irradiated liposomes showed a low activity of hexobarbital hydroxylation, whereas irradiated enzymes combined with non-irradiated liposomes exhibited an activity equal to that of unirradiated controls. Irradiation of liposomes caused a decrease in cytochrome P-450 content by destruction of the haem of cytochrome P-450 and also inhibited the binding capacity of cytochrome P-450 for hexobarbital. The relationship between radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and membrane-bound enzymes is discussed.

  7. Seasonal variations in the antioxidant defence systems and lipid peroxidation of the digestive gland of mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viarengo, A; Canesi, L; Pertica, M; Livingstone, D R

    1991-01-01

    1. The seasonal variations in the level of antioxidant compounds (glutathione (GSH), vitamin E, carotenoids) and in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), GSH-peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) in the digestive gland of mussels (Mytilus sp.) were evaluated. The lipid peroxidation process was also measured by determining the tissue concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). 2. The physiological fluctuations of the antioxidant defence systems were inversely related to the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (MDA) in the tissue. The observed seasonal variations are presumably related to the changing metabolic status of the animals, itself dependent on such factors as gonad ripening and food availability. 3. In particular, the obtained data indicate that a reduction of the antioxidant defence systems, occurring during winter, could be directly responsible for an enhanced susceptibility of mussels tissues to oxidative stress, as indicated by the high MDA concentration observed in this period.

  8. Biomedical studies on lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte fragility during the process of aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate oxidative stress, hemoglobin percentage and erythrocyte osmotic fragility in various aging groups. Methods: A total of 200 healthy volunteers of both genders between age group 20-65 years were selected by random method. Determination of hemoglobin percentage was done employing modified cyanide method of Dacie and Lewis. The erythrocyte lysis was observed in hypotonic solution of buffered saline at varying concentrations and optical density was measured at 540 nm. The extent of lipid peroxidation in form of malondialdehyde was measured by thiobarbituric acid method. Results: The study found a significant decrease in hemoglobin percentage, increase in erythrocyte osmotic fragility and increased lipid peroxidation in form of malondialdehyde with increasing age. Conclusions: Supplementation of antioxidants may prevent the oxidative injury in elderly group of subjects.

  9. Nifedipine does not affect free radical induced lipid peroxidation following renal allograft reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, A; Hopton, M; Bolton, C

    1994-01-01

    We prospectively measured lipid peroxidation following reperfusion during 44 renal allograft transplant operations. Twenty-four (55%) recipients were taking nifedipine pre- and then postoperatively, and 20 (45%) were not. There were no differences between the groups in terms of recipient or donor status. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), mean 2.2 (0.2) mumol/L (SEM) vs. 1.73 (0.1) was greater in the group not prescribed nifedipine, p nifedipine group to 0.38 (0.02) at 30 min after reperfusion and 0.38 (0.03) at 60 min, p nifedipine and no-nifedipine groups, respectively. There was no difference in postoperative renal function between the groups. This study suggests that the oral administration of nifedipine may not prevent the production of lipid peroxides, as measured by changes in plasma malondialdehyde, following renal allograft reperfusion and that it does not affect renal function in the early postoperative period.

  10. An in vitro model to test relative antioxidant potential: Ultraviolet-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelle, E.; Maes, D.; Padulo, G.A.; Kim, E.K.; Smith, W.P. (Estee Lauder Research and Development, Melville, NY (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Since antioxidants have been shown to play a major role in preventing some of the effects of aging and photoaging in skin, it is important to study this phenomenon in a controlled manner. This was accomplished by developing a simple and reliable in vitro technique to assay antioxidant efficacy. Inhibition of peroxidation by antioxidants was used as a measure of relative antioxidant potential. Liposomes, high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were dispersed in buffer and irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light. Irradiated liposomes exhibited a significantly higher amount of hydroperoxides than liposomes containing antioxidants in a dose- and concentration-dependent manner. Lipid peroxidation was determined spectrophotometrically by an increase in thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. To further substantiate the production of lipid peroxides, gas chromatography was used to measure a decrease in PUFA substrate. In order of decreasing antioxidant effectiveness, the following results were found among lipophilic antioxidants: BHA greater than catechin greater than BHT greater than alpha-tocopherol greater than chlorogenic acid. Among hydrophilic antioxidants, ascorbic acid and dithiothreitol were effective while glutathione was ineffective. In addition, ascorbic acid was observed to act synergistically with alpha-tocopherol, which is in agreement with other published reports on the interaction of these two antioxidants. Although peroxyl radical scavengers seem to be at a selective advantage in this liposomal/UV system, these results demonstrate the validity of this technique as an assay for measuring an antioxidant's potential to inhibit UV-induced peroxidation.

  11. Anti lipid peroxidation activity of Piper trioicum Roxb. and Physalis minima L. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakaran, Sathis Kumar; Saraswathi, Narasimha Raju; Nalini, Venkata Rama Rao; Srisudharson; Bodanapu, Venkat Ram Reddy; Avasarala, Harani; Banji, David

    2011-07-01

    Attempt has been made to evaluate free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract of Piper trioicum Roxb. and Physalis minima L. individually. In this study goat liver has been used as lipid source. This in vitro evaluation was done by measuring the malondialdehyde (MDA) of tissue homogenates. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of the Piper trioicum Roxb. and Physalis minima L. has the ability to suppress the lipid peroxidation and it was also found that Piper trioicum Roxb. extract has more activity than Physalis minima L. extract.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA damage associated with lipid peroxidation of the mitochondrial membrane induced by Fe2+-citrate

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Iron imbalance/accumulation has been implicated in oxidative injury associated with many degenerative diseases such as hereditary hemochromatosis, beta-thalassemia, and Friedreich's ataxia. Mitochondria are particularly sensitive to iron-induced oxidative stress - high loads of iron cause extensive lipid peroxidation and membrane permeabilization in isolated mitochondria. Here we detected and characterized mitochondrial DNA damage in isolated rat liver mitochondria exposed to a Fe2+-citrate c...

  13. Polyphenols from Berries of Aronia melanocarpa Reduce the Plasma Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Ziprasidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dietrich-Muszalska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxidative stress in schizophrenia may be caused partially by the treatment of patients with antipsychotics. The aim of the study was to establish the effects of polyphenol compounds derived from berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox on the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by ziprasidone in vitro. Methods. Lipid peroxidation was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS. The samples of plasma from healthy subjects were incubated with ziprasidone (40 ng/ml; 139 ng/ml; and 250 ng/ml alone and with Aronox (5 ug/ml; 50 ug/ml. Results. We observed a statistically significant increase of TBARS level after incubation of plasma with ziprasidone (40 ng/ml; 139 ng/ml; and 250 ng/ml (after 24 h incubation: P=7.0 × 10−4, P=1.6 × 10−3, and P=2.7 × 10−3, resp. and Aronox lipid peroxidation caused by ziprasidone was significantly reduced. After 24-hour incubation of plasma with ziprasidone (40 ng/ml; 139 ng/ml; and 250 ng/ml in the presence of 50 ug/ml Aronox, the level of TBARS was significantly decreased: P=6.5 × 10−8, P=7.0 × 10−6, and P=3.0 × 10−5, respectively. Conclusion. Aronox causes a distinct reduction of lipid peroxidation induced by ziprasidone.

  14. Apple cider vinegar supplementation modulates lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase values in lens of ovariectomized mice

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies reported that increased risk of cataracts and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women although aetiology of the mechanisms has not been clarified. Apple cider vinegar may useful treatment of ovariectomize (OVX)-induced oxidative lens injury via its antioxidant properties. We aimed to investigate effects of apple cider vinegar on lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and reduced glutathione (GSH) values in OVX mice fed high cholesterol. Thirty-two mice we...

  15. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat brain by nifedipine and clorazepate after electrically induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułak, W; Sobaniec, W; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M

    1993-01-01

    The effect of nifedipine and clorazepate on the concentration of lipid peroxides (LP) in rat brain, and the characteristics of electrically induced seizures were assessed. A significant increase in the concentration of brain LP after electroshock was found. Both nifedipine (1.00 mg/kg per os) and clorazepate (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) decreased the levels of LP in the rat brain after electroshock. Nifedipine combined with clorazepate brought an inhibition of LP formation and an additive anticonvulsant activity.

  16. Vitamin C conjugates of genotoxic lipid peroxidation products: Structural characterization and detection in human plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Sowell, John; Frei, Balz; Stevens, Jan F.

    2004-01-01

    α,β-Unsaturated aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and other electrophilic lipid peroxidation (LPO) products may contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and other age-related diseases by cytotoxic, genotoxic, and proinflammatory mechanisms. The notion that vitamin C (ascorbic acid) acts as a biological antioxidant has been challenged recently by an in vitro study showing that ascorbic acid promotes, rather than inhibits, the formation of genotoxic LPO produ...

  17. Hydrogen sulfide decreases the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by homocysteine and its thiolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been investigated widely in recent years. H2S plays a variety of roles in different biological systems, including cardiovascular system. It is the final product of amino acids metabolism, which contains sulfur-cysteine and homocysteine (Hcy). In human plasma, there are several various forms of homocysteine: free Hcy, protein-bound Hcy (S-linked, and N-linked), and homocysteine thiolactone (HTL). Our previous works have shown that both Hcy in the reduced form and its thiolactone may modify fibrinolysis, coagulation process, and biological activity of blood platelets. Moreover, we have observed that HTL, like its precursor-Hcy stimulated the generation of superoxide anion radicals (O 2 (-•) ) in blood platelets. The aim of our study in vitro was to establish the influence of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, as a fast-releasing H2S donor; at tested concentrations: 10-1000 µM) on the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by the reduced Hcy (at final concentrations of 0.01-1 mM) and HTL (at final concentrations of 0.1-1 µM). Our results indicate that 10 and 100 µM NaHS decreased the lipid peroxidation in plasma treated with 1 mM Hcy or 1 µM HTL (when NaHS and Hcy/HTL were added to plasma together). The protective effect of 10 and 100 µM NaHS against the lipid peroxidation in plasma preincubated with 1 mM Hcy or 1 µM HTL was also observed. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that the lipid peroxidation (induced by different forms of homocysteine) may be reduced by hydrogen sulfide.

  18. The effects of therapeutic concentrations ofamisulpride andrisperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation – invitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dietrich-Muszalska

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antipsychotics may in different ways affect the oxidative stress measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. Probably some of them may intensify the oxidative balance disturbances occurring in schizophrenia. The effects of amisulpride and risperidone on redox processes are not known sufficiently yet. Aim of the study: Establishment of the effects of amisulpride and risperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation measured by determination of the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, in vitro. Material and methods: Blood for the studies was collected from healthy volunteers (aged 24-26 years for ACD solution. Active substances of the examined drugs were dissolved in 0.01% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO to the final concentrations (of amisulpride 578 ng/ml and risperidone 64 ng/ml and incubated with plasma for 1 and 24 hours at 37ºC. For each experiment the control samples of plasma with DMSO (without the drug were performed. The lipid peroxidation level was measured in plasma by determining the TBARS concentration, using the spectrophotometric method (acc. to Rice-Evans, 1991. The results were analysed using the following statistical methods: the paired Student t-test and ANOVA II variance analysis and NIR test (StatSoft Inc., Statistica v. 6.0. Results: The ANOVA II variance analysis indicated significant differences in the effects of both drugs on TBARS level (F=4.26; df=2, p0.05. Conclusion: Amisulpride and risperidone in concentrations corresponding to doses recommended for treatment of acute episode of schizophrenia do not induce oxidative stress measured by lipid peroxidation. Unlike risperidone, amisulpride exhibits antioxidative effects.

  19. Study of lipid profile and parieto-temporal lipid peroxidation in AlCl₃ mediated neurotoxicity. Modulatory effect of fenugreek seeds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belaïd-Nouira, Yosra; Bakhta, Hayfa; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Flehi-Slim, Imen; Haouas, Zohra; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2012-01-01

    ... intoxication by aluminium chloride (AlCl₃). Chronic aluminum-induced neurotoxicity has been in fact related to enhanced brain lipid peroxidation together with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, despite its controversial etiological...

  20. Blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Rathore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of clinical mastitis in cross-bred cows were selected based on physical examination of udder and milk, California Mastitis Test (CMT, Somatic Cell Count (SCC and confirmation by bacteriological examination of milk and requisite biochemical tests. Twelve lactating cows showing negative CMT reaction and SCC <2x105 cells/ml were considered as healthy control. Antioxidant parameters measured in blood were superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase activities and reduced glutathione (GSH concentration. Erythrocytic lipid peroxidation (LPO was measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA production. Results: Significant (P<0.05 decrease in blood SOD and catalase activities, GSH concentration and an increase in erythrocytic lipid peroxides was observed in cows with clinical mastitis. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is a compromise in antioxidant defense of the body in dairy cows with clinical mastitis resulting in oxidative damage, therefore, necessitate the use of antioxidants and other protective compounds along with conventional therapy for mastitis control. [Vet World 2013; 6(5.000: 271-273

  1. Effects of Fluoride on Lipid Peroxidation, DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Human Embryo Hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI-GUO WANG; TAO XIA; QI-LONG CHU; MING ZHANG; FANG LIU; XUE-MIN CHEN; KE-DI YANG

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of fluoride on lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis in human embryo hepatocyte L-02 cells. Methods Lipid peroxide (LPO) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) content, DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell cycle analysis were measured after in vitro cultured L-02 cells were exposed to sodium fluoride at different doses (40 μg/mL, 80 μg/mL, and 160 μg/mL) for 24 hours. Results Fluoride caused an increase of LPO levels and a decrease of GSH content in L-02 cells. There appeared to be an obvious dose-effect relationship between the fluoride concentration and the observed changes. Fluoride also caused DNA damage and apoptosis and increased the cell number in S phase of cell cycle in the cells tested. There was a statistically significant difference in DNA damage and apoptosis when comparing the high dose of fluoride treated cells with the low dose of fluoride treated cells. Conclusion Fluoride can cause lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and apoptosis in the L-02 cell experimental model and there is a significant positive correlation between fluoride concentration and these pathological changes.

  2. Lipid Peroxidation and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Levels in Gastric Cancer at Pathologic Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Kemik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: High levels of TGF-β1 and enhanced TGF-β1 receptor signaling are related to the pathology of gastric cancer. This effect is caused by oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation products. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of TGF-β1 and lipid peroxidation products in gastric cancer patients and their correlation with pathologic stage. Material and Methods: Lipid peroxidation products and TGF-β1 levels were studied in the serum samples of 50 gastric cancer patients and 18 control subjects.Results: HNE-protein adducts and TGF-β1 levels were significantly higher in T2, T3 and T4 gastric cancers than in either the T1 stage or controls (p<0.001. Pathologic stage was correlated with TGF-β1 levels (r=0.702, p<0.05.Conclusion: These markers production may contribute to tumor angiogenesis and aid in the prognosis of the gastric cancer.

  3. Glutathione delays varies as-tocopherol oxidation and subsequent lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, S.; Mavis, R.

    1986-05-01

    A method has been developed for in vitro trace radiolabeling of rat liver microsomes with /sup 3/H-..cap alpha..-tocopherol (..cap alpha..T*) which allows virtually complete oxidation of the ..cap alpha..T* under oxidizing conditions. The supernatant of a 16,000 xg centrifugation of homogenized rat liver, containing the cytosolic rat liver vitamin E (VE) transfer protein, was incubated with an ethanolic solution of ..cap alpha..T* for 10 minutes at 37/sup 0/C. Labeled microsomes were collected in the washed 100,000 xg pellet. Microsomes were then incubated with 30 ..mu..M Fe/sup 2 +/ in an NADPH-generating system, and both production of malondialdehyde (MDA) (a product of lipid peroxidation) and oxidation of ..cap alpha..T* were monitored over a time course in the presence and absence of glutathione (GSH). The results indicate virtually complete oxidation of ..cap alpha..T* precedes significant membrane lipid peroxidation, and that addition of 5 mM GSH delays both ..cap alpha..T* oxidation and subsequent MDA production. This suggests that the previously observed VE-dependent heat labile inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation by GSH involves maintaining membrane levels of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol.

  4. The stimulatory effects of asbestos on NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecave, M; Mansuy, D; Jaouen, M; Pezerat, H

    1987-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes induced by asbestos fibres, crocidolite and chrysotile, is greatly increased in the presence of NADPH, leading to malondialdehyde levels comparable with those induced by CCl4, a very strong inducer of lipid peroxidation. This synergic effect only occurs during the first minutes and could be explained by an increase or a regeneration of the ferrous active sites of asbestos by NADPH, which in turn could rapidly be prevented by the adsorption of microsomal proteins on the surface of the fibres. It is not inhibited by superoxide dismutase, catalase and mannitol, indicating that oxygen radicals are not involved in the reaction. It is also not inhibited by desferrioxamine, indicating that it is not due to a release of free iron ions in solution from the fibres. Lipid peroxidation in NADPH-supplemented microsomes is also greatly increased upon addition of magnetite. This could be linked to the presence of ferrous ions in this solid iron oxide, since the ferric oxides haematite and goethite are completely inactive. PMID:3036068

  5. Antioxidant properties of resveratrol and piceid on lipid peroxidation in micelles and monolamellar liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, Sabrina; Momo, Federico; Ravagnan, Giampietro; Stevanato, Roberto

    2008-06-01

    The antioxidant activities of trans-resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) and trans-piceid (trans-5,4'-dihydroxystilbene-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside), its more widespread glycosilate derivative, have been compared measuring their inhibitory action on peroxidation of linoleic acid (LA) and the radical scavenging ability towards different free radicals (such as DPPH) and radical initiators. It has been found that the two stilbenes have similar antioxidant capacity, while the comparison with BHT (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E, vit. E), taken as reference, points out a slower but prolonged protective action against lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, piceid appears more efficacious than resveratrol as a consequence of the reaction of the latter with its radical form. The DSC profiles of phosphatidylcholine liposomes of various chain lengths, and EPR measurements of spin labelled liposomes demonstrated that the susceptible hydroxyl group of these compounds are located in the lipid region of the bilayer close to the double bonds of polyunsaturated fatty acids, making these stilbenes particularly suitable for the prevention and control of the lipid peroxidation of the membranes.

  6. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity in saliva of periodontitis patients: effect of smoking and periodontal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guentsch, Arndt; Preshaw, Philip M; Bremer-Streck, Sybille; Klinger, Gisela; Glockmann, Eike; Sigusch, Bernd W

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to measure lipid peroxidation (as an end product of oxidative stress) and corresponding antioxidant activity in patients with periodontitis and assess the influence of smoking and periodontal treatment on these parameters. Thirty healthy subjects (including 15 smokers) were compared to periodontitis patients (n = 30, including 15 smokers). Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) were recorded in saliva. The lowest level of lipid peroxidation (MDA) was measured in saliva in the non-smoking periodontally healthy subjects (0.065 +/- 0.05 micromol/l). MDA levels were significantly higher in periodontitis patients who smoked (0.123 +/- 0.08 micromol/l) compared to non-smoking controls (0.065 +/- 0.05 micromol/l; p periodontally healthy subjects demonstrated significantly lower levels of GSHPx (antioxidative parameter) than the periodontitis group (p saliva) was significantly lower in patients with periodontitis (0.34 +/- 0.26 micromol/ml) in comparison to the controls (0.62 +/- 0.24 micromol/ml; p periodontitis demonstrate more lipid peroxidation than healthy subjects, and this effect is enhanced by smoking. Imbalance between oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity may play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Non-surgical periodontal treatment leads to a reduction of MDA and GSHPx to levels comparable to healthy controls.

  7. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafaat Mohamed Elsanhoty; Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods:The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results: The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r:0.743;P Conclusions:The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage.

  8. Epicatechin inhibits human plasma lipid peroxidation caused by haloperidol in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich-Muszalska, Anna; Kontek, Bogdan; Olas, Beata; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta

    2012-03-01

    Epicatechin belongs to flavonoids protecting cells against oxidative/nitrative stress. Oxidative/nitrative stress observed in schizophrenia may be caused partially by the treatment of patients with various antipsychotics. The aim of our study was to establish the effects of epicatechin and antipsychotics action (the first generation antipsychotic (FGA)--haloperidol and the second generation antipsychotic (SGA)--amisulpride) on peroxidation of plasma lipids in vitro. Lipid peroxidation in human plasma was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The properties of epicatechin were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol-resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) and quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone). Amisulpride, contrary to haloperidol (after 1 and 24 h) does not significantly influence the increase of plasma TBARS level in comparison with control samples (P > 0.05). After incubation (1 and 24 h) of plasma with haloperidol in the presence of epicatechin we observed a significantly decreases the level of TBARS (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). In our other experiments, we found that epicatechin also decreased the amount of TBARS in human plasma treated with amisulpride. In conclusion, the presented results indicate that epicatechin-the major polyphenolic component of green tea reduced significantly human plasma lipid peroxidation caused by haloperidol. Moreover, epicatechin was found to be a more effective antioxidant, than the solution of pure resveratrol or quercetin.

  9. Antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide in fibromyalgia: etiologic and therapeutic concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgocmen, Salih; Ozyurt, Huseyin; Sogut, Sadik; Akyol, Omer; Ardicoglu, Ozge; Yildizhan, Hulya

    2006-05-01

    We proposed to assess the oxidant/antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide (NO) in untreated fibromyalgia (FM) patients and controls. The effect of amitriptyline (A, 20 mg daily) and sertraline (S, 100 mg daily) treatment on patients' superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase (XO), adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and NO levels was investigated. Thirty female patients with primary FM and age-matched 16 healthy female controls were included. Patients received an 8-week course of treatment with either A or S. FM patients had higher serum levels of TBARS (particularly malondialdehyde) and lower levels of nitrite compared to controls whereas enzyme activities were similar. A and S significantly improved Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) pain scores, Hamilton anxiety and depression rating scales. But neither A nor S had significant effects on measured oxidative stress parameters, except SOD activity that was significantly reduced after S treatment. Total myalgic scores negatively correlated with XO activity, and depression scales negatively correlated with levels of TBARS. Our results indicate that patients with FM are under oxidative stress. These findings represent a rationale for further research assessing the effect of free radical scavengers or antioxidant agents like vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids on peripheral and central mechanisms in FM.

  10. The mechanism of cumene hydroperoxide-dependent lipid peroxidation: the significance of oxygen uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R H; Estabrook, R W

    1986-11-15

    The addition of limiting amounts of cumene hydroperoxide to rat liver microsomes prepared from phenobarbital-treated rats resulted in the rapid uptake of molecular oxygen, the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive products, and the loss of hydroperoxide over a similar time course. Maximal activity was observed at pH 7-8. The addition of cumene hydroperoxide to boiled microsomes did not initiate oxygen uptake or produce thiobarbituric acid reactive products. Oxygen uptake was required for the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive products, but not for the loss of hydroperoxide. The extent of oxygen uptake and thiobarbituric acid reactive product formation was linearly dependent on the concentration of cumene hydroperoxide and independent of the amount of microsomes. For each nanomole of cumene hydroperoxide utilized, 1.5 nmol of oxygen was consumed and 0.11 nmol of thiobarbituric acid reactive products was formed. In addition, a saturable reaction having a high affinity for cumene hydroperoxide was observed that was associated with little or no oxygen uptake and thiobarbituric acid reactive product formation. Butylated hydroxytoluene at substoichiometric concentrations inhibited the extents and initial rates of oxygen uptake and thiobarbituric acid reactive product formation, indicating that cumene hydroperoxide-dependent lipid peroxidation may be an autocatalytic free radical process.

  11. UVA photoirradiation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-induction of reactive oxygen species and formation of lipid peroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingsu; Yin, Jun-Jie; Zhao, Yuewei; Wu, Yuh-Sen; Wang, Yu-Qui; Ma, Liang; Chen, Shoujun; Sun, Xin; Fu, Peter P; Yu, Hongtao

    2013-03-14

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are a class of genotoxic environmental contaminants. We have long been interested in determining the mechanisms by which nitro-PAHs induce genotoxicity. Although the metabolic activation of nitro-PAHs leading to toxicological activities has been well studied, the photo-induced activation of nitro-PAHs has seldom been reported. In this paper, we report photo-induced lipid peroxidation by 19 nitro-PAHs. The results indicated that all but two of the nitro-PAHs can induce lipid peroxidation. Mechanistic studies suggest that lipid peroxidation by nitro-PAHs is mediated by free radicals generated in the reaction. There was no structural correlation between the nitro-PAHs and their ability to induce lipid peroxidation upon UVA irradiation, or between the HOMO-LUMO gap and the ability to cause lipid peroxidation. Most of the nitro-PAHs are less potent in terms of causing lipid peroxidation than their parent PAHs. The lack of correlation is attributed to the complex photophysics and photochemistry of the nitro-PAHs and the yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other factors.

  12. UVA Photoirradiation of Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons—Induction of Reactive Oxygen Species and Formation of Lipid Peroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingsu; Yin, Jun J.; Zhao, Yuewei; Wu, Yuh-Sen; Wang, Yu-Qui; Ma, Liang; Chen, Shoujun; Sun, Xin; Fu, Peter P.; Yu, Hongtao

    2013-01-01

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are a class of genotoxic environmental contaminants. We have long been interested in determining the mechanisms by which nitro-PAHs induce genotoxicity. Although the metabolic activation of nitro-PAHs leading to toxicological activities has been well studied, the photo-induced activation of nitro-PAHs has seldom been reported. In this paper, we report photo-induced lipid peroxidation by 19 nitro-PAHs. The results indicated that all but two of the nitro-PAHs can induce lipid peroxidation. Mechanistic studies suggest that lipid peroxidation by nitro-PAHs is mediated by free radicals generated in the reaction. There was no structural correlation between the nitro-PAHs and their ability to induce lipid peroxidation upon UVA irradiation, or between the HOMO-LUMO gap and the ability to cause lipid peroxidation. Most of the nitro-PAHs are less potent in terms of causing lipid peroxidation than their parent PAHs. The lack of correlation is attributed to the complex photophysics and photochemistry of the nitro-PAHs and the yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other factors. PMID:23493032

  13. Peroxidation stimulated by lipid hydroperoxides on bovine retinal pigment epithelium mitochondria: effect of cellular retinol-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasa, Ana M; Guajardo, Margarita H; Catalá, Angel

    2003-07-01

    This study analyzes the effect of cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP), partially purified from retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cytosol, on the non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation induced by fatty acid hydroperoxides of mitochondrial membranes isolated from bovine RPE. The effect of different amounts (50, 75 and 100 nmol) of linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LHP), arachidonic acid hydroperoxide (AHP) and docosahexaenoic acid hydroperoxide (DHP) on the lipid peroxidation of RPE mitochondria was studied; RPE mitochondria deprived of exogenously added hydroperoxide was utilized as control. The process was measured simultaneously by determining chemiluminescence as well as polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) degradation of total lipids isolated from RPE mitochondria. The addition of hydroperoxides to RPE mitochondria produces a marked increase in light emission that was hydroperoxide concentration dependent. The highest value of activation was produced by LHP. The major difference in the fatty acid composition of total lipids isolated from native and peroxidized RPE mitochondria incubated with and without hydroperoxides was found in the docosahexaenoic acid content, this decreased 40.90+/-3.01% in the peroxidized group compared to native RPE mitochondria. The decrease was significantly high: 86.32+/-2.57% when the lipid peroxidation was stimulated by 100 nmol of LHP. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation (decrease of chemiluminescence) was observed with the addition of increasing amounts (100-600 microg) of CRBP to RPE mitochondria. The inhibitory effect reaches the highest values in the presence of LHP.

  14. [Effect of tobacco smoke on lipids peroxidation and liver function in streptozotocin diabetic rats--preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek, Ewa; Jabłecka, Anna; Olszewski, Jan; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Kulza, Maksymilian; Seńczuk-Przybyłowska, Monika; Chuchracki, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is considered a group of diseases with chronic hyperglycemia caused by various organ disorders, failure or damage as a common feature. Hyperglycemia exerts toxic effect on endothelium, promotes oxidative stress, inhibits bioavailability of nitrogen monoxide (NO) and leads to formation of advanced glycation end products. Moreover, hyperglycemia induces production of reactive oxygen specimens (ROS) through several distinct mechanisms, such as: glucose autoxydation activation of polyol (sorbitol-aldose reductase) pathway, non-enzymatic glycation and neutrophil granulocyte's stimulation. These changes lead to uncontrolled oxidation and peroxidation of lipids, nucleic acids, certain enzymes and most of all--oxidative protein damage (OPD) in many tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate influence of exposure to tobacco smoke on lipid peroxidation and liver function in experimentally induced diabetes. The research showed that the protein level in blood serum did not change neither in case of induced diabetes nor after tobacco smoke exposure. However a statistically significant increase of lipid peroxidation was observed in rats with pharmacologically induced diabetes. In animals exposed to tobacco smoke only lipid peroxidation increasing trend was demonstrated, while in animals with induced diabetes and exposed to tobacco smoke a statistically significant decrease of lipid peroxidation was noticed. In the adopted experimental model basically no alterations of hepatic aminotranspherases were observed, with exception of AIAT in the group of diabetic animals compared to rats in the control group. Results of the study do not explicitly explain the influence of tobacco smoking in experimentally induced diabetes on lipid peroxidation and liver functions.

  15. Tyrosine oxidation and nitration in transmembrane peptides is connected to lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartesaghi, Silvina; Herrera, Daniel; Martinez, Débora M; Petruk, Ariel; Demicheli, Verónica; Trujillo, Madia; Martí, Marcelo A; Estrín, Darío A; Radi, Rafael

    2017-05-15

    Tyrosine nitration is an oxidative post-translational modification that can occur in proteins associated to hydrophobic bio-structures such as membranes and lipoproteins. In this work, we have studied tyrosine nitration in membranes using a model system consisting of phosphatidylcholine liposomes with pre-incorporated tyrosine-containing 23 amino acid transmembrane peptides. Tyrosine residues were located at positions 4, 8 or 12 of the amino terminal, resulting in different depths in the bilayer. Tyrosine nitration was accomplished by exposure to peroxynitrite and a peroxyl radical donor or hemin in the presence of nitrite. In egg yolk phosphatidylcholine liposomes, nitration was highest for the peptide with tyrosine at position 8 and dramatically increased as a function of oxygen levels. Molecular dynamics studies support that the proximity of the tyrosine phenolic ring to the linoleic acid peroxyl radicals contributes to the efficiency of tyrosine oxidation. In turn, α-tocopherol inhibited both lipid peroxidation and tyrosine nitration. The mechanism of tyrosine nitration involves a "connecting reaction" by which lipid peroxyl radicals oxidize tyrosine to tyrosyl radical and was fully recapitulated by computer-assisted kinetic simulations. Altogether, this work underscores unique characteristics of the tyrosine oxidation and nitration process in lipid-rich milieu that is fueled via the lipid peroxidation process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 6-mo aerobic exercise intervention enhances the lipid peroxide transport function of HDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiainen, Sanna; Luoto, Riitta; Ahotupa, Markku; Raitanen, Jani; Vasankari, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    During acute exercise, the concentration of oxidized high-density lipoprotein (HDL) lipids (ox-HDL) is reported to increase suggesting that HDL may function in decreasing the concentration of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) lipids. However, the effect of exercise intervention on the lipid peroxide transport function of HDL is unknown. A randomized controlled trial with sedentary women (N = 161), aged 43-63, with no current use of hormone therapy, were randomized into a 6-month (mo) exercise group and a control group. During the 6-mo intervention, the concentration of ox-HDL increased in the exercise group by 5% and decreased in the control group by 2% (p = .003). Also, the ratio of ox-HDL to HDL-cholesterol increased by 5% in the exercise group and decreased by 1.5% in the control group (p = .036). The concentrations of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and adiponectin did not change during the intervention. The concentration of serum triglycerides trended to decrease by 6% in the intervention group (p = .051). We found that the concentration of ox-HDL increased during the 6-mo aerobic exercise intervention, but the increase was not related to changes in the levels of CETP or adiponectin. These results, together with earlier studies, suggest that HDL has an active role in the reverse transport of lipid peroxides.

  17. Drinking orange juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroudi, Shahrzad; Potter, Andrew S; Stamatikos, Alexis; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Deyhim, Farzad

    2014-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world and is the primary cause of mortality among Americans. One of the many reasons for the pathogenesis of CVD is attributed to eating diets high in saturated fat and refined carbohydrates and low in fruits and vegetables. Epidemiological evidence has supported a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. An experiment was conducted utilizing 24 adults with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia to evaluate the impact of drinking 20 fl oz of freshly squeezed orange juice daily for 90 days on blood pressure, lipid panels, plasma antioxidant capacity, metabolic hormones, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory markers. Except for addition of drinking orange juice, subjects did not modify their eating habits. The findings suggested that drinking orange juice does not affect (P>.1) blood pressure, lipid panels, metabolic hormones, body fat percentage, or inflammatory markers. However, total plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased (Porange juice consumption. Drinking orange juice may protect the cardiovascular system by increasing total plasma antioxidant status and by lowering lipid peroxidation independent of other cardiovascular risk markers evaluated in this study.

  18. Curcumin analogue inhibits lipid peroxidation in a freshwater teleost, Anabas testudineus (Bloch)--an in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, Maniyan; Sherin, Thomas G; Rajasekharan, Kallikat N; Oommen, Oommen Vilaverthottathil

    2009-08-01

    The effect of a synthetic curcumin analogue (salicylcurcumin) on fish lipid peroxidation was investigated in both in vitro and in vivo conditions using a teleost model Anabas testudineus (Bloch). Curcumin analogue inhibited the formation of lipid peroxidation products and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content at the three concentrations (10(-2) M, 10(-3) M and 10(-4) M) in vitro. TBARS content was reduced by 80% in the liver and 68% in brain by the higher concentration of salicylcurcumin. For in vivo study, salicylcurcumin (0.5%) was supplemented along with the basal feed for a period of 60 days. It produced a 60% reduction in liver TBARS content. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) was stimulated, whereas catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were inhibited. Glutathione (GSH) was reduced and glutathione reductase (GR) unchanged. Even though there was an increase in SOD activity, the CAT and GPx did not increase accordingly, maybe due to the direct scavenging of H(2)O(2) by salicylcurcumin. The protein content also increased in the curcumin-fed animals, indicating a positive growth-promoting effect. Therefore, it would be beneficial to supplement salicylcurcumin along with the aquaculture feed in order to help the fish to cope with adverse conditions in the environment. This would increase the survival rate, disease resistance and ultimately the growth rate.

  19. In vitro and in vivo protection by melatonin against the decline of elongation factor-2 caused by lipid peroxidation: preservation of protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Sandro; Muñoz, Mario F; Cano, Mercedes; Machado, Alberto; Ayala, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    As organisms age, a considerable decrease in protein synthesis takes place in all tissues. Among the possible causes of the decline of translation in old animals are the modifications of elongation factor-2 (eEF-2). eEF-2 occupies an essential role in protein synthesis where it catalyzes the ribosomal translocation reaction. eEF-2 is particularly sensitive to increased oxidative stress. However, all oxidants do not affect eEF-2, only compounds that increase lipid peroxidation. As peroxides are unstable compounds, they decompose and generate a series of highly reactive compounds, including aldehydes malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynoenal (HNE). We have previously reported that hepatic eEF-2 forms adducts with low-molecular weight aldehydes, MDA and HNE. Therefore, the protection of eEF-2 must be specifically carried out by a compound with lipoperoxyl radical-scavenging features such as melatonin. In this article, we show the ability of melatonin to protect against the changes that occur in the eEF-2 under conditions of lipid peroxidation induced by cumene hydroperoxide (CH), a compound used experimentally to induce lipid breakdown. As experimental models, we used cultured cells and rats treated with this oxidant compound. eEF-2 levels, adduct formation of this protein with MDA and HNE, and lipid peroxides were determined. In the cultured cells, protein synthesis rate was also measured. Our results show that melatonin prevented the molecular changes in eEF-2 and the decline in protein synthesis rate secondary to lipid peroxidation. The results also show that serum levels of several hormones were affected by CH-induced oxidative stress, which was partially or totally prevented by melatonin.

  20. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of lipid and protein membrane components of erythrocytes oxidized with hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendanha, S.A.; Anjos, J.L.V.; Silva, A.H.M.; Alonso, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2012-04-05

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of spin labels was used to monitor membrane dynamic changes in erythrocytes subjected to oxidative stress with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The lipid spin label, 5-doxyl stearic acid, responded to dramatic reductions in membrane fluidity, which was correlated with increases in the protein content of the membrane. Membrane rigidity, associated with the binding of hemoglobin (Hb) to the erythrocyte membrane, was also indicated by a spin-labeled maleimide, 5-MSL, covalently bound to the sulfhydryl groups of membrane proteins. At 2% hematocrit, these alterations in membrane occurred at very low concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (50 µM) after only 5 min of incubation at 37°C in azide phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Lipid peroxidation, suggested by oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde formation, started at 300 µM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (for incubation of 3 h), which is a concentration about six times higher than those detected with the probes. Ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol protected the membrane against lipoperoxidation, but did not prevent the binding of proteins to the erythrocyte membrane. Moreover, the antioxidant (+)-catechin, which also failed to prevent the cross-linking of cytoskeletal proteins with Hb, was very effective in protecting erythrocyte ghosts from lipid peroxidation induced by the Fenton reaction. This study also showed that EPR spectroscopy can be useful to assess the molecular dynamics of red blood cell membranes in both the lipid and protein domains and examine oxidation processes in a system that is so vulnerable to oxidation.

  1. Follicular fluid lipid peroxidation levels in women with endometriosis during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Camila Bruna; Cordeiro, Fernanda Bertuccez; Camargo, Mariana; Zylbersztejn, Daniel Suslik; Cedenho, Agnaldo Pereira; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta; Lo Turco, Edson Guimarães

    2017-04-01

    This observational study aimed to establishing a relationship between lipid peroxidation and endometriosis in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. A total of 79 women were divided into two groups: (i) controls (tubal or male factor); and (ii) endometriosis (stages III/IV). The endometriosis diagnosis was confirmed by videolaparoscopy and the controlled ovarian stimulation protocol was similar to all patients. Follicular fluid (FF) lipid peroxidation levels were determined through the quantification of malondialdehyde. Statistical analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests, logistic regression was performed to estimate the chance of achieving a pregnancy in each group and a moving average was calculated for the endometriosis group. Peroxidation levels in the endometriosis group were significantly higher when compared to controls. The moving average showed a decrease of MDA levels in the endometriosis group with increasing female age. Moreover, women with endometriosis who were under 33 years of age were 4.3 times more likely to achieve a pregnancy than women above that age. In conclusion, endometriosis is associated with increased FF oxidative stress (OS) in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Also, increasing age is associated with a decrease in severity of the oxidative status, but a decreased chance of pregnancy.

  2. Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Enzymes of Two Turfgrass Species Under Salinity Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.XU; M.YAMADA; H.FUJIYAMA

    2013-01-01

    Salinity stress is a major factor limiting the growth of turfgrass irrigated with recycled wastewater.The change in lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD),catalase (CAT),ascorbate peroxide (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the shoots and roots of Kentucky bluegrass and tall fescue were investigated under salinity stress.Plants were subjected to 0,50,100,150 and 200 mmol L-1 NaCl for 40 d.The MDA content under salinity stress was lower in tall fescue than in Kentucky bluegrass in both shoots and roots.Activities of SOD in the shoots of both species increased with salinity stress.The activities of CAT and APX decreased in Kentucky bluegrass,but no significant difference in the activities of CAT and APX was observed in tall fescue.The activities of SOD,CAT and APX in the shoots of tall rescue were higher than those in Kentucky bluegrass.In the roots of Kentucky bluegrass,SOD and GR activities increased and CAT and APX activities decreased in comparison with the control.In the roots of tall rescue,salinity increased the activities of SOD,CAT,and APX.These results suggested that tall fescue exhibited a more effective protection mechanism and mitigated oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by maintaining higher SOD,CAT and APX activities than Kentucky bluegrass.

  3. Sn-protoporphyrin plus photoirradiation induces lipid peroxidation in vivo and in vitro in nonjaundiced Gunn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, S; Nagae, H; Keino, H; Watanabe, K; Kashiwamata, S

    1991-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation induced by Sn-protoporphyrin (SnPP) plus photoirradiation was investigated in vivo and in vitro using nonjaundiced Gunn rats. Membrane lipids from young adult rat brain were peroxidized by SnPP plus photoirradiation depending on the SnPP concentration and photoirradiance. Similarly, coadministration of SnPP and photoirradiation to suckling rats increased lipid peroxides in the whole blood and was found lethal. The influence of the wavelength distribution of light sources was also examined by using blue-white and green fluorescent lights. The photodynamic effect by green light irradiation whose energy distribution had no overlap with the Soret band of SnPP was about half of that produced by blue-white light with regard to the membrane peroxidation and the lethal effect on neonatal rats. We therefore conclude that the combination of SnPP and photoirradiation is a potentially hazardous treatment of neonatal jaundice.

  4. Alterations of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and serum trace elements associated with anemia in bovine tropical theileriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, S M; Nazifi, S; Bateni, M; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2011-08-25

    In order to investigate the alterations of erythrocyte protective antioxidant mechanisms, lipid peroxidation and trace elements associated with anemia in bovine tropical theileriosis, an infected group comprised of 50 crossbred Holstein cattle, about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with Theileria annulata, were divided into 4 subgroups according to their parasitemia rates (5%) and also 10 healthy cattle as control were selected. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase and serum concentrations of some antioxidant trace elements (copper, iron, zinc, manganese and selenium) were measured. As an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) was also determined. The results showed a conspicuous decrease in the activities of SOD, GPX and catalase (P<0.01), and a significant decrease in the serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn and Se in cattle with higher than 1% parasitemia (P<0.05) compared to the control. In addition, remarkable elevations in the MDA level (P<0.01) and serum concentration of iron (P<0.05) were observed in the infected animals. These findings pointed to the occurrence of exacerbating oxidative injuries to erythrocytes during parasitemia. Furthermore, it can be concluded that infection with T. annulata can interfere with protective antioxidant mechanisms of RBCs against oxidative damages, which promote the development of anemia.

  5. ROLE OF LIPID-PEROXIDATION AND DNA DAMAGE IN PARAQUAT TOXICITY AND THE INTERACTION OF PARAQUAT WITH IONIZING-RADIATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETER, B; WARTENA, M; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1992-01-01

    Since the introduction of paraquat (PQ) as a herbicide in 1963, there have been many speculations concerning the critical lesion in PQ toxicity. Damage to membrane lipids might be an initial event leading to PQ-induced cell killing. The ability of PQ to induce lipid peroxidation was tested in liver

  6. Effect of lead on lipid peroxidation, phospholipids composition, and methylation in erythrocyte of human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq-ur-Rehman

    2013-09-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most abundant heavy metals on earth considered as number one environmental persistent toxin and health hazard affecting millions of people in all age groups. After entering bloodstream, 99% of Pb is accumulated in erythrocytes and causes poisoning. Toxic Pb effects on erythrocytes membrane's composition of phosphatidyl serine (PS), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE), phosphatidyl choline (PC), and sphingomyelin (SM), and phospholipids transmethylation were determined. Lipid peroxidation in Pb-exposed erythrocytes was evaluated as malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in presence of Fe and vitamin E to understand severity of Pb toxicity and its mitigation. Pb (0.5-5.0 μM) degraded PS (12 to 31%, P phospholipids in membranes (34, 41, and 50%, respectively, with 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 μM). Pb-induced dose-related MDA production (P phospholipids, inhibition of transmethylation, and exasperated phospholipid peroxidative damage are the active phenomena of Pb toxicity in erythrocytes.

  7. Assessment of catalase activity, lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll-a, and growth rate in the freshwater green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata exposed to copper and zinc Evaluación de la actividad de la catalasa, peroxidación lipídica, clorofila-a y tasa de crecimiento en la alga verde de agua dulce Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata expuesta a cobre y zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Soto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of copper and zinc on green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was evaluated through catalase activity, lipid peroxidation by TBARS essay, growth rate, and the chlorophyll-a concentration. Catalase activity increased significantly (P En este trabajo, se evaluó el efecto del cobre y zinc en la alga verde Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata a través de la actividad catalasa, peroxidación lipídica por el ensayo TBARS, tasa de crecimiento y concentración de clorofila-a. La actividad catalasa aumentó significativamente (P < 0,05 en comparación al control en 0,1 mg L-1 y 0,075 mg L-1 de cobre y zinc respectivamente, mientras que el daño en la membrana celular expresado en nanomols/10(6 células de malondialdehído aumentó significativamente en 0,025 mg L-1 y 0,1 mg L-1 de cobre y zinc respectivamente. Por otra parte, hubo una disminución significativa (P < 0,05 en la concentración de clorofila-a en ambos metales a 0,075 mgL-1. Los resultados mostrados en actividad catalasa, peroxidación lipídica y concentración de clorofila-a son parámetros más sensibles que la tasa de crecimiento a los metales.

  8. Comprehensive lipid tetrad index, atherogenic index and lipid peroxidation: Surrogate markers for increased cardiovascular risk in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sunitha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Recently, the concept of "psoriatic march" has come to the fore, in which chronic cutaneous inflammation in psoriasis leads to systemic inflammation which, in conjunction with increased oxidative stress, triggers a cascade of events resulting in increased cardiovascular risk in patients with severe psoriasis. We, therefore, decided to study the levels of some biochemical cardiovascular risk markers: lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, lipoprotein (a, lipid indices and atherogenic index, in patients with psoriasis and their association with disease severity. Methods: Fortyfive patients with psoriasis and 45 age and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional study. Disease severity was assessed by the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI. Serum malondialdehyde, lipoprotein (a and fasting lipid profile were estimated in all study subjects. Lipoprotein ratios were computed using standard formulae. Atherogenic index was calculated as ratio of lipoprotein (a/high-density lipoprotein. Results: In psoriasis, we observed significantly higher levels of malondialdehyde, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a, lipid ratios, atherogenic index and comprehensive lipid tetrad index, compared to controls. These levels were directly proportional to disease severity. Serum levels of malondialdehyde correlated positively with serum lipoprotein (a, comprehensive lipid tetrad index and atherogenic index. Limitations: Different morphological types of psoriasis were not included and follow-up post-therapy was not done. A larger sample size would have validated the results further. Conclusion: Our results indicate that psoriasis, especially the severe variants, are associated with increased oxidative stress and dyslipidemia, which correlate positively with atherogenic index and hence, an increased cardiovascular risk.

  9. Lipid peroxidation triggers neurodegeneration: a redox proteomics view into the Alzheimer disease brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Rukhsana; Perluigi, Marzia; Allan Butterfield, D

    2013-09-01

    Lipid peroxidation involves a cascade of reactions in which production of free radicals occurs selectively in the lipid components of cellular membranes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids easily undergo lipid peroxidation chain reactions, which, in turn, lead to the formation of highly reactive electrophilic aldehydes. Among these, the most abundant aldehydes are 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and malondialdehyde, while acrolein is the most reactive. Proteins are susceptible to posttranslational modifications caused by aldehydes binding covalently to specific amino acid residues, in a process called Michael adduction, and these types of protein adducts, if not efficiently removed, may be, and generally are, dangerous for cellular homeostasis. In the present review, we focused the discussion on the selective proteins that are identified, by redox proteomics, as selective targets of HNE modification during the progression and pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). By comparing results obtained at different stages of the AD, it may be possible to identify key biochemical pathways involved and ideally identify therapeutic targets to prevent, delay, or treat AD.

  10. Effects of Acetate-Free Citrate Dialysate on Glycoxidation and Lipid Peroxidation Products in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsumi Masuda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Previous studies have shown the presence of high levels of glycoxidation and lipid peroxidation products in association with atherosclerosis in patients with end-stage kidney disease. Acetates are commonly used buffer for correcting metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis (HD patients. Since the toxic effects of acetates are well established, acetate-free citrate dialysate (AFD has become available in Japan. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the suppressive effects of AFD on oxidative stress in maintenance HD patients by measuring plasma pentosidine and malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL levels as markers for glycoxidation and lipid peroxidation products. Methods: Plasma pentosidine, MDA-LDL and other laboratory parameters were examined on maintenance HD at the Juntendo University Hospital before and after switching to AFD. Results: MDA-LDL levels divided by LDL cholesterol were significantly lower than those before switching to AFD. Furthermore, levels of plasma pentosidine were lower than those before switching to AFD. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the percent change of the calcium-phosphorus product in the nondiabetic group and that of phosphorus in the diabetic group were predictive variables for the percent change of MDA-LDL/LDL, whereas the percent change of log high-sensitive C-reactive protein and that of systolic blood pressure in the nondiabetic group and that of diastolic blood pressure in the diabetic group were predictive variables for the percent change of plasma pentosidine. Conclusions: It appears that AFD decreases glycoxidation and lipid peroxidation products when compared with acid citrate dextrose in HD patients. The reduction of oxidative stress by AFD during HD may have possible beneficial effects on atherosclerosis through calcium-phosphorus metabolism and blood pressure.

  11. Zinc supplementation ameliorates electromagnetic field-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediz, Cem Seref; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Oztekin, Esma

    2006-02-01

    Extremely low-frequency (0-300 Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by power lines, wiring and home appliances are ubiquitous in our environment. All populations are now exposed to EMF, and exposure to EMF may pose health risks. Some of the adverse health effects of EMF exposure are lipid peroxidation and cell damage in various tissues. This study has investigated the effects of EMF exposure and zinc administration on lipid peroxidation in the rat brain. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to three groups; they were maintained untreated for 6 months (control, n = 8), exposed to low-frequency (50 Hz) EMF for 5 minutes every other day for 6 months (n = 8), or exposed to EMF and received zinc sulfate daily (3 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally (n = 8). We measured plasma levels of zinc and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in erythrocytes. TBARS and GSH levels were also determined in the brain tissues. TBARS levels in the plasma and brain tissues were higher in EMF-exposed rats with or without zinc supplementation, than those in controls (p < 0.001). In addition, TBARS levels were significantly lower in the zinc-supplemented rats than those in the EMF-exposed rats (p < 0.001). GSH levels were significantly decreased in the brain and erythrocytes of the EMF-exposed rats (p < 0.01), and were highest in the zinc-supplemented rats (p < 0.001). Plasma zinc was significantly lower in the EMF-exposed rats than those in controls (p < 0.001), while it was highest in the zinc-supplemented rats (p < 0.001). The present study suggests that long-term exposure to low-frequency EMF increases lipid peroxidation in the brain, which may be ameliorated by zinc supplementation.

  12. Resveratrol ameliorates methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity in rats via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalaklioglu, S; Genc, G E; Aksoy, N H; Akcit, F; Gumuslu, S

    2013-06-01

    Hepatotoxicity is one of the major complications of methotrexate (MTX) therapy. This study was carried out to evaluate the possible protective effect of resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene, RVT) against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as control, MTX treated (7 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally (i.p.), once daily for 3 consecutive days), MTX + RVT treated (20 mg/kg/day, i.p.), and RVT treated. First dose of RVT was administrated 3 days before the MTX injection and continued for 3 days. Histopathology of liver was evaluated by light microscopy. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were used as biochemical markers of MTX-induced hepatic injury. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation) and activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were used to analyze the oxidative stress-mediated lipid peroxidation in liver sections. Our results showed that MTX administration significantly increased ALT, ASP, and ALP levels. TBARS, CAT, and GST levels were also markedly increased in liver after MTX administration. RVT treatment significantly prevented MTX-induced hepatotoxicity, as indicated by AST, ALT, and ALP levels and liver histopathology. Moreover, administration of RVT significantly decreased the elevated levels of TBARS and activities of CAT and GST in the liver compared to MTX-treated group. These results revealed that RVT may have a protective effect against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress-mediated lipid peroxidation. Consequently, RVT treatment might be a promising strategy against MTX-induced hepatotoxicity.

  13. Differential effects of antipsychotics on expression of antioxidant enzymes and membrane lipid peroxidation in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Vinay; Khan, Mohammad M; Mahadik, Sahebarao P

    2003-01-01

    Typical and atypical antipsychotics significantly differ in their neurotransmitter receptor affinity profiles, and their efficacy and side effects in schizophrenic patients. Typical antipsychotics have been found to increase the oxidative (i.e. free radical-mediated) cellular injury in rats. Since schizophrenia also involves oxidative injury, the understanding of differential effects of these antipsychotics on expression of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative injury may be very critical. The effect of chronic exposure of haloperidol (HAL), a typical antipsychotic, was compared to effects of risperidone (RIS) or clozapine (CLZ) or olanzapine (OLZ), atypical antipsychotics on antioxidant defense enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the rat brain. The levels of antioxidant enzymes and hydroxyalkenals (HAEs) were measured in rat brain cytosol and fatty acids were measured in brain cell membranes. Chronic HAL treatment for both 45 and 90 days significantly decreased manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase (CAT) activity with parallel marked increase in (HAEs), a marker of lipid peroxidation in rat brain. The levels of enzymatic activity very well correlated with the levels of enzyme proteins indicating that the changes were probably in the expression of net protein. However, RIS, CLZ and OLZ treatments did not produce any alterations in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and HAEs, both after 45 and 90 days. There were no alterations in the levels of saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain membranes. These findings indicate that chronic administration of HAL, but none of the studied atypicals induce oxidative stress by persistent changes in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and cause membrane lipid peroxidation.

  14. Quantum dot-induced cell death involves Fas upregulation and lipid peroxidation in human neuroblastoma cells

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    Lovrić Jasmina

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroblastoma, a frequently occurring solid tumour in children, remains a therapeutic challenge as existing imaging tools are inadequate for proper and accurate diagnosis, resulting in treatment failures. Nanoparticles have recently been introduced to the field of cancer research and promise remarkable improvements in diagnostics, targeting and drug delivery. Among these nanoparticles, quantum dots (QDs are highly appealing due to their manipulatable surfaces, yielding multifunctional QDs applicable in different biological models. The biocompatibility of these QDs, however, remains questionable. Results We show here that QD surface modifications with N-acetylcysteine (NAC alter QD physical and biological properties. In human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y cells, NAC modified QDs were internalized to a lesser extent and were less cytotoxic than unmodified QDs. Cytotoxicity was correlated with Fas upregulation on the surface of treated cells. Alongside the increased expression of Fas, QD treated cells had increased membrane lipid peroxidation, as measured by the fluorescent BODIPY-C11 dye. Moreover, peroxidized lipids were detected at the mitochondrial level, contributing to the impairment of mitochondrial functions as shown by the MTT reduction assay and imaged with confocal microscopy using the fluorescent JC-1 dye. Conclusion QD core and surface compositions, as well as QD stability, all influence nanoparticle internalization and the consequent cytotoxicity. Cadmium telluride QD-induced toxicity involves the upregulation of the Fas receptor and lipid peroxidation, leading to impaired neuroblastoma cell functions. Further improvements of nanoparticles and our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of QD-toxicity are critical for the development of new nanotherapeutics or diagnostics in nano-oncology.

  15. Lipid peroxidation inhibition and antiradical activities of some leaf fractions of Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmus, Jelili A; Adedosu, Temitope O; Fatoki, John O; Adegbite, Victor A; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess in vitro lipid peroxidation inhibitions and anti-radical activities of methanolic, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water fractions of Mangifera indica leaf. Inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in egg, brain, and liver homogenates, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH-) radical scavenging activities were evaluated. Total phenol was assessed in all fractions, and the reducing power of methanolic fraction was compared to gallic acid and ascorbic acid. The results showed that Fe2+ induced significant lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all the homogenates. Ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest percentage inhibition of LPO in both egg yolk (68.3%) and brain (66.3%), while the aqueous fraction exerted the highest inhibition in liver homogenate (89.1%) at a concentration of 10 microg/mL. These observed inhibitions of LPO by these fractions were higher than that of ascorbic acid used as a standard. The DPPH radical scavenging ability exhibited by ethyl acetate fraction was found to be the highest with IC50 value of 1.5 microg/mL. The ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions had the highest OH- radical scavenging ability with the same IC50 value of 5 microg/mL. The total phenol content of ethyl acetate fraction was the highest with 0.127 microg/mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The reductive potential of methanolic fraction showed a concentration-dependent increase. This study showed that inhibition of LPO and the DPPH and OH- radicals scavenging abilities of Mangifera indica leaf could be related to the presence of phenolic compounds. Therefore, the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaf may be a good source of natural antioxidative agent.

  16. Perinatal complications, lipid peroxidation, and mental health problems in a large community pediatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Rodrigo B; Cunha, Graccielle R; Asevedo, Elson; Zugman, André; Rios, Adiel C; Salum, Giovanni A; Pan, Pedro M; Gadelha, Ary; Levandowski, Mateus L; Belangero, Síntia I; Manfro, Gisele G; Stertz, Laura; Kauer-Sant'anna, Márcia; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Mari, Jair J; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Brietzke, Elisa

    2016-10-26

    Replicated evidence indicates that perinatal complications are associated with increased markers of oxidative stress and with mental health problems in children. However, there are fewer reports on the impact of perinatal complications in later phases of development. We aimed to investigate the estimated effects of perinatal complications on levels of lipid peroxidation and on psychopathology in children and adolescents. The study is part of the High Risk Cohort Study for Psychiatric Disorders; the population was composed by 554 students, 6-14 years of age. Serum levels of malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, were measured by the TBARS method. A household interview with parents and caregivers was conducted and included inquiries about perinatal history, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and parent's evaluation, using the Mini International Psychiatric Interview (MINI). We created a cumulative risk index, conceptualized as each individual's cumulative exposure to perinatal complications. Results indicate that perinatal complications were associated with higher levels of TBARS. After adjusting for age, gender, socio-economic status, CBCL total problems score, parental psychopathology, and childhood maltreatment, children exposed to 3 or more perinatal complications had an 26.9% (95% CI 9.9%, 46.6%) increase in TBARS levels, relative to the unexposed group. Exploratory mediation analysis indicated that TBARS levels partially mediated the association between perinatal complications and externalizing problems. In conclusion, an adverse intrauterine and/or early life environment, as proxied by the cumulative exposure to perinatal complications, was independently associated with higher levels of lipid peroxidation in children and adolescents.

  17. Dietary antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and plumage colouration in nestling blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Stephen D.; Mullen, William; Alexander, Lucille; Arnold, Kathryn E.

    2010-10-01

    Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many of the red, yellow and orange plumage and integument traits seen in birds. One idea suggests that since carotenoids can act as antioxidants, carotenoid-mediated colouration may reveal an individual's ability to resist oxidative damage. In fact, there is currently very little information on the effects of most dietary-acquired antioxidants on oxidative stress in wild birds. Here, we assessed the impacts on oxidative damage, plasma antioxidants, growth and plumage colouration after supplementing nestling blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus with one of three diets; control, carotenoid treatment or α-tocopherol treatment. Oxidative damage was assessed by HPLC analysis of plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a by-product of lipid peroxidation. Contrary to predictions, we found no differences in oxidative damage, plumage colouration or growth rate between treatment groups. Although plasma lutein concentrations were significantly raised in carotenoid-fed chicks, α-tocopherol treatment had no effect on concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol compared with controls. Interestingly, we found that faster growing chicks had higher levels of oxidative damage than slower growing birds, independent of treatment, body mass and condition at fledging. Moreover, the chromatic signal of the chest plumage of birds was positively correlated with levels of MDA but not plasma antioxidant concentrations: more colourful nestlings had higher oxidative damage than less colourful individuals. Thus, increased carotenoid-mediated plumage does not reveal resistance to oxidative damage for nestling blue tits, but may indicate costs paid, in terms of oxidative damage. Our results indicate that the trade-offs between competing physiological systems for dietary antioxidants are likely to be complex in rapidly developing birds. Moreover, interpreting the biological relevance of different biomarkers of antioxidant status represents a challenge for evolutionary

  18. Effects of supplementation of antioxidant vitamins and lipid peroxidation in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Carla R. Nogueira; Fernanda Borges; Edson Lameu; Carlos Franca; Andréa Ramalho

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Critical patients present systemic inflammatory process that can be followed by decrease in plasma concentrations of antioxidant vitamins. Objetive: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of antioxidant vitamins in critical patients and their relation with lipid peroxidation. Methods: 23 patients went on a standard diet (G1) and 11 went on a diet with daily supplementation of 10,000 IU of vitamin A, 400 mg of vitamin E and 600 mg of vitamin C (G2...

  19. [Study of the processes of lipid peroxidation in patients with endogenous psychoses using gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, E S; Orlov, O N; Bogdanova, E D; Beliaev, B S; Tsutsul'kovskaia, M Ia

    1989-01-01

    The processes of lipid peroxidation were studied in healthy subjects and patients with manic-depressive psychosis and schizophrenia using a non-invasive method based on chromatographic determination of endogenic pentane in the expired air. In patients with circular psychosis pentane concentration in the expired air did not differ from the norm, yet with advancing age it decreased (in contrast to an elevation in normal subjects). In schizophrenic patients pentane levels were significantly higher than in age-matched normal subjects. The level of the studied parameter was not correlated with the duration of the disease but showed a definite correlation with the severity of adverse disturbances in schizophrenia.

  20. Preparation of drug-loaded polymeric nanoparticles and evaluation of the antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Adriana R; Schaffazick, Scheila Rezende; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia B; Guterres, Sílvia S

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidants have been found to be effective as prophylatic and therapeutic agents for different diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. However, antioxidant substances can present poor solubility in water, inefficient permeability, gastrointestinal degradation, first-pass effect, and/or instability during storage. These drawbacks can be potentially circumvented by encapsulating the susceptible antioxidants. Polymeric nanoparticles (nanocapsules or nanospheres) have been used to improve the drug efficacy and release. Our group has shown that the in vitro antioxidant effect of melatonin against lipid peroxidation in microsomes and liposomes can be improved by encapsulation of the antioxidant drug in polymeric nanoparticles.

  1. Mechanisms involved in the modulation of astroglial resistance to oxidative stress induced by activated microglia: antioxidative systems, peroxide elimination, radical generation, lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhl, Claudia; Armbrust, Elisabeth; Herbst, Eva; Jess, Anne; Gülden, Michael; Maser, Edmund; Rimbach, Gerald; Bösch-Saadatmandi, Christine

    2010-05-01

    Microglia and astrocytes are the cellular key players in many neurological disorders associated with oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Previously, we have shown that microglia activated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induce the expression of antioxidative enzymes in astrocytes and render them more resistant to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, we examined the mechanisms involved with respect to the cellular action of different peroxides, the ability to detoxify peroxides, and the status of further antioxidative systems. Astrocytes were treated for 3 days with medium conditioned by purified quiescent (microglia-conditioned medium, MCM[-]) or LPS-activated (MCM[+]) microglia. MCM[+] reduced the cytotoxicity of the organic cumene hydroperoxide in addition to that of H2O2. Increased peroxide resistance was not accompanied by an improved ability of astrocytes to remove H2O2 or an increased expression/activity of peroxide eliminating antioxidative enzymes. Neither peroxide-induced radical generation nor lipid peroxidation were selectively affected in MCM[+] treated astrocytes. The glutathione content of peroxide resistant astrocytes, however, was increased and superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase were found to be upregulated. These changes are likely to contribute to the higher peroxide resistance of MCM[+] treated astrocytes by improving their ability to detoxify reactive oxygen radicals and oxidation products. For C6 astroglioma cells a protective effect of microglia-derived factors could not be observed, underlining the difference of primary cells and cell lines concerning their mechanisms of oxidative stress resistance. Our results indicate the importance of microglial-astroglial cell interactions during neuroinflammatory processes.

  2. In vitro lipid peroxidation of intestinal bile salt-based nanoemulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courraud, J; Charnay, C; Cristol, J P

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, oxidative stress has been described as a deleterious phenomenon contributing to numerous noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancers. As many authors ascribed the healthy effect of fruit and vegetable consumption mainly to their antioxidant....... Several nanoemulsions were compared in terms of physical characteristics and reactivity to 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidation. Formulations included different types of lipids, a detergent (a conjugated bile salt or sodium dodecyl sulfate) and, finally, lipophilic...... contents, it has been hypothesized that their protection could occur from the gut. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an original and physiological model of nanoemulsions to study lipid peroxidation within the intestine and to assess the properties of potential antioxidants in this setting...

  3. 脂肪乳剂的脂质过氧化问题%Peroxidation of lipid emulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.K.Choo

    2001-01-01

    In both preterm neonates and adults,parenteral administration oflipid emulsions caused increased lipid peroxidation.This is manifested as increased breath pentane,and increased malonedialdehyde or thiobarbituric acid reactant substances in plasma and body tissues.Such peroxidative reactions have been implicated as the cause of cellular and tissue damage in adults and infants.Avoiding the use of lipid emulsions in critically ill TPN patients is not really a practical approach to avoid peroxidative damage as a mixed glucose-fat fuel system has been shown to be superior to a glucose-based regimen.A viable alternative is to supplement parenteral supply of lipids with antioxidants like α-tocopherol.The involvement of antioxidants in proxidation reactions has been implicated by findings of negative correlation between plasma α-tocopherol level and breath pentane output as well as a negative correlation between plasma α-tocopherol level and duration of home parenteral nutrition (Lemoyne et al.,1988).It has also been demonstrated that intravenous supplementation of Vitamin E counteracted LCT-induced peroxidation and prevented Vitamin E depletion (Wispe et al.,1986,Pitkanen et al,1991,Siderovaet al.,1995).The extent of peroxidation is influenced not only by enrichment with α-tocopherol in the emulsion,but also by the composition of the fat emulsion also.Thus,the lower PUFA content of MCT/LCT lipid emulsion compared to pure LCT emulsions caused less peroxidation (Zimmermann et al.,1993,Arorati et al.,1997).In summary,reduction of susceptibility of fat emulsion to peroxidation can be achieved by reducing the content of unsaturated fatty acid by using a mixed emulsion like a physical mixed MCT/LCT lipid emulsion and supplementing the lipid emulsion with Vitamin E.

  4. Rapid determination of lipid peroxidation using a novel pyridoxamine-participating ferrous oxidation-sulfosalicylic acid spectrophotometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingnan; Cai, Danqian; Zhang, Yu

    2016-11-15

    A novel method is developed to rapidly analyze lipid peroxidation in edible oils and fatty foods at room temperature, which is called the pyridoxamine-participating ferrous oxidation-sulfosalicylic acid (PFOS) method. The PFOS method evaluates the lipid peroxide value colorimetrically via detecting the pyridoxamine-mediated pigment produced by 5-sulfosalicylic acid and Fe(3+) at 500nm, while the latter is converted from Fe(2+) in the presence of lipid peroxides. The optimized formulation was ethanol (70%, v/v), Fe(2+) (4mmol/L), 5-sulfosalicylic acid (40mmol/L) and pyridoxamine (18mmol/L). The limit of quantitation is 0.087mmol Fe(3+)/L with acceptable reproducibility. In addition, current method has a significant linear correlation with both conventional thiobarbituric acid (R(2)=0.9999) and ferric thiocyanate assays (R(2)=0.9675). This method offers a rapid technique for evaluating lipid peroxidation without heating and sophisticated instrumental procedures. Besides, current method provides a new option to evaluate the lipid peroxidation state and improve the reproducibility of ferrous-oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Status of the lipid peroxidation system in the tissues of rats following a 7-day flight on the Kosmos-1667 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delenian, N V; Markin, A A

    1989-01-01

    Rats flown for 7 days on Cosmos-1667 were for the first time used to measure antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase), lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, Schiff bases) and tocopherol. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the heart was completely compensated by activation of antioxidative enzymes. The content of all lipid peroxidation products measured in the liver increased; this was accompanied by a decrease of glutathione peroxidase and an increase of superoxide dismutase activities. It is suggested that lipid peroxidation was activated in response to altered gravity.

  6. Inhibition of Probimane on Lipid Peroxidation of Rabbit and Human Erythrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢大用; 陈恩鸿; 曹静铭; 金巍; 田芳; 丁健

    2003-01-01

    Lipid peroxide (LPO) plays pivotal roles in the process and development of many diseases. In this work, we studied the inhibitory effect of probimane (Pro), a Chinese anticancer agent, on erythrocyte LPO and the interaction of Pro with sialic acids (sia).Malondialdehyde (MDA) of erythrocytes activated by hydrogen peroxide was measured. Pro was found to inhibit the product of LPO induced by hydrogen peroxide in a non-enzyme system of both rabbit and human erythrocytes in the absence of doxorubicin. Sia were found to enhance LPO production and the activity of Nglycolylneuraminic acid (NenGc) was about 5 times higher than that of Nacetylneuraminic acid (5AcNeu) at equivalent concentrations. Pro inhibited the increased LPO production induced by sia and the activity of Pro against LPO with 5AcNeu was almost twofold higher than that of Pro alone. It suggests that Pro be an inhibitor of LPO (free radicals) and as a functional modulator of sia in body.

  7. In vitro lipid peroxidation of intestinal bile salt-based nanoemulsions: potential role of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courraud, J; Charnay, C; Cristol, J P; Berger, J; Avallone, S

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decades, oxidative stress has been described as a deleterious phenomenon contributing to numerous noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancers. As many authors ascribed the healthy effect of fruit and vegetable consumption mainly to their antioxidant contents, it has been hypothesized that their protection could occur from the gut. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an original and physiological model of nanoemulsions to study lipid peroxidation within the intestine and to assess the properties of potential antioxidants in this setting. Several nanoemulsions were compared in terms of physical characteristics and reactivity to 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidation. Formulations included different types of lipids, a detergent (a conjugated bile salt or sodium dodecyl sulfate) and, finally, lipophilic antioxidants. Hemin and myoglobin were also tested as relevant potential oxidants. Fatty acid (FA) peroxidation was monitored by gas chromatography while malondialdehyde and antioxidant contents were measured by HPLC. Investigated nanoemulsions were composed of spherical or cylindrical mixed micelles, the latter being the least resistant to oxidation. In the experimental conditions, AAPH was the only efficient oxidant. Alpha-tocopherol and lutein significantly slowed FA degradation from 4 to 1 μM, respectively. On the contrary, beta-carotene did not show any protective capacity at 4 μM. In conclusion, the tested nanoemulsions were appropriate to assess antioxidant capacity during the intestinal phase of digestion.

  8. Sodium metabisulfite induces lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in rat gastric tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Sevim; Oztürk, Nihal; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Gungor, Nazli Ece; Yargicoglu, Piraye

    2010-08-01

    Sodium metabisulfite (Na( 2)S(2)O(5)) is used as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in a variety of drugs and functions as a preservative in many food preparations. This study was performed to elucidate the dose-dependent effects of sodium metabisulfite ingestion on rat gastric tissue apoptotic changes and lipid peroxidation. Forty male wistar rats, aged 3 months were used. They were randomly divided into four groups: control (C), the group treated with Na(2)S(2)O(5) (10 mg/kg; S1), the group treated with Na(2)S(2)O(5) (100 mg/kg; S2), the group treated with Na(2)S(2)O(5) (260 mg/kg; S3). Na( 2)S(2)O(5) was given by intragastric intubation for 35 days. In the S2 and S3 groups, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased markedly when compared with the control group. High doses of sulfite administration elevated number of apoptotic cells both in mucosa and submucosa layers of stomach in parallel with increased MDA levels. These results suggest that sodium metabisulfite increased lipid peroxidation and thus number of apoptotic cells on gastric tissue in dose-dependent manner.

  9. Five Decades with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Chemical Synthesis, Enzymatic Formation, Lipid Peroxidation and Its Biological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Catalá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I have been involved in research on polyunsaturated fatty acids since 1964 and this review is intended to cover some of the most important aspects of this work. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have followed me during my whole scientific career and I have published a number of studies concerned with different aspects of them such as chemical synthesis, enzymatic formation, metabolism, transport, physical, chemical, and catalytic properties of a reconstructed desaturase system in liposomes, lipid peroxidation, and their effects. The first project I became involved in was the organic synthesis of [1-14C] eicosa-11,14-dienoic acid, with the aim of demonstrating the participation of that compound as a possible intermediary in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid “in vivo.” From 1966 to 1982, I was involved in several projects that study the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the eighties, we studied fatty acid binding protein. From 1990 up to now, our laboratory has been interested in the lipid peroxidation of biological membranes from various tissues and different species as well as liposomes prepared with phospholipids rich in PUFAs. We tested the effect of many antioxidants such as alpha tocopherol, vitamin A, melatonin and its structural analogues, and conjugated linoleic acid, among others.

  10. Tenoxicam modulates antioxidant redox system and lipid peroxidation in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Uğuz, Abdulhadi Cihangir; Gokçimen, Alpaslan; Bülbül, Metin; Karatopuk, Dilek Ulusoy; Türker, Yasin; Cerçi, Celal

    2008-09-01

    We investigated effects of two doses of Tenoxicam, a type 2 cyclooxygenase inhibitor, administration on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant redox system in cortex of the brain in rats. Twenty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. First group was used as control. 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight Tenoxicam were intramuscularly administrated to rats constituting the second and third groups for 10 days, respectively. Both dose of Tenoxicam administration resulted in significant increase in the glutathione peroxidase activity, reduced glutathione and vitamins C and E of cortex of the brain. The lipid peroxidation levels in the cortex of the brain were significantly decreased by the administration. Vitamin A and beta-carotene concentration was not affected by the administration. There was no statistical difference in all values between 10 and 20 mg Tenoxicam administrated groups. In conclusion, treatment of brain with 10 and 20 mg Tenoxicam has protective effects on the oxidative stress by inhibiting free radical and supporting antioxidant redox system.

  11. Interrelationships between lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant status in sedentary controls and unprofessional athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Gregorio; Canino, Baldassare; Lo Presti, Rosalia

    2010-01-01

    We examined the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) as an index of lipid peroxidation, and the total antioxidant status (TAS) in 81 unprofessional athletes subdivided into three subgroups. The first group included 28 subjects who practised endurance sports, the second included 30 subjects who practised mixed sports, the third included 23 subjects who practised power sports. We enrolled also a group of 61 sedentary controls (SC). TBARS were increased and TAS was decreased in the whole group of athletes in comparison with SC; an almost similar behaviour was present also subdividing athletes according to the practised sport. A significant negative correlation between these two parameters emerged in SC but not in the whole group of athletes. Unless for the athletes that practised endurance sports a similar trend was found in athletes that practised mixed and power sports. In conclusion, at rest the symmetrical behaviour between the lipid peroxidation increase and the TAS decrease, observed in sedentary controls, was not evident in unprofessional athletes who practised different sports.

  12. Lipid peroxidation analysis in salmon (Salmo salar L.) processed by e-beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomaz, Fernanda S.; Trindade, Reginaldo A.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Araujo, Michel M.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Mancini-Filho, Jorge [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: jmancini@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    In Brazil the consumption of fish is relatively small when compared with other source of meat protein. However the diets rich in fish have association with a wide range of positive health effects, due your great deal the fat acids omega 3, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). Salmon (Salmo salar L.) specifically have those fat acids in main quantity. The omega 3 fat acids are related to the prevention of several not transmissible illness; with emphasis to cardiovascular, hypertriglyceridemia, cancer, osteoporosis and inflammatory and anti immune diseases. Food borne illnesses have been a growing concern to the governments, producers and consumers, mainly regarding the damages they cause to human health. In this context, irradiation is used as a method to preserve food. The present work aim to evaluate the lipid peroxidation in natura salmon filet irradiated on the basis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Samples were irradiated in an e beam accelerator (Radiation Dynamics Co. model JOB, New York, USA), 1,5 MeV-25mA at doses of 0, 1.0 and 2.0 kGy, analyzed 7, 15, 21, 30 e 45 days after irradiation. Irradiated samples analyzed during a 45 day period, showed a higher lipid peroxidation than the control samples at the same period, increasing with dose and storage time. However, it did not pass the permitted value. Irradiation demonstrated effective without compromising the quality of the food. (author)

  13. Dose-dependent effect of nutritional sulfite intake on visual evoked potentials and lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nihal; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Derin, Narin; Akpinar, Deniz; Agar, Aysel; Aslan, Mutay

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the dose-dependent effect of sulfite (SO₃²⁻) ingestion on brain and retina by means of electrophysiological and biochemical parameters. Fifty two male Wistar rats, aged 3 months, were randomized into four experimental groups of 13 rats as follows; control (C), sulfite treated groups (S(1); 10 mg/kg/day, S₂; 100mg/kg/day, S₃; 260 mg/kg/day). Control rats were administered distilled water, while the other three groups were given sodium metabisulfite (Na₂S₂O₅) of amounts mentioned above, via gavage for a period of 35 days. All components of visual evoked potential (VEP) were prolonged in S₂ and S₃ groups compared with S₁ and C groups. Plasma-S-sulfonate levels, which are an indicator of sulfur dioxide (SO₂) exposure, were increased in Na₂S₂O₅ treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the significant increments in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) levels occurred with increasing intake of Na₂S₂O₅. Though not significant, glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were observed to decrease with increasing doses of Na₂S₂O₅. In conclusion, Na₂S₂O₅ treatment in rats caused a dose-dependent increase in lipid peroxidation and all VEP latencies. The data indicate that lipid peroxidation could play an important role in sulfite toxicity.

  14. Enzyme responses and lipid peroxidation in gills and hepatopancreas of clam Mactra vereformis, following cadmium exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaoyu; YANG Hongsheng; LIU Guangbin; WANG Qing

    2011-01-01

    To assess the toxicity of heavy metal pollution to marine intertidal shellfish,enzymatic responses and lipid peroxidation were investigated in the clam Mactra vereformis exposed to cadmium under laboratory conditions.Three antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase,SOD; catalase,CAT;glutathione peroxidase,GPx),two immune defense enzymes (acid phosphatase,ACP; alkaline phosphatase,ALP),and one lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde,MDA) were measured in the gills and the hepatopancreas of the clam exposed to 0,25,75,and 125 μg/L cadmium for 0,1,3,5,and 7 d.The results show that the concentrations of antioxidant enzymes in the organs soared to a peak value on the first day and then decreased afterwards in most cases.CAT and GPx activities in the hepatopancreas were higher than in the gills,but the SOD activity was lower in the bepatopancreas.ACP activity was unchanged until Day 3 in the hepatopancreas and until Day 5 in gills,when it began to increase.ALP activity showed no significant relationship with Cd treatment.MDA concentrations increased in the two tissues after Cd exposure,peaked on Day 3 in gills,and on Day 5 in hepatopancreas.These observations show that changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and ACP reflect the time course of oxidative stress in the clam caused by Cd,and could be used as potential biomarkers for ecotoxicological bioassays of heavy metals.

  15. Protective effects of boron on cyclophosphamide induced lipid peroxidation and genotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Acaroz, Damla Arslan; Akbel, Erten; Cigerci, Ibrahim Hakki

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of boron (B) on cyclophosphamide (CYC) induced oxidative stress in rats. Totally, thirty Wistar albino male rats were fed standard rodent diet and divided into 5 equal groups: physiological saline was given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the control group (vehicle treated), to the second group only 75 mg kg(-1) CYC was given i.p. on the 14th d, and boron was administered (5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1), i.p.) to the other groups for 14 d and CYC (75 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on the 14th d. CYC caused increase of malondialdehyde and decrease of glutathione levels, decrease of superoxide dismutase activities in erythrocyte and tissues, decrease of erythrocyte, heart, lung, and brain catalase, and plasma antioxidant activities. Also, CYC treatment caused to DNA damage in mononuclear leukocytes. Moreover, B exhibited protective action against the CYC-induced histopathological changes in tissues. However, treatment of B decreased severity of CYC-induced lipid peroxidation and genotoxicity on tissues. In conclusion, B has ameliorative effects against CYC-induced lipid peroxidation and genotoxicity by enhancing antioxidant defence mechanism in rat.

  16. WO3/Pt nanoparticles promote light-induced lipid peroxidation and lysosomal instability within tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrea J.; Petty, Howard R.

    2016-02-01

    Although metal-metal oxide nanoparticles have attracted considerable interest as catalysts, they have attracted little interest in nanomedicine. This is likely due to the fact that metal oxide semiconductors generally require biologically harmful ultraviolet excitation. In contrast, this study focuses upon WO3/Pt nanoparticles, which can be excited by visible light. To optimize the nanoparticles’ catalytic performance, platinization was performed at alkaline pH. These nanoparticles destroyed organic dyes, consumed dissolved oxygen and produced hydroxyl radicals. 4T1 breast cancer cells internalized WO3/Pt nanoparticles within the membrane-bound endo-lysosomal compartment as shown by electron and fluorescence microscopy. During visible light exposure, but not in darkness, WO3/Pt nanoparticles manufacture reactive oxygen species, promote lipid peroxidation, and trigger lysosomal membrane disruption. As cells of the immune system degrade organic molecules, produce reactive oxygen species, and activate the lipid peroxidation pathway within target cells, these nanoparticles mimic the chemical attributes of immune effector cells. These biomimetic nanoparticles should become useful in managing certain cancers, especially ocular cancer.

  17. Specific markers of lipid peroxidation issued from n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichardant, M; Chantegrel, B; Deshayes, C; Doutheau, A; Moliere, P; Lagarde, M

    2004-02-01

    Several markers of lipid peroxidation are available with different degrees of specificity, from malondialdehyde as a global marker, to F(2)-isoprostane, which is specifically produced from arachidonic acid. Among these, 4-hydroxynonenal is recognized as a breakdown product of fatty acid hydroperoxides, such as 15-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid and 13-hydroperoxy-octade cadienoic acid from the n -6 fatty acids. Furthermore, 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) derives from n -3 fatty acid hydroperoxides. We have recently described the occurrence of 4-hydroxydodecadienal (4-HDDE) from the 12-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid 12-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid. These three hydroxy-alkenals may be measured in human plasma by GC-MS, but they may partly be generated in the course of sampling, and the relative volatility of 4-HHE makes its measurement quite unreliable. We have successfully characterized and measured the stable oxidized carboxylic acid products from the hydroxy-alkenals 4-HNA, 4-HHA and 4-HDDA in urine. The ratio between 4-HHA and 4-HNA found in the same urinary sample might provide useful information on the location of lipid peroxidation, accounting for the high enrichment of the cerebrovascular system with docosahexaenoic acid, the main n -3 fatty acid in humans.

  18. Effect of mild iron overload on liver and kidney lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleano, M; Puntarulo, S

    1994-10-01

    1. Hepatotoxicity is the most common finding in patients with iron overload since the liver is the major recipient of iron excess, even though the kidney could be a target of iron toxicity. The effect of iron overload was studied in the early stages after iron-dextran injection in rats, as a model for secondary hemocromatosis. 2. Total hepatic and kidney iron content was markedly elevated over control values 20 h after the iron administration. Plasma GOT, GPT and LDH activities were not affected, suggesting that liver cell permeability was not affected by necrosis. 3. Spontaneous liver chemiluminescence was measured as an indicator of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Light emission was increased four-fold 6 h after iron supplementation. 4. Increases in the generation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in liver and kidney homogenates were detected after iron administration. 5. The activities of catalase, SOD and glutathione peroxidase were determined. Enzymatic activities declined in liver homogenates by 25, 36 and 32%, respectively, 20 h after iron injection. These activities were not affected in kidney as compared to control values, except for SOD activity that was decreased by 26%. 6. The content of alpha-tocopherol was decreased by 31% in whole kidney homogenates and by 40% in plasma. 7. Our data indicate that lipid peroxidation occurs after mild iron overload both in liver and kidney. Enzymatic antioxidants are consumed significantly in liver and alpha-tocopherol content decreases in kidney, suggesting an organ-specific antioxidant effect.

  19. Calcareous impact on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus development and on lipid peroxidation in monoxenic roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, Sonia; Calonne, Maryline; Ben Jeddi, Fayçal; Debiane, Djouher; Rezgui, Salah; Laruelle, Frédéric; Tisserant, Benoit; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Sahraoui, Anissa Lounès-Hadj

    2011-12-01

    The present work underlined the negative effects of increasing CaCO(3) concentrations (5, 10 and 20 mM) both on the chicory root growth and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus irregulare development in monoxenic system. CaCO(3) was found to reduce drastically the main stages of G. irregulare life cycle (spore germination, germinative hyphae elongation, root colonization, extraradical hyphae development and sporulation) but not to inhibit it completely. The root colonization drop was confirmed by the decrease in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal marker C16:1ω5 amounts in the mycorrhizal chicory roots grown in the presence of CaCO(3). Oxidative damage evaluated by lipid peroxidation increase measured by (i) malondialdehyde (MDA) production and (ii) the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD) activities, was highlighted in chicory roots grown in the presence of CaCO(3). However, MDA formation was significantly higher in non-mycorrhizal roots as compared to mycorrhizal ones. This study pointed out the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to enhance plant tolerance to high levels of CaCO(3) by preventing lipid peroxidation and so less cell membrane damage.

  20. Lipid Peroxidation, Nitric Oxide Metabolites, and Their Ratio in a Group of Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Caimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate lipid peroxidation, expressed as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite + nitrate expressed as NOx, and TBARS/NOx ratio in a group of subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS. In this regard we enrolled 106 subjects with MS defined according to the IDF criteria, subsequently subdivided into diabetic (DMS and nondiabetic (NDMS and also into subjects with a low triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C index or with a high TG/HDL-C index. In the entire group and in the four subgroups of MS subjects we found an increase in TBARS and NOx levels and a decrease in TBARS/NOx ratio in comparison with normal controls. Regarding all these parameters no statistical difference between DMS and NDMS was evident, but a significant increase in NOx was present in subjects with a high TG/HDL-C index in comparison with those with a low index. In MS subjects we also found a negative correlation between TBARS/NOx ratio and TG/HDL-C index. Considering the hyperactivity of the inducible NO synthase in MS, these data confirm the altered redox and inflammatory status that characterizes the MS and suggest a link between lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and insulin resistance, evaluated as TG/HDL-C index.

  1. Physiological response to lipid peroxidation in ischemia and reperfusion during carotid endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordeddu Lina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we aimed to assess lipid peroxidation during carotid endarterectomy by the formation of PUFA hydroperoxides (PUFAHP and isoprostanes (IP and concomitant peroxisomal beta-oxidation as a physiological mechanism to limit their concentration. Two markers of peroxisomal beta oxidation have been evaluated, formation of 2,3 dinor from IP and conjugated esadecadienoic acid (CD 16:2 from peroxisomal beta-oxidation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, an unusual fatty acid present in small concentration in our diet and preferentially beta-oxidised in peroxisomes. The study was conducted on 30 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Blood samplings were performed before, during endarterectomy in the "ischemic phase", and 30 seconds, 30 minutes and 2 hours after reperfusion. Results The results showed that PUFAHP increased significantly after 30 min of reperfusion in patients with controlateral stenosis > 50%, and steeply decreased after 2 hour of reperfusion. Interestingly, IP increased in a similar fashion of PUFAHP but never significantly. Both ratios CD16:2/CLA and DIN/IP also increased significantly after 30 min of reperfusion to decrease thereafter. Conclusions Our data show that lipid peroxidation takes place only in patients with high controlateral stenosis and within 2 hours occurs a physiological response aimed to decrease IP and PUFAHP by increasing their catabolism in peroxisomes.

  2. Three-dimensional reconstruction of cell nuclei, internalized quantum dots and sites of lipid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysinger Dusica

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to develop and illustrate three-dimensional (3-D reconstruction of nuclei and intracellular lipid peroxidation in cells exposed to oxidative stress induced by quantum dots. Programmed cell death is characterized by multiple biochemical and morphological changes in different organelles, including nuclei, mitochondria and lysosomes. It is the dynamics of the spatio-temporal changes in the signalling and morphological adaptations which will ultimately determine the 'shape' and fate of the cell. Results We present new approaches to the 3-D reconstruction of organelle morphology and biochemical changes in confocal live-cell images. We demonstrate the 3-D shapes of nuclei, the 3-D intracellular distributions of QDs and the accompanying lipid-membrane peroxidation, and provide methods for quantification. Conclusion This study provides an approach to 3-D organelle and nanoparticle visualization in the context of cell death; however, this approach is also applicable more generally to investigating changes in organelle morphology in response to therapeutic interventions, stressful stimuli and internalized nanoparticles. Moreover, the approach provides quantitative data for such changes, which will help us to better integrate compartmentalization of subcellular events and to link morphological and biochemical changes with physiological outcomes.

  3. Effects of melatonin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah Armagan; Efkan Uz; H. Ramazan Yilmaz; Sedat Soyupek; Taylan Oksay; Nurten Ozcelik

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of melatonin treatment on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the testicular tissue of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty-six male rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: group Ⅰ, control, non-diabetic rats (n = 9); group Ⅱ, STZ-induced,Following 8-week melatonin treatment, all rats were anaesthetized and then were killed to remove testes from the scrotum. Results: As compared to group Ⅰ, in rat testicular tissues of group Ⅱ, increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P < 0.01) as well as decreased levels of catalase (CAT) (P < 0.01)and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (P > 0.05) were found. In contrast, as compared to group Ⅱ, in rat testicular tissues of group Ⅲ, levels of MDA decreased (but this decrease was not significant, P > 0.05) and SOD (P < 0.01) as well as CAT (P < 0.05) increased. GSH-Px was not influenced by any of the treatment. Melatonin did not significantly affect the elevated glucose concentration of diabetic group. At the end of the study, there was no significant difference between the melatonin-treated group and the untreated group by means of body and testicular weight.Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus increases oxidative stress and melatonin inhibits lipid peroxidation and might regulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes of diabetic rat testes.

  4. Photoirradiation of representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and twelve isomeric methylbenz[a]anthracene with UVA light: formation of lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingsu; Chou, Ming W; Yin, Jun J; Howard, Paul C; Yu, Hongtao; Fu, Peter P

    2006-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants, which require metabolic activation in order to exert biological activities, including mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Photoactivation is another activation pathway that can lead to PAH genotoxicity. In this paper, we demonstrate that photoirradiation of a series of representative PAHs, with and without bearing a methyl substituent, with UVA light in the presence of methyl linoleate resulted in the formation of methyl linoleate hydroperoxides (a lipid peroxide). The lipid peroxide formation was inhibited by dithiothreitol (DTT) (free radical scavenger), NaN3 (singlet oxygen and free radical scavenger), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (superoxide scavenger), but was enhanced by the presence of deuterium oxide (D2O) (extends singlet oxygen lifetime). These results suggest that photoirradiation of PAHs by UVA light generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce lipid peroxidation.

  5. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on blood and tissue lipid peroxidation in lipopolysaccharide-induced obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglikulekci, Mehmet; Dirlik, Musa; Pata, Cengiz; Plasse, Marylene; Tamer, Lulufer; Ogetman, Zekai; Ercan, Bahadir

    2006-01-01

    In obstructive jaundice, free radical production is increased and antioxidative activity is reduced. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) has a beneficial effect with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, acting as a free radical scavenger. NAC inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase, suppresses cytokine expression/release, and inhibits adhesion molecule expression and nuclear factor kappa B. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NAC on liver/renal tissue and serum lipid peroxidation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced obstructive jaundice. We randomized 60 rats into 6 groups: group 1, Sham; group 2, obstructive jaundice (OJ) induced after bile-duct ligation; group 3, OJ + NAC (100 mg kg- 1 subcutaneously); group 4, OJ + LPS (10 mg kg-1); group 5, OJ + NAC + LPS; and group 6, OJ + LPS + NAC. For each group, the biochemical markers of lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant products were measured in serum and liver/renal tissue after sacrifice. Almost all lipid peroxidation products levels were increased and antioxidant products levels were decreased in groups who received LPS (groups 4, 5, and 6), but the effect was less remarkable when NAC was administered before LPS (group 5). The same trend was seen for groups with OJ +/- LPS who did not received NAC or received it after induced toxemia (groups 2, 4, and 6) as compared to groups 1 and 3. Moreover, in the case of OJ + LPS, rats treated with NAC before LPS (group 5) had lower lipid peroxidation products levels and higher antioxidant products levels as compared to those who did not received NAC (group 4). This phenomenon was not reproducible with NAC administered after LPS (group 6). Thus, results of this study showed that NAC prevents the deleterious effects of LPS in obstructive jaundice by reducing lipid peroxidation in serum and liver/renal tissue if administered before LPS. Nonetheless, NAC failed to prevent the lipid peroxidation in the case of established endotoxemia in obstructive jaundice.

  6. UVA photoirradiation of halogenated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons leading to induction of lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreno-Sáenz, Diógenes; Xia, Qingsu; Chiu, Li-Ting; Fu, Peter P

    2006-06-01

    Since the finding in the 1930s, a large number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of different structures have been tested for potential tumorigenicity. Structure-activity relationships of halo-PAHs have been investigated to determine the regions of a PAH that may be involved in cancer initiation. From these studies, a number of halo-PAHs were found to be tumorigenic in experimental animals. It was not until the 1980s that halo- PAHs were found to be present in the environment, including municipal incinerator fly ash, urban air, coal combustion, soil, snow, automobile exhausts, and tap water. Due to their widespread presence in the environment and their genotoxic activities, including carcinogenicity, many of these compounds may pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of halo- PAHs have been studied their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. In this study, we study the photoirradiation of a series of structure-related halo-PAHs by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate, and determine as to whether or not these compounds can induce lipid peroxidation. The halo-PAHs chosen for study include 2-bromonaphthalene, 1-chloroanthracene, 9,10- dibromoanthracene, 9-chlorophenanthrene, 9-bromophenanthrene, 7-chlorobenz[a]anthracene, 7- bromobenz[a]anthracene, 7-bromo-5-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 6-chlorobenzo[a]pyrene, and 6- bromobenzo[a]pyrene. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation at different levels. These results suggest that halo-PAHs may be harmful to human health.

  7. Ambient particulate air pollution from vehicles promotes lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses in rat lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E.L. Pereira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of particle-dependent lung injury. Ambient particle levels from vehicles have not been previously shown to cause oxidative stress to the lungs. The present study was conducted to a determine whether short-term exposure to ambient levels of particulate air pollution from vehicles elicits inflammatory responses and lipid peroxidation in rat lungs, and b determine if intermittent short-term exposures (every 4 days induce some degree of tolerance. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ambient particulate matter (PM from vehicles (N = 30 for 6 or 20 continuous hours, or for intermittent (5 h periods during 20 h for 4 consecutive days or to filtered air (PM <10 µm; N = 30. Rats continuously breathing polluted air for 20 h (P-20 showed a significant increase in the total number of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage compared to control (C-20: 2.61 x 105 ± 0.51;P-20: 5.01 x 105 ± 0.81; P < 0.05 and in lipid peroxidation ([MDA] nmol/mg protein: C-20: 0.148 ± 0.01; P-20: 0.226 ± 0.02; P < 0.05. Shorter exposure (6 h and intermittent 5-h exposures over a period of 4 days did not cause significant changes in leukocytes. Lipid damage resulting from 20-h exposure to particulate air pollution did not cause a significant increase in lung water content. These data suggest oxidative stress as one of the mechanisms responsible for the acute adverse respiratory effects of particles, and suggest that short-term inhalation of ambient particulate air pollution from street with high automobile traffic represents a biological hazard.

  8. Oxidative stress in severe dengue viral infection: association of thrombocytopenia with lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundravally, R; Sankar, P; Bobby, Z; Hoti, S L

    2008-09-01

    Oxidative stress in viral infections has been suggested. The study was carried out to assess the oxidative stress in the different clinical spectrums of dengue infection and to evaluate if thrombocytopenia is associated with lipid and protein oxidative injury. Twenty-seven dengue fever (DF), 32 dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 21 dengue shock syndrome (DSS) cases were studied at 3, 5 and 7 days of illness. Sixty-three healthy subjects were selected as controls. Serum protein carbonyls (PCOs), malendialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were estimated in blood. Dengue infected individuals had significantly high levels of PCOs and MDA on the three days tested in comparison to controls. In DF cases, no significant changes in the levels of MDA and PCOs were found in course of time. However, among DHF and DSS, significant increase in MDA levels was found in the fifth and seventh day samples in comparison to their respective third day sample (P platelet count and plasma lipid peroxidation levels among DHF and DSS on all three days tested [day 3 (DHF r = -0.392; p = 0.012 and DSS r = -0.453; p = 0.004), day 5 (DHF r = -0.592; p viral infection. The level of oxidative stress was maximal in DSS followed by DHF and its severity was minimal in DF. The thrombocytopenia of dengue infection was associated with the extent of lipid peroxidation. Future studies might be carried out to find the role of oxidative damage in the ethiopathogenesis of thrombocytopenia and vascular leakage in dengue infection.

  9. UVA Photoirradiation of Halogenated-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Leading to Induction of Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Fu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the finding in the 1930s, a large number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs of different structures have been tested for potential tumorigenicity. Structure-activity relationships of halo-PAHs have been investigated to determine the regions of a PAH that may be involved in cancer initiation. From these studies, a number of halo-PAHs were found to be tumorigenic in experimental animals. It was not until the 1980s that halo-PAHs were found to be present in the environment, including municipal incinerator fly ash, urban air, coal combustion, soil, snow, automobile exhausts, and tap water. Due to their widespread presence in the environment and their genotoxic activities, including carcinogenicity, many of these compounds may pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of halo-PAHs have been studied their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. In this study, we study the photoirradiation of a series of structure-related halo-PAHs by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate, and determine as to whether or not these compounds can induce lipid peroxidation. The halo-PAHs chosen for study include 2-bromonaphthalene, 1-chloroanthracene, 9,10-dibromoanthracene, 9-chlorophenanthrene, 9-bromophenanthrene, 7-chlorobenz[a]anthracene, 7-bromobenz[a]anthracene, 7-bromo-5-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 6-chlorobenzo[a]pyrene, and 6-bromobenzo[a]pyrene. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation at different levels. These results suggest that halo-PAHs may be harmful to human health.

  10. Chemopreventive and renal protective effects for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: implications of CRP and lipid peroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darweish MM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fish oil-derived ω-3 fatty acids, like docosahexanoic (DHA, claim a plethora of health benefits. We currently evaluated the antitumor effects of DHA, alone or in combination with cisplatin (CP in the EAC solid tumor mice model, and monitored concomitant changes in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA and leukocytic count (LC. Further, we verified the capacity of DHA to ameliorate the lethal, CP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and the molecular mechanisms involved therein. Results EAC-bearing mice exhibited markedly elevated LC (2-fold, CRP (11-fold and MDA levels (2.7-fold. DHA (125, 250 mg/kg elicited significant, dose-dependent reductions in tumor size (38%, 79%; respectively, as well as in LC, CRP and MDA levels. These effects for CP were appreciably lower than those of DHA (250 mg/kg. Interestingly, DHA (125 mg/kg markedly enhanced the chemopreventive effects of CP and boosted its ability to reduce serum CRP and MDA levels. Correlation studies revealed a high degree of positive association between tumor growth and each of CRP (r = 0.85 and leukocytosis (r = 0.89, thus attesting to a diagnostic/prognostic role for CRP. On the other hand, a single CP dose (10 mg/kg induced nephrotoxicity in rats that was evidenced by proteinuria, deterioration of glomerular filtration rate (GFR, -4-fold, a rise in serum creatinine/urea levels (2–5-fold after 4 days, and globally-induced animal fatalities after 7 days. Kidney-homogenates from CP-treated rats displayed significantly elevated MDA- and TNF-α-, but reduced GSH-, levels. Rats treated with DHA (250 mg/kg, but not 125 mg/kg survived the lethal effects of CP, and showed a significant recovery of GFR; while their homogenates had markedly-reduced MDA- and TNF-α-, but -increased GSH-levels. Significant association was detected between creatinine level and those of MDA (r = 0.81, TNF-α r = 0.92 and GSH (r = -0

  11. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism. PMID:26104400

  12. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqin Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p0.05. The levels of TG (p<0.001 and LDL-C (p<0.001 were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01. Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01. Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05, and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05 and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05. The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly and SOD (p<0.001, linearly. Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism.

  13. 植物脂质过氧化研究进展%Research Progress on Lipid Peroxidation of Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赟

    2013-01-01

    脂质过氧化反应在生物体内普遍存在,对生物的危害最大.生育酚是一种脂溶性抗氧化剂,保护生物膜免受脂质过氧化损伤.该研究综述了脂质过氧化物的产生、危害以及生育酚抗氧化机制.%The lipid peroxidation is regarded as the most damaging process known to occur in every living organism. Tocopherols, a lipid soluble antioxidant protect the biomembranes from damage due to the lipid radicals. The occurrence and damage of the lipid peroxides were summarized , as well as the antioxidant mechanism of tocopherols.

  14. Acrolein, A Reactive Product of Lipid Peroxidation, Induces Oxidative Modification of Cytochrome c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jung Hoon [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Acrolein (ACR) is a well-known carbonyl toxin produced by lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In Alzheimer's brain, ACR was found to be elevated in hippocampus and temporal cortex where oxidative stress is high. In this study, we evaluated oxidative modification of cytochrome c occurring after incubation with ACR. When cytochrome c was incubated with ACR, protein aggregation increased in a dose-dependent manner. The formation of carbonyl compounds and the release of iron were obtained in ACR-treated cytochrome c. Reactive oxygen species scavengers and iron specific chelator inhibited the ACR-mediated cytochrome c modification and carbonyl compound formation. Our data demonstrate that oxidative damage of cytochrome c by ACR might induce disruption of cyotochrome c structure and iron mishandling as a contributing factor to the pathology of AD.

  15. PEA chloroplasts under clino-rotation: lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranenko, V. V.

    The lipid peroxidation (LP) intensity and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in chloroplasts of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants grown for 7 and 14 days under clino-rotation. An increase in LP levels in chloroplasts during both terms of clinorotation in comparison with stationary controls was documented. SOD activity increased in chloroplasts of plants that were clino-rotated for seven days. SOD has a significant protective effect by diminishing the availability of O2-. However, under more prolonged clino-rotation (14 days), SOD activity decreased but was still higher than in the control samples. In accordance with Selye's oxidative stress theory (Selye, 1956; modified by Leshem et al., 1998), plants that were clino-rotated for seven days are presumed to be in a stage of resistance while 14-day plants reached a stage of exhaustion.

  16. Lipid peroxidation generates biologically active phospholipids including oxidatively N-modified phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sean S; Guo, Lilu

    2014-07-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts "inert" phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease.

  17. Levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and antioxidant vitamins in plasma of patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkuş, Selami; Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Eriş, Sevilay; Yalman, Kadir; Yilmaz, Nigar; Yener, Mahmut

    2009-06-01

    The etiology of fibromyalgia is not clearly understood. In recent years, a few studies have investigated the possible role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the etiology and pathogenesis of fibromyalgia. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma antioxidant vitamins, lipid peroxidation (LP), and nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients with fibromyalgia and controls. The study was performed on the blood plasma of 30 female patients and 30 age-matched controls. After a fast of 12 h, blood samples were taken, and plasma samples were obtained for measurement of vitamins A, C, E, and beta-carotene concentrations and levels of LP and NO. Concentrations of vitamins A (p fibromyalgia than in controls, and LP levels were significantly (p vitamin C and beta-carotene and levels of NO did not change significantly. These results provide some evidence for a potential role of LP and fat-soluble antioxidants in the patients with fibromyalgia.

  18. Asymmetric dimethylarginine and lipid peroxidation products in early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dan; Strandgaard, S.; Borresen, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    of nitric oxide synthase and the lipid peroxidation product 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) as a marker of oxidative stress in patients with early ADPKD. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants: Patients with early ADPKD (n = 27) and age-matched volunteers (n = 30) from a single...... academic medical center. Factor: Patients with ADPKD versus controls. Outcomes & Measurement: Plasma (P) levels, urinary (U) excretion, and urinary clearance (C) of ADMA and HODE. Because of multiple comparisons, P for significance is considered less than 0.0167. Results: Patients with ADPKD had......-sectional nature of study, and limited number of markers of oxidative stress. Conclusions: P-ADMA and P-HODE levels are increased in patients with early ADPKD. Increased P-ADMA level is related to decreased CADMA and is accompanied by oxidative stress. Am J Kidney Dis 51:184-191. (c) 2008 by the National Kidney...

  19. A High Throughput Biochemical Fluorometric Method for Measuring Lipid Peroxidation in HDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelesidis, Theodoros; Roberts, Christian K.; Huynh, Diana; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Currier, Judith S.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Current cell-based assays for determining the functional properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) have limitations. We report here the development of a new, robust fluorometric cell-free biochemical assay that measures HDL lipid peroxidation (HDLox) based on the oxidation of the fluorochrome Amplex Red. HDLox correlated with previously validated cell-based (r = 0.47, pHDL in established animal models of atherosclerosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients. Using an immunoaffinity method for capturing HDL, we demonstrate the utility of this novel assay for measuring HDLox in a high throughput format. Furthermore, HDLox correlated significantly with measures of cardiovascular diseases including carotid intima media thickness (r = 0.35, pHDL function/quality that is suitable for high throughput implementation. PMID:25368900

  20. Cadmium induces reactive oxygen species generation and lipid peroxidation in cortical neurons in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, E; Arce, C; Oset-Gasque, M J; Cañadas, S; González, M P

    2006-03-15

    Cadmium is a toxic agent that it is also an environmental contaminant. Cadmium exposure may be implicated in some humans disorders related to hyperactivity and increased aggressiveness. This study presents data indicating that cadmium induces cellular death in cortical neurons in culture. This death could be mediated by an apoptotic and a necrotic mechanism. The apoptotic death may be mediated by oxidative stress with reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation which could be induced by mitochondrial membrane dysfunction since this cation produces: (a) depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential and (b) diminution of ATP levels with ATP release. Necrotic death could be mediated by lipid peroxidation induced by cadmium through an indirect mechanism (ROS formation). On the other hand, 40% of the cells survive cadmium action. This survival seems to be mediated by the ability of these cells to activate antioxidant defense systems, since cadmium reduced the intracellular glutathione levels and induced catalase and SOD activation in these cells.

  1. THE EFFECTS OF S-3-1 ON LIPID PEROXIDATION AND SCAVENGING FREE RADICALS IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    S-3-1 is a simplified synthetic analogue of the active principle of Salvia miltiorrhioza. Electron spin resonance spectrometry using 5,5′-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide as a scavenger of free radicals indicated that 200 μg/ml of S-3-1 scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals completely. 25μg/ml of this compound quenched 100% of superoxide anion and a concentration of 250 μg/ml of S-3-1 quenched 63% of hydroxyl radicals. It was also shown that 3.56 mg/ml of S-3-1 could inhibit lipid peroxidation in microsome fraction from rat liver induced by FeSO4 and cysteine. These results show that S-3-1 is an effective antioxidant by scavenging free radicals.

  2. Role of Serum Iron in the Activation of Lipid Peroxidation in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Orlov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four critically ill patients due to generalized purulent peritonitis, pancreatonecrosis, thermal skin injuries, and severe poisoning by acetic acid were examined. The general regularities of the effect of high serum iron concentrations on the health status of patients, on the activity of antioxidative enzymes, and on the initiation of lipid peroxidation (LPO processes, as supported by the values of Fe2+-induced chemiluminescence, were revealed. In critically ill patients, iron metabolism occurs with the overload of a transport protein, such as transferrin, which is caused by intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobin metabolism to ionized iron. The overload of proteins responsible for iron transport leads to the tissue accumulation of free (ferrous and ferric iron that is actively involved in the processes of LPO initiation with excess synthesis of cytotoxic radicals, which in turn accounts for the severity of endotoxicosis.

  3. Signaling properties of 4-hydroxyalkenals formed by lipid peroxidation in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Guy; Riahi, Yael; Sunda, Valentina; Deplano, Simone; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Ferreri, Carla; Kaiser, Nurit; Sasson, Shlomo

    2013-12-01

    Peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids is intensified in cells subjected to oxidative stress and results in the generation of various bioactive compounds, of which 4-hydroxyalkenals are prominent. During the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the ensuing hyperglycemia promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that contribute to the development of diabetic complications. It has been suggested that ROS-induced lipid peroxidation and the resulting 4-hydroxyalkenals markedly contribute to the development and progression of these pathologies. Recent findings, however, also suggest that noncytotoxic levels of 4-hydroxyalkenals play important signaling functions in the early phase of diabetes and act as hormetic factors to induce adaptive and protective responses in cells, enabling them to function in the hyperglycemic milieu. Our studies and others' have proposed such regulatory functions for 4-hydroxynonenal and 4-hydroxydodecadienal in insulin secreting β-cells and vascular endothelial cells, respectively. This review presents and discusses the mechanisms regulating the generation of 4-hydroxyalkenals under high glucose conditions and the molecular interactions underlying the reciprocal transition from hormetic to cytotoxic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in vagina microenvironment of patients with several common vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H Y; Hu, X M; Han, D D; Wang, Z P; Meng, L

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to play an important role in many diseases, including vaginitis. To evaluate oxidative biomarkers in the secretion of cervix samples of vaginitis, this study will illustrate the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in vaginal microenvironment. A total of 257 patients with vaginitis, including candida vaginitis, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomonas vaginitis were involved in this study. Cervico-vaginal fluid was collected from these patients before and after treatment, and the malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and vitamin C levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results revealed that the MDA and H2O2 levels were increased in the vaginitis patients, while there was no significant difference in MDA level among different kinds of vaginitis before treatment. The CAT and vitamin C levels in vaginitis were decreased before treatment. Moreover, the data also showed that the MDA and H2O2 levels were decreased, while the CAT, SOD, and vitamin C levels were increased after received treatment, respectively, and there was no significant difference between controls and vaginitis. This study indicated that oxidative stress played an important role in vaginitis.

  5. Ffects Of Mntnhex-2-Pyp On Markers Of Inflammation And Lipid Peroxidation In Asthma Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneta Lyubenova Shopova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Iinvestigation of the effects of MnTnHex-2-PyP on some markers of inflammation and lipid peroxidation in an asthma mice model.Methods: The experiment was carried out on 24 female mice C57Bl/6, divided into four groups: group 1, controls; group 2, injected with ovalbumin (OVA; group 3, treated with MnTnHex-2-PyP and group 4, treated with OVA and MnTnHex-2-PyP. The animals from groups 1 and 3 were injected i.p. on days 0 and 14 with a 100 μl phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, and those from groups 2 and 4 were injected with a 100 μl ovalbumin solution, containing 20 μg OVA. On days 24, 25 and 26 the mice from groups 1 and 2 were inhaled with PBS for 30 min, and those from groups 2 and 4 were given a 1% ovalbumin solution. One hour before inhalation, and 12 hours later the animals from groups 1 and 2 were injected i.p. with 100 μl PBS, and those from groups 3 and 4 received a 100 μl MnTnHex-2-Pyp solution in PBS сontaining 0.05mg/kg.Results: Ovalbumin alone (group 2 increased the total cell number, total protein content, the levels of IL-4, IL-5 and 8-isoprostane in bronchoalveolar lavage. Elevations were observed in IgE level in serum, and the malone dialdehyde (MDA content in the lung homogenate. These markers were decreased significantly in group 4 as compared to the OVA group.Conclusions: MnTnHex-2-Pyp reduces the inflammation and lipid peroxidation in Ovalbumin-induced mice asthma model.

  6. Carbon Monoxide Alleviates Wheat Seed Germination Inhibition and Counteracts Lipid Peroxidation Mediated by Salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Xu; Zhi-Sheng Sa; Ze-Yu Cao; Wei Xuan; Ben-Kai Huang; Teng-Fang Ling; Qiong-Ying Hu; Wen-Biao Shen

    2006-01-01

    Recently in animals, endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide, was implicated as another important physiological messenger or bioactive molecule. However, little information is known about the physiological roles of CO in the whole plant. In the present study, we report that different concentrations of the CO donor hematin (0.1,1.0 and 10.0μmol/L) alleviated wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Yangmai 158) seed germination inhibition caused by 250 mmol/L NaCl stress in a dose-dependent manner. These responses were also proved by the addition of different gaseous CO aqueous solutions from 0.1% to 100.0% of saturation.Among these treatments, the effect of 1.0 μmol/L hematin and 1.0% saturation of CO aqueous solution were the most obvious. Furthermore, compared with non-hematin treatment, the degradation of storage reserves In wheat seeds was also accelerated. Time-course analyses showed that application of hematin dose-dependently increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and guaiacol peroxidase activities, thus decreasing the lipid peroxidation in germinating wheat seed subjected to saltstress. Meanwhile, the responses of hematin were specific for CO because the addition of the CO scavenger hemoglobin (0.2 g/L) blocked the various actions of 1.0 μ mol/L hematin. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that CO, at a Iow concentration, is able to attenuate the seed germination inhibition produced by salinity stress and counteract the lipid peroxidation in germinating wheat seeds.

  7. Vanadium distribution, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress markers upon decavanadate in vivo administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, S S; Martins, H; Duarte, R O; Moura, J J G; Coucelo, J; Gutiérrez-Merino, C; Aureliano, M

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of decameric vanadate species to vanadate toxic effects in cardiac muscle was studied following an intravenous administration of a decavanadate solution (1mM total vanadium) in Sparus aurata. Although decameric vanadate is unstable in the assay medium, it decomposes with a half-life time of 16 allowing studying its effects not only in vitro but also in vivo. After 1, 6 and 12h upon decavanadate administration the increase of vanadium in blood plasma, red blood cells and in cardiac mitochondria and cytosol is not affected in comparison to the administration of a metavanadate solution containing labile oxovanadates. Cardiac tissue lipid peroxidation increases up to 20%, 1, 6 and 12h after metavanadate administration, whilst for decavanadate no effects were observed except 1h after treatment (+20%). Metavanadate administration clearly differs from decavanadate by enhancing, 12h after exposure, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (+115%) and not affecting catalase (CAT) activity whereas decavanadate increases SOD activity by 20% and decreases (-55%) mitochondrial CAT activity. At early times of exposure, 1 and 6h, the only effect observed upon decavanadate administration was the increase by 20% of SOD activity. In conclusion, decavanadate has a different response pattern of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress markers, in spite of the same vanadium distribution in cardiac cells observed after decavanadate and metavanadate administration. It is suggested that once formed decameric vanadate species has a different reactivity than vanadate, thus, pointing out that the differential contribution of vanadium oligomers should be taken into account to rationalize in vivo vanadate toxicity.

  8. Use of antioxidants reduce lipid peroxidation and improve quality of crossbred ram sperm during its cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Mohamad Naiem; Lone, Farooz Ahmad; Rasool, Fabiha; Rashid, Muzamil; Shikari, Arif

    2017-02-01

    Ram sperm are subjected to extreme oxidative stress during their preservation at -196 °C resulting in reduced quality at post thaw. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antioxidants taurine, quercetin and reduced glutathione on the post thaw quality of crossbred ram sperm. A total of twenty four ejaculates from six crossbred rams were collected and extended with tris-based extender with no antioxidant (Control), with taurine (40 mM), quercetin (5 μg/ml) and reduced glutathione (5 mM). The post thaw sperm quality was determined by percent sperm motility, live sperm count, intact acrosome and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) reacted spermatozoa and lipid peroxidation was measured in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) level both in seminal plasma and sperm cell. At post thaw, percent sperm motility and live sperm count were significantly (p  0.05) from quercetin. The percent HOST reacted spermatozoa were significantly higher for taurine than control, quercetin and reduced glutathione. Seminal plasma MDA level was significantly (p  0.05) among the control and antioxidants. In conclusion, taurine at 40 mM reduced lipid peroxidation and improved post thaw sperm quality of cryopreserved crossbred ram semen. Further, transportation time of semen samples in an ice chest at 4-5 °C may be included as a part of equilibration period, when collection shed and frozen semen unit are located at a distance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Specific effects of single antioxidants in the lipid peroxidation caused by nano-titania used in sunscreen lotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, Maria Eugenia; Ugazio, Elena; Gastaldi, Lucia; Sapino, Simona; Vione, Davide; Fenoglio, Ivana; Fubini, Bice

    2009-08-03

    The effect of some additives, phenylalanine, ascorbyl palmitate and sodium ascorbyl phosphate on the oxidation of linoleic acid and porcine ear skin induced by UV irradiation was investigated, in the absence and in the presence of variously uncoated and coated titania powders. Such additives have, on the one hand, a scavenging activity toward the oxidizing species photogenerated by TiO(2), and on the other one an inhibitory effect toward UVB-induced peroxidation. Sodium ascorbyl phosphate and ascorbyl palmitate displayed a stronger antioxidant effect than phenylalanine toward linoleic acid peroxidation. On porcine skin all the three molecules exhibited both antiradical and antioxidant activity. Their protective effect against peroxidation was higher with porcine skin lipids than with linoleic acid, referable to the chemical differences in the two lipid substrates.

  10. ELEVATED LIPID PEROXIDATION AND DNA OXIDATION IN NERVE FROM DIABETIC RATS: EFFECTS OF ALDOSE REDUCTASE INHIBITION, INSULIN AND NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Joice M.; Jolivalt, Corinne G.; Ramos, Khara M.; Gregory, Joshua A.; Calcutt, Nigel A.; Mizisin, Andrew P.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of treatment with an aldose reductase inhibitor, insulin or select neurotrophic factors on the generation of oxidative damage in peripheral nerve. Rats were either treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce insulin-deficient diabetes or fed with a diet containing 40% D-galactose to promote hexose metabolism by aldose reductase. Initial time-course studies showed that lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation were significantly elevated in sciatic nerve after 1 week or 2 weeks of STZ-induced diabetes, respectively, and that both remained elevated after 12 weeks of diabetes. The increase in nerve lipid peroxidation was completely prevented or reversed by treatment with the aldose reductase inhibitor, ICI 222155, or by insulin, but not by the neurotrophic factors, prosaptide TX14(A) or neurotrophin-3. The increase in nerve DNA oxidation was significantly prevented by insulin treatment. In contrast, up to 16 weeks of galactose feeding did not alter nerve lipid peroxidation or protein oxidation, despite evidence of ongoing nerve conduction deficits. These observations demonstrate that nerve oxidative damage develops early after the onset of insulin-deficient diabetes and that it is not induced by increased hexose metabolism by aldose reductase per se, but rather is a downstream consequence of flux through this enzyme. Furthermore, the beneficial effect of prosaptide TX14(A) and neurotrophin-3 on nerve function and structure in diabetic rats are not due to amelioration of increased lipid peroxidation. PMID:18555826

  11. Breath pentane: an indicator for early and continuous monitoring of lipid peroxidation in hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Xu, Guowang; Wang, Changsong; Gong, Yulei; He, Ying

    2009-06-01

    Lipid peroxidation plays an important role during liver ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Pentane in breath is often used as an index of lipid peroxidation. We observed the changes in levels of breath pentane during the lipid peroxidation process caused by liver ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Ten male swine were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate 0.3-0.5 g kg(-1) min(-1). Total hepatic ischaemia was induced by occluding the portal inflow vessels. Ischaemia lasted 30 min followed by reperfusion for 180 min. Breath samples were sampled from the anaesthesia circuit and blood samples were collected from the inferior vena cava. Pentane concentrations in breath and blood were quantified by means of solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrography technique. Exhaled pentane concentrations (means +/- SE) increased markedly after reperfusion for 1 min (244.13 +/- 33.3 pmol l(-1)) and decreased gradually to initial levels after reperfusion for 60 min. Blood pentane concentrations (means +/- SE) increased significantly after reperfusion for 1 min (333.46 +/- 63.05 pmol l(-1)) and then decreased to basal level. Breath pentane concentrations showed a correlation with blood (r = 0.709, P pentane analysis could provide early, rapid, noninvasive and continuous assessment of lipid peroxidation during hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

  12. Formation of 7-(2-oxoethyl) guanine from lipid peroxidation and vinyl chloride exposure in male sprague dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    With a development of a new sensitive LC-MS/MS method to analyze 7-(2-oxoethylguanine) (7OEG), we confirmed and differentiated 7-0EG DNA adduct formation endogenously from lipid peroxidation and exogenously from Vinyl Chloride (VC) exposure. VC is an industrial chemical that is ...

  13. Incorporation in polymeric nanocapsules improves the antioxidant effect of melatonin against lipid peroxidation in mice brain and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffazick, Scheila R; Siqueira, Ionara R; Badejo, Alessandra S; Jornada, Denise S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Guterres, Sílvia S

    2008-05-01

    It has been recently shown that the association of melatonin with polymeric nanoparticles causes a significant increase of the in vitro effect against lipid peroxidation. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare the in vivo acute antioxidant effect of intraperitoneal administration of melatonin-loaded polysorbate 80-coated nanocapsules with that of melatonin aqueous solution in mice brain (frontal cortex and hippocampus) and liver. The lipid peroxidation through thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels, the total antioxidant reactivity (luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence) and the free radical levels (formed dichlorofluorescein) has been carried out. Our results show that a single melatonin aqueous solution injection exerted no antioxidant activity in the evaluated range, while the administration of the melatonin-loaded polysorbate 80-coated nanocapsules caused a marked reduction on lipid peroxidation levels in all studied tissues. No differences on free radical content were found in the tissues. The melatonin-loaded nanocapsules also increased the total antioxidant reactivity in the hippocampus. These in vivo results are in accordance with our previous in vitro findings and confirm the hypothesis that polymeric nanocapsules improve the antioxidant effect of melatonin against lipid peroxidation.

  14. [Perfluoran influence upon lipids peroxide oxidation and oral fluid antioxidant system activity in patients with chronic generalized parodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalova, N A; Kontorshchikova, K N; Vorob'eva, A V

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of perfluoran submucous administration in the postoperative period in patients with chronic parodontal diseases was studied over the dynamics of indicators of oral fluid antioxidant system and lipids peroxide oxidation. It was established that perfluoran submucous administration during postoperative period increased the efficacy of postoperative wound healing and decreased the risk of disease relapse development.

  15. Ageing mechanisms in chickpea seeds: Relationship of sugar hydrolysis and lipid peroxidation with Amadori and Millard reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahdi shaaban

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was performed in order to study on ageing mechanisms of chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L. in natural storage and accelerated ageing conditions in seed laboratory of Gorgan Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran at 2015. Experiment was in completely randomized design arrangement with four replications. Treatments were 2 and 4 years natural storage and 1-5 days of accelerated ageing with control treatment. The results showed that with increasing of natural storage and accelerated ageing duration, germination percentage was decreased. Increasing of ageing duration decreased soluble sugars, non-reducing sugars and soluble proteins but lipid peroxidation, reducing sugars, protein carbonylation and Amadori and Millard reaction were increased. In natural storage condition lipid peroxidation was more than sugar hydrolysis but in accelerated ageing condition sugar hydrolysis was more than lipid peroxidation. These results show that the main reason of Amadori and Millard reaction in chickpea seeds in natural storage condition is lipid peroxidation and in accelerated ageing condition is sugar hydrolysis. Also, the results showed that Amadori reaction in natural storage condition was more than Amadori reaction and in accelerated ageing condition Millard reaction was more than Amadori reaction. The results of the present study showed that sever Millard reaction after Amadori reaction induced higher damage on seed and results to more decrease of seed viability and reduce of seed germination percentage in accelerated ageing than natural storage.

  16. Effect of pomegranate supplementation and aerobic training on total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Rahimifardin

    2014-11-01

    Results: It was found that MDA index decreased in the pomegranate supplementation group compared to placebo group (P=0.016. But, total antioxidant capacity (TAC index in neither of the groups was significant (P=0.72. Conclusion: Results of the study indicate that pomegranate supplementation can reduce MDA derived from lipid peroxidation after 8 week running training in the obese. .

  17. CHANGE IN BALANCE BETWEEN ACTIVITY OF LIPID PEROXIDATION, ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM AND FERRUM CONTENT IN RATS WITH EXPERIMENTAL MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Hidirova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the balance between activity of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant system and ferrum content in blood, lymph and myocardium of rats with experimental myocardial infarction (EMI.Material and methods. Experimental study included 116 Wistar male rats (200-220 g of body mass. The EMI was caused by subcutaneous adrenaline injection (0.2 mg/100 g of body mass. The EMI was confirmed by electrocardiography and histopathologic data. The plasma/lymph ferrum index was calculated as blood/lymph ferrum content ratio. The neutrophil chemiluminescence analysis was also performed. Intensity of lipid peroxidation was evaluated by levels of malonic dialdealdehyde, the diene conjugates and diketones. The catalase activity and recovered glutathione was assessed in the erythrocyte hemolysate. Activity of superoxide dismutase was determined in serum; total blood antioxidant activity was assessed by chemoluminescent method.Results. The neutrophil activity and lipid peroxidation intensity was increased. The total blood antioxidant activity was reduced (in 2.5-5 times as well as catalase activity and recovered glutathione level.Conclusion. The balance disorders between lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity can result in myocardial injury. The ferrum redistribution from serum to lymph is observed in clinical course of myocardial infarction.

  18. Pulmonary surfactant protein A inhibits the lipid peroxidation stimulated by linoleic acid hydroperoxide of rat lung mitochondria and microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasa, Ana M; Guajardo, Margarita H; de Armas Sanabria, Elizabeth; Catalá, Angel

    2005-07-15

    Reactive oxygen species play an important role in several acute lung injuries. The lung tissue contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are substrates of lipid peroxidation that may lead to loss of the functional integrity of the cell membranes. In this study, we compare the in vitro protective effect of pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A), purified from porcine surfactant, against ascorbate-Fe(2+) lipid peroxidation stimulated by linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LHP) of the mitochondria and microsomes isolated from rat lung; deprived organelles of ascorbate and LHP were utilized as control. The process was measured simultaneously by chemiluminescence as well as by PUFA degradation of the total lipids isolated from these organelles. The addition of LHP to rat lung mitochondria or microsomes produces a marked increase in light emission; the highest value of activation was produced in microsomes (total chemiluminescence: 20.015+/-1.735 x 10(5) cpm). The inhibition of lipid peroxidation (decrease of chemiluminescence) was observed with the addition of increasing amounts (2.5 to 5.0 microg) of SP-A in rat lung mitochondria and 2.5 to 7.5 microg of SP-A in rat lung microsomes. The inhibitory effect reaches the highest values in the mitochondria, thus, 5.0 microg of SP-A produces a 100% inhibition in this membranes whereas 7.5 microg of SP-A produces a 51.25+/-3.48% inhibition in microsomes. The major difference in the fatty acid composition of total lipids isolated from native and peroxidized membranes was found in the arachidonic acid content; this decreased from 9.68+/-1.60% in the native group to 5.72+/-1.64% in peroxidized mitochondria and from 7.39+/-1.14% to 3.21+/-0.77% in microsomes. These changes were less pronounced in SP-A treated membranes; as an example, in the presence of 5.0 microg of SP-A, we observed a total protection of 20:4 n-6 (9.41+/-3.29%) in mitochondria, whereas 7.5 microg of SP-A produced a 65% protection in microsomes (5

  19. Reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and enzymatic defence systems in human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griveau, J F; Dumont, E; Renard, P; Callegari, J P; Le Lannou, D

    1995-01-01

    The reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2o-), were generated with a xanthine-xanthine oxidase system and their effect on human sperm function was studied. The action of reactive oxygen species on selected human spermatozoa resulted in a decreased capacity for ionophore-induced acrosome reaction, a decrease in sperm motility, an increase in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxides and a loss of membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids. H2O2 was the key intermediate of the deleterious effects exerted by the xanthine and xanthine oxidase. Among these parameters, the acrosome reaction appeared most susceptible to the reactive oxygen species generated by the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system, and was decreased without sperm motility being affected. Treatment with H2O2 was shown to inactivate several enzymatic activities involved in the antioxidant defence of spermatozoa: glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. H2O2 and O2o- were shown to be involved in the lipid alterations triggered by the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system. Singlet oxygen is proposed to intervene in the lipoperoxidation process. The inefficacy of mannitol in protecting spermatozoa suggests that hydroxyl radicals were not produced in the extracellular medium.

  20. Propolis alleviates aluminium-induced lipid peroxidation and biochemical parameters in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newairy, Al-Sayeda A; Salama, Afrah F; Hussien, Hend M; Yousef, Mokhtar I

    2009-06-01

    Aluminium is present in many manufactured foods and medicines and is also added to drinking water during purification purposes. Therefore, the present experiment was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of propolis in alleviating the toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) on biochemical parameters, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation of male Wistar Albino rats. Animals were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control; 34 mg AlCl3/kg bw; 50 mg propolis/kg bw; AlCl3 (34 mg/kg bw) plus propolis (50 mg/kg bw), respectively. Rats were orally administered their respective doses daily for 70 days. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was increased, and the activities of glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased in liver, kidney and brain of rats treated with AlCl3. While, TBARS was decreased and the antioxidant enzymes were increased in rats treated with propolis alone. Plasma transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, urea, creatinine, bilirubin, total lipid, cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-c were increased, while total protein, albumin and high HDL-c were decreased due to AlCl3 administration. The presence of propolis with AlCl3 alleviated its toxic effects in rats treated with AlCl3. It can be concluded that propolis has beneficial influences and could be able to antagonize AlCl3 toxicity.

  1. In vitro and in vivo responses of rat tissues to cadmium-induced lipid peroxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, D.; Ricard, A.C.; Trottier, B.; Chevalier, G. (Univ. of Quebec, Montreal (Canada))

    1991-06-01

    Oxidative destruction of polyunsaturated fatty acids of membrane phospholipids, a phenomenon generally termed lipid peroxidation (LPO), is considered to be an important mechanism of toxicity for a wide variety of chemicals. Among these, cadmium (Cd), a pollutant of industrial and environmental importance, induces LPO in various tissues despite its apparent inability to directly generate free radicals under physiological conditions. Consequently, although LPO is not the primary mechanism of Cd toxicity, it represents an early intracellular response of tissues following exposure to Cd compounds. Recently, the authors reported the in vitro specific response to LPO of liver, lung, heart, kidney, testes and brain tissues incubated with various concentrations of CdCl{sub 2}. LPO was assessed by the measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) which include malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxydes, and by gaz chromatographic analysis of evolved hydrocarbons, namely ethane and pentane. To compare the results obtained by both methods, they standardized TEP and TBARS values against incubated controls after subtracting endogenous levels of TBARS (time 0 values) because the measurement of endogenous levels of TEP in tissue incubates is not practicable. The objective of the present report is to clarify this concept in order to adequately compare the data obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies. This should permit a better assessment of the relative importance of tissue responses to LPO following exposure to Cd.

  2. [Intensity of lipid peroxidation processes and activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes during anemia in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazantsev, V V; Grishchenko, O V; Pereĭra, A A; Belous, A M

    1996-01-01

    The given report deals with investigation of the level of spontaneous lipid peroxidation (LPO) (as judged by the accumulation of MDA) and activity of antioxidative enzymes (GSH-peroxidase, GSH-reductase) in red blood cells of pregnant women (24-26 weeks) suffering from minor (blood Hb is 95 g/l) and medium (blood Hb is 85-90 g/l) anemias. We have found that as the anemia becomes deeper, the red blood cells of pregnant women demonstrate a linear increase in the level of spontaneous LPO, which rises by 54% during anemia of moderate severity (p < 0.02) as compared with control. At the same time, simultaneously with LPO, the activity of the above glutathione-containing enzymes increases as the anemia progresses, which, apparently, is of the compensatory nature, aimed at the maintenance of the reduced glutathione pool, the latter being an important component of the cell antioxidative system during LPO activation. The authors think the increased activity of the physiological antioxidative system and intensification of the LPO processes to be a natural adaptive process, since lipid hydroperoxides are the activators of synthesis of prostaglandins, which are required in delivery.

  3. Antioxidant Potential, Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition and Antimicrobial Activities of Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoljub D. Cvetković

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of different Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii extracts was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge reactive hydroxyl radical during the Fenton reaction, using ESR spectroscopy. Also, the influence of these extracts on lipid peroxyl radicals obtained during lipid peroxidation of: (I sunflower oil (37°C, 3h inducedby 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid (ACVA and (II liposomes induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidino-propanedihydrochloride (AAPH was studied. n-Butanol extract had the bestantioxidant activity (100% at 0.5 mg/mL in Fenton reaction system; 89.21% at 5 mg/mL in system I; 83.38% at 5 mg/mL in system II. The antioxidant activities of the extracts significantly correlated with total phenolic content. The antimicrobial activity of Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii extracts was investigated. Petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts expressed a wide range of inhibiting activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

  4. Raised concentrations of lipid peroxidation products (LPO in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance

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    Krzysztof C. Lewandowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Lipid peroxidation (LPO results from oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Whereas LPO rises in normal pregnancy, the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on this process has not been clearly defined. materials and method. Fasting blood concentrations of malondialdehyde+4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA+4-HDA, as LPO index, TNFa soluble receptors (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2, and soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, were measured in 51 women at 28 weeks of gestation. The women were divided according to the results of 50.0 g glucose challenge test (GCT and 75.0 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT: Controls (n=20, normal responses to both GCT and OGTT; Intermediate Group (IG (n=15, abnormal GCT but normal OGTT; GDM group (n=16, abnormal both GCT and OGTT. results. Glucose concentrations in women diagnosed with GDM were within the range of impaired glucose tolerance. There were no significant differences in concentrations of either TNF a soluble receptors R1 and R2, or sICAM-1 or sVCAM-1. LPO concentrations [MDA+4-HDA (nmol/mg protein] were significantly higher in women with GDM than in the other two groups [64.1±24.3 (mean±SD, 39.3±23.1, 47.0±18.1, for GDM, IG and Controls, respectively; p<0.05]. In multivariate analysis, the only significant independent correlation was between LPO level and glucose at 120 minutes of OGTT (rs=0.42; p=0.009. conclusions. Oxidative damage to membrane lipids is increased in GDM and might result directly from hyperglycaemia. Physiological significance of this phenomenon remains to be elucidated.

  5. Lipid peroxidation as risk factor for endothelial dysfunction in antiphospholipid syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljevic, Natasa; Stojanovich, L; Marisavljevic, D; Djokovic, A; Dopsaj, V; Kotur-Stevuljevic, J; Martinovic, J; Memon, L; Radovanovic, S; Todic, B; Lisulov, D

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress markers and it relations to endothelial damage as risk factor for thrombosis in patients with primary (PAPS) and secondary (SAPS) antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in correlation to traditional risk factors. Flow-mediated (FMD) and nitroglycerine (NMD)-induced dilation of the brachial artery were studied in 140 APS patients (90 PAPS, 50 SAPS) and 40 controls matched by age, sex, and conventional risk factors for atherosclerosis. Markers of oxidative stress, lipid hydroperoxydes (LOOH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), total sulfhydryl groups (tSHG), and paraoxonase 1 activity (PON1) were determined by spectrophotometric method. Oxidative stress dominates in APS patients. LOOH and AOPP correlate to lipid fractions (p antiphospholipid antibody positivity (p < 0.05). FMD was lower in APS patients comparing to controls (p < 0.001). Cholesterol is independent variable for FMD impairment in control group (p = 0.011); LOOH in PAPS (p = 0.004); LOOH, aCL, and triglycerides in SAPS patients (p = 0.009, p = 0.049, and p = 0.012, respectively). Combined predictive of aCL and LOOH is better for FMD impairment than LOOH alone in both PAPS and SAPS patients (AUC 0.727, p = 0.001, 95 % CI 0.616-0.837 and AUC 0.824, p˂0.001, 95 % CI 0.690-0.957, respectively). Lipid peroxidation is independent predictor for endothelial dysfunction in APS patients. We demonstrated synergistic effect of aCL and LOOH as risk for endothelial impairment in both PAPS and SAPS patients.

  6. Steatosis-induced proteins adducts with lipid peroxidation products and nuclear electrophilic stress in hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Anavi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that fatty livers are particularly more susceptible to several pathological conditions, including hepatic inflammation, cirrhosis and liver cancer. However the exact mechanism of such susceptibility is still largely obscure. The current study aimed to elucidate the effect of hepatocytes lipid accumulation on the nuclear electrophilic stress. Accumulation of intracellular lipids was significantly increased in HepG2 cells incubated with fatty acid (FA complex (1 mM, 2:1 oleic and palmitic acids. In FA-treated cells, lipid droplets were localized around the nucleus and seemed to induce mechanical force, leading to the disruption of the nucleus morphology. Level of reactive oxygen species (ROS was significantly increased in FA-loaded cells and was further augmented by treatment with moderate stressor (CoCl2. Increased ROS resulted in formation of reactive carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones, derived from lipid peroxidation with a strong perinuclear accumulation. Mass-spectroscopy analysis indicated that lipid accumulation per-se can results in modification of nuclear protein by reactive lipid peroxidation products (oxoLPP. 235 Modified proteins involved in transcription regulation, splicing, protein synthesis and degradation, DNA repair and lipid metabolism were identified uniquely in FA-treated cells. These findings suggest that steatosis can affect nuclear redox state, and induce modifications of nuclear proteins by reactive oxoLPP accumulated in the perinuclear space upon FA-treatment.

  7. [The composition of lipids and lipid peroxidation in the pancreas of quails exposed to nitrates and correction by the amaranth's seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekhmistrenko, S I; Ponomarenko, N V

    2013-01-01

    Researches of features of lipid composition, functioning of the system of antioxidant defense, maintenance of lipid peroxidation products in the quail's pancreas on the early postnatal ontogenesis stages are conducted for actions of nitrates and feeding with amaranth's seeds in mixed fodder. The arrival of nitrates in the organism of quails results in the decline of general lipids maintenance and nonetherified fat acids in the pancreas. Using of amaranth's seeds in mixed fodder on the background of the nitrate loading results in the increase of activity of the enzimes system of antioxidant defence, the growth of general lipid level in the quail's pancreas. Thus in correlation with separate classes of lipid maintenance of cholesterol goes down for certain, whereas the maintenance of triacylglycerols and ethers of cholesterol rises. The results obtained in the researches show the ability of amaranth's seeds to avert oxidative stress in quail's pancreas under nitrates influence.

  8. Determination of the alpha-tocopherol inhibition rate constant for peroxidation in low-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Sean M; Antunes, Fernando; Havrilla, Christine M; Milne, Ginger L; Porter, Ned A

    2002-06-01

    This work reports an estimate of the inhibition rate constant (k(inh)) for alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOH) in low-density lipoproteins (LDL) based on cholesteryl linoleate hydroperoxide products formed during autoxidation of intact lipoproteins. The ratio of cis,trans/trans,trans product hydroperoxides was determined during the consumption of the antioxidant. For a reasonable determination of k(inh) in LDL, the pro-oxidant behavior of alpha-TOH was minimized by oxidizing LDL with an unsymmetrical amphiphilic azo initiator which significantly reduces phase-transfer mediated pro-oxidant effects of alpha-TOH. This initiator delivers a more constant flux of initiator radicals into LDL lipid regions and permits determination of alpha-TOH k(inh) in LDL. Development of a tocopherol-mediated peroxidation (TMP) model and analysis of cholesteryl linoleate hydroperoxide cis,trans/trans,trans product ratios provided an estimated value for the inhibition rate constant of alpha-TOH in a lipoprotein of k(inh) = 5.9 +/- 0.5 x 10(5) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)

  9. Lipid peroxidation and changes of trace elements in mice treated with paradichlorobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhua, Wang; Rongzhu, Lu; Changqing, Yin; Guangwei, Xing; Fangan, Han; Junjie, Jing; Wenrong, Xu; Aschner, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Paradichlorobenzene (pDCB) has been used as a space deodorant and moth repellant, as well as an intermediate in the chemical industry. Given its broad applications and high volatility, considerable concern exists regarding the adverse health effects of pDCB in the home and the workplace. In this study, changes in lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, and trace element levels in the liver and kidney of pDCB-treated mice were investigated to determine their roles in toxicity. Mice were orally gavaged once daily for seven consecutive days with pDCB (0 (corn oil control), 450, and 900 mg/kg). The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), an end product of lipid peroxidation, markedly increased in the high-dose pDCB group in both the liver and kidney compared with the control group. Changes in hepatic levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the pDCB groups were indistinguishable from the control group, while renal levels of reduced GSH in the high-dose pDCB group were significantly lowered in comparison to the control and the low-dose groups. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the liver of mice treated with pDCB showed a downward trend, whereas there was no consistent trend associated with changes in SOD activity in the kidney. Additionally, renal iron levels in the high-dose pDCB group were significantly decreased compared with the low-dose group and the controls, whereas hepatic iron content in the low-dose pDCB group was significantly lower compared with the controls. Selenium and zinc levels in the kidney were both significantly decreased in the high-dose pDCB group vs. the control and low-dose groups. There were no treatment-induced changes in copper levels in either the kidney or liver. However, a significant increase was found in the liver zinc/copper ratio in the high-dose pDCB group vs. the controls. In addition, blood zinc levels showed a downward trend with increased pDCB dosage. These results suggest that pDCB toxicity is mediated by oxidative damage and tissue

  10. Modulation of keratinocyte expression of antioxidants by 4-hydroxynonenal, a lipid peroxidation end product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ruijin [Pharmacology and Toxicology and Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Mishin, Vladimir; Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology and Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Shakarjian, Michael P. [Environmental Health Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology and Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers University-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2014-03-01

    4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is a lipid peroxidation end product generated in response to oxidative stress in the skin. Keratinocytes contain an array of antioxidant enzymes which protect against oxidative stress. In these studies, we characterized 4-HNE-induced changes in antioxidant expression in mouse keratinocytes. Treatment of primary mouse keratinocytes and PAM 212 keratinocytes with 4-HNE increased mRNA expression for heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), catalase, NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1-2, GSTA3 and GSTA4. In both cell types, HO-1 was the most sensitive, increasing 86–98 fold within 6 h. Further characterization of the effects of 4-HNE on HO-1 demonstrated concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression which were maximum after 6 h with 30 μM. 4-HNE stimulated keratinocyte Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, as well as PI3 kinase. Inhibition of these enzymes suppressed 4-HNE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. 4-HNE also activated Nrf2 by inducing its translocation to the nucleus. 4-HNE was markedly less effective in inducing HO-1 mRNA and protein in keratinocytes from Nrf2 −/− mice, when compared to wild type mice, indicating that Nrf2 also regulates 4-HNE-induced signaling. Western blot analysis of caveolar membrane fractions isolated by sucrose density centrifugation demonstrated that 4-HNE-induced HO-1 is localized in keratinocyte caveolae. Treatment of the cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which disrupts caveolar structure, suppressed 4-HNE-induced HO-1. These findings indicate that 4-HNE modulates expression of antioxidant enzymes in keratinocytes, and that this can occur by different mechanisms. Changes in expression of keratinocyte antioxidants may be important in protecting the skin from oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Lipid peroxidation generates 4-hydroxynonenal, a reactive aldehyde. • 4-HNE induces antioxidant proteins in mouse keratinocytes. • Induction of

  11. The effects of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on resistance exercise induced lipid peroxidation in trained and untrained participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaVoie Norm

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The theoretical benefits of using antioxidant vitamin supplements to quench oxygen free radicals appear large. High intensity aerobic-type exercise produces oxygen free radicals that can cause damage to lipid membranes (lipid peroxidation that may lead to many problems such as the inactivation of cell membrane enzymes, the progression of degenerative diseases (cardiovascular disease and cancer and lessening of the effectiveness of the immune system. The major function of vitamin E is to work as a chain-breaking antioxidant in a fat soluble environment. Little research has examined lipid peroxidation associated with high intensity resistance exercise or possible protective effects of antioxidant supplementation or the effects of training state. Results There were no significant group (trained vs untrained or treatment (vitamin E vs placebo effects found between the 4 groups assessed. There was only one significant difference found and that was in the main effect for time (F = 22.41, p Conclusions The Resistance Exercise Test caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde in all 4 groups at 6 hours post exercise. There was no evidence that vitamin E supplementation was effective in reducing oxidative damage in comparison to the placebo group. As well, there was no difference between the trained and untrained groups with respect to their impact on lipid peroxidation measures.

  12. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) controls natural protective mechanisms against lipid peroxidation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedusi, Valeria; Martorana, Francesca; Brambilla, Liliana; Maggi, Adriana; Rossi, Daniela

    2012-10-19

    Recent evidence highlights the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as critical neuroprotective factors in several neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To gain new mechanistic insights into the role of these receptors in the context of ALS, here we investigated how PPAR transcriptional activity varies in hSOD1(G93A) ALS transgenic mice. We demonstrate that PPARγ-driven transcription selectively increases in the spinal cord of symptomatic hSOD1(G93A) mice. This phenomenon correlates with the up-regulation of target genes, such as lipoprotein lipase and glutathione S-transferase α-2, which are implicated in scavenging lipid peroxidation by-products. Such events are associated with enhanced PPARγ immunoreactivity within motor neuronal nuclei. This observation, and the fact that PPARγ displays increased responsiveness in cultured hSOD1(G93A) motor neurons, points to a role for this receptor in neutralizing deleterious lipoperoxidation derivatives within the motor cells. Consistently, in both motor neuron-like cultures and animal models, we report that PPARγ is activated by lipid peroxidation end products, such as 4-hydroxynonenal, whose levels are elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord from ALS patients. We propose that the accumulation of critical concentrations of lipid peroxidation adducts during ALS progression leads to the activation of PPARγ in motor neurons. This in turn triggers self-protective mechanisms that involve the up-regulation of lipid detoxification enzymes, such as lipoprotein lipase and glutathione S-transferase α-2. Our findings indicate that anticipating natural protective reactions by pharmacologically modulating PPARγ transcriptional activity may attenuate neurodegeneration by limiting the damage induced by lipid peroxidation derivatives.

  13. Effect of Copper on Fatty-Acid Composition and Peroxidation of Lipids in the Roots of Copper Tolerant and Sensitive Silene-Cucubalus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, C.H.R.; TenBookum, W.M.; Vooijs, R.; Schat, H.; De Kok, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of high copper exposure in vivo on the lipid and fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation was studied in the roots of plants from one copper sensitive and two copper tolerant genotypes of Silene cucubalus. At 0.5 muM Cu (control treatment) the compositions of lipids and fatty acids i

  14. Ascorbic acid improves the antioxidant activity of European grape juices by improving the juices' ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of human LDL in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of red and white European grape juices towards copper induced lipid oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were examined in vitro. LDL lipid peroxidation was assessed spectrophotometrically by monitoring the development of conjugated lipid hydroperoxides at 234 nm...

  15. Antiatherogenic activity of extracts of Argania spinosa L. pericarp: beneficial effects on lipid peroxidation and cholesterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Cherki, Mounia; Koumbadinga, Geremy Abdull; Isabelle, Maxim; Douville, Jasmin; Spino, Claude; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2007-09-01

    Prevention of lipoprotein oxidation by natural compounds may prevent atherosclerosis via reducing early atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated for the first time the beneficial properties of methanolic extract of argania pericarp (MEAP) towards atherogenesis by protecting human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) against oxidation while promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux. By measuring the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated diene as well as the lag phase and the progression rate of lipid peroxidation, the MEAP was found to possess an inhibitory effect. In addition, MEAP reduced the rate of disappearance of alpha-tocopherol as well as the apoB electrophoretic mobility in a dose-dependent manner. These effects are related to the free radical scavenging and copper-chelating effects of MEAP. In terms of cell viability, MEAP has shown a cytotoxic effect (0-40 microg/mL). Incubation of 3H-cholesterol-loaded J774 macrophages with HDL in the presence of increasing concentrations of MEAP enhanced HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux independently of ABCA1 receptor pathways. Our findings suggest that argania seed pericarp provides a source of natural antioxidants that inhibit LDL oxidation and enhance cholesterol efflux and thus can prevent development of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Ruta graveolens L. extract on inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radicals and the effects of some external factors on plant extract's potency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammadi- Motamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of Ruta graveolens L. were evaluated by two different methods; free radical scavenging using DPPH and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ferric thiocyanate method. The IC50 value of the methanol extract in DPPH inhibition was 200.5 μg/mL which was acceptable in comparison with BHT (41.8 μg/mL. In thiocyanate method, the plant extract demonstrated activity as much as BHT in prevention of lipid peroxidation. Increasing the temperature during extraction, significantly decreased the extract power in inhibition of DPPH radicals. The storage time and temperature had no effect on lipid peroxidation inhibition.

  17. Effects of Loud Noise on Oxidation and Lipid peroxidation Variations of Liver Tissue of Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzaei Ramazan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In today's world, noise is one of the major physical pollutants. The exact mechanism leading to tissue damage in loud noise is not clear. There are increasing evidences that show damage to cochlear tissue by noise is linked to cell injury induced by free radical species. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between change in liver tissue glutathione (anti- oxidant and malondialdehyde (one metabolite of lipid oxidation levels that occur in rabbits which were exposed to continuous loud noise.Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 12 white Newzeland male rabbits in Tarbiat Modarres University in 2004. The rabbits were assigned to the following two groups: control, and exposed to continuous loud noise for 96 hours (8 h/day for 12 days, SPL=110dBA and 250Hz to 20 KHz. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH in liver tissue samples were measured in rabbits after exposure to noise. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substance, Ellman's reagent and spectrophotometry techniques were used for this measurement. The data were statically analyzed by SPSS software and 2 groups were compared by t-test. Differences at the level of P<0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: Comparison of the biochemical parameters of GSH and MDA measured in treated group with control indicated that antioxidant and lipid peroxidants parameters were suppressed in treated group compared to control group (p<0.05.Conclusion: Possible similarities between rabbit and human biological system indicate the possible role of noise in causation of oxidative stress in context with liver tissue impairm

  18. Effects of zinc acexamate (NAS-501) on superoxide radicals and lipid peroxidation of rat gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Y; Nakamura, Y; Yamaguchi, S; Kawanaka, N; Sato, M

    1999-04-01

    Zinc acexamate (NAS-501), an anti-ulcer agent, has been reported to prevent various acute experimental gastric mucosal lesions and duodenal ulcers in rats. In order to clarify the mechanisms by which NAS-501 exhibits the anti-ulcer effects, we investigated the anti-oxidative effects of NAS-501 in vitro and in vivo. NAS-501 significantly reduced the superoxide radical-dependent chemiluminescence, generated by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase, rat neutrophils and guinea-pig macrophages in vitro. These in vitro effects were also confirmed by electron spin resonance using a 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin-trapping method. In addition, NAS-501 significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by increasing concentrations of Fe2+/ascorbate in rat gastric mucosal homogenate in vitro. Oral administration of NAS-501 (30 mg/kg) significantly inhibited production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance in rat gastric mucosa following per os instillation of 60% ethanol in 150 mmol/l HCl in vivo. These results suggest that NAS-501 exhibits the preventive effect from acute gastric mucosal lesions by the anti-oxidative activity.

  19. Magnesium Can Protect against Vanadium-Induced Lipid Peroxidation in the Hepatic Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ścibior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of magnesium as magnesium sulfate (MS on sodium-metavanadate- (SMV- induced lipid peroxidation (LPO under in vivo and in vitro conditions was studied. The 18-week SMV intoxication (Group II, 0.125 /mL enhanced spontaneous malondialdehyde (MDA generation in rat liver, compared with the control (Group I and MS-supplemented animals (Group III, 0.06 /mL. Coadministration of SMV with MS (Group IV, SMV-MS caused a return of the MDA level to the control value range. The effect seems to result from the -independent action and its antagonistic interaction with . The in vitro treatment of liver supernatants (LS obtained from all the tested animals groups with selected exogenous concentrations of or exhibited enhanced MDA production, compared with spontaneously formed MDA. It also showed -stimulating effect on LPO (LS I, Group I and revealed that the changes in the MDA generation in LS IV (Group IV might have resulted from the synergistic interactions of with and and from the antagonistic interactions of with and . The findings allow a suggestion that adequate Mg intake for a specific period in the conditions of SMV exposure may prevent V-induced LPO in the liver.

  20. Myeloperoxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation promotes the oxidative modification of cytosolic proteins in phagocytic neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie-Grantham, Rachel P; Magon, Nicholas J; Harwood, D Tim; Kettle, Anthony J; Vissers, Margreet C; Winterbourn, Christine C; Hampton, Mark B

    2015-04-10

    Phagocytic neutrophils generate reactive oxygen species to kill microbes. Oxidant generation occurs within an intracellular phagosome, but diffusible species can react with the neutrophil and surrounding tissue. To investigate the extent of oxidative modification, we assessed the carbonylation of cytosolic proteins in phagocytic neutrophils. A 4-fold increase in protein carbonylation was measured within 15 min of initiating phagocytosis. Carbonylation was dependent on NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity and was inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene and Trolox, indicating a role for myeloperoxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation. Proteomic analysis of target proteins revealed significant carbonylation of the S100A9 subunit of calprotectin, a truncated form of Hsp70, actin, and hemoglobin from contaminating erythrocytes. The addition of the reactive aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) caused carbonylation, and HNE-glutathione adducts were detected in the cytosol of phagocytic neutrophils. The post-translational modification of neutrophil proteins will influence the functioning and fate of these immune cells in the period following phagocytic activation, and provides a marker of neutrophil activation during infection and inflammation.

  1. Effects of alginate on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa quality, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinghua; Geng, Guoxia; Li, Qingwang; Sun, Xiuzhu; Cao, Hualin; Liu, Yawei

    2014-06-30

    Although alginate was reported to play an important role as free radical scavengers in vitro and could be used as sources of natural antioxidants, there was no study about the cryoprotective effects of alginate on boar spermatozoa freezing. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of alginate added to the freezing extenders on boar spermatozoa motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial activities, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes activities (SOD and GSH-Px) after thawing. Alginate was added to the TCG extender to yield six different final concentrations: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0mg/mL. The semen extender supplemented with various doses of alginate increased (Palginate also provided significantly positive effect on post-thaw boar spermatozoa acrosomal integrity at concentrations of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0mg/mL, compared with that of the control (Palginate led to higher SOD and GSH-Px activities and lower MDA levels, in comparison to the control (Palginate exhibited a dose-related response on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa motility, functional integrity and antioxidative capacity at appropriate concentrations. Therefore alginate could be employed as an effective cryoprotectant in boar spermatozoa cryopreservation.

  2. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in different stages of cervical cancer: Prognostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radical Injury is associated with cancer, but how the extent of oxidative stress correlates with the FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage in Carcinoma Cervix (Ca Cx, and its significance as a prognostic marker, is not clear and needs an in-depth study. Aim: To correlate the blood levels of Lipid Peroxidation (LPO, Reduced Glutathione (GSH, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, and Vitamin A and E levels with the clinical stage in Ca Cx. Settings and Design: This is a Prospective Case Control Study. Materials and Methods: LPO, SOD, reduced GSH were estimated by Bio Chemical Assays and Vitamins by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Statistical Analysis: The cases and controls were compared using One Way ANOVA and different stages over different time periods were individually compared by Repeated Measure Analysis of Variance. Results: The results indicated a statistically significant increase of LPO vis-a-vis the FIGO stage of Ca Cx and control, while the antioxidant status as depicted by GSH and SOD decreased. Vitamin A and E levels were significantly lower in cancer cases as compared to the control. Conclusion: Increased LPO and reduced antioxidant levels may be taken as associated predictive markers, thus suggesting that Ca Cx cases should get nutritive supplements to contain the blood LPO level and maintain a positive balance of antioxidants for a better outcome in terms of delayed recurrence and better Quality of Life (QOL.

  3. Effects of aldicarb and propoxur on cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in CHO-K1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, E; Fernández-Franzón, M; Font, G; Ruiz, M J

    2010-06-01

    Cytotoxic effects of aldicarb, its sulfone and sulfoxide, and propoxur, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant parameters in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-K1) cells were determined. D,L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) was assayed to determine the role of GSH in the protection against carbamate cytotoxicity. Pre-treatment with 60 microM BSO, induced a significant decrease in the glutathione reductase (GR; 64-141%), the glutathione peroxidase (GPx; 10-30%) and the glutathione S-transferase (GST; 59-93%) activities, and its GSH levels (79-85%), while the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels significantly increased (64-78%) respect to experiment non-BSO-pretreated. Carbamates BSO pre-treated vs. non-BSO pre-treated showed a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) production (from 13% to 52% vs. 25% to 93%). These data suggest that carbamates could injure CHO-K1 cells via oxidative stress by the increase of MDA production; moreover, BSO enhance the oxidative damage caused by carbamates. However, the glutathione system protects cells from carbamates damage.

  4. Drinking carrot juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Bhimanagouda S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disease is attributable to sedentary lifestyle and eating diets high in fat and refined carbohydrate while eating diets low in fruit and vegetables. Epidemiological studies have confirmed a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether drinking fresh carrot juice influences antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk markers in subjects not modifying their eating habits. Methods An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of consuming 16 fl oz of daily freshly squeezed carrot juice for three months on cardiovascular risk markers, C-reactive protein, insulin, leptin, interleukin-1α, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, antioxidant status, and malondialdehyde production. Fasting blood samples were collected pre-test and 90 days afterward to conclude the study. Results Drinking carrot juice did not affect (P > 0.1 the plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A, Apo B, LDL, HDL, body fat percentage, insulin, leptin, interleukin-1α, or C-reactive protein. Drinking carrot juice decreased (P = 0.06 systolic pressure, but did not influence diastolic pressure. Drinking carrot juice significantly (P Conclusion Drinking carrot juice may protect the cardiovascular system by increasing total antioxidant status and by decreasing lipid peroxidation independent of any of the cardiovascular risk markers measured in the study.

  5. Modification and inactivation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase by the lipid peroxidation product, acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Acrolein is the most reactive aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation and is found to be elevated in the brain when oxidative stress is high. The effects of acrolein on the structure and function of human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) were examined. When Cu,Zn-SOD was incubated with acrolein, the covalent crosslinking of the protein was increased, and the loss of enzymatic activity was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers and copper chelators inhibited the acrolein-mediated Cu,Zn-SOD modification and the formation of carbonyl compound. The present study shows that ROS may play a critical role in acrolein-induced Cu,Zn-SOD modification and inactivation. When Cu,Zn-SOD that has been exposed to acrolein was subsequently analyzed by amino acid analysis, serine, histidine, arginine, threonine and lysine residues were particularly sensitive. It is suggested that the modification and inactivation of Cu,Zn-SOD by acrolein could be produced by more oxidative cell environments.

  6. Effect of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestan, Ghazale; Salati, Amir Parviz; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Zakeri, Mohammad; Moradian, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of biological activities of its constituents. This study was done to evaluate the effects of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A total number of 480 O. mykiss (mean weight 9.50 ± 0.85 g) were randomized into four experimental groups including one control and three experimental groups that aloe vera was incorporated in their diet at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1). Trial was done for eight weeks. Then biometry and blood sampling were done. Plasma malondialdehyde, ferric reducing ability of plasma and growth index were estimated at the end of study. The results showed that aloe vera extract did not affect growth indices. Malondialdehyde was increased in the experimental group compared to the control group but ferric reducing ability of plasma showed a decrease in experimental groups (p aloe vera have adverse effects on antioxidant defense system in O. mykiss.

  7. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in rats acutely treated with acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, M G; Almeida, B B de; Bueno, J E; Portari, G V; Jordao, A A

    2010-06-01

    Cascades of metabolic changes leading to acetone production are induced in states of energy catabolism such as starvation or the use of a ketogenic diet. The reduced capacity for cell detoxification or the increased generation of free radicals is responsible for the toxic effect of acetone. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of acute treatment (AT) with acetone on the oxidative and metabolic status of rats. The AT group (n=16) was treated by gavage with a single administration of 7.0 g acetone/kg body weight at a concentration of 25% (m/v). Eight rats were euthanized 6 h later (AT6) and eight 24 h later (AT24). Acetone levels were determined in blood and urine and oxidative parameters were analyzed by determining thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS, indicators of lipid peroxidation) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamin E as antioxidant parameters. Serum glucose, blood cholesterol and triglycerieds and hepatic fat were also determined. The results indicated a significant difference in the hepatic oxidative parameters, serum glucose and in plasma triglycerides between the groups. Thus, we conclude that the administration of acute acetone doses can promote changes in some biochemical parameters and in the hepatic oxidative profile.

  8. Lipid peroxidation and renal injury in renal ischemia/reperfusion: Effect of Benincasa cerifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalodia Y

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of the methanolic fruit extract of Benincasa cerifera on lipid peroxidation (LPO and renal pathology in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R.In experimental methodology, both renal pedicles were occluded for 60 min followed by 24 h of reperfusion. B. cerifera (500 mg/kg/day was administered orally for 5 days prior to induction of renal ischemia and was continued for 1 day after ischemia. At the end of the reperfusion period, rats were sacrificed. Sham-operated rats followed same procedure except renal arteries occlusion. LPO and histopathological analysis were done in renal tissue. Serum creatinine and urea levels were measured for the evaluation of renal function. In ischemia/reperfusion (I/R rats, malondialdehyde (MDA levels were increased significantly when compared with sham-control rats. Histological changes showed tubular cell swelling, interstitial oedema, tubular dilation and moderate-to-severe necrosis in epithelium of I/R rat as compared to sham control. The methanolic fruit extract of B. cerifera could attenuate the heightened MDA levels. I/R-induced renal injury was markedly diminished by administration of B. cerifera These results indicate that the methanolic fruit extract of B. cerifera attenuate renal damage after I/R injury of the kidney by potent antioxidant or free radical scavenging activity.

  9. Degradation of sulfide linkages between isoprenes by lipid peroxidation catalyzed by manganese peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shin; Ohashi, Yasunori; Kojima, Masaaki; Watanabe, Takahito; Honda, Yoichi; Watanabe, Takashi

    2009-10-01

    Scission of sulfide linkages in vulcanized rubber has been a major concern since the early 20th century, because devulcanization is a key process for recycling waste rubber products as polymer materials that pose low environmental risks. We herein demonstrate that lipid peroxidation (LPO) of linoleic acid by manganese peroxidase (MnP), a proposed lignin-degradation system in the early stage of selective white rot fungi, cleaves sulfide bond in a model rubber compound, di(2-methylpent-2-enyl) sulfide, to 2,4-dimethylthiophene and 2-methyl-2-pentenal. The major intermediate of the LPO process, 2,4-decadienal was directly oxidized by MnP to cleave the sulfur-carbon bond. We propose that electrophilic radicals from 2,4-decadienal abstract one electron from a sulfur atom of the model compound to produce the sulfur radical cation intermediate, which in turn reacts with molecular oxygen to cleave the sulfur-carbon bond. The discovery of free radical-mediated scission of sulfide bond coupled with Mn oxidation provides a novel strategy for recycling vulcanized rubber wastes.

  10. Estrogen inhibits lipid peroxidation after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhu; Xiao Han; Dafeng Ji; Guangming Lv; Meiyu Xu

    2012-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley neonatal rats within 7 days after birth were used in this study. The left common carotid artery was occluded and rats were housed in an 8% O2 environment for 2 hours to establish a hypoxic-ischemic brain damage model. 17β-estradiol (1 × 10-5 M) was injected into the rat abdominal cavity after the model was successfully established. The left hemisphere was obtained at 12, 24, 48, 72 hours after operation. Results showed that malondialdehyde content in the left brain of neonatal rats gradually increased as modeling time prolonged, while malondialdehyde content of 17β-estrodial-treated rats significantly declined by 24 hours, reached lowest levels at 48 hours, and then peaked at 72 hours after injury. Nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate histochemical staining showed the nitric oxide synthase-positive cells and fibers dyed blue/violet and were mainly distributed in the cortex, hippocampus and medial septal nuclei. The number of nitric oxide synthase-positive cells peaked at 48 hours and significantly decreased after 17β-estrodial treatment. Our experimental findings indicate that estrogen plays a protective role following hypoxic-ischemic brain damage by alleviating lipid peroxidation through reducing the expression of nitric oxide synthase and the content of malondialdehyde.

  11. Protective Effect of Pulp Oil Extracted from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. Fruit on Blood Lipids, Lipid Peroxidation, and Antioxidant Status in Healthy Rabbits

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    Faridah Hanim Shakirin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of pulp and kernel oils of Canarium odontophyllum Miq. (CO on lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress of healthy rabbits. The oils are rich in SFAs and MUFAs (mainly palmitic and oleic acids. The pulp oil is rich in polyphenols. Male New Zealand white (NZW rabbits were fed for 4 weeks on a normal diet containing pulp (NP or kernel oil (NK of CO while corn oil was used as control (NC. Total cholesterol (TC, HDL-C, LDL-c and triglycerides (TG levels were measured in this paper. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidise, thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARSs, and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS were also evaluated. Supplementation of CO pulp oil resulted in favorable changes in blood lipid and lipid peroxidation (increased HDL-C, reduced LDL-C, TG, TBARS levels with enhancement of SOD, GPx, and plasma TAS levels. Meanwhile, supplementation of kernel oil caused lowering of plasma TC and LDL-C as well as enhancement of SOD and TAS levels. These changes showed that oils of CO could be beneficial in improving lipid profile and antioxidant status as when using part of normal diet. The oils can be used as alternative to present vegetable oil.

  12. Effect of dietary Astaxanthin sources supplementation on muscle pigmentation and lipid peroxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

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    Marco Saroglia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin is one of the major carotenoids in aquatic animals including salmonid fishes and is the preferred pigments added to salmon feed. It’s also a powerful antioxidant compared to other carotenoids and that may confer numerous health benefits. The aim of the present experi- ment was to investigate the effect of Astaxanthin deposition on the lipids peroxidation by studying the Malondialdeide (MDA level in muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. The Astaxanthin concentrations in fish fed with a commercial sources as Lucantin®Pink (BASF Ludwigshafen, Ger- many reached values to 5.76±0.18x10-3 mg/g after 50 days feeding, while the MDA concentration de- creased from 1.56x103 to 0.45x103 ng/g. The correlation between MDA and Astaxanthin concentrations decreased linearly and confirmed the antioxidant properties of the pigment by reducing the lipids peroxidation.

  13. [Metabolism, intensity of lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defense system in humans during chamber experiments with long-term isolation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, A A; Stroganova, L B; Vostrikova, L V; Balashov, O I; Nichiporuk, I A

    1997-01-01

    Blood biochemical parameters of lipid, protein, carbohydrate and energy metabolism were measured in a 135-day chamber experiment. Also, dynamics of the intensity of lipid peroxidation and status of the antioxidant defence system were evaluated. Results of the investigation showed that extended chamber isolation led to modifications of several biochemical parameters including hemoglobin, bilirubin, cholesterol and its fractions, elevated transaminase activity which are typical for long-term space mission. However, these were not accompanied by substantive changes in protein, energy and carbohydrate metabolisms, or intensity of free radical processes. Effects of prolonged stay in chamber was successfully counterbalanced by organism.

  14. Linoleic acid-induced ultra-weak photon emission from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes.

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    Ankush Prasad

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species formed as a response to various abiotic and biotic stresses cause an oxidative damage of cellular component such are lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Lipid peroxidation is considered as one of the major processes responsible for the oxidative damage of the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes. Various methods such as a loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids, amount of the primary and the secondary products are used to monitor the level of lipid peroxidation. To investigate the use of ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation, the involvement of lipid peroxidation in ultra-weak photon emission was studied in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Lipid peroxidation initiated by addition of exogenous linoleic acid to the cells was monitored by ultra-weak photon emission measured with the employment of highly sensitive charged couple device camera and photomultiplier tube. It was found that the addition of linoleic acid to the cells significantly increased the ultra-weak photon emission that correlates with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation product as measured using thiobarbituric acid assay. Scavenging of hydroxyl radical by mannitol, inhibition of intrinsic lipoxygenase by catechol and removal of molecular oxygen considerably suppressed ultra-weak photon emission measured after the addition of linoleic acid. The photon emission dominated at the red region of the spectrum with emission maximum at 680 nm. These observations reveal that the oxidation of linoleic acid by hydroxyl radical and intrinsic lipoxygenase results in the ultra-weak photon emission. Electronically excited species such as excited triplet carbonyls are the likely candidates for the primary excited species formed during the lipid peroxidation, whereas chlorophylls are the final emitters of photons. We propose here that the ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non

  15. Hepatic glutathione metabolism and lipid peroxidation in response to excess dietary selenomethionine and selenite in mallard ducklings

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    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Selenium from selenomethionine accumulated in a dose-dependent manner in the liver, resulting in a decrease in hepatic-reduced glutathione with a corresponding decrease in total hepatic thiols. There was a dose-dependent increase in the oxidized to reduced glutathione ratio, and an increase in lipid peroxidation. These findings indicate that Se in the diet at 10 ppm and higher causes significant sublethal alterations in mallard ducklings, and 20-40 ppm causes significant hepatotoxicity.

  16. Effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in Pacific cod Gadus microcephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Shi, Xuehui; Liu, Yifan; Yu, Daode; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus. Sperm motility and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (Gr), and lipid peroxidation (measured via malondialdehyde (MDA) content) were determined after the milt was stored at 4°C for 12 h, cryopreserved without cryoprotectant in 12% propylene glycol (PG), cryopreserved in 12% PG+0.1 mol/L trehalose, or cryopreserved in 12% PG spermatozoa but centrifuged to decant the supernatant prior to cryopreservation (only sperm cells were cryopreserved). After chilled storage or cryopreservation, the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were reduced in sperm cells and increased in seminal plasma in almost all treatments; sperm motility parameters were also decreased. However, the addition of trehalose into the cryoprotectant could significantly improve the postthaw sperm quality as revealed by the sperm average path velocity. This improvement might be attributed to the function of trehalose in scavenging reactive oxygen species. Chilled storage and cryopreservation had significant effects on sperm motion characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the Pacific cod.

  17. Oxidative Stress Induced Lipid Peroxidation And DNA Adduct Formation In The Pathogenesis Of Multiple Myeloma And Lymphoma

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    Tandon, Ravi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To access the oxidative stress status by quantification of byproducts generated during lipid peroxidation and DNA breakdown products generated during DNA damage in the blood serum of multiple myeloma and lymphoma patients.Material & Methods: Case control study comprised of 40 patients of multiple myeloma and 20 patients of lymphoma along with 20 age and sex-matched healthy subjects as controls. Levels of Malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-Guanosine were measured to study the oxidative stress status in the study subjects.Results: The level of markers of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation were found to be raised significantly in the study subjects in comparison to healthy controls. The results indicate oxidative stress and DNA damage activity increase progressively with the progression of disease.Conclusion: Oxidative stress causes DNA damage and Lipid peroxidation which results in the formation of DNA adducts leading to mutations thereby indicate the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma and lymphoma.

  18. Effect of dietary vitamin E level on growth, tissue lipid peroxidation, and erythrocyte fragility of transgenic coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Huei; Higgs, David A; Balfry, Shannon K; Devlin, Robert H

    2004-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E concentration on growth performance, iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in liver and muscle tissue, and erythrocyte fragility of transgenic growth hormone coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Fish were fed one of four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous experimental diets that contained either 11, 29, 50, or 105 IU of vitamin E/kg. Following the 10-week feeding trial, no significant (P>0.05) diet-related differences were detected in growth, whole body proximate composition or erythrocyte fragility. The vitamin E contents of liver and muscle, however, were affected by the dietary treatment. Fish fed diets containing > or =50 IU of vitamin E/kg had significantly increased vitamin E concentrations in their tissues. Iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation of liver and muscle tissue of fish fed elevated dietary vitamin E (> or =50 IU vitamin E/kg diet) was significantly lower (Pvitamin E. The results indicated that changes in tissue lipid peroxidation measurements precede clinical signs of sub-optimal vitamin E intake.

  19. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sidiqat Adamson Shodehinde; Ganiyu Oboh

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods: Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results: The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions: Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress.

  20. Stabilization of membrane bound ATPases and lipid peroxidation by carotenoids from Chlorococcum humicola in Benzo(a)pyrene induced toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhagavathy S; Sumathi P

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the alteration of the membrane potential and the effect of carotenoid extracts from Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) on membrane bound ATPases and lipid peroxidation. Methods: The total carotenoids were extracted from C. humicola. Four groups of Swiss albino mice were treated as control, Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P], total carotenoids, B(a)P +total carotenoids respectively for a period of 60 days. Membrane lipid peroxidation and ATPases (Total ATPases, Ca2+- ATPases, Mg2+ - ATPases, Na+K+ - ATPase) were determined in lung, liver and erythrocyte samples. Results: The activity of total ATPase was found to be significantly increased in the B(a)P treated liver and lung tissue. Erythrocyte membrane also showed higher ATPase activity which was significantly reverted on total carotenoid treatment. Conclusions:It can be concluded that the changes in membrane potential favour the functional deterioration of physiological system. The overall findings demonstrates that the animals post treated with carotenoid extract from C. humicola may maintains the alterations in membrane bound ATPase and lipid peroxidation in tissues against the carcinogenic chemical and hence aid in establishing the membrane potential action. Therefore C. humicola can be further extended to exploits its possible application for various health benefits as neutraceuticals and food additives.

  1. Exhaled pentane as a possible marker for survival and lipid peroxidation during radiotherapy for lung cancer--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohns, Marika; Saarelainen, Seppo; Laitinen, Jukka; Peltonen, Kimmo; Alho, Hannu; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko

    2009-10-01

    To examine lipid peroxidation during radiotherapy (RT), exhaled pentane samples were collected from 11 lung cancer patients before RT and 30 and 120 min after the start of RT on days 1, 4 and 5 and at 30 and 40 Grays, if possible. Exhaled pentane samples were collected once from 30 healthy controls. Serum thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes (CD) were obtained from patients on each exhaled air collection day. Lung cancer patients had higher exhaled pentane levels than controls (1.73 ng/L vs 0.83 ng/L, p=0.017). Exhaled pentane levels tended to decrease during the first RT day (p=0.075) and levels of CD decreased during the first week of RT (p=0.014). Higher pre-treatment pentane levels predicted better survival (p=0.003). Elevated exhaled pentane levels before RT may be due to the lipid peroxidation burden associated with cancer. The decrease of lipid peroxidation markers during RT may be attributable to enhanced antioxidant defense mechanisms.

  2. Dose-dependent lipid peroxidation induction on ex vivo intestine tracts exposed to chyme samples from fumonisins contaminated corn samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbetta, A; Debellis, L; De Girolamo, A; Schena, R; Visconti, A; Minervini, F

    2015-08-01

    Fumonisins (FBs), Fusarium mycotoxins common food contaminant, are a potent inducer of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in intestinal cells. In order to verify this toxic effect in intestine tract, the aim was to assess lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde MDA increased levels) on intestine rat samples exposed to chyme samples from in vitro digestion of FBs contaminated corn samples. Naturally (9.61±3.2 μg/gr), artificially (726±94 μg/gr) and spiked corn samples at EU permitted FBs levels were digested and added to luminal side of Ussing chamber for 120 min. Fumonisins-free corn sample was used as control. The MDA increase was observed just in 83% of intestine samples exposed at EU FBs levels and the digestion process seems to reduce this incidence (50% of samples). Malondialdehyde levels were FBs dose- and subject-related and ranged from 0.07±0.01 to 3.59±0.6 nmol/mg. Highest incidence and MDA % increment (I) were found when intestine tracts were exposed to chymes from artificially corn sample. The induction of lipid peroxidation induced by FBs could be due to interactions between FBs and intestinal membranes, with consequent modifications in membrane permeability and oxygen diffusion-concentration, as suggested by other authors.

  3. Fibre-induced lipid peroxidation leads to DNA adduct formation in Salmonella typhimurium TA104 and rat lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, P J; Faux, S P

    1996-03-01

    Certain end-products of lipid peroxidation bind to DNA forming a fluorescent chromophore. Incubation of both Salmonella typhimurium TA104 and a rat lung fibroblast cell line, RFL-6, with various types of mineral fibre resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in DNA fluorescence. The increase in DNA fluorescence was shown to be directly related to the amount of iron that could be mobilized from the fibre surface using in vitro studies in the absence of cells or bacteria. Crocidolite and man-made vitreous fibre-21 (MMVF-21) mobilized significant quantities of iron and were significantly more active than chrysotile and refactory ceramic fibre-1 (RCF-1). Fibre-induced malondialdehyde-DNA adduct formation, the fluorescent product, was increased by incubating cells with buthionine sulfoximine and ameliorated by co-treatment with N-acetylcysteine, indicating a protective role for glutathione. Similarly, vitamin E was also shown to inhibit DNA adduct formation. These results suggest that mineral fibre-induced lipid peroxidation produced genotoxic products which can diffuse into nucleus and interact with cellular DNA. In conclusion, fibre-induced lipid peroxidation may be a possible mechanism in the genotoxic action of fibrous materials.

  4. The lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal contributes to oxidative stress-mediated deterioration of the ageing oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalas, Bettina P; De Iuliis, Geoffry N; Redgrove, Kate A; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Nixon, Brett

    2017-07-24

    An increase in intraovarian reactive oxygen species (ROS) has long been implicated in the decline in oocyte quality associated with maternal ageing. Oxidative stress (OS)-induced lipid peroxidation and the consequent generation of highly electrophilic aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), represents a potential mechanism by which ROS can inflict damage in the ageing oocyte. In this study, we have established that aged oocytes are vulnerable to damage by 4-HNE resulting from increased cytosolic ROS production within the oocyte itself. Further, we demonstrated that the age-related induction of OS can be recapitulated by exposure of germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes to exogenous H2O2. Such treatments stimulated an increase in 4-HNE generation, which remained elevated during in vitro oocyte maturation to metaphase II. Additionally, exposure of GV oocytes to either H2O2 or 4-HNE resulted in decreased meiotic completion, increased spindle abnormalities, chromosome misalignments and aneuploidy. In seeking to account for these data, we revealed that proteins essential for oocyte health and meiotic development, namely α-, β-, and γ-tubulin are vulnerable to adduction via 4-HNE. Importantly, 4-HNE-tubulin adduction, as well as increased aneuploidy rates, were resolved by co-treatment with the antioxidant penicillamine, demonstrating a possible therapeutic mechanism to improve oocyte quality in older females.

  5. Activity of antioxidative enzymes in fresh and frozen thawed buffalo (Bubalus bubalis spermatozoa in relation to lipid peroxidation and semen quality

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    G. Kadirve

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: It was concluded that loss of activity of intracellular antioxidative enzymes was evident after freezing and thawing and there was a strong association between the antioxidative enzyme activities, ROS, lipid peroxidation and sperm function in buffalo semen.

  6. α-lipoic acid ameliorates n-3 highly-unsaturated fatty acids induced lipid peroxidation via regulating antioxidant defenses in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Chen; Jin, Ai; Sun, Jian; Yang, Zhou; Tian, Jing-Jing; Ji, Hong; Yu, Hai-Bo; Li, Yang; Zhou, Ji-Shu; Du, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Li-Qiao

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the protective effect of α-lipoic acid (LA) on n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs)-induced lipid peroxidation in grass carp. The result indicated that diets with n-3 HUFAs increased the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P n-3 HUFAs-only group. However, diets with LA remarkably inhibited the n-3 HUFAs-induced increase of HSI, KI, and MDA level in serum, liver and muscle (P n-3 HUFAs in fatty acid composition of muscle and liver (P n-3 HUFAs-induced lipid peroxidation, remit the toxicity of the lipid peroxidant, and protect n-3 HUFAs against lipid peroxidation to promote its deposition in fish, likely strengthening the activity of antioxidant enzymes through regulating mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzyme genes via mediating Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA damage associated with lipid peroxidation of the mitochondrial membrane induced by Fe2+-citrate

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    Andréa M. Almeida

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron imbalance/accumulation has been implicated in oxidative injury associated with many degenerative diseases such as hereditary hemochromatosis, beta-thalassemia, and Friedreich's ataxia. Mitochondria are particularly sensitive to iron-induced oxidative stress - high loads of iron cause extensive lipid peroxidation and membrane permeabilization in isolated mitochondria. Here we detected and characterized mitochondrial DNA damage in isolated rat liver mitochondria exposed to a Fe2+-citrate complex, a small molecular weight complex. Intense DNA fragmentation was induced after the incubation of mitochondria with the iron complex. The detection of 3' phosphoglycolate ends at the mtDNA strand breaks by a 32P-postlabeling assay, suggested the involvement of hydroxyl radical in the DNA fragmentation induced by Fe2+-citrate. Increased levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine also suggested that Fe2+-citrate-induced oxidative stress causes mitochondrial DNA damage. In conclusion, our results show that iron-mediated lipid peroxidation was associated with intense mtDNA damage derived from the direct attack of reactive oxygen species.Desequilíbrio/acúmulo de ferro tem sido implicado em injúria oxidativa associada a diversas doenças degenerativas tais como, hemocromatose hereditária, beta-talassemia e ataxia de Friedreich. As mitocôndrias são particularmente sensíveis a estresse oxidativo induzido por ferro - um carregamento alto de ferro em mitocôndrias isoladas pode causar uma extensiva peroxidação lipídica e a permeabilização de membrana. Nesse estudo, nós detectamos e caracterizamos danos do DNA mitocondrial em mitocôndrias isoladas de fígado de rato, expostas ao complexo Fe2+-citrato, um dos complexos de baixo peso molecular. A intensa fragmentação do DNA foi induzida após a incubação das mitocôndrias com o complexo de ferro. A detecção de finais 3' de fosfoglicolato nas quebras de fitas de DNA mitocondrial pelo ensaio 32

  8. The effects of tomato powder supplementation on performance and lipid peroxidation in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, N; Orhan, C; Tuzcu, M; Sahin, K; Kucuk, O

    2008-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested a protective role for lycopene, an antioxidant carotenoid, in the prevention of stress including environmental stress. Tomatoes and tomato products are the major dietary source of lycopene. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary tomato powder supplementation on the performance and lipid peroxidation of meat in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to a high ambient temperature of 34 degrees C. A total of 180 ten-day-old male quails were randomly allocated into 6 groups consisting of 10 replicates of 3 birds. Birds were kept in wire cages in a temperature-controlled room at either 22 degrees C (thermoneutral) or 34 degrees C (heat stress) for 8 h/ d (0900 to 1700 h during the study). Birds were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2.5 or 5.0% of tomato powder. Tomato powder supplementation linearly increased feed intake, live weight gain, and feed conversion (P = 0.01) under heat stress conditions but did not show the same effect at thermoneutral conditions (P > 0.05). Heat stress significantly increased malondialdehyde concentration and decreased vitamin concentrations in the serum, liver, and muscles of quail. Serum lycopene and vitamin C, E, and A (P = 0.01) concentrations increased linearly in birds at all groups. Malondialdehyde levels in serum, liver (P = 0.001), and muscles linearly decreased in all birds of both thermoneutral and heat stress groups as dietary tomato powder supplementation increased. The results of the study indicate that tomato powder modulates the oxidation-antioxidation system of the muscles in Japanese quail exposed to high ambient temperature.

  9. Increased lipid peroxidation in trained men after 2 weeks of antioxidant supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Manfred; Hofmann, Peter; Greilberger, Joachim F; Schwaberger, Guenther

    2009-08-01

    To assess the effects of an encapsulated antioxidant concentrate (EAC) and exercise on lipid peroxidation (LIPOX) and the plasma antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (Pl-GPx). Eight trained male cyclists (VO2max > 55 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, crossover study and undertook 4 cycle-ergometer bouts: 2 moderate exercise bouts over 90 min at 45% of individual VO2max and 2 strenuous exercise bouts at 75% of individual VO2max for 30 min. The first 2 exercise tests--1 moderate and 1 strenuous-were conducted after 4 weeks wash-out and after 12 and 14 days of EAC (107 IU vitamin E, 450 mg vitamin C, 36 mg beta-carotene, 100 microg selenium) or placebo treatment. After another 4 weeks wash-out, participants were given the opposite capsule treatment and repeated the 2 exercise tests. Physical exercise training was equal across the whole study period, and nutrition was standardized by a menu plan the week before the tests. Blood was collected before exercise, immediately postexercise, and 30 min and 60 min after each test. Plasma samples were analyzed for LIPOX marker malondialdehyde (MDA) and the antioxidant enzyme pl-GPx. MDA concentrations were significantly increased after EAC supplementation at rest before exercise and after moderate exercise (p .1). Pl-GPx concentrations decreased at all time points of measurement after EAC treatment (p < .05). The EAC induced an increase of LIPOX as indicated by MDA and decreased pl-GPx concentrations pre- and postexercise.

  10. Salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Lipid Peroxidation in Patients with Erosive Oral Lichen Planus

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    Atena Shirzad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Oral lichen planus is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa with malignant potential, pathogenesis of which is not still well known. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species can play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. The aim of this study was to investigate salivary oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and methods. In this case-control study, 30 patients with oral lichen planus (case group and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (control group, referring to Dental School of Babol University of Medical Sciences, were selected using simple sampling method. Unstimulated saliva of the two groups was collected. Salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC and lipid peroxidation products were investigated and compared, using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS methods, respectively. Data were analyzed using Student’s ttest. Results. The mean and standard deviation of salivary TAC in patients with oral lichen planus (297.23 ± 149.72 μM was significantly lower than that in the controls (791.43±183.95 μM; P < 0.0001, and mean and standard deviation of salivary malondialdehyde (MDA (0.49 ± 0.30 μM was remarkably higher in oral lichen planus patients compared to the control group (0.15 ± 0.11 μM (P < 0.0001. TAC was also reduced in both groups in line with an increase in the level of MDA (P < 0.0001, r = −0.48. Conclusion. The results of this study suggested that an increase in oxidative stress and an imbalance in antioxidant defense system in the saliva of oral lichen planus patients may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

  11. Evaluation of zinc effect on cadmium action in lipid peroxidation and metallothionein levels in the brain

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    Marcos M. Braga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a known hepato- and nephrotoxic pollutant and zinc (Zn metalloproteins are important targets of Cd. Hence, the administration of Zn may mitigate Cd toxic effects. However, the interaction of Cd and Zn has been little investigated in the brain. Previously, we reported a protective effect of Zn on mortality caused by Cd in rats. Here, we tested whether the protective effect of Zn could be related to changes in brain Zn-proteins, metallothionein (MT and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratse (δ-ALA-D. Male adult rats were daily administered for 10 days with Zn (2 mg kg−1, Cd (0.25 and 1 mg kg−1 and 0.25 mg kg−1 of Cd plus Zn and 1 mg kg−1 of Cd plus Zn. The body weight loss, food intake deprivation, and mortality occurred in 1 mg kg−1 of Cd, but Zn co-administration did mitigate these effects. The brain Zn content was not modified by treatment with Cd, whereas cerebral Cd levels increased in animals exposed to Cd. The administration of 0.25 mg kg−1 of Cd (with or without Zn induced lipid peroxidation and decreased MT concentration, but 2 mg kg−1 of Zn and 1 mg kg−1 of Cd did not change these parameters. Brain δ-ALA-D was not modified by Cd and/or Zn treatments. Since the co-administration of Zn did not attenuate the changes induced by Cd in the brain, our results suggest that the protective effect of Zn on impairments caused by Cd in animal status is weakly related to a cerebral interaction of these metals.

  12. Inhibition of eicosanoid signaling leads to increased lipid peroxidation in a host/parasitoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükgüzel, Ender; Erdem, Meltem; Tunaz, Hasan; Küçük, Ceyhun; Atılgan, Utku Can; Stanley, David; Büyükgüzel, Kemal

    2017-02-01

    We posed the hypothesis that inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis leads to increased lipid peroxidation in insects. Here we report that rearing the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, on media supplemented with selected inhibitors of eicosanoid biosynthesis throughout the larval, pupal and adult life led to major alterations in selected oxidative and antioxidative parameters of wax moth and its ectoparasitoid, Bracon hebetor. The highest dietary dexamethasone (Dex), esculetin (Esc) and phenidone (Phe) led to increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and to elevated catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities in all developmental stages of host larvae. Dietary Phe resulted in increased MDA levels, and CAT activity in G. mellonella adults by about 4-fold and about 2-fold, respectively. The Phe effect on GST activity in all stages of the wax moth was expressed in a dose-dependent manner, increased to 140nmol/mg protein/min in larvae. MDA levels were increased by over 30-fold in adult wasps reared on Dex- and Esc-treated hosts. CAT and GST activities were increased in adult parasitoids reared on Esc-and Phe-treated hosts. GST activity of Dex-treated parasitoid larvae increased from about 4 to over 30nmol/mg protein/min. Dietary Phe led to increased GST activity, by about 25-fold, in adult wasps. These data indicate that chronic inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis leads to increased oxidative stress, strongly supporting our hypothesis. The significance of this work lies in understanding the roles of eicosanoids in insect biology. Aside from other well-known eicosanoids actions, we propose that eicosanoids mediate reductions in oxidative stress.

  13. DNA damage by lipid peroxidation products: implications in cancer, inflammation and autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Gentile

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO induced by inflammation, excess metal storage and excess caloric intake cause generalized DNA damage, producing genotoxic and mutagenic effects. The consequent deregulation of cell homeostasis is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of malignancies and degenerative diseases. Reactive aldehydes produced by LPO, such as malondialdehyde, acrolein, crotonaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, react with DNA bases, generating promutagenic exocyclic DNA adducts, which likely contribute to the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects associated with oxidative stress-induced LPO. However, reactive aldehydes, when added to tumor cells, can exert an anticancerous effect. They act, analogously to other chemotherapeutic drugs, by forming DNA adducts and, in this way, they drive the tumor cells toward apoptosis. The aldehyde-DNA adducts, which can be observed during inflammation, play an important role by inducing epigenetic changes which, in turn, can modulate the inflammatory process. The pathogenic role of the adducts formed by the products of LPO with biological macromolecules in the breaking of immunological tolerance to self antigens and in the development of autoimmunity has been supported by a wealth of evidence. The instrumental role of the adducts of reactive LPO products with self protein antigens in the sensitization of autoreactive cells to the respective unmodified proteins and in the intermolecular spreading of the autoimmune responses to aldehyde-modified and native DNA is well documented. In contrast, further investigation is required in order to establish whether the formation of adducts of LPO products with DNA might incite substantial immune responsivity and might be instrumental for the spreading of the immunological responses from aldehyde-modified DNA to native DNA and similarly modified, unmodified and/or structurally analogous self protein antigens, thus leading to autoimmunity.

  14. Salivary total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in patients with erosive oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Atena; Pouramir, Mahdi; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Jenabian, Niloofar; Bijani, Ali; Motallebnejad, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Oral lichen planus is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa with malignant potential, pathogenesis of which is not still well known. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species can play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. The aim of this study was to investigate salivary oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and methods. In this case-control study, 30 patients with oral lichen planus (case group) and 30 age-and gender-matched healthy subjects (control group), referring to Dental School of Babol University of Medical Sciences, were selected using simple sampling method. Unstimulated saliva of the two groups was collected. Salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid peroxidation products were investigated and compared, using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) methods, respectively. Data were analyzed using Student' t-test. Results. The mean and standard deviation of salivary TAC in patients with oral lichen planus (297.23 ± 149.72 μM) was significantly lower than that in the controls (791.43 ± 183.95 μM; P & 0.0001), and mean and standard deviation of salivary malondialdehyde (MDA) (0.49 ± 0.30 μM) was remarkably higher in oral lichen planus patients compared to the control group (0.15 ± 0.11 μM) (P & 0.0001). TAC was also reduced in both groups in line with an increase in the level of MDA (P & 0.0001, r = -0.48). Conclusion. The results of this study suggested that an increase in oxidative stress and an imbalance in antioxidant defense system in the saliva of oral lichen planus patients may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

  15. Prenatal malnutrition and lead intake produce increased brain lipid peroxidation levels in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Cedillo, Brenda Gabriela; Díaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Montes, Sergio; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Ríos, Camilo; Beltrán-Campos, Vicente; Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Mireya; Díaz-Cintra, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead intoxication (Pb) have adverse effects on neuronal development; one of the cellular mechanisms involved is a disruption of the pro- and anti-oxidant balance. In the developing brain, the vulnerability of neuronal membrane phospholipids is variable across the different brain areas. This study assesses the susceptibility of different brain regions to damage by quitar tissue oxidative stress and lead quitar concentrations to determine whether the combined effect of prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead (Pb) intoxication is worse than the effect of either of them individually. M was induced with an isocaloric and hypoproteinic (6% casein) diet 4 weeks before pregnancy. Intoxication was produced with lead acetate in drinking water, from the first gestational day. Both the M and Pb models were continued until the day of birth. Four brain regions (hippocampus, cortex, striatum, and cerebellum) were dissected out to analyze the lipid peroxidation (LP) levels in four groups: normally nourished (C); normally nourished but intoxicated with lead (CPb); malnourished (M); and M intoxicated with lead (MPb). Dam body and brain weights were significantly reduced in the fourth gestational week in the MPb group. Their pups had significantly lower body weights than those in the C and CPb groups. The PbM group exhibited significant increases of lead concentration and LP in all areas evaluated. A potentiation effect of Pb and M on LP was found in the cerebellum. This study provides information on how environmental conditions (intoxication and malnutrition) during the intrauterine period could differentially affect the development of neuronal plasticity and, in consequence, alter adult brain functions such as learning and memory.

  16. Effect of sound wave stress on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of Dendrobium candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Wei, Jinmin; Wei, Xiaolan; Tang, Kun; Liang, Yilong; Shu, Kunxian; Wang, Bochu

    2008-06-01

    The effect of sound wave stress on important medicinal plant, Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl, was investigated, including the responses on malondialdehyde (MDA) content, the activities change of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Results were found that the activities of SOD, CAT, POD and APX enhanced totally in different organs of D. candidum, as leaves, stems and roots, in response to the stress. Furthermore there happened similar shift of antioxidant enzymes activities, which increased in the initial stimulation and decreased afterwards. Data showed SOD, CAT, POD and APX activities ascended to max at day 9, 6, 9 and 12 in leaves, at day 9, 6, 12 and 9 in stems, and at day 12, 6, 9 and 9 in roots, respectively. As a lipid peroxidation parameter, MDA content in different organs increased in the beginning, dropped afterward, and increased again in the late. Anyway the total trend was the rise of MDA level compared to the control. It was interesting that the MDA content appeared the lowest levels almost when the antioxidant enzymes activities were up to the highest. Our results demonstrated the different organs of D. candidum might produce accumulation of active oxygen species (AOS) under initial treatment of sound wave stress. Later AOS might start to reduce due to the enhancement of antioxidant enzymes activities treated by the stress. The data revealed that the antioxidant metabolism was to be important in determining the ability of plants to survive in sound stress, and the up regulation of these enzymes activities would help to reduce the build up of AOS, which could protect plant cells from oxidative damage. Moreover, different cell compartments might activate different defensive system to reduce excessive amount of AOS. Finally the mechanism of this action was also discussed simply.

  17. Lipid peroxidation and depressed mood in community-dwelling older men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Milaneschi

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that cellular damage caused by oxidative stress is associated with late-life depression but epidemiological evidence is limited. In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α, a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, and depressed mood in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults. Participants were selected from the Health, Aging and Body Composition study, a community-based longitudinal study of older persons (aged 70-79 years. The present analyses was based on a subsample of 1027 men and 948 women free of mobility disability. Urinary concentration of 8-iso-PGF2α was measured by radioimmunoassay methods and adjusted for urinary creatinine. Depressed mood was defined as a score greater than 5 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale and/or use of antidepressant medications. Depressed mood was present in 3.0% of men and 5.5% of women. Depressed men presented higher urinary concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α than non-depressed men even after adjustment for multiple sociodemographic, lifestyle and health factors (p = 0.03, Cohen's d = 0.30. This association was not present in women (depressed status-by-sex interaction p = 0.04. Our study showed that oxidative damage may be linked to depression in older men from a large sample of the general population. Further studies are needed to explore whether the modulation of oxidative stress may break down the link between late-life depression and its deleterious health consequences.

  18. Membrane lipid peroxidation in neurodegeneration: Role of thrombin and proteinase-activated receptor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Bruce A; Ameenuddin, Syed; Uchida, K; Suo, William Z; SantaCruz, Karen; Festoff, Barry W

    2016-07-15

    Thrombin and membrane lipid peroxidation (MLP) have been implicated in various central nervous system (CNS) disorders from CNS trauma to stroke, Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Because thrombin also induces MLP in platelets and its involvement in neurodegenerative diseases we hypothesized that its deleterious effects might, in part, involve formation of MLP in neuronal cells. We previously showed that thrombin induced caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in motor neurons, via a proteinase-activated receptor (PAR1). We have now investigated thrombin's influence on the oxidative state of neurons leading to induction of MLP-protein adducts. Translational relevance of thrombin-induced MLP is supported by increased levels of 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts (HNEPA) in AD and PD brains. We now report for the first time that thrombin dose-dependently induces formation of HNEPA in NSC34 mouse motor neuron cells using anti-HNE and anti-acrolein monoclonal antibodies. The most prominent immunoreactive band, in SDS-PAGE, was at ∼54kDa. Membrane fractions displayed higher amounts of the protein-adduct than cytosolic fractions. Thrombin induced MLP was mediated, at least in part, through PAR1 since a PAR1 active peptide, PAR1AP, also elevated HNEPA levels. Of interest, glutamate and Fe2SO4 also increased the ∼54kDa HNEPA band in these cells but to a lesser extent. Taken together our results implicate the involvement of thrombin and MLP in neuronal cell loss observed in various CNS degenerative and traumatic pathologies.

  19. Separation and characterization of the aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation stimulated by ADP-Fe2+ in rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterbauer, H; Cheeseman, K H; Dianzani, M U; Poli, G; Slater, T F

    1982-01-01

    1. Methods using t.l.c. and high-pressure liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.) have been used to separate the complex variety of substances possessing a carbonyl function that are produced during lipid peroxidation. 2. The major type of lipid peroxidation studied was the ADP-Fe2+-stimulated peroxidation of rat liver microsomal phospholipids. Preliminary separation of the polar and non-polar products was achieved by t.l.c.: further separation and identification of individual components was performed by h.p.l.c. Estimations were performed on microsomal pellets and the supernatant mixture after incubation of microsomes for 30 min at 37 degrees C. 3. The polar fraction was larger than the non-polar fraction when expressed as nmol of carbonyl groups/g of liver. In the non-polar supernatant fraction the major contributors were n-alkanals (31% of the total), alpha-dicarbonyl compounds (22%) and 4-hydroxyalkenals (37%) with the extraction method used. 4. Major individual contributors to the non-polar fraction were found to be propanal, 4-hydroxynonenal, hexanal and oct-2-enal. Other components identified include butanal, pent-2-enal, hex-2-enal, hept-2-enal, 4-hydroxyoctenal and 4-hydroxyundecenal. The polar carbonyl fraction was less complex than the non-polar fraction, although the identities of the individual components have not yet been established. 5. Since these carbonyl compounds do not react significantly in the thiobarbituric acid reaction, which largely demonstrates the presence of malonaldehyde, it is concluded that considerable amounts of biologically reactive carbonyl derivatives are released in lipid peroxidation and yet may not be picked up by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. PMID:7159389

  20. Lactation Affects Isolated Mitochondria and Its Fatty Acid Composition but Has No Effect on Tissue Protein Oxidation, Lipid Peroxidation or DNA-Damage in Laboratory Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa G. Valencak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Linking peak energy metabolism to lifespan and aging remains a major question especially when focusing on lactation in females. We studied, if and how lactation affects in vitro mitochondrial oxygen consumption and mitochondrial fatty acid composition. In addition, we assessed DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls to extrapolate on oxidative stress in mothers. As model system we used C57BL/6NCrl mice and exposed lactating females to two ambient temperatures (15 °C and 22 °C while they nursed their offspring until weaning. We found that state II and state IV respiration rates of liver mitochondria were significantly higher in the lactating animals than in non-lactating mice. Fatty acid composition of isolated liver and heart mitochondria differed between lactating and non-lactating mice with higher n-6, and lower n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lactating females. Surprisingly, lactation did not affect protein carbonyls, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, nor did moderate cold exposure of 15 °C. We conclude that lactation increases rates of mitochondrial uncoupling and alters mitochondrial fatty acid composition thus supporting the “uncoupling to survive” hypothesis. Regarding oxidative stress, we found no impact of lactation and lower ambient temperature and contribute to growing evidence that there is no linear relationship between oxidative damage and lactation.

  1. Comparison of serum lipid compositions, lipid peroxide, alpha-tocopherol and lipoproteins in captive marine mammals (bottlenose dolphins, spotted seals and West Indian manatees) and terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Masahiko; Kawauchi, Rieko; Tsunokawa, Masatoshi; Ueda, Keiichi; Uchida, Eiji; Oikawa, Shin; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kawajiri, Takaaki; Uchida, Senzo; Nagahata, Hajime

    2009-04-01

    Concentrations of serum lipid components, lipid peroxide (LPO) and alpha-tocopherol and electrophoretic patterns of lipoproteins in serum samples obtained from captive marine mammals and terrestrial mammals were compared. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, free fatty acid, and phospholipid in fish-eating animals were significantly higher than those in manatees and cows. Serum LPO and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in the fish-eating animals were also significantly higher than those in manatees, cows and dogs. Different patterns of densitometric scans of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and a significantly lower percentage of LDL were demonstrated in the dolphins compared with the seals, cow and dogs. The concentration of LPO was significantly correlated with triglyceride and phospholipid concentrations in serum from the dolphins. These results suggest that triglyceride and phospholipid are susceptible to oxidative reaction in fish-eating animals. Evaluation of serum lipids, LPO and alpha-tocopherol concentrations is needed for nutritional husbandry for fish-eating animals.

  2. [The characteristics of tissue lipid peroxidation in the internal organs and the lipid metabolic indices of the blood plasma in a low geomagnetic field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babych, V I

    1995-01-01

    It was found in experiments on guinea-pigs and white rats that 100-time weakened magnetic field of the earth considerably increased the activity of peroxide oxidation of lipids (POL) in tissues of inner organs. In the lungs, liver, kidneys, small intestine under the influence of hypogeomagnetic field (HGMF) we have observed reduction of ferment antioxidizing activity and of non-ferment mechanisms in the heart. The process is accompanied by reduction of cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides in guinea-pigs and increase of this indices in white rats after 5-day-long stay of animals in the hypogeomagnetic chamber. The data of experiments on white rats underlie a conclusion that the 5-day-long influence of HGMF promotes the change of the carbohydrate metabolism for lipid metabolism. The reaction of guinea-pigs on the stay under the weakened magnetic field of the earth displays in reduction of the level of lipid metabolism indices in the blood serum.

  3. Inhibition of membrane lipid peroxidation by a radical scavenging mechanism: a novel function for hydroxyl-containing ionophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalba, M T; Andrade, P B; Meinicke, A R; Castilho, R F; Vercesi, A E; Schreier, S

    1998-03-01

    In the present study we show that K+/H+ hydroxyl-containing ionophores lasalocid-A (LAS) and nigericin (NIG) in the nanomolar concentration range, inhibit Fe2+-citrate and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (ABAP)-induced lipid peroxidation in intact rat liver mitochondria and in egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes containing negatively charged lipids--dicetyl phosphate (DCP) or cardiolipin (CL)--and KCl as the osmotic support. In addition, monensin (MON), a hydroxyl-containing ionophore with higher affinity for Na+ than for K+, promotes a similar effect when NaCl is the osmotic support. The protective effect of the ionophores is not observed when the osmolyte is sucrose. Lipid peroxidation was evidenced by mitochondrial swelling, antimycin A-insensitive O2 consumption, formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of an incorporated lipid spin probe. A time-dependent decay of spin label EPR signal is observed as a consequence of lipid peroxidation induced by both inductor systems in liposomes. Nitroxide destruction is inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene, a known antioxidant, and by the hydroxyl-containing ionophores. In contrast, valinomycin (VAL), which does not possess alcoholic groups, does not display this protective effect. Effective order parameters (Seff), determined from the spectra of an incorporated spin label are larger in the presence of salt and display a small increase upon addition of the ionophores, as a result of the increase of counter ion concentration at the negatively charged bilayer surface. This condition leads to increased formation of the ion-ionophore complex, the membrane binding (uncharged) species. The membrane-incorporated complex is the active species in the lipid peroxidation inhibiting process. Studies in aqueous solution (in the absence of membranes) showed that NIG and LAS, but not VAL, decrease the Fe2+-citrate-induced production

  4. Study of lipid profile and parieto-temporal lipid peroxidation in AlCl3 mediated neurotoxicity. modulatory effect of fenugreek seeds

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    Belaïd-Nouira Yosra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxidation of lipid (LPO membrane and cholesterol metabolism have been involved in the physiopathology of many diseases of aging brain. Therefore, this prospective animal study was carried firstly to find out the correlation between LPO in posterior brain and plasmatic cholesterol along with lipoprotein levels after chronic intoxication by aluminium chloride (AlCl3. Chronic aluminum-induced neurotoxicity has been in fact related to enhanced brain lipid peroxidation together with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, despite its controversial etiological role in neurodegenerative diseases. Secondly an evaluation of the effectiveness of fenugreek seeds in alleviating the engendered toxicity through these biochemical parameters was made. Results Oral administration of AlCl3 to rats during 5 months (500 mg/kg bw i.g for one month then 1600 ppm via the drinking water enhanced the levels of LPO in posterior brain, liver and plasma together with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG and LDL-C (Low Density Lipoproteins levels. All these parameters were decreased following fenugreek seeds supplementation either as fenugreek seed powder (FSP or fenugreek seed extract (FSE. A notable significant correlation was observed between LPObrain and LDL-C on one hand and LDHliver on the other hand. This latter was found to correlate positively with TC, TG and LDL-C. Furthermore, high significant correlations were observed between LDHbrain and TC, TG, LDL-C, LPObrain as well as LDHliver. Conclusion Aluminium-induced LPO in brain could arise from alteration of lipid metabolism particularly altered lipoprotein metabolism rather than a direct effect of cholesterol oxidation. Fenugreek seeds could play an anti-peroxidative role in brain which may be attributed in part to its modulatory effect on plasmatic lipid metabolism.

  5. Study of lipid profile and parieto-temporal lipid peroxidation in AlCl₃ mediated neurotoxicity. Modulatory effect of fenugreek seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaïd-Nouira, Yosra; Bakhta, Hayfa; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Flehi-Slim, Imen; Haouas, Zohra; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2012-01-26

    Peroxidation of lipid (LPO) membrane and cholesterol metabolism have been involved in the physiopathology of many diseases of aging brain. Therefore, this prospective animal study was carried firstly to find out the correlation between LPO in posterior brain and plasmatic cholesterol along with lipoprotein levels after chronic intoxication by aluminium chloride (AlCl₃). Chronic aluminum-induced neurotoxicity has been in fact related to enhanced brain lipid peroxidation together with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, despite its controversial etiological role in neurodegenerative diseases. Secondly an evaluation of the effectiveness of fenugreek seeds in alleviating the engendered toxicity through these biochemical parameters was made. Oral administration of AlCl₃ to rats during 5 months (500 mg/kg bw i.g for one month then 1600 ppm via the drinking water) enhanced the levels of LPO in posterior brain, liver and plasma together with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and LDL-C (Low Density Lipoproteins) levels. All these parameters were decreased following fenugreek seeds supplementation either as fenugreek seed powder (FSP) or fenugreek seed extract (FSE). A notable significant correlation was observed between LPObrain and LDL-C on one hand and LDHliver on the other hand. This latter was found to correlate positively with TC, TG and LDL-C. Furthermore, high significant correlations were observed between LDHbrain and TC, TG, LDL-C, LPObrain as well as LDHliver. Aluminium-induced LPO in brain could arise from alteration of lipid metabolism particularly altered lipoprotein metabolism rather than a direct effect of cholesterol oxidation. Fenugreek seeds could play an anti-peroxidative role in brain which may be attributed in part to its modulatory effect on plasmatic lipid metabolism.

  6. Study of lipid profile and parieto-temporal lipid peroxidation in AlCl3 mediated neurotoxicity. modulatory effect of fenugreek seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Peroxidation of lipid (LPO) membrane and cholesterol metabolism have been involved in the physiopathology of many diseases of aging brain. Therefore, this prospective animal study was carried firstly to find out the correlation between LPO in posterior brain and plasmatic cholesterol along with lipoprotein levels after chronic intoxication by aluminium chloride (AlCl3). Chronic aluminum-induced neurotoxicity has been in fact related to enhanced brain lipid peroxidation together with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, despite its controversial etiological role in neurodegenerative diseases. Secondly an evaluation of the effectiveness of fenugreek seeds in alleviating the engendered toxicity through these biochemical parameters was made. Results Oral administration of AlCl3 to rats during 5 months (500 mg/kg bw i.g for one month then 1600 ppm via the drinking water) enhanced the levels of LPO in posterior brain, liver and plasma together with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and LDL-C (Low Density Lipoproteins) levels. All these parameters were decreased following fenugreek seeds supplementation either as fenugreek seed powder (FSP) or fenugreek seed extract (FSE). A notable significant correlation was observed between LPObrain and LDL-C on one hand and LDHliver on the other hand. This latter was found to correlate positively with TC, TG and LDL-C. Furthermore, high significant correlations were observed between LDHbrain and TC, TG, LDL-C, LPObrain as well as LDHliver. Conclusion Aluminium-induced LPO in brain could arise from alteration of lipid metabolism particularly altered lipoprotein metabolism rather than a direct effect of cholesterol oxidation. Fenugreek seeds could play an anti-peroxidative role in brain which may be attributed in part to its modulatory effect on plasmatic lipid metabolism. PMID:22280491

  7. Lipid-protein modifications during ascorbate-Fe2+ peroxidation of photoreceptor membranes: protective effect of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Margarita H; Terrasa, Ana M; Catalá, Angel

    2006-10-01

    The rod outer segment (ROSg) membranes are essentially lipoprotein complexes. Rhodopsin, the major integral protein of ROSg, is surrounded by phospholipids highly enriched in docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n3). This fluid environment plays an important role for conformational changes after photo-activation. Thus, ROSg membranes are highly susceptible to oxidative damage. Melatonin synthesized in the pineal gland, retina and other tissues is a free radical scavenger. The principal aim of this work was to study the changes in the ROSg membranes isolated from bovine retina submitted to nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation (ascorbate-Fe2+ induced), during different time intervals (0-180 min). Oxidative stress was monitored by increase in the chemiluminescence and fatty acid alterations. In addition we studied the in vitro protective effect of 5 mm melatonin. The total cpm originated from light emission (chemiluminescence) was found to be lower in those membranes incubated in the presence of melatonin. The docosahexaenoic acid content decreased considerably when the membranes were exposed to oxidative damage. This reduction was from 35.5 +/- 2.9% in the native membranes to 12.65 +/- 1.86% in those peroxidized during 180 min. In the presence of 5 mm melatonin we observed a content preservation of 22:6 n3 (23.85 +/- 2.77%) at the same time of peroxidation. Simultaneously the alterations of membrane proteins under oxidative stress were studied using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Loss of protein sulfhydryl groups and increased incorporation of carbonyl groups were utilized as biomarkers of protein oxidation. In membranes exposed to Fe2+ -ascorbate, we observed a decrease of protein thiols from 50.9 +/- 3.38 in native membranes to 1.72 +/- 2.81 nmol/mg of protein after 180 min of lipid peroxidation associated with increased incorporation of carbonyl groups into proteins from 7.20 +/- 2.50 to 12.50 +/- 1.12 nmol/mg of protein. In the SDS-PAGE we

  8. Lipid Peroxidation in a Stomach Medium Is Affected by Dietary Oils (Olive/Fish) and Antioxidants: The Mediterranean versus Western Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Oren; Shpaizer, Adi; Kanner, Joseph

    2015-08-12

    Red meat is an integral part of the Western diet, and high consumption is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases. Using a system that simulated the human stomach, red meat was interacted with different oils (olive/fish) and lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid peroxides (LOOH). Olive oil decreased meat lipid peroxidation from 121.7 ± 3.1 to 48.2 ± 1.3 μM and from 327.1 ± 9.5 to 77.3 ± 6.0 μM as assessed by MDA and ROOH, respectively. The inhibitory effect of olive oil was attributed to oleic acid rather than its polyphenol content. In contrast, fish oils from tuna or an ω-3 supplement dramatically increased meat lipid peroxidation from 96.2 ± 3.6 to 514.2 ± 6.7 μM MDA. Vitamin E inhibited meat lipid peroxidation in the presence of olive oil but paradoxically increased peroxidation in the presence of fish oil. The inhibitory properties of oleic acid may play a key role in the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

  9. Mechanism of enhanced lipid peroxidation in the liver of Long-Evans cinnamon (LEC) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Hirose, K; Hayasaki, Y; Masuda, M; Kazusaka, A; Fujita, S

    1999-11-01

    The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat is a mutant strain of rats that accumulate copper (Cu) in the liver in much the same way as individuals who suffer from Wilson's disease (WD) and has been suggested as a model for this disease. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is considered to be involved in the toxic action of Cu in the livers of LEC rats. We investigated the mechanism of LPO in the livers of LEC rats showing apparent signs of hepatitis. Several-fold higher LPO levels were observed in post-mitochondrial supernatant (S-9) fraction of livers from hepatitic LEC rats than in those from Wistar rats. To mimic living cells, we introduced NADPH-generating system (NADPH-gs) into the S-9 incubation system. Thus was ensured a constant supply of NADPH to vital enzymes that may be directly or indirectly involved in the generation and/or elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROSs), such as glutathione reductase (GSSG-R), which require NADPH for their reactions. The levels of LPO in liver S-9 from hepatitic LEC rats were further increased by incubating liver S-9 at 37 degrees C in the presence of NADPH-gs. This increase was inhibited by EDTA, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and catalase (CAT), suggesting that some metal, most likely the accumulated Cu, and ROSs derived from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are involved in the increased levels of LPO in the livers of hepatitic LEC rats. The requirement of NADPH-gs for enhanced LPO in the livers of hepatitic LEC rats indicates the consumption of NADPH during reactions leading to LPO. It is known that H2O2, and consequently hydroxyl radical are generated during Cu-catalyzed glutathione (GSH) oxidation. The cyclic regeneration of GSH from GSSG by NADPH-dependent GSSG-R in the presence of NADPH-gs may cause sustained generation of hydroxyl radical in the presence of excess free Cu. The generation of H2O2 in S-9 fraction of livers from hepatitic LEC rats was observed to be significantly higher than that in S-9 fraction of livers from non

  10. Toxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine: Effects on Lipid Peroxidation and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Freshwater Fish Channa Punctatus (Bloch

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    Satish Kumar Srivastava

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity and effects of a commercial formulation of the herbicide atrazine (Rasayanzine on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system in the freshwater air breathing fish Channa punctatus. The 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 of atrazine, calculated by probit analysis, were determined to be 77.091, 64.053, 49.100, 44.412 and 42.381 mg·L-1, respectively, in a semi static system with significant difference (p < 0.05 in LC10-90 values obtained for different times of exposure. In addition to concentration and time dependent decrease in mortality rate, stress signs in the form of behavioral changes were also observed in response to the test chemical. In fish exposed for 15 days to different sublethal concentrations of the herbicide (1/4 LC50 = ~10.600 mg·L-1, 1/8 LC50 = ~5.300 mg·L-1 and 1/10 LC50 = ~4.238 mg·L-1 induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidence by increased lipid peroxidation levels. The antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR responded positively in a concentration dependent pattern, thus, suggesting the use of these antioxidants as potential biomarkers of toxicity associated with contaminations exposure in freshwater fishes.

  11. Beta-carotene suppression of benzophenone-sensitized lipid peroxidation in hexane through additional chain-breaking activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan [Faculty of Technology, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia); Markovic, Dejan, E-mail: dejan_markovic57@yahoo.co [Faculty of Technology, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this work is to estimate the antioxidant activity of {beta}-carotene in the presence of two different mixtures of phospholipids in hexane solution, under continuous UV-irradiation from three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C). {beta}-Carotene is employed to control lipid peroxidation process generated by UV-irradiation, in the presence and in the absence of selected photosensitizer, benzophenone, by scavenging the involved, created free radicals. The results show that {beta}-carotene undergoes to a substantial, probably structural dependent destruction (bleaching), highly dependent on UV-photons energy input, more expressed in the presence than in the absence of benzophenone. The additional bleaching is synchronized with the further increase in {beta}-carotene antioxidant activity in the presence of benzophenone, implying the same cause: increase in (phospholipids peroxidation) chain-breaking activities.

  12. Consumption of pomegranate juice decreases blood lipid peroxidation and levels of arachidonic acid in women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojadinovic, Milica I; Arsic, Aleksandra C; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina D; Konic-Ristic, Aleksandra I; Kardum, Nevena Dj; Popovic, Tamara B; Glibetic, Marija D

    2017-04-01

    Pomegranate juice is a rich source of polyphenols and is thus a promising dietary antioxidant with numerous health-promoting effects. These include a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health that could be partly attributed to the effects of polyphenols on lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of pomegranate juice for 6 weeks could modify lipid peroxidation and phospholipid fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocytes in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-three women, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups: the intervention group, in which each participant consumed 300 mL of juice per day for 6 weeks; and a control group. A statistically significant decrease in the relative amount of arachidonic acid (P juice significantly increased the relative amount of total mono-unsaturated fatty acids (P juice on lipid peroxidation and fatty acid status in subjects with metabolic syndrome and suggest potential anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective effects. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Peculiarities of Airway Inflammation and Lipid Peroxidation in the Development of Hyperosmotic Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Patients with Asthma

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    Alexey B. Pirogov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of airway cellular inflammation and the lipid peroxidation level in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR to inhalation of hypertonic saline (IHS. Methods and Results: The study included the estimation of inflammatory-cellular composition, intracellular concentration of myeloperoxidase (MPO in induced sputum (IS, serum levels of lipid hydroperoxides (LHP, ceruloplasmin, and vitamin E in 29 patients with asthma and 12 healthy persons. AHR to IHS was assessed by spirometry after 3-min IHS via ultrasonic nebulizer. Patients with asthma had higher indices of leukocytes destruction and cytolysis intensity with the increased leukocyte count in IS. Maximum values of neutrophils cytolysis intensity and leukocytic MPO were found in IS of the patients with AHR to IHS. After the bronchial provocation, serum concentration of LHP was higher in these patients in comparison with the patients without the AHR and control groups. In addition, patients with asthma had lower level of antioxidants than healthy subjects. Conclusion: Marked inflammation involving MPO-activated leukocytes and intensive lipid peroxidation underlie the excessive airway response to IHS.

  14. Mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation in rat frontal cortex by chronic NMDA administration can be partially prevented by lithium treatment.

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    Kim, Helena K; Isaacs-Trepanier, Cameron; Elmi, Nika; Rapoport, Stanley I; Andreazza, Ana C

    2016-05-01

    Chronic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) administration to rats may be a model to investigate excitotoxicity mediated by glutamatergic hyperactivity, and lithium has been reported to be neuroprotective. We hypothesized that glutamatergic hyperactivity in chronic NMDA injected rats would cause mitochondrial dysfunction and lipid peroxidation in the brain, and that chronic lithium treatment would ameliorate some of these NMDA-induced alterations. Rats treated with lithium for 6 weeks were injected i.p. 25 mg/kg NMDA on a daily basis for the last 21 days of lithium treatment. Brain was removed and frontal cortex was analyzed. Chronic NMDA decreased brain levels of mitochondrial complex I and III, and increased levels of the lipid oxidation products, 8-isoprostane and 4-hydroxynonenal, compared with non-NMDA injected rats. Lithium treatment prevented the NMDA-induced increments in 8-isoprostane and 4-hydroxynonenal. Our findings suggest that increased chronic activation of NMDA receptors can induce alterations in electron transport chain complexes I and III and in lipid peroxidation in brain. The NMDA-induced changes may contribute to glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, which plays a role in brain diseases such as bipolar disorder. Lithium treatment prevented changes in 8-isoprostane and 4-hydroxynonenal, which may contribute to lithium's reported neuroprotective effect and efficacy in bipolar disorder.

  15. Anti-lipid peroxidation and protection of liver mitochondria against injuries by picroside Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Gao; Ya-Wei Zhou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-lipid peroxidation and protection of liver mitochondria against injuries in mice with liverdamage by picroside Ⅱ.METHODS: Three animal models of liver damageinduced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4:0.1 mL/10 g, ip),D-galactosamine (D-GalN: 500 mg/kg,ip) and acetaminophen (AP: 0.15 g/kg, ip) were respectively treated with various concentrations of picroside Ⅱ (5, 10, 20 mg/kg, ig). Then we chose the continuously monitoring method (recommended by International Clinical Chemistry League) to analyze serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values, Marland method to detect the activity of manganese-superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver mitochondria, TBA colorimetry to determine the content of malonicdialdehyde (MDA) in liver tissue, DTNB method to evaluate the activity of glutathioneperoxidase (GSH-Px) and Lowry method to detect protein level in liver tissue. Meanwhile, effects of picroside Ⅱ on the activity of ATPase and swelling extent of mitochondria in hepatocytes damaged by AP were also evaluated.RESULTS: Picroside Ⅱ could significantly prevent liver toxicity in the three models of liver damage. It decreased the high levels of ALT and AST in serum induced by theadministration of CCl4, D-GalN and AP, reduced the cellular damage of liver markedly, and appeared to be even more potent than the positive control drug of biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate pilules (DDB). In groups treated with different doses of picroside Ⅱ, compared to the model group, the content of MDA in serum decreased evidently, whereas the content of SOD and GSH-Px increased in a dosedependent manner, and the difference was statistically significant. Further, in the study of AP model, picroside Ⅱinhibited AP-induced liver toxicity in mice, enhanced the activity of ATPase, improved the swelling extent of mitochondria and helped to maintain a normal balance of energy metabolism.CONCLUSION: Picroside Ⅱ can evidently relieve

  16. Impact of air pollution on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in mothers and their newborns.

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    Ambroz, Antonin; Vlkova, Veronika; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Svecova, Vlasta; Milcova, Alena; Pulkrabova, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Veleminsky, Milos; Solansky, Ivo; Sram, Radim J

    2016-08-01

    Ambient air particulate matter (PM) represents a class of heterogeneous substances that form one component of air pollution. Oxidative stress has been implicated as an important action mechanism for PM on the human organism. Oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) may affect any cellular macromolecule. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of air pollution on oxidative DNA damage [8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG)] and lipid peroxidation [15-F2t-isoprostane (15-F2t-IsoP)] in the urine and blood from mothers and newborns from two localities with different levels of air pollution: Ceske Budejovice (CB), a locality with a clean air, and Karvina, a locality with high air pollution. The samples from normal deliveries (38-41 week+) of nonsmoking mothers and their newborns were collected in the summer and winter seasons. Higher PM2.5 concentrations were found in Karvina than in CB in the summer 2013 (mean±SD: 20.41±6.28 vs. 9.45±3.62μg/m(3), P<0.001), and in the winter 2014 (mean±SD: 53.67±19.76 vs. 27.96±12.34μg/m(3), P<0.001). We observed significant differences in 15-F2t-IsoP levels between the summer and winter seasons in Karvina for newborns (mean±SD: 64.24±26.75 vs. 104.26±38.18pg/ml plasma, respectively) (P<0.001). Levels of 8-oxodG differed only in the winter season between localities, they were significantly higher (P<0.001) in newborns from Karvina in comparison with CB (mean±SD: 5.70±2.94 vs. 4.23±1.51 nmol/mmol creatinine, respectively). The results of multivariate regression analysis in newborns from Karvina showed PM2.5 concentrations to be a significant predictor for 8-oxodG excretion, PM2.5 and B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) concentrations to be a significant predictor for 15-F2t-IsoP levels. The results of multivariate regression analysis in mothers showed PM2.5 concentrations to be a significant predictor of 8-oxodG levels.

  17. Determination of lipid peroxide and superoxide dismutase in blood and tissueof patients with gastrointestinal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Xing Zhou; Jian Sheng Li; Lu Wei Xing; Shu Heng You

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the relationship between the lipid peroxide (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thepathogenesis of gastrointestinal cancers.METHODS We investigated the SOD activity and LPO levels in blood and mucosa of patients withesophageal (EC), gastric (GC) and colorectal cancer (CC), gastric ulcer (GU) and compared with normalesophagus (NE), stomach (NS) and colon (NC). respectively, 287 patients who underwent endoscopy werestudied. SOD activity of the tissue and blood was determined using SUN's adrenaline auto oxidation method.LPO levels were determined according to YU's method.RESULTS The SOD activity and LPO level in blood and mucosa are shown in the Table 1 (x±Sx). Table 1 SOD and LPO in blood and tissues of patients with gastrointestinal cancers SOD(U/mg protein) LPO(U/mg) Groups n Tissue blood Tissue Blood Normal stomach Gastric ulcer Gastric cancer Normal esophagus Esophageal cancer Normal colon Colon cancer 60 42 43 32 52 28 30 1.90±0.18 0.64±0.40a 0.37±0.24a 1.17±0.70 0.39±0.30a 0.81±0.36 0.31±0.17b 33.70±1.73 25.50±0.67b 27.86±1.02b 30.80±3.78 28.23±10.63 20.97±4.77 19.35±7.32 0.01±0.004 0.05±0.010b 0.06±0.021b 0.014±0.005 0.061±0.033b 0.012±0.003 0.069±0.015b 0.83±0.01 0.11±0.02 0.12±0.03 0.08±0.02 0.11±0.02 0.08±0.03 0.11±0.02 aP<0.001, bp<0.01 vs corresponding normal controls, respectively. CONCLUSION SOD activity of the tissue is significantly decreased in EC. GC and CC. LPO levels weresignificantly higher than those of corresponding normal tissue. These results suggest that mucosal SOD andLPO levels are closely related to the pathogenesis of the gastrointestinal cancers.

  18. Free radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition of Hypericum helianthemoides (spach Boiss

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    Soheila Moein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are compounds that obstruct the oxidation of macromolecules in the body. In general, there are two categories of antioxidants, natural and synthetic. Recently, interest has been increased considerably for obtaining new natural antioxidants. In this study, the scavenging of free radicals such as DPPH, NO and OH by Hypericum helianthemoides extract was evaluated. Also, the antioxidant properties of this extract were evaluated by FRAP, FTC methods and determination phenolic compounds. The plant was collected from north of Fars Province and plant extraction was obtained using ethanol. In DPPH radical scavenging, different concentrations of the Hypericum extract were added to DPPH radical. In hydroxyl radical scavenging, Fenton reaction mixture, TCA and TBA were mixed with Hypericum extract. In nitric radical scavenging, nitropruside was mixed with Hypericum extract and then sulphanilic acid, naphthylene diamine were added. In determination of phenolic compounds, Folin-ciocalteu and sodium carbonate were added to Hypericum extract. In DPPH radical scavenging, the IC50 of Hypericum extract (309.35±6.5μg/ml was higher than the antioxidant standards, BHT (IC50=81.9±2.6 μg/ml and quercetin (IC50=60.04±6.48 μg/ml. The highest scavenging of hydroxyl radicals was observed in Hypericum extract (70.3±0.8%, 125 μg/ml. In gallic acid it was (73.8±3.3%. In 200 μg/ml of Hypericum extract scavenged NO radical (85.2±2.7%. In FRAP method, the IC50 of this extract was 109.7±10.5 μg/ml. In FTC method, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by Hypericum extract, BHT and ascorbic acid were 59.2±2.2, 66.9±0.15, 64.06±0.02 respectively. Total phenol of the plant extract was 3±0.4 mg/g.

  19. ROLE OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE, FITNESS AND AEROBIC TRAINING IN TYPE 1 DIABETIC AND HEALTHY MEN IN RELATION TO THE LIPID PROFILE, LIPID PEROXIDATION AND THE METABOLIC SYNDROME

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    David E. Laaksonen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and possibly lipid peroxidation play important roles in the development of macro- and microvascular disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Little is known, however, of the role of aerobic exercise in dyslipidemia and resting and exercise-induced lipid peroxidation in type 1 diabetes. Despite the well-known effect of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA on components of the metabolic syndrome, little is known of the association of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption, VO2max with development of the metabolic syndrome itself. A randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of a 12-16 week aerobic exercise program on VO2max and the lipid profile was carried out in otherwise healthy young men with type 1 diabetes. The effect of acute physical exercise on oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses and the relation to VO2max in men with type 1 diabetes was also evaluated. To test four recently proposed definitions by the World Health Organization (WHO and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP of the metabolic syndrome, the sensitivity and specificity of the definitions for prevalent and incident diabetes were assessed in a population-based cohort of middle-aged men. We also studied the associations of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness with prevalent and incident cases of the metabolic syndrome. A 12-16 week endurance exercise program produced antiatherogenic changes in lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein levels in 20 type 1 diabetic men who for the most part were already physically active at baseline. The most favorable training-induced changes in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and apolipoprotein A-I/apolipoprotein B ratios were in patients with low baseline HDL/LDL levels, likely the group with the most benefit to be gained by such changes. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a measure of lipid peroxidation, was higher in nine

  20. Influence of electromagnetic field (1800 MHz on lipid peroxidation in brain, blood, liver and kidney in rats

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    Paweł Bodera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is the evaluation of the influence of repeated (5 times for 15 min exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF of 1800 MHz frequency on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO both in normal and inflammatory state, combined with analgesic treatment. Material and Methods: The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA as the end-product of the lipid peroxidation (LPO was estimated in blood, liver, kidneys, and brain of Wistar rats, both healthy and those with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced persistent paw inflammation. Results: The slightly elevated levels of the MDA in blood, kidney, and brain were observed among healthy rats in electromagnetic field (EMF-exposed groups, treated with tramadol (TRAM/EMF and exposed to the EMF. The malondialdehyde remained at the same level in the liver in all investigated groups: the control group (CON, the exposed group (EMF, treated with tramadol (TRAM as well as exposed to and treated with tramadol (TRAM/EMF. In the group of animals treated with the complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA we also observed slightly increased values of the MDA in the case of the control group (CON and the exposed groups (EMF and TRAM/EMF. The MDA values concerning kidneys remained at the same levels in the control, exposed, and not-exposed group treated with tramadol. Results for healthy rats and animals with inflammation did not differ significantly. Conclusions: The electromagnetic field exposure (EMF, applied in the repeated manner together with opioid drug tramadol (TRAM, slightly enhanced lipid peroxidation level in brain, blood, and kidneys.

  1. Iron-ascorbate-mediated lipid peroxidation causes epigenetic changes in the antioxidant defense in intestinal epithelial cells: impact on inflammation.

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    Sabrina Yara

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The gastrointestinal tract is frequently exposed to noxious stimuli that may cause oxidative stress, inflammation and injury. Intraluminal pro-oxidants from ingested nutrients especially iron salts and ascorbic acid frequently consumed together, can lead to catalytic formation of oxygen-derived free radicals that ultimately overwhelm the cellular antioxidant defense and lead to cell damage. HYPOTHESIS: Since the mechanisms remain sketchy, efforts have been exerted to evaluate the role of epigenetics in modulating components of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants in the intestine. To this end, Caco-2/15 cells were exposed to the iron-ascorbate oxygen radical-generating system. RESULTS: Fe/Asc induced a significant increase in lipid peroxidation as reflected by the elevated formation of malondialdehyde along with the alteration of antioxidant defense as evidenced by raised superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 and diminished glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities and genes. Consequently, there was an up-regulation of inflammatory processes illustrated by the activation of NF-κB transcription factor, the higher production of interleukin-6 and cycloxygenase-2 as well as the decrease of IκB. Assessment of promoter's methylation revealed decreased levels for SOD2 and increased degree for GPx2. On the other hand, pre-incubation of Caco-2/15 cells with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent, or Trolox antioxidant normalized the activities of SOD2 and GPx, reduced lipid peroxidation and prevented inflammation. CONCLUSION: Redox and inflammatory modifications in response to Fe/Asc -mediated lipid peroxidation may implicate epigenetic methylation.

  2. Gamma-irradiation and UV-C light-induced lipid peroxidation: a Fourier transform-infrared absorption spectroscopic study.

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    Kinder, R; Ziegler, C; Wessels, J M

    1997-05-01

    Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy of dry, multibilayer films has been used to study gamma-radiation and UV-C light induced lipid peroxidation in 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes. The observed spectral changes were compared with the results obtained from measurement of hydroperoxides, conjugated dienes and to the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) or MDA-like substances. Upon irradiation a decrease in intensity of the asymmetric C - H stretching vibration (va(CH2)) of the isolated cis C = C - H groups (3010 cm-1) was observed. Directly correlated with the decrease of the va(CH2) absorption was a shift of the asymmetric phosphate ester stretching vibration (va(P = O)) towards smaller wavenumbers (1260-->1244 cm-1), indicating that the lipid peroxidation induced molecular alterations in the fatty acid chains influence the packing of the phospholipids in dry multibilayer films. In addition, the formation of a new absorption band at 1693 cm-1 could be detected, the intensity of which was comparable with the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and, therefore, attributed to the (C = O) stretching of alpha, beta unsaturated aldehydes. Dose-dependent studies using ionizing radiation showed that the decrease of va(CH2) was directly correlated with an increase in absorption of the conjugated dienes at 234 nm and with the formation of hydroperoxides suggesting that the absorption at 3010 cm-1 is solely due to isolated cis C = C - H groups and hence subject to the early stages of the radical chain reaction. UV-C light induced lipid peroxidation revealed a non-linear decrease of I3010, which was directly correlated with the formation of hydroperoxides. The observed early saturation of the conjugated dienes was attributed to an early photodecomposition of the conjugated double bonds.

  3. Astaxanthin Normalizes Epigenetic Modifications of Bovine Somatic Cell Cloned Embryos and Decreases the Generation of Lipid Peroxidation.

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    Li, R; Wu, H; Zhuo, W W; Mao, Q F; Lan, H; Zhang, Y; Hua, S

    2015-10-01

    Astaxanthin is an extremely common antioxidant scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and blocking lipid peroxidation. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of astaxanthin supplementation on oocyte maturation, and development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured in maturation medium with astaxanthin (0, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 mg/l), respectively. We found that 0.5 mg/l astaxanthin supplementation significantly increased the proportion of oocyte maturation. Oocytes cultured in 0.5 mg/l astaxanthin supplementation were used to construct SCNT embryos and further cultured with 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/l astaxanthin. The results showed that the supplementation of 0.5 mg/l astaxanthin significantly improved the proportions of cleavage and blastulation, as well as the total cell number in blastocysts compared with the control group, yet this influence was not concentration dependent. Chromosomal analyses revealed that more blastomeres showed a normal chromosomal complement in 0.5 mg/l astaxanthin treatment group, which was similar to that in IVF embryos. The methylation levels located on the exon 1 of the imprinted gene H19 and IGF2, pluripotent gene OCT4 were normalized, and global DNA methylation, H3K9 and H4K12 acetylation were also improved significantly, which was comparable to that in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. Moreover, we also found that astaxanthin supplementation significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation. Our findings showed that the supplementation of 0.5 mg/l astaxanthin to oocyte maturation medium and embryo culture medium improved oocyte maturation, SCNT embryo development, increased chromosomal stability and normalized the epigenetic modifications, as well as inhibited overproduction of lipid peroxidation.

  4. Protein conjugated with aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation as an independent parameter of the carbonyl stress in the kidney damage

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    Medina-Navarro Rafael

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the well-defined and characterized protein modifications usually produced by oxidation is carbonylation, an irreversible non-enzymatic modification of proteins. However, carbonyl groups can be introduced into proteins by non-oxidative mechanisms. Reactive carbonyl compounds have been observed to have increased in patients with renal failure. In the present work we have described a procedure designed as aldehyde capture to calculate the protein carbonyl stress derived solely from lipid peroxidation. Methods Acrolein-albumin adduct was prepared as standard at alkaline pH. Rat liver microsomal membranes and serum samples from patients with diabetic nephropathy were subjected to the aldehyde capture procedure and aldol-protein formation. Before alkalinization and incubation, samples were precipitated and redisolved in 6M guanidine. The absorbances of the samples were read with a spectrophotometer at 266 nm against a blank of guanidine. Results Evidence showed abundance of unsaturated aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomal membranes and in the serum of diabetic patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Carbonyl protein and aldol-proteins resulted higher in the diabetic nephropathy patients (p Conclusion The aldehyde-protein adduct represents a non oxidative component of carbonyl stress, independent of the direct amino acid oxidation and could constitute a practical and novelty strategy to measure the carbonyl stress derived solely from lipid peroxidation and particularly in diabetic nephropathy patients. In addition, we are in a position to propose an alternative explanation of why alkalinization of urine attenuates rhabdomyolysis-induced renal dysfunction.

  5. Analysis of plasma lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes status in patients of oral leukoplakia: A case control study

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    Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Shrivastava, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Imbalances between the oxidant-antioxidant status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including oral cancer. Mostly, all oral cancer lesions are preceded by a stage of premalignancy. The present study aims to evaluate lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in the venous blood of patients with different clinicopathologic stages of leukoplakia. Materials and Methods: A case control study was designed with the inclusion of 20 new cases of histopathologically proven leukoplakia of various clinical stages along with an equal number of positive and negative control individuals. The concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, were estimated in plasma using spectrophotometric methods. The data are expressed as mean ± SD. The statistical comparisons between and within the study groups were performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc analysis. Karl Pearson correlation was performed for the biochemical parameters within the group and between the groups. For statistically significant correlations, simple linear regression was performed. Results: Significant enhanced lipid peroxidation (P leukoplakia patients compared with positive as well as negative controls. Accordingly, significant (P < 0.001) pattern of progression in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels was observed at various clinical stages among patients of both control groups. Among enzymes, glutathione showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction along the stages on comparison with two control groups. Conclusion: Enhanced lipid peroxidation and compromised antioxidant defense in plasma indicate the development of oxidative stress. Among the antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione and glutathione Pperoxidase may play a decisive role in malignant transformation. PMID:28217539

  6. Effect of Cadmium Stress on the Growth, Antioxidative Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Two Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Plant Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Feng-tao; QI Jian-min; ZHANG Gao-yang; LIN Li-hui; FANG Ping-ping; TAO Ai-fen; XU Jian-tang

    2013-01-01

    The effects of cadmium stress on the growth, antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in two kenaf plants, Fuhong 991 and ZM412, were analysed under control (0.5-strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution) or five levels of cadmium stress (0.5-strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution containing different concentrations of Cd2+). The leaves and roots of control and cadmium-stressed plants were harvested after 3 wk. At the same Cd concentration, the Cd tolerance index of Fuhong 991 was higher than that of ZM412, indicating that Fuhong 991 may be more tolerant to Cd than ZM412. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities fluctuated in the leaves of the Cd-stressed plants compared to the control, whereas the glutathione reductase activity (GR) was much larger than the control for Fuhong 991, ensuring that sufficient quantities of GSH were available to respond to the cadmium stress. In comparison to the control, the dynamic tendency of the SOD, CAT and POD activities in roots of the Cd-stressed plants all increased and then declined, but the POD activity of Fuhong 991 remained nearly unchanged at all of the stress levels. The increase in the enzyme activities demonstrated that Fuhong 991 was more tolerant to cadmium than ZM 412. The lipid peroxidation was enhanced only in the leaves of Cd-stressed ZM 412. These findings indicated that antioxidative activities may play important roles in Cd-stressed Fuhong 991 and ZM 412 and that the leaf and root cell membranes of Fuhong 991 have a greater stability than those of ZM 412. For pollution monitoring purposes, the GR activity in the roots and leaves may serve as a biomarker of Cd for Fuhong 991, whereas lipid peroxidation may serve as biomarker for ZM 412.

  7. Serum biochemical profile, enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation in organs of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut shell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, N M; Freitas, E R; Trevisan, M T S; do Nascimento, G A J; Salles, R P R; Cruz, C E B; Farias, N N P; da Silva, I N G; Watanabe, P H

    2017-03-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding laying hens diets containing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) as a source of anacardic acid on the blood biochemical parameters as well as the enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation of liver and tissues of the reproductive system (ovary, magnum, and uterus). A total of 216 Hisex White commercial laying hens were distributed randomly into six treatments, with six replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a diet without growth promoter (GP); a diet with GP; and diets without GP, with addition of increasing levels of CNSL (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0%). Addition of CNSL to the diet did not affect the blood biochemical parameters (uric acid, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides), the enzymatic activity (superoxide dismutase and nonprotein sulphydryl groups) in the organs (liver, ovary, magnum and uterus) or the peroxidation of lipids from the blood serum, liver, magnum and uterus (p > 0.05). However, the addition of 0.75% and 1.00% CNSL provided a lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content in the birds' ovary (p < 0.001) compared to birds of other treatments, whereas the treatment without the GP provided a higher value. Addition of up to 1% of the CNSL as a source of anacardic acid in the laying hens' diets does not influence blood biochemical parameters or the endogenous enzymatic activity in the liver, ovary, magnum and uterus, but affects the lipid peroxidation in the ovary, although the problem is reduced from the inclusion of 0.75% CNSL. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. The impact of vitamin C on the relationship among inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and platelet activation during analgesic nephropathy in rats.

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    Hadzi-Petrushev, Nikola; Mitrov, Dine; Kostovski, Vladimir; Mladenov, Mitko

    2017-08-03

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of paracetamol-induced renal damage. This study examines the relationship between 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) and platelet activation as well as the relative contribution of the pro-inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in enhanced 8-iso-PGF2α biosynthesis, as a complementary onset during analgesic nephropathy induced by chronic treatment with paracetamol. The protective effects of vitamin C on the aforementioned settings are also investigated. Analgesic nephropathy was induced in Wistar rats. Renal function markers and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were determined spectrophotometrically. Immunoassays were used to measure the pro-inflammatory markers and the markers of lipid peroxidation and platelet activation. The chronic treatment with paracetamol led to renal dysfunction, represented by the elevation of plasma urea and creatinine and the decline in the enzymatic antioxidant status, but did not cause a significant increase in TNF-α and IL-1β. The paracetamol-induced lipid peroxidation and enhanced production of 8-iso-PGF2α was not sufficient to cause changes in platelet activation represented by the level of 11-dehydro thromboxane B2. Our results suggest that oxidative stress cannot circumvent the need of stimulation by circulatory cytokines in order to induce inflammatory response and changes in platelet activation during analgesic nephropathy. Vitamin C proved to be beneficial in restoring the renal function markers to normal, increasing the renal enzymatic antioxidant potential, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and lowering cytokine production and 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 excretion. The observed effects of vitamin C offer support for its potential use as protective treatment in cases of chronic paracetamol overdose.

  9. The effect of arbutin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in the serum of cyclosporine-treated rats

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    Khadir, Fatemeh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Joorsaraee, Seyyed Gholamali; Feizi, Farideh; Sorkhi, Hadi; Yousefi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a potent immunosuppressant drug with therapeutic and toxic actions. The use of CsA is limited by its toxicity. Several researchers had proposed that oxidative stress could play an important role in CsA-induced toxicity. Arbutin has recently been shown to possess antioxidative and free radical scavenging abilities. The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of arbutin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in the serum of cyclosporine treated rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n=8/group): (I) control (no CsA and arbutin administration), (II and III) were treated subcutaneously (Sc) with arbutin (50,100 mg/kg/bw), respectively, (IV) administered CsA (25 mg/kg/bw) intraperitoneally (IP), (V and VI) received the combination of CsA (25 mg/kg/bw) i.p and arbutin (50,100 mg/kg/bw) Sc daily, respectively. At the end of the treatment (after3 weeks), serum lipid peroxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and serum total antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]) was assayed based on spectrophotometric method. Results: TBARS had been significantly increased by CsA administration compared with control rats. Arbutin (50mg/kg/bw) completely prevented this effect, but arbutin (100 mg/kg/bw) alone or in combination with CsA significantly increased lipid peroxidation compared with controls. Conclusion: Our data indicate that arbutin (50mg/kg/bw) had protective effect in the CsA-induced toxicity but high concentration of arbutin (100mg/kg/bw) showed meaningful oxidative and lipoperoxidative effects. PMID:26644892

  10. Effects of diazinon on antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation in the liver of Cyprinus carpio (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, Elif

    2011-11-01

    Diazinon is a widely used organophosphorus pesticide in agriculture and environmental health, hence its adverse effects on nontarget animals, especially on fish is to be determined. The present study therefore aimed at detecting the biochemical changes caused by diazinon. To accomplish this aim, we studied the effects of sublethal concentrations (0.0036, 0.018, and 0.036 ppb) of diazinon on acetylcholine esterase activity, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation in the liver of Cyprinus carpio on days 5, 15, and 30 after the exposure. The results revealed that the antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were induced by diazinon exposure. In addition, the highest catalytic activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) was obtained with 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). GST activity toward 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB) was also observed in the liver, yet it was relatively low as opposed to the other substrates tested. On the other hand, hepatic malondialdehyde level did not show any significant alteration except after the exposure on day 15. The exposure of low concentrations of diazinon to C. carpio can induce oxidative stress in liver; yet restoring susceptibility and adapting to oxidative stress are likely to occur when low level of oxidative stress is administered. Furthermore, no significant change was observed in hepatic lipid peroxidation after diazinon treatment indicating that liver tissue resisted to oxidative stress by enhancing their antioxidant mechanisms. The level of lipid peroxidation was assumed to be associated with the concentrations of diazinon and experimentation periods. The induction of glutathione S-transferase and antioxidant enzyme activities were also assumed to have resulted from the defense against the toxicity of diazinon.

  11. Changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity during walking and running of the same and different intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sükrü Serdar; Okudan, Nilsel; Pepe, Hamdi; Gökbel, Hakki; Revan, Serkan; Kurtoğlu, Firuze; Akkuş, Hasan

    2010-09-01

    The aim was to investigate the changes in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, and muscle damage in the same and different exercise intensities during walking and running. Fourteen healthy males participated in this study. The subjects' individual preferred walk-to-run transition speeds (WRTS) were determined. Each subject covered a 1.5-mile distance for 4 exercise tests; walking (WRTS-W) and running (WRTS-R) tests at WRTS, 2 kmxh-1 slower walking than WRTS (WRTS-2) and 2 kmxh-1 faster running than WRTS (WRTS+2). Blood samples were taken pre, immediately, and 30 minutes post each test. The changes in (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and creatine kinase activities were measured. Oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, oxygen uptake per kilogram of body weight, and heart rate during exercises were significantly higher in both the WRTS-W and the WRTS+2 exercises compared with the WRTS-2 and WRTS-R. Oxygen consumption and energy expenditure were higher in walking than in the running exercise at the preferred WRTS and only WRTS-W exercise significantly increased MDA levels. Catalase activities were increased by WRTS-W, WRTS-R, and WRTS+2 exercises. Changes in SOD and CAT activities were not different between walking and running exercises at the preferred WRTS. Total plasma GSH increased in response to WRTS-W exercise, which could be associated with an increase in MDA. Also, total GSH levels 30 minutes postexercise were significantly lower than postexercise in WRTS-2, WRTS-W, and WRTS+2 exercises. Our results indicate that walking and running exercises at the preferred WRTS have different oxidative stress and antioxidant responses.

  12. Lipogenesis and lipid peroxidation in rat testes after long-term treatment with sucrose and tannic acid in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašek, T; Starčević, K

    2016-06-30

    We studied the influence of long-term treatment with sucrose and tannic acid in drinking water on the fatty acid profile and lipid peroxidation in rat testes. Male Wistar rats were supplemented with sucrose (30% w/v) or with sucrose and tannic acid (sucrose 30% w/v, tannic acid 0.1% w/v) in drinking water. The treatment with sucrose elevated blood glucose levels in the plasma (p stress and hyperglycaemia, but it did not improve pathological changes in the fatty acid composition of the testis.

  13. Rebamipide attenuates nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) induced lipid peroxidation by the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) overexpression in gastrointestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Y; Matsui, H; Shimokawa, O; Hirayama, A; Tamura, M; Nakamura, Y; Kaneko, T; Rai, K; Indo, H P; Majima, H J; Hyodo, I

    2012-04-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often cause gastrointestinal complications such as gastric ulcers and erosions. Recent studies on the pathogenesis have revealed that NSAIDs induce lipid peroxidation in gastric epithelial cells by generating superoxide anion in mitochondria, independently with cyclooxygenase-inhibition and the subsequent prostaglandin deficiency. Although not clearly elucidated, the impairment of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, or uncoupling, by NSAIDs is associated with the generation of superoxide anion. Physiologically, superoxide is immediately transformed into hydrogen peroxide and diatomic oxygen with manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Rebamipide is an antiulcer agent that showed protective effects against NSAID-induced lipid peroxidation in gastrointestinal tracts. We hypothesized that rebamipide may attenuate lipid peroxidation by increasing the expression of MnSOD protein in mitochondria and decreasing the leakage of superoxide anion in NSAID-treated gastric and small intestinal epithelial cells. Firstly, to examine rebamipide increases the expression of MnSOD proteins in mitochondria of gastrointestinal epithelial cells, we underwent Western blotting analysis against anti-MnSOD antibody in gastric RGM1 cells and small intestinal IEC6 cells. Secondly, to examine whether the pretreatment of rebamipide decreases NSAID-induced mitochondrial impairment and lipid peroxidation, we treated these cells with NSAIDs with or without rebamipide pretreatment, and examined with specific fluorescent indicators. Finally, to examine whether pretreatment of rebamipide attenuates NSAID-induced superoxide anion leakage from mitochondria, we examined the mitochondria from indomethacin-treated RGM1 cells with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy using a specific spin-trapping reagent, CYPMPO. Rebamipide increased the expression of MnSOD protein, and attenuated NSAID-induced mitochondrial impairment and lipid peroxidation in RGM1

  14. Age-dependent variations in mitochondrial and cytosolic antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in different regions of central nervous system of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, B P; Sharma, S P; Kansal, V K

    2001-10-01

    The age-related changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes of mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions were measured in different regions of the central nervous system (CNS) in 10 and 32 months old guinea pigs. In old animals, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were reduced (p < 0.05) in all the regions of CNS studied but catalase (CAT) declined significantly only in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum. Glutathione reductase (GRd) activity declined in cerebral cortex and hypothalamus in the cytosolic fractions and only in cerebellum in the mitochondrial fraction. It is concluded that age-related decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes is both region and enzyme specific. The endogenous lipid peroxide was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the 32 month old animals whereas, lipid peroxidation after incubating the tissue homogenate in air was found to be lower (p < 0.05). The in vitro mitochondrial lipid peroxidation decreased with age. The results indicate that accumulation of lipid peroxides takes place with ageing but the susceptibility of lipid peroxidation decreases in the older animals.

  15. Effect of Hypoxia on the Calcium and Magnesium Content, Lipid Peroxidation Level, and Ca2+-ATPase Activity of Syncytiotrophoblast Plasma Membranes from Placental Explants

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    Delia I. Chiarello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study the possible relationship between the Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio of human syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes and their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity was determined. Syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes of placental explants cultured under hypoxia increased their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+ content, diminished their Ca2+-ATPase activity, and kept their Mg2+ content unchanged. Membranes preincubated with different concentrations of Ca2+ increased their Ca2+ content without changes in their Mg2+ content. There is a direct relationship between Ca2+ content and lipid peroxidation of the membranes, as well as an inverse relationship between their Ca2+ content and Ca2+-ATPase activity. On the contrary, preincubation of membranes with different concentrations of Mg2+ showed a higher Mg2+ content without changing their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity. Explants cultured under hypoxia in the presence of 4 mM MgSO4 showed similar values of lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity of their membranes compared to those of explants cultured under normoxia. Increased Ca2+ content of the membranes by interacting with negatively charged phospholipids could result in destabilizing effects of the membrane structure, exposing hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to the action of free radicals. Mg2+ might exert a stabilizing effect of the membranes, avoiding their exposure to free radicals.

  16. The Effects of Subacute Exposure of Peracetic Acid on Lipid Peroxidation and Hepatic Enzymes in Wistar Rats

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    Abdoljalal Marjani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the effect of subacute exposure of peracetic acid on lipid peroxidation and hepatic enzymes in Wistar rats.Methods: 48 male animals in Treatment Group I, II and III received 0.2%, 2% and 20% peracetic acid daily for 2 and 4 weeks.Results: Serum malondialdehyde increased and Alanine Transaminase and Aspartate Transaminase decreased significantly in groups 2 and 3, compared to the control group. The malondialdehyde, Alanine Transaminase and Aspartate Transaminase with 0.2% and 2% doses of peracetic acid for 2 weeks do not lead to the alteration of malondialdehyde and enzyme activities.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the enhancement of malondialdehyde could provide an oxidative damage induced by disinfectant peroxidation at 20% and 2% doses at 2 and 4 weeks. The consumption of peroxidation with 20% for 2 weeks and 2% for 4 weeks can cause the increase of malondialdehyde and the decrease of enzyme activities, respectively.

  17. Lipid peroxidation-derived 4-hydroxynonenal-modified proteins accumulate in human facial skin fibroblasts during ageing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Peter; Milkovic, Lidija; Zarkovic, Neven; Waeg, Georg; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2014-02-01

    The reactive aldehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), is recognized as a product of lipid peroxidation, which binds to macromolecules, in particular proteins. HNE-modified proteins (HNE-MP) have been shown to accumulate during ageing, generally by using polyclonal antibodies, which increase the possibility of detecting false positives. Therefore, we have used a genuine monoclonal antibody specific for HNE-His adducts of proteins/peptides, which were revealed by immunoblotting method for whole-cell HNE-MP measurements in serially passaged human facial skin fibroblasts undergoing ageing in vitro. There was a significant increase in the levels of HNE-MP in serially passaged cells approaching a near senescent state at high passage level (P-61), as compared with low passage level (P-11) young and middle-aged (P-27) cells. However, if the cells were analyzed soon after re-initiation from the frozen samples with little further passaging, the amount of HNE-MP was low even in relatively high passage level (P-37) cells, which is an indication of selective elimination of cells with high molecular damage during the process of thawing and re-initiation in culture. This pilot study on normal human facial skin fibroblasts shows that HNE-MP detection by monoclonal antibody-based dot blot method can be used as a marker for age-related accumulation of lipid peroxidative molecular damage, and could be useful for testing and monitoring the effects of potential skin care products on ageing parameters.

  18. Estradiol Modulates Membrane-Linked ATPases, Antioxidant Enzymes, Membrane Fluidity, Lipid Peroxidation, and Lipofuscin in Aged Rat Liver

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    Pardeep Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radical production and oxidative stress are known to increase in liver during aging, and may contribute to the oxidative damage. These changes increase during menopausal condition in females when the level of estradiol is decreased. The objective of this study was to observe the changes in activities of membrane linked ATPases (Na+K+ ATPase, Ca2+ ATPase, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, lipid peroxidation levels, lipofuscin content and membrane fluidity occurring in livers of female rats of 3, 12 and 24 months age groups, and to see whether these changes are restored to 3 months control levels rats after exogenous administration of 17-β-estradiol (E2. The aged rats (12 and 24 months were given subcutaneous injection of E2 (0.1 μg/g body weight daily for one month. The results obtained in the present work revealed that normal aging was associated with significant decrease in the activities of membrane linked ATPases, antioxidant enzymes, membrane fluidity and an increase in lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin content in livers of aging female rats. The present study showed that E2 treatment reversed the changes to normal levels. E2 treatment may be beneficial in preventing some of the age related changes in the liver by increasing antioxidant defenses.

  19. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity of maize plants under temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiancan; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen

    2010-06-01

    The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus etunicatum, on characteristics of growth, membrane lipid peroxidation, osmotic adjustment, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves and roots of maize (Zea mays L.) plants was studied in pot culture under temperature stress. The maize plants were placed in a sand and soil mixture under normal temperature for 6 weeks and then exposed to five different temperature treatments (5 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 40 degrees C) for 1 week. AM symbiosis decreased membrane relative permeability and malondialdehyde content in leaves and roots. The contents of soluble sugar content and proline in roots were higher, but leaf proline content was lower in mycorrhizal than nonmycorrhizal plants. AM colonization increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase in leaves and roots. The results indicate that the AM fungus is capable of alleviating the damage caused by temperature stress on maize plants by reducing membrane lipid peroxidation and membrane permeability and increasing the accumulation of osmotic adjustment compounds and antioxidant enzyme activity. Consequently, arbuscular mycorrhiza formation highly enhanced the extreme temperature tolerance of maize plant, which increased host biomass and promoted plant growth.

  20. Effects of Water Stress on the Protective Enzyme Activities and Lipid Peroxidation in Roots and Leaves of Summer Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Ti-da; SUI Fang-gong; BAI Li-ping; LU Yin-yan; ZHOU Guang-sheng

    2006-01-01

    A systematic study was conducted to determine the effects of water stress on the activities of protective enzymes and lipid peroxidation in maize. The results showed that, under water stress, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD),catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) in leaves and roots increased sharply at prophase and metaphase growth stages,such as, male tetrad stage, but then declined towards the physiological maturity. The protective enzyme activities in roots were lower than those in leaves. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased according to the severity of water stress. The content of MDA in roots was lower than that in leaves. The activities of protective enzymes and lipid peroxidation in roots were positively related to that in leaves with most of the correlation coefficients being significant.The content of soluble proteins in roots and leaves decreased with increasing drought stress. The ear characteristics deteriorated and the economic yields of maize decreased significantly under water stress. The main factors that caused reduction of yields were the decrease in the number of ear kernels and 100-kernel weight.

  1. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Soluble Sugar Content of Soybean under Salt Stress

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    Ali Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus, Glomus mosseae, on characteristics of growth, membrane lipid peroxidation and soluble sugar content in the shoots and roots of soybean (Glycine max plants was studied in pot culture under salt stress. The experiment was arranged as a factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with four replications in greenhouse of College of Agriculture, Tehran University, Iran. The plants inoculated with mycorrhiza had significantly greater shoot and root biomass than the nonmycorrhizal plants at all salinity levels. AM symbiosis decreased membrane relative permeability and malondialdehyde content in shoots and roots. The soluble sugar content in roots was higher in mycorrhizal than nonmycorrhizal plants, but there was no significant difference in soluble sugar content in shoots between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. The results indicate that the AM fungus is capable of alleviating the damage caused by salt stress on soybean plants by reducing membrane lipid peroxidation and increasing the accumulation of soluble sugar content. Consequently, arbuscular mycorrhiza formation highly enhanced the salinity tolerance of soybean plant, which increased host biomass and promoted plant growth.

  2. Effects of different resistance exercise protocols on nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation and creatine kinase activity in sedentary males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Nevin Atalay; Hazar, Serkan; Erbas, Deniz

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the changes of oxidative response and exercise-induced muscle damage after two different resistance exercise protocols. Whether training with low or high intensity resistance programs cause alterations in the activities of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide (NOx), and creatine kinase (CK) activity in human plasma was investigated. Twenty untrained males participated into this study. Ten of the subjects performed high intensity resistance (HR) exercise circuit and the rest of them performed low intensity resistance (LR) exercise circuit of 4 different exercises as a single bout. Venous blood samples were drawn pre-exercise, immediately after the exercise, and at the 6(th), 24(th), 48(th) and the72(nd) hours of post-exercise. Samples were analyzed for markers of muscle damage (CK), lipid peroxidation (MDA) and NOx. NOx production increased in HR group (p resistance exercise protocol in this study caused a significant increase between pre and post-exercise values in both groups (p resistance exercise induces free radical production more than low intensity resistance exercise program. Key pointsHigh intensity resistance exercise caused increases in NOx, MDA and CK levels.Light intensity resistance exercises increased MDA and CK levels but did not affect NOx levels.Damage arose during resistance exercises may be related to the level of resistance applied.

  3. Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation by Anthocyanins from Defatted Canarium odontophyllum Pericarp and Peel Using In Vitro Bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah; Hamid, Muhajir

    2014-01-01

    Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection. PMID:24416130

  4. Efficacy of boswellic acid on lysosomal acid hydrolases, lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant status in gouty arthritic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evan Prince Sabina; Haridas Indu; Mahaboobkhan Rasool

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of boswellic acid against monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in mice. Methods:The mice were divided into four experimental groups. Group I served as control;mice in group II were injected with monosodium urate crystal;group III consisted of monosodium urate crystal-induced mice who were treated with boswellic acid (30 mg/kg/b.w.);group IV comprised monosodium urate crystal-induced mice who were treated with indomethacin (3 mg/kg/b.w.). Paw volume and levels/activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status and inflammatory mediator TNF-αwere determined in control and monosodium urate crystal-induced mice. In addition, the levels of β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase were also measured in monosodium urate crystal-incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) in vitro. Results:The activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and tumour necrosis factor-αlevels and paw volume were increased significantly in monosodium urate crystal-induced mice, whereas the activities of antioxidant status were in turn decreased. However, these changes were modulated to near normal levels upon boswellic acid administration. In vitro, boswellic acid reduced the level of β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase in monosodium urate crystal-incubated PMNL in concentration dependent manner when compared with control cells. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study further strengthen the anti-inflammatory/antiarthritic effect of boswellic acid, which was already well established by several investigators.

  5. Evaluation of salivary and serum lipid peroxidation, and glutathione in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metgud, Rashmi; Bajaj, Saumya

    2014-06-01

    Lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in the pathogenesis of malignancy. Overall, lipid peroxidation levels are indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA), which is the most frequently used biomarker to detect oxidative changes. Antioxidant defense systems such as glutathione (GSH) limit cell injury induced by ROS. Therefore, MDA and GSH can be used to monitor oxidative stress (OS). Hence, this study aimed to evaluate and compare both salivary and serum levels of MDA and GSH in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and healthy controls. The study included 100 subjects comprising 30 apparently healthy controls, 30 patients with oral leukoplakia and 40 clinically and histologically diagnosed patients with OSCC. Saliva and blood samples were obtained and evaluated for MDA and GSH. The study revealed enhanced MDA levels in saliva and serum in oral leukoplakia and OSCC patients as compared to controls. On the other hand, significant decreases were seen in serum and salivary GSH levels in oral leukoplakia and OSCC patients as compared to controls. Augmentation of OS in blood and saliva is reflected by increase in MDA and decrease in GSH levels, indicating that tumor processes cause an imbalance of oxidant-antioxidant status in cell structures.

  6. Effect of Withania Somnifera Root Powder on the Levels of Circulatory Lipid Peroxidation and Liver Marker Enzymes in Chronic Hyperammonemia

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    B. Harikrishnan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (L Dunal (Solanaceae, commonly called Ashwagandha (Sanskrit is an Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plant, which has been widely used as a home remedy for several ailments. We have investigated the influence of W.somnifera root powder on the levels of circulatory ammonia, urea, lipid peroxidation products such as TBARS (thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances, HP (hydroperoxides and liver marker enzymes such as AST (aspartate transaminase, ALT (alanine transaminase and ALP (alkaline phosphatase, for its hepatoprotective effect in ammonium chloride induced hyperammonemia. Ammonium chloride treated rats showed a significant increase in the levels of circulatory ammonia, urea, AST, ALT, ALP, TBARS and HP. These changes were significantly decreased in rats treated with W.somnifera root powder and ammonium chloride. Our results indicate that W.somnifera offers hepatoprotection by influencing the levels of lipid peroxidation products and liver markers in experimental hyperammonemia and this could be due to (i the presence of alkaloids, withanolids and flavonoids, (ii normalizing the levels of urea and urea related compounds, (iii its free radical scavenging property and (iv its antioxidant property. The exact underlying mechanism is still unclear and further research needed.

  7. Lipid Peroxidation and Ultrastructural Modifications in Brain after Perinatal Exposure to Lead and/or Cadmium in Rat Pups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU-MEI ZHANG; XUE-ZHONG LIU; HAO LU; LI MEI; ZONG-PING LIU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess lipid peroxidation and ultrastructural modifications in rat brains following perinatal exposure to lead (Pb) and/or cadmium (Cd). Methods Female rats were divided into four groups: control group, Pb (300 mg/L) group, Cd group (10 mg/L) and Pb+Cd (300 mg/L, 10 mg/L) group. The compounds were delivered in the drinking water throughout pregnancy and lactation. Results The levels of compounds in blood and brain of the Pb+Cd group were similar to those of other groups, but the effects of Pb+Cd on pups' body and brain weights were higher than on other compounds. Electron microscopy revealed that Pb and Cd had effects on mitochondrial swelling, disruption and cristae loss, Nissl body dissolution, degenerated organelles and vacuoles, cytomembrane disappearance, and nuclear ehromoplasm concentration. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) was decreased, whereas the activity of maleic dialdehyde (MDA) was increased. Conclusion Perinatal exposure to low doses of Pb and Cd can produce alterations in lipid peroxidation and ultrastructural modifications in rat brains, and exposure to both metals can result in greater damages.

  8. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain.

  9. Effects of Wounding and Exogenous Jasmonic Acid on the Peroxidation of Membrane Lipid in Pea Seedlings Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yan-yan; LIU Yan-yan; HUANG Wei-dong

    2005-01-01

    The changes of malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, and O2-content, or the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase(CAT), ascrobate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and polyphenol oxidase(PPO) in pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.) under wounding and treatment of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) were investigated.The results showed that the activities of both phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were significantly increased by wounding and application of JA. The metabolism of reaction oxidative species (ROS) was APX and POD were also increased. Treatment of JA of 1 or 10 μmol L-1 could effectively induce plant defense response,and thus decrease the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid. However, high concentration of JA (100 μmol L-1) resulted in unbalance of metabolism of ROS and promoted the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid. We thus suggested that JA, under the suitable concentration, could induce defense response of pea seedlings to wounding.

  10. Preliminary study of cell metabolism, by use of NBT test, determination the intensity of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BEI

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Otto Warburg, in the early part of the 20th century, originated a hypothesis, that the cause of cancer is primarily a defect in energy metabolism.A decrease in the capacity of mitochondria to reduce NAD(P, together with a decline in the NAD(PH/NAD(P redox couple, uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, lead to depletion of ATP and decrease the cell viability.Nitro-bleu tetrazolium have been used to assay cell proliferation and viability. The method to measure cell proliferation is based on enzymatic cleavage of the tetrazolium salts to a water-soluble formazan dye.Succinate-tetrazolium reductase, is an enzymatic sistem, which belongs to the respiratory chain of the mitochondria and it is active only in viable cells. The reagent diffuses into the cells and it is cleaved to formazan. The absorption change is measured and analysed.Free radicals such as superoxide, can cause a damage in cellular components, but several antioxidants inhibiting the lipid peroxidation and limiting the level of free radicals in cells.In the present study we had in view the proliferation and viability of leukemia cells during antineoplastic treatment along with the alteration of the serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA and ceruloplasmin (CP. With serum level of malondialdehyde we monitored the presence of the lipid peroxidation by the reactive oxygen species, and with the oxidized ceruloplasmin level in blood serum we evidenced the activity of antioxidant system in blood.

  11. Inhibition of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by anthocyanins from defatted Canarium odontophyllum pericarp and peel using in vitro bioassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hock Eng Khoo

    Full Text Available Canarium odontophyllum, also known as CO, is a highly nutritious fruit. Defatted parts of CO fruit are potent sources of nutraceutical. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation effects of defatted CO pericarp and peel extracts using in vitro bioassays. Cell cytotoxic effect of the CO pericarp and peel extracts were also evaluated using HUVEC and Chang liver cell lines. The crude extracts of defatted CO peel and pericarp showed cytoprotective effects in t-BHP and 40% methanol-induced cell death. The crude extracts also showed no toxic effect to Chang liver cell line. Using CD36 ELISA, NAD(+ and LDL inhibition assays, inhibition of oxidative stress were found higher in the crude extract of defatted CO peel compared to the pericarp extract. Hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays revealed both crude extracts had significantly reduced lipid peroxidation as compared to control. TBARS values among defatted CO pericarp, peel, and cyanidin-3-glucoside showed no significant differences for hemoglobin and LDL oxidation assays. The protective effects of defatted CO parts, especially its peel is related to the presence of high anthocyanin that potentially offers as a pharmaceutical ingredient for cardioprotection.

  12. Lipid Peroxidation-Mediated Telomere Shortening in Hydroxyl Radical-Induced Apoptosis in HeLa Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任建国; 陈晶; 戴尧仁

    2001-01-01

    Many anti-cancer drugs have been found to trigger apoptosis in tumor cells through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydroxyl radicals (@ OH) regardless of chemical types. At the same time, telomerase is found to be associated with malignancy and reduced apoptosis. However, little is known about the linkage between ROS (such as @ OH) and telomerase/telomere. The focus of this investigation was to examine the possible pathway of the apoptosis induced by @ OH production via Fe2+ and H2O2. Results of the present study demonstrated that after exposure of HeLa cells to Fe2+-H2O2 system, an increase in lipid peroxidation and reduction of GSH was observed. These events proceeded and triggered apoptosis, resulting in DNA fragmentation. More interestingly, we did not observe any changes of telomerase activity. However, the telomere length in apoptotic cells shortened significantly. We also found that GSH rescued @ OH-induced HeLa cell death and prevened telomere shortening, and that 3,3'-diethyoxadicarbocyanine (DODCB), a telomerase inhibitor, increased susceptibility of HeLa cells to @ OH-induced apoptosis. Our results suggest that @ OH-induced telomere shortening is not through telomerase inhibition but possibly a direct effect of @ OH on telomeres themselves via lipid peroxidation.

  13. Protective effects of Opuntia ficus-indica extract on ram sperm quality, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation during liquid storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allai, Larbi; Druart, Xavier; Öztürk, Mehmet; BenMoula, Anass; Nasser, Boubker; El Amiri, Bouchra

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to assess the phenolic composition of the acetone extract from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes (ACTEX) and its effects on ram semen variables, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation during liquid storage at 5°C for up to 72h in skim milk and Tris egg yolk extenders. Semen samples from five rams were pooled extended with Tris-egg yolk (TEY) or skim milk (SM) extenders containing ACTEX (0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8%) at a final concentration of 0.8×10(9) sperm/ml and stored for up to 72h at 5°C. The sperm variables were evaluated at different time periods (8, 24, 48 and 72h). Sperm total motility and viability were superior in TEY than in SM whereas the progressive motility, membrane integrity, abnormality and spontaneous lipid peroxidation were greater in SM compared to TEY (PDNA fragmentation (P<0.05). In conclusion, SM and TEY supplemented with 1% of ACTEX can improve the quality of ram semen. Further studies are required to identify the active components in ACTEX involved in its effect on ram sperm preservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Protective effects of Emblica officinalis (Amla) on metal-induced lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Vijay Kumar; Rather, Irfan Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    The protective potential of Emblica officinalis (amla) was investigated on metal-induced lipid per oxidation in human erythrocytes. Increases in the levels of MDA and catalase activity were assessed as lipid per oxidation. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione (GSH), and ascorbic acid levels were assessed as antioxidant indices. Preliminary investigation of the extract exhibited a significant reduction in lipid per oxidation and an increase in antioxidant abilities, such as a decrease in MDA, GPx and GSH (Pamla extract (Pamla extract has significant protective potential against lipid per oxidation.

  15. [Mexidol preparation influence upon lipids peroxide oxidation and oral fluid antioxidant system activity in patients with chronic generalized parodontitis and arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarina, L N; Vdovina, L V; Dubrovskaia, E N

    2010-01-01

    Results of laboratory investigations of the estimation of peroxide oxidation of lipids and antioxidant protection in the oral fluid of the patients with chronic generalizating parodontitis and arterial hypertension with using mexidol. It was shown that the normalization of parameters of the primary and second products of peroxidation with mexidol action, antioxidant protection of oral liquid increased that was favorably reflected in structures and functions of cell.

  16. Synthesis and phototoxicity of isomeric 7,9-diglutathione pyrrole adducts: Formation of reactive oxygen species and induction of lipid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs are hepatotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic in experimental animals. Because of their widespread distribution in the world, PA-containing plants are probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Upon metabolism, PAs generate reactive dehydro-PAs and other pyrrolic metabolites that lead to toxicity. Dehydro-PAs are known to react with glutathione (GSH to form 7-GSH-(+/−-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (7-GS-DHP in vivo and in vitro and 7,9-diGS-DHP in vitro. To date, the phototoxicity of GS-DHP adducts has not been well studied. In this study, we synthesized 7-GS-DHP, a tentatively assigned 9-GS-DHP, and two enantiomeric 7,9-diGS-DHP adducts by reaction of dehydromonocrotaline with GSH. The two 7,9-diGS-DHPs were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and their structures were characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and 1H–1H correlation spectroscopy (COSY NMR spectral analysis. Photoirradiation of 7-GS-DHP, 9-GS-DHP, and the two 7,9-diGS-DHPs as well as dehydromonocrotaline, dehydroheliotrine, and the 7-R enantiomer of DHP (DHR, by UVA light at 0 J/cm2, 14 J/cm2, and 35 J/cm2 in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate, all resulted in lipid peroxidation in a light dose-responsive manner. The levels of lipid peroxidation induced by the two isomeric 7,9-diGS-DHPs were significantly higher than that by 7-GS-DHP and 9-GS-DHP. When 7,9-diGS-DHP was irradiated in the presence of sodium azide (NaN3, the level of lipid peroxidation decreased; lipid peroxidation was enhanced when methanol was replaced by deuterated methanol. These results suggest that singlet oxygen is a product induced by the irradiation of 7,9-diGS-DHP. When irradiated in the presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD, the level of lipid peroxidation decreased, indicating that lipid peroxidation is also mediated by superoxide. These results indicate that lipid

  17. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system.

  18. Antioxidant activity of white rice, brown rice and germinated brown rice (in vivo and in vitro) and the effects on lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes in hyperlipidaemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Abdul Kadir, Khairul-Kamilah; Amom, Zulkhairi; Azlan, Azrina

    2013-11-15

    Antioxidant activity of different rice extract and the effect on the levels of antioxidant enzyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), vitamin E, lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes in hyperlipidaemia rabbits were investigated. Germinated brown rice (GBR) has the highest antioxidant activity compared to white rice (WR) and brown rice (BR). All rice grains increased the activity of SOD and GPx. However, vitamin E levels increased only in the groups that received the BR and GBR diets. The reduction of lipid peroxidation levels and activity of hepatic enzymes (alanine transferase, ALT and aspartate transaminase, AST) were only significantly observed in the GBR group. In conclusion, GBR supplementation has the greatest impact on increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and vitamin E level and on reducing lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolaemia rabbit, thereby preventing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, GBR diet can also reduce the level of hepatic enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High resistance to lipid peroxidation of bird heart mitochondria and microsomes: Effects of mass and maximum lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, A M; Reboredo, G R; Mosca, S M; Catalá, A

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the connection between body size, fatty acid composition and sensitivity to lipid peroxidation of heart mitochondria and microsomes isolated from different size bird species: manon (Lonchura striata), quail (Coturnix coturnix var japonica), pigeon (Columba livia), duck (Cairina moschata) and goose (Anser anser), representing a 372-fold range of body mass. Fatty acids of total lipids were determined using gas chromatography and lipid peroxidation was evaluated with a chemiluminescence assay. The fatty acids present in heart organelles of the different bird species analyzed showed a small number of significant allometric trends. In mitochondria, from the individual fatty acid data, palmitoleic acid (C16:1 n7) increased allometrically (r=0.878), while stearic acid (C18:0) was negatively related to body mass (r=-0.903). Interestingly, none of the calculated fatty acid variables, the average fatty acid saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated (PUFA) and the unsaturation index (UI) was established to show significant body size-related variations. In heart microsomes, the content of C18:0 was significantly smaller (r=-0.970) in the birds of greater size. A significant allometric increase in linoleic acid (C18:2 n6) (r=0.986), polyunsaturated (r=0.990) and UI (r=0.904) was observed in the larger birds. The total n6 fatty acids of heart mitochondria did not show significant differences when it was correlated to body mass of the birds. Moreover, positive allometric relationships were shown for microsomes. The total n3 fatty acids of heart mitochondria and microsomes indicated no significant correlations to body mass of birds. The C16:1 n7, C18:0 in mitochondria and C18:0, C18:2 n6, PUFA, UI and PUFA n6 in microsomes showed significant differences when they were correlated to maximum life span (MLSP) of birds. As light emission=chemiluminescence originated from heart organelles was not statistically significant, a lack of

  20. UVA Photoirradiation of Oxygenated Benz[a]anthracene and 3-Methylcholanthene - Generation of Singlet Oxygen and Induction of Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Herreño Sáenz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants and potentially pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological and toxicological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, of PAHs have been thoroughly studied, their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activity have not been well examined. We have long been interested in phototoxicity of PAHs and their derivatives induced by irradiation with UV light. In this paper we report the photoirradiation of a series of oxygenated benz[a]anthracene (BA and 3-methylcholanthene (3-MC by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate. The studied PAHs include 2-hydroxy-BA (2-OH-BA, 3-hydroxy-BA (3-OH-BA, 5-hydroxymethyl-BA (5-CH2OH-BA, 7-hydroxymethyl-BA (7-CH2OH-BA, 12-hydroxymethyl-BA (12-CH2OH-BA, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methyl-BA (7-CH2OH-12-MBA, 5-formyl-BA (5-CHO-BA, BA 5,6-cis-dihydrodiol (BA 5,6-cis-diol, 1-hydroxy-3- methylcholanthene (1-OH-3-MC, 1-keto-3-methylcholanthene (1-keto-3-MC, and 3-MC 1,2-diol. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA at 7 and 21 J/cm2, respectively all these compounds induced lipid peroxidation and exhibited a relationship between the dose of the light and the level of lipid peroxidation induced. To determine whether or not photoirradiation of these compounds by UVA light produces ROS, an ESR spin-trap technique was employed to provide direct evidence. Photoirradiation of 3-keto-3-MC by UVA (at 389 nm in the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TEMP, a specific probe for singlet oxygen, resulted in the formation of TEMPO, indicating that singlet oxygen was generated. These overall results suggest that UVA photoirradiation of oxygenated BA and 3-methylcholanthrene generates singlet oxygen, one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS, which induce lipid peroxidation.

  1. Early involvement of lysosome dysfunction in the degeneration of cerebral cortical neurons caused by the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi; Eitan, Erez; Mattson, Mark P

    2017-03-01

    Free radical-mediated oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA occurs in neurons during acute brain injuries and in neurodegenerative disorders. Membrane lipid peroxidation contributes to neuronal dysfunction and death, in part by disrupting neuronal ion homeostasis and cellular bioenergetics. Emerging findings suggest that 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), an aldehyde produced during lipid peroxidation, impairs the function of various proteins involved in neuronal homeostasis. Here we tested the hypothesis that HNE impairs the cellular system that removes damaged proteins and organelles, the autophagy-lysosome pathway in rat primary cortical neurons. We found that HNE, at a concentration that causes apoptosis over a 48-72 h period, increases protein levels of LC3 II and p62 and within 1 and 4 h of exposure, respectively; LC3 II and p62 immunoreactive puncta were observed in the cytoplasm of HNE-treated neurons at 6 h. The extent of up-regulation of p62 and LC3 II in response to HNE was not affected by co-treatment with the lysosome inhibitor bafilomycin A1, suggesting that the effects of HNE on autophagy were secondary to lysosome inhibition. Indeed, we found that neurons exposed to HNE exhibit elevated pH levels, and decreased protein substrate hydrolysis and cathepsin B activity. Neurons exposed to HNE also exhibited the accumulation of K63-linked polyubiquitinated proteins, which are substrates targeted for lysosomal degradation. Moreover, we found that the levels of LAMP2a and constitutively active heat-shock protein 70, and numbers of LAMP2a-positive lysosomes, are decreased in neurons exposed to HNE. Our findings demonstrate that the lipid peroxidation product HNE causes early impairment of lysosomes which may contribute to the accumulation of damaged and dysfunctional proteins and organelles and consequent neuronal death. Because impaired lysosome function is increasingly recognized as an early event in the neuronal death that occurs in neurodegenerative

  2. Interspecific variation in vitamin E levels and the extent of lipid peroxidation in pioneer and non-pioneer species used in tropical forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contin, Daniele R; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-09-01

    Reforestation projects have gained interest over recent years due to the loss of biodiversity in tropical regions as a result of large deforestation by anthropogenic actions. However, better knowledge on the tolerance of plant species to environmental stresses is needed for reforestation success. Here, we evaluated the photoprotective and antioxidant capacity, in terms of vitamin E accumulation, of five pioneer (Platypodium elegans Vogel, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil, Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. and Aegiphila sellowiana Cham.) and five non-pioneer (Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Cedrela fissilis Vell., Genipa americana L., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. and Hymenaea courbaril L.) species, in relation to the extent of lipid peroxidation in leaves. Furthermore, we examined differences between sun and shade leaves on vitamin E accumulation and the extent of lipid peroxidation. Pioneer plants showed on average 33% higher malondialdehyde levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, than non-pioneer species, but no significant differences in vitamin E contents. In contrast, a marked interspecific variation was observed in the levels of α-tocopherol and its precursor, γ-tocopherol. Natural variation revealed interesting relationships between vitamin E levels and the extent of lipid peroxidation in leaves. The pioneer species, P. elegans, did not accumulate α-tocopherol and displayed the highest levels of malondialdehyde. Sun and shade leaves accumulated vitamin E levels to a similar extent, except for the pioneer L. pacari and the non-pioneer C. langsdorffii, the former accumulating more α-tocopherol in sun leaves and the latter in shade leaves. We conclude that interspecific variation is higher than both leaf type and successional-group variation in terms of vitamin E accumulation and the extent of lipid peroxidation, and that vitamin E levels, particularly those of α-tocopherol, negatively correlate with the extent of lipid

  3. [Effect of combined and local cytokine- and ozone therapy on the indices of lipid peroxidation, endogenous intoxication and ferroproteins in diffuse peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzhiev, N Dzh; Nasirov, M Ia; Sushkov, S V; Klimova, E M

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the results of effect of combined and local cytokine- and ozone therapy on the indices of lipid peroxidation, endogenous intoxication and ferroproteins in 111 patients with diffuse peritonitis. It was shown, that combined sequential local and systemic cytokine and ozone therapy allows correcting the expression of endogenous intoxication and lipid peroxidation in diffuse peritonitis. This method suppresses an inflammation in the abdominal cavity. At the same time, it accelerates the elimination of intestine atony and thereby potentiates the possibilities of traditional methods of treatment.

  4. Secondary radicals derived from chloramines of apolipoprotein B-100 contribute to HOCl-induced lipid peroxidation of low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazell, L J; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Stocker, R

    1999-01-01

    by an extended period of lipid peroxidation during which further protein oxidation does not occur. The secondary lipid peroxidation process involves EPR-detectable radicals, is attenuated by a radical trap or treatment of HOCl-oxidized LDL with methionine, and occurs less rapidly when the lipoprotein...... was depleted of alpha-tocopherol. The initial reaction of low concentrations of HOCl (400-fold or 800-fold molar excess) with LDL therefore seems to occur primarily by two-electron reactions with side-chain sites on apolipoprotein B-100. Some of the initial reaction products, identified as lysine...

  5. Vitamin E-supplemented diets reduce lipid peroxidation but do not alter either pituitary-adrenal, glucose, and lactate responses to immobilization stress or gastric ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, A; Campmany, L; Borras, M; Hidalgo, J

    1990-01-01

    It has been suggested that antioxidant administration to rats would reduce the physiological response to stress. In the present experiment adult male rats were given diets supplemented with vitamin E for one or seven days before they were subjected to immobilization stress. Vitamin E administration reduced hepatic and gastric lipid peroxidation in unstressed rats but did not modify the pituitary-adrenal, glucose and lactose responses to 1 or 18 h immobilization. Similarly, gastric ulceration caused by 18 h immobilization was unaffected by the diets. These results indicate that the inhibition of lipid peroxidation does not modify the response of several, well-known, stress-markers in the rat.

  6. Lipid peroxide levels of serum lipoprotein fractions of diabetic patients with angiopathy and /sup 60/Co-irradiated rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunekawa, Hiroshi (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-09-01

    For a better understanding of the relationship between lipid peroxide (LPO) and vascular diseases, the author determined LPO levels and lipid contents of serum lipoprotein fractions of diabetics with angiopathy. The LPO level in high density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction of diabetic serum was significantly higher than that of normal serum whereas no significant increase was observed in the levels of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions of diabetic serum. As to the ratios of LPO to total lipids in these lipoprotein fractions, it was found that the ratio in HDL fraction of the diabetics was markedly higher than that of the normals. These results suggest that the increase in LPO levels in the sera of diabetic patients is due to that in HDL fraction. To study further this problem, the author employed /sup 60/Co-irradiated rabbit as a model, since it was already reported that radiation affects lipid metabolism and LPO formation, and that it induces the development of atherosclerosis. Upon irradiation with /sup 60/Co ranging from 100R to 700R, serum LPO level of rabbit was significantly increased. Although elevation of LPO level was found in each serum lipoprotein fraction of VLDL, LDL and HDL, LPO level per lipid content was significantly increased only in HDL fraction. In the irradiated rabbit, significant elevation of the level of LPO was also observed in the liver, while no significant increase was found in the kidney and spleen. These results indicate that high level of LPO observed in the serum of irradiated rabbit would be the reflection of the increased LPO in the liver.

  7. An allometric study of fatty acids and sensitivity to lipid peroxidation of brain microsomes and mitochondria isolated from different bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, A M; Reboredo, G R; Mosca, S M; Catalá, A

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the relationship between body size, fatty acid composition and sensitivity to lipid peroxidation of mitochondria and microsomes isolated from the brain of different size bird species: manon, quail, pigeon, duck and goose, representing a 372-fold range of body mass. Fatty acids of total lipids were determined using gas chromatography and lipid peroxidation was evaluated using a chemiluminescence assay. The allometric study of the fatty acids present in brain mitochondria and microsomes of the different bird species showed a small number of significant allometric trends. In mitochondria the percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids, was significantly lower in the larger birds (r=-0.965; Pmicrosomes but not in mitochondria may indicate a preferential incorporation of this fatty acid in the brain endoplasmic reticulum of the larger bird species. The brain of all birds studied had a high content of docosahexaenoic acid. However brain mitochondria but not microsomes isolated from all the birds analyzed showed a significant decrease of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids during lipid peroxidation. The allometric analyses of chemiluminescence were not statistically significant. In conclusion our results show absence of correlation between the sensitivity to lipid peroxidation of brain mitochondria and microsomes with body size and maximum life span.

  8. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant responses in zebrafish brain induced by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De Lu; Hu, Chun Xiang; Li, Dun Hai; Liu, Yong Ding

    2013-11-15

    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae is a cyanobacterium that is frequently encountered in eutrophic waters worldwide. It is source of neurotoxins known as aphantoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs), which present a major threat to the environment and human health. The molecular mechanism of PSP action is known, however the in vivo effects of this neurotoxin on oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defense responses in zebrafish brain remain to be understood. Aphantoxins purified from a natural isolate of A. flos-aquae DC-1 were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. The major components of the toxins were gonyautoxins 1 and 5 (GTX1 and GTX5, 34.04% and 21.28%, respectively) and neosaxitoxin (neoSTX, 12.77%). Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were injected intraperitoneally with 7.73 μg/kg (low dose) and 11.13 μg/kg (high dose) of A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins. Oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense responses in the zebrafish brain were investigated at various timepoints at 1-24h post-exposure. Aphantoxin exposure was associated with significantly increased (>1-2 times) reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in zebrafish brain compared with the controls at 1-12h postexposure, suggestive of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. In contrast, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in the zebrafish brain exposed to high or low doses of aphantoxins decreased by 44.88% and 41.33%, respectively, after 1-12h compared with the controls, suggesting that GSH participated in detoxification to ROS and MDA. Further analysis showed a significant increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) compared with the controls, suggesting elimination of oxidative stress by the antioxidant response in zebrafish brain. All these changes were dose and time dependent. These results suggested that aphantoxins or PSPs increased ROS and MDA and decreased GSH in zebrafish brain

  9. Influence of Hemodialysis on Lipid Peroxidation, Enzymatic and Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity in Chronic Renal Failure Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Free radical induced damages are thought to be involved in chronic kidney disease (CKD, especially in patients who are on hemodialysis (HD for prolonged periods. Hemodialysis can influence multiple biochemical factors, several of which are useful, although the rest can be harmful and increase the severity of disease. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the HD membrane polysulfone on oxidative stress markers, by measuring the level of lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant activity (TAC, in the blood of HD patients. Patients and Methods This study was carried out on 31 HD patients and 31 healthy persons, matched for age and sex, as control group. Blood samples were drawn before and after HD from arteriovenous fistulas, and once from the controls. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS in blood hemolyzate, Glutathione peroxidase (GpX of whole blood and TAC of plasma were measured, respectively. Then, we investigated the association between TAC of plasma, measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and lipid peroxidation level with its related parameters, in HD patients. Results The SOD, GpX and CAT were decreased after HD (P < 0.05. Also, FRAP was shown to decrease after HD (P < 0.05. However, erythrocyte TBARS levels (μmol/gr of Hb were increased after HD, in comparison with controls, and before HD (P < 0.05. There was a significant negative correlation between TBARS and antioxidant indices, such as SOD (r = -0.67, P = 0.001, GpX (r = -0.76, P = 0.001, CAT (r = -0.63, P = 0.001 and FRAP (r = -0.84, P = 0.001. The FRAP was significantly and directly correlated with uric acid (r = +0.62, P = 0.001, SOD (r = +0.72, P = 0.001, GpX (r = +0.87, P = 0.001 and CAT (r = +0.84, P = 0.001. Conclusions The results of our study proposed that there is a loss or inactivation of antioxidant factors, coupled with increased lipid peroxidation during the

  10. Antioxidant effect of apple phenolic on lipid peroxidation in Chinese-style sausage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Hai; Qin, Chunjun; Zhang, Peipei; Ge, Qingfeng; Wu, Mangang; Wu, Jianping; Wang, Miao; Wang, Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    ... (nitrate, nitrite, and antioxidants) and/or starter cultures. The antioxidative effect of apple phenolic on lipid oxidation in Chinese-style sausage compared with that of butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT...

  11. Antioxidant effect of apple phenolic on lipid peroxidation in Chinese-style sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hai; Qin, Chunjun; Zhang, Peipei; Ge, Qingfeng; Wu, Mangang; Wu, Jianping; Wang, Miao; Wang, Zhijun

    2013-01-01

    Chinese-style sausage is a very popular meat product obtained from a mixture of chopped pork meat, lard, salt, spices, additives (nitrate, nitrite, and antioxidants) and/or starter cultures. The antioxidative effect of apple phenolic on lipid oxidation in Chinese-style sausage compared with that of butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and ursolic acid were studied. Lipid oxidation was assessed through determination of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) and volatile aldehydes. The cont...

  12. Evaluation of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and serum trace elements associated with progressive anemia in ovine malignant theileriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazifi, S; Razavi, S M; Kianiamin, P; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2011-08-01

    Ovine malignant theileriosis is a fatal disease that is characterized by severe progressive anemia. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in anemia, this study was designed to assess the antioxidant status and erythrocyte oxidative injuries in Iranian fat-tailed sheep that suffered from malignant theileriosis. The infected animals (infected group), composed of 50 Iranian sheep about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with Theileria sp., were divided into three subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1-3%, 3-5%), and ten non-infected animals were also selected as the control group. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, and serum concentrations of some trace elements (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and selenium), were measured. As an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was also determined. According to the results, a significant decrease in red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume, the activities of SOD, GPX, and catalase (P <0.001), and also serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se (P < 0.05) were evident in the infected sheep. In contrast, significantly increased levels of MDA and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (P < 0.001) as well as serum concentration of iron (P < 0.05) were recorded in the infected animals. The significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities and substantial elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte osmotic fragility associated with the increase in parasitemia indicate increased exposure of RBCs to oxidative damage. Also, it appears that disturbed antioxidant defense mechanisms can promote the development of anemia in ovine theileriosis.

  13. Responses of plant biomass, photosynthesis and lipid peroxidation to warming and precipitation change in two dominant species (Stipa grandis and Leymus chinensis) from North China Grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiliang; Wang, Yuhui; Lv, Xiaomin

    2016-03-01

    Influential factors of global change affect plant carbon uptake and biomass simultaneously. Although the effects from warming and precipitation change have been extensive studied separately, the responses of plant biomass, photosynthesis, and lipid peroxidation to the interaction of these factors are still not fully understood. In this study, we examined the physiological responses of two dominant plant species from grasslands of northern China with different functional traits to combinations of five simulated warming patterns and five simulated precipitation patterns in environment-controlled chambers. Our results showed that the biomass, net CO 2 assimilation rate (P n), maximal efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry (F v/F m), and chlorophyll content (Chl) of Stipa grandis and Leymus chinensis were enhanced by moderate warming and plus precipitation, but they declined drastically with high temperature and drought. High temperature and drought also led to significant malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, which had a negative correlation with leaf biomass. The lower level of lipid peroxidation in leaves of S. grandis suggests that this species is better protected from oxidative damage under heat stress, drought stress and their interactive conditions than L. chinensis. Using the subordinate function values method, we found S. grandis to be more sensitive to climate change than L. chinensis and the gross biomass and root biomass of S. grandis and the leaf biomass of L. chinensis were most sensitive to climate change. Furthermore, the P n of both S. grandis and L. chinensis had a significant linear relationship with F v/F m and Chl, indicating that carbon assimilation may be caused by nonstomatal limitations.

  14. Effect of MgCl2 stress on germination, plant growth, chlorophyll content, proline content and lipid peroxidation in sorghum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khare T.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Present report deals with the effect of increasing levels (0-300 mM of MgCl2 salt on sorghum cultivars, Phule Vasudha and Phule Revati. Although MgCl2 stress did not show considerable adverse effects on germination, however, at higher (>200 mM concentrations, the seedlings turned brown and did not showed any further growth, with comparably higher magnitude of negative effects on Phule Revati than Phule Vasudha. Overall, increasing MgCl2 stress reduced plant growth and biomass production significantly in both the cultivars, though with lesser extent in Phule Vsudha as compared to Phule Rvati. Contrasting behavior was evidenced in both the cultivars in terms of protein content under varying levels of MgCl2 concentration at vegetative growth level, where salinity induced reduction in protein content was higher in Phule Revati than Phule Vasudha. The genotype Phule Vasudha showed higher proline content under non-saline condition. MgCl2 stress-induced proline accumulation was observed in both the sorghum cultivars, however, interestingly, Phule Revati (439% of control plants showed comparably higher proline content than Phule Vasudha (324% of control plants at the highest (300 mM level of stress. Even though, malondialdehyde (MDA: lipid peroxidation indicator content was on higher side under non-saline conditions in cultivar Phule Vasudha as compared to cultivar Phule Revati, however the rate of increase in MDA with increasing salt stress was much higher in the latter cultivar, indicating the comparably higher level of lipid peroxidation under the influence of MgCl2 stress. The salt tolerance nature of Phule Vasudha was positively correlated with its better performance in terms of physiological and biochemical parameters.

  15. Stress response and tolerance of Zea mays to CeO2 nanoparticles: cross talk among H2O2, heat shock protein, and lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Peng, Bo; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Rico, Cyren; Sun, Youping; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Tang, Xiaolei; Niu, Genhua; Jin, Lixin; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Zhang, Jian-ying; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2012-11-27

    The rapid development of nanotechnology will inevitably release nanoparticles (NPs) into the environment with unidentified consequences. In addition, the potential toxicity of CeO(2) NPs to plants and the possible transfer into the food chain are still unknown. Corn plants (Zea mays) were germinated and grown in soil treated with CeO(2) NPs at 400 or 800 mg/kg. Stress-related parameters, such as H(2)O(2), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), lipid peroxidation, cell death, and leaf gas exchange were analyzed at 10, 15, and 20 days post-germination. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to image H(2)O(2) distribution in corn leaves. Results showed that the CeO(2) NP treatments increased accumulation of H(2)O(2), up to day 15, in phloem, xylem, bundle sheath cells and epidermal cells of shoots. The CAT and APX activities were also increased in the corn shoot, concomitant with the H(2)O(2) levels. Both 400 and 800 mg/kg CeO(2) NPs triggered the up-regulation of the HSP70 in roots, indicating a systemic stress response. None of the CeO(2) NPs increased the level of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, indicating that no lipid peroxidation occurred. CeO(2) NPs, at both concentrations, did not induce ion leakage in either roots or shoots, suggesting that membrane integrity was not compromised. Leaf net photosynthetic rate, transpiration, and stomatal conductance were not affected by CeO(2) NPs. Our results suggest that the CAT, APX, and HSP70 might help the plants defend against CeO(2) NP-induced oxidative injury and survive NP exposure.

  16. Study on Antioxidants and Lipid Peroxidation from Pea Crops of Platean%高原农作物豌豆抗氧化和脂质过氧化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李园媛

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation from pea crops of plateau. [Method] SOD enzyme liquid from pea crops of plateau was extracted by means of protein concentration assay, enzyme activity assay and antioxidant activity determination by DPPH method, peroxide activity inhibition of in vitro tissues from mice by homogenate MDA colorimetry method and lipid peroxidation assay of in vitro tissues. [Result] IC50 of the crude enzyme liquid extracted from pea on DPPH was 55.16 mg/L, while the scavenging rate of the crude enzyme liquid was lower than that of ascorbic acid, tea polyphenol and citric acid with the same concentration. The synergistic effect was found in ascorbic acid and crude enzyme liquid, but the synergism of ascorbic acid was better than that of citric acid. IC50 of SOD enzyme liquid extracted from pea on DPPH was 11.1 mg/L, which was better than that of tea polyphenol and closely similar to that of ascorbic acid. SOD enzyme liquid extracted from pea had an inhibitory effect on MDA production from in vitro tissues such as liver, kidney and heart, especially for a significantly inhibitory effect on MDA from liver in vitro. When the concentration was 0.25 mg/ml, the inhibition rate reached 78.3%, and then the inhibition rate increased little with the concentration incresas, while its effect on heart and kidney were inferior. [Conclusion] SOD crude enzyme liquid and SOD enzyme liquid extracted from pea all have certain DPPH scavenging capacity, while SOD enzyme liquid extracted from pea has an inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation.

  17. Effect of boric acid on antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, and ultrastructure of midgut and fat body of Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Snela, Milena; Erdem, Meltem; Radtke, Katarzyna; Ziemnicki, Kazimierz; Adamski, Zbigniew

    2013-04-01

    Boric acid is widely used as an insecticide, acaricide, herbicide, and fungicide and also during various industrial processings. Hence, numerous populations are subjects to this toxic compound. Its action on animals is still not fully known and understood. We examined the effect of boric acid on larvae of greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella). The chemical appeared to be toxic for larvae, usually in a concentration-dependent manner. Exposed groups revealed increased lipid peroxidation and altered activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase. We also observed changes of ultrastructure, which were in tune with biochemical assays. We suggest that boric acid has a broad mode of action, which may affect exposed larvae, and even if sublethal, they may lead to disturbances within exposed populations.

  18. Effect of butachlor on antioxidant enzyme status and lipid peroxidation in fresh water African catfish, (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farombi, E O; Ajimoko, Y R; Adelowo, O A

    2008-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of butachlor, a widely used herbicide, on antioxidant enzyme system and lipid peroxidation formation in African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of butachlor 1, 2, 2.5 ppm and sacrificed 24hrs after treatment. A significant increase in malondialdehyde formation was observed in the liver, kidney, gills and heart of the fish following exposure to different concentrations of butachlor. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased in the liver and kidney but decreased in the gills and heart in a concentration-dependent pattern. Glutathione level and glutathione-Stransferase activities increased (Pbutachlor. The results suggest that butachlor induced oxidative stress in the various tissues of the fish particularly in the kidney and as such the organ may be subjected to severe oxidative toxicity due to depressed glutathione detoxification system.

  19. Effects of High Temperature on Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Flag Leaves of Wheat During Grain Filling Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ping; GUO Wen-shan; PU Han-chun; FENG Chao-nian; ZHU Xin-kai; PENG Yong-xin

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the phytotron, the effects of high temperature (daily average temperature 25, 30, 35 and 40℃, respectively) on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in flag leaves of wheat at 50% relative air moisture during grain fastest fillingstage [19-21 days after anthesis (DAA)] were studied. The wheat cultivars tested were Yangmai 9 with weak-gluten and Yangmai 12 with medium-gluten. Compared with 25℃, the higher the temperature was, the higher was the MDA content in flag leaves, while lower were the SOD, POD, and CAT activities. SOD and CAT activities in Yangmai 12 appeared to be more sensitive to high temperature than that in Yangmai 9. But POD activity in Yangmai 12 was less sensitive to high temperature. MDA content in Yangmai 12 was higher than that in Yangmai 9. The 1 000-grain weight declined with increase in temperature.

  20. Effects of melatonin on liver function and lipid peroxidation in a rat model of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wen-Sheng; Xu, Qing; Liu, Y E; Jiang, Chun-Hui; Zhou, Hong; Gu, Lei

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin (MT) on liver function and lipid peroxidation following hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). A total of 66 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups: Normal control (N) group, ischemia-reperfusion (IR) group and the MT-treated group. A hepatic IRI model was developed by blocking the first porta hepatis, and subsequently restoring hepatic blood inflow after 35 min. Following reperfusion, changes in the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were detected by a chemical method at various time points. In the MT group, the MDA levels were significantly reduced (PLDH were significantly reduced in the MT group at each time point, as compared with that of the IR group (Pfunction following IRI.

  1. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT RESISTANCE EXERCISE PROTOCOLS ON NITRIC OXIDE, LIPID PEROXIDATION AND CREATINE KINASE ACTIVITY IN SEDENTARY MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Atalay Güzel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the changes of oxidative response and exercise-induced muscle damage after two different resistance exercise protocols. Whether training with low or high intensity resistance programs cause alterations in the activities of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide (NOx, and creatine kinase (CK activity in human plasma was investigated. Twenty untrained males participated into this study. Ten of the subjects performed high intensity resistance (HR exercise circuit and the rest of them performed low intensity resistance (LR exercise circuit of 4 different exercises as a single bout. Venous blood samples were drawn pre-exercise, immediately after the exercise, and at the 6th, 24th, 48th and the72nd hours of post-exercise. Samples were analyzed for markers of muscle damage (CK, lipid peroxidation (MDA and NOx. NOx production increased in HR group (p < 0.05. The MDA response to the two different resistance exercise protocol in this study caused a significant increase between pre and post-exercise values in both groups (p < 0.05. Also, there was a significant difference in the MDA level between the two groups in post-exercise values (p < 0.05 and higher values were observed in HR group. CK activities showed a significant increase in all post exercise values (p < 0.05 of both groups but there were no difference between HR and LR groups. These findings support that high intensity resistance exercise induces free radical production more than low intensity resistance exercise program

  2. Protective effects of Carissa opaca fruits against CCl4-induced oxidative kidney lipid peroxidation and trauma in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Sahreen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is a potent nephrotoxin, as it causes acute as well as chronic toxicity in kidneys. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the pharmacological potential of different fractions of Carissa opaca fruits on CCl4-induced oxidative trauma in the kidney. Methods: The parameters studied in this respect were the kidney function tests viz, serum profile, urine profile, genotoxicity, characteristic morphological findings, and antioxidant enzymatic level of kidneys. Result: The protective effects of various fractions of C. opaca fruits against CCl4 administration were reviewed by rat renal function alterations. Chronic toxicity caused by 8-week treatment of CCl4 to the rats significantly decreased the pH level, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and glutathione contents, whereas a significant increase was found in the case of specific gravity, red blood cells, white blood cells, level of urea, and lipid peroxidation in comparison to control group. Administration of various fractions of C. opaca fruit with CCl4 showed protective ability against CCl4 intoxication by restoring the urine profile, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation in rat. CCl4 induction in rats also caused DNA fragmentation and glomerular atrophy by means of dilation, disappearance of Bowmen's space, congestion in the capillary loops, dilation in renal tubules, and foamy look of epithelial cells of tubular region, which were restored by co-admiration of various fractions of C. opaca. Conclusion: Results revealed that the methanolic fractions of C. opaca are the most potent and helpful in kidney trauma.

  3. Altered lipid peroxidation markers are related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and not trauma itself in earthquake survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Abdullah; Bulut, Mahmut; Bez, Yasin; Kaplan, İbrahim; Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Uysal, Cem; Selçuk, Hilal; Sir, Aytekin

    2016-06-01

    The traumatic life events, including earthquakes, war, and interpersonal conflicts, cause a cascade of psychological and biological changes known as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a reliable marker of lipid peroxidation, and paraoxonase is a known antioxidant enzyme. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between earthquake trauma, PTSD effects on oxidative stress and the levels of serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enzyme activity, and levels of serum MDA. The study was carried out on three groups called: the PTSD group, the traumatized with earthquake exercise group, and healthy control group, which contained 32, 31, and 38 individuals, respectively. Serum MDA levels and PON1 enzyme activities from all participants were measured, and the results were compared across all groups. There were no significant differences between the PTSD patients and non-PTSD earthquake survivors in terms of the study variables. The mean PON1 enzyme activity from PTSD patients was significantly lower, while the mean MDA level was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group (p earthquake survivors who did not develop PTSD showed higher MDA levels and lower PON1 activity when compared to healthy controls. However, the differences between these groups did not reach a statistically significant level. Increased MDA level and decreased PON1 activity measured in PTSD patients after earthquake and may suggest increased oxidative stress in these patients. The nonsignificant trends that are observed in lipid peroxidation markers of earthquake survivors may indicate higher impact of PTSD development on these markers than trauma itself. For example, PTSD diagnosis seems to add to the effect of trauma on serum MDA levels and PON1 enzyme activity. Thus, serum MDA levels and PON1 enzyme activity may serve as biochemical markers of PTSD diagnosis.

  4. Biochemical effects of fipronil and its metabolites on lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidant defense in tadpoles (Eupemphix nattereri: Leiuperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripp, Hortênsia S; Freitas, Juliane S; Almeida, Eduardo A; Bisinoti, Márcia C; Moreira, Altair B

    2017-02-01

    Amphibians are very sensitive to environmental change and pollution because they have both aquatic and terrestrial life cycle stages and high skin permeability. Particularly during the larval stages, when these animals are restricted to small, transient ponds, exposure to high concentrations of pesticides is inevitable in agricultural areas. Given that pesticide application increases during the summer, which coincides with the reproductive season and the occurrence of most neotropical tadpoles in their natural environment, strong indications exist that tadpoles are developing in contaminated ponds. Fipronil is one of the primary insecticides used in sugarcane cultivation in Brazil, and little is known about its toxic effects on non-target organisms such as tadpoles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of fipronil and its metabolites on oxidative stress in Eupemphix nattereri tadpoles after exposure in water and sediment at concentrations of 35, 120 and 180µgkg(-1). We assessed the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA). The results showed that fipronil has an inherent capacity to cause oxidative stress in tadpoles, as evidenced by a decrease in CAT activity and an increase in lipid peroxidation levels at all concentrations tested. Fipronil sulfone also produced elevated MDA levels at two of the tested concentrations and increased G6PDH activity in tadpoles exposed to the highest concentration of this metabolite but did not affect MDA levels. Our data showed that fipronil and its degradation products promoted oxidative stress in Eupemphix nattereri tadpoles exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations and could lead to a decrease in the long-term physiological performance of these animals, leading to detrimental effects at the population level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reactions of 1-methyl-2-phenylindole with malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals. Analytical applications to a colorimetric assay of lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard-Monnier, D; Erdelmeier, I; Régnard, K; Moze-Henry, N; Yadan, J C; Chaudière, J

    1998-10-01

    Under acidic and mild-temperature conditions, 1-methyl-2-phenylindole was found to react with malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyalkenals to yield a stable chromophore with intense maximal absorbance at 586 nm. The use of methanesulfonic acid results in optimal yields of chromophore produced from MDA as well as from 4-hydroxynonenal. By contrast, the use of hydrochloric acid results in an optimal yield of chromophore produced from MDA and a negligible reaction of 4-hydroxynonenal. Taking advantage of such chromogenic reactions, we developed a new colorimetric assay of lipid peroxidation. Using a methanesulfonic acid-based medium, MDA and 4-hydroxyalkenals can be measured at the 586 nm wavelength. However, the presence of endogenous inhibitors of the reaction with 4-hydroxyalkenals is common, and this means that the latter may be underestimated in some biological samples. The assay performed in a hydrochloric acid-based medium enables the specific measurement of MDA in the presence of 4-hydroxyalkenals. Upon hydrolysis of Schiff bases in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.5), either assay can be used to specifically measure the amount of total MDA in biological samples because 4-hydroxyalkenals undergo an irreversible cyclization reaction under the hydrochloric acid-based conditions of hydrolysis. The two assays were applied to the determination of the amount of MDA alone and of MDA and 4-hydroxyalkenals in an in vitro model of lipid peroxidation. This methodology was also used to clarify complex patterns of tissue-specific MDA production in vivo, following hydrolysis of Schiff bases, in rodents treated with doxorubicin.

  6. Cobalt and manganese stress in the microalga Pavlova viridis (Prymnesiophyceae): Effects on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of marine environment has become an issue of major concern in recent years. Serious environmental pollution by heavy metals results from their increasing utilization in industrial processes and because most heavy metals are transported into the marine environment and accumulated without decomposition. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects on growth, pigments, lipid peroxidation, and some antioxidant enzyme activities of marine microalga Pavlova. viridis, in response to elevated concentrations of cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn), especially with regard to the involvement of antioxidative defences against heavy metal-induced oxidative stress. In response to Co2+, lipid peroxidation was enhanced compared to the control, as an indication of the oxidative damage caused by metal concentration assayed in the microalgal cells but not Mn2+. Exposure of P. viridis to the two metals caused changes in enzyme activities in a different manner, depending on the metal assayed: after Co2+ treatments, total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was irregular, although it was not significantly affected by Mn2+ exposure. Co2+ and Mn2+ stimulated the activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH), whereas, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) showed a remarkable increase in activity in response to Co2+ treatments and decreased gradually with Mn2+ concentration, up to 50 μmol/L, and then rose very rapidly, reaching to about 38.98% at 200 μmol/L Mn2+. These results suggest that an activation of some antioxidant enzymes was enhanced, to counteract the oxidative stress induced by the two metals at higher concentration.

  7. Plasma cytokine response, lipid peroxidation and NF-κB activation in skeletal muscle following maximum progressive swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Cleto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine lipid peroxidation and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation in skeletal muscle and the plasma cytokine profile following maximum progressive swimming. Adult male Swiss mice (N = 15 adapted to the aquatic environment were randomly divided into three groups: immediately after exercise (EX1, 3 h after exercise (EX2 and control. Animals from the exercising groups swam until exhaustion, with an initial workload of 2% of body mass attached to the tail. Control mice did not perform any exercise but were kept immersed in water for 20 min. Maximum swimming led to reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in skeletal muscle, as indicated by increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS levels (4062.67 ±1487.10 vs 19,072.48 ± 8738.16 nmol malondialdehyde (MDA/mg protein, control vs EX1. Exercise also promoted NF-κB activation in soleus muscle. Cytokine secretion following exercise was marked by increased plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels 3 h post-exercise (P < 0.05. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels were reduced following exercise and remained reduced 3 h post-exercise (P < 0.05. Plasma levels of other cytokines investigated, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ and interleukin-12 (IL-12, were not altered by exercise. The present findings showed that maximum swimming, as well as other exercise models, led to lipid peroxidation and NF-κB activation in skeletal muscle and increased plasma IL-6 levels. The plasma cytokine response was also marked by reduced IL-10 levels. These results were attributed to exercise type and intensity.

  8. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes induced by aspirin and diazinon:the protective role of selenium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Tawab Halim Mossa; Tarek Mohamed Heikal

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the adverse effect of exposure to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), diazinon (DIA) and their combination on oxidant/antioxidant status in rat erythrocytes and the ameliorating role of selenium (Se). Methods: Rats were oral administered ASA at the maximum administration dose (1 350 mg/personal/d=2.5 mg/kg body weight/d), DIA at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight/d and Se at a dose of 200 µg/kg body weight/d and their combinations for 28 consecutive d. Results: Administration of DIA, ASA and ASA+DIA lead to a significant increment (P≤0.05) in lipid peroxidation as evidenced by the increase in erythrocytes MDA levels by 61.8%, 20.79%and 105.62%, respectively. Co-administration of Se to treated rats modulated the augmentation of MDA levels. Administration of DIA, ASA and ASA+DIA lead to significant decreases (P≤0.05) in the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes when compared to the control group. The most influence and decreases in the activities of the aforementioned enzymes were observed in the treatments of ASA+DIA by 30.53%, 43.42%and 48.31%, respectively. However, co-administration of Se mitigated the significant decreases of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities to by 14.47%, 15, 36%and 12.29%. Conclusions: It can be concluded that DIA and ASA induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in rat erythrocytes. The results reveal the pronounced ameliorating effect of Se in DIA and ASA intoxicated rats. It is supposed that antioxidant supplementation may be beneficial for the people using ASA for longer periods and exposure to pesticides.

  9. Potential effects of pomegranate on lipid peroxidation and pro-inflammatory changes in daunorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder M Al-Kuraishy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Daunorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity caused by oxidative stress and free radical formation. Pomegranate possessed a significant in vitro free radical scavenging activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was estimations of the role of pomegranate effects in daunorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Methods: A total of 21 Sprague male rats were allocated into three groups, seven animals in each group. Group A: Control group received distilled water. Group B: Treated group with daunorubicin 20 mg/kg via intraperitoneal injection daily for the 12 th day for total cumulative dose of 240 mg/kg. Group C: Pretreatment group with pomegranate 25 mg/kg for 6 days orally, then daunorubicin 20 mg/kg administrated concomitantly for the next 6 days with a cumulative dose of 120 mg/kg. Cardiac troponin I [cTn I] pg/ml, malondialdehyde (MDA (ng/ml, interleukin 17 (IL-17 pg/ml, and cardiac lactate dehydrogenase (LDH (pm/ml, all these biomarkers were used to measure the severity of cardiotoxicity. Results: Daunorubicin at a dose of 20 mg/kg lead to pronounced cardiac damage that reflected on through elevations of serum cTn and serum LDH levels significantly P < 0.01, it induced lipid peroxidation during cardiotoxicity that reflected through an elevation in the serum MDA significantly P < 0.01, moreover, daunorubicin induces pro-inflammatory changes in cardiotoxicity; it raises the IL-17 serum level significantly P < 0.01 as compared with control. Pomegranate pretreatment demonstrated a significant cardioprotection from daunorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity; it attenuated the cardiac damage through reduction of cTn, LDH, MDA, and serum IL-17 level significantly P < 0.01 as compared with daunorubicin-treated group. Conclusions: Pomegranate demonstrated significant cardioprotection in daunorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity through reduction of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, pro-inflammatory, and cardiac injury biomarkers.

  10. The effect of dietary lipid on skin tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide: comparison of fish, coconut and corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locniskar, M; Belury, M A; Cumberland, A G; Patrick, K E; Fischer, S M

    1991-06-01

    Fish or vegetable oils were fed during the promotion stage of a mouse skin carcinogenesis model in order to investigate the effects of dietary fat on tumor development. Two weeks after initiation with 10 nmol dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, SENCAR mice were divided into five groups and maintained on one of the following semipurified diets containing 10% total fat and varying the type of fat: 8.5% coconut oil (CT)/1.5% corn oil (CO); 1% menhaden oil (MO)/7.5% CT/1.5% CO; 4% MO/4.5% CT/1.5% CO; 8.5% MO/1.5% CO; or 10% CO. Promotion with twice-weekly applications of 40 mg benzoyl peroxide was begun 2 weeks later and continued for 52 weeks. No statistically significant differences in kcal food consumed or body weights were observed between diet groups. Papilloma latency, incidence and yield differed among the diet groups with the group fed the 8.5% CT/1.5% CO diet having the shortest latency and highest papilloma incidence and number. In addition, carcinoma latency and incidence was assessed and the first carcinoma appeared in the group fed 8.5% CT/1.5% CO after 20 weeks of benzoyl peroxide treatment; this group yielded the highest carcinoma incidence throughout the study. In comparison, the group fed the 10% CO diet had the longest latency period, and among the lowest papilloma and carcinoma incidence and fewest tumors. In parallel studies, ornithine decarboxylase activity, vascular permeability and hyperplasia were elevated in the epidermis of benzoyl peroxide-treated mice but the extent of the response did not correlate with the different rates of tumor formation observed among the diet groups. These data indicate that dietary fat modulates tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide in this skin carcinogenesis model with the predominantly saturated fat diet producing the highest rates of papilloma and carcinogen formation and the polyunsaturated fat diet the lowest.

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANTIOXIDANT POWER OF PLASMA WITH LIPID PEROXIDE FORMATION IN PLASMA AND LIVER DAMAGES CAUSED BY OVERDOSE OF VITAMIN K1 IN ADULT AND WEANLING RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ansari Hadipour

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the plasma levels of lipid peroxidation (LP products, protein carbonyls and antioxidant capacity of plasma as judged by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP assay were compared in adult and weanling rats treated with vitamin K1 phylloquinone.

  12. Effects of sulfasalazine on lipid peroxidation and histologic liver damage in a rat model of obstructive jaundice and obstructive jaundice with lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Dirlik, Musa; Karahan, Aydin; Canbaz, Hakan; Caglikulekci, Mehmet; Polat, Ayşe; Tamer, Lulufer; Aydin,Suha

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sulfasalazine, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), has been found to alleviate oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokine production, bile-duct proliferation, neutrophil infiltration, and fibrosis. Therefore, it may have a potential effect in attenuating lipid peroxidation and histologic liver damage in patients with biliary obstruction and biliary obstruction with sepsis.

  13. Effect of process parameters upon the dopamine and lipid peroxidation activity of selected MIG welding fumes as a marker of potential neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, N J; Evans, A T; Yeung, C K; Hewitt, P J

    2001-04-01

    There is growing concern over the neurotoxic effects of chronic occupational exposure to metal fume produced by welding. Elevated iron and manganese levels in the brain have been linked to an increase in lipid peroxidation, dopamine depletion and predisposition to the development of a Parkinson's type condition in advanced cases. Chemical and toxicological analysis of selected welding fumes, generated by model processes, were used in order to evaluate their potential to release solutes that promote oxidation of dopamine and peroxidation of brain lipids in cell free assays. This study compared the effect of shield gas, electrode type and voltage/currect upon the dopamine and brain lipid peroxidation potential of selected welding fume, obtained from metal inert gas (MIG) welding systems. Overall, fume extracts were found to enhance dopamine oxidation and inhibit lipid peroxidation. Significant differences were also found in the oxidising potential of fume generated under differing process conditions; it may therefore be possible to determine the potential neurotoxicity of fumes using this system.

  14. Effect of vitamin E and selenium supplementation of cockerel diets on glutathione peroxidase activity and lipid peroxidation susceptibility in sperm, testes, and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surai, P; Kostjuk, I; Wishart, G; Macpherson, A; Speake, B; Noble, R; Ionov, I; Kutz, E

    1998-01-01

    The phospholipids of avian spermatozoa are characterized by high proportions of arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosatetraenoic (22:4n-6) fatty acids and are therefore sensitive to lipid peroxidation. Alpha-tocopherol and glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px] are believed to be the primary components of the antioxidant system of the spermatozoa. The present study evaluates the effect of vitamin E and vitamin E plus Se supplementation of the cockerel diet on GSH-Px activity, vitamin E accumulation, and lipid peroxidation in the spermatozoa, testes, and liver. At the beginning of the experiment 75 Rhode Island Red cockerels were divided into five groups, kept in individual cages, and fed a wheat-barley-based ration balanced in all nutrients. Supplements fed to the different groups were as follows: vitamin E, 0, 20, 200, 20, and 200 mg/kg to groups 1-5, respectively, with groups 4 and 5 also receiving 0. 3 mg Se/kg. The vitamin E supplementation produced increased levels of alpha-tocopherol in semen, testes, and liver. The inclusion of the Se into the cock diet had a significant (P spermatozoa, testes, and liver. The increased vitamin E concentration in the spermatozoa was associated with a reduction in their susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Similarly, the increased GSH-Px activity provided enhanced protection against lipid peroxidation.

  15. The antioxidant behaviour of melatonin and structural analogues during lipid peroxidation depends not only on their functional groups but also on the assay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagali, Natalia; Catalá, Angel

    2012-07-13

    There is no general agreement yet on the antioxidant effect of pineal indoles against lipid peroxidation. Accordingly, the main goal of the present work was to study the antioxidant activity of melatonin (MLT), N-acetylserotonin (NAS), 5-HO-tryptophan (5HO-TRP) and 5-methoxytryptamine (5MTP) in two different lipid systems with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): triglycerides (rich in 20:5 n-3, 22:6 n-3) dissolved in chloroform and sonicated liposomes made of retinal lipids (rich in 22:6 n-3). In the triglyceride-chloroform-system the peroxidation reaction was initiated by cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) whereas liposomes were peroxidized with Fe(2+). The techniques employed at the present work were: (1) TBARS production, (2) DPPH assay, (3) determination of conjugated dienes production and (4) analysis of fatty acid profile by GC-MS. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was employed as a reference because of its well known antioxidant capacity. Our results showed that MLT and 5MTP were unable to protect PUFAs against lipid peroxidation in both systems, whereas NAS and 5HO-TRP were better antioxidants that BHT in the triglyceride-system but ineffective in the liposome-system. We conclude that the antioxidant behaviour of pineal indoles depends not only on their functional groups but also on the assay system and could be explained by the polar paradox theory.

  16. Antioxidant effects of 1,4-dihydropyridine and nitroso aryl derivatives on the Fe+3/ascorbate-stimulated lipid peroxidation in rat brain slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Araya, G; Godoy, L; Naranjo, L; Squella, J A; Letelier, M E; Núñez-Vergara, L J

    1998-09-01

    1. Lipid peroxidation in rat brain slices was induced by Fe+3/ascorbate. 2. Brain lipid peroxidation, as measured by malondialdehyde formation, was inhibited by all the tested nitro aryl 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives over a wide range of concentrations. The time-course antioxidant effects of the most representative agents were assessed. On the basis of both time-course and IC50 experiments the tentative order of antioxidant activity on rat brain slices could be: nicardipine>nisoldipine> (R,S/S,R)-furnidipine > (R,R/S,S)-furnidipine>nitrendipine>nimodipine> nifedipine. 3. 1,4-Dihydropyridine derivatives that lack of a nitro group in the molecule (isradipine, amlodipine) also inhibited lipid peroxidation in rat brain slices but at higher concentrations than that of nitro-substituted derivatives. 4. All the tested nitroso aryl derivatives [2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitrosophenyl)-3,5-pyridinedicar. boxylic acid dimethyl ester (NTP), nitrosotoluene, nitrosobenzene] were more potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation than were the parent nitro compounds. In conclusion, on the basis of the IC50 values determined, the rank order of antioxidant potency for these derivatives can be established as: ortho-nitrosotoluene>NTP>nitrosobenzene.

  17. [The relationship between lipid peroxidation and platelet aggregation in atherosclerotic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Calviño, C; Simón Carballo, R; Coma Alfonso, C; Sánchez de León, T; Montero Pacheco, E; Rodríguez Piloto, R

    1991-01-01

    We studied 58 patients with arterial esteno-occlusive disease, 32 diabetics and 26 nondiabetics. Some parameters of lipid metabolism and platelet function were evaluated. We show the correlations founded among these parameters and we offer a possible explanation which support this behaviour.

  18. A transient increase in lipid peroxidation primes preadipocytes for delayed mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization and ATP depletion during prolonged exposure to fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carlyle; Davis, Barbara; Neufer, P Darrell; Murphy, Michael P; Anderson, Ethan J; Robidoux, Jacques

    2014-02-01

    Preadipocytes are periodically subjected to fatty acid (FA) concentrations that are potentially cytotoxic. We tested the hypothesis that prolonged exposure of preadipocytes of human origin to a physiologically relevant mix of FAs leads to mitochondrial inner membrane (MIM) permeabilization and ultimately to mitochondrial crisis. We found that exposure of preadipocytes to FAs led to progressive cyclosporin A-sensitive MIM permeabilization, which in turn caused a reduction in MIM potential, oxygen consumption, and ATP synthetic capacity and, ultimately, death. Additionally, we showed that FAs induce a transient increase in intramitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxide production, lasting roughly 30 and 120min for the ROS and lipid peroxides, respectively. MIM permeabilization and its deleterious consequences including mitochondrial crisis and cell death were prevented by treating the cells with the mitochondrial FA uptake inhibitor etomoxir, the mitochondrion-selective superoxide and lipid peroxide antioxidants MitoTempo and MitoQ, or the lipid peroxide and reactive carbonyl scavenger l-carnosine. FAs also promoted a delayed oxidative stress phase. However, the beneficial effects of etomoxir, MitoTempo, and l-carnosine were lost by delaying the treatment by 2h, suggesting that the initial phase was sufficient to prime the cells for the delayed MIM permeabilization and mitochondrial crisis. It also suggested that the second ROS production phase is a consequence of this loss in mitochondrial health. Altogether, our data suggest that approaches designed to diminish intramitochondrial ROS or lipid peroxide accumulation, as well as MIM permeabilization, are valid mechanism-based therapeutic avenues to prevent the loss in preadipocyte metabolic fitness associated with prolonged exposure to elevated FA levels. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reinterpreting the best biomarker of oxidative stress: The 8-iso-PGF(2α)/PGF(2α) ratio distinguishes chemical from enzymatic lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Erve, Thomas J; Lih, Fred B; Kadiiska, Maria B; Deterding, Leesa J; Eling, Thomas E; Mason, Ronald P

    2015-06-01

    The biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) is regarded as the gold standard for detection of excessive chemical lipid peroxidation in humans. However, biosynthesis of 8-iso-PGF2α via enzymatic lipid peroxidation by prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases (PGHSs), which are significantly induced in inflammation, could lead to incorrect biomarker interpretation. To resolve the ambiguity with this biomarker, the ratio of 8-iso-PGF2α to prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) is established as a quantitative measure to distinguish enzymatic from chemical lipid peroxidation in vitro, in animal models, and in humans. Using this method, we find that chemical lipid peroxidation contributes only 3% to the total 8-iso-PGF2α in the plasma of rats. In contrast, the 8-iso-PGF2α levels in plasma of human males are generated >99% by chemical lipid peroxidation. This establishes the potential for an alternate pathway of biomarker synthesis, and draws into question the source of increases in 8-iso-PGF2α seen in many human diseases. In conclusion, increases in 8-iso-PGF2α do not necessarily reflect increases in oxidative stress; therefore, past studies using 8-iso-PGF2α as a marker of oxidative stress may have been misinterpreted. The 8-iso-PGF2α/PGF2α ratio can be used to distinguish biomarker synthesis pathways and thus confirm the potential change in oxidative stress in the myriad of disease and chemical exposures known to induce 8-iso-PGF2α. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. 精子脂质过氧化反应与致炎细胞因子%Sperm lipid peroxidation and pro-inflammatory cytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Martinez; F.Proverbio; M.I.Camejo

    2007-01-01

    Aim:To investigate if interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are able to stimulate the level of lipid peroxidation of sperm membranes, either alone or in the presence of leukocytes. Methods: Semen samples from normozoospermic donors were prepared by density gradient. The sperms were exposed to the indicated cytokines, at physiological and infection-inflammation concentrations, in the absence or presence of leukocytes. Lipid peroxidation of the sperm membranes was determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxialkenals (HAE) formation. Results: TNF-α, IL-8 and IFN-γ increased the level of sperm membrane lipid peroxidation when tested at physiological concentrations. At infectioninflammation concentrations, only IL-8 was able to produce a higher effect. When assayed in the presence of leucocytes,IL-8 and TNF-α showed a higher effect at infection-inflammation concentrations than at physiological concentrations.Finally, IL-8 showed a higher effect in the presence of leukocytes than in their absence at both physiological and infection-inflammation concentrations. TNF-α also showed a higher effect when assayed in the presence of leukocytes than in their absence, but only at infection-inflammation concentrations. There was no effect of IL-6 or IL- 10 in any of the tested conditions. Conclusion: Several pro-inflammatory cytokines at physiological concentrations increase the level of lipid peroxidation of sperm membranes, which could be important for the sperm fecundation process. However, infection-inflammation concentrations of some cytokines, such as IL-8 and TNF-α, either alone or in the presence of leukocytes, could drive the lipid peroxidation of the spermatozoa plasma membrane to levels that can affect the sperm fertility capacity.

  1. Comprehensive metabolomics identified lipid peroxidation as a prominent feature in human plasma of patients with coronary heart diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Lu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is a complex human disease associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. The underlying mechanisms and diagnostic biomarkers for the different types of CHD remain poorly defined. Metabolomics has been increasingly recognized as an enabling technique with the potential to identify key metabolomic features in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology and differentiate different stages of CHD. We performed comprehensive metabolomic analysis in human plasma from 28 human subjects with stable angina (SA, myocardial infarction (MI, and healthy control (HC. Subsequent analysis demonstrated a uniquely altered metabolic profile in these CHD: a total of 18, 37 and 36 differential metabolites were identified to distinguish SA from HC, MI from SA, and MI from HC groups respectively. Among these metabolites, glycerophospholipid (GPL metabolism emerged as the most significantly disturbed pathway. Next, we used a targeted metabolomic approach to systematically analyze GPL, oxidized phospholipid (oxPL, and downstream metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, such as arachidonic acid and linoleic acid. Surprisingly, lipids associated with lipid peroxidation (LPO pathways including oxidized PL and isoprostanes, isomers of prostaglandins, were significantly elevated in plasma of MI patients comparing to HC and SA, consistent with the notion that oxidative stress-induced LPO is a prominent feature in CHD. Our studies using the state-of-the-art metabolomics help to understand the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of CHD; LPO metabolites may serve as potential biomarkers to differentiation MI from SA and HC.

  2. Alleviative effects of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. flower on lipid peroxidation and protein degradation in emulsified pork meatballs

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    Yi Ding

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To avoid or retard the lipid peroxidation of meat products, antioxidants are commonly added. Considering the safety and health of additives in meat products, consumers prefer natural antioxidants rather than synthetic ones. Gentisic acid and epicatechin were identified as the major phenolic acid and flavonoid, respectively, of litchi flowers (LFs. The physicochemical properties of pork meatballs with or without dried LF powders (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%, w/w and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ; 0.01%, w/w were analyzed during a 4-week frozen storage period. LF and TBHQ decreased (p < 0.05 thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values but increased (p < 0.05 thiol group contents in meatballs. LF added to meatballs improved (p < 0.05 texture and water-holding capacity (centrifugation/purge losses more than in the control group upon the storage. Although LF powders made meatballs redder and darker (p < 0.05 than the control and TBHQ groups, they did not affect the preference of panelists. The addition of 0.5% LF powders exhibited the best (p < 0.05 overall sensory panel acceptance. LFs may be an effective natural antioxidant to reduce lipid and protein oxidation for frozen cooked meat products.

  3. Modulation of lipid peroxidation, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities in brain tissues of diabetic rats by fibre - Enriched biscuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ochuko L Erukainure; Folasade O Adeboyejo; Gloria N Elemo; Osaretin AT Ebuehi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of feeding fibre - enriched biscuit on the antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities in brain tissues of diabetic rats. Method: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan. Treatment lasted for 14 d, after which the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Brain tissues were used for the assessment of GSH, catalase, SOD and lipid peroxidation as well as lipid profiles. Result: Induction of diabetes led to a significant decrease in GSH level, elevated SOD and catalase activities. These were significantly modified by the biscuits. There was an elevated level of malondialdehyde in the brain tissues of the untreated diabetic rats; this was significantly reduced by the biscuits. There was a significant decrease in HDL and a significant increase in LDL levels, total cholesterol and triglycerides in the untreated (diabetic) rats. Feeding with fibre - enriched biscuits led to decrease in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL - cholesterol and caused a significant increase in the levels of HDL. Conclusions: These results suggest a therapeutic and protective effect of the fibre -enriched biscuits against diabetic - induced brain toxicity in rats.

  4. Biomarcadores de peroxidação lipídica na aterosclerose Lipid peroxidation biomarkers in atherosclerosis

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    Dulcinéia Saes Parra Abdalla

    2008-12-01

    characterized by a chronic inflammatory response in the arterial wall triggered by endothelial injury. Its etiology is associated with the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein. The objective of this work is to present the main metabolites involved in the biochemical process of lipid peroxidation and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the methods used to measure the lipid peroxidation biomarkers associated with atherosclerosis. Lipoprotein oxidation can be assessed by determining the products generated during lipid peroxidation, such as isoprostanes, lipid hydroperoxides, aldehydes, oxidized phospholipids and products of cholesterol oxidation. The susceptibility of low density lipoprotein particles to oxidation can be assessed in vitro after induction of lipid peroxidation by oil-soluble or water-soluble azo initiators or more commonly by copper ions. On the other hand, low density lipoprotein modification by lipoxygenases and peroxidases or non-enzymatic oxidation increases the negative charge of these particles and may contribute to in vivo generation of a minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein subfraction called electronegative low density lipoprotein (low density lipoprotein. Plasma concentrations of these particles can be determined by liquid chromatography or immunoassays. Many methods can be used to assess lipid peroxidation biomarkers in vivo and in vitro, however determination of the most suitable biomarker depends on a minute assessment of the advantages, disadvantages and particularities of each analysis, bearing in mind the objectives of the study that will be performed.

  5. Effect of Cu2+ and pH on intracellular calcium content and lipid peroxidation in winter wheat roots

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    M. E. Riazanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect of copper ions and pH of external solution on intracellular calcium homeostasis and lipid peroxidation in winter wheat roots. Experiment was carried out with winter wheat. Sterile seeds were germinated in Petri dishes on the filter paper soaked with acetic buffer (pH 4.7 and 6.2 at 20 °Cin the dark for 48 hours. Copper was added as CuSO4. It’s concentrations varied from 0 to 50 µM. The Ca2+-fluorescent dye Fluo-3/AM ester was loaded on 60 hour. Root fluorescence with Fluo-3 loading was detected using X-Cite Series 120 Q unit attached to microscope Olympus BX53 with camera Olympus DP72. Imaging of root cells was achieved after exciting with 488 nm laser and collection of emission signals above 512 nm. Preliminary analysis of the images was performed using software LabSens; brightness (fluorescence intensity analysis was carried out by means of ImageJ. Peroxidation of lipids was determined according to Kumar and Knowles method. It was found that pH of solution had effect on release of calcium from intracellular stores. Low pH provokes an increase of [Ca2+]cyt which may be reaction of roots to acidic medium. Copper induces increase in non-selective permeability of plasma membrane and leads to its faster depolarization. This probably initiates Ca-dependent depolarization channels which are responsible for the influx of calcium from apoplast into the cell. Changing of the membrane permeability may occur due to interaction between Cu2+ ions and Ca-binding sites on plasma membrane or may be due to binding of copper with sulfhydryl groups and increasing of POL. Copper may also damage lipid bilayer and change the activity of some non-selective channels and transporters. Reactive oxygen species which are formed under some types of stress factors, especially the effect of heavy metals, can be activators of Ca-channels. Cu2+ ions rise MDA content and promote the oxidative stress. Low medium pH also induces its

  6. Antioxidant effect of apple phenolic on lipid peroxidation in Chinese-style sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai; Qin, Chunjun; Zhang, Peipei; Ge, Qingfeng; Wu, Mangang; Wu, Jianping; Wang, Miao; Wang, Zhijun

    2015-02-01

    Chinese-style sausage is a very popular meat product obtained from a mixture of chopped pork meat, lard, salt, spices, additives (nitrate, nitrite, and antioxidants) and/or starter cultures. The antioxidative effect of apple phenolic on lipid oxidation in Chinese-style sausage compared with that of butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and ursolic acid were studied. Lipid oxidation was assessed through determination of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) and volatile aldehydes. The content and composition of fatty acids in phospholipid were evaluated. At the optimum addition level, apple phenolic (0.5 g·kg(-1) in total fat) was more effective at inhibiting lipid oxidation than BHT (0.15 g·kg(-1) in total fat) and ursolic acid (0.5 g·kg(-1) in total fat) in Chinese-style sausages during 120 days storage. Moreover, apple phenolic exhibited stronger phospholipid protective capacity than ursolic acid and BHT at the end of storage. This study reveals a potential application of apple phenolic to enhance the oxidation stability of meat products during long storage.

  7. Pharmacological screening of Hypericum androsaemum extracts for antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidation, antiglycation and cytotoxicity activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddiqe, Zeb; Maimoona, Alya; Abbas, Ghulam; Naeem, Ismat; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress and glycation processes have a combined effect on diabetes related complications. Crude plant extracts and plant derived compounds possessing both antiglycation and antioxidant activities have a high therapeutic potential for treating these complications. Antioxidant, antiglycation, anti-lipid per oxidation and cytotoxic activities of crude methanol extract and solvent fractions of Hypericum androsaemum L. (Hypericaceae) were evaluated and correlated with total content of phenolics and flavonoids. Significant radical scavenging activity was observed for the methanol extract against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical used as a basis for antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 92.70±2.85 μg mL(-1) (96.20±2.34% inhibition at 500 μg mL(-1)). In case of anion scavenging activity the results were not very significant (33.20±1.22% inhibition at 500 μg mL(-1)). Anti-lipid per oxidation activity was highest for n-hexane fraction (67.83±1.33% inhibition at 500 μg mL(-1)) while the ethyl acetate fraction had the highest antiglycation activity (62.77±2.54% inhibition at 500 μg mL(-1)). Statistically significant correlation was determined for antioxidant and antiglycation activity and phenolic and flavonoid contents. In cytotoxicity assay all the extracts had IC50 values >30 μg mL(-1) as compared to the standard cycloheximide (IC50 value 0.084±0.1 μg mL(-1)). The polar extracts of H. androsaemum can be a good source of non-toxic compounds with antioxidant, anti-lipid per oxidation and antiglycation activities.

  8. The lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal: Advances in chemistry and analysis

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    Corinne M. Spickett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE is one of the most studied products of phospholipid peroxidation, owing to its reactivity and cytotoxicity. It can be formed by several radical-dependent oxidative routes involving the formation of hydroperoxides, alkoxyl radicals, epoxides, and fatty acyl cross-linking reactions. Cleavage of the oxidized fatty acyl chain results in formation of HNE from the methyl end, and 9-oxo-nonanoic acid from the carboxylate or esterified end of the chain, although many other products are also possible. HNE can be metabolized in tissues by a variety of pathways, leading to detoxification and excretion. HNE-adducts to proteins have been detected in inflammatory situations such as atherosclerotic lesions using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, which have also been applied in ELISAs and western blotting. However, in order to identify the proteins modified and the exact sites and nature of the modifications, mass spectrometry approaches are required. Combinations of enrichment strategies with targetted mass spectrometry routines such as neutral loss scanning are now facilitating detection of HNE-modified proteins in complex biological samples. This is important for characterizing the interactions of HNE with redox sensitive cell signalling proteins and understanding how it may modulate their activities either physiologically or in disease.

  9. Cytotoxic effects of the lipid peroxidation product 2,4-decadienal in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabré, Anna; Girona, Josefa; Vallvé, Joan-C; Heras, Mercedes; Masana, Lluís

    2003-08-01

    It is well known that oxidized LDL can be cytotoxic to smooth muscle cells (SMC) and then contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, which oxidized compound and which mechanism are involved in cell death is still under study. In this work we have studied the role of two representative apolar aldehydes (hexanal and 2,4-decadienal (2,4-DDE)), derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids oxidation, on human SMC cytotoxicity. Cell cytotoxicity was assessed by means of lactate deshydrogenase (LDH) release, cell morphology and DNA fragmentation. Results showed that hexanal up to 50 microM for 24 h was not cytotoxic to cells. However, 2,4-DDE at 50 microM for 24 h induced a 48% LDH leakage. The observed cytotoxic effect of 2,4-DDE was not due to a programmed cell death as no DNA ladder was detected. After aldehydes exposition a decreased expression of p53 and c-myc mRNA, genes involved in cell death regulation, was also demonstrated by RT-PCR. These observations suggest that 2,4-DDE may be the molecular cause of lipid oxidation cytotoxicity to human vascular SMC. By inducing cell necrosis in advanced stages, lipid oxidation may contribute to the cell debris core which is growing in the atherosclerotic lesion leading to a weakened and unstable plaque.

  10. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Soluble Sugar Content of Soybean under Salt Stress

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    Ali Moradi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus, Glomus mosseae, on characteristics of growth, membrane lipid peroxidation and soluble sugar content in the shoots and roots of soybean (Glycine max plants was studied in pot culture under salt stress. The experiment was arranged as a factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with four replications in greenhouse of College of Agriculture, Tehran University, Iran. The plants inoculated with mycorrhiza had significantly greater shoot and root biomass than the nonmycorrhizal plants at all salinity levels. AM symbiosis decreased membrane relative permeability and malondialdehyde content in shoots and roots. The soluble sugar content in roots was higher in mycorrhizal than nonmycorrhizal plants, but there was no significant difference in soluble sugar content in shoots between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. The results indicate that the AM fungus is capable of alleviating the damage caused by salt stress on soybean plants by reducing membrane lipid peroxidation and increasing the accumulation of soluble sugar content. Consequently, arbuscular mycorrhiza formation highly enhanced the salinity tolerance of soybean plant, which increased host biomass and promoted plant growth. Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}

  11. Vitamin C Prevents Sleep Deprivation-induced Elevation in Cortisol and Lipid Peroxidation in the Rat Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayaki, L A; Sulaiman, S O; Anoba, N B

    2015-12-20

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is biological stressor that alters metabolic parameters, induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Previous studies have shown that antioxidants substances such as melatonin, tryptophan, vitamin E and vitamin C improved stress tolerance in laboratory animals. In this study, we examined the potential protective effects of administration of vitamin C on acute and chronic sleep deprivation-induced metabolic derangement. In addition, possible processes involved in vitamin C effects on acute and chronic sleep deprivation-induced metabolic derangement were determined. Thirty-five rats (120-250g) were used. The rats were divided into 7 groups of 5 rats each as Control (CTRL), Acute sleep deprived untreated with vitamin C (AC), Acute sleep deprived treated with vitamin C (AWC), Chronic sleep deprived untreated with vitamin C (CC), Chronic sleep deprived treated with vitamin C (CWC), Chronic sleep deprived + Recovery untreated with vitamin C (RC), and Chronic sleep deprived + Recovery treated with vitamin C (RWC). The SD was carried out for 20h for 1 day on the acute groups, and for 20h/day for 5 days on the chronic group, using the Multiple Modified Platforms (MMP) after oral administration of 300mg/kg of vitamin C to all vitamin C-treated groups. The recovery groups were further observed for five days after SD. The control group were treated with vitamin C and without stress in their home cages. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected for estimation of plasma glucose, insulin, cortisol and malondialdehyde (MDA). The results showed that acute and chronic SDs significantly  increased MDA and cortisol levels, while significantly reduced the levels of insulin. Treatment with vitamin C reversed the changes in the MDA, cortisol and plasma insulin levels. Additionally, allowing the rats to recover for 5 days after sleep deprivation corrected the observed changes. Plasma glucose was significantly

  12. The primary role of iron-mediated lipid peroxidation in the differential cytotoxicity caused by two varieties of talc nanoparticles on A549 cells and lipid peroxidation inhibitory effect exerted by ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Kumar, Sudhir; Murthy, Ramesh Chandra; Ashquin, Mohd; Khan, Mohd Imran; Patil, Govil; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2010-06-01

    Talc particles, the basic ingredient in different kinds of talc-based cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, pose a health risk to pulmonary and ovarian systems due to domestic and occupational exposures. Two types of talc nanoparticles depending on the source of geographical origin - indigenous- and commercial talc nanoparticles were assessed for their potential in vitro toxicity on A(549) cells; along with indigenous conventionally used microtalc particles. Cell viability, determined through live/dead staining and 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, decreased as a function of concentration, origin and size of particles. Both varieties of talc nanoparticles differentially induced lipid peroxidation (LPO), which was correlated with the pattern of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Relatively higher cytotoxicity of indigenous nanotalc could be attributed to its higher content of iron as compared to commercial nanotalc. The known scavenger of ROS, l-ascorbic acid significantly inhibited LPO induction due to talc particles. Data suggest that nanotalc toxicity on A(549) cells was mediated through oxidative stress, wherein role of iron-mediated LPO was much pronounced in differential cytotoxicity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect ofquercetine on lipid peroxidation induced by ziprasidone in human plasma – invitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kopka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Niektóre leki przeciwpsychotyczne, w  tym zyprazydon (ZYP, przyczyniają się do zaburzeń równowagi proi antyoksydacyjnej u chorych na schizofrenię. Poszukiwanie skutecznej antyoksydacyjnej suplementacji zmniejszającej działanie prooksydacyjne leków przeciwpsychotycznych ma zatem duże znaczenie kliniczne. Celem badania było ustalenie wpływu ZYP na peroksydację lipidów ludzkiego osocza – przez oznaczenie stężenia związków reagujących z kwasem tiobarbiturowym (TBARS, w modelu in vitro. Materiał i metody: Krew do badań pobrano od zdrowych ochotników płci męskiej – na roztwór ACD. Substancję aktywną, czyli ZYP, rozpuszczono w 0,01% dimetylosulfotlenku do stężeń końcowych (40 ng/ml, 139 ng/ml i inkubowano z osoczem (1 i 24 godziny, 37°C. Osocze inkubowano również z kwercetyną (7,5 µg/ml, 15 µg/ml oraz z kwercetyną i ZYP, w różnych kombinacjach badanych stężeń. Do każdego doświadczenia wykonano próby kontrolne (bez leku. Oznaczenia stężenia TBARS przeprowadzono metodą spektrofotometryczną Rice’a-Evansa (modyfikacja: Wachowicz i Kustroń. Wyniki: ZYP w stężeniach 40 ng/ml i 139 ng/ml po 24 godzinach inkubacji z osoczem powoduje wzrost stężenia TBARS (p odpowiednio <0,01 i <0,002. Kwercetyna (7,5 µg/ml, 15 µg/ml inkubowana 24 godziny w osoczu wraz z ZYP zmniejsza peroksydację lipidów średnio o 38% (dla ZYP 40 ng/ml p odpowiednio <0,0003 i <0,0001, dla ZYP 139 ng/ml p odpowiednio <0,002 i <0,004. Wniosek: Kwercetyna istotnie obniża peroksydację lipidów wywoływaną przez zyprazydon.

  14. Effect of deferrioxamine and diethyldithiocarbamate on paracetamol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity. The role of lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, M; Sause, C; Siegers, C P; Lemoine, R

    1988-08-01

    In mice subjected to glutathione depletion by pretreatment with phorone (diisopropylidene acetone, 200 mg/kg i.p. in 10 ml/kg olive oil) paracetamol (acetaminophen, 300 mg/kg p.o. in 10 ml/kg tylose 2 h later) led to a marked hepatotoxicity as evidenced by increased plasma activities of the liver-specific enzymes sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) and glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase (GPT) 3 and 24 h after treatment. Nephrotoxicity was also indicated at both timepoints by an increased creatinine concentration in plasma, while neither the urine volume nor its content in gamma-glutamyl transpeptitase over 20 h were affected. Hepato- and nephrotoxicity were also assessed histomorphologically. In vivo lipid peroxidation (LPO), as measured by ethane exhalation over 3 h, was clearly enhanced by paracetamol. Malondialdehyde content was increased and glutathione concentration diminished in the liver, but not in the kidney. Diethyldithiocarbamate (DTC, 200 mg/kg i.p.) or deferrioxamine (DFO, 500 mg/kg i.p.) both given 30 min before PA, inhibited in vivo LPO. However, only DTC was capable of antagonizing the hepato- and nephrotoxic effects of paracetamol, while DFO only delayed the onset of nephrotoxicity but left the hepatotoxicity unaffected. Both agents inhibited the rise in hepatic malondialdehyde-content, but only DTC prevented paracetamol-induced glutathione depletion. These results indicate that LPO is not mainly responsible for paracetamol toxicity towards liver or kidney.

  15. Short-term effects of T-2 toxin or deoxynivalenol on lipid peroxidation and the glutathione system in common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelyhe, Csilla; Kövesi, Benjámin; Zándoki, Erika; Kovács, Balázs; Szabó-Fodor, Judit; Mézes, Miklós; Balogh, Krisztián

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of a single oral dose of T-2 and HT-2 toxin at 0.15, 0.33 and 1.82 mg kg(-1) body weight, or deoxynivalenol (DON) and 15-acetyl-DON at 0.13, 0.31 and 1.75 mg kg(-1) body weight in common carp. Conjugated dienes and trienes (the early markers of lipid peroxidation) were elevated in all DON-treated groups at the 16th hour, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; termination marker) were increased at the highest dose of DON at the 16th and 24th hours. T-2 toxin did not cause changes in these parameters. Glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity showed higher levels at the 16th hour as the effect of both mycotoxins. The expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) genes (gpx4a and gpx4b) revealed a dual response. Downregulation was observed at the 8th hour, followed by an induction at the 16th hour, at the lowest dose of both mycotoxins. Higher doses revealed long-drawn emergence and an elevation was observed only at the 24th hour. However, at the lowest and highest doses of DON or T-2 toxin the changes in gene expression were delayed, which may be related to the low oxidative stress response, as suggested by the expression profiles of the nrf2, keap1, gpx4a and gpx4b genes.

  16. Metallothionein-II Inhibits Lipid Peroxidation and Improves Functional Recovery after Transient Brain Ischemia and Reperfusion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Diaz-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R, damaging mechanisms, such as excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, lead to irreversible neurological deficits. The induction of metallothionein-II (MT-II protein is an endogenous mechanism after I/R. Our aim was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of MT-II after I/R in rats. Male Wistar rats were transiently occluded at the middle cerebral artery for 2 h, followed by reperfusion. Rats received either MT (10 μg per rat i.p. or vehicle after ischemia. Lipid peroxidation (LP was measured 22 h after reperfusion in frontal cortex and hippocampus; also, neurological deficit was evaluated after ischemia, using the Longa scoring scale. Infarction area was analyzed 72 hours after ischemia. Results showed increased LP in frontal cortex (30.7% and hippocampus (26.4%, as compared to control group; this effect was fully reversed by MT treatment. Likewise, we also observed a diminished neurological deficit assessed by the Longa scale in those animals treated with MT compared to control group values. The MT-treated group showed a significant (P<0.05 reduction of 39.9% in the infarction area, only at the level of hippocampus, as compared to control group. Results suggest that MT-II may be a novel neuroprotective treatment to prevent ischemia injury.

  17. In Vivo Immunomodulation and Lipid Peroxidation Activities Contributed to Chemoprevention Effects of Fermented Mung Bean against Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Keong Yeap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean has been reported to have antioxidant, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory effects in vitro. Fermented products are reported to have enhanced immunomodulation and cancer chemopreventive effects. In this study, fermented mung bean treatments in vivo were studied by monitoring tumor development, spleen immunity, serum cytokine (interleukin 2 and interferon gamma levels, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels after injection with low and high risk 4T1 breast cancer cells. Pretreatment with fermented mung bean was associated with delayed tumor formation in low risk mice. Furthermore, this treatment was connected with higher serum anticancer cytokine levels, spleen T cell populations, splenocyte cytotoxicity, and spleen/tumor antioxidant levels. Histopathological evaluation of fermented mung bean treated tumor revealed lower event of mitotic division. On the other hand, antioxidant and nitric oxide levels that were significantly increased in the untreated mice were inhibited in the fermented mung bean treated groups. These results suggested that fermented mung bean has potential cancer chemoprevention effects through the stimulation of immunity, lipid peroxidation, and anti-inflammation.

  18. Effect of Butachlor on Antioxidant Enzyme Status and Lipid Peroxidation in Fresh Water African Catfish, (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Farombi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of butachlor, a widely used herbicide, on antioxidant enzyme system and lipid peroxidation formation in African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus. Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of butachlor 1, 2, 2.5 ppm and sacrificed 24hrs after treatment. A significant increase in malondialdehyde formation was observed in the liver, kidney, gills and heart of the fish following exposure to different concentrations of butachlor. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased in the liver and kidney but decreased in the gills and heart in a concentration-dependent pattern. Glutathione level and glutathione-Stransferase activities increased (P<0.05 in the liver but decreased in the kidneys, gills and heart when fishes were exposed to the three concentrations of butachlor. The results suggest that butachlor induced oxidative stress in the various tissues of the fish particularly in the kidney and as such the organ may be subjected to severe oxidative toxicity due to depressed glutathione detoxification system.

  19. Local salt substitutes "Obu-otoyo" activate acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase and induce lipid peroxidation in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O

    2015-09-01

    Evidence has shown that ingestion of heavy metals can lead to neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to investigate the neurotoxic potential of salt substitutes (Obu-Otoyo); salt A (made by burning palm kernel shaft then soaked in water overnight and the extract from the resulting residue is used as the salt substitute) and salt B (an unrefined salt mined from a local site at Ilobu town, Osun-State, Nigeria) by assessing their effect on some key enzymes linked with neurodegenerative disease [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities] as well as on malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the rat brain. Salt substitutes were fed to normal rats as dietary inclusion at doses of 0.5 and 1.0% for 30 days. Thereafter, the effect of the salt substitutes on AChE and BChE activities as well as on MDA level in the rat brain was determined. The results revealed that the salt substitutes caused a significant (psalt substitutes on AChE and BChE activities could be attributed to the presence of some toxic heavy metals. Therefore, the ability of the salt substitutes to induce lipid peroxidation and activate AChE and BChE activities could provide some possible mechanism for their neurotoxic effect.

  20. Antioxidant response in sesame plants grown on industrially contaminated soil: effect on oil yield and tolerance to lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit K; Sinha, Sarita

    2009-01-01

    The plants of sesame white (Sesamum indicum L. var. T55) grown on tannery sludge (TS) contaminated soil have shown that Cr level in the seeds was found below detection limits in 10% and 25% TS, however, the levels of Ni, Pb and Cd were found above the recommended limits. In roots, the level of antioxidants increased in the plants grown upto 35% TS at 30d over their respective controls. Total chlorophyll content increased significantly (poil content increased (35% increase over control) in the plants grown on 35% TS. No significant change was observed in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a lipid