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Sample records for linoleate desaturase gene

  1. Developmental and growth temperature regulation of two different microsomal omega-6 desaturase genes in soybeans.

    Heppard, E P; Kinney, A J; Stecca, K L; Miao, G H

    1996-01-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acid content is one of the major factors influencing the quality of vegetable oils. Edible oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acid provide improved oil stability, flavor, and nutrition for human and animal consumption. In plants, the microsomal omega-6 desaturase-catalyzed pathway is the primary route of production of polyunsaturated lipids. We report the isolation of two different cDNA sequences, FAD2-1 and FAD2-2, encoding microsomal omega-6 desaturase in soybeans and the characterization of their developmental and temperature regulation. The FAD2-1 gene is strongly expressed in developing seeds, whereas the FAD2-2 gene is constitutively expressed in both vegetative tissues and developing seeds. Thus, the FAD2-2 gene-encoded omega-6 desaturase appears to be responsible for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids within membrane lipids in both vegetative tissues and developing seeds. The seed-specifically expressed FAD2-1 gene is likely to play a major role in controlling conversion of oleic acid to linoleic acid within storage lipids during seed development. In both soybean seed and leaf tissues, linoleic acid and linolenic acid levels gradually increase as temperature decreases. However, the levels of transcripts for FAD2-1, FAD2-2, and the plastidial omega-6 desaturase gene (FAD 6) do not increase at low temperature. These results suggest that the elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in developing soybean seeds grown at low temperature are not due to the enhanced expression of omega-6 desaturase genes. PMID:8587990

  2. Characterization and regulation of the bovine stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene promoter

    Keating, Aileen F.; Kennelly, John J.; Zhao Fengqi

    2006-01-01

    The bovine stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) gene plays an important role in the bovine mammary gland where substrates such as stearic and vaccenic acids are converted to oleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), respectively. Up to 90% of the CLA in bovine milk is formed due to the action of this enzyme in the mammary gland. The areas of the bovine promoter of importance in regulating this key enzyme were examined and an area of 36 bp in length was identified as having a critical role in transcriptional activation and is designated the Scd transcriptional enhancer element (STE). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay detected three binding complexes on this area in Mac-T cell nuclear extracts. Treatment of cells with CLA caused a significant reduction in transcriptional activity, with this effect being mediated through the STE region. The bovine Scd gene promoter was up-regulated by insulin and down-regulated by oleic acid

  3. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of three omega-6 desaturase genes from purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.).

    Teixeira, M C; Coelho, N; Olsson, M E; Brodelius, P E; Carvalho, I S; Brodelius, M

    2009-07-01

    Two full-length cDNA clones of PoleFAD2 and one full-length cDNA clone of PoleFAD6, encoding omega-6 fatty acid desaturases, the key enzymes for the conversion of oleic into linoleic acid, were isolated from purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) leaves and seeds. The deduced amino acid sequence of both isoforms of PoleFAD2 showed higher similarities to other microsomal omega-6 desaturases then to PoleFAD6 or other plastidial orthologues, and vice versa. Expression analysis by RT-PCR showed that all genes are expressed in all tissues of purslane tested, but higher levels of mRNA accumulation were detected in reproductive organs and cells that proliferate rapidly or store lipids. Wounding affected the levels of mRNA accumulation of both, FAD2 and FAD6 genes in purslane leaves, while chilling stress affected only FAD2 transcript level. The expression patterns observed reflect the discrete roles of these genes in membrane synthesis for cell division, thylakoid development, and lipid storage or in the biosynthetic pathway for the production of signaling molecules that influence plant development or defense.

  4. Improved soybean oil quality by targeted mutagenesis of the fatty acid desaturase 2 gene family.

    Haun, William; Coffman, Andrew; Clasen, Benjamin M; Demorest, Zachary L; Lowy, Anita; Ray, Erin; Retterath, Adam; Stoddard, Thomas; Juillerat, Alexandre; Cedrone, Frederic; Mathis, Luc; Voytas, Daniel F; Zhang, Feng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean oil is high in polyunsaturated fats and is often partially hydrogenated to increase its shelf life and improve oxidative stability. The trans-fatty acids produced through hydrogenation pose a health threat. Soybean lines that are low in polyunsaturated fats were generated by introducing mutations in two fatty acid desaturase 2 genes (FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B), which in the seed convert the monounsaturated fat, oleic acid, to the polyunsaturated fat, linoleic acid. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were engineered to recognize and cleave conserved DNA sequences in both genes. In four of 19 transgenic soybean lines expressing the TALENs, mutations in FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B were observed in DNA extracted from leaf tissue; three of the four lines transmitted heritable FAD2-1 mutations to the next generation. The fatty acid profile of the seed was dramatically changed in plants homozygous for mutations in both FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B: oleic acid increased from 20% to 80% and linoleic acid decreased from 50% to under 4%. Further, mutant plants were identified that lacked the TALEN transgene and only carried the targeted mutations. The ability to create a valuable trait in a single generation through targeted modification of a gene family demonstrates the power of TALENs for genome engineering and crop improvement. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Thambugala, Dinushika; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship between expression levels of fatty acid desaturase genes during seed development and fatty acid (FA) composition in flax. In the present study, we looked at promoter structural variations of six FA desaturase genes and their relative expression throughout seed development. Computational analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b promoters showed several basic transcriptional elements including CAAT and TATA boxes, and several putative target-binding sites for transcription factors, which have been reported to be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, the expression patterns throughout seed development of the six FA desaturase genes were measured in six flax genotypes that differed for FA composition but that carried the same desaturase isoforms. FA composition data were determined by phenotyping the field grown genotypes over four years in two environments. All six genes displayed a bell-shaped pattern of expression peaking at 20 or 24 days after anthesis. Sad2 was the most highly expressed. The expression of all six desaturase genes did not differ significantly between genotypes (P = 0.1400), hence there were no correlations between FA desaturase gene expression and variations in FA composition in relatively low, intermediate and high linolenic acid genotypes expressing identical isoforms for all six desaturases. These results provide further clues towards understanding the genetic factors responsible for FA composition in flax.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase genes isolated from purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.): expression in different tissues and response to cold and wound stress.

    Teixeira, Monica C; Carvalho, Isabel S; Brodelius, Maria

    2010-02-10

    Two full-length cDNA clones PoleFAD7 and PoleFAD8, encoding plastidial omega-3 fatty acid desaturases were isolated from purslane (Portulaca oleracea). The encoded enzymes convert linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3). Three histidine clusters characteristic of fatty acid desaturases, a putative chloroplast transit peptide in the N-terminal, and three putative transmembrane domains were identified in the sequence. Both genes were expressed in all analyzed tissues showing different levels of expression. PoleFAD7 was up-regulated by wounding but not by low temperature. PoleFAD8 was up-regulated by cold stress but not by wounding. Total fatty acid and linolenic acid content were higher both, in wounded and intact leaves of plants exposed to low temperature.

  7. Effect of gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase ...

    Chlorella vulgaris had the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3) which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or to convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of this study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally expressed in mammalian cells and ...

  8. Types of gene effects governing the inheritance of oleic and linoleic ...

    Oleic and linoleic acids are major fatty acids in peanut determining the quality and shelf-life of peanut products. A better understanding on the inheritance of these characters is an important for high-oleic breeding programs. The objective of this research was to determine the gene actions for oleic acid, linoleic acid, the ratio ...

  9. Genome-wide screening and transcriptional profile analysis of desaturase genes in the European corn borer moth

    Bingye Xue; Alejandro P. Rooney; Wendell L. Roelofs

    2012-01-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A (Acyl-CoA) desaturases play a key role in the biosynthesis of female moth sex pheromones.Desaturase genes are encoded by a large multigene family,and they have been divided into five subgroups on the basis of biochemical functionality and phylogenetic affinity.In this study both copy numbers and transcriptional levels of desaturase genes in the European corn borer (ECB),Ostrinia nubilalis,were investigated.The results from genome-wide screening of ECB bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)library indicated there are many copies of some desaturase genes in the genome.An open reading frame (ORF) has been isolated for the novel desaturase gene ECB ezi-△11β from ECB gland complementary DNA and its functionality has been analyzed by two yeast expression systems.No functional activities have been detected for it.The expression levels of the four desaturase genes both in the pheromone gland and fat body of ECB and Asian corn borer (ACB),O.furnacalis,were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction.In the ECB gland,△ 11 is the most abundant,although the amount of △14 is also considerable.In the ACB gland,△14 is the most abundant and is 100 times more abundant than all the other three combined.The results from the analysis of evolution of desaturase gene transcription in the ECB,ACB and other moths indicate that the pattern of △ 11 gene transcription is significantly different from the transcriptional patterns of other desaturase genes and this difference is tied to the underlying nucleotide composition bias of the genome.

  10. A Δ11 desaturase gene genealogy reveals two divergent allelic classes within the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis

    Harrison Richard G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moth pheromone mating systems have been characterized at the molecular level, allowing evolutionary biologists to study how changes in protein sequence or gene expression affect pheromone phenotype, patterns of mating, and ultimately, the formation of barriers to gene exchange. Recent studies of Ostrinia pheromones have focused on the diversity of sex pheromone desaturases and their role in the specificity of pheromone production. Here we produce a Δ11 desaturase genealogy within Ostrinia nubilalis. We ask what has been the history of this gene, and whether this history suggests that changes in Δ11 desaturase have been involved in the divergence of the E and Z O. nubilalis pheromone strains. Results The Δ11 desaturase gene genealogy does not differentiate O. nubilalis pheromone strains. However, we find two distinct clades, separated by 2.9% sequence divergence, that do not sort with pheromone strain, geographic origin, or emergence time. We demonstrate that these clades do not represent gene duplicates, but rather allelic variation at a single gene locus. Conclusions Analyses of patterns of variation at the Δ11 desaturase gene in ECB suggest that this enzyme does not contribute to reproductive isolation between pheromone strains (E and Z. However, our genealogy reveals two deeply divergent allelic classes. Standing variation at loci that contribute to mate choice phenotypes may permit novel pheromone mating systems to arise in the presence of strong stabilizing selection.

  11. 6-Desaturase-Like Encoding Gene Introduction in Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

    Anny Hary Ayu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available African catfish (Clarias gariepinus is one of the economically valuable aquaculture fish species in Indonesia. This research was aimed to produce F0 transgenic catfish carrying masou salmon Δ6-desaturase-like (OmΔ6FAD gene. The Δ6-desaturase enzyme is involved in highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Transgenic catfish was produced by sperm-mediated gene transfer using electroporation method. In this study, as the first step, sperms were electroporated with three different OmΔ6FAD concentration (25, 50, and 100 µg mL-1 to have the highest sperm viability after electroporation (125 V/cm, pulse frequency 5 times, pulse length 30 millisecond, pulse interval 0.1 second. The highest sperm viability and sperm carrying OmΔ6FAD were obtain at 100 µg mL-1. This concentration was then used to produce F0 transgenic catfish in the second step. Sperm motility, sperm viability, fertilization rate, hatching rate, and larval survival at 14 days after hatching were the same as the controls (p>0.05. Genomic DNA was extracted from caudal fin and then used as template to identify transgenic F0 by PCR method using specific primer for OmΔ6FAD gene. The PCR result showed that 53.84% of F0 carried OmΔ6FAD gene. The result of fatty acid analysis showed that EPA and DHA contents of F0 transgenic fish and non-transgenic fish were similar.   Keywords: catfish, Δ6-desaturase-like gene, fatty acids, electroporation

  12. Production of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid by Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 containing cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase genes

    Dong, Xuewei; He, Qingfang; Peng, Zhenying; Yu, Jinhui; Bian, Fei; Li, Youzhi; Bi, Yuping

    2016-07-01

    Genetic modification is useful for improving the nutritional qualities of cyanobacteria. To increase the total unsaturated fatty acid content, along with the ratio of ω-3/ω-6 fatty acids, genetic engineering can be used to modify fatty acid metabolism. Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, a fast-growing cyanobacterium, does not contain a Δ6 desaturase gene and is therefore unable to synthesize γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are important in human health. In this work, we constructed recombinant vectors Syd6D, Syd15D and Syd6Dd15D to express the Δ15 desaturase and Δ6 desaturase genes from Synechocystis PCC6803 in Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, with the aim of expressing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Overexpression of the Δ15 desaturase gene in Synechococcus resulted in 5.4 times greater accumulation of α-linolenic acid compared with the wild-type while Δ6 desaturase gene expression produced both GLA and SDA. Co-expression of the two genes resulted in low-level accumulation of GLA but much larger amounts of SDA, accounting for as much to 11.64% of the total fatty acid content.

  13. Enhancing freezing tolerance of Brassica napus L. by overexpression of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene (SAD) from Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.

    Peng, Dan; Zhou, Bo; Jiang, Yueqiao; Tan, XiaoFeng; Yuan, DeYi; Zhang, Lin

    2018-07-01

    Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. is an important woody oil tree and traditional herbal medicine in China. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD) is a dehydrogenase enzyme that plays a key role in the transformation of saturated fatty acids into unsaturated fatty acids in oil; these fatty acids greatly influence the freezing tolerance of plants. However, it remains unclear whether freezing tolerance can be regulated by the expression level of SsSAD in S. sebiferum L. Our research indicated that SsSAD expression in S. sebiferum L. increased under freezing stress. To further confirm this result, we constructed a pEGAD-SsSAD vector and transformed it into B. napus L. W10 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants that overexpressed the SsSAD gene exhibited significantly higher linoleic (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3) content and advanced freezing tolerance. These results suggest that SsSAD overexpression in B. napus L. can increase the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as linoleic (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3), which are likely pivotal in improving freezing tolerance in B. napus L. plants. Thus, SsSAD overexpression could be useful in the production of freeze-tolerant varieties of B. napus L. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioinformatics analysis of the ς-carotene desaturase gene in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

    Sun, Bo; Zheng, Aihong; Jiang, Min; Xue, Shengling; Zhang, Fen; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    ς-carotene desaturase (ZDS) is an important enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis. Here, the Brassica oleracea var. capitata ZDS (BocZDS) gene sequences were obtained from Brassica database (BRAD), and preformed for bioinformatics analysis. The BocZDS gene mapped to Scaffold000363, and contains an open reading frame of 1,686 bp that encodes a 561-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 62.00 kD and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.2. Subcellular localization predicted the BocZDS gene was in the chloroplast. The conserved domain of the BocZDS protein is PLN02487, indicating that it belongs the member of zeta-carotene desaturase. Homology analysis indicates that the ZDS protein is apparently conserved during plant evolution and is most closely related to B. oleracea var. oleracea, B. napus, and B. rapa. The findings of the present study provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of ZDS gene function in cabbage.

  15. , , , , , and Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid

    S. H. Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS/Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 μg/mL insulin and 10 μg/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 μM palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001 carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1β gene expression, but the increase in CPT1β gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases. Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001 stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPKα gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism.

  16. Cloning and Characterization of the -Carotene Desaturase Gene from Chlorella protothecoides CS-41

    Meiya Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the lutein biosynthesis pathway in the lutein-producing alga, Chlorella protothecoides CS-41, the -carotene desaturase gene (zds was isolated from Chlorella protothecoides using the approach of rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA sequence was 2031 bp and contained 1755 bp putative open reading frame which encodes a 584 amino acid deduced polypeptide whose computed molecular weight was 63.7 kDa. Sequence homology research indicated that the nucleotide and putative protein had sequence identities of 72.5% and 69.5% with those of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the ZDS from C. protothecoides CS-41 had a closer relationship with those of chlorophyta and higher plants than with those of other species. In addition, we also found that the zds gene expression was upregulated in response to light.

  17. Polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase genes and diet are important determinants of infant docosahexaenoic acid status

    Lauritzen, L.; Harsløf, L.; Larsen, L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accretion in early infancy is supported by DHA in breast-milk and may thus decrease once complementary feeding takes over. Endogenous synthesis of DHA from alphalinolenic acid is low and polymorphisms in the genes that encodes the fatty acid desaturases (FADS) ha...

  18. cDNA cloning and expression analyses of phytoene synthase 1, phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes from Solanum lycopersicum KKU-T34003

    Krittaya Supathaweewat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the cloning of Psy1, Pds and Zds cDNAs encoding the enzymes responsible for lycopene biosynthesis,namely phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1, phytoene desaturase (PDS and -carotene desaturase (ZDS, respectively, from high-lycopene tomato cultivar, Solanum lycopersicum KKU-T34003. DNA sequence analyses showed that the complete openreading frames of Psy1, Pds and Zds cDNAs were 1,239, 1,752 and 1,767 base pairs in length and encoded proteins of 412,583 and 588 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic and the conserved domain analyses suggest that PSY1, PDS and ZDSfrom S. lycopersicum KKU-T34003 potentially have similar structures and biological functions to the corresponding proteinsfrom other plants. Gene expression studies showed that Psy1 was expressed only in the petal and the breaker fruit, whereasthe expressions of Pds and Zds were observed in the petal, the breaker fruit and the leaf. The highest expression level for allgenes was detected in the breaker-stage fruit, suggesting that carotenoid accumulation was developmentally regulated inthe chromoplast-containing tissues.

  19. Sphingolipid base modifying enzymes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus): cloning and characterization of a C4-hydroxylase gene and a new paralogous Δ8-desaturase gene.

    Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Salas, Joaquín J

    2011-05-15

    Sphingolipids are components of plant cell membranes that participate in the regulation of important physiological processes. Unlike their animal counterparts, plant sphingolipids are characterized by high levels of base C4-hydroxylation. Moreover, desaturation at the Δ8 position predominates over the Δ4 desaturation typically found in animal sphingolipids. These modifications are due to the action of C4-hydroxylases and Δ8-long chain base desaturases, and they are important for complex sphingolipids finally becoming functional. The long chain bases of sunflower sphingolipids have high levels of hydroxylated and unsaturated moieties. Here, a C4-long chain base hydroxylase was functionally characterized in sunflower plant, an enzyme that could complement the sur2Δ mutation when heterologously expressed in this yeast mutant deficient in hydroxylation. This hydroxylase was ubiquitously expressed in sunflower, with the highest levels found in the developing cotyledons. In addition, we identified a new Δ8-long base chain desaturase gene that displays strong homology to a previously reported desaturase gene. This desaturase was also expressed in yeast and was able to change the long chain base composition of the transformed host. We studied the expression of this desaturase and compared it with that of the other isoform described in sunflower. The desaturase form studied in this paper displayed higher expression levels in developing seeds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiplex PCR assay for detection of recombinant genes encoding fatty acid desaturases fused with lichenase reporter protein in GM plants.

    Berdichevets, Iryna N; Shimshilashvili, Hristina R; Gerasymenko, Iryna M; Sindarovska, Yana R; Sheludko, Yuriy V; Goldenkova-Pavlova, Irina V

    2010-07-01

    Thermostable lichenase encoded by licB gene of Clostridium thermocellum can be used as a reporter protein in plant, bacterial, yeast, and mammalian cells. It has important advantages of high sensitivity and specificity in qualitative and quantitative assays. Deletion variants of LicB (e.g., LicBM3) retain its enzymatic activity and thermostability and can be expressed in translational fusion with target proteins without compromising with their properties. Fusion with the lichenase reporter is especially convenient for the heterologous expression of proteins whose analysis is difficult or compromised by host enzyme activities, as it is in case of fatty acid desaturases occurring in all groups of organisms. Recombinant desaturase-lichenase genes can be used for creating genetically modified (GM) plants with improved chill tolerance. Development of an analytical method for detection of fused desaturase-lichenase transgenes is necessary both for production of GM plants and for their certification. Here, we report a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method for detection of desA and desC desaturase genes of cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Synechococcus vulcanus, respectively, fused to licBM3 reporter in GM plants.

  1. Preliminary analysis of Stearoyl Co-A Desaturase gene transcripts in River buffalo

    L. Ramunno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. In cattle, SCD gene extends over a DNA segment of ~17.0 Kb, and it is organized in 6 exons and 5 introns. The SCD gene has been indicated as the candidate gene to change the saturated/unsaturated FAs ratio and hence it has been suggested as the gene influencing the fat quality. In cattle, eight SNPs have been identified and one of them, (T→C at 231st nt of 5th exon, is responsible for the Val→Ala amino acid change. The C allele has been associated with higher content of MUFAs in carcasses, and it is positively related to a higher index of desaturation (C18:0/C18:1 and C16:0/C16:1 in the milk. In this study, we report on preliminary results of analysis of transcripts of the SCD encoding gene in river buffalo. The electrophoretic analysis of the RT-PCR products and the subsequent sequencing showed at least five different populations of mRNA. The most represented population is correctly assembled (~1300 bp, followed by the one which is deleted of ~750bp, corresponding to the 3rd, 4th and 5th exon and partially to the 2nd and 6th exon.

  2. Mutations in the maize zeta-carotene desaturase gene lead to viviparous kernel.

    Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Preharvest sprouting reduces the maize quality and causes a significant yield loss in maize production. vp-wl2 is a Mutator (Mu-induced viviparous mutant in maize, causing white or pale yellow kernels, dramatically reduced carotenoid and ABA content, and a high level of zeta-carotene accumulation. Here, we reported the cloning of the vp-wl2 gene using a modified digestion-ligation-amplification method (DLA. The results showed that an insertion of Mu9 in the first intron of the zeta-carotene desaturase (ZDS gene results in the vp-wl2 mutation. Previous studies have suggested that ZDS is likely the structural gene of the viviparous9 (vp9 locus. Therefore, we performed an allelic test using vp-wl2 and three vp9 mutants. The results showed that vp-wl2 is a novel allele of the vp9 locus. In addition, the sequences of ZDS gene were identified in these three vp9 alleles. The vp-wl2 mutant gene was subsequently introgressed into four maize inbred lines, and a viviparous phenotype was observed with yield losses from 7.69% to 13.33%.

  3. Gene silencing of stearoyl-ACP desaturase enhances the stearic acid content in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Jaeger, de L.; Springer, J.; Wolbert, E.J.H.; Martens, D.E.; Eggink, G.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD), the enzyme that converts stearic acid into oleic acid, is silenced by artificial microRNA in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Two different constructs, which target different positions on the mRNA of stearoyl-ACP desaturase, were tested.

  4. Effects of Oils Rich in Linoleic and α-Linolenic Acids on Fatty Acid Profile and Gene Expression in Goat Meat

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (LNA for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05 the α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in α-linolenic acid (p < 0.05 decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05 upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.

  5. Gene polymorphisms of desaturase enzymes of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and adiponutrin and the increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Manvi Vernekar; Deepak Amarapurkar; Kalpana Joshi; Rekha Singhal

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Adiponutrin gene polymorphisms have been associated with NAFLD worldwide. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been studied to have anti-inflammatory effects and plasma lipid lowering properties. PUFAs are endogenously synthesized with the help of delta-6-desaturase and delta-5-desaturase enzymes. They are encoded by FADS2 and FADS1 genes respectively. Polymorphisms in ...

  6. Transcriptome characterisation of the ant Formica exsecta with new insights into the evolution of desaturase genes in social hymenoptera.

    Hélène Badouin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the recent sequencing of seven ant genomes, no genomic data are available for the genus Formica, an important group for the study of eusocial traits. We sequenced the transcriptome of the ant Formica exsecta with the 454 FLX Titanium technology from a pooled sample of workers from 70 Finnish colonies. RESULTS: About 1,000,000 reads were obtained from a normalised cDNA library. We compared the assemblers MIRA3.0 and Newbler2.6 and showed that the latter performed better on this dataset due to a new option which is dedicated to improve contig formation in low depth portions of the assemblies. The 29,579 contigs represent 27 Mb. 50% showed similarity with known proteins and 25% could be assigned a category of gene ontology. We found more than 13,000 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms. The Δ9 desaturase gene family is an important multigene family involved in chemical communication in insects. We found six Δ9 desaturases in this Formica exsecta transcriptome dataset that were used to reconstruct a maximum-likelihood phylogeny of insect desaturases and to test for signatures of positive selection in this multigene family in ant lineages. We found differences with previous phylogenies of this gene family in ants, and found two clades potentially under positive selection. CONCLUSION: This first transcriptome reference sequence of Formica exsecta provided sequence and polymorphism data that will allow researchers working on Formica ants to develop studies to tackle the genetic basis of eusocial phenotypes. In addition, this study provided some general guidelines for de novo transcriptome assembly that should be useful for future transcriptome sequencing projects. Finally, we found potential signatures of positive selection in some clades of the Δ9 desaturase gene family in ants, which suggest the potential role of sequence divergence and adaptive evolution in shaping the large diversity of chemical cues in social insects.

  7. A Δ-9 Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene in the Microalga Myrmecia incisa Reisigl: Cloning and Functional Analysis

    Wen-Bin Xue

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The green alga Myrmecia incisa is one of the richest natural sources of arachidonic acid (ArA. To better understand the regulation of ArA biosynthesis in M. incisa, a novel gene putatively encoding the Δ9 fatty acid desaturase (FAD was cloned and characterized for the first time. Rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE was employed to yield a full length cDNA designated as MiΔ9FAD, which is 2442 bp long in sequence. Comparing cDNA open reading frame (ORF sequence to genomic sequence indicated that there are 8 introns interrupting the coding region. The deduced MiΔ9FAD protein is composed of 432 amino acids. It is soluble and localized in the chloroplast, as evidenced by the absence of transmembrane domains as well as the presence of a 61-amino acid chloroplast transit peptide. Multiple sequence alignment of amino acids revealed two conserved histidine-rich motifs, typical for Δ9 acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP desaturases. To determine the function of MiΔ9FAD, the gene was heterologously expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain with impaired desaturase activity. Results of GC-MS analysis indicated that MiΔ9FAD was able to restore the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, generating palmitoleic acid and oleic acid through the addition of a double bond in the Δ9 position of palmitic acid and stearic acid, respectively.

  8. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Meilan Xue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3, which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  9. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Xue, Meilan; Ge, Yinlin; Zhang, Jinyu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Wang, Qing [Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Hou, Lin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China)

    2012-09-14

    Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  10. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Xue, Meilan; Ge, Yinlin; Zhang, Jinyu; Wang, Qing; Hou, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings

  11. DAF-16 and Δ9 desaturase genes promote cold tolerance in long-lived Caenorhabditis elegans age-1 mutants.

    Fiona R Savory

    Full Text Available In Caenorhabditis elegans, mutants of the conserved insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS pathway are long-lived and stress resistant due to the altered expression of DAF-16 target genes such as those involved in cellular defence and metabolism. The three Δ(9 desaturase genes, fat-5, fat-6 and fat-7, are included amongst these DAF-16 targets, and it is well established that Δ(9 desaturase enzymes play an important role in survival at low temperatures. However, no assessment of cold tolerance has previously been reported for IIS mutants. We demonstrate that long-lived age-1(hx546 mutants are remarkably resilient to low temperature stress relative to wild type worms, and that this is dependent upon daf-16. We also show that cold tolerance following direct transfer to low temperatures is increased in wild type worms during the facultative, daf-16 dependent, dauer stage. Although the cold tolerant phenotype of age-1(hx546 mutants is predominantly due to the Δ(9 desaturase genes, additional transcriptional targets of DAF-16 are also involved. Surprisingly, survival of wild type adults following a rapid temperature decline is not dependent upon functional daf-16, and cellular distributions of a DAF-16::GFP fusion protein indicate that DAF-16 is not activated during low temperature stress. This suggests that cold-induced physiological defences are not specifically regulated by the IIS pathway and DAF-16, but expression of DAF-16 target genes in IIS mutants and dauers is sufficient to promote cross tolerance to low temperatures in addition to other forms of stress.

  12. Transcript profiling and gene characterization of three fatty acid desaturase genes in high, moderate, and low linolenic acid genotypes of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and their role in linolenic acid accumulation.

    Banik, Mitali; Duguid, Scott; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2011-06-01

    Three genes encoding fatty acid desaturase 3 (fad3a, fad3b, and a novel fad3c) were cloned from four flax genotypes varying in linolenic acid content. Real-time PCR was used to quantify expression levels of the three fad3 genes during seed development. High amounts of both fad3a and fad3b transcripts were observed and reached their peak levels at 20 days after anthesis, except for fad3a from SP2047 where only low level expression was observed throughout seed development. Transcript accumulation of the novel fad3c gene was at similar background levels. The fatty acid composition was analysed for all genotypes and stages of development and compared with the fad3 gene expression patterns. α-Linolenic acid gradually accumulated during seed development, while linoleic acid was transient and decreased in M5791, UGG5-5, and AC McDuff. In contrast, the linolenic acid present in the early stages of development nearly completely disappeared in SP2047, while linoleic acid steadily accumulated. fad3a of the low linolenic acid line SP2047 encoded a truncated protein caused by a premature stop codon resulting from a single point mutation, and the low level of transcript accumulation in this genotype is likely due to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay caused by the premature termination of translation as a result of this early stop codon. Although substantial amounts of transcript accumulation occurred with fad3b of SP2047 genotype, cloning of the gene revealed a mutation in the first histidine box causing an amino acid change. Heterologous expression in yeast of the SP2047 and UGG5-5 fad3b genes showed that the mutation in the histidine box in SP2047 caused the enzyme inactivity. Taken together, these results showed that fad3a and fad3b are responsible for linolenic acid accumulation in flax seeds but did not support a major role for the novel fad3c. These observations were further supported by phenotypic and genotypic assessment of a doubled haploid population. Expression patterns

  13. Fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene polymorphisms and insulin resistance in association with serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in healthy Korean men: cross-sectional study

    Yang Long In

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship between fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene polymorphisms and insulin resistance (IR in association with serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA composition in healthy Korean men. Methods Healthy men (n = 576, 30 ~ 79 years old were genotyped for rs174537 near FADS1 (FEN1-10154G>T, FADS2 (rs174575C>G, rs2727270C>T, and FADS3 (rs1000778C>T SNPs. Dietary intake, serum phospholipid FA composition and HOMA-IR were measured. Results Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in the rs174575G allele carriers than the CC homozygotes, but lower in the rs2727270T allele carriers than the CC homozygotes. The proportion of linoleic acid (18:2ω-6, LA was higher in the minor allele carriers of FEN1-10154G>T, rs174575C>G and rs2727270C>T than the major homozygotes, respectively. On the other hand, the proportions of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (20:3ω-6, DGLA and arachidonic acid (20:4ω-6, AA in serum phospholipids were significantly lower in the minor allele carriers of FEN1-10154 G>T carriers and rs2727270C>T than the major homozygotes respectively. AA was also significantly lower in the rs1000778T allele carriers than the CC homozygotes. HOMA-IR positively correlated with LA and DGLA and negatively with AA/DGLA in total subjects. Interestingly, rs174575G allele carriers showed remarkably higher HOMA-IR than the CC homozygotes when subjects had higher proportions of DLGA (≥1.412% in total serum phospholipid FA composition (P for interaction = 0.009 or of AA (≥4.573% (P for interaction = 0.047. Conclusion HOMA-IR is associated with FADS gene cluster as well as with FA composition in serum phospholipids. Additionally, HOMA-IR may be modulated by the interaction between rs174575C>G and the proportion of DGLA or AA in serum phospholipids.

  14. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    Hernández, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ω-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ω-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs

    Tous, Nuria; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA...

  16. Enhancement of carotenoid production by disrupting the C22-sterol desaturase gene (CYP61 in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

    Loto Iris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is a basidiomycetous yeast that synthesizes astaxanthin, which is a carotenoid with a great biotechnological impact. The ergosterol and carotenoid synthesis pathways are derived from the mevalonate pathway, and in both pathways, cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved. Results In this study, we isolated and described the X. dendrorhous CYP61 gene, which encodes a cytochrome P450 involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. This gene is composed of nine exons and encodes a 526 amino acid polypeptide that shares significant percentages of identity and similitude with the C22-sterol desaturase, CYP61, from other fungi. Mutants derived from different parental strains were obtained by disrupting the CYP61 gene with an antibiotic selection marker. These mutants were not able to produce ergosterol and accumulated ergosta-5,8,22-trien-3-ol and ergosta-5,8-dien-3-ol. Interestingly, all of the mutants had a more intense red color phenotype than their respective parental strains. The carotenoid composition was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by RP-HPLC, revealing that the carotenoid content was higher in the mutant strains without major changes in their composition. The expression of the HMGR gene, which encodes an enzyme involved in the mevalonate pathway (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, was analyzed by RT-qPCR showing that its transcript levels are higher in the CYP61 mutants. Conclusions These results suggest that in X. dendrorhous, ergosterol regulates HMGR gene expression by a negative feedback mechanism and in this way; it contributes in the regulation of the carotenoid biosynthesis.

  17. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L

    Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N.; Guiltinan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance. PMID:25926841

  18. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L.

    Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance.

  19. Polymorphism in the fatty acid desaturase genes and diet are important determinants of infant n-3 fatty acid status

    Harsløf, L.B.S.; Larsen, L.H.; Ritz, C.

    and polymorphism in the genes that encodes the fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has little effect on DHA-status in adults. It is however unclear to what extent endogenous DHA-synthesis contributes to infant DHA-status. Aim: To investigate the role of diet and FADS polymorphism on DHA-status at 9 months and 3 years...... breastfeeding was obtained by questionnaires and fish intake was assessed by 7-day pre-coded food diaries. Results: FADS-genotype, breastfeeding, and fish intake were found to explain 25% of the variation in infant RBC DHA-status (mean±SD: 6.6±1.9% of the fatty acids (FA%)). Breastfeeding was the most important......Background and objectives: Tissue docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accretion in early infancy has been shown to be supported by the DHA-content of breast-milk and thus may decrease once complementary feeding takes over. Endogenous synthesis of DHA from alpha-linolenic acid has been shown to be very low...

  20. Determination of Stearoyl-Coenzyme A Desaturase 1 Gene Variants in South Anatolian Red and East Anatolian Red Cattle

    İjlal İpek PAYA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fat composition in ruminant’s milk is one of the factors that can affect human health in positive or adverse ways. Optimizing ruminant feed to achieve ideal fatty acid composition in milk has been an ongoing area of research in recent years, without satisfactory results to date. It has been argued that in addition to changes in feed, genetic information can also be utilized to improve milk fatty acid composition. The aim of the study is to investigate the incidence of stearoyl-CoA-desaturase 1 (SCD gene variants, which are claimed to affect fat content and quality of milk in Turkish native cattle breeds. Fifty South Anatolian Red (SAR and 50 East Anatolian Red (EAR cattle were used in the study. The 5th exon of SCD gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the PCR products were subjected to sequencing analysis. Among the samples sequenced polymorphism at three nucleotide positions have been observed on the 5th exon of the SCD gene, namely A702G, T762C and C878T. Of these three, the polymorphic position C878T was utilized to determine peptide variants of A (293Ala or the V (293 Val of individual samples. Frequency of A variant and AA genotype in SAR and EAR cattle breeds was 0.91 and 0.77 as well as 0.43 and 0.29, respectively. In particular the SAR exhibits a very low frequency of the V allele, believed to have been an ancestral allele. In both samples, 2 individuals were identified to have the VV genotype. The results suggested that high frequency of A allele and AA genotype which confers great advantage on milk composition and meat fatty acid composition was present in SAR and EAR cattle breeds

  1. Functional characterization of two microsomal fatty acid desaturases from Jatropha curcas L.

    Wu, Pingzhi; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Guojiang

    2013-10-15

    Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3) are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and major storage compounds in plant seed oils. Microsomal ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acid (FA) desaturases catalyze the synthesis of seed oil LA and ALA, respectively. Jatropha curcas L. seed oils contain large proportions of LA, but very little ALA. In this study, two microsomal desaturase genes, named JcFAD2 and JcFAD3, were isolated from J. curcas. Both deduced amino acid sequences possessed eight histidines shown to be essential for desaturases activity, and contained motif in the C-terminal for endoplasmic reticulum localization. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed that the isolated JcFAD2 and JcFAD3 proteins could catalyze LA and ALA synthesis, respectively. The results indicate that JcFAD2 and JcFAD3 are functional in controlling PUFA contents of seed oils and could be exploited in the genetic engineering of J. curcas, and potentially other plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of linoleic acid supplementation on in vitro maturation, embryo development and apoptotic related gene expression in ovine

    Ebrahim Amini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Linoleic acid (LA is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in high concentrations in follicular fluid, when added to maturation culture media, it affects oocyte competence. Objective: In the present study, we investigated effect of linoleic acid supplementation on in vitro maturation, embryo development and apoptotic related gene expression in ovine Materials and Methods: The experiments conducted on 450 ovine Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs with homogenous ooplasm and more than two compact layers of cumulus cells. For in vitro maturation COCs were randomly allocated into four treatment groups for 24 hr period. Treatment groups were as follow: control maturation media, 0 μM LA, 50 μM LA, 100 μM LA and 200 μM LA. The cumulus cell expansion and blastocysts rates were recorded. Total RNA was isolated from embryo pools, reverse transcribed into cDNA, and subjected to apoptotic gene expression by real-time PCR. Results: Highest concentration (200 μM/mL of LA significantly decreased the rate of fully expanded cumulus cells 24 hr after in vitro maturation (IVM and the percentage of blastocyste rate compared with the control (p<0.05. These inhibitory effects were associated with an increased in relative mRNA expression of Bax (Bcl-2- associated X gene compared with controls. Conclusion: Data obtained in present study suggest that low concentration of LA used for maturation had no deleterious effect on subsequent embryonic development compared to high concentration of LA. Relative expression of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2 and Bax in embryos seems to be associated with LA concentration.

  3. A functional variant in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene promoter enhances fatty acid desaturation in pork.

    Joan Estany

    Full Text Available There is growing public concern about reducing saturated fat intake. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD is the lipogenic enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of oleic acid (18 ∶ 1 by desaturating stearic acid (18 ∶ 0. Here we describe a total of 18 mutations in the promoter and 3' non-coding region of the pig SCD gene and provide evidence that allele T at AY487830:g.2228T>C in the promoter region enhances fat desaturation (the ratio 18 ∶ 1/18 ∶ 0 in muscle increases from 3.78 to 4.43 in opposite homozygotes without affecting fat content (18 ∶ 0+18 ∶ 1, intramuscular fat content, and backfat thickness. No mutations that could affect the functionality of the protein were found in the coding region. First, we proved in a purebred Duroc line that the C-T-A haplotype of the 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (g.2108C>T; g.2228T>C; g.2281A>G of the promoter region was additively associated to enhanced 18 ∶ 1/18 ∶ 0 both in muscle and subcutaneous fat, but not in liver. We show that this association was consistent over a 10-year period of overlapping generations and, in line with these results, that the C-T-A haplotype displayed greater SCD mRNA expression in muscle. The effect of this haplotype was validated both internally, by comparing opposite homozygote siblings, and externally, by using experimental Duroc-based crossbreds. Second, the g.2281A>G and the g.2108C>T SNPs were excluded as causative mutations using new and previously published data, restricting the causality to g.2228T>C SNP, the last source of genetic variation within the haplotype. This mutation is positioned in the core sequence of several putative transcription factor binding sites, so that there are several plausible mechanisms by which allele T enhances 18 ∶ 1/18 ∶ 0 and, consequently, the proportion of monounsaturated to saturated fat.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene family from two ω-3 sources, Salvia hispanica and Perilla frutescens: Cloning, characterization and expression

    Xue, Yufei; Chen, Baojun; Win, Aung Naing; Fu, Chun; Lian, Jianping; Liu, Xue; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Xingcui

    2018-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD, D15D) is a key enzyme for α-linolenic acid (ALA) biosynthesis. Both chia (Salvia hispanica) and perilla (Perilla frutescens) contain high levels of ALA in seeds. In this study, the ω-3 FAD gene family was systematically and comparatively cloned from chia and perilla. Perilla FAD3, FAD7, FAD8 and chia FAD7 are encoded by single-copy (but heterozygous) genes, while chia FAD3 is encoded by 2 distinct genes. Only 1 chia FAD8 sequence was isolated. In these genes, there are 1 to 6 transcription start sites, 1 to 8 poly(A) tailing sites, and 7 introns. The 5’UTRs of PfFAD8a/b contain 1 to 2 purine-stretches and 2 pyrimidine-stretches. An alternative splice variant of ShFAD7a/b comprises a 5’UTR intron. Their encoded proteins harbor an FA_desaturase conserved domain together with 4 trans-membrane helices and 3 histidine boxes. Phylogenetic analysis validated their identity of dicot microsomal or plastidial ω-3 FAD proteins, and revealed some important evolutionary features of plant ω-3 FAD genes such as convergent evolution across different phylums, single-copy status in algae, and duplication events in certain taxa. The qRT-PCR assay showed that the ω-3 FAD genes of two species were expressed at different levels in various organs, and they also responded to multiple stress treatments. The functionality of the ShFAD3 and PfFAD3 enzymes was confirmed by yeast expression. The systemic molecular and functional features of the ω-3 FAD gene family from chia and perilla revealed in this study will facilitate their use in future studies on genetic improvement of ALA traits in oilseed crops. PMID:29351555

  5. Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene family from two ω-3 sources, Salvia hispanica and Perilla frutescens: Cloning, characterization and expression.

    Yufei Xue

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD, D15D is a key enzyme for α-linolenic acid (ALA biosynthesis. Both chia (Salvia hispanica and perilla (Perilla frutescens contain high levels of ALA in seeds. In this study, the ω-3 FAD gene family was systematically and comparatively cloned from chia and perilla. Perilla FAD3, FAD7, FAD8 and chia FAD7 are encoded by single-copy (but heterozygous genes, while chia FAD3 is encoded by 2 distinct genes. Only 1 chia FAD8 sequence was isolated. In these genes, there are 1 to 6 transcription start sites, 1 to 8 poly(A tailing sites, and 7 introns. The 5'UTRs of PfFAD8a/b contain 1 to 2 purine-stretches and 2 pyrimidine-stretches. An alternative splice variant of ShFAD7a/b comprises a 5'UTR intron. Their encoded proteins harbor an FA_desaturase conserved domain together with 4 trans-membrane helices and 3 histidine boxes. Phylogenetic analysis validated their identity of dicot microsomal or plastidial ω-3 FAD proteins, and revealed some important evolutionary features of plant ω-3 FAD genes such as convergent evolution across different phylums, single-copy status in algae, and duplication events in certain taxa. The qRT-PCR assay showed that the ω-3 FAD genes of two species were expressed at different levels in various organs, and they also responded to multiple stress treatments. The functionality of the ShFAD3 and PfFAD3 enzymes was confirmed by yeast expression. The systemic molecular and functional features of the ω-3 FAD gene family from chia and perilla revealed in this study will facilitate their use in future studies on genetic improvement of ALA traits in oilseed crops.

  6. Gene expression profiles in rat mesenteric lymph nodes upon supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid during gestation and suckling

    Rivero Montserrat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet plays a role on the development of the immune system, and polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate the expression of a variety of genes. Human milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a fatty acid that seems to contribute to immune development. Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. However, little work has been done on the effects of CLA on gene expression, and even less regarding immune system development in early life. Results The expression profile of mesenteric lymph nodes from animals supplemented with CLA during gestation and suckling through dam's milk (Group A or by oral gavage (Group B, supplemented just during suckling (Group C and control animals (Group D was determined with the aid of the specific GeneChip® Rat Genome 230 2.0 (Affymettrix. Bioinformatics analyses were performed using the GeneSpring GX software package v10.0.2 and lead to the identification of 89 genes differentially expressed in all three dietary approaches. Generation of a biological association network evidenced several genes, such as connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (Timp1, galanin (Gal, synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1, growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2, actin gamma 2 (Actg2 and smooth muscle alpha actin (Acta2, as highly interconnected nodes of the resulting network. Gene underexpression was confirmed by Real-Time RT-PCR. Conclusions Ctgf, Timp1, Gal and Syt1, among others, are genes modulated by CLA supplementation that may have a role on mucosal immune responses in early life.

  7. Polymorphisms in Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) Gene Cluster: Effects on Glycemic Controls Following an Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) Supplementation

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Thifault, Elisabeth; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Changes in desaturase activity are associated with insulin sensitivity and may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and serum fatty acid composition. Objective: To investigate whether common genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster influence fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) responses following a 6-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation. Methods: 210 subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 1.9 g–2.2 g of EPA + 1.1 g of DHA). Genotyping of 18 SNPs of the FADS gene cluster covering 90% of all common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.03) was performed. Results: Carriers of the minor allele for rs482548 (FADS2) had increased plasma FG levels after the n-3 PUFA supplementation in a model adjusted for FG levels at baseline, age, sex, and BMI. A significant genotype*supplementation interaction effect on FG levels was observed for rs482548 (p = 0.008). For FI levels, a genotype effect was observed with one SNP (rs174456). For HOMA-IS, several genotype*supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs7394871, rs174602, rs174570, rs7482316 and rs482548 (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, p = 0.03, p = 0.05 and p = 0.07; respectively). Conclusion: Results suggest that SNPs in the FADS gene cluster may modulate plasma FG, FI and HOMA-IS levels in response to n-3 PUFA supplementation. PMID:24705214

  8. Polymorphisms in Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS Gene Cluster: Effects on Glycemic Controls Following an Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA Supplementation

    Patrick Couture

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in desaturase activity are associated with insulin sensitivity and may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Polymorphisms (SNPs in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene cluster have been associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS and serum fatty acid composition. Objective: To investigate whether common genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster influence fasting glucose (FG and fasting insulin (FI responses following a 6-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA supplementation. Methods: 210 subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 1.9 g–2.2 g of EPA + 1.1 g of DHA. Genotyping of 18 SNPs of the FADS gene cluster covering 90% of all common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.03 was performed. Results: Carriers of the minor allele for rs482548 (FADS2 had increased plasma FG levels after the n-3 PUFA supplementation in a model adjusted for FG levels at baseline, age, sex, and BMI. A significant genotype*supplementation interaction effect on FG levels was observed for rs482548 (p = 0.008. For FI levels, a genotype effect was observed with one SNP (rs174456. For HOMA-IS, several genotype*supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs7394871, rs174602, rs174570, rs7482316 and rs482548 (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, p = 0.03, p = 0.05 and p = 0.07; respectively. Conclusion: Results suggest that SNPs in the FADS gene cluster may modulate plasma FG, FI and HOMA-IS levels in response to n-3 PUFA supplementation.

  9. Expression of phytoene synthase1 and carotene desaturase crtI genes result in an increase in the total carotenoids content in transgenic elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Cong, Ling; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Ling; Liu, Huijuan; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2009-09-23

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies, such as the lack of vitamin A, are a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Carotenoids in food can function as provitamin A in humans, while grains of Chinese elite wheat cultivars generally have low carotenoid contents. To increase the carotenoid contents in common wheat endosperm, transgenic wheat has been generated by expressing the maize y1 gene encoding phytoene synthase driven by a endosperm-specific 1Dx5 promoter in the elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety EM12, together with the bacterial phytoene desaturase crtI gene from Erwinia uredovora under the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter control. A clear increase of the carotenoid content was detected in the endosperms of transgenic wheat that visually showed a light yellow color. The total carotenoids content was increased up to 10.8-fold as compared with the nontransgenic EM12 cultivar. To test whether the variability of total carotenoid content in different transgenic lines was due to differences in the transgene copy number or expression pattern, Southern hybridization and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses were curried out. The results showed that transgene copy numbers and transcript levels did not associate well with carotenoid contents. The expression patterns of endogenous carotenoid genes, such as the phytoene synthases and carotene desaturases, were also investigated in wild-type and transgenic wheat lines. No significant changes in expression levels of these genes were detected in the transgenic endosperms, indicating that the increase in carotenoid transgenic wheat endosperms resulted from the expression of transgenes.

  10. Dietary fish oil replacement by linseed oil: Effect on growth, nutrient utilization, tissue fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) fingerlings.

    Nayak, Madhusmita; Saha, Ashis; Pradhan, Avinash; Samanta, Mrinal; Giri, Shiba Shankar

    2017-03-01

    Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is considered a promising medium carp species for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. This study in silver barb was carried out to evaluate the effects of total or partial substitution of dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, nutrient utilization, whole-body composition, muscle and liver fatty acid composition. Fish (12.1±0.4g of initial body weight) were fed for 60days with five experimental iso-proteinous, iso-lipidic and iso-caloric diets in which FO (control diet) was replaced by 33.3%, 50%, 66.7% and 100% LO. Final weight, weight gain, percent weight gain, SGR decreased linearly (p0.05) affect the feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and whole body proximate composition. Furthermore, enhanced level of LO increased α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n3) and linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6) and decreased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) in muscle and liver. To understand the molecular mechanism of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis, we cloned and characterized the fatty acyl Δ6 desaturase (Δ6 fad) cDNA and investigated its expression in various organs/tissues following replacement of FO with LO in the diet. The full-length Δ6 fad cDNA was 2056bp encoding 444 amino acids and was widely expressed in various organs/tissues. Replacement of FO with LO increased the expression of Δ6 fad mRNA in liver, muscle and intestine but no significant difference was found in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Insights into the Indian peanut genotypes for ahFAD2 gene polymorphism regulating its oleic and linoleic acid fluxes

    Bhagwat Nawade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L., the customization of fatty acid profile is an evolving area to fulfil the nutritional needs in the modern market. A total of 174 peanut genotypes, including 167 Indian cultivars, 6 advanced breeding lines and ‘SunOleic’‒ a double mutant line, were investigated using AS-PCRs, CAPS and gene sequencing for the ahFAD2 allele polymorphism, along with its fatty acid compositions. Of these, 80 genotypes were found having substitution (448G>A mutation only in ahFAD2A gene, while none recorded 1-bp insertion (441_442insA mutation in ahFAD2B gene. Moreover, 22 wild peanut accessions found lacking both the mutations. Among botanical types, the ahFAD2A mutation was more frequent in ssp. hypogaea (89% than in ssp. fastigiata (17%. This single allele mutation, found affecting not only oleic to linoleic acid fluxes, but also the composition of other fatty acids in the genotypes studied. Repeated use of a few selected genotypes in the Indian varietal development programs were also eminently reflected in its ahFAD2 allele polymorphism. Absence of known mutations in the wild-relatives indicated the possible origin of these mutations, after the allotetraploidization of cultivated peanut. The SNP analysis of both ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B genes, revealed haplotype diversity of 1.05% and 0.95%, while Ka/Ks ratio of 0.36 and 0.39 respectively, indicating strong purifying selection pressure on these genes. Cluster analysis, using ahFAD2 gene SNPs, showed presence of both mutant and non-mutant genotypes in the same cluster, which might be due the presence of ahFAD2 gene families. This investigation provided insights into the large number of Indian peanut genotypes, covering various aspects related to O/L flux regulation and ahFAD2 gene polymorphism.

  12. Functional desaturase Fads1 (Δ5 and Fads2 (Δ6 orthologues evolved before the origin of jawed vertebrates.

    Luís Filipe Costa Castro

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs such as arachidonic (ARA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA acids are essential components of biomembranes, particularly in neural tissues. Endogenous synthesis of ARA, EPA and DHA occurs from precursor dietary essential fatty acids such as linoleic and α-linolenic acid through elongation and Δ5 and Δ6 desaturations. With respect to desaturation activities some noteworthy differences have been noted in vertebrate classes. In mammals, the Δ5 activity is allocated to the Fads1 gene, while Fads2 is a Δ6 desaturase. In contrast, teleosts show distinct combinations of desaturase activities (e.g. bifunctional or separate Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases apparently allocated to Fads2-type genes. To determine the timing of Fads1-Δ5 and Fads2-Δ6 evolution in vertebrates we used a combination of comparative and functional genomics with the analysis of key phylogenetic species. Our data show that Fads1 and Fads2 genes with Δ5 and Δ6 activities respectively, evolved before gnathostome radiation, since the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula has functional orthologues of both gene families. Consequently, the loss of Fads1 in teleosts is a secondary episode, while the existence of Δ5 activities in the same group most likely occurred through independent mutations into Fads2 type genes. Unexpectedly, we also establish that events of Fads1 gene expansion have taken place in birds and reptiles. Finally, a fourth Fads gene (Fads4 was found with an exclusive occurrence in mammalian genomes. Our findings enlighten the history of a crucially important gene family in vertebrate fatty acid metabolism and physiology and provide an explanation of how observed lineage-specific gene duplications, losses and diversifications might be linked to habitat-specific food web structures in different environments and over geological timescales.

  13. Functional desaturase Fads1 (Δ5) and Fads2 (Δ6) orthologues evolved before the origin of jawed vertebrates.

    Castro, Luís Filipe Costa; Monroig, Óscar; Leaver, Michael J; Wilson, Jonathan; Cunha, Isabel; Tocher, Douglas R

    2012-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as arachidonic (ARA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are essential components of biomembranes, particularly in neural tissues. Endogenous synthesis of ARA, EPA and DHA occurs from precursor dietary essential fatty acids such as linoleic and α-linolenic acid through elongation and Δ5 and Δ6 desaturations. With respect to desaturation activities some noteworthy differences have been noted in vertebrate classes. In mammals, the Δ5 activity is allocated to the Fads1 gene, while Fads2 is a Δ6 desaturase. In contrast, teleosts show distinct combinations of desaturase activities (e.g. bifunctional or separate Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases) apparently allocated to Fads2-type genes. To determine the timing of Fads1-Δ5 and Fads2-Δ6 evolution in vertebrates we used a combination of comparative and functional genomics with the analysis of key phylogenetic species. Our data show that Fads1 and Fads2 genes with Δ5 and Δ6 activities respectively, evolved before gnathostome radiation, since the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula has functional orthologues of both gene families. Consequently, the loss of Fads1 in teleosts is a secondary episode, while the existence of Δ5 activities in the same group most likely occurred through independent mutations into Fads2 type genes. Unexpectedly, we also establish that events of Fads1 gene expansion have taken place in birds and reptiles. Finally, a fourth Fads gene (Fads4) was found with an exclusive occurrence in mammalian genomes. Our findings enlighten the history of a crucially important gene family in vertebrate fatty acid metabolism and physiology and provide an explanation of how observed lineage-specific gene duplications, losses and diversifications might be linked to habitat-specific food web structures in different environments and over geological timescales.

  14. Adding a purple corn extract in rats supplemented with chia oil decreases gene expression of SREBP-1c and retains Δ5 and Δ6 hepatic desaturase activity, unmodified the hepatic lipid profile.

    Reyna Gallegos, Sixto; Torres Arrunátegui, Génesis; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Villanueva Espinoza, María Elena

    2018-05-01

    Flavonoids upregulate gene expression of PPAR-α and underregulate the gene expression of SREBP-1c, and their intake increases the plasmatic concentration of n-3 LC-PUFAs. However, the biological mechanisms underlying these effects have not been elucidated. In this work, the effect of oral supplementation of ALA from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil and anthocyanins from a purple corn extract (PCE) on gene expression of SREBP-1c, PPAR-α and Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases (Δ5D and Δ6D), the activity of these enzymes in the liver as well as the hepatic lipid profile were evaluated in thirty-six female Sprague Dawley rats whose diet was supplemented with olive oil (OL), chia oil (CH), olive oil and PCE (OL + PCE) or chia oil and PCE (CH + PCE). Gene expression of PPAR-α was significantly higher when supplemented with CH and CH + PCE, SREBP-1c gene expression was higher when supplemented with chia oil. CH supplementation enhanced Δ5D expression whereas no significant differences between treatments were observed concerning Δ6D gene expression. Activities of both desaturases were increased by including olive oil (OL + PCE and OL), and they were found to be higher in CH + PCE respect to CH for both enzymes. The ALA and n-3 LCPUFAs hepatic content was higher with CH, decreasing the levels of AA and n-6 LCPUFAs. It is concluded that the joint action of flavonoids such as anthocyanins and ALA show an anti-adipogenic effect. Desaturase activity was inhibited by ALA and kept by the anthocyanins from PCE, thus anthocyanins would exert a protective effect on the desaturase activity but they would not affect on its gene expression, however, high doses of ALA increased the production of its metabolites, masking the effect of PCE. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of oils rich in linoleic and α-linolenic acids on fatty acid profile and gene expression in goat meat.

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Goh, Yong Meng

    2014-09-24

    Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST) muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.

  16. Association between Polymorphisms in the Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Cluster and the Plasma Triacylglycerol Response to an n-3 PUFA Supplementation

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Thifault, Elisabeth; Garneau, Véronique; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, a large inter-individual variability in the plasma lipid response to an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation is observed in different studies. Genetic variations may influence plasma lipid responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a supplementation with n-3 PUFA on the plasma lipid profile in relation to the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster. A total of 208 subjects from Quebec City area were supplemented with 3 g/day of n-3 PUFA, during six weeks. In a statistical model including the effect of the genotype, the supplementation and the genotype by supplementation interaction, SNP rs174546 was significantly associated (p = 0.02) with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels, pre- and post-supplementation. The n-3 supplementation had an independent effect on plasma TG levels and no significant genotype by supplementation interaction effects were observed. In summary, our data support the notion that the FADS gene cluster is a major determinant of plasma TG levels. SNP rs174546 may be an important SNP associated with plasma TG levels and FADS1 gene expression independently of a nutritional intervention with n-3 PUFA. PMID:23016130

  17. Transcriptome analysis of H2O2-treated wheat seedlings reveals a H2O2-responsive fatty acid desaturase gene participating in powdery mildew resistance.

    Aili Li

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 plays important roles in plant biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, the effect of H(2O(2 stress on the bread wheat transcriptome is still lacking. To investigate the cellular and metabolic responses triggered by H(2O(2, we performed an mRNA tag analysis of wheat seedlings under 10 mM H(2O(2 treatment for 6 hour in one powdery mildew (PM resistant (PmA and two susceptible (Cha and Han lines. In total, 6,156, 6,875 and 3,276 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in PmA, Han and Cha respectively. Among them, 260 genes exhibited consistent expression patterns in all three wheat lines and may represent a subset of basal H(2O(2 responsive genes that were associated with cell defense, signal transduction, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and transport. Among genes specific to PmA, 'transport' activity was significantly enriched in Gene Ontology analysis. MapMan classification showed that, while both up- and down- regulations were observed for auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolides signaling genes, the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathway genes were all up-regulated, suggesting H(2O(2-enhanced JA/Et functions in PmA. To further study whether any of these genes were involved in wheat PM response, 19 H(2O(2-responsive putative defense related genes were assayed in wheat seedlings infected with Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt. Eight of these genes were found to be co-regulated by H(2O(2 and Bgt, among which a fatty acid desaturase gene TaFAD was then confirmed by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS to be required for the PM resistance. Together, our data presents the first global picture of the wheat transcriptome under H(2O(2 stress and uncovers potential links between H(2O(2 and Bgt responses, hence providing important candidate genes for the PM resistance in wheat.

  18. Association between Polymorphisms in the Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Cluster and the Plasma Triacylglycerol Response to an n-3 PUFA Supplementation

    Marie-Claude Vohl

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, a large inter-individual variability in the plasma lipid response to an omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA supplementation is observed in different studies. Genetic variations may influence plasma lipid responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a supplementation with n-3 PUFA on the plasma lipid profile in relation to the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene cluster. A total of 208 subjects from Quebec City area were supplemented with 3 g/day of n-3 PUFA, during six weeks. In a statistical model including the effect of the genotype, the supplementation and the genotype by supplementation interaction, SNP rs174546 was significantly associated (p = 0.02 with plasma triglyceride (TG levels, pre- and post-supplementation. The n-3 supplementation had an independent effect on plasma TG levels and no significant genotype by supplementation interaction effects were observed. In summary, our data support the notion that the FADS gene cluster is a major determinant of plasma TG levels. SNP rs174546 may be an important SNP associated with plasma TG levels and FADS1 gene expression independently of a nutritional intervention with n-3 PUFA.

  19. Can polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster alter the effects of fish oil supplementation on plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profiles? An exploratory study.

    Meldrum, Suzanne J; Li, Yuchun; Zhang, Guicheng; Heaton, Alexandra E M; D'Vaz, Nina; Manz, Judith; Reischl, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold V; Prescott, Susan L; Simmer, Karen

    2017-09-19

    The enzymes encoded by fatty acid desaturases (FADS) genes determine the desaturation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). We investigated if haplotype and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FADS gene cluster can influence LCPUFA status in infants who received either fish oil or placebo supplementation. Children enrolled in the Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study (IFOS) were randomly allocated to receive either fish oil or placebo from birth to 6 months of age. Blood was collected at 6 months of age for the measurement of fatty acids and for DNA extraction. A total of 276 participant DNA samples underwent genotyping, and 126 erythrocyte and 133 plasma fatty acid measurements were available for analysis. Twenty-two FADS SNPs were selected on the basis of literature and linkage disequilibrium patterns identified from the HapMap data. Haplotype construction was completed using PHASE. For participants allocated to the fish oil group who had two copies of the FADS1 haplotype consisting of SNP minor alleles, DHA levels were significantly higher compared to other haplotypes. This finding was not observed for the placebo group. Furthermore, for members of the fish oil group only, the minor homozygous carriers of all the FADS1 SNPs investigated had significantly higher DHA than other genotypes (rs174545, rs174546, rs174548, rs174553, rs174556, rs174537, rs174448, and rs174455). Overall results of this preliminary study suggest that supplementation with fish oil may only significantly increase DHA in minor allele carriers of FADS1 SNPs. Further research is required to confirm this novel finding.

  20. A polymorphism in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene promoter influences monounsaturated fatty acid content of Duroc × Iberian hams

    Henriquez-Rodriguez, E.; Tor, M.; Pena, R.N.; Estany, J.

    2015-07-01

    Data on 74 dry-cured hams from Duroc × Iberian pigs were used to examine whether the tag polymorphism AY487830:g.2228T>C in the promoter region of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase [SCD] gene affect fat desaturation and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) as previously described in purebred Duroc hams. Samples were taken from sliced trays of dry-cured hams marketed as Jamón Ibérico de cebo, which were randomly purchased from the same supplier in different stores of the same supermarket chain. Genomic DNA was isolated from each sample to genotype for SCD and gender. Also, a sample of two slices was used to determine fat content and fatty acid (FA) composition by gas chromatography. The effect of the genotype (TT and CT) and gender (barrows and gilts) was estimated under a Bayesian setting. Results showed that the SCD polymorphism was associated to fat composition but not to fat content, with TT hams showing increased C18:1n-7, C18:1n-9, C20:1n-9 and MUFA (probability between 0.92-0.98) and decreased C18:2n-6, C20:4n-6 and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) (probability between 0.91-0.99) as compared to the CT. As a result, the TT hams had more MUFA (0.95%) and a higher MUFA/PUFA ratio (0.43) than the CT. Barrows had more saturated FA (SFA) and less PUFA than gilts. No differences in MUFA content were found between genders. The SCD polymorphism had a greater impact on MUFA than using hams from barrows instead of gilts. It is concluded that the SCD polymorphism is a good tool to increase MUFA and MUFA/PUFA ratio in Duroc crossbred dry-cured hams. (Author)

  1. Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid alters hepatic gene expression in a polygenic obese line of mice displaying hepatic lipidosis.

    Ashwell, Melissa S; Ceddia, Ryan P; House, Ralph L; Cassady, Joseph P; Eisen, Eugene J; Eling, Thomas E; Collins, Jennifer B; Grissom, Sherry F; Odle, Jack

    2010-09-01

    The trans-10, cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes a rapid reduction of body and adipose mass in mice. In addition to changes in adipose tissue, numerous studies have reported alterations in hepatic lipid metabolism. Livers of CLA-fed mice gain mass, partly due to lipid accumulation; however, the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. To elucidate these mechanisms, we examined fatty acid composition and gene expression profiles of livers from a polygenic obese line of mice fed 1% trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 14 days. Analysis of gene expression data led to the identification of 1393 genes differentially expressed in the liver of CLA-fed male mice at a nominal P value of .01, and 775 were considered significant using a false discovery rate (FDR) threshold of .05. While surprisingly few genes in lipid metabolism were impacted, pathway analysis found that protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathways signaling pathways were affected by CLA treatment and 98 of the 775 genes were found to be regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha, a transcription factor important in controlling liver metabolic status. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved γ-linolenic acid production in Mucor circinelloides by homologous overexpressing of delta-12 and delta-6 desaturases.

    Zhang, Yao; Luan, Xiao; Zhang, Huaiyuan; Garre, Victoriano; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2017-06-21

    γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) is important because of its nutritional value and medicinal applications. Although the biosynthetic pathways of some plant and microbial GLA have been deciphered, current understanding of the correlation between desaturases and GLA synthesis in oleaginous fungi is incomplete. In previous work, we found that a large amount of oleic acid (OA) had not been converted to linoleic acid (LA) or GLA in Mucor circinelloides CBS 277.49, which may be due to inadequate activities of the delta-12 or delta-6 desaturases, and thus leading to the accumulation of OA and LA. Thus, it is necessary to explore the main contributing factor during the process of GLA biosynthesis in M. circinelloides. To enhance GLA production in M. circinelloides, homologous overexpression of delta-12 and two delta-6 desaturases (named delta-6-1 and delta-6-2, respectively) were analyzed. When delta-6 desaturase were overexpressed in M. circinelloides, up to 43% GLA was produced in the total fatty acids, and the yield of GLA reached 180 mg/l, which were, respectively, 38 and 33% higher than the control strain. These findings revealed that delta-6 desaturase (especially for delta-6-1 desaturase) plays an important role in GLA synthesis by M. circinelloides. The strain overexpressing delta-6-1 desaturase may have potential application in microbial GLA production.

  3. Effect of seafood mediated PCB exposure on desaturase activity and PUFA profile in Faroese septuagenarians.

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Choi, Anna L; Bjerve, Kristian S; Weihe, Pal; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure may affect serum concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) by inhibiting desaturases ∆5 and ∆6 that drive their synthesis from precursor fatty acids. Such changes in the composition of fatty acids may affect cardiovascular disease risk, which is thought to increase at elevated PCB exposures. This population-based cross-sectional study examined 712 Faroese men and women aged 70-74 years. The serum phospholipid fraction of fasting blood samples was used to determine the PUFA profile, including linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, and other relevant fatty acids. Ratios between precursor and metabolite fatty acids were used as proxies for ∆5 and ∆6 desaturase activity. Tertiles of serum-PCB concentrations were used in multiple regression analyses to determine the association between the exposure and desaturase activity. In multiple regression models, PCB exposure was inversely related to the estimated Δ6 desaturase activity resulting in accumulation of precursor fatty acids and decrease in the corresponding product PUFAs. A positive association between PCB and Δ5 desaturation was also found. A relative increase in EA was also observed, though only in the third tertile of PCB exposure. Non-linear relationships between the exposure and the desaturase activity were not found. Consuming fish and seafood may not be translated into beneficial fatty acid profiles if the diet simultaneously causes exposure to PCBs. Although the desaturase estimates were likely influenced by dietary intakes of product PUFAs, the association between PCB exposure and ∆6 desaturase activity is plausible and may affect cardiovascular disease risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sequence variations in the FAD2 gene in seeded pumpkins.

    Ge, Y; Chang, Y; Xu, W L; Cui, C S; Qu, S P

    2015-12-21

    Seeded pumpkins are important economic crops; the seeds contain various unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid and linoleic acid, which are crucial for human and animal nutrition. The fatty acid desaturase-2 (FAD2) gene encodes delta-12 desaturase, which converts oleic acid to linoleic acid. However, little is known about sequence variations in FAD2 in seeded pumpkins. Twenty-seven FAD2 clones from 27 accessions of Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita pepo, and Cucurbita ficifolia were obtained (totally 1152 bp; a single gene without introns). More than 90% nucleotide identities were detected among the 27 FAD2 clones. Nucleotide substitution, rather than nucleotide insertion and deletion, led to sequence polymorphism in the 27 FAD2 clones. Furthermore, the 27 FAD2 selected clones all encoded the FAD2 enzyme (delta-12 desaturase) with amino acid sequence identities from 91.7 to 100% for 384 amino acids. The same main-function domain between 47 and 329 amino acids was identified. The four species clustered separately based on differences in the sequences that were identified using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. Geographic origin and species were found to be closely related to sequence variation in FAD2.

  5. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase – the lipid metabolism regulator

    Mirosław Kucharski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stearoyl-CoA desaturase is an enzyme from the class of oxidoreductase, which catalyzes the formation of a fatty acid double bond between C9 and C10. It plays a key role in composition of the fatty acid profile in adipose tissue and animal products such as meat and milk. Additionally, it is an important regulator of metabolic processes in the body, and it determines the maintenance of energy homeostasis. This enzyme is encoded by an SCD gene, which, depending on the species, may exist as different isoforms. mRNA expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase is dependent on many factors, including diet, hormones, and the activity of other genes. In previous studies, several mutations were characterized within the sequence of Δ9-desaturase, which may affect the activity of the protein in the tissues, as well as the value of breeding animals. Effects of particular mutations of the gene encoding the enzyme appears to be particularly important for diseases associated with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, heart diseases or cancer in humans. Also, it seems that using sheep as a potential animal model could be helpful in uncovering and understanding the mechanisms regulated by stearoyl-CoA desaturase.

  6. Hydrostatic pressure decreases membrane fluidity and lipid desaturase expression in chondrocyte progenitor cells.

    Montagne, Kevin; Uchiyama, Hiroki; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Ushida, Takashi

    2014-01-22

    Membrane biomechanical properties are critical in modulating nutrient and metabolite exchange as well as signal transduction. Biological membranes are predominantly composed of lipids, cholesterol and proteins, and their fluidity is tightly regulated by cholesterol and lipid desaturases. To determine whether such membrane fluidity regulation occurred in mammalian cells under pressure, we investigated the effects of pressure on membrane lipid order of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells and desaturase gene expression. Hydrostatic pressure linearly increased membrane lipid packing and simultaneously repressed lipid desaturase gene expression. We also showed that cholesterol mimicked and cholesterol depletion reversed those effects, suggesting that desaturase gene expression was controlled by the membrane physical state itself. This study demonstrates a new effect of hydrostatic pressure on mammalian cells and may help to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in hydrostatic pressure sensing in chondrocytes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic variation in lipid desaturases and its impact on the development of human disease.

    Merino, Diana M; Ma, David W L; Mutch, David M

    2010-06-18

    Perturbations in lipid metabolism characterize many of the chronic diseases currently plaguing our society, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Thus interventions that target plasma lipid levels remain a primary goal to manage these diseases. The determinants of plasma lipid levels are multi-factorial, consisting of both genetic and lifestyle components. Recent evidence indicates that fatty acid desaturases have an important role in defining plasma and tissue lipid profiles. This review will highlight the current state-of-knowledge regarding three desaturases (Scd-1, Fads1 and Fads2) and their potential roles in disease onset and development. Although research in rodent models has provided invaluable insight into the regulation and functions of these desaturases, the extent to which murine research can be translated to humans remains unclear. Evidence emerging from human-based research demonstrates that genetic variation in human desaturase genes affects enzyme activity and, consequently, disease risk factors. Moreover, this genetic variation may have a trans-generational effect via breastfeeding. Therefore inter-individual variation in desaturase function is attributed to both genetic and lifestyle components. As such, population-based research regarding the role of desaturases on disease risk is challenged by this complex gene-lifestyle paradigm. Unravelling the contribution of each component is paramount for understanding the inter-individual variation that exists in plasma lipid profiles, and will provide crucial information to develop personalized strategies to improve health management.

  8. Functional identification and regulatory analysis of Δ6-fatty acid desaturase from the oleaginous fungus Mucor sp. EIM-10.

    Jiang, Xianzhang; Liu, Hongjiao; Niu, Yongchao; Qi, Feng; Zhang, Mingliang; Huang, Jianzhong

    2017-03-01

    To enlarge the diversity of the desaturases associated with PUFA biosynthesis and to better understand the transcriptional regulation of desaturases, a Δ 6 -desaturase gene (Md6) from Mucor sp. and its 5'-upstream sequence was functionally identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Expression of the Δ 6 -fatty acid desaturase (Md6) in S. cerevisiae showed that Md6 could convert linolenic acid to γ-linolenic acid. Computational analysis of the promoter of Md6 suggested it contains several eukaryotic fundamental transcription regulatory elements. In vivo functional analysis of the promoter showed the 5'-upstream sequence of Md6 could initiate expression of GFP and Md6 itself in S. cerevisiae. A series deletion analysis of the promoter suggested that sequence between -919 to -784 bp (relative to start site) named as eMd6 is the key factor for high activity of Δ 6 -desaturase. The activity of Δ 6 -desaturase was increased by 2.8-fold and 2.5-fold when the eMd6 sequence was placed upstream of -434 with forward or reverse orientations respectively. To our best knowledge, the native promoter of Md6 from Mucor is the strongest promoter for Δ 6 -desaturase reported so far and the sequence between -919 to -784 bp is an enhancer for Δ 6 -desaturase activity.

  9. Hydroxytyrosol prevents reduction in liver activity of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturases, oxidative stress, and depletion in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in different tissues of high-fat diet fed mice.

    Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Echeverria, Francisca; Ortiz, Macarena; Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Espinosa, Alejandra; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Illesca, Paola; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2017-04-11

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) with relevant roles in the organism. EPA and DHA are synthesized from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3), whereas AA is produced from linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) through the action of Δ5 and Δ6-desaturases. High-fat diet (HFD) decreases the activity of both desaturases and LCPUFA accretion in liver and other tissues. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a natural antioxidant, has an important cytoprotective effects in different cells and tissues. Male mice C57BL/6 J were fed a control diet (CD) (10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or a HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 weeks. Animals were daily supplemented with saline (CD) or 5 mg HT (HFD), and blood and the studied tissues were analyzed after the HT intervention. Parameters studied included liver histology (optical microscopy), activity of hepatic desaturases 5 and 6 (gas-liquid chromatography of methyl esters derivatives) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase by spectrophotometry), oxidative stress indicators (glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactants, and the antioxidant capacity of plasma), gene expression assays for sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) (qPCR and ELISA), and LCPUFA profiles in liver, erythrocyte, brain, heart, and testicle (gas-liquid chromatography). HFD led to insulin resistance and liver steatosis associated with SREBP-1c upregulation, with enhancement in plasma and liver oxidative stress status and diminution in the synthesis and storage of n-6 and n-3 LCPUFAs in the studied tissues, compared to animals given control diet. HT supplementation significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and plasma as well as tissue metabolic alterations induced by HFD. Furthermore, a normalization of desaturase activities

  10. Functional screening of a novel Δ15 fatty acid desaturase from the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi.

    Kotajima, Tomonori; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Iwane

    2014-10-01

    The coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi is a bloom-forming marine phytoplankton thought to play a key role as a biological pump that transfers carbon from the surface to the bottom of the ocean, thus contributing to the global carbon cycle. This alga is also known to accumulate a variety of polyunsaturated fatty acids. At 25°C, E. huxleyi produces mainly 14:0, 18:4n-3, 18:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. When the cells were transferred from 25°C to 15°C, the amount of unsaturated fatty acids, i.e. 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3 and 18:5n-3, gradually increased. Among the predicted desaturase genes whose expression levels were up-regulated at low temperature, we identified a gene encoding novel ∆15 fatty acid desaturase, EhDES15, involved in the production of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in E. huxleyi. This desaturase contains a putative transit sequence for localization in chloroplasts and a ∆6 desaturase-like domain, but it does not contain a cytochrome b5 domain nor typical His-boxes found in ∆15 desaturases. Heterologous expression of EhDES15 cDNA in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells increased the level of n-3 fatty acid species, which are produced at low levels in wild-type cells grown at 30°C. The orthologous genes are only conserved in the genomes of prasinophytes and cryptophytes. The His-boxes conserved in orthologues varied from that of the canonical ∆15 desaturases. These results suggested the gene encodes a novel ∆15 desaturase responsible for the synthesis of 18:3n-3 from 18:2n-6 in E. huxleyi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Gene expression of desaturase (FADS1 and FADS2) and Elongase (ELOVL5) enzymes in peripheral blood: association with polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and atopic eczema in 4-year-old children.

    Chisaguano, Aida Maribel; Montes, Rosa; Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Guerendiain, Marcela; Bustamante, Mariona; Morales, Eva; García-Esteban, Raquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Franch, Angels; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown if changes in the gene expression of the desaturase and elongase enzymes are associated with abnormal n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels in children with atopic eczema (AE). We analyzed whether mRNA-expression of genes encoding key enzymes of LC-PUFA synthesis (FADS1, FADS2 and ELOVL5) is associated with circulating LC-PUFA levels and risk of AE in 4-year-old children. AE (n=20) and non-AE (n=104) children participating in the Sabadell cohort within the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project were included in the present study. RT-PCR with TaqMan Low-Density Array cards was used to measure the mRNA-expression of FADS1, FADS2 and ELOVL5. LC-PUFA levels were measured by fast gas chromatography in plasma phospholipids. The relationship of gene expression with LC-PUFA levels and enzyme activities was evaluated by Pearson's rank correlation coefficient, and logistic regression models were used to study its association with risk of developing AE. Children with AE had lower levels of several n-6 PUFA members, dihomo-γ-linolenic (DGLA) and arachidonic (AA) acids. mRNA-expression levels of FADS1 and 2 strongly correlated with DGLA levels and with D6D activity. FADS2 and ELOVL5 mRNA-expression levels were significantly lower in AE than in non-AE children (-40.30% and -20.36%; respectively), but no differences were found for FADS1. Changes in the mRNA-expression levels of FADS1 and 2 directly affect blood DGLA levels and D6D activity. This study suggests that lower mRNA-expressions of FADS2 and ELOVL5 are associated with higher risk of atopic eczema in young children.

  12. Gene Expression of Desaturase (FADS1 and FADS2) and Elongase (ELOVL5) Enzymes in Peripheral Blood: Association with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Atopic Eczema in 4-Year-Old Children

    Chisaguano, Aida Maribel; Montes, Rosa; Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Guerendiain, Marcela; Bustamante, Mariona; Morales, Eva; García-Esteban, Raquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Franch, Àngels; López-Sabater, M. Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background It is unknown if changes in the gene expression of the desaturase and elongase enzymes are associated with abnormal n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels in children with atopic eczema (AE). We analyzed whether mRNA-expression of genes encoding key enzymes of LC-PUFA synthesis (FADS1, FADS2 and ELOVL5) is associated with circulating LC-PUFA levels and risk of AE in 4-year-old children. Methods AE (n=20) and non-AE (n=104) children participating in the Sabadell cohort within the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project were included in the present study. RT-PCR with TaqMan Low-Density Array cards was used to measure the mRNA-expression of FADS1, FADS2 and ELOVL5. LC-PUFA levels were measured by fast gas chromatography in plasma phospholipids. The relationship of gene expression with LC-PUFA levels and enzyme activities was evaluated by Pearson’s rank correlation coefficient, and logistic regression models were used to study its association with risk of developing AE. Results Children with AE had lower levels of several n-6 PUFA members, dihomo-γ-linolenic (DGLA) and arachidonic (AA) acids. mRNA-expression levels of FADS1 and 2 strongly correlated with DGLA levels and with D6D activity. FADS2 and ELOVL5 mRNA-expression levels were significantly lower in AE than in non-AE children (-40.30% and -20.36%; respectively), but no differences were found for FADS1. Conclusions and Significance Changes in the mRNA-expression levels of FADS1 and 2 directly affect blood DGLA levels and D6D activity. This study suggests that lower mRNA-expressions of FADS2 and ELOVL5 are associated with higher risk of atopic eczema in young children. PMID:24167612

  13. Characterization of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturases from a Psychrophilic Antarctic Copepod, Tigriopus kingsejongensis.

    Jung, Woongsic; Kim, Eun Jae; Han, Se Jong; Choi, Han-Gu; Kim, Sanghee

    2016-10-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase is a key regulator in fatty acid metabolism that catalyzes the desaturation of stearic acid to oleic acid and controls the intracellular levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). Two stearoyl-CoA desaturases (SCD, Δ9 desaturases) genes were identified in an Antarctic copepod, Tigriopus kingsejongensis, that was collected in a tidal pool near the King Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica. Full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences of two T. kingsejongensis SCDs (TkSCDs) were obtained from next-generation sequencing and isolated by reverse transcription PCR. DNA sequence lengths of the open reading frames of TkSCD-1 and TkSCD-2 were determined to be 1110 and 681 bp, respectively. The molecular weights deduced from the corresponding genes were estimated to be 43.1 kDa (TkSCD-1) and 26.1 kDa (TkSCD-2). The amino acid sequences were compared with those of fatty acid desaturases and sterol desaturases from various organisms and used to analyze the relationships among TkSCDs. As assessed by heterologous expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli, the enzymatic functions of both stearoyl-CoA desaturases revealed that the amount of C16:1 and C18:1 fatty acids increased by greater than 3-fold after induction with isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside. In particular, C18:1 fatty acid production increased greater than 10-fold in E. coli expressing TkSCD-1 and TkSCD-2. The results of this study suggest that both SCD genes from an Antarctic marine copepod encode a functional desaturase that is capable of increasing the amounts of palmitoleic acid and oleic acid in a prokaryotic expression system.

  14. RNA-Seq Analysis of Developing Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) Embryos Reveals Parallel Expression Patterns among Allergen and Lipid Metabolism Genes.

    Mattison, Christopher P; Rai, Ruhi; Settlage, Robert E; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Madison, Crista; Bland, John M; Brashear, Suzanne; Graham, Charles J; Tarver, Matthew R; Florane, Christopher; Bechtel, Peter J

    2017-02-22

    The pecan nut is a nutrient-rich part of a healthy diet full of beneficial fatty acids and antioxidants, but can also cause allergic reactions in people suffering from food allergy to the nuts. The transcriptome of a developing pecan nut was characterized to identify the gene expression occurring during the process of nut development and to highlight those genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and those that commonly act as food allergens. Pecan samples were collected at several time points during the embryo development process including the water, gel, dough, and mature nut stages. Library preparation and sequencing were performed using Illumina-based mRNA HiSeq with RNA from four time points during the growing season during August and September 2012. Sequence analysis with Trinotate software following the Trinity protocol identified 133,000 unigenes with 52,267 named transcripts and 45,882 annotated genes. A total of 27,312 genes were defined by GO annotation. Gene expression clustering analysis identified 12 different gene expression profiles, each containing a number of genes. Three pecan seed storage proteins that commonly act as allergens, Car i 1, Car i 2, and Car i 4, were significantly up-regulated during the time course. Up-regulated fatty acid metabolism genes that were identified included acyl-[ACP] desaturase and omega-6 desaturase genes involved in oleic and linoleic acid metabolism. Notably, a few of the up-regulated acyl-[ACP] desaturase and omega-6 desaturase genes that were identified have expression patterns similar to the allergen genes based upon gene expression clustering and qPCR analysis. These findings suggest the possibility of coordinated accumulation of lipids and allergens during pecan nut embryogenesis.

  15. Selection in Europeans on fatty acid desaturases associated with dietary changes

    Buckley, Matthew T.; Racimo, Fernando; Allentoft, Morten Erik

    2017-01-01

    FADS genes encode fatty acid desaturases that are important for the conversion of short chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to long chain fatty acids. Prior studies indicate that the FADS genes have been subjected to strong positive selection in Africa, South Asia, Greenland, and Europe. By...

  16. Identification and functional analysis of delta-9 desaturase, a key enzyme in PUFA Synthesis, isolated from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera.

    Masaki Muto

    Full Text Available Oleaginous microalgae are one of the promising resource of nonedible biodiesel fuel (BDF feed stock alternatives. Now a challenge task is the decrease of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs content affecting on the BDF oxidative stability by using gene manipulation techniques. However, only the limited knowledge has been available concerning the fatty acid and PUFA synthesis pathways in microalgae. Especially, the function of Δ9 desaturase, which is a key enzyme in PUFA synthesis pathway, has not been determined in diatom. In this study, 4 Δ(9 desaturase genes (fD9desA, fD9desB, fD9desC and fD9desD from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera were newly isolated and functionally characterized. The putative Δ(9 acyl-CoA desaturases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER showed 3 histidine clusters that are well-conserved motifs in the typical Δ(9 desaturase. Furthermore, the function of these Δ(9 desaturases was confirmed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ole1 gene deletion mutant (Δole1. All the putative Δ(9 acyl-CoA desaturases showed Δ(9 desaturation activity for C16∶0 fatty acids; fD9desA and fD9desB also showed desaturation activity for C18∶0 fatty acids. This study represents the first functional analysis of Δ(9 desaturases from oleaginous microalgae and from diatoms as the first enzyme to introduce a double bond in saturated fatty acids during PUFA synthesis. The findings will provide beneficial insights into applying metabolic engineering processes to suppressing PUFA synthesis in this oleaginous microalgal strain.

  17. Identification and functional analysis of delta-9 desaturase, a key enzyme in PUFA Synthesis, isolated from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera.

    Muto, Masaki; Kubota, Chihiro; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Satoh, Akira; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Oleaginous microalgae are one of the promising resource of nonedible biodiesel fuel (BDF) feed stock alternatives. Now a challenge task is the decrease of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content affecting on the BDF oxidative stability by using gene manipulation techniques. However, only the limited knowledge has been available concerning the fatty acid and PUFA synthesis pathways in microalgae. Especially, the function of Δ9 desaturase, which is a key enzyme in PUFA synthesis pathway, has not been determined in diatom. In this study, 4 Δ(9) desaturase genes (fD9desA, fD9desB, fD9desC and fD9desD) from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera were newly isolated and functionally characterized. The putative Δ(9) acyl-CoA desaturases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) showed 3 histidine clusters that are well-conserved motifs in the typical Δ(9) desaturase. Furthermore, the function of these Δ(9) desaturases was confirmed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ole1 gene deletion mutant (Δole1). All the putative Δ(9) acyl-CoA desaturases showed Δ(9) desaturation activity for C16∶0 fatty acids; fD9desA and fD9desB also showed desaturation activity for C18∶0 fatty acids. This study represents the first functional analysis of Δ(9) desaturases from oleaginous microalgae and from diatoms as the first enzyme to introduce a double bond in saturated fatty acids during PUFA synthesis. The findings will provide beneficial insights into applying metabolic engineering processes to suppressing PUFA synthesis in this oleaginous microalgal strain.

  18. INHIBITION OF FATTY ACID DESATURASES IN Drosophila melanogaster LARVAE BLOCKS FEEDING AND DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRESSION.

    Wang, Yiwen; da Cruz, Tina Correia; Pulfemuller, Alicia; Grégoire, Stéphane; Ferveur, Jean-François; Moussian, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid desaturases are metabolic setscrews. To study their systemic impact on growth in Drosophila melanogaster, we inhibited fatty acid desaturases using the inhibitor CAY10566. As expected, the amount of desaturated lipids is reduced in larvae fed with CAY10566. These animals cease feeding soon after hatching, and their growth is strongly attenuated. A starvation program is not launched, but the expression of distinct metabolic genes is activated, possibly to mobilize storage material. Without attaining the normal size, inhibitor-fed larvae molt to the next stage indicating that the steroid hormone ecdysone triggers molting correctly. Nevertheless, after molting, expression of ecdysone-dependent regulators is not induced. While control larvae molt a second time, these larvae fail to do so and die after few days of straying. These effects are similar to those observed in experiments using larvae deficient for the fatty acid desaturase1 gene. Based on these data, we propose that the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids adjusts a sensor system that directs feeding behavior. We also hypothesize that loss of fatty acid desaturase activity leads to a block of the genetic program of development progression indirectly by switching on a metabolic compensation program. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A large and functionally diverse family of Fad2 genes in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.

    Cao Shijiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application and nutritional value of vegetable oil is highly dependent on its fatty acid composition, especially the relative proportion of its two major fatty acids, i.e oleic acid and linoleic acid. Microsomal oleoyl phosphatidylcholine desaturase encoded by FAD2 gene is known to introduce a double bond at the Δ12 position of an oleic acid on phosphatidylcholine and convert it to linoleic acid. The known plant FAD2 enzymes are encoded by small gene families consisting of 1-4 members. In addition to the classic oleate Δ12-desaturation activity, functional variants of FAD2 that are capable of undertaking additional or alternative acyl modifications have also been reported in a limited number of plant species. In this study, our objective was to identify FAD2 genes from safflower and analyse their differential expression profile and potentially diversified functionality. Results We report here the characterization and functional expression of an exceptionally large FAD2 gene family from safflower, and the temporal and spatial expression profiles of these genes as revealed through Real-Time quantitative PCR. The diversified functionalities of some of the safflower FAD2 gene family members were demonstrated by ectopic expression in yeast and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. CtFAD2-1 and CtFAD2-10 were demonstrated to be oleate desaturases specifically expressed in developing seeds and flower head, respectively, while CtFAD2-2 appears to have relatively low oleate desaturation activity throughout the plant. CtFAD2-5 and CtFAD2-8 are specifically expressed in root tissues, while CtFAD2-3, 4, 6, 7 are mostly expressed in the cotyledons and hypocotyls in young safflower seedlings. CtFAD2-9 was found to encode a novel desaturase operating on C16:1 substrate. CtFAD2-11 is a tri-functional enzyme able to introduce a carbon double bond in either cis or trans configuration, or a carbon triple (acetylenic bond

  20. 21 CFR 184.1065 - Linoleic acid.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Linoleic acid. 184.1065 Section 184.1065 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1065 Linoleic acid. (a) Linoleic acid ((Z, Z)-9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (C17H31COOH) (CAS Reg. No. 60-33-3)), a straight chain unsaturated fatty acid with a molecular weight of 280.5...

  1. Inventory of Fatty Acid Desaturases in the Pennate Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Lina-Juana Dolch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The diatom Phaeodactylum is rich in very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Fatty acid (FA synthesis, elongation, and desaturation have been studied in depth in plants including Arabidopsis, but for secondary endosymbionts the full picture remains unclear. FAs are synthesized up to a chain length of 18 carbons inside chloroplasts, where they can be incorporated into glycerolipids. They are also exported to the ER for phospho- and betaine lipid syntheses. Elongation of FAs up to 22 carbons occurs in the ER. PUFAs can be reimported into plastids to serve as precursors for glycerolipids. In both organelles, FA desaturases are present, introducing double bonds between carbon atoms and giving rise to a variety of molecular species. In addition to the four desaturases characterized in Phaeodactylum (FAD2, FAD6, PtD5, PtD6, we identified eight putative desaturase genes. Combining subcellular localization predictions and comparisons with desaturases from other organisms like Arabidopsis, we propose a scheme at the whole cell level, including features that are likely specific to secondary endosymbionts.

  2. 21 CFR 582.5065 - Linoleic acid.

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5065 Linoleic acid. (a) Product. Linoleic acid prepared from edible fats and oils and free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  3. Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase from higher plants is structurally unrelated to the animal and fungal homologs

    Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.

    1991-01-01

    Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) desaturase was purified to homogeneity from avocado mesocarp, and monospecific polyclonal antibodies directed against the protein were used to isolate full-length cDNA clones from Ricinus communis (castor) seed and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). The nucleotide sequence of the castor clone pRCD1 revealed an open reading frame of 1.2 kilobases encoding a 396-amino acid protein of 45 kDa. The cucumber clone pCSD1 encoded a homologous 396-amino acid protein with 88% amino acid identity to the castor clone. Expression of pRCD1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of a functional stearoyl-ACP desaturase, demonstrating that the introduction of this single gene product was sufficient to confer soluble desaturase activity to yeast. There was a 48-residue region of 29% amino acid sequence identity between residues 53 and 101 of the castor desaturase and the proximal border of the dehydratase region of the fatty acid synthase from yeast. Stearoyl-ACP mRNA was present at substantially higher levels in developing seeds than in leaf and root tissue, suggesting that expression of the Δ 9 desaturase is developmentally regulated

  4. [Cloning and functional characterization of phytoene desaturase in Andrographis paniculata].

    Shen, Qin-qin; Li, Li-xia; Zhan, Peng-lin; Wang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    A full-length cDNA of phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene from Andrographis paniculata was obtained through RACE-PCR. The cDNA sequence consists of 2 224 bp with an intact ORF of 1 752 bp (GeneBank: KP982892), encoding a ploypeptide of 584 amino acids. Homology analysis showed that the deduced protein has extensive sequence similarities to PDS from other plants, and contains a conserved NAD ( H) -binding domain of plant dehydrase cofactor binding-domain in N-terminal. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that ApPDS was more related to PDS of Sesamum indicum and Pogostemon cablin. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that ApPDS expressed in whole aboveground tissues with the highest expression in leaves. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) was performed to characterize the functional of ApPDS in planta. Significant photobleaching was not observed in infiltrated leaves, while the PDS gene has been down-regulated significantly at the yellowish area. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of PDS gene cloning and functional characterization from A. paniculata, which lays the foundation for further investigation of new genes, especially that correlative to andrographolide biosynthetic pathway.

  5. Characterization and comparison of fatty acyl Delta6 desaturase cDNAs from freshwater and marine teleost fish species.

    Zheng, X; Seiliez, I; Hastings, N; Tocher, D R; Panserat, S; Dickson, C A; Bergot, P; Teale, A J

    2004-10-01

    Fish are the most important dietary source of the n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), that have particularly important roles in human nutrition reflecting their roles in critical physiological processes. The objective of the study described here was to clone, functionally characterize and compare expressed fatty acid desaturase genes involved in the production of EPA and DHA in freshwater and marine teleost fish species. Putative fatty acid desaturase cDNAs were isolated and cloned from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and turbot (Psetta maximus). The enzymic activities of the products of these cDNAs, together with those of cDNAs previously cloned from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), were determined by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The carp and turbot desaturase cDNAs included open reading frames (ORFs) of 1335 and 1338 base pairs, respectively, specifying proteins of 444 and 445 amino acids. The protein sequences possessed all the characteristic features of microsomal fatty acid desaturases, including three histidine boxes, two transmembrane regions, and N-terminal cytochrome b(5) domains containing the haem-binding motif, HPGG. Functional expression showed all four fish cDNAs encode basically unifunctional Delta6 fatty acid desaturase enzymes responsible for the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of HUFA from 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6. All the fish desaturases were more active towards the n-3 substrate with 59.5%, 31.5%, 23.1% and 7.0% of 18:3n-3 being converted to 18:4n-3 in the case of turbot, trout, sea bream and carp, respectively. The enzymes also showed very low, probably physiologically insignificant, levels of Delta5 desaturase activity, but none of the products showed Delta4 desaturase activity. The cloning and characterization of desaturases from these fish is an important advance, as they are species in which

  6. Molecular Cloning and Functional Expression of a Δ9- Fatty Acid Desaturase from an Antarctic Pseudomonas sp. A3

    Garba, Lawal; Mohamad Ali, Mohd Shukuri; Oslan, Siti Nurbaya; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturase enzymes play an essential role in the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. Pseudomonas sp. A3 was found to produce a large amount of palmitoleic and oleic acids after incubation at low temperatures. Using polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), a novel Δ9- fatty acid desaturase gene was isolated, cloned, and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene was designated as PA3FAD9 and has an open reading frame of 1,185 bp which codes for 394 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 45 kDa. The activity of the gene product was confirmed via GCMS, which showed a functional putative Δ9-fatty acid desaturase capable of increasing the total amount of cellular unsaturated fatty acids of the E. coli cells expressing the gene. The results demonstrate that the cellular palmitoleic acids have increased two-fold upon expression at 15°C using only 0.1 mM IPTG. Therefore, PA3FAD9 from Pseudomonas sp.A3 codes for a Δ9-fatty acid desaturase-like protein which was actively expressed in E. coli. PMID:27494717

  7. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of two FAD2 genes from American grape (Vitis labrusca L.).

    Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Sun Hee; Go, Young-Sam; Jung, Sung Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum; Suh, Mi-Chung; Lee, Sukchan; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2012-11-10

    The synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), the most abundant fatty acids in plants, begins with a reaction catalyzed by fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2; EC 1.3.1.35), also called microsomal oleate Δ12-desaturase. Since the FAD2 gene was first identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, FAD2 research has gained wide interest as the essential enzyme for synthesizing PUFA. Grapes are one of the most frequently cultivated fruits in the world, with most commercial growers cultivating Vitis vinifera and V. labrusca. Grapeseed oil contains a high proportion, 60-70% of linoleic acid (18:2). We cloned two putative FAD2 genes from V. labrusca cv. Campbell Early based on V. vinifera genome sequences. Deduced amino acid sequences of two putative genes showed that VlFAD2s show high similarity to Arabidopsis FAD2 and commonly contain six transmembrane domain, three histidine boxes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrieval motif representing the characteristics of fatty acid desaturase. Phylogenetic analyses of various plant FAD2s showed that VlFAD2-1 and VlFAD2-2 are separately grouped with constitutive and seed-type FAD2s, respectively. Southern blot showed that one or two bands are found in each lane. Because Campbell Early is a hybrid cultivar, FAD2-1 and FAD2-2 genes may exist as one copy in V. labrusca. Expression analysis in different tissues indicated that VlFAD2-1 is a constitutive gene but VlFAD2-2 is a seed-type gene. Complementation experiments of fad2-1 mutant Arabidopsis with VlFAD2-1 or VlFAD2-2 demonstrated that VlFAD2-1 and VlFAD2-2 can restore low PUFA proportion of fad2 to normal PUFA proportion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of linoleic and conjugated linoleic acids in enzymatic acidolysis of tristearin

    Yang, Tiankui; Xu, Xuebing; Li, L.T.

    2001-01-01

    tristearin (SSS) and linoleic (L) or conjugated linoleic (cL) acids (1:6, mol/mol). The other was between tristearin and the mixture of linoleic and conjugated linoleic acids (1:3:3, mol/mol/mol). Acyl incorporation and migration together with triacylglycerol composition of the products were monitored...... with gas chromatography, pancreatic lipase hydrolysis, and high performance liquid chromatography. Both acyl incorporation and migration of linoleic acid were faster than those of conjugated linoleic acid. At 5 h reaction, there were 13.0% LLL, 46.5% LSL, 27.7% LSS, and 5.6% SSS in the product for a system...... between tristearin and linoleic acid; whereas there were 2.4% cLcLcL, 10.4% cLScL, 50.9% cLSS, and 36.2% SSS in the product for a system between tristearin and conjugated linoleic acid. The results suggest that linoleic acid was more reactive than conjugated linoleic acid in the enzymatic acidolysis...

  9. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by altering expression of hepatic genes regulating fatty acid synthesis and oxidation

    Background: Concomitant supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3; DHA) prevented t10, c12- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance. Effective dose of DHA and mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Methods: We examined abi...

  10. Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis

    Shanklin, John [Shoreham, NY; Whittle, Edward J [Greenport, NY

    2008-01-29

    The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

  11. Conjugated Linoleic Acid: good or bad nutrient

    Gonçalves Daniela C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a class of 28 positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid octadecadienoic.Currently, it has been described many benefits related to the supplementation of CLA in animals and humans, as in the treatment of cancer, oxidative stress, in atherosclerosis, in bone formation and composition in obesity, in diabetes and the immune system. However, our results show that, CLA appears to be not a good supplement in patients with cachexia.

  12. Plasma lipid fatty acid composition, desaturase activities and insulin sensitivity in Amerindian women.

    Vessby, B; Ahrén, B; Warensjö, E; Lindgärde, F

    2012-03-01

    Two Amerindian populations--Shuar women living in the Amazonian rain forest under traditional conditions and urbanized women in a suburb of Lima were studied. The fatty acid composition in plasma lipids and the relationships between fatty acid composition and metabolic variables were studied, as well as in a reference group of Swedish women. Fasting plasma was used for analyses of glucose, insulin, leptin and fatty acid composition. Women in Lima had more body fat, higher fasting insulin and leptin and lower insulin sensitivity than the Shuar women, who had insulin sensitivity similar to Swedish women. Shuar women had very high proportions (mean; SD) of palmitoleic (13.2; 3.9%) and oleic (33.9; 3.7%) acids in the plasma cholesteryl esters with very low levels of linoleic acid (29.1; 6.1 3%), as expected on a low fat, high carbohydrate diet. The estimated activity of delta 9 (SCD-1) desaturase was about twice as high in the Shuar compared with Lima women, suggesting neo lipogenesis, while the delta 5 desaturase activity did not differ. The Lima women, as well as the Swedish, showed strong positive correlations between SCD-1 activity on the one hand and fasting insulin and HOMA index on the other. These associations were absent in the Shuar women. The high SCD-1 activity in the Shuar women may reflect increased lipogenesis in adipose tissue. It also illustrates how a low fat diet rich in non-refined carbohydrates can be linked to a good metabolic situation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Pomegranate seed oil influences the fatty acids profile and reduces the activity of desaturases in livers of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Białek, Agnieszka; Stawarska, Agnieszka; Bodecka, Joanna; Białek, Małgorzata; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the influence of diet supplementation with pomegranate seed oil - as conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) source, or conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and to examine the mechanism of their activity. The content of fatty acids, levels of biomarkers of lipids' oxidation and the activity of key enzymes catalyzing lipids metabolism were measured. Obtained results revealed that conjugated fatty acids significantly decrease the activity of Δ5-desaturase (p=0.0001) and Δ6-desaturase (p=0.0008) and pomegranate seed oil reduces their activity in the most potent way. We confirmed that diet supplementation with pomegranate seed oil - a rich source of punicic acid leads to the increase of cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in livers (p=0.0003). Lack of side effects and beneficial influence on desaturases activity and fatty acids profile claim pomegranate seed oil to become interesting alternative for CLA as functional food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, serum zinc, delta-5- and delta-6-desaturase activities and incident metabolic syndrome.

    Yary, T; Voutilainen, S; Tuomainen, T-P; Ruusunen, A; Nurmi, T; Virtanen, J K

    2017-08-01

    The associations of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with metabolic syndrome have been poorly explored. We investigated the associations of the serum n-6 PUFA and the activities of enzymes involved in the PUFA metabolism, delta-5-desaturase (D5D) and delta-6-desaturase (D6D) with risk of incident metabolic syndrome. We also investigated whether zinc, a cofactor for these enzymes, modifies these associations. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 661 men who were aged 42-60 years old at baseline in 1984-1989 and who were re-examined in 1998-2001. Men in the highest versus the lowest serum total omega-6 PUFA tertile had a 70% lower multivariate-adjusted risk of incident metabolic syndrome [odds ratio (OR) = 0.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.18-0.51, P trend metabolic syndrome components at the re-examinations. Most associations were attenuated after adjustment for body mass index. Finally, the associations of D6D and LA were stronger among those with a higher serum zinc concentration. Higher serum total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid concentrations and D5D activity were associated with a lower risk of developing metabolic syndrome and higher D6D activity was associated with a higher risk. The role of zinc also needs to be investigated in other populations. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  15. Purification, Reconstitution, and Inhibition of Cytochrome P-450 Sterol Δ22-Desaturase from the Pathogenic Fungus Candida glabrata

    Lamb, David C.; Maspahy, Segula; Kelly, Diane E.; Manning, Nigel J.; Geber, Antonia; Bennett, John E.; Kelly, Steven L.

    1999-01-01

    Sterol Δ22-desaturase has been purified from a strain of Candida glabrata with a disruption in the gene encoding sterol 14α-demethylase (cytochrome P-45051; CYP51). The purified cytochrome P-450 exhibited sterol Δ22-desaturase activity in a reconstituted system with NADPH–cytochrome P-450 reductase in dilaurylphosphatidylcholine, with the enzyme kinetic studies revealing a Km for ergosta-5,7-dienol of 12.5 μM and a Vmax of 0.59 nmol of this substrate metabolized/min/nmol of P-450. This enzyme is encoded by CYP61 (ERG5) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and homologues have been shown in the Candida albicans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome projects. Ketoconazole, itraconazole, and fluconazole formed low-spin complexes with the ferric cytochrome and exhibited type II spectra, which are indicative of an interaction between the azole moiety and the cytochrome heme. The azole antifungal compounds inhibited reconstituted sterol Δ22-desaturase activity by binding to the cytochrome with a one-to-one stoichiometry, with total inhibition of enzyme activity occurring when equimolar amounts of azole and cytochrome P-450 were added. These results reveal the potential for sterol Δ22-desaturase to be an antifungal target and to contribute to the binding of drugs within the fungal cell. PMID:10390230

  16. Changes in Oleic Acid Content of Transgenic Soybeans by Antisense RNA Mediated Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    Ling Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1, which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71% and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3% in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts.

  17. Linoleic acid intake and vitamin E requirement

    Jager, F.C.

    1973-01-01

    In experiments with rats and Peking ducklings it has been investigated to what extent the linoleic acid content of the diet is of influence on the requirement of vitamin E. This requirement was determined by adding D-α-tocopheryl acetate in increasing doses to vitamin E-free diets and to determine

  18. The Bacillus subtilis Acyl Lipid Desaturase Is a Δ5 Desaturase

    Altabe, Silvia G.; Aguilar, Pablo; Caballero, Gerardo M.; de Mendoza, Diego

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis was recently reported to synthesize unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) with a double bond at positions Δ5, Δ7, and Δ9 (M. H. Weber, W. Klein, L. Muller, U. M. Niess, and M. A. Marahiel, Mol. Microbiol. 39:1321-1329, 2001). Since this finding would have considerable importance in the double-bond positional specificity displayed by the B. subtilis acyl lipid desaturase, we have attempted to confirm this observation. We report that the double bond of UFAs synthesized by B. subtilis is located exclusively at the Δ5 position, regardless of the growth temperature and the length chain of the fatty acids. PMID:12730185

  19. Characterization of linoleate 10-hydratase of Lactobacillus plantarum and novel antifungal metabolites

    Yuan Yao Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to the antifungal compound 10-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid (10-HOE by linoleate 10-hydratase (10-LAH. However, the effect of this conversion on cellularmembrane physiology and properties of the cell surface have not been demonstrated. Moreover, L. plantarum produces 13-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (13-HOE in addition to 10-HOE, but the antifungal activity of 13-HOE was unknown. Phylogenetic analyses conducted in this study did not differentiate between 10-LAH and linoleate 13-hydratase (13-LAH. Thus, linoleate hydratases (LAHs must be characterized through their differences in their activities of linoleate conversion. Four genes encoding putative LAHs from lactobacilli were cloned, heterologous expressed, purified and identified as FAD-dependent 10-LAH. The unsaturated fatty acid substrates stimulated the growth of lactobacilli. We also investigated the role of 10-LAH in ethanol tolerance, membrane fluidity and hydrophobicity of cell surfaces in lactobacilli by disruption of 10-lah. Compared with the L. plantarum 10-lah deficient strain, 10-LAH in wild-type strain did not exert effect on cell survival and membrane fluidity under ethanol stress, but influenced the cell surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, deletion of 10-LAH in L. plantarum facilitated purification of 13-HOE and demonstration of its antifungal activity against Penicillium roquefortii and Aspergillus niger.

  20. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases are associated with floral isolation in sexually deceptive orchids

    Schluter, P.M.; Shanklin, J.; Xu, S.; Gagliardini, V.; Whittle, E.; Grossniklaus, U.; Schiestl, F. P.

    2011-04-05

    The orchids Ophrys sphegodes and O. exaltata are reproductively isolated from each other by the attraction of two different, highly specific pollinator species. For pollinator attraction, flowers chemically mimic the pollinators sex pheromones, the key components of which are alkenes with different double-bond positions. This study identifies genes likely involved in alkene biosynthesis, encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) homologs. The expression of two isoforms, SAD1 and SAD2, is flower-specific and broadly parallels alkene production during flower development. SAD2 shows a significant association with alkene production, and in vitro assays show that O. sphegodes SAD2 has activity both as an 18:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 9} and a 16:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 4} desaturase. Downstream metabolism of the SAD2 reaction products would give rise to alkenes with double-bonds at position 9 or position 12, matching double-bond positions observed in alkenes in the odor bouquet of O. sphegodes. SAD1 and SAD2 show evidence of purifying selection before, and positive or relaxed purifying selection after gene duplication. By contributing to the production of species-specific alkene bouquets, SAD2 is suggested to contribute to differential pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among these species. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that SAD2 is a florally expressed barrier gene of large phenotypic effect and, possibly, a genic target of pollinator-mediated selection.

  1. Isolation and Functional Characterisation of a fads2 in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss with Δ5 Desaturase Activity.

    Noor Khalidah Abdul Hamid

    Full Text Available Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, are intensively cultured globally. Understanding their requirement for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA and the biochemistry of the enzymes and biosynthetic pathways required for fatty acid synthesis is important and highly relevant in current aquaculture. Most gnathostome vertebrates have two fatty acid desaturase (fads genes with known functions in LC-PUFA biosynthesis and termed fads1 and fads2. However, teleost fish have exclusively fads2 genes. In rainbow trout, a fads2 cDNA had been previously cloned and found to encode an enzyme with Δ6 desaturase activity. In the present study, a second fads2 cDNA was cloned from the liver of rainbow trout and termed fads2b. The full-length mRNA contained 1578 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 1365 nucleotides that encoded a 454 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 52.48 kDa. The predicted Fads2b protein had the characteristic traits of the microsomal Fads family, including an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain containing the heme-binding motif (HPPG, histidine boxes (HDXGH, HFQHH and QIEHH and three transmembrane regions. The fads2b was expressed predominantly in the brain, liver, intestine and pyloric caeca. Expression of the fasd2b in yeast generated a protein that was found to specifically convert eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4n-3 to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, and therefore functioned as a Δ5 desaturase. Therefore, rainbow trout have two fads2 genes that encode proteins with Δ5 and Δ6 desaturase activities, respectively, which enable this species to perform all the desaturation steps required for the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA from C18 precursors.

  2. Isolation and Functional Characterisation of a fads2 in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with Δ5 Desaturase Activity

    Abdul Hamid, Noor Khalidah; Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R.; Turchini, Giovanni M.; Donald, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, are intensively cultured globally. Understanding their requirement for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and the biochemistry of the enzymes and biosynthetic pathways required for fatty acid synthesis is important and highly relevant in current aquaculture. Most gnathostome vertebrates have two fatty acid desaturase (fads) genes with known functions in LC-PUFA biosynthesis and termed fads1 and fads2. However, teleost fish have exclusively fads2 genes. In rainbow trout, a fads2 cDNA had been previously cloned and found to encode an enzyme with Δ6 desaturase activity. In the present study, a second fads2 cDNA was cloned from the liver of rainbow trout and termed fads2b. The full-length mRNA contained 1578 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 1365 nucleotides that encoded a 454 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 52.48 kDa. The predicted Fads2b protein had the characteristic traits of the microsomal Fads family, including an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain containing the heme-binding motif (HPPG), histidine boxes (HDXGH, HFQHH and QIEHH) and three transmembrane regions. The fads2b was expressed predominantly in the brain, liver, intestine and pyloric caeca. Expression of the fasd2b in yeast generated a protein that was found to specifically convert eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), and therefore functioned as a Δ5 desaturase. Therefore, rainbow trout have two fads2 genes that encode proteins with Δ5 and Δ6 desaturase activities, respectively, which enable this species to perform all the desaturation steps required for the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA from C18 precursors. PMID:26943160

  3. Creation of glyphosate-resistant Brassica napus L. plants expressing DesC desaturase of cyanobacterium Synechococcus vulcanus

    Goldenkova-Pavlova I. V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Creation of glyphosate-resistant canola plants expressing bifunctional hybrid desC::licBM3 gene. In the hybrid gene the sequence of DesC desaturase of cyanobacterium S. vulcanus without plastid targeting was fused with the sequence of thermostable lichenase reporter LicBM3 gene. Methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, PCR, quantitative and qualitative determination of lichenase activity, genetic analysis. Results. Transgenic canola plants, carring the enolpyruvat shikimat phosphate syntase gene (epsps, conferring on plants resistance to phosphonomethyl glycine herbicides (Roundup, as well as the desC::licBM3 gene, were selected. The presence of transgenes was confimed by multiplex PCR. The epsps gene expression in canola was shown at the transcription level, during in vitro growth and after greenhouse herbicide treatment. Activity of the licBM3 gene product as a part of hybrid protein allowed quantitative and qualitative estimation of the desaturase gene expression. Inheritance of heterologous genes and their expression in the first generation were investigated. Conclusions. Transgenic canola plants were obtained, the presence of trangenes in plant genome was proved and expression of the target genes was detected.

  4. Anaerobic degradation of linoleic oleic acids

    Lalman, J.A.; Bagley, D.M.

    1999-07-01

    The anaerobic degradation of linoleic (C18:2) and oleic (C18:1) acids was examined in batch experiments. By-product distribution depended on both the type of long chain fatty acid added and initial substrate concentration. Major by-products were palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and acetic acids. Trace quantities of palmitoleic (C16:1) and lauric (C12) acids were observed together with larger amounts of palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and hexanoic (C6) acids in cultures incubated with 100 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. Bio-hydrogenation of C18 fatty acids was not necessary for the {beta}-oxidation mechanism to proceed. Aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed in cultures inoculated with greater than 50 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. In cultures incubated with greater than 50 mg/L oleic (C18:1) acid, aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed for a short time period.

  5. Altered fatty acid metabolism and reduced stearoyl-coenzyme a desaturase activity in asthma.

    Rodriguez-Perez, N; Schiavi, E; Frei, R; Ferstl, R; Wawrzyniak, P; Smolinska, S; Sokolowska, M; Sievi, N A; Kohler, M; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Michalovich, D; Simpson, K D; Hessel, E M; Jutel, M; Martin-Fontecha, M; Palomares, O; Akdis, C A; O'Mahony, L

    2017-11-01

    Fatty acids and lipid mediator signaling play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma, yet this area remains largely underexplored. The aims of this study were (i) to examine fatty acid levels and their metabolism in obese and nonobese asthma patients and (ii) to determine the functional effects of altered fatty acid metabolism in experimental models. Medium- and long-chain fatty acid levels were quantified in serum from 161 human volunteers by LC/MS. Changes in stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) expression and activity were evaluated in the ovalbumin (OVA) and house dust mite (HDM) murine models. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells from asthma patients and controls were evaluated for SCD expression and activity. The serum desaturation index (an indirect measure of SCD) was significantly reduced in nonobese asthma patients and in the OVA murine model. SCD1 gene expression was significantly reduced within the lungs following OVA or HDM challenge. Inhibition of SCD in mice promoted airway hyper-responsiveness. SCD1 expression was suppressed in bronchial epithelial cells from asthma patients. IL-4 and IL-13 reduced epithelial cell SCD1 expression. Inhibition of SCD reduced surfactant protein C expression and suppressed rhinovirus-induced IP-10 secretion, which was associated with increased viral titers. This is the first study to demonstrate decreased fatty acid desaturase activity in humans with asthma. Experimental models in mice and human epithelial cells suggest that inhibition of desaturase activity leads to airway hyper-responsiveness and reduced antiviral defense. SCD may represent a new target for therapeutic intervention in asthma patients. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  6. The pht4;1-3 mutant line contains a loss of function allele in the Fatty Acid Desaturase 7 gene caused by a remnant inactivated selection marker-a cautionary tale.

    Nilsson, Anders K; Andersson, Mats X

    2017-01-01

    A striking and unexpected biochemical phenotype was found in an insertion mutant line in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana . One of two investigated insertion mutant lines in the gene encoding the phosphate transporter PHT4;1 demonstrated a prominent loss of trienoic fatty acids, whereas the other insertion line was indistinguishable from wild type in this aspect. We demonstrate that the loss of trienoic fatty acids was due to a remnant inactive negative selection marker gene in this particular transposon tagged line, pht4;1-3 . This constitutes a cautionary tale that warns of the importance to confirm the loss of this type of selection markers and the importance of verifying the relationship between a phenotype and genotype by more than one independent mutant line or alternatively genetic complementation.

  7. Effect of tanniniferous Terminalia chebula extract on rumen biohydrogenation, ∆(9)-desaturase activity, CLA content and fatty acid composition in longissimus dorsi muscle of kids.

    Rana, Madhu Suman; Tyagi, A; Hossain, Sk Asraf; Tyagi, A K

    2012-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid, a fatty acid found in milk fat and ruminant meat is one of the functional food components. Modifying fatty acid composition so as to increase CLA and other beneficial PUFA/MUFA level and reducing SFA levels might be a key to enhance the neutraceutical and therapeutic value of ruminant-derived food products. In the present experiment, the effect of supplementation of polyphenol rich Terminalia chebula plant extract at different concentrations (1.06g/kg and 3.18g/kg of body weight in T1 and T2 groups, respectively) was investigated on fatty acid composition of rumen fluid, plasma, intramuscular fat and Δ9-desaturase activity in longissimus dorsi muscle of crossbred kids. Total MUFA and PUFA content in muscle were enhanced by 25 and 35%, respectively, whereas SFA was reduced by 20% thereby improving the desaturation index. Δ9-desaturase activity also increased by 47% resulting in an enhancement of total CLA content (58.73%) in muscle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The essential nature of linoleic acid in mammals

    Hansen, Harald S.

    1986-01-01

    Linoleic acid [CH(CH)(CH = CHCH)(CH) COOH] is a precursor of the icosanoids -20-carbon fatty acids which include leukotrienes, prostaglandins, thromboxanes and related compounds. Until recently, the classical symptoms resulting from deficiency of linoleic and other essential fatty acids (EFAs) ha...

  9. Temperature and metal exposure affect membrane fatty acid composition and transcription of desaturases and elongases in fathead minnow muscle and brain.

    Fadhlaoui, Mariem; Pierron, Fabien; Couture, Patrice

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that metal exposure affected the normal thermal response of cell membrane FA composition and of elongase and desaturase gene transcription levels. To this end, muscle and brain membrane FA composition and FA desaturase (fads2, degs2 and scd2) and elongase (elovl2, elovl5 and elovl6) gene transcription levels were analyzed in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) acclimated for eight weeks to 15, 25 or 30°C exposed or not to cadmium (Cd, 6μg/l) or nickel (Ni, 450 6μg/l). The response of membrane FA composition to temperature variations or metal exposure differed between muscle and brain. In muscle, an increase of temperature induced a decrease of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and an increase of saturated FA (SFA) in agreement with the current paradigm. Although a similar response was observed in brain between 15 and 25°C, at 30°C, brain membrane unsaturation was higher than predicted. In both tissues, metal exposure affected the normal thermal response of membrane FA composition. The transcription of desaturases and elongases was higher in the brain and varied with acclimation temperature and metal exposure but these variations did not generally reflect changes in membrane FA composition. The mismatch between gene transcription and membrane composition highlights that several levels of control other than gene transcription are involved in adjusting membrane FA composition, including post-transcriptional regulation of elongases and desaturases and de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. Our study also reveals that metal exposure affects the mechanisms involved in adjusting cell membrane FA composition in ectotherms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of the triple-component linoleic acid isomerase in Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 by genetic manipulation.

    Yang, B; Qi, H; Gu, Z; Zhang, H; Chen, W; Chen, H; Chen, Y Q

    2017-11-01

    To assess the mechanism for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production in Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058. CLA has attracted great interests for decades due to its health-associated benefits including anticancer, anti-atherogenic, anti-obesity and modulation of the immune system. A number of microbial CLA producers were widely reported including lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058, an isolate from Chinese traditional fermented food, could convert LA to CLA with various intermediates. To characterize the genetic determinants for generating CLA, a cre-lox-based system was utilized to delete the genes encoding myosin cross-reactive antigen (MCRA), short-chain dehydrogenase/oxidoreductase (DH) and acetoacetate decarboxylase (DC) in Lact. plantarum ZS2058, respectively. Neither intermediate was detected in the corresponding gene deletion mutant. Meanwhile all those mutants could recover the ability to convert linoleic acid to CLA when the corresponding gene was completed. The results indicated that CLA production was a multiple-step reaction catalysed by triple-component linoleate isomerase system encoded by mcra, dh and dc. Multicomponent linoleic acid isomerase provided important results for illustration unique mechanism for CLA production in Lact. plantarum ZS2058. Lactobacilli with CLA production ability offer novel opportunities for functional food development. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Cloning and functional characterization of SAD genes in potato.

    Li, Fei; Bian, Chun Song; Xu, Jian Fei; Pang, Wan Fu; Liu, Jie; Duan, Shao Guang; Lei, Zun-Guo; Jiwan, Palta; Jin, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD), locating in the plastid stroma, is an important fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme in higher plants. SAD catalyzes desaturation of stearoyl-ACP to oleyl-ACP and plays a key role in determining the homeostasis between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an important player in cold acclimation in plants. Here, four new full-length cDNA of SADs (ScoSAD, SaSAD, ScaSAD and StSAD) were cloned from four Solanum species, Solanum commersonii, S. acaule, S. cardiophyllum and S. tuberosum, respectively. The ORF of the four SADs were 1182 bp in length, encoding 393 amino acids. A sequence alignment indicated 13 amino acids varied among the SADs of three wild species. Further analysis showed that the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation capacity of S. commersonii are similar to S. acaule and their SAD amino acid sequences were identical but differed from that of S. cardiophyllum, which is sensitive to freezing. Furthermore, the sequence alignments between StSAD and ScoSAD indicated that only 7 different amino acids at residues were found in SAD of S. tuberosum (Zhongshu8) against the protein sequence of ScoSAD. A phylogenetic analysis showed the three wild potato species had the closest genetic relationship with the SAD of S. lycopersicum and Nicotiana tomentosiformis but not S. tuberosum. The SAD gene from S. commersonii (ScoSAD) was cloned into multiple sites of the pBI121 plant binary vector and transformed into the cultivated potato variety Zhongshu 8. A freeze tolerance analysis showed overexpression of the ScoSAD gene in transgenic plants significantly enhanced freeze tolerance in cv. Zhongshu 8 and increased their linoleic acid content, suggesting that linoleic acid likely plays a key role in improving freeze tolerance in potato plants. This study provided some new insights into how SAD regulates in the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation in potato.

  12. Cloning and functional characterization of SAD genes in potato.

    Fei Li

    Full Text Available Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD, locating in the plastid stroma, is an important fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme in higher plants. SAD catalyzes desaturation of stearoyl-ACP to oleyl-ACP and plays a key role in determining the homeostasis between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, which is an important player in cold acclimation in plants. Here, four new full-length cDNA of SADs (ScoSAD, SaSAD, ScaSAD and StSAD were cloned from four Solanum species, Solanum commersonii, S. acaule, S. cardiophyllum and S. tuberosum, respectively. The ORF of the four SADs were 1182 bp in length, encoding 393 amino acids. A sequence alignment indicated 13 amino acids varied among the SADs of three wild species. Further analysis showed that the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation capacity of S. commersonii are similar to S. acaule and their SAD amino acid sequences were identical but differed from that of S. cardiophyllum, which is sensitive to freezing. Furthermore, the sequence alignments between StSAD and ScoSAD indicated that only 7 different amino acids at residues were found in SAD of S. tuberosum (Zhongshu8 against the protein sequence of ScoSAD. A phylogenetic analysis showed the three wild potato species had the closest genetic relationship with the SAD of S. lycopersicum and Nicotiana tomentosiformis but not S. tuberosum. The SAD gene from S. commersonii (ScoSAD was cloned into multiple sites of the pBI121 plant binary vector and transformed into the cultivated potato variety Zhongshu 8. A freeze tolerance analysis showed overexpression of the ScoSAD gene in transgenic plants significantly enhanced freeze tolerance in cv. Zhongshu 8 and increased their linoleic acid content, suggesting that linoleic acid likely plays a key role in improving freeze tolerance in potato plants. This study provided some new insights into how SAD regulates in the freezing tolerance and cold acclimation in potato.

  13. Newly identified essential amino acid residues affecting ^8-sphingolipid desaturase activity revealed by site-directed mutagenesis

    In order to identify amino acid residues crucial for the enzymatic activity of ^8-sphingolipid desaturases, a sequence comparison was performed among ^8-sphingolipid desaturases and ^6-fatty acid desaturase from various plants. In addition to the known conserved cytb5 (cytochrome b5) HPGG motif and...

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid in ewe milk fat.

    Luna, Pilar; Fontecha, Javier; Juárez, Manuela; de la Fuente, Miguel Angel

    2005-11-01

    Ewe milk fat from five different herds was studied to determine the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. Research was carried out by combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and 4,4-dimethyloxazolyne derivatives (DMOX) with silver ion-high performance liquid chromatography (Ag+-HPLC). Reconstructed mass spectral profiles of CLA characteristic ions from DMOX were used to identify positional isomers and Ag+-HPLC to quantify them. Total CLA content varied from 0.57 to 0.97 g/100 g of total fatty acids. FAME and DMOX were separated into a complex mixture of minor isomers and major rumenic acid (9-cis 11-trans C18:2) by GC-MS using a 100-m polar capillary column. Rumenic acid would represent more than 75% of total CLA. 11-trans 13-trans, 11-13 cis/trans plus trans/cis and 7-9 cis/trans plus trans/cis were the main CLA isomers after rumenic acid. Minor amounts of 8-10 and 10-12 C18:2 isomers were also found. Although most of the isomers were present in each herd's milk, differences in content were observed for some CLA species.

  15. Role of linoleic acid in arsenical palmar keratosis.

    Ahmed, Tarafder S; Misbahuddin, Mir

    2016-03-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure can lead to palmoplantar keratosis. In the stratum corneum of skin, linoleic acid is of the utmost importance to the inflammation, keratinization, and regeneration processes. The aims of this study were: (i) to present quantitative information on the linoleic acid fraction of intercorneocyte lipids, and (ii) to elucidate the role of linoleic acid in the pathophysiology of arsenical keratosis. Lipid extracts were collected from keratotic lesions in seven patients, seven arsenic-exposed subjects, and seven non-exposed control subjects. Linoleic acid levels of the specimens were estimated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). There was a significant (P keratosis patients (palm: 25.66 ± 4.95 μg/cm(2); dorsum: 28.25 ± 6.20 μg/cm(2)) compared with arsenic-exposed (palm: 2.75 ± 0.85 μg/cm(2); dorsum: 1.96 ± 0.64 μg/cm(2)) and non-exposed (palm: 1.52 ± 0.61 μg/cm(2); dorsum: 1.28 ± 0.39 μg/cm(2)) control subjects. There was no significant difference (P = 0.556) in linoleic acid concentration in the non-affected skin of the dorsum of the hand (28.25 ± 6.20 μg/cm(2)) compared with that in the palmar sites (25.66 ± 4.95 μg/cm(2)) in the patient group. The change in linoleic acid levels in the arsenic-exposed control group did not differ from that in non-exposed controls (P = 1.000). Linoleic acid concentration is elevated in arsenical keratosis; this finding warrants further investigation to ascertain whether linoleic acid plays a direct role in the pathophysiology of arsenical keratosis. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Diet-Gene Interactions and PUFA Metabolism: A Potential Contributor to Health Disparities and Human Diseases

    Floyd H. Chilton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The “modern western” diet (MWD has increased the onset and progression of chronic human diseases as qualitatively and quantitatively maladaptive dietary components give rise to obesity and destructive gene-diet interactions. There has been a three-fold increase in dietary levels of the omega-6 (n-6 18 carbon (C18, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6, with the addition of cooking oils and processed foods to the MWD. Intense debate has emerged regarding the impact of this increase on human health. Recent studies have uncovered population-related genetic variation in the LCPUFA biosynthetic pathway (especially within the fatty acid desaturase gene (FADS cluster that is associated with levels of circulating and tissue PUFAs and several biomarkers and clinical endpoints of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Importantly, populations of African descent have higher frequencies of variants associated with elevated levels of arachidonic acid (ARA, CVD biomarkers and disease endpoints. Additionally, nutrigenomic interactions between dietary n-6 PUFAs and variants in genes that encode for enzymes that mobilize and metabolize ARA to eicosanoids have been identified. These observations raise important questions of whether gene-PUFA interactions are differentially driving the risk of cardiovascular and other diseases in diverse populations, and contributing to health disparities, especially in African American populations.

  17. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    Cai, Demin; Li, Hongji; Zhou, Bo; Han, Liqiang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Guoyu; Yang, Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. ► Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. ► Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  18. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    Cai, Demin [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Li, Hongji [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Zhou, Bo [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Han, Liqiang [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Zhang, Xiaomei [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoyu, E-mail: haubiochem@163.com [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoqing, E-mail: gqyang@yeah.net [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  19. Functional analysis and tissue-differential expression of four FAD2 genes in amphidiploid Brassica napus derived from Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; In Sohn, Soo; Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Sun Hee; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum; Suh, Mi Chung; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2013-12-01

    Fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), plays a crucial role in producing linoleic acid (18:2) through catalyzing the desaturation of oleic acid (18:1) by double bond formation at the delta 12 position. FAD2 catalyzes the first step needed for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in the glycerolipids of cell membranes and the triacylglycerols in seeds. In this study, four FAD2 genes from amphidiploid Brassica napus genome were isolated by PCR amplification, with their enzymatic functions predicted by sequence analysis of the cDNAs. Fatty acid analysis of budding yeast transformed with each of the FAD2 genes showed that whereas BnFAD2-1, BnFAD2-2, and BnFAD2-4 are functional enzymes, and BnFAD2-3 is nonfunctional. The four FAD2 genes of B. napus originated from synthetic hybridization of its diploid progenitors Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea, each of which has two FAD2 genes identical to those of B. napus. The BnFAD2-3 gene of B. napus, a nonfunctional pseudogene mutated by multiple nucleotide deletions and insertions, was inherited from B. rapa. All BnFAD2 isozymes except BnFAD2-3 localized to the ER. Nonfunctional BnFAD2-3 localized to the nucleus and chloroplasts. Four BnFAD2 genes can be classified on the basis of their expression patterns. © 2013.

  20. Effect of seafood mediated PCB exposure on desaturase activity and PUFA profile in Faroese septuagenarians

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Choi, Anna L; Bjerve, Kristian S

    2015-01-01

    and desaturase activity. In multiple regression models, PCB exposure was inversely related to the estimated Δ6 desaturase activity resulting in accumulation of precursor fatty acids and decrease in the corresponding product PUFAs. A positive association between PCB and Δ5 desaturation was also found. A relative...... increase in EA was also observed, though only in the third tertile of PCB exposure. Non-linear relationships between the exposure and the desaturase activity were not found. Consuming fish and seafood may not be translated into beneficial fatty acid profiles if the diet simultaneously causes exposure...

  1. Conjugated Linoleic Triacylglycerols Exhibit Superior Lymphatic Absorption Than Free Conjugate Linoleic Acids and Have Antiobesity Properties.

    Woo, Hyunjoon; Chung, Min-Yu; Kim, Juyeon; Kong, Daecheol; Min, Jinyoung; Choi, Hee-Don; Choi, In-Wook; Kim, In-Hwan; Noh, Sang K; Kim, Byung Hee

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to compare lymphatic absorption of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) in the triacylglycerol (TAG) or free fatty acid (FFA) form and to examine the antiobesity effects of different doses of CLAs in the TAG form in animals. Conjugated linoleic TAGs (containing 70.3 wt% CLAs; CLA-TAG) were prepared through lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol with commercial CLA mixtures (CLA-FFA). Lymphatic absorption of CLA-TAG and CLA-FFA was compared in a rat model of lymphatic cannulation. Greater amounts of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLAs were detected in the collected lymph from a lipid emulsion containing CLA-TAG. This result suggests that CLA-TAG has greater capacity for lymphatic absorption than does CLA-FFA. The antiobesity efficacy of CLA-TAG at different doses was examined in mice with diet-induced obesity. A high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks caused a significant increase in body weight and epididymal and retroperitoneal fat weights, which were significantly decreased by 2% dietary supplementation (w/w) with CLA-TAG. CLA-TAG at 2% significantly attenuated the HFD-induced upregulation of serum TAG, but led to hepatomegaly and exacerbated HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia. CLA-TAG at 1% significantly attenuated upregulation of retroperitoneal fat weight and significantly increased liver weight, which was decreased by the HFD. Nonetheless, the liver weight in group "HFD +1% CLA-TAG" was not significantly different from that of normal diet controls. CLA-TAG at 1% significantly reduced serum TAG levels and did not exacerbate HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia. Thus, 1% dietary supplementation with CLA-TAG reduces retroperitoneal fat weight without apparent hepatomegaly, a known side-effect of CLAs in mouse models of obesity.

  2. Isolation of linoleic acid as an estrogenic compound from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. (chaste-berry).

    Liu, J; Burdette, J E; Sun, Y; Deng, S; Schlecht, S M; Zheng, W; Nikolic, D; Mahady, G; van Breemen, R B; Fong, H H S; Pezzuto, J M; Bolton, J L; Farnsworth, N R

    2004-01-01

    A methanol extract of chaste-tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus L.) was tested for its ability to displace radiolabeled estradiol from the binding site of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta). The extract at 46 +/- 3 microg/ml displaced 50% of estradiol from ERalpha and 64 +/- 4 microg/ml from ERbeta. Treatment of the ER+ hormone-dependent T47D:A18 breast cancer cell line with the extract induced up-regulation of ERbeta mRNA. Progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA was upregulated in the Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell line. However, chaste-tree berry extract did not induce estrogen-dependent alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in Ishikawa cells. Bioassay-guided isolation, utilizing ER binding as a monitor, resulted in the isolation of linoleic acid as one possible estrogenic component of the extract. The use of pulsed ultrafiltration liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is an affinity-based screening technique, also identified linoleic acid as an ER ligand based on its selective affinity, molecular weight, and retention time. Linoleic acid also stimulated mRNA ERbeta expression in T47D:A18 cells, PR expression in Ishikawa cells, but not AP activity in Ishikawa cells. These data suggest that linoleic acid from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus can bind to estrogen receptors and induce certain estrogen inducible genes.

  3. Cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding stearoyl-ACP Δ9-desaturase from the endosperm of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Gao, Lingchao; Sun, Ruhao; Liang, Yuanxue; Zhang, Mengdan; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong

    2014-10-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is an economically tropical fruit tree with special fatty acid compositions. The stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) plays a key role in the properties of the majority of cellular glycerolipids. In this paper, a full-length cDNA of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase, designated CocoFAD, was isolated from cDNA library prepared from the endosperm of coconut (C. nucifera L.). An 1176 bp cDNA from overlapped PCR products containing ORF encoding a 391-amino acid (aa) protein was obtained. The coded protein was virtually identical and shared the homology to other Δ9-desaturase plant sequences (greater than 80% as similarity to that of Elaeis guineensis Jacq). The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR result indicated that the yield of CocoFAD was the highest in the endosperm of 8-month-old coconut and leaf, and the yield was reduced to 50% of the highest level in the endosperm of 15-month-old coconut. The coding region showed heterologous expression in strain INVSc1 of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). GC-MS analysis showed that the levels of palmitoleic acid (16:1) and oleic acid (18:1) were improved significantly; meanwhile stearic acid (18:0) was reduced. These results indicated that the plastidial Δ9 desaturase from the endosperm of coconut was involved in the biosynthesis of hexadecenoic acid and octadecenoic acid, which was similar with other plants. These results may be valuable for understanding the mechanism of fatty acid metabolism and the genetic improvement of CocoFAD gene in palm plants in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Menhaden oil, but not safflower or soybean oil, aids in restoring the polyunsaturated fatty acid profile in the novel delta-6-desaturase null mouse

    2012-01-01

    Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have diverse biological effects, from promoting inflammation to preventing cancer and heart disease. Growing evidence suggests that individual PUFA may have independent effects in health and disease. The individual roles of the two essential PUFA, linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), have been difficult to discern from the actions of their highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) downstream metabolites. This issue has recently been addressed through the development of the Δ-6 desaturase knock out (D6KO) mouse, which lacks the rate limiting Δ-6 desaturase enzyme and therefore cannot metabolize LA or ALA. However, a potential confounder in this model is the production of novel Δ-5 desaturase (D5D) derived fatty acids when D6KO mice are fed diets containing LA and ALA, but void of arachidonic acid. Objective The aim of the present study was to characterize how the D6KO model differentially responds to diets containing the essential n-6 and n-3 PUFA, and whether the direct provision of downstream HUFA can rescue the phenotype and prevent the production of D5D fatty acids. Methodology Liver and serum phospholipid (PL) fatty acid composition was examined in D6KO and wild type mice fed i) 10% safflower oil diet (SF, LA rich) ii) 10% soy diet (SO, LA+ALA) or iii) 3% menhaden oil +7% SF diet (MD, HUFA rich) for 28 days (n = 3-7/group). Results Novel D5D fatty acids were found in liver PL of D6KO fed SF or SO-fed mice, but differed in the type of D5D fatty acid depending on diet. Conversely, MD-fed D6KO mice had a liver PL fatty acid profile similar to wild-type mice. Conclusions Through careful consideration of the dietary fatty acid composition, and especially the HUFA content in order to prevent the synthesis of D5D fatty acids, the D6KO model has the potential to elucidate the independent biological and health effects of the parent n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, LA and ALA. PMID:22642787

  5. Menhaden oil, but not safflower or soybean oil, aids in restoring the polyunsaturated fatty acid profile in the novel delta-6-desaturase null mouse

    Monteiro Jessica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have diverse biological effects, from promoting inflammation to preventing cancer and heart disease. Growing evidence suggests that individual PUFA may have independent effects in health and disease. The individual roles of the two essential PUFA, linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (ALA, have been difficult to discern from the actions of their highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA downstream metabolites. This issue has recently been addressed through the development of the Δ-6 desaturase knock out (D6KO mouse, which lacks the rate limiting Δ-6 desaturase enzyme and therefore cannot metabolize LA or ALA. However, a potential confounder in this model is the production of novel Δ-5 desaturase (D5D derived fatty acids when D6KO mice are fed diets containing LA and ALA, but void of arachidonic acid. Objective The aim of the present study was to characterize how the D6KO model differentially responds to diets containing the essential n-6 and n-3 PUFA, and whether the direct provision of downstream HUFA can rescue the phenotype and prevent the production of D5D fatty acids. Methodology Liver and serum phospholipid (PL fatty acid composition was examined in D6KO and wild type mice fed i 10% safflower oil diet (SF, LA rich ii 10% soy diet (SO, LA+ALA or iii 3% menhaden oil +7% SF diet (MD, HUFA rich for 28 days (n = 3-7/group. Results Novel D5D fatty acids were found in liver PL of D6KO fed SF or SO-fed mice, but differed in the type of D5D fatty acid depending on diet. Conversely, MD-fed D6KO mice had a liver PL fatty acid profile similar to wild-type mice. Conclusions Through careful consideration of the dietary fatty acid composition, and especially the HUFA content in order to prevent the synthesis of D5D fatty acids, the D6KO model has the potential to elucidate the independent biological and health effects of the parent n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, LA and ALA.

  6. Linoleic acid enhance the production of moncolin K and red pigments in Monascus ruber by activating mokH and mokA, and by accelerating cAMP-PkA pathway.

    Huang, Jing; Liao, NanQing; Li, HaoMing

    2018-04-01

    Monacolin K, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, is a secondary metabolite synthesized by polyketide synthases (PKS) from Monascus ruber. The mokH gene encoding Zn(II)2Cys6 binding protein and mokA gene encoding polyketide synthase are presumed to activate monacolin K production. In this study, linoleic acid could be a quorum sensing signaling molecule to increase monacolin K production in the cyclic AMP(cAMP)-protein kinase A(PKA) signaling pathway. Analysis of the PKA activity and the cAMP concentration shows that linoleic acid could increase cAMP concentration and activate PKA. Analysis of the RT-qPCR products demonstrates that 256μM and 512μM linoleic acid can up-regulate mokH and mokA gene transcript levels. Especially with 512μM linoleic acid addition, linoleic acid increase 1.35 folds of monacolin K production, but 64μM linoleic acid increase 1.94 folds of red pigment production in Monascus ruber. These results show the cAMP-PkA pathway activity can up-regulate mokA and mokH gene, which enhance the yield of Monacolin K. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of mutagenic/antimutagenic activity of conjugated linoleic ...

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... INTRODUCTION. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a dietary adjuvant for its ... who found unidentified anticarcinogenic factors in fried ground beef. ..... products decreases rectum cancer in 13% and colon cancer in 34%. .... alters mammary gland morphogenesis and reduces cancer risk in rats. J. Nutr.

  8. Formation of conjugated delta8,delta10-double bonds by delta12-oleic-acid desaturase-related enzymes: biosynthetic origin of calendic acid.

    Cahoon, E B; Ripp, K G; Hall, S E; Kinney, A J

    2001-01-26

    Divergent forms of the plant Delta(12)-oleic-acid desaturase (FAD2) have previously been shown to catalyze the formation of acetylenic bonds, epoxy groups, and conjugated Delta(11),Delta(13)-double bonds by modification of an existing Delta(12)-double bond in C(18) fatty acids. Here, we report a class of FAD2-related enzymes that modifies a Delta(9)-double bond to produce the conjugated trans-Delta(8),trans-Delta(10)-double bonds found in calendic acid (18:3Delta(8trans,10trans,12cis)), the major component of the seed oil of Calendula officinalis. Using an expressed sequence tag approach, cDNAs for two closely related FAD2-like enzymes, designated CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2, were identified from a C. officinalis developing seed cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequences of these polypeptides share 40-50% identity with those of other FAD2 and FAD2-related enzymes. Expression of either CoFADX-1 or CoFADX-2 in somatic soybean embryos resulted in the production of calendic acid. In embryos expressing CoFADX-2, calendic acid accumulated to as high as 22% (w/w) of the total fatty acids. In addition, expression of CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was accompanied by calendic acid accumulation when induced cells were supplied exogenous linoleic acid (18:2Delta(9cis,12cis)). These results are thus consistent with a route of calendic acid synthesis involving modification of the Delta(9)-double bond of linoleic acid. Regiospecificity for Delta(9)-double bonds is unprecedented among FAD2-related enzymes and further expands the functional diversity found in this family of enzymes.

  9. Fatty acid desaturase 1 knockout mice are lean with improved glycemic control and decreased development of atheromatous plaque

    Powell, David R; Gay, Jason P; Smith, Melinda; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Harris, Angela; Holland, Autumn; Reyes, Maricela; Kirkham, Laura; Kirkpatrick, Laura L; Zambrowicz, Brian; Hansen, Gwenn; Platt, Kenneth A; van Sligtenhorst, Isaac; Ding, Zhi-Ming; Desai, Urvi

    2016-01-01

    Delta-5 desaturase (D5D) and delta-6 desaturase (D6D), encoded by fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and FADS2 genes, respectively, are enzymes in the synthetic pathways for ω3, ω6, and ω9 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Although PUFAs appear to be involved in mammalian metabolic pathways, the physiologic effect of isolated D5D deficiency on these pathways is unclear. After generating >4,650 knockouts (KOs) of independent mouse genes and analyzing them in our high-throughput phenotypic screen, we found that Fads1 KO mice were among the leanest of 3,651 chow-fed KO lines analyzed for body composition and were among the most glucose tolerant of 2,489 high-fat-diet-fed KO lines analyzed by oral glucose tolerance test. In confirmatory studies, chow- or high-fat-diet-fed Fads1 KO mice were leaner than wild-type (WT) littermates; when data from multiple cohorts of adult mice were combined, body fat was 38% and 31% lower in Fads1 male and female KO mice, respectively. Fads1 KO mice also had lower glucose and insulin excursions during oral glucose tolerance tests along with lower fasting glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. In additional studies using a vascular injury model, Fads1 KO mice had significantly decreased femoral artery intima/media ratios consistent with a decreased inflammatory response in their arterial wall. Based on this result, we bred Fads1 KO and WT mice onto an ApoE KO background and fed them a Western diet for 14 weeks; in this atherogenic environment, aortic trees of Fads1 KO mice had 40% less atheromatous plaque compared to WT littermates. Importantly, PUFA levels measured in brain and liver phospholipid fractions of Fads1 KO mice were consistent with decreased D5D activity and normal D6D activity. The beneficial metabolic phenotype demonstrated in Fads1 KO mice suggests that selective D5D inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of human obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27382320

  10. A systems approach for discovering linoleic acid derivatives that potentially mediate pain and itch

    Ramsden, Christopher E.; Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Yuan, Zhi-Xin; Sapio, Matthew R.; Keyes, Gregory S.; Mishra, Santosh K.; Gross, Jacklyn R.; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon; Zamora, Daisy; Horowitz, Mark S.; Davis, John M.; Sorokin, Alexander V.; Dey, Amit; LaPaglia, Danielle M.; Wheeler, Joshua J.; Vasko, Michael R.; Mehta, Nehal N.; Mannes, Andrew J.; Iadarola, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic pain and itch are common hypersensitivity syndromes that are affected by endogenous mediators. We applied a systems-based, translational approach to predict, discover, and characterize mediators of pain and itch that are regulated by diet and inflammation. Profiling of tissue-specific precursor abundance and biosynthetic gene expression predicted that inflamed skin would be abundant in four previously unknown 11-hydroxy-epoxy-or 11-keto-epoxy-octadecenoate linoleic acid derivatives and four previously identified 9- or 13-hydroxy-epoxy- or 9- or 13-keto-epoxy-octadecenoate linoleic acid derivatives. All of these mediators were confirmed to be abundant in rat and human skin by mass spectrometry. However, only the two 11-hydroxy-epoxy-octadecenoates sensitized rat dorsal root ganglion neurons to release more calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP), which is involved in pain transmission, in response to low pH (which mimics an inflammatory state) or capsaicin (which activates ion channels involved in nociception). The two 11-hydroxy-epoxy-octadecenoates share a 3-hydroxy-Z-pentenyl-E-epoxide moiety, thus suggesting that this substructure could mediate nociceptor sensitization. In rats, intradermal hind paw injection of 11-hydroxy-12,13-trans-epoxy-(9Z)-octadecenoate elicited C-fiber–mediated sensitivity to thermal pain. In a randomized trial testing adjunctive strategies to manage refractory chronic headaches, reducing the dietary intake of linoleic acid was associated with decreases in plasma 11-hydroxy-12,13-trans-epoxy-(9Z)-octadecenoate, which correlated with clinical pain reduction. Human psoriatic skin had 30-fold higher 9-keto-12,13-trans-epoxy-(10E)-octadecenoate compared to control skin, and intradermal injection of this compound induced itch-related scratching behavior in mice. Collectively, these findings define a family of endogenous mediators with potential roles in pain and itch. PMID:28831021

  11. Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein and Unusual Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase Activities Are Differentially Influenced by Ferredoxin1

    Schultz, David J.; Suh, Mi Chung; Ohlrogge, John B.

    2000-01-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases function to position a single double bond into an acyl-ACP substrate and are best represented by the ubiquitous Δ9 18:0-ACP desaturase. Several variant acyl-ACP desaturases have also been identified from species that produce unusual monoenoic fatty acids. All known acyl-ACP desaturase enzymes use ferredoxin as the electron-donating cofactor, and in almost all previous studies the photosynthetic form of ferredoxin rather than the non-photosynthetic form has been used to assess activity. We have examined the influence of different forms of ferredoxin on acyl-ACP desaturases. Using combinations of in vitro acyl-ACP desaturase assays and [14C]malonyl-coenzyme A labeling studies, we have determined that heterotrophic ferredoxin isoforms support up to 20-fold higher unusual acyl-ACP desaturase activity in coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Thunbergia alata, and garden geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) when compared with photosynthetic ferredoxin isoforms. Heterotrophic ferredoxin also increases activity of the ubiquitous Δ9 18:0-ACP desaturase 1.5- to 3.0-fold in both seed and leaf extracts. These results suggest that ferredoxin isoforms may specifically interact with acyl-ACP desaturases to achieve optimal enzyme activity and that heterotrophic isoforms of ferredoxin may be the in vivo electron donor for this reaction. PMID:11027717

  12. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein and unusual acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase activities are differentially influenced by ferredoxin.

    Schultz, D J; Suh, M C; Ohlrogge, J B

    2000-10-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases function to position a single double bond into an acyl-ACP substrate and are best represented by the ubiquitous Delta9 18:0-ACP desaturase. Several variant acyl-ACP desaturases have also been identified from species that produce unusual monoenoic fatty acids. All known acyl-ACP desaturase enzymes use ferredoxin as the electron-donating cofactor, and in almost all previous studies the photosynthetic form of ferredoxin rather than the non-photosynthetic form has been used to assess activity. We have examined the influence of different forms of ferredoxin on acyl-ACP desaturases. Using combinations of in vitro acyl-ACP desaturase assays and [(14)C]malonyl-coenzyme A labeling studies, we have determined that heterotrophic ferredoxin isoforms support up to 20-fold higher unusual acyl-ACP desaturase activity in coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Thunbergia alata, and garden geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) when compared with photosynthetic ferredoxin isoforms. Heterotrophic ferredoxin also increases activity of the ubiquitous Delta9 18:0-ACP desaturase 1.5- to 3.0-fold in both seed and leaf extracts. These results suggest that ferredoxin isoforms may specifically interact with acyl-ACP desaturases to achieve optimal enzyme activity and that heterotrophic isoforms of ferredoxin may be the in vivo electron donor for this reaction.

  13. Inducing effect of clofibric acid on stearoyl-CoA desaturase in intestinal mucosa of rats.

    Yamazaki, Tohru; Kadokura, Makiko; Mutoh, Yuki; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Okazaki, Mari; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Kawashima, Yoichi; Kudo, Naomi

    2014-12-01

    Fibrates have been reported to elevate the hepatic proportion of oleic acid (18:1n-9) through inducing stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). Despite abundant studies on the regulation of SCD in the liver, little is known about this issue in the small intestine. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of clofibric acid on the fatty acid profile, particularly monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and the SCD expression in intestinal mucosa. Treatment of rats with a diet containing 0.5% (w/w) clofibric acid for 7 days changed the MUFA profile of total lipids in intestinal mucosa; the proportion of 18:1n-9 was significantly increased, whereas those of palmitoleic (16:1n-7) and cis-vaccenic (18:1n-7) acids were not changed. Upon the treatment with clofibric acid, SCD was induced and the gene expression of SCD1, SCD2, and fatty acid elongase (Elovl) 6 was up-regulated, but that of Elovl5 was unaffected. Fat-free diet feeding for 28 days increased the proportions of 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-7, but did not effectively change that of 18:1n-9, in intestinal mucosa. Fat-free diet feeding up-regulated the gene expression of SCD1, but not that of SCD2, Elovl6, or Elovl5. These results indicate that intestinal mucosa significantly changes its MUFA profile in response to challenges by clofibric acid and a fat-free diet and suggest that up-regulation of the gene expression of SCD along with Elovl6 is indispensable to elevate the proportion of 18:1n-9 in intestinal mucosa.

  14. Functional characterization of a desaturase from the tobacco hornworm moth (Manduca sexta) with bifunctional Z11- and 10,12-desaturase activity

    Matoušková, Petra; Pichová, Iva; Svatoš, Aleš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 6 (2007), s. 601-610 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD204/03/H066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : fatty acid * sex pheromone * desaturase * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.827, year: 2007

  15. Characterization of a structurally and functionally diverged acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from milkweed seed.

    Cahoon, E B; Coughlan, S J; Shanklin, J

    1997-04-01

    A cDNA for a structurally variant acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase was isolated from milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) seed, a tissue enriched in palmitoleic (16:1delta9)* and cis-vaccenic (18:1delta11) acids. Extracts of Escherichia coli that express the milkweed cDNA catalyzed delta9 desaturation of acyl-ACP substrates, and the recombinant enzyme exhibited seven- to ten-fold greater specificity for palmitoyl (16:0)-ACP and 30-fold greater specificity for myristoyl (14:0)-ACP than did known delta9-stearoyl (18:0)-ACP desaturases. Like other variant acyl-ACP desaturases reported to date, the milkweed enzyme contains fewer amino acids near its N-terminus compared to previously characterized delta9-18:0-ACP desaturases. Based on the activity of an N-terminal deletion mutant of a delta9-18:0-ACP desaturase, this structural feature likely does not account for differences in substrate specificities.

  16. Oxidative modifications of conjugated and unconjugated linoleic acid during heating.

    Giua, L; Blasi, F; Simonetti, M S; Cossignani, L

    2013-10-15

    The oxidative stability of conjugated linoleic (CLA) and linoleic (LA) acids in different chemical forms (free acids, methyl esters and homogeneous triacylglycerols) was compared. All model systems were heated at 180°C for different times (15, 30, 45 and 60min). The primary oxidation products were evaluated by spectrophometric analysis, while the volatile compounds were determined by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS). The isomer profile modifications were investigated by silver-ion high performance liquid chromatography (Ag(+)-HPLC) equipped with an UV detector. Generally, peroxide values decreased during the heating time. Among the volatiles, saturated aldehydes were the most represented compounds. Isomerization of cis,trans and trans,cis CLA to trans,trans isomers was observed mainly for the methyl form of CLA. The three different chemical forms of LA never showed isomerization phenomena. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optical Properties of Linoleic Acid Protected Gold Nanoparticles

    Ratan Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Linoleic acid-protected gold nanoparticles have been synthesized through the chemical reduction of tetrachloroaurate ions by ethanol in presence of sodium linoleate. The structure of these nanoparticles is investigated using transmission electron microscopy, which shows that the Au nanoparticles are spherical in shape with a narrow size distribution which ranges from 8 to 15 nm. Colloidal dispersion of gold nanoparticles in cyclohexane exhibits absorption bands in the ultraviolet-visible range due to surface plasmon resonance, with absorption maximum at 530 nm. Fluorescence spectra of gold nanoparticles also show an emission peak at 610 nm when illuminated at 450 nm. UV-Vis spectroscopy reveals that these nanoparticles remain stable for 10 days.

  18. The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil.

    Choi, Seong Ho; Park, Sung Kwon; Choi, Chang Weon; Li, Xiang Zi; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Won Young; Jeong, Joon; Johnson, Bradley J; Zan, Linsen; Smith, Stephen B

    2016-03-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control), with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (poil decreased (p = 0.01) PPARγ gene expression at the intermediate sample time. At the terminal sample time, PPARγ and SCD gene expression was less in i.m. adipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (ppalm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (CEBPβ) gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (poil decreased SCD gene expression in s.c. adipose tissue (p = 0.05); SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers. Contrary to our original hypothesis, palm oil did not promote adipogenic gene expression in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissue.

  19. Conjugated linoleic acid-rich soy oil triacylglycerol identification.

    Lall, Rahul K; Proctor, Andrew; Jain, Vishal P; Lay, Jackson O

    2009-03-11

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich soy oil has been produced by soy oil linoleic acid (LA) photoisomerization, but CLA-rich oil triacylglycerol (TAG) characterization was not described. Therefore, the objectives were to identify and quantify new TAG fractions in CLA-rich oil by nonaqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (NARP-HPLC). Analytical NARP-HPLC with an acetonitrile/dichloromethane (ACN/DCM) gradient and an evaporating light scattering detector/ultraviolet (ELSD/UV) detector was used. New TAG peaks from LA-containing TAGs were observed. The LnLL, LLL, LLO, and LLP (Ln, linolenic; L, linoleic; O, oleic; and P, palmitic) peaks reduced after isomerization with an increase in adjacent peaks that coeluted with LnLnO, LnLO, LnOO, and LnPP. The newly formed peaks were wider than those of the original oil and absorbed at 233 nm, suggesting the possibility of various CLA containing TAGs. The HPLC profile showed five fractions of mixed TAGs, and fatty acid analysis showed that CLA isomers were found predominately in fractions 2 and 3, which originally contained most LA. The CLA isomers were 70-80% trans,trans and 20-30% cis,trans and trans,cis.

  20. Factors affecting the palmitoyl-coenzyme A desaturase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C. M.

    1975-01-01

    The activity and stability of the palmitoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was influenced by several factors. Cells, grown nonaerobically and then incubated with glucose, either in air or under N2, showed a marked increase in desaturase activity. Cycloheximide, added during such incubations, prevented the increase in activity, suggesting de novo synthesis. The stability of the desaturase from cells grown nonaerobically was affected by subsequent treatment of the cells; enzyme from freshly harvested cells, or from cells that were then shaken under nitrogen, readily lost activity upon washing or during density gradient analysis, whereas aerated cells, in the presence or absence of glucose, yielded stable enzyme preparations. The loss of activity in nonaerobic preparations could be reversed by adding soluble supernatant from these homogenates and could be prevented by growing the cells in the presence of palmitoleic acid and ergosterol, but not with several other lipids tested.

  1. The regulation of lipid droplet size and phospholipid composition by stearoyl-CoA desaturase

    Shi, Xun; Li, Juan; Zou, Xiaoju

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturation regulates membrane function and fat storage in animals. To determine the contribution of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity on fat storage and development in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we analyzed the lipid composition and lipid droplet size in the fat-6;fat-7...... desaturase mutants, independently, and in combination with mutants disrupted in conserved lipid metabolic pathways. C. elegans with impaired SCD activity displayed both reduced fat stores and decreased lipid droplet size. Mutants in the daf-2 (insulin-like growth factor receptor), rsks-1 (homolog of p70S6......-2;fat-6;fat-7 triple mutants, which had increased de novo fatty acid synthesis and wild type levels of fat stores. Notably, stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity is required for the formation of large-sized lipid droplets in all mutant backgrounds, as well as for normal ratios of phosphatidylcholine (PC...

  2. Bleaching herbicide norflurazon inhibits phytoene desaturase by competition with the cofactors.

    Breitenbach, J; Zhu, C; Sandmann, G

    2001-11-01

    Cofactor requirement was determined for the heterologous expressed phytoene desaturases from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus and the higher plant Gentiana lutea. The cyanobacterial enzyme is dependent on either NAD(P) or plastoquinone, whereas only quinones such as plastoquinone can function as a cofactor for the phytoene desaturase from G. lutea. Enzyme kinetic studies were carried out to determine a possible competition between the cofactors and the bleaching herbicide norflurazon. For the Synechococcus enzyme, competition between norflurazon and NADP, as well as plastoquinone, could be demonstrated. The K(m) values for these cofactors were 6.6 mM and 0.23 microM, respectively. Inhibition of the phytoene desaturase from G. lutea by norflurazon was also competitive with respect to plastoquinone. The K(m) values of both enzymes for plastoquinone were very close.

  3. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic:linolenic acid ratio on polyunsaturated fatty acid status in laying hens.

    Du, M; Ahn, D U; Sell, J L

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the ratio of linoleic:linolenic acid on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status. Thirty-two 31-wk-old White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to four diets containing 8.2% soy oil, 4.1% soy oil + 2.5% CLA (4.1% CLA source), 4.1% flax oil + 2.5% CLA, or 4.1% soy oil + 4.1% flax oil. Hens were fed the diets for 3 wk before eggs and tissues were collected for the study. Lipids were extracted from egg yolk and tissues, classes of egg yolk lipids were separated, and fatty acid concentrations of total lipids, triglyceride, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylcholine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids and non-CLA polyunsaturated fatty acids were reduced after CLA feeding. The amount of arachidonic acid was decreased after CLA feeding in linoleic acid- and linolenic acid-rich diets, but amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were increased in the linolenic-rich diet, indicating that the synthesis or deposition of long-chain n-3 fatty acids was accelerated after CLA feeding. The increased docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in lipid may be compensation for the decreased arachidonic acid content. Dietary supplementation of linoleic acid increased n-6 fatty acid levels in lipids, whereas linolenic acid increased n-3 fatty acid levels. Results also suggest that CLA might not be elongated to synthesize long-chain fatty acids in significant amounts. The effect of CLA in reducing the level of n-6 fatty acids and promoting the level of n-3 fatty acids could be related to the biological effects of CLA.

  4. Remote control of regioselectivity in acyl-acyl carrier protein-desaturases.

    Guy, Jodie E; Whittle, Edward; Moche, Martin; Lengqvist, Johan; Lindqvist, Ylva; Shanklin, John

    2011-10-04

    Regiospecific desaturation of long-chain saturated fatty acids has been described as approaching the limits of the discriminatory power of enzymes because the substrate entirely lacks distinguishing features close to the site of dehydrogenation. To identify the elusive mechanism underlying regioselectivity, we have determined two crystal structures of the archetypal Δ9 desaturase from castor in complex with acyl carrier protein (ACP), which show the bound ACP ideally situated to position C9 and C10 of the acyl chain adjacent to the diiron active site for Δ9 desaturation. Analysis of the structures and modeling of the complex between the highly homologous ivy Δ4 desaturase and ACP, identified a residue located at the entrance to the binding cavity, Asp280 in the castor desaturase (Lys275 in the ivy desaturase), which is strictly conserved within Δ9 and Δ4 enzymes but differs between them. We hypothesized that interaction between Lys275 and the phosphate of the pantetheine, seen in the ivy model, is key to positioning C4 and C5 adjacent to the diiron center for Δ4 desaturation. Mutating castor Asp280 to Lys resulted in a major shift from Δ9 to Δ4 desaturation. Thus, interaction between desaturase side-chain 280 and phospho-serine 38 of ACP, approximately 27 Å from the site of double-bond formation, predisposes ACP binding that favors either Δ9 or Δ4 desaturation via repulsion (acidic side chain) or attraction (positively charged side chain), respectively. Understanding the mechanism underlying remote control of regioselectivity provides the foundation for reengineering desaturase enzymes to create designer chemical feedstocks that would provide alternatives to those currently obtained from petrochemicals.

  5. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase is an essential enzyme for the parasitic protist Trypanosoma brucei

    Alloatti, Andres [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR), CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Gupta, Shreedhara; Gualdron-Lopez, Melisa; Nguewa, Paul A. [Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, de Duve Institute and Laboratory of Biochemistry, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Altabe, Silvia G. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR), CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Deumer, Gladys; Wallemacq, Pierre [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, LTAP, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Michels, Paul A.M. [Research Unit for Tropical Diseases, de Duve Institute and Laboratory of Biochemistry, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Uttaro, Antonio D., E-mail: toniuttaro@yahoo.com.ar [Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR), CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Inhibiting {Delta}9 desaturase drastically changes T. brucei's fatty-acid composition. {yields} Isoxyl specifically inhibits the {Delta}9 desaturase causing a growth arrest. {yields} RNA interference of desaturase expression causes a similar effect. {yields} Feeding T. brucei-infected mice with Isoxyl decreases the parasitemia. {yields} 70% of Isoxyl-treated mice survived the trypanosome infection. -- Abstract: Trypanosoma brucei, the etiologic agent of sleeping sickness, is exposed to important changes in nutrients and temperature during its life cycle. To adapt to these changes, the fluidity of its membranes plays a crucial role. This fluidity, mediated by the fatty-acid composition, is regulated by enzymes named desaturases. We have previously shown that the oleoyl desaturase is essential for Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei. In this work, we present experimental support for the relevance of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) for T. brucei's survival, in both its insect or procyclic-form (PCF) and bloodstream-form (BSF) stages. We evaluated this essentiality in two different ways: by generating a SCD knocked-down parasite line using RNA interference, and by chemical inhibition of the enzyme with two compounds, Isoxyl and a thiastearate with the sulfur atom at position 10 (10-TS). The effective concentration for 50% growth inhibition (EC{sub 50}) of PCF was 1.0 {+-} 0.2 {mu}M for Isoxyl and 5 {+-} 2 {mu}M for 10-TS, whereas BSF appeared more susceptible with EC{sub 50} values 0.10 {+-} 0.03 {mu}M (Isoxyl) and 1.0 {+-} 0.6 {mu}M (10-TS). RNA interference showed to be deleterious for both stages of the parasite. In addition, T. brucei-infected mice were fed with Isoxyl, causing a reduction of the parasitemia and an increase of the rodents' survival.

  6. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase is an essential enzyme for the parasitic protist Trypanosoma brucei

    Alloatti, Andres; Gupta, Shreedhara; Gualdron-Lopez, Melisa; Nguewa, Paul A.; Altabe, Silvia G.; Deumer, Gladys; Wallemacq, Pierre; Michels, Paul A.M.; Uttaro, Antonio D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Inhibiting Δ9 desaturase drastically changes T. brucei's fatty-acid composition. → Isoxyl specifically inhibits the Δ9 desaturase causing a growth arrest. → RNA interference of desaturase expression causes a similar effect. → Feeding T. brucei-infected mice with Isoxyl decreases the parasitemia. → 70% of Isoxyl-treated mice survived the trypanosome infection. -- Abstract: Trypanosoma brucei, the etiologic agent of sleeping sickness, is exposed to important changes in nutrients and temperature during its life cycle. To adapt to these changes, the fluidity of its membranes plays a crucial role. This fluidity, mediated by the fatty-acid composition, is regulated by enzymes named desaturases. We have previously shown that the oleoyl desaturase is essential for Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei. In this work, we present experimental support for the relevance of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) for T. brucei's survival, in both its insect or procyclic-form (PCF) and bloodstream-form (BSF) stages. We evaluated this essentiality in two different ways: by generating a SCD knocked-down parasite line using RNA interference, and by chemical inhibition of the enzyme with two compounds, Isoxyl and a thiastearate with the sulfur atom at position 10 (10-TS). The effective concentration for 50% growth inhibition (EC 50 ) of PCF was 1.0 ± 0.2 μM for Isoxyl and 5 ± 2 μM for 10-TS, whereas BSF appeared more susceptible with EC 50 values 0.10 ± 0.03 μM (Isoxyl) and 1.0 ± 0.6 μM (10-TS). RNA interference showed to be deleterious for both stages of the parasite. In addition, T. brucei-infected mice were fed with Isoxyl, causing a reduction of the parasitemia and an increase of the rodents' survival.

  7. Delta 12-Fatty Acid Desaturase from Candida parapsilosis Is a Multifunctional Desaturase Producing a Range of Polyunsaturated and Hydroxylated Fatty Acids

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, Petra; Sychrová, Hana; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2014), e93322/1-e93322/10 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01011461 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae * omega-3 fatty acid desaturase * heterologous expression Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0093322

  8. Novel metabolic pathways for linoleic and arachidonic acid metabolism.

    Moghaddam, M; Motoba, K; Borhan, B; Pinot, F; Hammock, B D

    1996-08-13

    Mouse liver microsomes oxidized linoleic acid to form 9,10- or 12,13-epoxyoctadecenoate. These monoepoxides were subsequently hydrolyzed to their corresponding diols in the absence of the microsomal epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, 1,2-epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane. Furthermore, both 9,10- and 12,13-epoxyoctadecenoates were oxidized to diepoxyoctadecanoate at apparently identical rates by mouse liver microsomal P-450 epoxidation. Both epoxyoctadecanoates and diepoxyoctadecanoates were converted to tetrahydrofuran-diols by microsomes. Tetrahydroxides of linoleate were produced as minor metabolites. Arachidonic acid was metabolized to epoxyeicosatrienoates, dihydroxyeicosatrienoates, and monohydroxyeicosatetraenoates by the microsomes. Microsomes prepared from clofibrate (but not phenobarbital) -treated mice exhibited much higher production rates for epoxyeicosatrienoates and vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoates. This indicated an induction of P-450 epoxygenase(s) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase in mice by clofibrate and not by phenobarbital. Incubation of synthetic epoxyeicosatrienoates with microsomes led to the production of diepoxyeicosadienoates. Among chemically generated diepoxyeicosadienoate isomers, three of them possessing adjacent diepoxides were hydrolyzed to their diol epoxides which cyclized to the corresponding tetrahydrofuran-diols by microsomes as well as soluble epoxide hydrolase at a much higher rate. Larger cyclic products from non-adjacent diepoxides were not observed. The results of our in vitro experiments suggest that linoleic and arachidonic acid can be metabolized to their tetrahydrofuran-diols by two consecutive microsomal cytochrome P-450 epoxidations followed by microsomal or soluble epoxide hydrolase catalyzed hydrolysis of the epoxides. Incubation experiments with the S-9 fractions indicate that the soluble epoxide hydrolase is more important in this conversion. This manuscript is the first report of techniques for the separation and

  9. Systemic down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase promotes muscle oxidative metabolism and accelerates muscle function recovery following nerve injury.

    Ghulam Hussain

    Full Text Available The progressive deterioration of the neuromuscular axis is typically observed in degenerative conditions of the lower motor neurons, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Neurodegeneration in this disease is associated with systemic metabolic perturbations, including hypermetabolism and dyslipidemia. Our previous gene profiling studies on ALS muscle revealed down-regulation of delta-9 desaturase, or SCD1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. Interestingly, knocking out SCD1 gene is known to induce hypermetabolism and stimulate fatty acid beta-oxidation. Here we investigated whether SCD1 deficiency can affect muscle function and its restoration in response to injury. The genetic ablation of SCD1 was not detrimental per se to muscle function. On the contrary, muscles in SCD1 knockout mice shifted toward a more oxidative metabolism, and enhanced the expression of synaptic genes. Repressing SCD1 expression or reducing SCD-dependent enzymatic activity accelerated the recovery of muscle function after inducing sciatic nerve crush. Overall, these findings provide evidence for a new role of SCD1 in modulating the restorative potential of skeletal muscles.

  10. Determination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in milk chocolate.

    Hurst, W J; Tarka, S M; Dobson, G; Reid, C M

    2001-03-01

    The fatty acids from a series of milk-chocolate-based confectionery samples were analyzed as methyl esters by GC to determine the presence and amount of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). A single peak corresponding to the 9-cis,11-trans isomer and ranging from less than 0.1% to nearly 0.2% of the total fatty acids, corresponding to up to 0.3 mg per g of chocolate, was observed. One of the chocolate extracts and a milk extract were subjected to silver ion HPLC and GC-MS in order to confirm the identity of the major isomer and tentatively identity minor isomers.

  11. Temperature and duration of heating of sunflower oil affect ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro

    Privé , Florence; Combes, Sylvie; Cauquil, Laurent; Farizon, Yves; Enjalbert, Francis; Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle

    2010-01-01

    Sunflower oil heated at 110 or 150°C for 1, 3, or 6 h was incubated with ruminal content in order to investigate the effects of temperature and duration of heating of oil on the ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro. When increased, these 2 parameters acted together to decrease the disappearance of linoleic acid in the media by inhibiting the isomerization of linoleic acid, which led to a decrease in conjugated linoleic acids and trans-C18:1 production. Nevertheless, trans-10 iso...

  12. Associations between plasma fatty acids, desaturase and elongase, and insulin resistance in children

    Background and Objectives - Fatty acid profiles, desaturase (SCD-16, SCD018, D5D, D6D) and elongase (ELOVL6) enzyme activity have been associated with adiposity and metabolic disease. While this has been studied in adults, few studies have evaluated children. The objective of this study was to evalu...

  13. Relationship between stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity and plasma triglycerides in human and mouse hypertriglyceridemia

    Attie, Alan D.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Gray-Keller, Mark P.; Brownlie, Alison; Miyazaki, Makoto; Kastelein, John J.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.; Stoehr, Jonathan P.; Hayden, Michael R.; Ntambi, James M.

    2002-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is expressed at high levels in several human tissues and is required for the biosynthesis of oleate (18:1) and palmitoleate (16:1). These monounsaturated fatty acids are the major components of phospholipids, triglycerides, wax esters, and cholesterol esters. Mice with

  14. Relationship between stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity and plasma triglycerides in human and mouse hypertriglyceridemia.

    Attie, A.D.; Krauss, R.M.; Gray-Keller, M.P.; Brownlie, A.; Miyazaki, M.; Kastelein, J.J.P.; Lusis, A.J.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Stoehr, J.P.; Hayden, M.R.; Ntambi, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is expressed at high levels in several human tissues and is required for the biosynthesis of oleate (18:1) and palmitoleate (16:1). These monounsaturated fatty acids are the major components of phospholipids, triglycerides, wax esters, and cholesterol esters. Mice with

  15. The role of desaturases in the biosynthesis of marking pheromones in bumblebee males

    Buček, Aleš; Vogel, H.; Matoušková, Petra; Prchalová, Darina; Žáček, Petr; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Šebesta, Petr; Svatoš, Aleš; Jahn, Ullrich; Valterová, Irena; Pichová, Iva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 8 (2013), s. 724-731 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1446 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fatty acid desaturase * bumblebee * Hymenoptera * pheromone * RNA-seq * functional expression Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.420, year: 2013

  16. Plasma sulfur amino acids and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in two caucasian populations

    Vinknes, K.J.; Dekker, J.M.; Drevon, C.A.; Refsum, H.; Nurk, E.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Teerlink, T.; Tell, G.S.; Nygard, O.; Vollset, S.E.; Ueland, P.M.; Elshorbagy, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    In rats, dietary restriction of the cysteine precursor methionine suppresses hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1 expression and activity, whereas cysteine supplementation reverses these effects. In 2 independent cohorts: Hordaland Health Study (HUSK; N=2021, aged 71-74. y), Norway, and Hoorn

  17. Structural and Spectroscopic Properties of the Peroxodiferric Intermediate of Ricinus communis Soluble Delta(9) Desaturase

    Srnec, Martin; Rokob, Tibor András; Schwartz, J. K.; Kwak, Y.; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Solomon, E. I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2012), s. 2806-2820 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : diferrous non-heme iron enzyme * QM/MM calculations * delta-9 * desaturase * reaction mechanism Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.593, year: 2012

  18. Identification of candidate genes from the SAD gene family in cotton for determination of cottonseed oil composition.

    Shang, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Chaoze; Ding, Jian; Guo, Wangzhen

    2017-02-01

    Cotton is an economically important crop grown for natural fiber and seed oil production. Cottonseed oil ranks third after soybean oil and colza oil in terms of edible oilseed tonnage worldwide. The fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil determines its industrial application and nutritional values. However, little progress has been made in understanding cottonseed oil biogenesis. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD), the only known enzyme to convert saturated fatty acids into unsaturated fatty acids in plants, plays key roles in determining the fatty acid composition of cottonseed oil. In this study, we identified 9, 9, 18 and 19 SAD genes in the genomes of four sequenced cotton species: diploid Gossypium raimondii (D 5 ), G. arboreum (A 2 ), tetraploid G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 (AD 1 ) and G. barbadense cv. Xinhai21 (AD 2 ), respectively. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses revealed that cotton SADs can be classified into two classes. Expression patterns showed developmental and spatial regulation of SADs in cotton. GhSAD2 and GhSAD4 were preferentially expressed in developing ovules 20-35 days post-anthesis, and significantly different expression patterns were found between high-oil and low-oil cotton cultivars, implying these two genes could be involved in cottonseed oil biogenesis. Association analysis further confirmed that GhSAD4-At expression was closely related to the oleic acid (O) content, linoleic acid (L) content and O/L value in cottonseed, implying GhSAD4 plays an important role in cottonseed oil composition. This study brings new perspectives for integrated genome-wide identification of SADs in cotton and provides references for the genetic improvement of cottonseed oil.

  19. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Bifidobacteria: Screening, Kinetic, and Composition

    Stefano Raimondi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid involved in a number of health aspects. In humans, CLA production is performed by gut microbiota, including some species of potential probiotic bifidobacteria. 128 strains of 31 Bifidobacterium species were screened with a spectrophotometric assay to identify novel CLA producers. Most species were nonproducers, while producers belonged to B. breve and B. pseudocatenulatum. GC-MS revealed that CLA producer strains yielded 9cis,11trans-CLA and 9trans,11trans-CLA, without any production of other isomers. Hydroxylated forms of LA were absent in producer strains, suggesting that the myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA protein that exerts hydratase activity is not involved in LA isomerization. Moreover, both CLA producer and nonproducer species bear a MCRA homologue. The strain B. breve WC 0421 was the best CLA producer, converting LA into 68.8% 9cis,11trans-CLA and 25.1% 9trans,11trans-CLA. Production occurred mostly during the lag and the exponential phase. For the first time, production and incorporation of CLA in biomass were assessed. B. breve WC 0421 stored CLA in the form of free fatty acids, without changing the composition of the esterified fatty acids, which mainly occurred in the plasmatic membrane.

  20. Production of conjugated linoleic acid-rich potato chips.

    Jain, Vishal P; Proctor, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is found primarily in diary and beef products, but the health benefits of CLA can only be realized if they are consumed at much greater levels than a normal healthy dietary intake. We have recently shown that a CLA-rich soy oil can be produced by simple isomerization of linoleic acid in soy oil by photoirradiation. This oil may allow greatly increased dietary CLA without significantly elevating fat intake. The objective of this study was to prepare CLA-rich potato chips by frying in CLA-rich soy oil. Soy oil was photoisomerized in the presence of iodine catalyst with UV/visible light. The irradiated oil was clay processed to remove the residual iodine and this oil was then used to fry potato chips. Oil was extracted from fried chips and analyzed for its CLA content with gas chromatography. A 1-oz serving of CLA-rich potato chips contained approximately 2.4 g CLA as compared to 0.1 g CLA in 3-oz serving of steak fillet and 0.06 g CLA in 8-oz serving of whole milk. The peroxide value of the oil extracted from potato chips was found to be 1 meq/1000 g sample, which was within the acceptable commercial standards. This study may lead to the commercialization of CLA-rich food products.

  1. On the structure and function of the phytoene desaturase CRTI from Pantoea ananatis, a membrane-peripheral and FAD-dependent oxidase/isomerase.

    Patrick Schaub

    Full Text Available CRTI-type phytoene desaturases prevailing in bacteria and fungi can form lycopene directly from phytoene while plants employ two distinct desaturases and two cis-tans isomerases for the same purpose. This property renders CRTI a valuable gene to engineer provitamin A-formation to help combat vitamin A malnutrition, such as with Golden Rice. To understand the biochemical processes involved, recombinant CRTI was produced and obtained in homogeneous form that shows high enzymatic activity with the lipophilic substrate phytoene contained in phosphatidyl-choline (PC liposome membranes. The first crystal structure of apo-CRTI reveals that CRTI belongs to the flavoprotein superfamily comprising protoporphyrinogen IX oxidoreductase and monoamine oxidase. CRTI is a membrane-peripheral oxidoreductase which utilizes FAD as the sole redox-active cofactor. Oxygen, replaceable by quinones in its absence, is needed as the terminal electron acceptor. FAD, besides its catalytic role also displays a structural function by enabling the formation of enzymatically active CRTI membrane associates. Under anaerobic conditions the enzyme can act as a carotene cis-trans isomerase. In silico-docking experiments yielded information on substrate binding sites, potential catalytic residues and is in favor of single half-site recognition of the symmetrical C(40 hydrocarbon substrate.

  2. Loss of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 rescues cardiac function in obese leptin-deficient mice.

    Dobrzyn, Pawel; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Miyazaki, Makoto; Ntambi, James M

    2010-08-01

    The heart of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice is characterized by pathologic left ventricular hypertrophy along with elevated triglyceride (TG) content, increased stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity, and increased myocyte apoptosis. In the present study, using an ob/ob;SCD1(-/-) mouse model, we tested the hypothesis that lack of SCD1 could improve steatosis and left ventricle (LV) function in leptin deficiency. We show that disruption of the SCD1 gene improves cardiac function in ob/ob mice by correcting systolic and diastolic dysfunction without affecting levels of plasma TG and FFA. The improvement is associated with reduced expression of genes involved in FA transport and lipid synthesis in the heart, as well as reduction in cardiac FFA, diacylglycerol, TG, and ceramide levels. The rate of FA beta-oxidation is also significantly lower in the heart of ob/ob;SCD1(-/-) mice compared with ob/ob controls. Moreover, SCD1 deficiency reduces cardiac apoptosis in ob/ob mice due to increased expression of antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2 and inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and caspase-3 activities. Reduction in myocardial lipid accumulation and inhibition of apoptosis appear to be one of the main mechanisms responsible for improved LV function in ob/ob mice caused by SCD1 deficiency.

  3. Comparative effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and linoleic acid (LA) on the oxidoreduction status in THP-1 macrophages.

    Rybicka, Marta; Stachowska, Ewa; Gutowska, Izabela; Parczewski, Miłosz; Baśkiewicz, Magdalena; Machaliński, Bogusław; Boroń-Kaczmarska, Anna; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2011-04-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) on macrophage reactive oxygen species synthesis and the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (Cat), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The macrophages were obtained from the THP-1 monocytic cell line. Cells were incubated with the addition of cis-9,trans-11 CLA or trans-10,cis-12 CLA or linoleic acid. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was estimated by flow cytometry. Enzymes activity was measured spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression was estimated by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Statistical analysis was based on nonparametric statistical tests [Friedman analysis of variation (ANOVA) and Wilcoxon signed-rank test]. cis-9,trans-11 CLA significantly increased the activity of Cat, while trans-10,cis-12 CLA notably influenced GPx activity. Both isomers significantly decreased mRNA expression for Cat. Only trans-10,cis-12 significantly influenced mRNA for SOD-2 expression. The CLAs activate processes of the ROS formation in macrophages. Adverse metabolic effects of each isomer action were observed.

  4. Ácido linoléico conjugado e perda de peso Conjugated linoleic acid and weight loss

    Denise Machado Mourão

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento e a prevenção da obesidade têm sido considerados uma enorme batalha para os profissionais da área de saúde. As indústrias de alimentos e de fármacos, por sua vez, têm oferecido cada vez mais uma vasta gama de novos produtos que preconizam a perda de peso. O ácido linoléico conjugado, encontrado em maiores concentrações na gordura de animais ruminantes, parece apresentar efeitos favoráveis quanto à manutenção do peso corporal. Esta revisão apresenta uma análise crítica dos dados disponíveis na literatura, que relacionam o ácido linoléico conjugado com o metabolismo energético e a composição corporal. Os estudos realizados com humanos ainda não são conclusivos, embora alguns apontem um possível aumento da lipólise e/ou redução da lipogênese, que reflete em alterações apenas na composição corporal, especialmente no tecido adiposo abdominal, mas não na perda de peso. Entretanto, as altas doses usadas nesses estudos podem implicar efeitos colaterais indesejáveis. Portanto, mais estudos são necessários para uma indicação desse ácido graxo como um agente para a melhora da composição corporal e/ou como um agente anti-obesidade.The prevention and the treatment of obesity have proved to be enormous challenges for health professionals. On their turn, the food and the pharmaceutical industries have been offering an increasingly vast array of new products which are said to promote weight loss. The conjugated linoleic acid, found in greater concentrations in the fat of ruminant mammals, seems to present favorable effects on body weight maintenance. This work reviewed the available data in the literature that related conjugated linoleic acid to energy expenditure and body composition, with the objective of better understanding its real or possible actions in the body, in particular, whether I does or does not promote weight loss. The studies on humans are not conclusive yet, although some of them have

  5. Investigation of tritium removal by means of organic compounds. Catalytic hydrogenation (tritiation) of linoleic acid

    El-Sharnouby, A.; Weichselgartner, H.

    1984-11-01

    In the presence of noble-metal catalysts unsaturated fatty acids such as eruic acid and linoleic acid capture hydrogen (and tritium) quantitatively. The hydrogenation reaction of eruic acid has already been reported. The experimental results of the reaction of hydrogen (and tritium) with linoleic acid are now discussed in this paper. Obviously, the use of linoleic acid shows some advantages compared with eruic acid: - the hydrogenation reaction is faster, - linoleic acid is liquid, so that the choice of additional solvents is easier, and - linoleic acid is a more or less cheap natural product, which is available from a series of seeds, so that the cost of a technical tritium removal plant is not increased by the basic chemical material. (orig.)

  6. A single mutation in the castor Δ9-18:0-desaturase changes reaction partitioning from desaturation to oxidase chemistry

    Guy, Jodie E.; Abreu, Isabel A.; Moche, Martin; Lindqvist, Ylva; Whittle, Edward; Shanklin, John

    2006-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the diiron cluster-containing soluble desaturases suggests they are unrelated to other diiron enzymes; however, structural alignment of the core four-helix bundle of desaturases to other diiron enzymes reveals a conserved iron binding motif with similar spacing in all enzymes of this structural class, implying a common evolutionary ancestry. Detailed structural comparison of the castor desaturase with that of a peroxidase, rubrerythrin, shows remarkable conservation of both identity and geometry of residues surrounding the diiron center, with the exception of residue 199. Position 199 is occupied by a threonine in the castor desaturase, but the equivalent position in rubrerythrin contains a glutamic acid. We previously hypothesized that a carboxylate in this location facilitates oxidase chemistry in rubrerythrin by the close apposition of a residue capable of facilitating proton transfer to the activated oxygen (in a hydrophobic cavity adjacent to the diiron center based on the crystal structure of the oxygen-binding mimic azide). Here we report that desaturase mutant T199D binds substrate but its desaturase activity decreases by ≈2 × 103-fold. However, it shows a >31-fold increase in peroxide-dependent oxidase activity with respect to WT desaturase, as monitored by single-turnover stopped-flow spectrometry. A 2.65-Å crystal structure of T199D reveals active-site geometry remarkably similar to that of rubrerythrin, consistent with its enhanced function as an oxidase enzyme. That a single amino acid substitution can switch reactivity from desaturation to oxidation provides experimental support for the hypothesis that the desaturase evolved from an ancestral oxidase enzyme. PMID:17088542

  7. Markers of endogenous desaturase activity and risk of coronary heart disease in the CAREMA cohort study.

    Yingchang Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intakes of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially EPA (C20:5n-3 and DHA (C22:6n-3, are known to prevent fatal coronary heart disease (CHD. The effects of n-6 PUFAs including arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6, however, remain unclear. δ-5 and δ-6 desaturases are rate-limiting enzymes for synthesizing long-chain n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. C20:4n-6 to C20:3n-6 and C18:3n-6 to C18:2n-6 ratios are markers of endogenous δ-5 and δ-6 desaturase activities, but have never been studied in relation to incident CHD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relation between these ratios as well as genotypes of FADS1 rs174547 and CHD incidence. METHODS: We applied a case-cohort design within the CAREMA cohort, a large prospective study among the general Dutch population followed up for a median of 12.1 years. Fatty acid profile in plasma cholesteryl esters and FADS1 genotype at baseline were measured in a random subcohort (n = 1323 and incident CHD cases (n = 537. Main outcome measures were hazard ratios (HRs of incident CHD adjusted for major CHD risk factors. RESULTS: The AA genotype of rs174547 was associated with increased plasma levels of C204n-6, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 and increased δ-5 and δ-6 desaturase activities, but not with CHD risk. In multivariable adjusted models, high baseline δ-5 desaturase activity was associated with reduced CHD risk (P for trend = 0.02, especially among those carrying the high desaturase activity genotype (AA: HR (95% CI = 0.35 (0.15-0.81 for comparing the extreme quintiles. High plasma DHA levels were also associated with reduced CHD risk. CONCLUSION: In this prospective cohort study, we observed a reduced CHD risk with an increased C20:4n-6 to C20:3n-6 ratio, suggesting that δ-5 desaturase activity plays a role in CHD etiology. This should be investigated further in other independent studies.

  8. Mutagenesis of FAD2 genes in peanut with CRISPR/Cas9

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is known for its precise and efficient gene-editing of a targeted region in a variety of organisms including plants. We targeted FAD2 gene region to perform CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing in peanut. The FAD2 gene encodes fatty acid desaturase which catalyzes the conversion of oleic ...

  9. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing of Phytoene desaturase in Cassava

    John Odipio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR/Cas9 has become a powerful genome-editing tool for introducing genetic changes into crop species. In order to develop capacity for CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the tropical staple cassava (Manihot esculenta, the Phytoene desaturase (MePDS gene was targeted in two cultivars using constructs carrying gRNAs targeting two sequences within MePDS exon 13. After Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 reagents into cassava cells, both constructs induced visible albino phenotypes within cotyledon-stage somatic embryos regenerating on selection medium and the plants regenerated therefrom. A total of 58 (cv. 60444 and 25 (cv. TME 204 plant lines were recovered, of which 38 plant lines (19 from each cultivar were analyzed for mutagenesis. The frequency of plant lines showing albino phenotype was high, ranging from 90 to 100% in cv. TME 204. Observed albino phenotypes were comprised of full albinos devoid of green tissue and chimeras containing a mixture of white and green tissues. Sequence analysis revealed that 38/38 (100% of the plant lines examined carried mutations at the targeted MePDS site, with insertions, deletions, and substitutions recorded. One putatively mono-allelic homozygous line (1/19 was found from cv. 60444, while 1 (1/19 and 4 (4/19 putatively bi-allelic homozygous lines were found in 60444 and TME204, respectively. The remaining plant lines, comprised mostly of the chimeras, were found to be putatively heterozygous. We observed minor (1 bp nucleotide substitutions and or deletions upstream of the 5′ and or downstream of the 3′ targeted MePDS region. The data reported demonstrates that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of cassava is highly efficient and relatively simple, generating multi-allelic mutations in both cultivars studied. Modification of MePDS described here generates visually detectable mutated events in a relatively short time frame of 6–8 weeks, and does not require sequencing to confirm editing at the

  10. Development of a novel LC/MS method to quantitate cellular stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity

    Dillon, Roslyn; Greig, Michael J.; Bhat, B. Ganesh

    2008-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in de novo synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids-mainly oleate and palmitoleate from stearoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-Co A, respectively. These products are the most abundant monounsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids, triglycerides, cholesterol esters. Reports on mice with a targeted disruption of SCD1 gene (SCD1-/-) exhibit improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity compared to wild-type suggesting SCD1 could be a therapeutic target for diabetes and related metabolic diseases. Measurement of SCD1 activity is technically challenging and traditional cell-based SCD1 assay procedure is labor intensive with low throughput. We describe here a novel medium-throughput LC/MS cell-based assay for determining cellular SCD1 activity, facilitating screening of potential SCD1 inhibitor compounds. Confluent HepG2 cells were grown in 24-well plates and incubated with vehicle or an inhibitor followed by incubation with deuterium labeled saturated fatty acid substrates. Total cell lipids were extracted and the conversion of stearate to oleate was measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sterculate, a known inhibitor of SCD1, inhibited the enzyme activity in a dose dependent manner in this assay with a calculated EC 50 of 247 nM. The medium-throughput method described here is an important step towards identifying an inhibitor of SCD1 to treat diabetes and related metabolic diseases

  11. A study of associations between early DHA status and fatty acid desaturase (FADS) SNP and developmental outcomes in children of obese mothers

    Andersen, Karina R; Harsløf, Laurine B S; Schnurr, Theresia M

    2017-01-01

    DHA from diet or endogenous synthesis has been proposed to affect infant development, however, results are inconclusive. In this study, we aim to verify previously observed fatty acid desaturase gene cluster (FADS) SNP-specific associations with erythrocyte DHA status in 9-month-old children...... and sex-specific association with developmental outcomes. The study was performed in 166 children (55 % boys) of obese mothers. Erythrocyte fatty acid composition was analysed in blood-samples obtained at 9 months of age, and developmental outcomes assessed by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 3 years......-increasing FADS SNP and erythrocyte DHA status were consistently associated with improved personal-social skills in this small cohort of children of obese mothers irrespective of sex, but the sample was too small to verify potential sex-specific effects....

  12. Alternation of plasma fatty acids composition and desaturase activities in children with liver steatosis.

    Man-Chin Hua

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate changes in plasma fatty acids proportions and estimated desaturase activities for variable grading of liver steatosis in children.In total, 111 schoolchildren (aged 8-18 years were included in the analysis from March 2015 to August 2016. Anthropometric evaluation, liver ultrasound examination and scoring for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD score = 0-6, and biochemical and plasma fatty acids analysis were performed. We compared the composition ratio of fatty acids between children with high-grade liver steatosis (NAFLD score = 4-6, low-grade liver steatosis (NAFLD score = 1-3, and healthy controls (NAFLD score = 0. In addition, correlation coefficients (r between NAFLD score, metabolic variables, and estimated activity of desaturase indices (stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD1, delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase were calculated.Compared with healthy controls, children with liver steatosis showed a higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (21.16 ± 2.81% vs. 19.68 ± 2.71%, p = 0.024. In addition, children with high- grade liver steatosis exhibited higher proportions of palmitic acid (C16:0, palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3n-6, adrenic acid (C22:4n-6, and docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-6; and lower proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3 (P< 0.05. In all subjects, the NAFLD score was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI (kg/m2 (r = 0.696, homeostasis model of assessment ratio-index (HOMA-IR (r = 0.510, SCD1(16 (r = 0.273, and the delta-6 index (r = 0.494; and inversely associated with the delta-5 index (r = -0.443.Our current data suggested that children with liver steatosis was highly associated with obesity, and insulin resistance. In addition, increased endogenous lipogenesis through altered desaturase activity may contribute to the progression of liver steatosis in children.

  13. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Cholera Toxin Production In Vitro and In Vivo by Inhibiting Vibrio cholerae ToxT Activity.

    Withey, Jeffrey H; Nag, Drubhajyoti; Plecha, Sarah C; Sinha, Ritam; Koley, Hemanta

    2015-12-01

    The severe diarrheal disease cholera is endemic in over 50 countries. Current therapies for cholera patients involve oral and/or intravenous rehydration, often combined with the use of antibiotics to shorten the duration and intensity of the disease. However, as antibiotic resistance increases, treatment options will become limited. Linoleic acid has been shown to be a potent negative effector of V. cholerae virulence that acts on the major virulence transcription regulator protein, ToxT, to inhibit virulence gene expression. ToxT activates transcription of the two major virulence factors required for disease, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). A conjugated form of linoleic acid (CLA) is currently sold over the counter as a dietary supplement and is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This study examined whether CLA could be used as a new therapy to reduce CT production, which, in turn, would decrease disease duration and intensity in cholera patients. CLA could be used in place of traditional antibiotics and would be very unlikely to generate resistance, as it affects only virulence factor production and not bacterial growth or survival. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. DNA methylation perturbations in genes involved in polyunsaturated Fatty Acid biosynthesis associated with depression and suicide risk.

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Galfalvy, Hanga; Chen, Sean; Huang, Yung-Yu; Cooper, Thomas B; Burke, Ainsley K; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John; Sublette, M Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and risk of suicide. Long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) are obtained in the diet or produced by sequential desaturation and elongation of shorter-chain precursor fatty acids linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3). We compared DNA methylation patterns in genes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in major depressive disorder (MDD) with (n = 22) and without (n = 39) history of suicide attempt, and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 59). Plasma levels of selected PUFAs along the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway were determined by transesterification and gas chromatography. CpG methylation levels for the main human LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes, fatty acid desaturases 1 (Fads1) and 2 (Fads2), and elongation of very long-chain fatty acids protein 5 (Elovl5), were assayed by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Associations between PUFA levels and diagnosis or suicide attempt status did not survive correction for multiple testing. However, MDD diagnosis and suicide attempts were significantly associated with DNA methylation in Elovl5 gene regulatory regions. Also the relative roles of PUFA levels and DNA methylation with respect to diagnostic and suicide attempt status were determined by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression analyses. We found that PUFA associations with suicide attempt status were explained by effects of Elovl5 DNA methylation within the regulatory regions. The observed link between plasma PUFA levels, DNA methylation, and suicide risk may have implications for modulation of disease-associated epigenetic marks by nutritional intervention.

  15. DNA methylation perturbations in genes involved in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis associated with depression and suicide risk

    Fatemeh eHaghighi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA status has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and risk of suicide. Long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs are obtained in the diet or produced by sequential desaturation and elongation of shorter-chain precursor fatty acids linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6 and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3. We compared DNA methylation patterns in genes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in major depressive disorder (MDD with (n=22 and without (n=39 history of suicide attempt, and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (n=59. Plasma levels of selected PUFAs along the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway were determined by transesterification and gas chromatography. CpG methylation levels for the main human LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes, fatty acid desaturases 1 (Fads1 and 2 (Fads2, and elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 5 (Elovl5, were assayed by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Associations between PUFA levels and diagnosis or suicide attempt status did not survive correction for multiple testing. However, MDD diagnosis and suicide attempts were significantly associated with DNA methylation in Elovl5 gene regulatory regions. Also the relative roles of PUFA levels and DNA methylation with respect to diagnostic and suicide attempt status were determined by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO logistic regression analyses. We found that PUFA associations with suicide attempt status were explained by effects of Elovl5 DNA methylation within the regulatory regions. The observed link between plasma PUFA levels, DNA methylation, and suicide risk may have implications for modulation of disease-associated epigenetic marks by nutritional intervention.

  16. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of ...

    rahim aydin

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was reported to increase the levels of saturated fatty ... Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid ..... silver ion-high performance liquid chromatography.

  17. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth and ...

    p4208528

    Keywords: Conjugated linoleic acid, geese, growth, lipid metabolism, fatty acid composition .... For determination of serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, high density ... separated and quantified by gas–liquid chromatography (Carlo Erba Vega ...

  18. Linoleic acid, thymine, and tryptophan radiosensitization by protoporphyrin in presence of oxygene

    Champel, P.; Mignot, M.A.; Pillement, B.; Fontenil, L.; Rocquet, G.

    Sensitizing effect induced by protoporphyrin, an active molecule in photooxidation is studied. Studied substances are tryptophan, thymine, linoleic acid, each component representing one of the great groups of biological components, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids [fr

  19. Conjugated linoleic acids as functional food: an insight into their health benefits

    Benjamin Sailas; Spener Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This review evaluates the health benefits of the functional food, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) - a heterogeneous group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. During the past couple of decades, hundreds of reports - principally based on in vitro, microbial, animal, and of late clinical trials on humans - have been accumulating with varying biological activities of CLA isomers. These studi...

  20. The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil

    Seong Ho Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c. and intramuscular (i.m. adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control, with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (p<0.03. SCD gene expression did not change between the initial and intermediate biopsies but declined by over 75% by the final period (p = 0.04, and G-coupled protein receptor 43 (GPR43 gene expression was unaffected by diet or time on trial. Soybean oil decreased (p = 0.01 PPARγ gene expression at the intermediate sample time. At the terminal sample time, PPARγ and SCD gene expression was less in i.m. adipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (p<0.05. AMPKα gene expression was less in s.c. adipose tissue of palm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04 and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (CEBPβ gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (p<0.03. Soybean oil decreased SCD gene expression in s.c. adipose tissue (p = 0.05; SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers

  1. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids on the activity and mRNA expression of 5- and 15-lipoxygenases in human macrophages.

    Stachowska, Ewa; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Safranow, Krzysztof; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Olszewska, Maria; Machaliñski, Bogusław; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2007-06-27

    Lipoxygenases are a family of non-heme enzyme dioxygenases. The role of lipoxygenases is synthesis of hydroperoxides of fatty acids, which perform signaling functions in the body. Studies on conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) as fatty acids with a potential anti-atherosclerotic function have recently been initiated. The aim of the study was to test the effect of CLAs and linoleic acid on 5- and 15-lipoxygenase (5-LO, 15-LO-1) enzyme activity, their mRNA expression, and concentration in the cells. It was also desired to determine whether the CLAs are substrates for the enzymes. For the experiments monocytic cell line (THP-1) and monocytes obtained from human venous blood were used. Monocytes were differentiated to macrophages: THP-1 (CD14+) by PMA administration (100 nM for 24 h) and monocytes from blood (CD14+) by 7-day cultivation with the autologous serum (10%). After differentiation, macrophages were cultured with 30 microM CLAs or linoleic acid for 48 h. The 15- and 5-lipoxygenase products were measured by HPLC method. mRNA expression and protein content were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. The in vitro studies proved that both CLA isomers are not substrates for 15-LO-1; in ex vivo studies hydroxydecadienoic acid (HODE) concentration was significantly reduced (p = 0.019). The trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomer reduced HODE concentration by 28% (p = 0.046) and the cis-9,trans-11 CLA isomer by 35% (p = 0.028). In macrophages obtained from THP-1 fatty acids did not change significantly mRNA expression of the majority of the investigated genes. CLAs did not change the content of 5-LO and 15-LO-1 proteins in macrophages obtained from peripheral blood. Linoleic acid induced 15-LO-1 expression (2.6 times, p < 0.05). CLAs may perform the function of an inhibitor of lipoxygenase 15-LO-1 activity in macrophages.

  2. Half-of-the-Sites Reactivity of the Castor Δ9-18:0-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase.

    Liu, Qin; Chai, Jin; Moche, Martin; Guy, Jodie; Lindqvist, Ylva; Shanklin, John

    2015-09-01

    Fatty acid desaturases regulate the unsaturation status of cellular lipids. They comprise two distinct evolutionary lineages, a soluble class found in the plastids of higher plants and an integral membrane class found in plants, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), animals, and bacteria. Both classes exhibit a dimeric quaternary structure. Here, we test the functional significance of dimeric organization of the soluble castor Δ9-18:0-acyl carrier protein desaturase, specifically, the hypothesis that the enzyme uses an alternating subunit half-of-the-sites reactivity mechanism whereby substrate binding to one subunit is coordinated with product release from the other subunit. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay, we demonstrated that dimers stably associate at concentrations typical of desaturase assays. An active site mutant T104K/S202E, designed to occlude the substrate binding cavity, was expressed, purified, and its properties validated by x-ray crystallography, size exclusion chromatography, and activity assay. Heterodimers comprising distinctly tagged wild-type and inactive mutant subunits were purified at 1:1 stoichiometry. Despite having only one-half the number of active sites, purified heterodimers exhibit equivalent activity to wild-type homodimers, consistent with half-of-the-sites reactivity. However, because multiple rounds of turnover were observed, we conclude that substrate binding to one subunit is not required to facilitate product release from the second subunit. The observed half-of-the-sites reactivity could potentially buffer desaturase activity from oxidative inactivation. That soluble desaturases require only one active subunit per dimer for full activity represents a mechanistic difference from the membrane class of desaturases such as the Δ9-acyl-CoA, Ole1p, from yeast, which requires two catalytically competent subunits for activity. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Half-of-the-Sites Reactivity of the Castor Δ9-18:0-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase1[OPEN

    Liu, Qin; Chai, Jin; Moche, Martin; Guy, Jodie; Lindqvist, Ylva; Shanklin, John

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases regulate the unsaturation status of cellular lipids. They comprise two distinct evolutionary lineages, a soluble class found in the plastids of higher plants and an integral membrane class found in plants, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), animals, and bacteria. Both classes exhibit a dimeric quaternary structure. Here, we test the functional significance of dimeric organization of the soluble castor Δ9-18:0-acyl carrier protein desaturase, specifically, the hypothesis that the enzyme uses an alternating subunit half-of-the-sites reactivity mechanism whereby substrate binding to one subunit is coordinated with product release from the other subunit. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay, we demonstrated that dimers stably associate at concentrations typical of desaturase assays. An active site mutant T104K/S202E, designed to occlude the substrate binding cavity, was expressed, purified, and its properties validated by x-ray crystallography, size exclusion chromatography, and activity assay. Heterodimers comprising distinctly tagged wild-type and inactive mutant subunits were purified at 1:1 stoichiometry. Despite having only one-half the number of active sites, purified heterodimers exhibit equivalent activity to wild-type homodimers, consistent with half-of-the-sites reactivity. However, because multiple rounds of turnover were observed, we conclude that substrate binding to one subunit is not required to facilitate product release from the second subunit. The observed half-of-the-sites reactivity could potentially buffer desaturase activity from oxidative inactivation. That soluble desaturases require only one active subunit per dimer for full activity represents a mechanistic difference from the membrane class of desaturases such as the Δ9-acyl-CoA, Ole1p, from yeast, which requires two catalytically competent subunits for activity. PMID:26224800

  4. Effects of tung oilseed FAD2 and DGAT2 genes on unsaturated fatty acid accumulation in Rhodotorula glutinis and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Chen, Yicun; Cui, Qinqin; Xu, Yongjie; Yang, Susu; Gao, Ming; Wang, Yangdong

    2015-08-01

    Genetic engineering to produce valuable lipids containing unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) holds great promise for food and industrial applications. Efforts to genetically modify plants to produce desirable UFAs with single enzymes, however, have had modest success. The key enzymes fatty acid desaturase (FAD) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) are responsible for UFA biosynthesis (a push process) and assembling fatty acids into lipids (a pull process) in plants, respectively. To examine their roles in UFA accumulation, VfFAD2 and VfDGAT2 genes cloned from Vernicia fordii (tung tree) oilseeds were conjugated and transformed into Rhodotorula glutinis and Arabidopsis thaliana via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed variable gene expression levels in the transformants, with a much higher level of VfDGAT2 than VfFAD2. The relationship between VfFAD2 expression and linoleic acid (C18:2) increases in R. glutinis (R (2) = 0.98) and A. thaliana (R (2) = 0.857) transformants was statistically linear. The VfDGAT2 expression level was statistically correlated with increased total fatty acid content in R. glutinis (R (2) = 0.962) and A. thaliana (R (2) = 0.8157) transformants. With a similar expression level between single- and two-gene transformants, VfFAD2-VfDGAT2 co-transformants showed a higher linolenic acid (C18:3) yield in R. glutinis (174.36 % increase) and A. thaliana (14.61 % increase), and eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3) was enriched (17.10 % increase) in A. thaliana. Our data suggest that VfFAD2-VfDGAT2 had a synergistic effect on UFA metabolism in R. glutinis, and to a lesser extent, A. thaliana. These results show promise for further genetic engineering of plant lipids to produce desirable UFAs.

  5. Virus-induced gene silencing in diverse maize lines using the Brome Mosaic virus-based silencing vector

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a widely used tool for gene function studies in many plant species, though its use in monocots has been limited. Using a Brome mosaic virus (BMV) vector designed to silence the maize phytoene desaturase gene, a genetically diverse set of maize inbred lines was ...

  6. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids increase ros production by fibroblasts via NADPH oxidase activation.

    Elaine Hatanaka

    Full Text Available The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47 (phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47 (phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts.

  7. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  8. Development of a high-throughput screening assay for stearoyl-CoA desaturase using rat liver microsomes, deuterium labeled stearoyl-CoA and mass spectrometry

    Soulard, Patricia; McLaughlin, Meg; Stevens, Jessica; Connolly, Brendan; Coli, Rocco; Wang Leyu [Research Technology Center, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Moore, Jennifer; Kuo, Ming-Shang T. [Pfizer Global Research and Development, San Diego, CA (United States); LaMarr, William A.; Ozbal, Can C. [Biotrove, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States); Bhat, B. Ganesh [Pfizer Global Research and Development, San Diego, CA (United States)], E-mail: gbhat@gnf.org

    2008-10-03

    Several recent reports suggest that stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the rate-limiting enzyme in monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, plays an important role in regulating lipid homeostasis and lipid oxidation in metabolically active tissues. As several manifestations of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders are associated with alterations in intracellular lipid partitioning, pharmacological manipulation of SCD1 activity might be of benefit in the treatment of these disease states. In an effort to identify small molecule inhibitors of SCD1, we have developed a mass spectrometry based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay using deuterium labeled stearoyl-CoA substrate and induced rat liver microsomes. The methodology developed allows the use of a nonradioactive substrate which avoids interference by the endogenous SCD1 substrate and/or product that exist in the non-purified enzyme source. Throughput of the assay was up to twenty 384-well assay plates per day. The assay was linear with protein concentration and time, and was saturable for stearoyl-CoA substrate (K{sub m} = 10.5 {mu}M). The assay was highly reproducible with an average Z' value = 0.6. Conjugated linoleic acid and sterculic acid, known inhibitors of SCD1, exhibited IC{sub 50} values of 0.88 and 0.12 {mu}M, respectively. High-throughput mass spectrometry screening of over 1.7 million compounds in compressed format demonstrated that the enzyme target is druggable. A total of 2515 hits were identified (0.1% hit rate), and 346 were confirmed active (>40% inhibition of total SCD activity at 20 {mu}M - 14% conformation rate). Of the confirmed hits 172 had IC{sub 50} values of <10 {mu}M, including 111 <1 {mu}M and 48 <100 nM. A large number of potent drug-like (MW < 450) hits representing six different chemical series were identified. The application of mass spectrometry to high-throughput screening permitted the development of a high-quality screening protocol for an otherwise intractable

  9. Development of a high-throughput screening assay for stearoyl-CoA desaturase using rat liver microsomes, deuterium labeled stearoyl-CoA and mass spectrometry

    Soulard, Patricia; McLaughlin, Meg; Stevens, Jessica; Connolly, Brendan; Coli, Rocco; Wang Leyu; Moore, Jennifer; Kuo, Ming-Shang T.; LaMarr, William A.; Ozbal, Can C.; Bhat, B. Ganesh

    2008-01-01

    Several recent reports suggest that stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the rate-limiting enzyme in monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, plays an important role in regulating lipid homeostasis and lipid oxidation in metabolically active tissues. As several manifestations of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders are associated with alterations in intracellular lipid partitioning, pharmacological manipulation of SCD1 activity might be of benefit in the treatment of these disease states. In an effort to identify small molecule inhibitors of SCD1, we have developed a mass spectrometry based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay using deuterium labeled stearoyl-CoA substrate and induced rat liver microsomes. The methodology developed allows the use of a nonradioactive substrate which avoids interference by the endogenous SCD1 substrate and/or product that exist in the non-purified enzyme source. Throughput of the assay was up to twenty 384-well assay plates per day. The assay was linear with protein concentration and time, and was saturable for stearoyl-CoA substrate (K m = 10.5 μM). The assay was highly reproducible with an average Z' value = 0.6. Conjugated linoleic acid and sterculic acid, known inhibitors of SCD1, exhibited IC 50 values of 0.88 and 0.12 μM, respectively. High-throughput mass spectrometry screening of over 1.7 million compounds in compressed format demonstrated that the enzyme target is druggable. A total of 2515 hits were identified (0.1% hit rate), and 346 were confirmed active (>40% inhibition of total SCD activity at 20 μM - 14% conformation rate). Of the confirmed hits 172 had IC 50 values of <10 μM, including 111 <1 μM and 48 <100 nM. A large number of potent drug-like (MW < 450) hits representing six different chemical series were identified. The application of mass spectrometry to high-throughput screening permitted the development of a high-quality screening protocol for an otherwise intractable target, SCD1. Further medicinal

  10. Contribution of two ζ-carotene desaturases to the poly-cis desaturation pathway in the cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7120.

    Breitenbach, Jürgen; Bruns, Marius; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    The presence of two completely unrelated ζ-carotene desaturases CrtQa and CrtQb in some Nostoc strains is unique. CrtQb is the ζ-carotene desaturase, which was acquired by almost all cyanobacteria. The additional CrtQa can be regarded as an evolutionary relict of the CrtI desaturase present in non-photosynthetic bacteria. By reconstruction of the carotene desaturation pathway, we showed that both enzymes from Nostoc PCC 7120 were active. However, they differed in their preferred utilization of ζ-carotene Z isomers. CrtQa converted ζ-carotene isomers that were poorly metabolized by CrtQb. In this respect, CrtQa complemented the reactions of CrtQb, which is an advantage avoiding dead ends in the poly-cis desaturation pathway. In addition to ζ-carotene desaturation, CrtQa still possesses the Z to E isomerase function of the ancestral desaturase CrtI. Biochemical characterization showed that CrtQb is an enzyme with one molecule of tightly bound FAD and acts as a dehydrogenase transferring hydrogen to oxidized plastoquinone.

  11. Evolution of moth sex pheromone composition by a single amino acid substitution in a fatty acid desaturase

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, P.; Vogel, H.; Šebesta, Petr; Jahn, Ullrich; Weissflog, J.; Svatoš, Aleš; Pichová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 41 (2015), s. 12586-12591 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fatty acid desaturase * Manduca sexta * sex pheromone biosynthesis * pheromone evolution * substrate specificity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015

  12. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and α-linolenic acid (LNA in pacu fillets

    Deoclécio José Barilli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in fillets of pacu fish raised in net cages and fed diets enriched with these acids. The fish were fed for 49 days, and at the end of this period the fatty acid content in the fillets was determined by gas chromatography. Concentrations of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and the total omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid in the fillets increased, improving the n-6/n-3 ratio. In addition, the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid in the fish fillets proved well established. This study showed that the use of diets enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid results in the incorporation of these acids in the of pacu fish fillets, improving their nutritional quality.

  13. delta 6 Hexadecenoic acid is synthesized by the activity of a soluble delta 6 palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase in Thunbergia alata endosperm.

    Cahoon, E B; Cranmer, A M; Shanklin, J; Ohlrogge, J B

    1994-11-04

    delta 6 Hexadecenoic acid (16:1 delta 6) composes more than 80% of the seed oil of Thunbergia alata. Studies were conducted to determine the biosynthetic origin of the double bond of this unusual fatty acid. Assays of fractions of developing T. alata seed endosperm with [1-14C]palmitoyl (16:0)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) revealed the presence of a soluble delta 6 desaturase activity. This activity was greatest when 16:0-ACP was provided as a substrate, whereas no desaturation of the coenzyme A ester of this fatty acid was detected. In addition, delta 6 16:0-ACP desaturase activity in T. alata endosperm extracts was dependent on the presence of ferredoxin and molecular oxygen and was stimulated by catalase. To further characterize this enzyme, a cDNA encoding a diverged acyl-ACP desaturase was isolated from a T. alata endosperm cDNA library using polymerase chain reaction with degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to conserved amino acid sequences in delta 9 stearoyl (18:0)- and delta 4 16:0-ACP desaturases. The primary structure of the mature peptide encoded by this cDNA shares 66% identity with the mature castor delta 9 18:0-ACP desaturase and 57% identity with the mature coriander delta 4 16:0-ACP desaturase. Extracts of Escherichia coli that express the T. alata cDNA catalyzed the delta 6 desaturation of 16:0-ACP. These results demonstrate that 16:1 delta 6 in T. alata endosperm is formed by the activity of a soluble delta 6 16:0-ACP desaturase that is structurally related to the delta 9 18:0- and delta 4 16:0-ACP desaturases. Implications of this work to an understanding of active site structures of acyl-ACP desaturases are discussed.

  14. Cloning and expression of a ζ-carotene desaturase gene from ...

    2015-06-05

    Jun 5, 2015 ... 1School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, and 2School of Environmental Science and .... The extracted RNA was reverse transcribed into cDNA ..... rial to enrich carotenoid contents and increase tolerance to.

  15. Cloning of a novel stearoyl-acyl desaturase gene from white ash ...

    use

    2011-12-10

    Dec 10, 2011 ... Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, ..... blocks and another belongs to ferritin-like family. These .... In Cold-Adapted Organisms-Ecology, Physiology,.

  16. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) content in different tissues of ruminants fed with CLA supplementation

    Pellattiero, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) are a group of positional and geometric isomers of Linoleic Acid characterized by a carbon chain containing 18 carbon atoms and two double bonds, not in the classic position (cis), but conjugated from the carbons atoms 9, 10 or 11. Double bonds have different position in the carbon chain ([7,9], [8,10], [9,11], [10,12], [11,13] and [12,14]) and four different geometric distribution (cis/trans, trans/cis, cis/cis and trans/trans). In total 24 possible isomers are...

  17. Production of arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolites by guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells

    Oosthuizen, M.J.; Engels, F.; Van Esch, B.; Henricks, P.A.; Nijkamp, F.P.

    1990-01-01

    Pulmonary epithelial cells may be responsible for regulating airway smooth muscle function, in part by release of fatty acid-derived mediators. Incubation of isolated guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells with radiolabeled arachidonic acid (AA) leads to the production of 5- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5- and 15-HETE) and smaller amounts of leukotriene (LT) B4 and C4 and 12-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (HHT). Epithelial cells also are able to release linoleic acid (LA) metabolites. Incubation with radiolabeled linoleic acid leads to the formation of 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9- and 13-HODE). The biological significance of these mediators produced by epithelial cells is discussed

  18. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    2013-04-03

    ..., Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid... pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug...

  19. Os efeitos do ácido linoléico conjugado no metabolismo animal: avanço das pesquisas e perspectivas para o futuro Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on animal metabolism: advances in research and perspectives for the future

    Lilia Ferreira Santos-Zago

    2008-04-01

    consumidos em quantidades adequadas e de forma freqüente, poderiam atuar como coadjuvantes na prevenção e no controle de inúmeras doenças crônicas.This systematic review without date restrictions is about the physiological effects of conjugated linoleic acid on regression of carcinogenesis, oxidative stress, glucose and lipid metabolism and change in body composition. The objective was to establish the historical aspect of research advances regarding conjugated linoleic acid, considering original articles reporting work on animals, cell cultures and humans. Regarding the researches on the anticarcinogenic effect of conjugated linoleic acid, innumerous evidences were found in this respect, especially in the regression of mammary and colon tumors induced by both isomers which act distinctively. The researchers devoted considerable effort to reinvestigate the antioxidant properties of conjugated linoleic acid. Although the antioxidant properties have been investigated, pro-oxidant effect has been identified leading to oxidative stress in humans. Few studies demonstrated significant beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid on the metabolism of lipids and glucose and on the reduction of body fat, especially in humans. Studies with adverse effects were also identified. There is strong indication that the action of this conjugated fatty acid on a class of transition factors - the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor - and on the consequent modulation of gene expression can be the fundamental explanation of its physiological effects. The most recent studies reinforce the nutrigenomic concept, that is, the modulation of gene expression induced by compounds present in the foods consumed by humans. This current scenario stimulates the scientific community to seek a consensus on the effects of conjugated linoleic acid in humans, since it is naturally found in some foods; when these foods are consumed regularly and in appropriate amounts, they could help prevent and

  20. Dihydroceramide Desaturase Inhibition by a Cyclopropanated Dihydroceramide Analog in Cultured Keratinocytes

    Susanne Brodesser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most mammalian sphingolipids contain a 4,5-(E-double bond. We report on the chemical synthesis of a dihydroceramide derivative that prevents the introduction of the double bond into sphingolipids. Minimal alteration of the parent structure by formally replacing the hydrogen atoms in the 5- and in the 6-position of the sphinganine backbone by a methylene group leads to an inhibitor of dihydroceramide desaturase in cultured cells. In the presence of 10–50 μM of compound (1, levels of biosynthetically formed dihydroceramide and—surprisingly—also of phytoceramide are elevated at the expense of ceramide. The cells respond to the lack of unsaturated sphingolipids by an elevation of mRNAs of enzymes required for sphingosine formation. At the same time, the analysis of proliferation and differentiation markers indicates that the sphingolipid double bond is required to keep the cells in a differentiated state.

  1. Dihydroceramide desaturase inhibition by a cyclopropanated dihydroceramide analog in cultured keratinocytes.

    Brodesser, Susanne; Kolter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Most mammalian sphingolipids contain a 4,5-(E)-double bond. We report on the chemical synthesis of a dihydroceramide derivative that prevents the introduction of the double bond into sphingolipids. Minimal alteration of the parent structure by formally replacing the hydrogen atoms in the 5- and in the 6-position of the sphinganine backbone by a methylene group leads to an inhibitor of dihydroceramide desaturase in cultured cells. In the presence of 10-50 μM of compound (1), levels of biosynthetically formed dihydroceramide and-surprisingly-also of phytoceramide are elevated at the expense of ceramide. The cells respond to the lack of unsaturated sphingolipids by an elevation of mRNAs of enzymes required for sphingosine formation. At the same time, the analysis of proliferation and differentiation markers indicates that the sphingolipid double bond is required to keep the cells in a differentiated state.

  2. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid generated from linoleic acid by a gut lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is cytoprotective against oxidative stress.

    Furumoto, Hidehiro; Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Kume, Toshiaki; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Park, Si-Bum; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-known cause of multiple diseases. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway plays a central role in cellular antioxidative responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of novel fatty acid metabolite derivatives of linoleic acid generated by the gut lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum on the Nrf2-ARE pathway. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected HepG2 cells from cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. KetoC also significantly increased cellular Nrf2 protein levels, ARE-dependent transcription, and the gene expression of antioxidative enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM), and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, a single oral dose administration of KetoC also increased antioxidative gene expression and protein levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in mouse organs. Since other fatty acid metabolites and linoleic acid did not affect cellular antioxidative responses, the cytoprotective effect of KetoC may be because of its α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety. Collectively, our data suggested that KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to enhance cellular antioxidative responses in vitro and in vivo, which further suggests that KetoC may prevent multiple diseases induced by oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Vitamin E supplementation in elderly lowers the oxidation rate of linoleic acid in LDL.

    Waart, de F.; Moser, U.; Kok, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    .Oxidation of LDL–linoleic acid (LDL–LA), a major substrate for lipid peroxidation, may be counteracted by the antioxidant vitamin E. In a 3-month randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 83 apparently healthy Dutch elderly, aged 67–85 years, the direct protective effect of 100 IU vitamin

  4. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 and n-6 fatty ...

    An experiment was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), fish oil, soybean oil or their mixtures (at 7% for single and 3.5% + 3.5% for mixtures) as well as up 12% dosage of palm oil, on the performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens. The chicks fed 7% fish oil or 7% CLA ...

  5. Trends in linoleic acid intake in the United States adult population: NHANES 1999-2014

    Linoleic acid (LA), the primary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the US diet, is an essential fatty acid. LA is available from a wide variety of foods, although it is primarily sourced from plant seed oils. Individual-level data on demography and food and nutrient intake were acquired from the N...

  6. Protein and energy metabolism of young male Wistar rats fed conjugated linoleic acid as structured triacylglycerol

    Jørgensen, H.; Hansen, C. H.; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    Twelve 4-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 100 g were fed diets semi-ad libitum for 22 d containing either 1.5% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-diet) or high oleic sunflower oil (Control-diet). The CLA was structured triacylglycerol with predominantly cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 fatty acid...

  7. The effect of long-term feeding of conjugated linoleic acid on fertility ...

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the long-term feeding of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on laying hen performance, egg fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). One hundred and sixty 7-day old Japanese quail chicks were randomly assigned to four ...

  8. Comparison of bolus versus fractionated oral applications of [13C]-linoleic acid in humans.

    Demmelmair, H; Iser, B; Rauh-Pfeiffer, A; Koletzko, B

    1999-07-01

    The endogenous conversion of linoleic acid into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids is of potential importance for meeting substrate requirements, particularly in young infants. After application of [13C]-linoleic acid, we estimated its conversion to dihomo-gamma-linolenic and arachidonic acids from only two blood samples. Oral tracer doses were given to five healthy adults as a single bolus. In four subjects the tracer was given in nine equal portions over 3 days. Concentration and 13C content of fatty acids from serum phospholipids were analysed by gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio-mass spectrometry. Areas under the tracer-concentration curves were calculated, and fractional transfer and turnover rates estimated from compartmental models. The median fractional turnover of linoleic acid was 93.7% per day (interquartile range 25.3) in the bolus group and 80. 0% per day (6.3) in the fraction group (NS). Fractional conversion of linoleic to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid was 1.5% (0.9) vs. 2.1% (0.7) (bolus vs. fraction, P /= 0.94, P < 0.05) with the ratio of areas under the curve. Using areas under the curve overestimates the conversion, because different residence times are not considered. Estimation of conversion intensity appears possible with only one blood sample obtained after tracer application.

  9. Hydroperoxide production from linoleic acid by heterologous Gaeumannomyces graminis tritici lipoxygenase: Optimization and scale-up

    Villaverde, J.J.; Vlist, van der V.; Santos, S.A.O.; Haarmann, T.; Langfelder, K.; Pirttimaa, M.; Nyyssola, A.; Jylhä, S.; Tamminen, T.; Kruus, K.; Graaff, de L.H.; Pascoal Neto, C.; Simoes, M.M.Q.; Domingues, M.R.M.; Silvestre, A.J.D.; Eidner, J.; Buchert, J.

    2013-01-01

    Linoleic acid was converted into hydroperoxides by a Gaeumannomyces graminis tritici lipoxygenase produced recombinantly in Trichoderma reesei. Hydroperoxide production was optimized using a face-centred experimental design in order to study the effects of pH, temperature and time on the conversion

  10. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of ...

    The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid composition of different tissues and yolk lipids in pigeons. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Eight established breeding pairs per group were fed either a commercially pelleted pigeon diet mixed with 0.5% safflower oil (SFO) or 0.5% CLA for 12 weeks. For fatty ...

  11. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and canola oil on the ...

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes adverse effects on quality of eggs by modifying the fatty acid composition of the yolk. Supplementing oils prevent CLA-induced changes, but cause a decrease in the level of egg CLA. The objective of the study was to investigate the incorporation of CLA into the egg and its effect ...

  12. Meat quality and tissue fatty acid profiles in rabbits fed diets supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid

    Marounek, Milan; Skřivanová, V.; Dokoupilová, A.; Czauderna, M.; Berladyn, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 12 (2007), s. 552-561 ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : rabbits * conjugated linoleic acid * fatty acids Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2007

  13. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth and ...

    Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the growth and lipid metabolism of geese and fatty acid composition of their tissues. ... Dietary CLA altered serum lipid concentrations by decreasing total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations, the atherogenic index and activity of ...

  14. cDNA cloning and expression of carotenogenic genes during flower development in Gentiana lutea.

    Zhu, Changfu; Yamamura, Saburo; Koiwa, Hiroyuki; Nishihara, Masashiro; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2002-02-01

    All cDNAs involved in carotenoid biosynthesis leading to lycopene in yellow petals of Gentiana lutea have been cloned from a cDNA library. They encode a geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, a phytoene synthase, a phytoene desaturase and a zeta-carotene desaturase. The indicated function of all cDNAs was established by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequences deduced from the cDNAs were between 47.5% and 78.9% identical to those reported for the corresponding enzymes from other higher plants. Southern analysis suggested that the genes for each enzyme probably represent a small multi-gene family. Tissue-specific expression of the genes and expression during flower development was investigated. The expression of the phytoene synthase gene, psy, was enhanced in flowers but transcripts were not detected in stems and leaves by northern blotting. Transcripts of the genes for geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (ggpps), phytoene desaturase (pds) and zeta-carotene desaturase (zds) were detected in flowers and leaves but not in stems. Analysis of the expression of psy and zds in petals revealed that levels of the transcripts were lowest in young buds and highest in fully open flowers, in parallel with the formation of carotenoids. Obviously, the transcription of these genes control the accumulation of carotenoids during flower development in G. lutea. For pds only a very slight increase of mRNA was found whereas the transcripts of ggpps decreased during flower development.

  15. Activation of human stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 contributes to the lipogenic effect of PXR in HepG2 cells.

    Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available The pregnane X receptor (PXR was previously known as a xenobiotic receptor. Several recent studies suggested that PXR also played an important role in lipid homeostasis but the underlying mechanism remains to be clearly defined. In this study, we found that rifampicin, an agonist of human PXR, induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. Lipid analysis showed the total cholesterol level increased. However, the free cholesterol and triglyceride levels were not changed. Treatment of HepG2 cells with rifampicin induced the expression of the free fatty acid transporter CD36 and ABCG1, as well as several lipogenic enzymes, including stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1, long chain free fatty acid elongase (FAE, and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT, while the expression of acyl:cholesterol acetyltransferase(ACAT1 was not affected. Moreover, in PXR over-expressing HepG2 cells (HepG2-PXR, the SCD1 expression was significantly higher than in HepG2-Vector cells, even in the absence of rifampicin. Down-regulation of PXR by shRNA abolished the rifampicin-induced SCD1 gene expression in HepG2 cells. Promoter analysis showed that the human SCD1 gene promoter is activated by PXR and a novel DR-7 type PXR response element (PXRE response element was located at -338 bp of the SCD1 gene promoter. Taken together, these results indicated that PXR activation promoted lipid synthesis in HepG2 cells and SCD1 is a novel PXR target gene.

  16. Attenuation of UVR-induced vitamin D3 synthesis in a mouse model deleted for keratinocyte lathosterol 5-desaturase.

    Makarova, Anastasia M; Pasta, Saloni; Watson, Gordon; Shackleton, Cedric; Epstein, Ervin H

    2017-07-01

    The lower risk of some internal cancers at lower latitudes has been linked to greater sun exposure and consequent higher levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-produced vitamin D 3 (D 3 ). To separate the experimental effects of sunlight and of all forms of D 3 , a mouse in which UVR does not produce D 3 would be useful. To this end we have generated mice carrying a modified allele of sterol C5-desaturase (Sc5d), the gene encoding the enzyme that converts lathosterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), such that Sc5d expression can be inactivated using the Cre/lox site-specific recombination system. By crossing to mice with tissue-specific expression of Cre or CreER 2 (Cre/estrogen receptor), we generated two lines of transgenic mice. One line has constitutive keratinocyte-specific inactivation of Sc5d (Sc5d k14KO ). The other line (Sc5d k14KOi ) has tamoxifen-inducible keratinocyte-specific inactivation of Sc5d. Mice deleted for keratinocyte Sc5d lose the ability to increase circulating D 3 following UVR exposure of the skin. Thus, unlike in control mice, acute UVR exposure did not affect circulating D 3 level in inducible Sc5d k14KOi mice. Keratinocyte-specific inactivation of Sc5d was proven by sterol measurement in hair - in control animals lathosterol and cholesta-7,24-dien-3β-ol, the target molecules of SC5D in the sterol biosynthetic pathways, together constituted a mean of 10% of total sterols; in the conditional knockout mice these sterols constituted a mean of 56% of total sterols. The constitutive knockout mice had an even greater increase, with lathosterol and cholesta-7,24-dien-3β-ol accounting for 80% of total sterols. In conclusion, the dominant presence of the 7-DHC precursors in hair of conditional animals and the lack of increased circulating D 3 following exposure to UVR reflect attenuated production of the D 3 photochemical precursor 7-DHC and, consequently, of D 3 itself. These animals provide a useful new tool for investigating the role of D 3

  17. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.

    2009-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry, changes in serum insulin and glucose concentrations, and adipose tissue (AT) gene expression in humans. In a double-blind, parallel, 16-wk intervention, we randomized 81 healthy postmenopausal women to 1) 5.5 g/d of 40/40% of cis9, trans11-CLA (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-CLA (t10, c12-CLA...... in the control group (P women and greater serum insulin concentrations in the highest waist circumference tertile. Future research is needed to confirm the insulin desensitizing...

  18. Co-treatment with conjugated linoleic acid and nitrite protects against myocardial infarction

    Natia Qipshidze-Kelm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the CDC, the most common type of heart disease is coronary artery disease, which commonly leads to myocardial infarction (MI. Therapeutic approaches to lessen the resulting cardiovascular injury associated with MI are limited. Recently, MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been shown to act as negative regulators of gene expression by inhibiting mRNA translation and/or stimulating mRNA degradation. A single miRNA can modulate physiological or disease phenotypes by regulating whole functional systems. Importantly, miRNAs can regulate cardiac function, thereby modulating heart muscle contraction, heart growth and morphogenesis. MicroRNA-499 (miRNA-499 is a cardiac-specific miRNA that when elevated causes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, in turn preventing cardiac dysfunction during MI. Previous studies revealed that combination treatment with conjugated linoleic acid (cLA and nitrite preserved cardiovascular function in mice. Therefore, it was hypothesized that cLA and nitrite may regulate miRNA-499, thus providing cardiac protection during MI. To test this hypothesis, 12-week old mice were treated with cLA (10 mg/kg/d-via osmotic mini-pump or cLA and nitrite (50 ppm-drinking water 3 days prior to MI (ligation of the left anterior descending artery. Echocardiography and pressure–volume (PV-loop analysis revealed that cLA and nitrite-treated MI mice had improved heart function (10 days following MI compared to untreated MI mice. Treatment with cLA and nitrite significantly induced levels of miRNA-499 compared to untreated MI mice. In addition, treatment with cLA and nitrite abolished MI-induced protein expression of p53 and dynamin-related protein-1 (DRP-1. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 was elevated in MI mice treated with cLA and nitrite compared to untreated MI mice. Confocal imaging on heart tissue confirmed expression the levels of HO-1 and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that therapeutic

  19. A High-Fructose-High-Coconut Oil Diet Induces Dysregulating Expressions of Hippocampal Leptin and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase, and Spatial Memory Deficits in Rats.

    Lin, Ching-I; Shen, Chu-Fu; Hsu, Tsui-Han; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-06-16

    We investigated the effects of high-fructose-high-fat diets with different fat compositions on metabolic parameters, hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, and brain leptin (as well as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) mRNA expressions). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, a control group ( n = 8), a high-fructose soybean oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12), and a high-fructose coconut oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12) for 20 weeks. By the end of the study, the coconut oil group exhibited significantly higher serum fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels compared to those of the control and soybean oil groups. However, hippocampal leptin expression and leptin receptor mRNA levels were significantly lower, while SCD1 mRNA was significantly higher in rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet than in rats fed the other experimental diets. In addition, the coconut oil group spent significantly less time in the target quadrant on the probe test in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet for 20 weeks were prone to develop hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These metabolic consequences may contribute to hippocampal-dependent memory impairment, accompanied by a lower central leptin level, and a higher SCD1 gene expression in the brain.

  20. Dietary fish oil supplements increase tissue n-3 fatty acid composition and expression of delta-6 desaturase and elongase-2 in Jade Tiger hybrid abalone.

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on fatty acid composition and the expression of ∆6 desaturase and elongase 2 genes in Jade Tiger abalone. Five test diets were formulated to contain 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO respectively, and the control diet was the normal commercial abalone diet with no additional FO supplement. The muscle, gonad and digestive glands (DG) of abalone fed with all of the five test diets showed significantly high levels of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid n-3 (DPAn-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the control group. In all three types of tissue, abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed the highest level of these fatty acids (P abalone fed diet supplemented with 2% FO (P abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO (P abalone fed with diet containing 0.5% FO supplement (P abalone, with 1.5% being the most effective supplementation level.

  1. Application of a ω-3 Desaturase with an Arachidonic Acid Preference to Eicosapentaenoic Acid Production in Mortierella alpina

    Chengfeng Ge

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the industrial oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina, the arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4; ω-6 fraction can reach 50% of the total fatty acids (TFAs in vivo. However, the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5; ω-3 fraction is less than 3% when this fungus is cultivated at a low temperature (12°C. Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase is a key enzyme in ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis pathways. To enhance EPA production, we transformed the ω-3 fatty acid desaturase (PaD17, which exhibits strong Δ-17 desaturase activity, into M. alpina, thus increasing the AA to EPA conversion rate to 49.8%. This PaD17-harboring M. alpina reconstruction strain produced 617 mg L−1 of EPA at room temperature in broth medium, this yield was increased to 1.73 g L−1 after culture medium optimization (i.e., about threefold higher than that under original culture conditions, with concomitant respective increases in dry cell weight and TFA content to 16.55 and 6.46 g L−1. These findings suggest a new platform for the future industrial production of EPA.

  2. Effect of polymorphisms in the ABCG2, LEPR and SCD1 genes on ...

    Sahand Rayaneh

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... Abstract. This study was performed to investigate the association between polymorphisms in the ABCG2 (ATP- binding cassette sub-family G member 2), LEPR (leptin receptor) and SCD1 (stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1) genes and milk production traits in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The analysis was ...

  3. Production and characterization of ice cream with high content in oleic and linoleic fatty acids

    Marín-Suárez, Marta; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Padial-Domínguez, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Ice creams produced with unsaturated fats rich in oleic (OO, 70.7% of oleic) and linoleic (LO, 49.0% of linoleic) fatty acids, were compared to ice cream based on saturated coconut oil (CO, 50% of lauric acid). The globule size distribution of OO mix during aging (72 h at 4°C) followed a similar...... trend to CO mix, being stable after 48 h; whereas LO mix destabilized after 24 h. CO mix showed higher destabilization during ice cream production, but no significant differences among fats were observed in the particle size of the ice cream produced. The overrun was also lower for OO and LO ice creams...... (34.19 and 27.12%, respectively) compared to CO based ice cream (45.06%). However, an improved melting behavior, which gradually decreased from 88.69% for CO to 66.09% for LO ice cream, was observed....

  4. Linoleic acid metabolite leads to steroid resistant asthma features partially through NF-?B

    Panda, Lipsa; Gheware, Atish; Rehman, Rakhshinda; Yadav, Manish K.; Jayaraj, B. S.; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V.; Mahesh, Padukudru Anand; Ghosh, Balaram; Agrawal, Anurag; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan

    2017-01-01

    Studies have highlighted the role of nutritional and metabolic modulators in asthma pathobiology. Steroid resistance is an important clinical problem in asthma but lacks good experimental models. Linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been linked to asthma and glucocorticoid sensitivity. Its 12/15?lipoxygenase metabolite, 13-S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) induces mitochondrial dysfunction, with severe airway obstruction and neutrophilic airway inflammation. Here we show that H...

  5. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids affect tissue lipid composition but not de novo lipogenesis in finishing pigs

    Bee , Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to profoundly affect lipid metabolism and to act as repartitioning agents. Currently, little is known about their effect on the fatty acid profile of tissue lipids in pigs. In the present study we determined the lipid composition of the backfat inner (BFI) and outer layer (BFO), omental fat (OF) and intramuscular fat (IMF) of the longissimus dorsi muscle in 24 Swiss Large White pigs fed diets supplemented eithe...

  6. Incorporation of 14C-linoleic acid in lipids of normal and psoriatic human skin

    Ruestow, B.; Metz, D.; Kunze, D.; Meffert, H.

    1980-01-01

    The 14 C-linoleic acid incorporation in lipids of surviving epidermis and corium of normal and psoriatic human skin was investigated. Changes of lipid metabolism were found in both epidermis and corium. Particularly the turnover of phospholipids was increased in the uninvolved psoriatic epidermis in relation to the involved psoriatic epidermis or to healthy controls. Possible reasons of these phenomena and the significance of structural lipids in psoriasis are discussed. (author)

  7. Substitution of Linoleic Acid for Other Macronutrients and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke.

    Venø, Stine K; Schmidt, Erik B; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Bach, Flemming W; Overvad, Kim

    2017-12-01

    Ischemic stroke is a major health problem worldwide, but the influence of dietary factors on stroke risk is not well known. This study aimed to investigate the risk of ischemic stroke and its subtypes with a higher intake from linoleic acid and a concomitant lower intake from saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, or glycemic carbohydrates. In the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer, and Health Study of 57 053 participants aged 50 to 64 years at baseline, information on diet was collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Information on ischemic stroke was obtained from the Danish National Patient Register, and cases were all validated and subclassified according to the TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification. Substitution of linoleic acid for saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, or glycemic carbohydrates was investigated in relation to the risk of ischemic stroke and subtypes. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the associations with ischemic stroke adjusting for appropriate confounders. During 13.5 years of follow-up 1879 participants developed ischemic stroke. A slightly lower risk of ischemic stroke was found with a 5% higher intake of linoleic acid and a concomitant lower intake of saturated fatty acid (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.16), monounsaturated fatty acid (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-1.02), and glycemic carbohydrates (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.09), although not statistically significant. Similar patterns of association were found for large-artery atherosclerosis and small-vessel occlusions. This study suggests that replacing saturated fatty acid, glycemic carbohydrate, or monounsaturated fatty acid with linoleic acid may be associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. THE IMPACT OF CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID ADDITION ON PH VALUE OF LONGISSIMUS DORSI MUSCLE

    Przemysław WASILEWSKI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research was 60 crossbred gilts, divided into 6 groups, fed the fodder with addition of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA or sunflower oil (SFO in amount: 0.5; 1.0; and 2.0 %, respectively. Animals were slaughtered with the body weight ca. 95 kg. The aim of research was to determine pH value of loin meat tissue (Longissimus dorsi of right half-carcass in 45 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours and 24 hours after slaughter. Results were statistically elaborated using one-way variance analysis. Longissimus dorsi muscle pH values measured 45 minutes after slaughter in case of all groups of pigs were in range from 6.34 up to 6.47, what shows good meat quality. The lowest pH1 (measured 45 minutes after slaughter had meat of fatteners where addition of 2 % sunflower oil was given into fodder and the highest value of this trait was in group of individuals where also was given sunflower oil in 1 % amount. Statistical significant differences in pH value measured in different time after slaughter i.e. after 45 minutes, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 hours between tested groups of pigs were not stated. The exception is the result of pH measurement 5 hours after slaughter. Statistical significant differences were between group of pigs getting 0.5 % addition of conjugated linoleic acid characterized by the highest pH value of meat and group of animals fed the fodder with 1 % addition of conjugated linoleic acid (P≤0.01. On the basis of the results obtained in presented paper may be stated that feeding pigs with addition of conjugated linoleic acid in amounts 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 % did not impact negatively on meat quality defined by pH value.

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid or omega 3 fatty acids increase mitochondrial biosynthesis and metabolism in skeletal muscle cells

    Vaughan Roger A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids are popular dietary supplements advertised to contribute to weight loss by increasing fat metabolism in liver, but the effects on overall muscle metabolism are less established. We evaluated the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA or combination omega 3 on metabolic characteristics in muscle cells. Methods Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells were treated with either DMSO control, or CLA or combination omega 3 for 24 or 48 hours. RNA was determined using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Mitochondrial content was determined using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Metabolism was quantified by measuring extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption rates. Results Omega 3 significantly induced metabolic genes as well as oxidative metabolism (oxygen consumption, glycolytic capacity (extracellular acidification, and metabolic rate compared with control. Both treatments significantly increased mitochondrial content. Conclusion Omega 3 fatty acids appear to enhance glycolytic, oxidative, and total metabolism. Moreover, both omega 3 and CLA treatment significantly increase mitochondrial content compared with control.

  10. Cell nanomechanics and focal adhesions are regulated by retinol and conjugated linoleic acid in a dose-dependent manner

    Silberberg, Yaron R; Horton, Michael A; Pelling, Andrew E; Yakubov, Gleb E

    2009-01-01

    Retinol and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) have previously been shown to have an important role in gene expression and various cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation and cell death. In this study we have investigated the effect of retinol and CLA, both individually and in combination, on the intracellular cytoskeleton, focal adhesions (FAs) and the nanomechanical properties of 3T3 fibroblasts. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in the formation of FAs following treatment with either compound, which was directly correlated to an increase in cell height (>30%) and a decrease in the measured Young's modulus (∼28%). Furthermore, treatments with both compounds demonstrated an increased effect and led to a reduction of>70% in the average number of FAs per cell and a decrease of >50% in average cell stiffness. These data reveal that retinol and CLA disrupt FA formation, leading to an increase in cell height and a significant decrease in stiffness. These results may broaden our understanding of the interplay between cell nanomechanics and cellular contact with the external microenvironment, and help to shed light on the important role of retinoids and CLA in health and disease.

  11. Orally administered conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates allergic dermatitis induced by repeated applications of oxazolone in mice.

    Nakanishi, Tomonori; Tokunaga, Yuzo; Yamasaki, Masao; Erickson, Laurie; Kawahara, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is one of the constituents of animal products with possible health benefits such as anti-carcinogenic and anti-obesity effects. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of CLA using a mouse model of allergic dermatitis. Mice were orally administered either a CLA mixture containing equal amounts of 9c, 11 t-CLA and 10 t, 12c-CLA, or high linoleic acid safflower oil, and allergic dermatitis was induced on the ear by repeated topical applications of oxazolone. Oral administration of the CLA mixture but not the high linoleic safflower oil attenuated the symptoms of allergic dermatitis in both ear weights and clinical scores. This effect was associated with decreased levels of ear interleukin-4 (IL-4) and plasma immunoglobulin E. The immunomodulatory effects of the CLA isomers were compared by an in vitro cytokine production assay. The results showed that 9c, 11 t-CLA, the most predominant isomer in animal products, significantly inhibited IL-4 and interferon-γ production from mouse splenocytes with similar potency to 10 t, 12c-CLA. These findings suggest that CLA, a constituent of animal products, has a potentially beneficial effect for amelioration of allergic dermatitis. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Classroom Research: GC Studies of Linoleic and Linolenic Fatty Acids Found in French Fries

    Crowley, Janice P.; Deboise, Kristen L.; Marshall, Megan R.; Shaffer, Hannah M.; Zafar, Sara; Jones, Kevin A.; Palko, Nick R.; Mitsch, Stephen M.; Sutton, Lindsay A.; Chang, Margaret; Fromer, Ilana; Kraft, Jake; Meister, Jessica; Shah, Amar; Tan, Priscilla; Whitchurch, James

    2002-07-01

    A study of fatty-acid ratios in French fries has proved to be an excellent choice for an entry-level research class. This research develops reasoning skills and involves the subject of breast cancer, a major concern of American society. Analysis of tumor samples removed from women with breast cancer revealed high ratios of linoleic to linolenic acid, suggesting a link between the accelerated growth of breast tumors and the combination of these two fatty acids. When the ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid was approximately 9 to 1, accelerated growth was observed. Since these fatty acids are found in cooking oils, Wichita Collegiate students, under the guidance of their chemistry teacher, decided that an investigation of the ratios of these two fatty acids should be conducted. A research class was structured using a gas chromatograph for the analysis. Separation of linoleic from linolenic acid was successfully accomplished. The students experienced inductive experimental research chemistry as it applies to everyday life. The structure of this research class can serve as a model for high school and undergraduate college research curricula.

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid as a potential protective factor in prevention of breast cancer 

    Agnieszka Białek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers are the second leading cause of deaths in Poland, among both women and men. Breast cancer is the malignancy most frequently diagnosed in women. In 2008 mammary cancer was diagnosed in up to 14 500 patients. It is also the second most common cause of cancer deaths among women in our country. Although the etiology of most cases of this disease is not known, risk factors include a variety of nutritional factors. The amount of fat consumed in the diet and the quantity and quality of fatty acids are especially crucial. Among fatty acids to which great importance in modification of cancer risk is attributed are conjugated linoleic acid. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, with a conjugated double bond system in the carbon chain. The main natural source of them is milk and dairy products and meat of different species of ruminants, in which cis-9, trans-11 octadecadienoic acid (rumenic acid occurs in the largest quantities, constituting over 90�0of the total pool of CLA. Another important isomer is trans-10, cis-12 octadecadienoic acid, which occurs with rumenic acid in dietary supplements, usually in the ratio 1:1. Surveys conducted show their possible health promoting effects in obesity, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation, and various types of cancer, especially breast cancer. 

  14. Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and L-Lysine on heavy pigs performances and meat quality

    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a group of positional and geometric fatty acid isomers derived from linoleic acid. Dietary CLA supplementation has been shown to increase feed efficiency and may reduce body fat content in swine as recently reviewed by Corino et al., (2005. There was only one research conducted in heavy pig in which the authors did not observed any significant effect of dietary CLA on growth performances and lean tissue (Corino et al., 2003.

  15. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid generated from linoleic acid by a gut lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is cytoprotective against oxidative stress

    Furumoto, Hidehiro; Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kume, Toshiaki; Izumi, Yasuhiko [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29, Simoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Park, Si-Bum [Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hirata, Takashi [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Faculty of Rehabilitation, Shijonawategakuen University, 5-11-10, Hojo, Daitou-shi, Osaka 574-0011 (Japan); Sugawara, Tatsuya, E-mail: sugawara@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-known cause of multiple diseases. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway plays a central role in cellular antioxidative responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of novel fatty acid metabolite derivatives of linoleic acid generated by the gut lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum on the Nrf2-ARE pathway. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected HepG2 cells from cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. KetoC also significantly increased cellular Nrf2 protein levels, ARE-dependent transcription, and the gene expression of antioxidative enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, a single oral dose administration of KetoC also increased antioxidative gene expression and protein levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in mouse organs. Since other fatty acid metabolites and linoleic acid did not affect cellular antioxidative responses, the cytoprotective effect of KetoC may be because of its α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety. Collectively, our data suggested that KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to enhance cellular antioxidative responses in vitro and in vivo, which further suggests that KetoC may prevent multiple diseases induced by oxidative stress. - Highlights: • We evaluated the effect of modified fatty acids generated by Lactobacillus plantarum. • 10-Oxo-trans-11-ocatadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected cells from oxidative stress. • KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to promote antioxidative gene expression. • KetoC promoted the expression of antioxidative enzymes in mice organs. • The cytoprotective effect of KetoC was because of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety.

  16. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid generated from linoleic acid by a gut lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum is cytoprotective against oxidative stress

    Furumoto, Hidehiro; Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Kume, Toshiaki; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Park, Si-Bum; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-known cause of multiple diseases. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway plays a central role in cellular antioxidative responses. In this study, we investigated the effects of novel fatty acid metabolite derivatives of linoleic acid generated by the gut lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum on the Nrf2-ARE pathway. 10-Oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected HepG2 cells from cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. KetoC also significantly increased cellular Nrf2 protein levels, ARE-dependent transcription, and the gene expression of antioxidative enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, a single oral dose administration of KetoC also increased antioxidative gene expression and protein levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in mouse organs. Since other fatty acid metabolites and linoleic acid did not affect cellular antioxidative responses, the cytoprotective effect of KetoC may be because of its α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety. Collectively, our data suggested that KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to enhance cellular antioxidative responses in vitro and in vivo, which further suggests that KetoC may prevent multiple diseases induced by oxidative stress. - Highlights: • We evaluated the effect of modified fatty acids generated by Lactobacillus plantarum. • 10-Oxo-trans-11-ocatadecenoic acid (KetoC) protected cells from oxidative stress. • KetoC activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway to promote antioxidative gene expression. • KetoC promoted the expression of antioxidative enzymes in mice organs. • The cytoprotective effect of KetoC was because of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety.

  17. Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Giuseppe Astarita

    Full Text Available The molecular bases of Alzheimer's disease (AD remain unclear. We used a lipidomic approach to identify lipid abnormalities in the brains of subjects with AD (N = 37 compared to age-matched controls (N = 17. The analyses revealed statistically detectable elevations in levels of non-esterified monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and mead acid (20:3n-9 in mid-frontal cortex, temporal cortex and hippocampus of AD patients. Further studies showed that brain mRNAs encoding for isoforms of the rate-limiting enzyme in MUFAs biosynthesis, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1, SCD-5a and SCD-5b, were elevated in subjects with AD. The monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ('desaturation index'--displayed a strong negative correlation with measures of cognition: the Mini Mental State Examination test (r = -0.80; P = 0.0001 and the Boston Naming test (r = -0.57; P = 0.0071. Our results reveal a previously unrecognized role for the lipogenic enzyme SCD in AD.

  18. Dehydrosqualene Desaturase as a Novel Target for Anti-Virulence Therapy against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Gao, Peng; Davies, Julian; Kao, Richard Yi Tsun

    2017-09-05

    Staphylococcus aureus , especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a life-threatening pathogen in hospital- and community-acquired infections. The golden-colored carotenoid pigment of S. aureus , staphyloxanthin, contributes to the resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and host neutrophil-based killing. Here, we describe a novel inhibitor (NP16) of S. aureus pigment production that reduces the survival of S. aureus under oxidative stress conditions. Carotenoid components analysis, enzyme inhibition, and crtN mutational studies indicated that the molecular target of NP16 is dehydrosqualene desaturase (CrtN). S. aureus treated with NP16 showed increased susceptibility to human neutrophil killing and to innate immune clearance in a mouse infection model. Our study validates CrtN as a novel druggable target in S. aureus and presents a potent and effective lead compound for the development of virulence factor-based therapy against S. aureus IMPORTANCE S. aureus staphyloxanthin contributes substantially to pathogenesis by interfering with host immune clearance mechanisms, but it has little impact on ex vivo survival of the bacterium. Agents blocking staphyloxanthin production may discourage the establishment and maintenance of bacterial infection without exerting selective pressure for antimicrobial resistance. Our newly discovered CrtN inhibitor, NP16, may offer an effective strategy for combating S. aureus infections. Copyright © 2017 Gao et al.

  19. Dehydrosqualene Desaturase as a Novel Target for Anti-Virulence Therapy against Staphylococcus aureus

    Peng Gao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, is a life-threatening pathogen in hospital- and community-acquired infections. The golden-colored carotenoid pigment of S. aureus, staphyloxanthin, contributes to the resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS and host neutrophil-based killing. Here, we describe a novel inhibitor (NP16 of S. aureus pigment production that reduces the survival of S. aureus under oxidative stress conditions. Carotenoid components analysis, enzyme inhibition, and crtN mutational studies indicated that the molecular target of NP16 is dehydrosqualene desaturase (CrtN. S. aureus treated with NP16 showed increased susceptibility to human neutrophil killing and to innate immune clearance in a mouse infection model. Our study validates CrtN as a novel druggable target in S. aureus and presents a potent and effective lead compound for the development of virulence factor-based therapy against S. aureus.

  20. Maternal fatty acid desaturase genotype correlates with infant immune responses at 6 months

    Muc, Magdalena; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Larsen, Jeppe Madura

    2015-01-01

    -produced cytokines after anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 6-month-old infants from the Copenhagen Prospective Study of Asthma in Childhood birth cohort. LCPUFA concentrations of breast milk were assessed at 4 weeks of age, and FADS SNP were determined in both mothers and infants (n...... and cytotoxic T-cells and decreased T-helper cell counts. The minor FADS alleles were associated with lower breast milk AA and EPA, and infants of mothers carrying the minor allele of FADS SNP rs174556 had higher production of IL-10 (r -0.23; P=0.018), IL-17 (r -0.25; P=0.009) and IL-5 (r -0.21; P=0.038) from......Breast milk long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) have been associated with changes in early life immune responses and may modulate T-cell function in infancy. We studied the effect of maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotype and breast milk LCPUFA levels on infants' blood T-cell profiles and ex vivo...

  1. Disruption of plant carotenoid biosynthesis through virus-induced gene silencing affects oviposition behaviour of the butterfly Pieris rapae

    Zheng, S.J.; Snoeren, T.A.L.; Hogewoning, S.W.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Optical plant characteristics are important cues to plant-feeding insects. In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that silencing the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene, encoding a key enzyme in plant carotenoid biosynthesis, affects insect oviposition site selection behaviour. Virus-induced

  2. Homology modeling and docking studies of a Δ9-fatty acid desaturase from a Cold-tolerant Pseudomonas sp. AMS8

    Lawal Garba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases perform oxygenated desaturation reactions to insert double bonds within fatty acyl chains in regioselective and stereoselective manners. The Δ9-fatty acid desaturase strictly creates the first double bond between C9 and 10 positions of most saturated substrates. As the three-dimensional structures of the bacterial membrane fatty acid desaturases are not available, relevant information about the enzymes are derived from their amino acid sequences, site-directed mutagenesis and domain swapping in similar membrane-bound desaturases. The cold-tolerant Pseudomonas sp. AMS8 was found to produce high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids at low temperature. Subsequently, an active Δ9-fatty acid desaturase was isolated and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. In this paper we report homology modeling and docking studies of a Δ9-fatty acid desaturase from a Cold-tolerant Pseudomonas sp. AMS8 for the first time to the best of our knowledge. Three dimensional structure of the enzyme was built using MODELLER version 9.18 using a suitable template. The protein model contained the three conserved-histidine residues typical for all membrane-bound desaturase catalytic activity. The structure was subjected to energy minimization and checked for correctness using Ramachandran plots and ERRAT, which showed a good quality model of 91.6 and 65.0%, respectively. The protein model was used to preform MD simulation and docking of palmitic acid using CHARMM36 force field in GROMACS Version 5 and Autodock tool Version 4.2, respectively. The docking simulation with the lowest binding energy, −6.8 kcal/mol had a number of residues in close contact with the docked palmitic acid namely, Ile26, Tyr95, Val179, Gly180, Pro64, Glu203, His34, His206, His71, Arg182, Thr85, Lys98 and His177. Interestingly, among the binding residues are His34, His71 and His206 from the first, second, and third conserved histidine motif, respectively

  3. Dietary linoleate preserves cardiolipin and attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction in the failing rat heart

    Mulligan, Christopher M.; Sparagna, Genevieve C.; Le, Catherine H.; De Mooy, Anthony B.; Routh, Melissa A.; Holmes, Michael G.; Hickson-Bick, Diane L.; Zarini, Simona; Murphy, Robert C.; Xu, Fred Y.; Hatch, Grant M.; McCune, Sylvia A.; Moore, Russell L.; Chicco, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Cardiolipin (CL) is a tetra-acyl phospholipid that provides structural and functional support to several proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The majority of CL in the healthy mammalian heart contains four linoleic acid acyl chains (L4CL). A selective loss of L4CL is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and heart failure in humans and animal models. We examined whether supplementing the diet with linoleic acid would preserve cardiac L4CL and attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction and contractile failure in rats with hypertensive heart failure. Methods and results Male spontaneously hypertensive heart failure rats (21 months of age) were administered diets supplemented with high-linoleate safflower oil (HLSO) or lard (10% w/w; 28% kilocalorie fat) or without supplemental fat (control) for 4 weeks. HLSO preserved L4CL and total CL to 90% of non-failing levels (vs. 61–75% in control and lard groups), and attenuated 17–22% decreases in state 3 mitochondrial respiration observed in the control and lard groups (P < 0.05). Left ventricular fractional shortening was significantly higher in HLSO vs. control (33 ± 2 vs. 29 ± 2%, P < 0.05), while plasma insulin levels were lower (5.4 ± 1.1 vs. 9.1 ± 2.3 ng/mL; P < 0.05), with no significant effect of lard supplementation. HLSO also increased serum concentrations of several eicosanoid species compared with control and lard diets, but had no effect on plasma glucose or blood pressure. Conclusion Moderate consumption of HLSO preserves CL and mitochondrial function in the failing heart and may be a useful adjuvant therapy for this condition. PMID:22411972

  4. Bovine milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic and vaccenic acids attenuates allergic airway disease in mice.

    Kanwar, R K; Macgibbon, A K; Black, P N; Kanwar, J R; Rowan, A; Vale, M; Krissansen, G W

    2008-01-01

    It has been argued that a reduction in the Western diet of anti-inflammatory unsaturated lipids, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, has contributed to the increase in the frequency and severity of allergic diseases. We investigated whether feeding milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acids (VAs) ('enriched' milk fat), produced by supplementing the diet of pasture-fed cows with fish and sunflower oil, will prevent development of allergic airway responses. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet containing soybean oil and diets supplemented with milk lipids. They were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) on days 14 and 28, and challenged intranasally with OVA on day 42. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung tissues and serum samples were collected 6 days after the intranasal challenge. Feeding of enriched milk fat led to marked suppression of airway inflammation as evidenced by reductions in eosinophilia and lymphocytosis in the airways, compared with feeding of normal milk fat and control diet. Enriched milk fat significantly reduced circulating allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 levels, together with reductions in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of IL-5 and CCL11. Treatment significantly inhibited changes in the airway including airway epithelial cell hypertrophy, goblet cell metaplasia and mucus hypersecretion. The two major components of enriched milk fat, cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and VA, inhibited airway inflammation when fed together to mice, whereas alone they were not effective. Milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic and VAs suppresses inflammation and changes to the airways in an animal model of allergic airway disease.

  5. Linoleic acid participates in the response to ischemic brain injury through oxidized metabolites that regulate neurotransmission.

    Hennebelle, Marie; Zhang, Zhichao; Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Otoki, Yurika; Richardson, Christine E; Yang, Jun; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Hammock, Bruce D; Zhang, Liang; Bazinet, Richard P; Taha, Ameer Y

    2017-06-28

    Linoleic acid (LA; 18:2 n-6), the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the US diet, is a precursor to oxidized metabolites that have unknown roles in the brain. Here, we show that oxidized LA-derived metabolites accumulate in several rat brain regions during CO 2 -induced ischemia and that LA-derived 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, but not LA, increase somatic paired-pulse facilitation in rat hippocampus by 80%, suggesting bioactivity. This study provides new evidence that LA participates in the response to ischemia-induced brain injury through oxidized metabolites that regulate neurotransmission. Targeting this pathway may be therapeutically relevant for ischemia-related conditions such as stroke.

  6. Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by composition of tocopherol isomers and linoleic acid content.

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-12-01

    The influence of linoleic acid content and tocopherol isomeric composition on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic acid content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only α-tocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of α-, γ-, and δ-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty acids. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric composition, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic acid showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic acid, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic acid, with the tocopherol isomeric composition of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of γ-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 Is a Key Determinant of Membrane Lipid Composition in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Sergio Rodriguez-Cuenca

    Full Text Available Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1 is a lipogenic enzyme important for the regulation of membrane lipid homeostasis; dysregulation likely contributes to obesity associated metabolic disturbances. SCD1 catalyses the Δ9 desaturation of 12-19 carbon saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids. To understand its influence in cellular lipid composition we investigated the effect of genetic ablation of SCD1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes on membrane microdomain lipid composition at the species-specific level. Using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry, we quantified 70 species of ceramide, mono-, di- and trihexosylceramide, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, bis(monoacylglycerophosphate, phosphatidylinositol and cholesterol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in which a 90% reduction in scd1 mRNA expression was achieved with siRNA. Cholesterol content was unchanged although decreases in other lipids resulted in cholesterol accounting for a higher proportion of lipid in the membranes. This was associated with decreased membrane lateral diffusion. An increased ratio of 24:0 to 24:1 in ceramide, mono- and dihexosylceramide, and sphingomyelin likely also contributed to this decrease in lateral diffusion. Of particular interest, we observed a decrease in phospholipids containing arachidonic acid. Given the high degree of structural flexibility of this acyl chain this will influence membrane lateral diffusion, and is likely responsible for the transcriptional activation of Lands' cycle enzymes lpcat3 and mboat7. Of relevance these profound changes in the lipidome were not accompanied by dramatic changes in gene expression in mature differentiated adipocytes, suggesting that adaptive homeostatic mechanisms to ensure partial maintenance of the biophysical properties of membranes likely occur at a post-transcriptional level.

  8. A study of associations between early DHA status and fatty acid desaturase (FADS) SNP and developmental outcomes in children of obese mothers.

    Andersen, Karina R; Harsløf, Laurine B S; Schnurr, Theresia M; Hansen, Torben; Hellgren, Lars I; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    DHA from diet or endogenous synthesis has been proposed to affect infant development, however, results are inconclusive. In this study, we aim to verify previously observed fatty acid desaturase gene cluster (FADS) SNP-specific associations with erythrocyte DHA status in 9-month-old children and sex-specific association with developmental outcomes. The study was performed in 166 children (55 % boys) of obese mothers. Erythrocyte fatty acid composition was analysed in blood-samples obtained at 9 months of age, and developmental outcomes assessed by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 3 years. Erythrocyte DHA level ranged from 4·4 to 9·9 % of fatty acids, but did not show any association with FADS SNP or other potential determinants. Regression analysis showed associations between erythrocyte DHA and scores for personal-social skills (β 1·8 (95 % CI 0·3, 3·3), P=0·019) and problem solving (β 3·4 (95 % CI 1·2, 5·6), P=0·003). A tendency was observed for an association in opposite direction between minor alleles (G-variant) of rs1535 and rs174575 and personal-social skills (P=0·062 and 0·068, respectively), which became significant when the SNP were combined based on their previously observed effect on erythrocyte DHA at 9 months of age (β 2·6 (95 % CI 0·01, 5·1), P=0·011). Sex-SNP interaction was indicated for rs174575 genotype on fine motor scores (P=0·016), due to higher scores among minor allele carrying girls (P=0·043), whereas no effect was seen among boys. In conclusion, DHA-increasing FADS SNP and erythrocyte DHA status were consistently associated with improved personal-social skills in this small cohort of children of obese mothers irrespective of sex, but the sample was too small to verify potential sex-specific effects.

  9. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency selectively up-regulates delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices in rat liver: prevention by normalization of omega-3 fatty acid status.

    Hofacer, Rylon; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Magrisso, I Jack; Benoit, Stephen C; McNamara, Robert K

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of perinatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid depletion and subsequent repletion on the expression of genes that regulate long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in rat liver and brain. It was hypothesized that chronic n-3 fatty acid deficiency would increase liver Fads1 and Fads2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression/activity and that n-3 fatty acid repletion would normalize this response. Adult rats fed the n-3-free diet during perinatal development exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte, liver, and frontal cortex LCn-3 fatty acid composition and reciprocal elevations in LC omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid composition compared with controls (CONs) and repleted rats. Liver Fads2, but not Fads1, Elovl2, or Elovl5, mRNA expression was significantly greater in n-3-deficient (DEF) rats compared with CONs and was partially normalized in repleted rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, an index of delta6-desturase activity, was significantly greater in DEF rats compared with CON and repleted rats and was positively correlated with Fads2 mRNA expression among all rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, but not Fads2 mRNA expression, was also positively correlated with erythrocyte and frontal cortex LCn-6 fatty acid compositions. Neither Fads1 or Fads2 mRNA expression was altered in brain cortex of DEF rats. These results confirm previous findings that liver, but not brain, delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices are negatively regulated by dietary n-3 fatty acids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Umbilical cord PUFA are determined by maternal and child fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genetic variants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)

    Lattka, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold; Zeilinger, Sonja; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Klopp, Norman; Ring, Susan M.; Steer, Colin D.

    2012-01-01

    Fetal supply with long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) during pregnancy is important for brain growth and visual and cognitive development and is provided by materno–fetal placental transfer. We recently showed that maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotypes modulate the amounts of LC-PUFA in maternal blood. Whether FADS genotypes influence the amounts of umbilical cord fatty acids has not been investigated until now. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of maternal and child FADS genotypes on the amounts of LC-PUFA in umbilical cord venous plasma as an indicator of fetal fatty acid supply during pregnancy. A total of eleven cord plasma n-6 and n-3 fatty acids were analysed for association with seventeen FADS gene cluster SNP in over 2000 mothers and children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. In a multivariable analysis, the maternal genotype effect was adjusted for the child genotype and vice versa to estimate which of the two has the stronger influence on cord plasma fatty acids. Both maternal and child FADS genotypes and haplotypes influenced amounts of cord plasma LC-PUFA and fatty acid ratios. Specifically, most analysed maternal SNP were associated with cord plasma levels of the precursor n-6 PUFA, whereas the child genotypes were mainly associated with more highly desaturated n-6 LC-PUFA. This first study on FADS genotypes and cord fatty acids suggests that fetal LC-PUFA status is determined to some extent by fetal fatty acid conversion. Associations of particular haplotypes suggest specific effects of SNP rs498793 and rs968567 on fatty acid metabolism. PMID:22877655

  11. Gene

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  12. Identification and Functional Characterization of Genes Encoding Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Activities from Unicellular Microalgae

    Royah Vaezi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify novel genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of nutritionally important omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, a database search was carried out in the genomes of the unicellular photoautotrophic green alga Ostreococcus RCC809 and cold-water diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus. The search led to the identification of two putative “front-end” desaturases (Δ6 and Δ4 from Ostreococcus RCC809 and one Δ6-elongase from F. cylindrus. Heterologous expression of putative open reading frames (ORFs in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme activities efficiently convert their respective substrates: 54.1% conversion of α-linolenic acid for Δ6-desaturase, 15.1% conversion of 22:5n-3 for Δ4-desaturase and 38.1% conversion of γ-linolenic acid for Δ6-elongase. The Δ6-desaturase from Ostreococcus RCC809 displays a very strong substrate preference resulting in the predominant synthesis of stearidonic acid (C18:4Δ6,9,12,15. These data confirm the functional characterization of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic genes from these two species which have until now not been investigated for such activities. The identification of these new genes will also serve to expand the repertoire of activities available for metabolically engineering the omega-3 trait in heterologous hosts as well as providing better insights into the synthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in marine microalgae.

  13. Safflower oil consumption does not increase plasma conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in humans.

    Herbel, B K; McGuire, M K; McGuire, M A; Shultz, T D

    1998-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) with conjugated double bonds. CLA has anticarcinogenic properties and has been identified in human tissues, dairy products, meats, and certain vegetable oils. A variety of animal products are good sources of CLA, but plant oils contain much less. However, plant oils are a rich source of LA, which may be isomerized to CLA by intestinal microorganisms in humans. To investigate the effect of triacylglycerol-esterified LA consumption on plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids, a dietary intervention (6 wk) was conducted with six men and six women. During the intervention period a salad dressing containing 21 g safflower oil providing 16 g LA/d was added to the subjects' daily diets. Three-day diet records and fasting blood were obtained initially and during dietary and postdietary intervention periods. Although LA intake increased significantly during the dietary intervention, plasma CLA concentrations were not affected. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after addition of safflower oil to the diet. In summary, consumption of triacylglycerol-esterified LA in safflower oil did not increase plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids.

  14. Conjugated linoleic acids as functional food: an insight into their health benefits

    Benjamin Sailas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review evaluates the health benefits of the functional food, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA - a heterogeneous group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid predominantly found in milk, milk products, meat and meat products of ruminants. During the past couple of decades, hundreds of reports - principally based on in vitro, microbial, animal, and of late clinical trials on humans - have been accumulating with varying biological activities of CLA isomers. These studies highlight that CLA, apart form the classical nuclear transcription factors-mediated mechanism of action, appear to exhibit a number of inter-dependent molecular signalling pathways accounting for their reported health benefits. Such benefits relate to anti-obesitic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetagenic, immunomodulatory, apoptotic and osteosynthetic effects. On the other hand, negative effects of CLA have been reported such as fatty liver and spleen, induction of colon carcinogenesis and hyperproinsulinaemia. As far as human consumption is concerned, a definite conclusion for CLA safety has not been reached yet. Parameters such as administration of the type of CLA isomer and/or their combination with other polyunsaturated fatty acids, mode of administration (eg., as free fatty acid or its triglyceride form, liquid or solid, daily dose and duration of consumption, gender, age, or ethnic and geographical backgrounds remain to be determined. Yet, it appears from trials so far conducted that CLA are functional food having prevailing beneficial health effects for humans.

  15. Optimization of the In Situ Epoxidation of Linoleic Acid of Jatropha Curcas Oil With Performic Acid

    Hong, L.K.; Rahimi Mohd Yusop; Nadia Salih; Jumat Salimon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to optimise the epoxidation of linoleic acid of Jatropha curcas oil. This experiment was carried out with performic acid generated in situ by using hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. The method was evaluated on different parameters such as reaction temperature, mole ratios of formic acid to ethylenic unsaturation and hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation. The optimum relative conversion into oxirane (80.4 %) and conversion of iodine (94.7 %) was achieved with ∼70 % yield at the condition of 45 degree Celsius reaction temperature, formic acid to ethylenic unsaturation mole ratio of 2.0, hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation mole ratio of 12.0 for 2 hours of reaction time. The epoxidized linoleic acid was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and NMR analysis. The result was also found that the formations of an epoxide and oxirane ring cleavage were both occurred at the same time if low amount of hydrogen peroxide was used. (author)

  16. Linoleic acid and its potassium and sodium salts: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Gocen, Tuğba; Haman Bayarı, Sevgi; Haluk Guven, Mehmet

    2017-12-01

    Linoleic acid (cis, cis-9,12-octodecadienoic acid) is the main polyunsaturated -omega 6- essential fatty acid. The conformational behaviour of linoleic acid (LA) in the gas phase was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT). The structures of conformers of LA were fully optimized by using the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. The theory showed that the tttttts‧CssCs‧tt conformation of LA (conformer I) is the more stable than the other conformations. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and micro-Raman spectra of pure LA in liquid form were recorded in the region 4000-450 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. The DFT calculations on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of the dimer form of most stable conformer of LA were also performed using the same method. The assignment of the vibrational modes was made based on calculated potential energy distributions (PEDs). The simulated spectra of dimer form of LA are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental spectra. The sodium and potassium salts of LA were synthesized and characterized by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and DFT calculations. Several molecular and electronic properties of LA and its salts such as HOMO-LUMO energies, chemical hardness and electronegativity were also calculated and interpreted.

  17. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Stimulates Apoptosis in RH and Tehran Strains of Toxoplasma gondii, in Vitro.

    Jebreil Shamseddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on apoptosis of tachyzoites of T. gondii, RH strain (type I and the cyst-forming Tehran strain (type II in vitro.Toxoplasma strains were injected into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice. The Tehran strain forms cysts in the brain of mice. Bradyzoites within the cysts are reactivated to proliferative tachyzoites, by dexamethasone. Tachyzoites were aspirated from the peritoneum of infected mice, and the percentage of viable parasites was estimated with trypan blue staining. Tachyzoites were inoculated into HeLa cells cultivated in DMEM medium. Different concentrations of CLA were evaluated on T. gondii in HeLa cells by the tetrazolium (MTT colorimetric assay. Differentiation between apoptosis and cell death was determined by flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI double staining. The statistical analysis performed by GraphPad Prism version 6.00.CLA induces apoptosis in virulent (RH and avirulent (Tehran strains of T. gondii. The results of MTT indicated that CLA could decrease the proliferation of tachyzoites of both strains in HeLa cells.Conjugated linoleic acid has anti-toxoplasmacidal activity on tachyzoites of T. gondii. Therefore, we recommended further studies on this component in order to achieve a new drug against the parasite.

  18. Allelopathic interactions of linoleic acid and nitric oxide increase the competitive ability of Microcystis aeruginosa

    Song, Hao; Lavoie, Michel; Fan, Xiaoji; Tan, Hana; Liu, Guangfu; Xu, Pengfei; Fu, Zhengwei; Paerl, Hans W; Qian, Haifeng

    2017-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of cyanobacterial blooms are increasing worldwide with major societal and economic costs. Interactions between toxic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algal competitors can affect toxic bloom formation, but the exact mechanisms of interspecies interactions remain unknown. Using metabolomic and proteomic profiling of co-cultures of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa with a green alga as well as of microorganisms collected in a Microcystis spp. bloom in Lake Taihu (China), we disentangle novel interspecies allelopathic interactions. We describe an interspecies molecular network in which M. aeruginosa inhibits growth of Chlorella vulgaris, a model green algal competitor, via the release of linoleic acid. In addition, we demonstrate how M. aeruginosa takes advantage of the cell signaling compound nitric oxide produced by C. vulgaris, which stimulates a positive feedback mechanism of linoleic acid release by M. aeruginosa and its toxicity. Our high-throughput system-biology approach highlights the importance of previously unrecognized allelopathic interactions between a broadly distributed toxic cyanobacterial bloom former and one of its algal competitors. PMID:28398349

  19. Alkylation of Methyl Linoleate with Propene in Ionic Liquids in the Presence of Metal Salts.

    Pomelli, Christian Silvio; Ghilardi, Tiziana; Chiappe, Cinzia; de Angelis, Alberto Renato; Calemma, Vincenzo

    2015-12-07

    Vegetable oils and fatty acid esters are suitable precursor molecules for the production of a variety of bio-based products and materials, such as paints and coatings, plastics, soaps, lubricants, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, printing inks, surfactants, and biofuels. Here, we report the possibility of using Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) to obtain polyunsaturated ester dimerization-oligomerization and/or, in the presence of another terminal alkene (propene), co-polymerization. In particular, we have tested the Lewis acidic mixtures arising from the addition of a proper amount of GaCl₃ (Χ > 0.5) to two chloride-based (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [bmim]Cl, and 1-butylisoquinolium chloride, [BuIsoq]Cl) or by dissolution of a smaller amount of Al(Tf₂N)₃ (Χ = 0.1) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [bmim][Tf₂N]. On the basis of product distribution studies, [bmim][Tf₂N]/Al(Tf₂N)₃ appears the most suitable medium in which methyl linoleate alkylation with propene can compete with methyl linoleate or propene oligomerization.

  20. Bioproduction of conjugated linoleic acid by probiotic bacteria occurs in vitro and in vivo in mice.

    Ewaschuk, Julia B; Walker, John W; Diaz, Hugo; Madsen, Karen L

    2006-06-01

    Probiotics have been shown to reduce the incidence of colon cancer in animal models. The mechanisms responsible for this activity are poorly defined. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a group of isomers of linoleic acid (LA) possessing anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties, which can be produced from LA by certain bacterial strains. In this study, the ability of probiotic bacteria to exert anticarcinogenic effects through the production of CLA was assessed. Incubation of probiotic bacteria (VSL3, Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. plantarum, Bifidobacterium breve, B. infantis, B. longum, and Streptococcus thermophilus) in the presence of LA yielded CLA production as measured by gas chromatography. Conditioned medium, containing probiotic-produced CLA, reduced viability and induced apoptosis of HT-29 and Caco-2 cells, as assessed by MTT assay and DNA laddering, respectively. Western blotting demonstrated an increased expression of PPARgamma in cells treated with conditioned medium compared with LA alone. Incubation of murine feces with LA after administering VSL3 yielded 100-fold more CLA than feces collected prior to VSL3 feeding. This study supports a role for supplemental probiotics as a strategy both for attenuating inflammation and for preventing colon cancer.

  1. Dose-rate and oxygen effects in models of lipid membranes: linoleic acid

    Raleigh, J A; Kremers, W; Gaboury, B [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba. Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

    1977-03-01

    Cellular membranes have been suggested as possible loci for the development of the oxygen effect in radiobiology. Unsaturated lipids from membranes are subject to very efficient radiation-induced peroxidation, and the deleterious effects generally associated with lipid autoxidation could be initiated by ionizing radiation. Oxidative damage in lipids was characterized not only by high yields but also by a profound dose-rate effect. At dose-rates of x irradiation below 100 rad/min, a very sharp rise occurred in oxidative damage. This damage has been quantified spectrophotometrically in terms of diene conjugation (O.D. 234 mm) and chromatographically in terms of specific 9- and 13-hydroperoxide formation in linoleic acid micelles. Radical scavenging experiments indicated that hydroxyl radical attack initiated the oxidative damage. Dimethyl sulphoxide is exceptional in that it did not protect, but sensitized, linoleic acid to radiation-induced peroxidation. The yields of hydroperoxides were substantial (G = 10 to 40) and could be related to biological changes known to be effected by autoxidizing lipids.

  2. Alkylation of Methyl Linoleate with Propene in Ionic Liquids in the Presence of Metal Salts

    Christian Silvio Pomelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils and fatty acid esters are suitable precursor molecules for the production of a variety of bio-based products and materials, such as paints and coatings, plastics, soaps, lubricants, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, printing inks, surfactants, and biofuels. Here, we report the possibility of using Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs to obtain polyunsaturated ester dimerization-oligomerization and/or, in the presence of another terminal alkene (propene, co-polymerization. In particular, we have tested the Lewis acidic mixtures arising from the addition of a proper amount of GaCl3 (Χ > 0.5 to two chloride-based (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [bmim]Cl, and 1-butylisoquinolium chloride, [BuIsoq]Cl or by dissolution of a smaller amount of Al(Tf2N3 (Χ = 0.1 in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide, [bmim][Tf2N]. On the basis of product distribution studies, [bmim][Tf2N]/Al(Tf2N3 appears the most suitable medium in which methyl linoleate alkylation with propene can compete with methyl linoleate or propene oligomerization.

  3. Reactions of linoleic acid peroxyl radicals with phenolic antioxidants: a pulse radiolysis study

    Erben-Russ, Michael; Bors, Wolf; Saran, Manfred

    1987-01-01

    Linoleic acid peroxyl radicals (LOO) can be viewed as model intermediates occurring during lipid peroxidation processes. Formation and reactions of these species were investigated in aqueous alkaline solution using pulse radiolysis combined with kinetic spectroscopy. Irradiation of linoleic acid in N 2 O/O 2 -saturated solutions leads to a mixture of peroxyl radical isomers; reaction of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid (13-LOOH) with azide radicals in N 2 O-saturated solution produces 13-LOO radicals specifically. These peroxyl radicals cannot be observed directly, but their reactions with kaempferol and quercetin, acting as radical-scavenging antioxidants, produced strongly absorbing aroxyl radicals (ArO). The same aroxyl radicals were generated by OH and N 3 with rate constants exceeding 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . Applying a reaction scheme that includes competing generation and decay reactions of both LOO and ArO radicals, individual rate constants were derived for LOO reactions with the phenols (> 10 7 dm 3 mol -1 s-? 1 ), with aroxyl radicals to form covalent adducts (> 10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ), as well as for their bimilecular decay (3.0 x 10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ). These results demonstrate high reactivity of fatty acid peroxyl radicals and flavone antioxidants in aqueous solution. (author)

  4. Reactions of linoleic acid peroxyl radicals with phenolic antioxidants: a pulse radiolysis study

    Erben-Russ, M.; Bors, W.; Saran, M.

    1987-09-01

    Linoleic acid peroxyl radicals (LOO) can be viewed as model intermediates occurring during lipid peroxidation processes. Formation and reactions of these species were investigated in aqueous alkaline solution using pulse radiolysis combined with kinetic spectroscopy. Irradiation of linoleic acid in N/sub 2/O/O/sub 2/-saturated solutions leads to a mixture of peroxyl radical isomers; reaction of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid (13-LOOH) with azide radicals in N/sub 2/O-saturated solution produces 13-LOO radicals specifically. These peroxyl radicals cannot be observed directly, but their reactions with kaempferol and quercetin, acting as radical-scavenging antioxidants, produced strongly absorbing aroxyl radicals (ArO). The same aroxyl radicals were generated by OH and N/sub 3/ with rate constants exceeding 10/sup 9/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/. Applying a reaction scheme that includes competing generation and decay reactions of both LOO and ArO radicals, individual rate constants were derived for LOO reactions with the phenols (> 10/sup 7/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s-./sup 1/), with aroxyl radicals to form covalent adducts (> 10/sup 8/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/), as well as for their bimilecular decay (3.0 x 10/sup 8/ dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/). These results demonstrate high reactivity of fatty acid peroxyl radicals and flavone antioxidants in aqueous solution.

  5. Allelopathic interactions of linoleic acid and nitric oxide increase the competitive ability of Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Song, Hao; Lavoie, Michel; Fan, Xiaoji; Tan, Hana; Liu, Guangfu; Xu, Pengfei; Fu, Zhengwei; Paerl, Hans W; Qian, Haifeng

    2017-08-01

    The frequency and intensity of cyanobacterial blooms are increasing worldwide with major societal and economic costs. Interactions between toxic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algal competitors can affect toxic bloom formation, but the exact mechanisms of interspecies interactions remain unknown. Using metabolomic and proteomic profiling of co-cultures of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa with a green alga as well as of microorganisms collected in a Microcystis spp. bloom in Lake Taihu (China), we disentangle novel interspecies allelopathic interactions. We describe an interspecies molecular network in which M. aeruginosa inhibits growth of Chlorella vulgaris, a model green algal competitor, via the release of linoleic acid. In addition, we demonstrate how M. aeruginosa takes advantage of the cell signaling compound nitric oxide produced by C. vulgaris, which stimulates a positive feedback mechanism of linoleic acid release by M. aeruginosa and its toxicity. Our high-throughput system-biology approach highlights the importance of previously unrecognized allelopathic interactions between a broadly distributed toxic cyanobacterial bloom former and one of its algal competitors.

  6. Fatty acid profiles in tissues of mice fed conjugated linoleic acid

    Gøttsche, Jesper; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of vaccenic acid (VA, 0.5 and 1.2%), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, mixture of primarily c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA, 1.2%), linoleic acid (LA, 1.2%) and oleic acid (OA, 1.2%) into different tissues of mice was examined. The effects on the fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols...... (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) in kidney, spleen, liver and adipose tissue were investigated. VA and CLA (c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA) were primarily found in TAG, especially in kidney and adipose tissue, respectively. Conversion of VA to c9,t11-CLA was indicated by our results, as both fatty acids were...... incorporated into all the analyzed tissues when a diet containing VA but not c9,t11-CLA was fed. Most of the observed effects on the fatty acid profiles were seen in the CLA group, whereas only minor effects were observed in the VA groups compared with the CA group. Thus, CLA increased n-3 polyunsaturated...

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of conjugated linoleic acid isomers and essential fatty acids in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Dipasquale, D; Basiricò, L; Morera, P; Primi, R; Tröscher, A; Bernabucci, U

    2018-01-09

    Fatty acids are important modulators of inflammatory responses, in particular, n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acids and CLA have received particular attention for their ability to modulate inflammation. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of CLA and essential fatty acids on the expression of pro and anti- inflammatory cytokines and their protective efficacy against inflammatory status in mammary gland by an in vitro model based on bovine mammary epithelial cells (BME-UV1). Bovine mammary epithelial cells were treated with complete medium containing either 50 µM of cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11 CLA) or trans-10, cis-12 CLA (t10,c12 CLA) or (α)-linolenic acid (aLnA) or (γ)-linolenic acid (gLnA) or linoleic acid (LA). After 48 h by fatty acids administration the cells were treated for 3 h with 20 µM of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammatory stimulus. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production after treatments was assessed to verify and to compare the potential protection of different fatty acids against LPS-induced oxidative stress. The messenger RNA abundance of bovine pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukine-10 (IL-10)) and peroxisome proliferator receptor-α/γ (PPARγ/α) were determined in BME-UV1 by real-time PCR. The results showed that cells treated with fatty acids and LPS increased ROS production compared with control cells. Among treatments, cells treated with c9,t11 CLA and t10,c12 CLA isomers revealed significant lower levels of ROS production compared with other fatty acids. All fatty acids reduced the gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Among fatty acids, t10,c12 CLA, LA and gLnA showed an homogeneous reduction of the three pro-inflammatory cytokines and this may correspond to more balanced and efficient physiological activity and may trigger a better protective effect. The PPARγ gene expression was

  8. Effect of silage type and energy concentration on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows

    Nielsen, T.S.; Sejrsen, K.; Andersen, H.R

    2004-01-01

    40 lactating cows were fed either clovergrass or maize silage and a low or high dietary energy concentration in a 2x2 factorial design. The maize silage diets rich in starch and linoleic acid resulted in a higher content of c9t11 and t10c12 CLA in milk fat than the grass silage diets. A high energy...... concentration plus maize silage led to a pronounced shift in the biohydrogenation pathway of linoleic acid, the highest t10c12 CLA content and lowest milk fat percentage. Energy concentration had no effect on milk fat CLA content or milk fat percentage in grass silage fed cows....

  9. Effects of feeding rapeseed oil, soybean oil, or linseed oil on stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression in the mammary gland of dairy cows

    Jacobs, A.A.A.; Baal, van J.; Smits, M.A.; Taweel, H.Z.H.; Hendriks, W.H.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is an important enzyme in the bovine mammary gland, and it introduces a double bond at the ¿(9) location of primarily myristoyl-, palmitoyl-, and stearoyl-CoA. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of various fatty acids (FA) typically present in

  10. Effect of the cryopreservation method used, the embryonic stage and the use of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on the cryotolerance of in vitro-produced bovine embryos

    Luciana Simões Rafagnin Marinho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA might be able to improve the cryotolerance of in vitro-produced (IVP embryos. The effect of two CLA isomers on the cryotolerance of bovine IVP embryos, as well as that of the stage of embryonic development and the method used for cryopreservation was evaluated by three experiments. In Experiment 1, oocytes (n = 3,917 were fertilized in vitro and cultured with 0, 50, 100, or 200 ?M trans-10, cis-12 (t10, c12 CLA. In Experiment 2, fertilized oocytes (n = 2,131 were cultured with 100 ?M t10, c12 or cis-9, trans-11 (c9, t11 CLA, or a combination of both isomers. The embryos were vitrified at the blastocyst (BL or the expanded blastocyst (EB stage. In Experiment 3, oocytes (n = 1,720 were fertilized and cultured with or without 100 ?M t10, c12 CLA, and the blastocysts were vitrified or frozen. Blastocyst development rate as well as the rates of re-expansion and hatching after thawing was recorded. Moreover, the mean cell number and mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1 as well as fatty acid synthase (FASN multienzyme complex were determined. In Experiment 1, the highest concentration of t10, c12 CLA that did not reduce blastocyst development rate was 100 ?M. In Experiment 2, the rates of re-expansion and hatching among the EBs obtained through IVP after supplementation with t10, c12 CLA (73.1% and 57.7%, with c9, t11 CLA (80.0% and 68.6%, with the combination (78.3% and 52.2%, and with the control group (85.4% and 58.3% were similar. At the BL stage, the rates of re-expansion and hatching were lower than those at the EB stage, and CLA combination allowed a hatching rate (8.0% lower than that observed in the control group (40.0%. In Experiment 3, the hatching rates for vitrified EBs (vitrified control; 67.4% and vitrified CLA EBs (65.8% were higher than those obtained for frozen EBs, exposed (13.3% or not exposed (28.6% to CLA. In addition, in Experiment 3, the hatching rate was

  11. Experimentally induced cerebral fat embolism with linoleic acid; MR imaging and pathologic correlation

    Kim, Jong Bae; Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Yong; Lee, Suck Hong; Park, Byeong Rae

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the MRI findings of cerebral fat embolism induced by injecting linoleic acid into ten cats, and pathologic diagnosis. Using a microcatheter, 30μ1 of linoleic acid was injeted into the internal carotid artery of ten cats. MR T2-weighted (T2WI), diffusion-weighted (DWI), and Gd-enhanced T1-weighted images(Gd-enhanced T1WI) were obtained after 30 minutes and after 2 hours of embolization. We pathlogically examined endothelial cell damage, cellular change, perivascular abnormality and fat vacuoles, and then determined the correlation between MRI and the pathologic findings. After 30 minutes of embolization, lesions of very high signal intensity were detected by T2WI in six cats, and of slightly high signal intensity in two:in the remaining two, signal intensity was normal. DWI showed lesions of very high intensity in nine animals and of slightly high intensity in one, while Gd-enhanced T1WI showed well-enhanced lesions in nine and a minimally enhanced lesion in one. After 2 hours of embolization, T2WI revealed lesions of very high signal intensity in nine cats, and of slightly high signal intensity in one, while DWI detected lesions of very high signal intensity in all cats. On Gd-enhanced T1WI, lesions in all cats were well enhanced. According to the findings of light microscopic examination, infarcted lesions mainly involved the gray matter, but also some white matter. In the lesions, neurophil matrix edema, neuronal degeneration, perivascular swelling, the widening of extracellular space, extravascular hemorrhage, and fat vacuoles were evident. During the initial two hours following injuction, MR imaging of cerebral fat embolism induced by linoleic acid through the internal carotid artery in cats showed high signal intensity on T2WI and DWI, and clear enhancement on Gd-enhanced T1WI. In cases involving cellular edema, cerebrovascular injury and extracellular space widening, the pathologic evidence suggested the coexistence of

  12. Kinetics of photoirradiation-induced synthesis of soy oil-conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    Jain, Vishal P; Proctor, Andrew

    2007-02-07

    Photoirradiation of soy oil with UV/visible light has been shown to produce significant amounts of trans,trans conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers through conversion of various synthesized intermediate cis,trans isomers. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of CLA isomers synthesis to better understand the production of various isomers. Soy oil was irradiated with UV/visible light for 144 h in the presence of an iodine catalyst and CLA isomers analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Arrhenius plots were developed for the conversion of soy oil linoleic acid (A) to form cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA (B), conversion of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA to form trans,trans-CLA (C) with respect to B, and formation of trans,trans-CLA isomers with respect to C. The kinetics of consumption of linoleic acid (LA) to form cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA was found to be of second-order with a rate constant of 9.01 x 10-7 L/mol s. The rate of formation of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA isomers depends on the rate of formation from LA and its rate of consumption to form trans,trans-CLA isomers. The conversion of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA isomers to trans,trans-CLA isomers was found to be of first-order with a rate constant of 2.75 x 10-6 s-1. However, the formation of thermodynamically stable trans,trans-CLA isomers (C) with respect to C was found to be a zero-order reaction with a rate constant of 10.66 x 10-7 mol/L s. The consumption of LA was found to be the rate-determining step in the CLA isomers formation reaction mechanism. The findings provide a better understanding of the mechanism of CLA isomers synthesis by photoirradiation and the factors controlling the ratio of various isomers.

  13. cAMP response element binding protein1 is essential for activation of steroyl co-enzyme a desaturase 1 (Scd1 in mouse lung type II epithelial cells.

    Nisha Antony

    Full Text Available Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein 1 (Creb1 is a transcription factor that mediates cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP signalling in many tissues. Creb1(-/- mice die at birth due to respiratory failure and previous genome-wide microarray analysis of E17.5 Creb1(-/- fetal mouse lung identified important Creb1-regulated gene targets during lung development. The lipogenic enzymes stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1 and fatty acid synthase (Fasn showed highly reduced gene expression in Creb1(-/- lungs. We therefore hypothesized that Creb1 plays a crucial role in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in pulmonary lipid biosynthetic pathways during lung development. In this study we confirmed that Scd1 and Fasn mRNA levels were down regulated in the E17.5 Creb1(-/- mouse lung while the lipogenic-associated transcription factors SrebpF1, C/ebpα and Pparγ were increased. In vivo studies using germline (Creb1(-/- and lung epithelial-specific (Creb1(EpiΔ/Δ Creb1 knockout mice showed strongly reduced Scd1, but not Fasn gene expression and protein levels in lung epithelial cells. In vitro studies using mouse MLE-15 epithelial cells showed that forskolin-mediated activation of Creb1 increased both Scd1 gene expression and protein synthesis. Additionally, MLE15 cells transfected with a dominant-negative ACreb vector blocked forskolin-mediated stimulation of Scd1 gene expression. Lipid profiling in MLE15 cells showed that dominant-negative ACreb suppressed forskolin-induced desaturation of ether linked lipids to produce plasmalogens, as well as levels of phosphatidylethanolamine, ceramide and lysophosphatidylcholine. Taken together these results demonstrate that Creb1 is essential for the induction and maintenance of Scd1 in developing fetal mouse lung epithelial cells.

  14. Preliminary observations on the effects of milk fortification with conjugated linoleic acid in yogurt preparation

    Salamon, R. V.; Albert, I.; András, C. D.; Csapó, J.; Ibănescu, C.

    2015-04-01

    The fortification and enrichment of food with health benefic natural or natural identical substances creating new functional foods became an important issue for food researchers and processors. However, often occurs that the obtained products (despite of their health benefic activity) cannot be marketed due to strange or accustomed taste and/or texture. The aim of the research was to elucidate the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) enrichment of raw milk on the rheological properties of the obtained yogurt. The results show that the values of the complex viscosity at 50 rad.s-1 (correlated with the thickness and sliminess of the food gel structures) of the CLA-enriched yogurt was the lowest among the studied samples, meaning the enriched yogurt is more creamy than the commercial products. These observations gave us the hope that, in this case, the texture of enriched product will not present any drawback related to consumer quality judgment.

  15. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreases de novo lipid synthesis in human adipocytes

    Obsen, Thomas; Faergeman, Nils J; Chung, Soonkyu

    2012-01-01

    7-12 h, respectively. The mRNA levels of liver X receptor (LXR)α and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, transcription factors that regulate SCD-1, were decreased by 10,12 CLA within 5 h. These data suggest that the isomer-specific decrease in de novo lipid synthesis by 10,12 CLA......]-oleic or [(14)C]-linoleic acids. When using [(14)C]-acetic acid and [(14)C]-pyruvic acid as substrates, 30 μM 10,12 CLA, but not 9,11 CLA, decreased de novo synthesis of triglyceride, free FA, diacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, cardiolipin, phospholipids and ceramides within 3-24 h. Treatment with 30 μM 10...... is due, in part, to the rapid repression of lipogenic transcription factors that regulate MUFA synthesis, suggesting an anti-obesity mechanism unique to this trans FA....

  16. Comparison of Fatty Acid Composition in Selected Dietary Supplements Containing Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Derewiaka, Dorota; Nestorowicz, Klara; Wołosiak, Rafał

    2017-07-04

    The market of pharmaceutical products is offering a wide range of supplements. Most of the consumers believe that these products will improve their state of health, but are they getting what they want and what they are paying for? The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of selected dietary supplements containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). All supplements were available in the Warsaw markets and bought from pharmacies. Assessment of the quality of food supplements was achieved by analysis of fatty acid using gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer. On the basis of the investigations carried out, it was found that content of CLA in selected dietary supplements ranged between 282 and 528 mg by weight of a single capsule. The content of bioactive ingredients found in three of the four product supplements assessed was lower than was claimed by the manufacturer.

  17. Are conjugated linolenic acid isomers an alternative to conjugated linoleic acid isomers in obesity prevention?

    Miranda, Jonatan; Arias, Noemi; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; del Puy Portillo, María

    2014-04-01

    Despite its benefits, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may cause side effects after long-term administration. Because of this and the controversial efficacy of CLA in humans, alternative biomolecules that may be used as functional ingredients have been studied in recent years. Thus, conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) has been reported to be a potential anti-obesity molecule which may have additional positive effects related to obesity. According to the results reported in obesity, CLNA needs to be given at higher doses than CLA to be effective. However, because of the few studies conducted so far, it is still difficult to reach clear conclusions about the potential use of these CLNAs in obesity and its related changes (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, or inflammation). Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of linoleic acid on the whole body synthesis rates of polyunsaturated fatty acids from α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid in free-living rats.

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Chuck T; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is thought to be important for brain function. The main dietary source of DHA is fish, however, DHA can also be synthesized from precursor omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), the most abundantly consumed being α-linolenic acid (ALA). The enzymes required to synthesize DHA from ALA are also used to synthesize longer chain omega-6 (n-6) PUFA from linoleic acid (LNA). The large increase in LNA consumption that has occurred over the last century has led to concern that LNA and other n-6 PUFA outcompete n-3 PUFA for enzymes involved in DHA synthesis, and therefore, decrease overall DHA synthesis. To assess this, rats were fed diets containing LNA at 53 (high LNA diet), 11 (medium LNA diet) or 1.5% (low LNA diet) of the fatty acids with ALA being constant across all diets (approximately 4% of the fatty acids). Rats were maintained on these diets from weaning for 8 weeks, at which point they were subjected to a steady-state infusion of labeled ALA and LNA to measure DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) synthesis rates. DHA and ARA synthesis rates were generally highest in rats fed the medium and high LNA diets, while the plasma half-life of DHA was longer in rats fed the low LNA diet. Therefore, increasing dietary LNA, in rats, did not impair DHA synthesis; however, low dietary LNA led to a decrease in DHA synthesis with tissue concentrations of DHA possibly being maintained by a longer DHA half-life. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effects of Nano-encapsulated Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Stability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Fermentation Profiles in the Rumen

    Wan Heo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the stability of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs by nano-encapsulation against in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation by microbial enzymatic conversion. CLAs (free fatty acid form of CLA [CLA-FFA], nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA, triglyceride form of CLA [CLA-TG], and nano-encapsulated CLA-TG were used in the in vitro fermentation experiments. When Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (B. fibrisolvens was incubated with CLA-FFAs, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and vaccenic acid (VA slightly was decreased and increased by nano-encapsulation, respectively. When B. fibrisolvens was incubated with CLA-TG, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and VA decreased, but these were increased when B. fibrisolvens was incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-TG. The nano-encapsulation was more effective against the in vitro biohydrogenation activity of B.fibrisolvens incubated with CLA-FFA than with CLA-TG. In the in vitro ruminal incubation test, the total gas production and concentration of total volatile fatty acids incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA and CLA-TG were increased significantly after 24 h incubation (p<0.05. Nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA might, thus, improve the ruminal fermentation characteristics without adverse effects on the incubation process. In addition, nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA increased the population of Fibrobacter succinogenes and decreased the population of B. fibrisolvens population. These results indicate that nano-encapsulation could be applied to enhance CLA levels in ruminants by increasing the stability of CLA without causing adverse effects on ruminal fermentation.

  20. Preferential oxidation of linolenic acid compared to linoleic acid in the liver of catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus)

    Bandyopadhyay, G.K.; Dutta, J.; Ghosh, S.

    1982-01-01

    The fate of [1(- 14 C] linoleic acid and [1( 14 C] linolenic acid in the liver slices and also in the liver tissues of live carnivorous catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus, was studied. Incorporation of the fatty acids into different lipid classes in the live fish differed greatly from the tissue slices, indicating certain physiological control operative in vivo. The extent of desaturation and chain elongation of linoleic and linolenic acids into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids was low. Linolenic acid was oxidized (thus labeling the saturated fatty acid with liberated 14 C-acetyl-CoA) in preference to linoleic acid, and this oxidation also seemed to be under physiological control since both of the fatty acids were poorly oxidized in the tissue slices and in the killed fish. These fish can therefore recognize the difference in the acyl chain structures of linoleate and linolenate. The higher oxidation of linolenic acid and poor capacity for its conversion to longer chain, highly unsaturated derivatives indicates a higher demand for the dietary supply of these essential fatty acids in these two species

  1. Emulsifying Property and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish Skin Gelatin Modified with Oxidized Linoleic Acid and Oxidized Tannic Acid

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Cuttlefish skin gelatins modified with oxidized linoleic acid (OLA) and oxidized tannic acid (OTA) were characterized and determined for emulsifying properties and antioxidative activity. Modification of gelatin with 5% OTA increased the total phenolic content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl,

  2. Dietary Linoleic and a-Linolenic Acid Affect Anxiety-Related Responses and Exploratory Activity in Growing Pigs

    Clouard, C.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Kerkhof, van I.; Smink, W.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that the dietary ratio of linoleic acid (LA) to a-linolenic acid (ALA), the precursors of arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively, may affect behavior in mammals. Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the impact of dietary LA and

  3. Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands

    Rist, L.; Mueller, A.; Barthel, C.; Snijders, B.; Jansen, M.; Simões-Wüst, A.P.; Huber, M.; Kummeling, I.; Mandach, U. von; Steinhart, H.; Thijs, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. To this purpose, milk samples from 312 breastfeeding

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid mitigates testosterone-related changes in body composition in male guinea pigs.

    Yang, Susan Q; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Mak, Ivy L; Weiler, Hope A; Santosa, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may be effective in preventing the changes in total and regional body composition and increases in interleukin (IL) 6 that occur as a result of hypogonadism. Male guinea pigs (n = 40, 70- to 72-week retired breeders) were block randomized by weight into 4 groups: (1) sham surgery (SHAM)/control (CTRL) diet, (2) SHAM/conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) diet (1%), (3) orchidectomy (ORX)/CTRL diet, and (4) ORX/CLA diet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline and week 16 to assess body composition. Serum IL-6 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Fatty acids (FAs) from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed using gas chromatography. In ORX/CTRL guinea pigs, percent total body fat increased by 6.1%, and percent lean mass decreased by 6.7% over the 16-week treatment period, whereas no changes were observed for either parameter in ORX/CLA guinea pigs. Guinea pigs fed the CLA diet gained less percent total, upper, and lower body fat than those fed the CTRL diet regardless of surgical treatment. Regional adipose tissue FA composition was reflective of dietary FAs. Serum IL-6 concentrations were not different among groups. In this study, we observed that, in male guinea pigs, hypogonadism resulted in increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. In addition, CLA was effective in reducing gains in body fat and maintaining lean mass in both hypogonadal and intact guinea pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Roles of StearoylCoA Desaturase-1 in the Regulation of Cancer Cell Growth, Survival and Tumorigenesis

    Igal, R. Ariel [Department of Nutritional Sciences and Rutgers Center for Lipid Research, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 96 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2011-05-20

    The development and maintenance of defining features of cancer, such as unremitting cell proliferation, evasion of programmed cell death, and the capacity for colonizing local tissues and distant organs, demand a massive production of structural, signaling and energy-storing lipid biomolecules of appropriate fatty acid composition. Due to constitutive activation of fatty acid biosynthesis, cancer cell lipids are enriched with saturated (SFA) and, in particular, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), which are generated by StearoylCoA desaturase-1, the main enzyme that transforms SFA into MUFA. An increasing number of experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that high levels of SCD1 activity is a major factor in establishing the biochemical and metabolic perturbations that favors the oncogenic process. This review examines evidence that suggests the critical implication of SCD1 in the modulation of multiple biological mechanisms, specifically lipid biosynthesis and proliferation and survival signaling pathways that contribute to the development and progression of cancer.

  6. Roles of StearoylCoA Desaturase-1 in the Regulation of Cancer Cell Growth, Survival and Tumorigenesis

    Igal, R. Ariel

    2011-01-01

    The development and maintenance of defining features of cancer, such as unremitting cell proliferation, evasion of programmed cell death, and the capacity for colonizing local tissues and distant organs, demand a massive production of structural, signaling and energy-storing lipid biomolecules of appropriate fatty acid composition. Due to constitutive activation of fatty acid biosynthesis, cancer cell lipids are enriched with saturated (SFA) and, in particular, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), which are generated by StearoylCoA desaturase-1, the main enzyme that transforms SFA into MUFA. An increasing number of experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that high levels of SCD1 activity is a major factor in establishing the biochemical and metabolic perturbations that favors the oncogenic process. This review examines evidence that suggests the critical implication of SCD1 in the modulation of multiple biological mechanisms, specifically lipid biosynthesis and proliferation and survival signaling pathways that contribute to the development and progression of cancer

  7. Association of polymorphisms in FADS gene with age-related changes in serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxidative stress markers in middle-aged nonobese men

    Hong SH

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Seul Hee Hong,1,* Jung Hyun Kwak,2,* Jean Kyung Paik,3 Jey Sook Chae,2 Jong Ho Lee1,21National Research Laboratory for Clinical Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics, 2Research Institute of Science for Aging, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: To investigate the association of FADS gene polymorphisms with age-related changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in serum phospholipids and oxidative stress markers.Methods: We genotyped 122 nonobese men aged 35–59 years without any known diseases at baseline for rs174537 near FADS1 (FEN1 rs174537G > T, FADS2 (rs174575, rs2727270, and FADS3 (rs1000778, and followed them for 3 years.Results: Among the four single-nucleotide polymorphisms, the minor variants of rs174537 and rs2727270 were significantly associated with lower concentrations of long-chain PUFAs. However, rs174537G > T showed stronger association. At baseline, men with the rs174537T allele had lower arachidonic acid (AA and AA/linoleic acid (LA, and higher interleukin (IL-6 levels than rs174537GG counterparts. After 3 years, rs174537GG men had significantly increased AA (P = 0.022, AA/dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA (P = 0.007, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL, but decreased eicosatrienoic acid. The rs174537T group showed significantly increased γ-linolenic acid and ox-LDL, and decreased eicosadienoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA/α-linolenic acid (ALA, and IL-6. After 3 years, the rs174537T group had lower AA (P < 0.001, AA/DGLA (P = 0.019, EPA, DPA, EPA/ALA, and urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α (8-epi-PGF2α (P = 0.011 than rs174537GG. Changes in AA (P = 0.001, AA/DGLA (P = 0.017, EPA, DPA, EPA/ALA, and urinary 8-epi-PGF2α (P < 0.001 were significantly different between the groups after adjusting for baseline values. Overall, changes in AA

  8. Sex-related differences in the enhancing effects of perfluoro-octanoic acid on stearoyl-CoA desaturase and its influence on the acyl composition of phospholipid in rat liver. Comparison with clofibric acid and tiadenol.

    Kawashima, Y; Uy-Yu, N; Kozuka, H

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the peroxisome proliferators clofibric acid (p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid), tiadenol [2,2'-(decamethylenedithio)diethanol] and perfluoro-octanoic acid (PFOA) on hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturation in male and female rats were compared. Treatment of male rats with the three peroxisome proliferators increased markedly the activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Administration of clofibric acid or tiadenol to female rats increased greatly the hepatic activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase, the extent of the increases being slightly less pronounced than those of male rats. In contrast with the other two peroxisome proliferators, however, PFOA did not change the activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase in female rats. Hormonal manipulations revealed that this sex-related difference in the effect of PFOA on stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity is strongly dependent on testosterone. The increase in stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity by peroxisome proliferators was not accompanied by any notable increases in the microsomal content of cytochrome b5 or the activity of NADH: cytochrome b5 reductase. The administration of the peroxisome proliferators greatly altered the acyl composition of hepatic phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine (namely the proportions of C18:1 and C20:3,n-9 fatty acids increased in both phospholipids), and the alterations were partially associated with the increase in stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity. PMID:2574572

  9. Healthy omega-3 enhancement in Echium acanthocarpum transformed hairy roots by overexpression of a 6-desaturase gene from Primula vialli.

    Zárate, R.; Cequier-Sánchez, E.; El Jaber-Vazdekis, Nabil; Rodríguez, C.; Dorta-Guerra, R.; Ravelo, Á.G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-40 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Omega-3 * Primula vialii Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology

  10. Trans10,cis12 conjugated linoleic acid inhibits proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells by inducing ER stress, autophagy, and modulation of Src.

    Mian M K Shahzad

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects of Trans10,cis12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12 CLA. MTT assays and QCM™ chemotaxis 96-wells were used to test the effect of t10,c12 CLA on the proliferation and migration and invasion of cancer cells. qPCR and Western Blotting were used to determine the expression of specific factors. RNA sequencing was conducted using the Illumina platform and apoptosis was measured using a flow cytometry assay. t10,c12 CLA (IC50, 7 μM inhibited proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV-3 and A2780. c9,t11 CLA did not attenuate the proliferation of these cells. Transcription of 165 genes was significantly repressed and 28 genes were elevated. Genes related to ER stress, ATF4, CHOP, and GADD34 were overexpressed whereas EDEM2 and Hsp90, genes required for proteasomal degradation of misfolded proteins, were downregulated upon treatment. While apoptosis was not detected, t10,c12 CLA treatment led to 9-fold increase in autophagolysosomes and higher levels of LC3-II. G1 cell cycle arrest in treated cells was correlated with phosphorylation of GSK3β and loss of β-catenin. microRNA miR184 and miR215 were upregulated. miR184 likely contributed to G1 arrest by downregulating E2F1. miR215 upregulation was correlated with increased expression of p27/Kip-1. t10,c12 CLA-mediated inhibition of invasion and migration correlated with decreased expression of PTP1b and decreased Src activation by inhibiting phosphorylation at Tyr416. Due to its ability to inhibit proliferation and migration, t10,c12 CLA should be considered for treatment of ovarian cancer.

  11. Trans10,cis12 conjugated linoleic acid inhibits proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells by inducing ER stress, autophagy, and modulation of Src.

    Shahzad, Mian M K; Felder, Mildred; Ludwig, Kai; Van Galder, Hannah R; Anderson, Matthew L; Kim, Jong; Cook, Mark E; Kapur, Arvinder K; Patankar, Manish S

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects of Trans10,cis12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12 CLA). MTT assays and QCM™ chemotaxis 96-wells were used to test the effect of t10,c12 CLA on the proliferation and migration and invasion of cancer cells. qPCR and Western Blotting were used to determine the expression of specific factors. RNA sequencing was conducted using the Illumina platform and apoptosis was measured using a flow cytometry assay. t10,c12 CLA (IC50, 7 μM) inhibited proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV-3 and A2780. c9,t11 CLA did not attenuate the proliferation of these cells. Transcription of 165 genes was significantly repressed and 28 genes were elevated. Genes related to ER stress, ATF4, CHOP, and GADD34 were overexpressed whereas EDEM2 and Hsp90, genes required for proteasomal degradation of misfolded proteins, were downregulated upon treatment. While apoptosis was not detected, t10,c12 CLA treatment led to 9-fold increase in autophagolysosomes and higher levels of LC3-II. G1 cell cycle arrest in treated cells was correlated with phosphorylation of GSK3β and loss of β-catenin. microRNA miR184 and miR215 were upregulated. miR184 likely contributed to G1 arrest by downregulating E2F1. miR215 upregulation was correlated with increased expression of p27/Kip-1. t10,c12 CLA-mediated inhibition of invasion and migration correlated with decreased expression of PTP1b and decreased Src activation by inhibiting phosphorylation at Tyr416. Due to its ability to inhibit proliferation and migration, t10,c12 CLA should be considered for treatment of ovarian cancer.

  12. Maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 coding regions modify the impact of prenatal supplementation with DHA on birth weight.

    Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Rzehak, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D; Garcia Feregrino, Raquel; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Demmelmair, Hans; Romieu, Isabelle; Villalpando, Salvador; Martorell, Reynaldo; Koletzko, Berthold; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2016-04-01

    Specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene affect the activity and efficiency of enzymes that are responsible for the conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into their long-chain active form. A high prevalence of SNPs that are associated with slow PUFA conversion has been described in Hispanic populations. We assessed the heterogeneity of the effect of prenatal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on birth weight across selected FADS SNPs in a sample of Mexican women and their offspring. We obtained information on the maternal genotype from stored blood samples of 654 women who received supplementation with 400 mg DHA/d or a placebo from weeks 18 to 22 of gestation through delivery as part of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Cuernavaca, Mexico. We selected 4 tag SNPs (rs174455, rs174556, rs174602, and rs498793) in the FADS region for analysis. We used an ANOVA to test for the heterogeneity of the effect on birth weight across each of the 4 SNPs. The mean ± SD birth weight was 3210 ± 470 g, and the weight-for-age z score (WAZ) was -0.24 ± 1.00. There were no intention-to-treat differences in birth weights. We showed significant heterogeneity by SNP rs174602 (P= 0.02); offspring of carriers of alleles TT and TC in the intervention group were heavier than those in the placebo group (WAZ: -0.13 ± 0.14 and -0.20 ± 0.08 compared with -0.55 ± 0.15 and -0.39 ± 0.09, respectively); there were no significant differences in offspring of rs174602 CC homozygotes (WAZ: -0.26 ± 0.09 in the intervention group compared with -0.04 ± 0.09 in the placebo group). We showed no significant heterogeneity across the other 3 FADS SNPs. Differential responses to prenatal DHA supplementation on the basis of the genetic makeup of target populations could explain the mixed evidence of the impact of DHA supplementation on birth weight. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00646360. © 2016

  13. Essential function of linoleic acid esterified in acylglucosylceramide and acylceramide in maintaining the epidermal water permeability barrier. Evidence from feeding studies with oleate, linoleate, arachidonate, columbinate and a-linolenate

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1985-01-01

    sphingolipids. These rats showed increased evaporation which was comparable to that of essential fatty acid-deficient rats. We interpret these results as strong evidence for a very specific and essential function of linoleic acid in maintaining the integrity of the epidermal water permeability barrier......Essential fatty acid-deficient rats were supplemented with 300 mg per day of pure fatty acid esters: oleate (O), linoleate (L), arachidonate (A), and columbinate (C) for 10 days. During this period, the rats in groups L, A, and C all showed a decrease in their initially high trans-epidermal water...... loss, a classical essential fatty acid-deficiency symptom, to a level seen in non-deficient rats (group N). The trans-epidermal water loss in rats of group O was unaffected by the supplementation. Fatty acid composition of two epidermal sphingolipids, acylglucosylceramide and acylceramide, from...

  14. Matrice lipidique et biodisponibilité de l’acide alpha-linolénique

    Couëdelo Leslie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Les acides gras poly-insaturés (AGPI de la série oméga-3 (ω3 ont un rôle important dans la prévention de certaines pathologies. En plus d’être nécessaires dans des conditions physiologiques particulières (développement pré- et post-natal, croissance (Riediger et al., 2009. J Am Diet Assoc 109 : 668–679, ils sont associés à des effets santé en termes de prévention, notamment au niveau de pathologies cardiovasculaires, inflammatoires, certains cancers et certaines maladies neuro-dégénératives (De Lorgeril et al., 1994. Lancet 343 : 1454–1459 ; Simopoulos, 2008. Exp Biol Med (Maywood, NJ 233 : 674–688. Cependant, les dernières études épidémiologiques montrent que les apports en AGPI ω3, et notamment en acide alpha-linolénique (ALA, précurseur métabolique des AGPI à longue chaîne ω3, sont deux fois inférieurs aux recommandations de l’Agence national de sécurité sanitaire, de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail (ANSES, 2011. Outre la nécessité d’augmenter l’apport en ALA, il est désormais nécessaire de prendre en considération les facteurs qui améliorent sa biodisponibilité. Dans ce contexte, nous avons testé plusieurs paramètres susceptibles de moduler le devenir métabolique de l’ALA. Nos recherches ont mis en évidence que plusieurs paramètres physiques et chimiques, tels que l’émulsification d’une huile linolénique avec de la lécithine de soja, la position de l’ALA sur le squelette glycérique du triglycéride alimentaire mais aussi la composition de la matrice permettraient de moduler la biodisponibilité et le devenir métabolique de l’ALA dans l’organisme.

  15. Efeito da suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado e do treinamento em natação sobre a composição corporal e os parâmetros bioquímicos de ratos Wistar em crescimento Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and swimming training on the body composition and biochemical parameters of Wistar pups

    Antonio Eduardo de Aquino Junior

    2009-08-01

    (HDL, p<0.05 increased and triacylglycerols decreased. Supplementation associated with activity decreased body mass (p<0.05 and increased the relative weight of fat tissues, liver and fasting glucose. CONCLUSION: Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation associated with physical activity seems to influence energy balance. On the other hand, the increased liver weight indicates that intake of this fatty acid may have undesirable side-effects, increasing the chances of developing fatty liver. This new perspective makes way for new studies including histological analyses of the liver and gene expression of key enzymes from the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, associated or not with different physical training protocols.

  16. Influence of oilseed supplement ranging in n-6/n-3 ratio on fatty acid composition and Δ5-, Δ6-desaturase protein expression in steer muscles.

    Turner, T D; Mitchell, A; Duynisveld, J; Pickova, J; Doran, O; McNiven, M A

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated effects of roasted or extruded oilseed supplementation ranging in n-6/n-3 ratios from 0.3 to 5.0 on the fatty acid composition and expression of delta-5 desaturase (Δ5d) and Δ6-desaturase (Δ6d) protein in commercial steer cheek (m. masseter) and diaphragm (pars costalis diaphragmatis) muscles. In general, the n-6/n-3 ratio of the diet had a subsequent effect on the muscle n-6/n-3 ratio (P muscle 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 content relating to proportion of dietary soya bean and linseed (P muscle the Δ5d protein expression had a stronger association with the desaturase products rather than the precursors. The relationship between Δ5d protein expression and the muscle LC n-6/n-3 ratio was negative in both muscles (P muscle 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 deposition, whereas the Δ5d and Δ6d protein expression had some influence on the polar lipid LC-PUFA profile. Results reaffirm that processed oilseeds can be used to increase the proportion of fatty acids potentially beneficial for human health, by influencing the formation of LC-PUFA and reducing the n-6/n-3 ratio.

  17. Linoleic acid-menthyl ester reduces the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 in HepG2 cells.

    Inoue, Nao; Yamano, Naomi; Sakata, Kotaro; Arao, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Nagao, Toshihiro; Shimada, Yuji; Nagao, Koji; Yanagita, Teruyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The effect of linoleic acid-menthyl ester (LAME) on lipid metabolism were assessed in HepG2 cells. It is well known that high level of apolipoprotein (apo) B100 in the serum is risk for atherosclerosis. Although linoleic acid (LA) treatment and LA plus L-mentol treatment increased apo B100 secretion, LAME treatment significantly decreased apo B100 secretion in HepG2 cells compared with control medium. The hypolipidemic effect of LAME was attributable to the suppression of triglyceride synthesis in HepG2 cells. It is also known that the risk of coronary heart disease is negatively related to the concentration of serum apo A-1. In the present study, LAME treatment increased apo A-1 secretion as compared with LA treatment in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that mentyl-esterification of fatty acids may be beneficial in anti-atherogenic dietary therapy.

  18. Effect of abscisic acid on the linoleic acid metabolism in developing maize embryos

    Abian, J.; Gelpi, E.; Pages, M.

    1991-01-01

    Partially purified protein extracts from maize (Zea mays L.) embryos, whether treated or not with abscisic acid (ABA), were incubated with linoleic acid (LA) and 1-[ 14 C]LA. The resulting LA metabolites were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography with a radioactivity detector and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. α- and γ-ketol metabolites arising from 9-lipoxygenase activity were the more abundant compounds detected in the incubates, although the corresponding metabolites produced by 13-lipoxygenase were also present in the samples. In addition, a group of stereoisomers originating form two isomeric trihydroxy acids (9,12,13-trihydroxy-10-octadecenoic and 9,10,13-trihydroxy-11-octadecenoic acids) are described. Important variations in the relative proportions of the LA metabolites were observed depending on the embryo developmental stage and on ABA treatment. Two new ABA-induced compounds have been detected. These compounds are present in embryos at all developmental stages, being more abundant in old (60 days) embryos. Furthermore, ABA induction of these compounds is maximum at very young development stages, decreasing as maturation progresses. A tentative structure for these compounds (10-oxo-9,13-dihydroxy-11-octadecenoic acid and 12-oxo-9,13-dihydroxy-10-octadecenoic acid) is also provided. This study revealed an early stage in maize embryogenesis characterized by a higher relative sensitivity to ABA. The physiological importance of ABA on LA metabolism is discussed

  19. Complexes between ovalbumin nanoparticles and linoleic acid: Stoichiometric, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects.

    Sponton, Osvaldo E; Perez, Adrián A; Carrara, Carlos R; Santiago, Liliana G

    2016-11-15

    Stoichiometric, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of complex formation between heat-induced aggregates of ovalbumin (ovalbumin nanoparticles, OVAn) and linoleic acid (LA) were evaluated. Extrinsic fluorescence data were fitted to modified Scatchard model yielding the following results: n: 49±2 LA molecules bound per OVA monomer unit and Ka: 9.80±2.53×10(5)M. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties were analyzed by turbidity measurements at different LA/OVA monomer molar ratios (21.5-172) and temperatures (20-40°C). An adsorption approach was used and a pseudo-second-order kinetics was found for LA-OVAn complex formation. This adsorption process took place within 1h. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that LA adsorption on OVAn was a spontaneous, endothermic and entropically-driven process, highlighting the hydrophobic nature of the LA and OVAn interaction. Finally, Atomic Force Microscopy imaging revealed that both OVAn and LA-OVAn complexes have a roughly rounded form with size lower than 100nm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates inflammation-induced colorectal cancer in mice through activation of PPARgamma.

    Evans, Nicholas P; Misyak, Sarah A; Schmelz, Eva M; Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) exerts a protective effect on experimental inflammatory bowel disease and shows promise as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer (CRC) in mice, although the mechanisms by which it exerts its beneficial effects against malignancies in the gut are not completely understood. Mice lacking PPARgamma in immune and epithelial cells and PPARgamma-expressing littermates were fed either control or CLA-supplemented (1 g CLA/100 g) diets to determine the role of PPARgamma in inflammation-induced CRC. To induce tumor formation and colitis, mice were treated with azoxymethane and then challenged with 2% dextran sodium sulfate, respectively. Dietary CLA ameliorated disease activity, decreased colitis, and prevented adenocarcinoma formation in the PPARgamma-expressing floxed mice but not in the tissue-specific PPARgamma-null mice. Dietary CLA supplementation significantly decreased the percentages of macrophages in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) regardless of the genotype and increased regulatory T cell numbers in MLN of PPARgamma-expressing, but not in the tissue-specific, PPARgamma-null mice. Colonic tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression was significantly suppressed in CLA-fed, PPARgamma-expressing mice. This study suggests CLA ameliorates colitis and prevents tumor formation in part through a PPARgamma-dependent mechanism.

  1. Lecithin-Based Nano-emulsification Improves the Bioavailability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Heo, Wan; Kim, Jun Ho; Pan, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-02-17

    In this study, we investigated the effects of lecithin-based nano-emulsification on the heat stability and bioavailability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in different free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) forms. CLA nano-emulsion in TG form exhibited a small droplet size (70-120 nm) compared to CLA nano-emulsion in FFA form (230-260 nm). Nano-emulsification protected CLA isomers in TG form, but not in free form, against thermal decomposition during the heat treatment. The in vitro bioavailability test using monolayers of Caco-2 human intestinal cells showed that nano-emulsification increased the cellular uptake of CLA in both FFA and TG forms. More importantly, a rat feeding study showed that CLA content in small intestinal tissues or plasma was higher when CLA was emulsified, indicating an enhanced oral bioavailability of CLA by nano-emulsification. These results provide important information for development of nano-emulsion-based delivery systems that improve thermal stability and bioavailability of CLA.

  2. Chemometric deconvolution of gas chromatographic unresolved conjugated linoleic acid isomers triplet in milk samples.

    Blasko, Jaroslav; Kubinec, Róbert; Ostrovský, Ivan; Pavlíková, Eva; Krupcík, Ján; Soják, Ladislav

    2009-04-03

    A generally known problem of GC separation of trans-7;cis-9; cis-9,trans-11; and trans-8,cis-10 CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) isomers was studied by GC-MS on 100m capillary column coated with cyanopropyl silicone phase at isothermal column temperatures in a range of 140-170 degrees C. The resolution of these CLA isomers obtained at given conditions was not high enough for direct quantitative analysis, but it was, however, sufficient for the determination of their peak areas by commercial deconvolution software. Resolution factors of overlapped CLA isomers determined by the separation of a model CLA mixture prepared by mixing of a commercial CLA mixture and CLA isomer fraction obtained by the HPLC semi-preparative separation of milk fatty acids methyl esters were used to validate the deconvolution procedure. Developed deconvolution procedure allowed the determination of the content of studied CLA isomers in ewes' and cows' milk samples, where dominant isomer cis-9,trans-11 is eluted between two small isomers trans-7,cis-9 and trans-8,cis-10 (in the ratio up to 1:100).

  3. Effect of oral supplementation of the linoleic and gammalinolenic acids on the diabetic pregnant rats

    Marcos Consonni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the direct protective action of oral fatty acid supplementation against the deleterious effect of hyperglycemia on maternal reproductive outcomes; fetal growth and development on female Wistar rats. The animals were distributed into four experimental groups: G1= non-diabetic without supplementation (Control group; G2= non-diabetic treated with linoleic (LA and gammalinolenic acid (GLA (1 mL of Gamaline-V/day; G3= diabetic without supplementation and G4= diabetic treated with LA and GLA. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg. At day 21 of pregnancy, the gravid uterus was weighed and dissected to count the dead and live fetuses, resorption, implantation, and corpora lutea numbers. The fetuses were analyzed for external and internal anomalies. The treatment with Gamaline-V supplementation to diabetic rats interfered in the maternal reproductive outcome (reduced number of live fetuses and embryonic implantation; however, it protected the deleterious on the incidence of congenital anomalies caused by hyperglycemia.

  4. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients.

    Ghobadi, Hassan; Matin, Somaieh; Nemati, Ali; Naghizadeh-Baghi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    COPD patients are susceptible to anorexia, reduction of caloric intake, weight loss, and malnutrition. One of the possible mechanisms is the increase of inflammatory markers such as interleukin 1β (IL 1β ), is highly correlated with anorexia. Considering the anti-inflammatory role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients. In a double-blind clinical trial, 93 COPD patients who volunteered to participate in the study and who filled out a written consent form, were randomly assigned to control or supplementation groups. The patients in the supplementation group received 3.2 g of CLA on a daily basis for 6 weeks, while those in the control group received placebo on a daily basis for 6 weeks. For IL 1β assessment, the patients' anthropometric indices and appetite score were checked and their blood samples were collected both before and after the treatment. Moreover, in order to investigate the changes in the caloric intake trend during the study, their dietary intake levels were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall, 3 days a week at the onset, in the 4th week, and at the end of the study. Eventually, 90 patients completed the study. The results demonstrated a significant increase in appetite score ( P =0.001), average caloric intake ( P =0.01), and macronutrient intake ( P nutritional status of patients suffering from COPD through adjusting the serum level of IL 1β .

  5. A review on effects of conjugated linoleic fatty acid (CLA) upon body composition and energetic metabolism.

    Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; da Silva, Marcondes Ramos; Camacho, Augusto; Marcadenti, Aline; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is highly found in fats from ruminants and it appears to favorably modify the body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. The capacity of CLA to reduce the body fat levels as well as its benefic actions on glycemic profile, atherosclerosis and cancer has already been proved in experimental models. Furthermore, CLA supplementation may modulate the immune function, help re-synthetize of glycogen and potentiate the bone mineralization. CLA supplementation also could increase the lipolysis and reduce the accumulation of fatty acids on the adipose tissue; the putative mechanisms involved may be its action in reducing the lipase lipoprotein activity and to increase the carnitine-palmitoil-transferase-1 (CAT-1) activity, its interaction with PPARγ, and to raise the expression of UCP-1. Although studies made in human have shown some benefits of CLA supplementation as the weight loss, the results are still discordant. Moreover, some have shown adverse effects, such as negative effects on glucose metabolism and lipid profile. The purpose of this article is to review the available data regarding the benefits of CLA on the energetic metabolism and body composition, emphasizing action mechanisms.

  6. Production of Palmitoleic and Linoleic Acid in Oleaginous and Nonoleaginous Yeast Biomass

    Irena Kolouchová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the possibility of utilizing both oleaginous yeast species accumulating large amounts of lipids (Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula glutinis, Trichosporon cutaneum, and Candida sp. and traditional biotechnological nonoleaginous ones (Kluyveromyces polysporus, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as potential producers of dietetically important major fatty acids. The main objective was to examine the cultivation conditions that would induce a high ratio of dietary fatty acids and biomass. Though genus-dependent, the type of nitrogen source had a higher influence on biomass yield than the C/N ratio. The nitrogen source leading to the highest lipid accumulation was potassium nitrate, followed by ammonium sulfate, which is an ideal nitrogen source supporting, in both oleaginous and nonoleaginous species, sufficient biomass growth with concomitantly increased lipid accumulation. All yeast strains displayed high (70–90% content of unsaturated fatty acids in total cell lipids. The content of dietary fatty acids of interest, namely, palmitoleic acid and linoleic acid, reached in Kluyveromyces and Trichosporon strains over 50% of total fatty acids and the highest yield, over 280 mg per g of dry cell weight of these fatty acids, was observed in Trichosporon with ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source at C/N ratio 70.

  7. role of conjugated linoleic acid in the prevention of radiation hazard in male rats

    Hussien, E.M.; Osman, N.N.; Haggag, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    the objective of the present study was to examine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a natural product in minimizing the radiation hazards. male rats were assigned to six groups each of 7 animals throughout six weeks, fed 1% CLA (wt/wt)added to commercial diet in the form of milk powder 182 g/kg diet. rats exposed to 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation showed significant increase in total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).triglycerides (TG), atherosclerosis index, total lipid (TL), phospholipids (ph-lipids), malondialdehyde (MDA), urea,creatinine, uric acid, calcium (Ca) and phosphorous levels associated with decrease in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), activity of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant status, body weight, testes weight and testosterone both irradiated and non-irradiated milk powder administrated to irradiated rat groups minimized the radiation damage in the assayed parameters indicating its beneficial role as a promising antioxidant in scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species

  8. Improved fatty acid analysis of conjugated linoleic acid rich egg yolk triacylglycerols and phospholipid species.

    Shinn, Sara; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jack; Proctor, Andrew

    2014-07-16

    Reports from chicken conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding trials are limited to yolk total fatty acid composition, which consistently described increased saturated fatty acids and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids. However, information on CLA triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid (PL) species is limited. This study determined the fatty acid composition of total lipids in CLA-rich egg yolk produced with CLA-rich soy oil, relative to control yolks using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), determined TAG and PL fatty acid compositions by thin-layer chromatography-GC-FID (TLC-GC-FID), identified intact PL and TAG species by TLC-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (TLC-MALDI-MS), and determined the composition of TAG and PL species in CLA and control yolks by direct flow infusion electrospray ionization MS (DFI ESI-MS). In total, 2 lyso-phosphatidyl choline (LPC) species, 1 sphingomyelin species, 17 phosphatidyl choline species, 19 TAG species, and 9 phosphatidyl ethanolamine species were identified. Fifty percent of CLA was found in TAG, occurring predominantly in C52:5 and C52:4 TAG species. CLA-rich yolks contained significantly more LPC than did control eggs. Comprehensive lipid profiling may provide insight on relationships between lipid composition and the functional properties of CLA-rich eggs.

  9. Mathematical Modelling to Predict Oxidative Behaviour of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Food Processing Industry

    Aitziber Ojanguren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Industrial processes that apply high temperatures in the presence of oxygen may compromise the stability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA bioactive isomers. Statistical techniques are used in this study to model and predict, on a laboratory scale, the oxidative behaviour of oil with high CLA content, controlling the limiting factors of food processing. This modelling aims to estimate the impact of an industrial frying process (140 °C, 7 L/h air on the oxidation of CLA oil for use as frying oil instead of sunflower oil. A factorial design was constructed within a temperature (80–200 °C and air flow (7–20 L/h range. Oil stability index (Rancimat method was used as a measure of oxidation. Three-level full factorial design was used to obtain a quadratic model for CLA oil, enabling the oxidative behaviour to be predicted under predetermined process conditions (temperature and air flow. It is deduced that temperatures applied in food processes affect the oxidation of CLA to a greater extent than air flow. As a result, it is estimated that the oxidative stability of CLA oil is less resistant to industrial frying than sunflower oil. In conclusion, thanks to the mathematical model, a good choice of the appropriate industrial food process can be selected to avoid the oxidation of the bioactive isomers of CLA, ensuring its functionality in novel applications.

  10. Reaction product of pyrogallol with methyl linoleate and its antioxidant potential for biodiesel

    Sutanto, H.; Ainny, L.; Lukman; Susanto, B. H.; Nasikin, M.

    2018-03-01

    The demand of biodiesel as an alternative fuel is increasing due to fossil fuel depletion. Biodiesel is a renewable diesel fuel in the form of fatty acid methyl ester or FAME as a result of an esterification of plant oils in a presence of catalyst. Compared to the conventional diesel fuel, biodiesel is more biodegradable, has higher lubricity, and lower toxic emissions. However, the high content of unsaturated fatty acid leads to a problem that biodiesel is prone to oxidation during storage period. This oxidation instability causes degradation of fuel quality and will affect engine performance. Pyrogallol and other phenolic derivatives have been used as the antioxidant additives to prevent biodiesel oxidation. As reported in many researches, pyrogallol is one of the best phenolic antioxidant. However, its low solubility in biodiesel needs an attention. Several reports indicate the increasing solubility of pyrogallol using molecule modification with the addition of alkyl groups to its benzene ring via electrophilic substitution. This paper discusses the idea about modification of pyrogallol molecule and methyl linoleate using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in order to increase its solubility in biodiesel while keeping its antioxidant property. Three responses were analyzed to examine the antioxidant activity: iodine value, viscosity, and color intensity. The result shown that the addition of 0.1% reaction product exhibit antioxidant activity in biodiesel.

  11. The effects of conjugated linoleic acids on breast cancer: A systematic review

    Arman Arab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently prevention strategies for breast cancer are focused on lifestyle modification such as diet. Some dietary factors such as Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA can lower the risk of breast cancer, metastasis and some factors concerning this malignancy. Many studies have been established in this field, but their results are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated this association based on systematic review among published scientific literature. We performed an electronic search using PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Google Scholar and Persian database (Iran Medex, magiran to identify relevant studies. We summarized the findings of 8 papers in this review. Although, three cohort studies were not overall identified a protective effect of CLA dietary intake or CLA content in breast tissue on breast cancer incidence, metastasis and death, one of them showed an inverse association after adjusting for age. Also, among case-control studies a weak inverse association between breast cancer risk and CLA dietary intake and serum levels among post-menopausal women was reported. Besides, a clinical trial showed that some indicator of breast tumor decreased after CLA administration among women with breast adenocarcinoma. Lacking published evidence suggested inconsistent results. So, further well-designed studies are required, particularly in considering the main breast cancer risk factors.

  12. Impact of lactic acid bacteria on conjugated linoleic acid content and atherogenic index of butter

    L Roufegari-Nejad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a study aimed to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Sterptococcus thermophilus (as thermophilic culture, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, cremoris and diacetylactis, Leuconostoc citrovorum (as mesophilic culture, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium lactis and a mixed culture of L.acidophilus, L. casei and B. lactis on fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and atherogenic index (AI of butter. Fatty acid analysis with gas chromatography indicated that application of thermophilic and mixed culture decreased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acid; whereas, the butters made with L. acidophilus had the highest content of CLA. Moreover, AI in the samples prepared with thermophilic cultures was the least. Sensory evaluation of the treatments revealed no significant differences (p> 0/05 in appearance and color. However, the butters prepared with thermophilic and mesophilic cultures had more desirable taste in comparison with the samples made with L. acidophilus, L. casei and B. lactis. From the nutritional point of view, the adverse effect of butter could be diminished via the application of selected lactic acid bacteria.

  13. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice

    Chaplin, Alice; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute...

  14. Autoxidation of conjugated linoleic acid methyl ester in the presence of α-tocopherol: the hydroperoxide pathway

    Pajunen, Taina

    2009-01-01

    The autoxidation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is poorly understood in spite of increasing interest in the beneficial biological properties of CLA and growing consumption of CLA-rich foods. In this thesis, the autoxidation reactions of the two major CLA isomers, 9-cis,11-trans-octadecadienoic acid and 10-trans,12-cis-octadecadienoic acid, are investigated. The results contribute to an understanding of the early stages of the autoxidation of CLA methyl ester, and provide for the first time...

  15. Production of volatiles in fresh-cut apple: effect of applying alginate coatings containing linoleic acid or isoleucine.

    Maya-Meraz, Irma O; Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Molina-Corral, Francisco J; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Jacobo-Cuellar, Juan L; Sepulveda, David R; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2014-11-01

    One of the main quality parameters in apples is aroma, its main precursors are fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). In this study, alginate edible coatings were used as carriers of linoleic acid or isoleucine to serve as precursors for the production of aroma in cut apples. Apple wedges were immersed in a CaCl2 solution and coated with one of the following formulations: alginate solution (Alg-Ca), Alg-Ca-low-level linoleic acid (0.61 g/Lt), (LFA), Alg-Ca-high-level linoleic acid (2.44 g/L; HFA), Alg-Ca-low-level isoleucine (0.61 g/L; LAA), and Alg-Ca-high-level isoleucine (2.44 g/L; HAA). Apple wedges were stored at 3 °C and 85% relative humidity for 21 d and key volatiles were studied during storage. Addition of precursors, mainly isoleucine, showed to increase the production of some key volatiles on coated fresh-cut apples during storage. The concentration of 2-methyl-1-butanol was 4 times higher from day 12 to day 21 in HAA, while 2-methyl butyl acetate increased from day 12 to day 21 in HAA. After 21 d, HAA-apples presented a 40-fold value of 2-methyl-butyl acetate, compared to Alg-Ca cut apples. Values of hexanal increased during cut apple storage when the coating carried linoleic acid, mainly on HFA, from 3 to 12 d. The ability of apples to metabolize AA and FA depends on the concentration of precursors, but also depends on key enzymes, previous apple storage, among others. Further studies should be done to better clarify the behavior of fresh-cut apples as living tissue to metabolize precursors contained in edible coatings for the production of volatiles. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Comparative profiling of miRNA expression in developing seeds of high linoleic and high oleic safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. plants

    Shijiang eCao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils high in oleic acid are considered to be advantageous because of their better nutritional value and potential industrial applications. The oleic acid content in the classic safflower oil is normally 10-15% while a natural mutant (ol accumulates elevated oleic acid up to 70% in seed oil. As a part of our investigation into the molecular features of the high oleic (HO trait in safflower we have profiled the microRNA (miRNA populations in developing safflower seeds expressing the ol allele in comparison to the wild type high linoleic (HL safflower using deep sequencing technology. The small RNA populations of the mid-maturity developing embryos of homozygous ol HO and wild type HL safflower had a very similar size distribution pattern, however, only ~16.5% of the unique small RNAs were overlapping in these two genotypes. From these two small RNA populations we have found 55 known miRNAs and identified two candidate novel miRNA families to be likely unique to the developing safflower seeds. Target genes with conserved as well as novel functions were predicted for the conserved miRNAs. We have also identified 13 miRNAs differentially expressed between the HO and HL safflower genotypes. The results may lay a foundation for unravelling the miRNA-mediated molecular processes that regulate oleic acid accumulation in the HO safflower mutant and developmental processes in safflower embryos in general.

  17. Oleic acid and linoleic acid from Tenebrio molitor larvae inhibit BACE1 activity in vitro: molecular docking studies.

    Youn, Kumju; Yun, Eun-Young; Lee, Jinhyuk; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

    2014-02-01

    In our ongoing research to find therapeutic compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) from natural resources, the inhibitory activity of the BACE1 enzyme by Tenebrio molitor larvae and its major compounds were evaluated. The T. molitor larvae extract and its fractions exhibited strong BACE1 suppression. The major components of hexane fraction possessing both high yield and strong BACE1 inhibition were determined by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. A remarkable composition of unsaturated long chain fatty acids, including oleic acid and linoleic acid, were identified. Oleic acid, in particular, noncompetitively attenuated BACE1 activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) value of 61.31 μM and Ki value of 34.3 μM. Furthermore, the fatty acids were stably interacted with BACE1 at different allosteric sites of the enzyme bound with the OH of CYS319 and the NH₃ of TYR320 for oleic acid and with the C=O group of GLN304 for linoleic acid. Here, we first revealed novel pharmacophore features of oleic acids and linoleic acid to BACE1 by in silico docking studies. The present findings would clearly suggest potential guidelines for designing novel BACE1 selective inhibitors.

  18. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  19. Effect of substratum, serum and linoleic acid on the lipid synthesis of isolated alveolar type II cells

    Cott, G.R.; Edeen, K.E.; Hale, S.G.; Mason, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of cellular substratum (plastic or amnionic basement membrane (ABM)) and serum additive (fetal bovine (FBS), pork, horse, rat or human) on phospholipid synthesis in alveolar type II cells. The cells were isolated from adult rats, cultured for 48 hours under the various substratum and serum conditions, and then incubated for an additional 2 hours with [1- 14 C] acetate. ABM consistently caused a significant increase in the percent of radiolabel incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) and/or phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Serum also had a significant effect with the highest values of PC and saturated PC being obtained with rat serum and the highest PG values with horse serum. The fatty acid composition of the sera used varied according to species with the largest variations in percent linoleic acid. Supplementing media with linoleic acid resulted in a marked increase in saturated PC values and a fall in PG values. Therefore, they conclude that: 1) ABM improves differentiated function, 2) FBS supplementation may not be optimal, and 3) the different effects of linoleic acid supplementation on PC, saturated PC, and PG values suggests an independent regulation of synthesis for these lipid species in vitro

  20. [The isozymes of stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase and insulin activity in the light of phylogenetic theory of pathology. Oleic fatty acid and realization of biologic functions of trophology and locomotion].

    2013-11-01

    The formation of function of isozymes of stearil-coenzymeA-desaturases occured at the different stages of phylogeny under realization of biologic function of trophology (stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 1) and biologic function of locomotion, insulin system (stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2) billions years later. The stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 1 transforms in C 18:1 oleic fatty acid only exogenous C 16:0 palmitinic saturated fatty acid. The stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2 transforms only endogenic palmitinic saturated fatty acid, synthesized form glucose. The biologic role of insulin is in energy support of biologic function of locomotion. Insulin through expressing stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2 transforms energetically non-optimal palmitinic variation of metabolism of substrates into highly effective oleic variation for cells' groundwork of energy (saturated fatty acid and mono fatty acid). The surplus of palmitinic saturated fatty acid in food is enabled in pathogenesis of resistance to insulin and derangement of synthesis of hormone by beta-cells of islets. The resistance to insulin and diabetes mellitus are primarily the derangement of metabolism of saturated fatty acids with mono fatty acids, energy problems of organism and only afterwards the derangement of metabolism of carbohydrates. It is desirable to restrict food intake of exogenous palmitinic saturated fatty acid. The reasons are low expression of independent of insulin stearil-coenzymeA-desaturase 2, marked lipotoxicity of polar form of palmitinic saturated fatty acid and synthesis of non-optimal palmitinic triglycerides instead of physiologic and more energetically more effective oleic triglycerides.

  1. The influence of feeding linoleic, gamma-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid rich oils on rat brain tumor fatty acids composition and fatty acid binding protein 7 mRNA expression

    Abdi Khosro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies indicate that gamma linolenic acid (GLA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA may inhibit glioma cells growth but effects of oral consumption of these fatty acids on brain tumor fatty acid composition have not been determined in vivo. Methods GLA oil (GLAO; 72% GLA, DHA oil (DHAO; 73% DHA were fed to adult wistar rats (1 mL/rat/day starting one week prior to C6 glioma cells implantation and continued for two weeks after implantation. Control group were fed same amount of high linoleic acid safflower oil (74–77% linoleic acid. Fatty acid composition of tumor samples was determined in a set of 8–12 animals in each group and serum fatty acid in 6 animals per each group. Gene expression of tumor fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ and retinoid × receptor-α (RXR-α were determined in a set of 18 animals per group. Results DHAO feeding increased EPA of brain tumors and decreased ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. Serum levels of EPA were also increased in DHAO group. A similar trend in serum and tumor levels of DHA were observed in DHAO group but it did not achieve statistical significance. GLAO increased serum concentration of GLA but had no significant effect on tumor GLA or dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA concentrations. Gene expression of FABP7 was up-regulated in tumors of DHAO group but no other significant effects were observed on EGFR, PPAR-γ or RXR-α expression, and expression of these genes in tumors of GLAO were not different from SFO group. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of DHA containing oil could be an effective way to increase levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids in brain tumors and this increase may be mediated partly by up-regulation of FABP7 expression.

  2. Induction of 1-acylglycerophosphocholine acyltransferase genes by fibrates in the liver of rats.

    Yamazaki, Tohru; Wakabayashi, Michiko; Ikeda, Erika; Tanaka, Shizuyo; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Kudo, Naomi; Kawashima, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    The effect of fibrates (clofibric acid, bezafibrate and fenofibrate) on the gene expression and activity of 1-acylglycerophosphocholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) was investigated. The administration of 0.1% (w/w) clofibric acid, bezafibrate or fenofibrate in diet for 14 d to rats induced LPCAT activity in hepatic microsomes in the following order: fenofibrate>bezafibrate>clofibric acid. The LPCAT induced by fenofibrate preferred to arachidonoyl-CoA and linoleoyl-CoA to a greater extent than did LPCAT in control microsomes. The treatment with the fibrates resulted in upregulation of the relative expression of mRNAs encoding LPCAT3 and LPCAT4 in the following order: fenofibrate>bezafibrate>clofibric acid. The administration of fibrates did not change the expression of genes encoding either LPCAT1 or LPCAT2. The treatment with fibrates elevated relative levels of both mRNAs encoding Δ6 desaturase (Fads2) and Δ5 desaturase (Fads1) in the order of fenofibrate>bezafibrate>clofibric acid, and the extent of the increase in the level of Δ6 desaturase mRNA was greater than that of Δ5 desaturase. Fatty acid profile in hepatic phosphatidylcholine (PC) was significantly changed by the treatments with fibrates. These results suggest (i) that fibrates induce LPCAT activity in hepatic microsomes by elevating the expression of genes encoding LPCAT3 and LPCAT4, (ii) that the changes in fatty acid profile of hepatic PC are, in part, due to the elevated expression of two isoforms, LPCAT3 and LPCAT4, and (iii) that the ability of fibrates to induce these changes are in the order of fenofibrate>bezafibrate>clofibric acid.

  3. Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 Protects Cells against Lipotoxicity-Mediated Apoptosis in Proximal Tubular Cells

    Tamaki Iwai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Saturated fatty acid (SFA-related lipotoxicity is a pathogenesis of diabetes-related renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTEC damage, closely associated with a progressive decline in renal function. This study was designed to identify a free fatty acid (FFA metabolism-related enzyme that can protect PTECs from SFA-related lipotoxicity. Among several enzymes involved in FFA metabolism, we identified stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1, whose expression level significantly decreased in the kidneys of high-fat diet (HFD-induced diabetic mice, compared with non-diabetic mice. SCD1 is an enzyme that desaturates SFAs, converting them to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, leading to the formation of neutral lipid droplets. In culture, retrovirus-mediated overexpression of SCD1 or MUFA treatment significantly ameliorated SFA-induced apoptosis in PTECs by enhancing intracellular lipid droplet formation. In contrast, siRNA against SCD1 exacerbated the apoptosis. Both overexpression of SCD1 and MUFA treatment reduced SFA-induced apoptosis via reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured PTECs. Thus, HFD-induced decrease in renal SCD1 expression may play a pathogenic role in lipotoxicity-induced renal injury, and enhancing SCD1-mediated desaturation of SFA and subsequent formation of neutral lipid droplets may become a promising therapeutic target to reduce SFA-induced lipotoxicity. The present study provides a novel insight into lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

  4. Concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid.

    Gessner, D K; Most, E; Schlegel, G; Kupczyk, K; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) changes the concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows. To investigate this hypothesis, Holstein cows received daily from 3 weeks ante-partum to 14 weeks post-partum either 172 g of a CLA-free rumen-protected control fat (control group, n = 20) or the same amount of a rumen-protected CLA fat, supplying 4.3 g of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and 3.8 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA per d (CLA group, n = 20). Milk samples (collected at weeks 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 of lactation) were analysed for retinol, α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Milk of cows supplemented with CLA had higher concentrations of retinol (+34%), α-tocopherol (+44%) and γ-tocopherol (+21%) than milk of control cows (p tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, respectively, p tocopherols, concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, determined in milk of week 5, were lower in cows of the CLA group than in control cows, indicative of a lower susceptibility of milk lipids to peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of retinol and α-tocopherol, determined at 1 and 5 weeks post-partum, were not different between the two groups of cows. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementing dairy cows with a moderate amount of CLA causes an increase of the concentrations of vitamins A and E in the milk and results in an increased output of those vitamins via milk. These effects might be beneficial with respect to the nutritional value of dairy products and the susceptibility of milk fat to oxidative deterioration. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Supplemental safflower oil affects the fatty acid profile, including conjugated linoleic acid, of lamb.

    Boles, J A; Kott, R W; Hatfield, P G; Bergman, J W; Flynn, C R

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing levels of dietary safflower oil would alter unsaturated fat (especially CLA) and tocopherol content of lamb, animal performance, carcass characteristics, or color stability of lamb muscle tissue. Targhee x Rambouillet wethers (n = 60) were assigned to one of three diets (four pens per treatment with five lambs per pen) in a completely random design. Diets were formulated with supplemental safflower oil at 0 (control), 3, or 6% (as-fed basis) of the diet. Diets containing approximately 80% concentrate and 20% roughage were formulated, on a DM basis, to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous and to meet or exceed NRC requirements for Ca, P, and other nutrients. A subsample of 12 wethers per treatment was selected based on average BW (54 kg) and slaughtered. Carcass data (LM area, fat thickness, and internal fat content) and wholesale cut weight (leg, loin, rack, shoulder, breast, and foreshank), along with fatty acid, tocopherol, and color analysis, were determined on each carcass. The LM and infraspinatus were sampled for fatty acid profile. Increasing safflower oil supplementation from 0 to 3 or 6% increased the proportion of linoleic acid in the diet from 49.93 to 55.32 to 62.38%, respectively, whereas the percentage of oleic acid decreased from 27.94 to 23.80 to 20.73%, respectively. The percentage of oil in the diet did not (P > or = 0.11) alter the growth and carcass characteristics of lambs, nor did it alter the tocopherol content or color stability of meat. Increasing levels of safflower oil in lamb diets decreased (P safflower oil, up to 6% of the diet, resulted in increasing levels of unsaturated fatty acids and CLA in the lean tissue, without adversely affecting growth performance, carcass characteristics, or color stability of lamb.

  6. Characterization and stability analysis of zinc oxide nanoencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid.

    Choy, Jin-Ho; Shin, Jiwon; Lim, Seung-Yong; Oh, Jae-Min; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Oh, Sangsuk

    2010-08-01

    Nanoencapsulation technology has a diverse range of applications, including drug-delivery systems (DDS) and cosmetic and chemical carriers, because it can deliver various bio- and organic-molecules and improve their stabilities. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has health benefits, including being an anticancer agent, but it decreases flavor due to volatiles from oxidation. To improve the stability of CLA for food applications, nanoencapsulated CLA was synthesized for use in zinc basic salt (ZBS) and characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental CHN analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, UV/VIS spectroscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of nanoencapsulated CLA at 180 degrees C, a temperature similar to that used in cooking, was analyzed by gas chromatography. The gallery height of nanoencapsulated CLA was determined to be approximately 26 A through powder X-ray diffractometry; therefore, the CLA molecules were closely packed with zig-zag form between the intracrystalline spaces of nano particles. Elemental CHN analysis and ICP data determined the chemical composition of nanoencapsulated CLA to be Zn(4.86)(OH)(8.78)(CLA)(0.94). By TGA, it was determined about 45% (wt/wt) of weight loss corresponded to CLA, which is good agreement with the 42.13% (wt/wt) determined from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and elemental CHN analysis. UV/VIS spectroscopy and Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed encapsulated CLA maintained a conjugated diene structure, supporting the presence of CLA. Nanoencapsulation improved the thermal stability of CLA by about 25%, compared to pristine CLA. Practical Application: This system can be used for protection of encapsulated negatively-charged food ingredients from thermal processing.

  7. Determination of the conjugated linoleic acid-containing triacylglycerols in New Zealand bovine milk fat.

    Robinson, N P; MacGibbon, A K

    2000-07-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection at 233 nm was used to separate, quantify, and identify the triacylglycerols (TAG) of milk fat that contain conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The absorbance at 233 nm was substantially due to CLA-TAG (chromatography of some representative TAG devoid of CLA, such as tripalmitin and triolein, showed poor responses at 233 nm, 1/800th that of CLA-TAG). A CLA molar extinction coefficient at 233 nm of 23,360 L mol(-1) cm(-1) and an HPLC UV response factor were obtained from a commercially available cis-9,trans-11-CLA standard. This molar extinction coefficient was only 86% of reported literature values. Summation of all chromatographic peaks absorbing at 233 nm using the corrected response factor gave good agreement with independent determinations of total CLA by gas chromatography and UV spectrophotometry. This agreement allowed quantification of individual CLA-TAG peaks in the HPLC separation of a typical New Zealand bovine milk fat. Three CLA-containing TAG, CLA-dipalmitin, CLA-oleoyl-palmitin and CLA-diolein, were prepared by interesterification of tripalmitin with the respective fatty acid methyl esters and used to assign individual peaks in the reversed-phase chromatography of total milk fat, of which CLA-oleoyl-palmitin was coincident with the largest UV peak. Band fractions from argentation thin-layer chromatography of total milk fat were similarly employed to identify five predominant CLA-TAG groups in total milk fat: CLA-disaturates, CLA-oleoyl-saturates, CLA-vaccenyl-saturates, CLA-vaccenyl-olein, and CLA-diolein.

  8. Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid and trans 18:1 isomers in synthetic and animal products.

    Kramer, John K G; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Deng, Zeyuan; Zhou, Jianqiang; Jahreis, Gerhard; Dugan, Michael E R

    2004-06-01

    The chemistry of conjugated fatty acids, specifically octadecadienoic acids (18:2; commonly referred to as conjugated linoleic acid, or CLA), has provided many challenges to lipid analysts because of their unique physical properties and the many possible positional and geometric isomers. After the acid-labile properties of CLAs during analytic procedures were overcome, it became evident that natural products, specifically dairy fats, contain one dominant (c9,t11-CLA), 3 intermediate (t7,c9-, t9,c11-, and t11,c13-CLA), and up to 20 more minor CLA isomers. The best analytic techniques to date include a combination of gas chromatography that uses 100-m highly polar capillary columns, silver ion-HPLC, and a combination of silver ion-thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography to analyze the CLA and trans 18:1 isomers, because some of them serve as precursors of CLA in biological systems. These analytic techniques have assisted commercial suppliers to prepare pure CLA isomers and have permitted the evaluation of individual CLA isomers for their nutritional and biological activity in animal and human systems. It is increasingly evident that different CLA isomers have distinctly different physiologic and biochemical properties. These techniques are essential to evaluate dairy fats for their CLA content, to design experimental diets to increase the amount of CLA in dairy fats, and to determine the CLA profile in these CLA-enriched dairy fats. These improved techniques are used to evaluate the CLA profile in pork products from pigs fed different commercial CLA mixtures.

  9. Total fatty acid content of the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is more responsible for ethanol tolerance than the degree of unsaturation.

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Na-Rae; Choi, Wonja

    2011-03-01

    The effect of change in unsaturated fatty acid composition on ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae overexpressing ScOLE1 (∆9 fatty acid desaturase gene of S. cerevisiae), CaFAD2 (∆12 fatty acid desaturase gene of Candida albicans), or CaFAD3 (ω3 fatty acid desaturase gene of C. albicans) was examined. ScOLE1 over-expression increased the total unsaturated fatty acid content and enhanced ethanol tolerance, compared with a control strain. In contrast, overexpression of CaFAD2 and CaFAD3, which led to production of linoleic acid (18:2) and α-linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, neither changed total unsaturated fatty acids nor enhanced ethanol tolerance. The total unsaturated fatty acid content rather than the degree of unsaturation is thus an important factor for ethanol tolerance.

  10. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  11. Conjugated linoleic acid induces apoptosis through estrogen receptor alpha in human breast tissue

    Liu Suling

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a naturally occurring fatty acid found in ruminant products such as milk and beef, has been shown to possess anti-cancer activities in in vivo animal models and in vitro cell culture systems. In human breast cancer, the overall duration of estrogen exposure is the most important risk factor for developing estrogen-responsive breast cancer. Accordingly, it has been suggested that estrogen exposure reduces apoptosis through the up-regulation of the anti-apoptosis protein, Bcl-2. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, regulates apoptosis and plays a crucial role in the development and growth regulation of normal and cancerous cells. Our research interest is to examine the effects of CLA on the induction of apoptosis in human breast tissues. Methods The localization of Bcl-2 in both normal and cancerous human breast tissues was determined by immunohistochemical staining and the Bcl-2 protein expression was tested by western blot analysis. Co-culture of epithelial cells and stromal cells was carried out in the presence or absence of CLA to evaluate apoptosis in the context of a cell-cell interaction. Results The results showed that both normal and cancerous breast tissues were positive for Bcl-2 staining, which was higher overall in mammary ducts but very low in the surrounding stromal compartment. Interestingly, by quantifying the western blot data, basal Bcl-2 protein levels were higher in normal breast epithelial cells than in cancerous epithelial cells. Furthermore, treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2 stimulated growth and up-regulated Bcl-2 expression in estrogen responsive breast epithelial cells; however, these carcinogenic effects were diminished by either CLA or 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (Tam and were suppressed further by the combination of CLA and Tam. In both one cell type cultured and co-culture systems, CLA induced cell apoptosis in ERα transfected MDA-MB-231 cells but not in the wild type MDA

  12. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients

    Ghobadi H

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Ghobadi,1 Somaieh Matin,2 Ali Nemati,3 Abbas Naghizadeh-baghi4 1Pulmonary Division, 2Internal Medicine Department, 3Biochemistry and Nutrition Department, 4Basic Sciences Department, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran Background: COPD patients are susceptible to anorexia, reduction of caloric intake, weight loss, and malnutrition. One of the possible mechanisms is the increase of inflammatory markers such as interleukin 1β (IL1β, is highly correlated with anorexia. Considering the anti-inflammatory role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, this study aimed to investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on the nutritional status of COPD patients.Patients and methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, 93 COPD patients who volunteered to participate in the study and who filled out a written consent form, were randomly assigned to control or supplementation groups. The patients in the supplementation group received 3.2 g of CLA on a daily basis for 6 weeks, while those in the control group received placebo on a daily basis for 6 weeks. For IL1β assessment, the patients’ anthropometric indices and appetite score were checked and their blood samples were collected both before and after the treatment. Moreover, in order to investigate the changes in the caloric intake trend during the study, their dietary intake levels were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall, 3 days a week at the onset, in the 4th week, and at the end of the study. Eventually, 90 patients completed the study.Results: The results demonstrated a significant increase in appetite score (P=0.001, average caloric intake (P=0.01, and macronutrient intake (P<0.05, while a significant decrease was observed in the serum level of IL1β among the patients of the supplementation group (P=0.008. Meanwhile, although the supplementation group’s body mass index was also higher on completion, compared to their own initial state as well as to that in the control

  13. Evaluation of conjugated linoleic acid and dietary antibiotics as growth promotants in weanling pigs.

    Weber, T E; Schinckel, A P; Houseknecht, K L; Richert, B T

    2001-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a growth promotant in weanling swine. Weanling pigs (n = 192; 7.6 kg and 29 d of age) were randomly assigned to four treatments that were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. Concentrations of dietary CLA (0 or 0.6%) and antibiotics (+/-) constituted the main effect variables. Dietary CLA treatments consisted of a 1% addition of an oil containing 60% CLA isomers or 1% soybean oil, and dietary antibiotic treatments were antibiotics or no antibiotics. The experimental diets were fed for 9 wk in four phases (1, wk 1; 2, wk 2 and 3; 3, wk 4 through 6; and 4, wk 7 through 9), after which all pigs were fed identical medicated diets for the duration of the finishing phase. Live weights were recorded at wk 17 postweaning and at marketing to determine any residual effects of dietary treatments on finisher ADG and days to market. Medicated diets fed during phases 1 and 2 contained 55 mg carbadox/kg; during phase 3 contained 299 mg tilmicosin/kg; and during phase 4 contained 110 mg tylosin and 110 mg sulfamethazine/kg. Pigs fed medicated diets had higher overall ADG than pigs fed unmedicated diets for wk 0 through 9 (P pigs fed medicated diets than for pigs fed unmedicated diets during phase 1 (P residual effects of nursery CLA or antibiotics on finisher ADG and days to market. Blood samples collected from a subset of pigs (n = 72) at the completion of phases 2, 3, and 4 were assayed for serum IGF-I and antibody concentrations to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. There was a tendency for pigs fed medicated diets to have greater IGF-I concentrations than pigs fed unmedicated diets at the completion of phase 4 (P Pigs fed CLA had greater antibody titers (P pigs fed diets without CLA. These results indicate that feeding 0.6% dietary CLA did not enhance growth performance in weanling swine and that the use of dietary antibiotics can

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid induces apoptosis through estrogen receptor alpha in human breast tissue

    Wang, Li-Shu; Huang, Yi-Wen; Liu, Suling; Yan, Pearlly; Lin, Young C

    2008-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a naturally occurring fatty acid found in ruminant products such as milk and beef, has been shown to possess anti-cancer activities in in vivo animal models and in vitro cell culture systems. In human breast cancer, the overall duration of estrogen exposure is the most important risk factor for developing estrogen-responsive breast cancer. Accordingly, it has been suggested that estrogen exposure reduces apoptosis through the up-regulation of the anti-apoptosis protein, Bcl-2. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, regulates apoptosis and plays a crucial role in the development and growth regulation of normal and cancerous cells. Our research interest is to examine the effects of CLA on the induction of apoptosis in human breast tissues. The localization of Bcl-2 in both normal and cancerous human breast tissues was determined by immunohistochemical staining and the Bcl-2 protein expression was tested by western blot analysis. Co-culture of epithelial cells and stromal cells was carried out in the presence or absence of CLA to evaluate apoptosis in the context of a cell-cell interaction. The results showed that both normal and cancerous breast tissues were positive for Bcl-2 staining, which was higher overall in mammary ducts but very low in the surrounding stromal compartment. Interestingly, by quantifying the western blot data, basal Bcl-2 protein levels were higher in normal breast epithelial cells than in cancerous epithelial cells. Furthermore, treatment with 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) stimulated growth and up-regulated Bcl-2 expression in estrogen responsive breast epithelial cells; however, these carcinogenic effects were diminished by either CLA or 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (Tam) and were suppressed further by the combination of CLA and Tam. In both one cell type cultured and co-culture systems, CLA induced cell apoptosis in ERα transfected MDA-MB-231 cells but not in the wild type MDA-MB-231 cells. These data, therefore, demonstrate that

  15. Detection of biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid in kaymak

    Ökten, Sevtap

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous physiological effects are attributed to conjugated linoleic acids (CLA. Biologically active isomers of CLA ( cis -9, trans -11 (C18:2 and trans- 10, cis- 12 (C18:2 have been reported to have anticarcinogenic, antioxidative and antiatherosclerotic properties. Relatively rich sources of CLA include milk fat-containing foods such as kaymak. Kaymak is a kind of concentrated cream which is traditionally manufactured from buffalo or cow's milk mainly in Turkey . The objective of this study was to determine CLA concentrations during kaymak production. Kaymak was manufactured from cow's milk which was enriched with unfermented cream. Biologically active isomers of CLA in raw milk, cream and kaymak were analyzed using gas chromatography. The method was quick, repeatable and sensitive for the CLA determination of samples. Significant differences were found among the concentrations of both isomer and total CLA during the production process (pNumerosos efectos fisiológicos se atribuyen a los ácidos linoleico conjugados (CLA. Así los isómeros biológicamente activos ( cis -9, trans -11 (C18:2 y trans- 10, cis del ácido linoleico han sido descritos con propiedades anticarcinogénicas, antioxidantes y antiarterioscleróticas. Fuentes relativamente ricas de CLA incluyen alimentos con grasas lácteas tales como el kaymak. El kaymak es una crema concentrada elaborada de leche de búfalo o vaca principalmente en Turquía. El objetivo de este estudio fue la determinación de la concentración de CLA durante la producción de kaymak. El kaymak objeto de estudio fue elaborado a partir de leche de vaca que fue enriquecida con crema no fermentada. Los isómeros biológicamente activos del CLA fueron analizados por cromatografía gaseosa en leche cruda, crema y kaymak. El método empleado fue rápido, reproducible y sensible. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en las concentraciones de ambos isómeros y de CLA total durante el proceso de producci

  16. Reduced ex Vivo Interleukin-6 Production by Dietary Fish Oil Is Not Modified by Linoleic Acid Intake in Healthy Men

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Lauritzen, L.; Calder, P. C.

    2009-01-01

    production from cultures of whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and monocytes in healthy men. The study was a double-blinded, controlled, 2 X 2 factorial 8-wk intervention. Sixty-four healthy men were randomized to 5 mL/d FO or olive oil (00) provided in capsules and to spreads and oils......Fish oil (FO) is considered antiinflammatory, but evidence regarding its effect on human cytokine production is conflicting. High linoleic acid (LA) intake may impair any effects of FO. The aim of this study was to investigate how FO combined with high or low LA intake affected ex vivo cytokine...

  17. Differences in partitioning of meal fatty acids into blood lipid fractions: a comparison of linoleate, oleate, and palmitate

    Hodson, Leanne; McQuaid, Siobh?n E.; Karpe, Fredrik; Frayn, Keith N.; Fielding, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    There has been much interest in the health effects of dietary fat, but few studies have comprehensively compared the acute metabolic fate of specific fatty acids in vivo. We hypothesized that different classes of fatty acids would be variably partitioned in metabolic pathways and that this would become evident over 24 h. We traced the fate of fatty acids using equal amounts of [U-13C]linoleate, [U-13C]oleate, and [U-13C]palmitate given in a test breakfast meal in 12 healthy subjects. There wa...

  18. Direct in vivo characterization of delta 5 desaturase activity in humans by deuterium labeling: Effect of insulin

    el Boustani, S.; Causse, J.E.; Descomps, B.; Monnier, L.; Mendy, F.; Crastes de Paulet, A.

    1989-01-01

    The conversion of dihomogamma linolenic acid (DHLA) into arachidonic acid (AA) was compared in normal subjects and diabetic patients before and after treatment with insulin. The kinetics of the incorporation of deuterium-labeled DHLA and its conversion product, deuterium-labeled AA, was determined in plasma triglycerides, plasma phospholipids, and platelet lipids of subjects after ingestion of 2 g of the labeled precursor. Analysis was performed by gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using multiple ion detection. In normal subjects, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration rose to 24 to 69 mg/L in plasma triglycerides four to nine hours after ingestion and to 20 to 34 mg/L in plasma phospholipids about four hours later. Deuterium-labeled AA appeared at 12 hours, rose to 2.4 to 3.8 mg/L between 48 and 72 hours in plasma phospholipids, but remained at the limit of detection in plasma triglycerides and was undetectable in platelet lipids. In diabetic patients both before and after insulin treatment, the deuterium-labeled DHLA concentration in plasma triglycerides and in plasma phospholipids followed the same pattern as in normal subjects. However, the deuterium-labeled arachidonic acid concentration was below 1 mg/L in plasma phospholipids before insulin. After insulin treatment the patients recovered normal DHLA metabolism because deuterium-labeled AA rose in phospholipids to a mean value of 3.5 mg/L, which is in the same range as that observed in normal subjects (3.2 mg/L). The present data provide direct evidence for the conversion of DHLA into AA in humans. The effect of insulin and the data from the literature of animal studies suggest insulin dependence of delta 5 desaturase in humans

  19. Production of 7,8-Dihydroxy Unsaturated Fatty Acids from Plant Oils by Whole Recombinant Cells Expressing 7,8-Linoleate Diol Synthase from Glomerella cingulata.

    Seo, Min-Ju; Kang, Woo-Ri; Shin, Kyung-Chul; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2016-11-16

    The reaction conditions for the production of 7S,8S-dihydroxy-9,12(Z,Z)-octadecadienoic acid from linoleic acid by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing 7,8-linoleate diol synthase from Glomerella cingulata were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimal reaction conditions were pH 7.0, 18.6 °C, 10.8% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide, 44.9 g/L cells, and 14.3 g/L linoleic acid, with agitation at 256 rpm. Under these conditions, recombinant cells produced 7,8-dihydroxy unsaturated fatty acids in the range of 7.0-9.8 g/L from 14.3 g/L linoleic acid, 14.3 g/L oleic acid, and plant oil hydrolysates such as waste oil and olive oil containing 14.3 g/L linoleic acid or oleic acid. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the biotechnological production of 7,8-dihydroxy unsaturated fatty acids.

  20. [Evaluation of the possibilities to increase the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in meat and meat product].

    Piotrowska, Anna; Swiader, Katarzyna; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bozena; Swiderski, Franciszek

    2012-01-01

    The paper characterizes pro-health properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and assesses the possibility of increasing their content in pork and pork meat products. Studies conducted on animals indicate antitumor, antiatherosclerotic and antiinflammatory effect ofCLA, also find impact on reducing body fat and increasing muscle growth. However, the number of observations concerning human populations is insufficient to fully evaluate the relationship between CLA intake and reducing the risk of lifestyle diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further research. Literature data indicate that the use in pigs feed suplementation with CLA preparations, can increase the content of these compounds in the meat and also show, that isomer cis-9, trans-11 is accumulated at significantly higher level. However, these changes were accompanied by increased the share of saturated fatty acids at the expense of monounsaturated which is unfavorable for human health. A better way to increase the CLA content in pork meat appears to be the addition of CLA preparation during the production process, because it does not affect the level of saturated fats. Pork and pork meat products enriched in CLA are characterized by low susceptibility to oxidation, which may result from the coupling of double bonds, antioxidantive properties of conjugated linoleic acid and the increased content of saturated fatty acids. The issue of beneficial effects on human health of pork and pork products with a higher content of CLA, requires further studies conducted on humans. Only then these products can be classified as a functional foods.

  1. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in serum and liver of dairy cows receiving conjugated linoleic acids or a control fat supplement during early lactation.

    Sadri, H; Dänicke, S; Meyer, Ulrich; Rehage, J; Frank, J; Sauerwein, H

    2015-10-01

    The fat-soluble vitamin E comprises the 8 structurally related compounds (congeners) α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol (with a saturated side chain) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol (with a 3-fold unsaturated side chain). Little is known regarding the blood and liver concentrations of the 8 vitamin E congeners during the transition from pregnancy to lactation in dairy cows. We thus quantified tocopherols (T) and tocotrienols (T3) in serum and liver and hepatic expression of genes involved in vitamin E metabolism in pluriparous German Holstein cows during late gestation and early lactation and investigated whether dietary supplementation (from d 1 in milk) with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA; 100g/d; each 12% of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA; n=11) altered these compared with control-fat supplemented cows (CTR; n=10). Blood samples and liver biopsies were collected on d -21, 1, 21, 70, and 105 (liver only) relative to calving. In both groups, the serum concentrations of αT, γT, βT3, and δT3 increased from d -21 to d 21 and remained unchanged between d 21 and 70, but were unaffected by CLA. The concentrations of the different congeners of vitamin E in liver did not differ between the CTR and the CLA groups. In both groups, the concentrations of the vitamin E forms in liver changed during the course of the study. The hepatic mRNA abundance of genes controlling vitamin E status did not differ between groups, but α-tocopherol transfer protein and tocopherol-associated protein mRNA increased with time of lactation in both. In conclusion, the concentrations of vitamin E congeners and the expression of genes related to vitamin E status follow characteristic time-related changes during the transition from late gestation to early lactation but are unaffected by CLA supplementation at the dosage used. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Conjugated linoleic acid influences the metabolism of tocopherol in lactating rats but has little effect on tissue tocopherol concentrations in pups.

    Zeitz, Johanna O; Most, Erika; Eder, Klaus

    2016-05-31

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is known to affect the lipid metabolism in growing and lactating animals. However, potential effects on the metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins in lactating animals and co-occurring effects on their offspring are unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of dietary CLA on concentrations of tocopherol in various tissues of lactating rats and their offspring and expression of genes involved in tocopherol metabolism. Twenty-eight Wistar Han rats were allocated to 2 groups and fed either a control diet (control group) or a diet containing 0.9 % of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 (1:1) CLA (CLA group) during pregnancy and lactation. Feed intake of dams and body weight of dams and their pups were recorded weekly. Tocopherol concentrations in various body tissues were determined at day 14 of lactation in dams and 1, 7 and 14 days after birth in pups. Expression of selected genes involved in metabolism of tocopherol was determined in dams and pups. The data were statistically analysed by analysis of variance. Feed intake and body weight development of nursing rats and their pups was similar in both groups. In livers of CLA-fed dams, tocopherol concentrations decreased by 24 % but expression of TTPA and CYP3A1, involved in tocopherol transport and metabolism, were not influenced. In the dams' adipose tissue, gene expression of receptors involved in tissue tocopherol uptake, LDLR and SCARB1, but not of LPL, increased by 30 to 50 % and tocopherol concentrations increased by 47 % in CLA-fed compared to control dams. Expression of LPL, LDLR and SCARB1 in mammary gland was not influenced by CLA-feeding. Tocopherol concentrations in the pup's livers and lungs were similar in both groups, but at 14 days of age, adipose tissue tocopherol concentrations, and LDLR and SCARB1 expression, were higher in the CLA-exposed pups. We show that dietary CLA affects tissue concentrations of tocopherol in lactating rats and tocopherol metabolism in

  3. Transcriptomic Changes in Liver of Young Bulls Caused by Diets Low in Mineral and Protein Contents and Supplemented with n-3 Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Sara Pegolo

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify transcriptional modifications and regulatory networks accounting for physiological and metabolic responses to specific nutrients in the liver of young Belgian Blue × Holstein bulls using RNA-sequencing. A larger trial has been carried out in which animals were fed with different diets: 1] a conventional diet; 2] a low-protein/low-mineral diet (low-impact diet and 3] a diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids (FAs, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and vitamin E (nutraceutical diet. The initial hypothesis was that the administration of low-impact and nutraceutical diets might influence the transcriptional profiles in bovine liver and the resultant nutrient fluxes, which are essential for optimal liver function and nutrient interconversion. Results showed that the nutraceutical diet significantly reduced subcutaneous fat covering in vivo and liver pH. Dietary treatments did not affect overall liver fat content, but significantly modified the liver profile of 33 FA traits (out of the total 89 identified by gas-chromatography. In bulls fed nutraceutical diet, the percentage of n-3 and CLA FAs increased around 2.5-fold compared with the other diets, whereas the ratio of n6/n3 decreased 2.5-fold. Liver transcriptomic analyses revealed a total of 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs when comparing low-impact, nutraceutical and conventional diets, with the nutraceutical diet showing the greatest effects on liver transcriptome. Functional analyses using ClueGo and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis evidenced that DEGs in bovine liver were variously involved in energy reserve metabolic process, glutathione metabolism, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Modifications in feeding strategies affected key transcription factors regulating the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, e.g. insulin-induced gene 1, insulin receptor substrate 2, and RAR-related orphan receptor C. This study provides noteworthy

  4. Transcriptional Regulation of Δ6-Desaturase by Peroxisome Proliferative-Activated Receptor δ Agonist in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells: Role of MEK/ERK1/2 Pathway

    Maryam Darabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Δ6-desaturase (Δ6D, also known as fatty acid desaturase 2, is a regulatory enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis, which has been linked to obesity and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor δ (PPARδ agonist and MEK/ERK1/2-dependent pathway on the expression of Δ6D in human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1. PANC-1 cells cultured in RPMI-1640 were exposed to the commonly used ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor PD98059 and PPARδ agonist GW0742. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of Δ6D were then determined using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The expression of Δ6D (P40%, P25%, P<0.05 pretreatment. PPARδ and MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways affect differentially the expression of Δ6D in pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, there may be an inhibitory crosstalk between these two regulatory pathways on the mRNA expression of Δ6D and subsequently on Δ6D protein expression.

  5. TALEN-mediated targeted mutagenesis of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) promotes the accumulation of oleic acid.

    Wen, Shijie; Liu, Hao; Li, Xingyu; Chen, Xiaoping; Hong, Yanbin; Li, Haifen; Lu, Qing; Liang, Xuanqiang

    2018-05-01

    A first creation of high oleic acid peanut varieties by using transcription activator-like effecter nucleases (TALENs) mediated targeted mutagenesis of Fatty Acid Desaturase 2 (FAD2). Transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs), which allow the precise editing of DNA, have already been developed and applied for genome engineering in diverse organisms. However, they are scarcely used in higher plant study and crop improvement, especially in allopolyploid plants. In the present study, we aimed to create targeted mutagenesis by TALENs in peanut. Targeted mutations in the conserved coding sequence of Arachis hypogaea fatty acid desaturase 2 (AhFAD2) were created by TALENs. Genetic stability of AhFAD2 mutations was identified by DNA sequencing in up to 9.52 and 4.11% of the regeneration plants at two different targeted sites, respectively. Mutation frequencies among AhFAD2 mutant lines were significantly correlated to oleic acid accumulation. Genetically, stable individuals of positive mutant lines displayed a 0.5-2 fold increase in the oleic acid content compared with non-transgenic controls. This finding suggested that TALEN-mediated targeted mutagenesis could increase the oleic acid content in edible peanut oil. Furthermore, this was the first report on peanut genome editing event, and the obtained high oleic mutants could serve for peanut breeding project.

  6. Atypical antipsychotic medications increase postprandial triglyceride and glucose levels in male rats: relationship with stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity.

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Cole-Strauss, Allyson; Lipton, Jack W

    2011-06-01

    Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that the stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1) enzyme plays a key role in the regulation of triglyceride (TG) biosynthesis and insulin sensitivity, and in vitro studies have found that antipsychotic medications up-regulate Scd1 mRNA expression. To investigate these effects in vivo, rats were treated with risperidone (1.5, 3, and 6mg/kg/d), paliperidone (1.5, 3, and 6mg/kg/d), olanzapine (2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg/d), quetiapine (5, 10, and 20mg/kg/d), haloperidol (1, and 3mg/kg/d) or vehicle through their drinking water for 40days. Effects on liver Scd1 mRNA expression and an index of Scd1 activity (the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, 'desaturation index') were determined, as were postprandial plasma triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels. All atypical antipsychotics increased the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, but not liver Scd1 mRNA expression, at doses found to also increase plasma TG levels. Among all rats (n=122), the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 56% of the variance in TG concentrations. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio was also positively associated with erythrocyte and heart membrane phospholipid 18:1n-9 composition. All antipsychotics except risperidone increased glucose levels at specific doses, and none of the antipsychotics significantly altered insulin levels. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 20% of the variance in glucose levels. Plasma omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA levels were inversely correlated with the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio and TG and glucose levels. These in vivo data demonstrate that different atypical antipsychotic medications increase the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio in association with elevations in postprandial TG and glucose levels, and that concomitant elevations in PUFA biosynthesis oppose these effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Octopus vulgaris: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterisation of a Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase and an Elongation of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid 4 Protein.

    Monroig, Óscar; de Llanos, Rosa; Varó, Inmaculada; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R; Puig, Sergi; Navarro, Juan C

    2017-03-21

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been acknowledged as essential nutrients for cephalopods but the specific PUFAs that satisfy the physiological requirements are unknown. To expand our previous investigations on characterisation of desaturases and elongases involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs and hence determine the dietary PUFA requirements in cephalopods, this study aimed to investigate the roles that a stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) and an elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 4 (Elovl4) protein play in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids (FAs). Our results confirmed the Octopus vulgaris Scd is a ∆9 desaturase with relatively high affinity towards saturated FAs with ≥ C 18 chain lengths. Scd was unable to desaturate 20:1 n- 15 ( ∆5 20:1) suggesting that its role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FAs (NMI FAs) is limited to the introduction of the first unsaturation at ∆9 position. Interestingly, the previously characterised ∆5 fatty acyl desaturase was indeed able to convert 20:1 n- 9 ( ∆11 20:1) to ∆5,11 20:2, an NMI FA previously detected in octopus nephridium. Additionally, Elovl4 was able to mediate the production of 24:5 n- 3 and thus can contribute to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis through the Sprecher pathway. Moreover, the octopus Elovl4 was confirmed to play a key role in the biosynthesis of very long-chain (>C 24 ) PUFAs.

  8. The effect of micro-particles of linoleic acid emulsion on the blood-brain barrier in cats

    Kim, Hak Jin; Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Tae Hong; Pyun, Yong Seon

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeability change of the blood-brain barrier and the reversibility of the embolized lesions induced with a fat-emulsion technique by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and we also wished to evaluate the resultant histologic findings in cat brains. MR imaging was scheduled serially at 1 hour, day 1, day 4 and day 7 after infusion of linoleic acid-emulsion (0.05 ml linoleic acid + 20 ml saline) to the internal carotid artery in 12 cats. Abnormal signal intensity or contrast enhancement was evaluated on diffusion-weighted images (DWIs), the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images (Gd-T1WIs) at the stated times. MR imaging was stopped if the lesion shows isointensity and no contrast enhancement was observed at the acquisition time, and then brain tissue was harvested and examined. Light microscopic (LM) and electron microscopic (EM) examinations were performed. The embolized lesions appeared as isointensities (n = 7) or mild hyperintensities (n = 5) on DWIs, as isointensities (n = 12) on the ADC maps, and as contrast enhancements (n = 12) on Gd-T1WIs at 1 hour. The lesions showed isointensity on DWIs and the ADC maps, and as no contrast enhancement for all cats at day 1. The LM findings revealed small (< 1 cm) focal necrosis and demyelination in three cats. EM examinations showed minimal findings of small (< 3 μm) fat globules within the endothelial wall (n = 10) and mild swelling of the neuropils (< 5 μm). Widening of the interstitium or morphologic disruption of the endothelial wall was not seen. Cerebral fat embolism induced by linoleic acid emulsion revealed vasogenic edema and reversible changes as depicted on the MR images. These results might help us to understand the mechanisms of fat on the blood-brain barrier, and this technique could be used as a basic model for research of the effects of drugs on the disrupted blood-brain barrier, and also as a research

  9. Optimization of the Hydrolysis of Safflower Oil for the Production of Linoleic Acid, Used as Flavor Precursor

    Marya Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial lipases, from porcine pancreas (PPL, Candida rugosa (CRL, and Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM, were investigated in terms of their efficiency for the hydrolysis of safflower oil (SO for the liberation of free linoleic acid (LA, used as a flavor precursor. Although PPL, under the optimized conditions, showed a high degree of hydrolysis (91.6%, its low tolerance towards higher substrate concentrations could limit its use for SO hydrolysis. In comparison to the other investigated lipases, Lipozyme TL IM required higher amount of enzyme and an additional 3 h of reaction time to achieve its maximum degree of SO hydrolysis (90.2%. On the basis of the experimental findings, CRL was selected as the most appropriate biocatalyst, with 84.1% degree of hydrolysis. The chromatographic analyses showed that the CRL-hydrolyzed SO is composed mainly of free LA.

  10. Optimization of the Hydrolysis of Safflower Oil for the Production of Linoleic Acid, Used as Flavor Precursor.

    Aziz, Marya; Husson, Florence; Kermasha, Selim

    2015-01-01

    Commercial lipases, from porcine pancreas (PPL), Candida rugosa (CRL), and Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM), were investigated in terms of their efficiency for the hydrolysis of safflower oil (SO) for the liberation of free linoleic acid (LA), used as a flavor precursor. Although PPL, under the optimized conditions, showed a high degree of hydrolysis (91.6%), its low tolerance towards higher substrate concentrations could limit its use for SO hydrolysis. In comparison to the other investigated lipases, Lipozyme TL IM required higher amount of enzyme and an additional 3 h of reaction time to achieve its maximum degree of SO hydrolysis (90.2%). On the basis of the experimental findings, CRL was selected as the most appropriate biocatalyst, with 84.1% degree of hydrolysis. The chromatographic analyses showed that the CRL-hydrolyzed SO is composed mainly of free LA.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of NiO nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of nickel linoleate and their optical properties

    Kalam, Abul, E-mail: abul_k33@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, P.O. Box 9004 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Shihri, Ayed S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, P.O. Box 9004 (Saudi Arabia); Du Gaohui [Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Reactive Chemistry on Solid Surfaces, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Ahmad, Tokeer [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2012-06-15

    Well dispersed nickel oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized successfully by direct calcination of nickel linoleate. The structure, morphology and properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopic studies show that nickel oxide nanoparticles are uniform with an average size of 14-20 nm. The optical band gap of 3.8 eV is obtained using UV-Visible spectroscopy which exhibits the red shift compared with the bulk counterpart. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles by using metal complexes as precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of isolated nanoparticles using XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM and HRTEM data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expected optical properties of these nanoparticles are clarified.

  12. Phase equilibrium measurements of ternary systems formed by linoleic and linolenic acids in carbon dioxide/ethanol mixtures

    Rosso, Sibele R. [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Franceschi, Elton; Borges, Gustavo R.; Corazza, Marcos L.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, Erechim, RS 99700-000 (Brazil); Ferreira, Sandra R.S. [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: sandra@enq.ufsc.br

    2009-11-15

    This work reports phase equilibrium measurements for the ternary systems linoleic (acid + CO{sub 2} + ethanol) and (linolenic acid + CO{sub 2} + ethanol). The fatty acids present in the ternary systems were selected based on composition of banana peel oil extracted by supercritical CO{sub 2} at 20 MPa and 313 K. The motivation of this research relies on the fact that these unsaturated fatty acids are recognized to play an important role in lowering blood pressure and serum cholesterol and because they are present in high concentrations in banana peel extract. Besides that, equilibrium data of these compounds are scarce in literature. The phase equilibrium experiments were performed using a high-pressure variable-volume view cell over the temperature range of (303 to 343) K and pressures up to 19 MPa. For both systems, only vapour-liquid phase transitions were visually recorded for all data measured.

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation does not maximize motor performance and abdominal and trunk fat loss induced by aerobic training in overweight women

    Fábio Luiz Cheche PINA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the effect of eight weeks of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on physical performance, and trunk and abdominal fat in overweight women submitted to an aerobic training program. Methods: Twenty-eight overweight women (body mass index ³25 kg/m2 were divided randomly and double-blindly to receive conjugated linoleic acid or placebo, both associated with an aerobic exercise program (frequency = three times a week, duration=30 min/session, intensity=80% of maximum heart rate. Conjugated linoleic acid (3.2 g and placebo (4.0 g supplements were consumed daily (four capsules for eight weeks. Maximum speed and time to exhaustion were determined in incremental treadmill test. Trunk fat was estimated by dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry. Waist circumference was used as indicator of abdominal fat. Results: Main effect of time (p0.05. Similarly, significant reductions (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that conjugated linoleic acid supplementation does not maximize motor performance, and loss of body and abdominal fat induced by aerobic training in overweight women.

  14. Hydrogenation Alternatives - Effects of Trans-Fatty-Acids and Stearic-Acid Versus Linoleic-Acid on Serum-Lipids and Lipoproteins in Humans

    Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of linoleic acid (cis,cis-C18:2(n-6)) and its hydrogenation products elaidic (trans-C18:1(n-9)) and stearic acid (C18:0) on serum lipoprotein levels in humans.Twenty-six men and 30 women, all nor

  15. The effect of adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid to wheat straw and wood chips on lignin degradation by fungi and subsequent

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was optimizing Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes pre-treatment of wheat straw and wood chips by adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid. Optimization was defined as more lignin degradation and an increase in in vitro gas

  16. Effects of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on immune function in healthy men

    Albers, R.; Wielen, R.P.J. van der; Brink, E.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Dorovska-Taran, V.N.; Mohede, I.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of two different mixtures of the main conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on human immune function. Design: Double-blind, randomized, parallel, reference-controlled intervention study. Subjects and intervention:

  17. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in early and late hepatocarcinogenesis with focus on the role of linoleic acid and its hydroperoxides

    Sagmeister, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas are devastating cancers with high mortality rates. Major risk factors are chronic hepatitis and associated cirrhosis as consequence of viral hepatitis infections, chronically ethanol consumption or metabolic disorders. While the stepwise development of liver cancer is well investigated, the role of mesenchymal cells in this process is largely unknown. To analyse epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in advanced stages of hepatocarcinogenesis, we established new cell lines from human hepatocellular carcinomas and obtained several hepatocarcinoma (HCC)-, B-lymphoblastoid (BLC)- and myofibroblastoid (MF)-lines. BLC- and MF-supernatants were able to increase DNA replication of premalignant hepatocytes. Supernatants of MF-lines enhanced angiogenesis and increased migration of HCC-lines. Besides these pro-tumourigenic effects we could also observe tumouricidal properties of mesenchymal cells, as BLC-supernatants induced cell death of HCC-lines. Linoleic acid is an important source for hydroperoxides, which may be generated either endogenously in the course of inflammation or exogenously during food processing. We found that linoleic acid hydroperoxides (=LOOH) were able to activate mesenchymal cells of the liver resulting in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors including TNF-alpha (=tumour necrosis factor alpha) and HB-EGF (=heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor), which turned out to be a growth factor for premalignant hepatocytes. Furthermore LOOH enhanced the growth of hepatocarcinoma cells via upregulation of the antiapoptotic enzyme heme oxygenase 1 and stimulation of cell proliferation. In conclusion, the results of our studies confirm the crucial role of different mesenchymal cells in early and late hepatocarcinogenesis and propose a tumour-promoting effect of LOOH. (author) [de

  18. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analysis of selected fatty acid biosynthesis genes and CNL disease resistance genes in oil palm

    Rosli, Rozana; Amiruddin, Nadzirah; Ab Halim, Mohd Amin; Chan, Pek-Lan; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Azizi, Norazah; Morris, Priscilla E.; Leslie Low, Eng-Ti; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Singh, Rajinder

    2018-01-01

    Comparative genomics and transcriptomic analyses were performed on two agronomically important groups of genes from oil palm versus other major crop species and the model organism, Arabidopsis thaliana. The first analysis was of two gene families with key roles in regulation of oil quality and in particular the accumulation of oleic acid, namely stearoyl ACP desaturases (SAD) and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (FAT). In both cases, these were found to be large gene families with complex expression profiles across a wide range of tissue types and developmental stages. The detailed classification of the oil palm SAD and FAT genes has enabled the updating of the latest version of the oil palm gene model. The second analysis focused on disease resistance (R) genes in order to elucidate possible candidates for breeding of pathogen tolerance/resistance. Ortholog analysis showed that 141 out of the 210 putative oil palm R genes had homologs in banana and rice. These genes formed 37 clusters with 634 orthologous genes. Classification of the 141 oil palm R genes showed that the genes belong to the Kinase (7), CNL (95), MLO-like (8), RLK (3) and Others (28) categories. The CNL R genes formed eight clusters. Expression data for selected R genes also identified potential candidates for breeding of disease resistance traits. Furthermore, these findings can provide information about the species evolution as well as the identification of agronomically important genes in oil palm and other major crops. PMID:29672525

  19. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analysis of selected fatty acid biosynthesis genes and CNL disease resistance genes in oil palm.

    Rosli, Rozana; Amiruddin, Nadzirah; Ab Halim, Mohd Amin; Chan, Pek-Lan; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Azizi, Norazah; Morris, Priscilla E; Leslie Low, Eng-Ti; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Singh, Rajinder; Murphy, Denis J

    2018-01-01

    Comparative genomics and transcriptomic analyses were performed on two agronomically important groups of genes from oil palm versus other major crop species and the model organism, Arabidopsis thaliana. The first analysis was of two gene families with key roles in regulation of oil quality and in particular the accumulation of oleic acid, namely stearoyl ACP desaturases (SAD) and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (FAT). In both cases, these were found to be large gene families with complex expression profiles across a wide range of tissue types and developmental stages. The detailed classification of the oil palm SAD and FAT genes has enabled the updating of the latest version of the oil palm gene model. The second analysis focused on disease resistance (R) genes in order to elucidate possible candidates for breeding of pathogen tolerance/resistance. Ortholog analysis showed that 141 out of the 210 putative oil palm R genes had homologs in banana and rice. These genes formed 37 clusters with 634 orthologous genes. Classification of the 141 oil palm R genes showed that the genes belong to the Kinase (7), CNL (95), MLO-like (8), RLK (3) and Others (28) categories. The CNL R genes formed eight clusters. Expression data for selected R genes also identified potential candidates for breeding of disease resistance traits. Furthermore, these findings can provide information about the species evolution as well as the identification of agronomically important genes in oil palm and other major crops.

  20. 17β-estradiol induces stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 expression in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells

    Belkaid, Anissa; Duguay, Sabrina R.; Ouellette, Rodney J.; Surette, Marc E.

    2015-01-01

    To sustain cell growth, cancer cells exhibit an altered metabolism characterized by increased lipogenesis. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) catalyzes the production of monounsaturated fatty acids that are essential for membrane biogenesis, and is required for cell proliferation in many cancer cell types. Although estrogen is required for the proliferation of many estrogen-sensitive breast carcinoma cells, it is also a repressor of SCD-1 expression in liver and adipose. The current study addresses this apparent paradox by investigating the impact of estrogen on SCD-1 expression in estrogen receptor-α-positive breast carcinoma cell lines. MCF-7 and T47D mammary carcinomas cells and immortalized MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells were hormone-starved then treated or not with 17β-estradiol. SCD-1 activity was assessed by measuring cellular monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid (MUFA/SFA) ratios, and SCD-1 expression was measured by qPCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence analyses. The role of SCD-1 in cell proliferation was measured following treatment with the SCD-1 inhibitor A959372 and following SCD-1 silencing using siRNA. The involvement of IGF-1R on SCD-1 expression was measured using the IGF-1R antagonist AG1024. The expression of SREBP-1c, a transcription factor that regulates SCD-1, was measured by qPCR, and by immunoblot analyses. 17β-estradiol significantly induced cell proliferation and SCD-1 activity in MCF-7 and T47D cells but not MCF-10A cells. Accordingly, 17β-estradiol significantly increased SCD-1 mRNA and protein expression in MCF-7 and T47D cells compared to untreated cells. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 4-OH tamoxifen or siRNA silencing of estrogen receptor-α largely prevented 17β-estradiol-induced SCD-1 expression. 17β-estradiol increased SREBP-1c expression and induced the mature active 60 kDa form of SREBP-1. The selective SCD-1 inhibitor or siRNA silencing of SCD-1 blocked the 17β-estradiol-induced cell proliferation and increase in

  1. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome

    Carvalho RF

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Roberta F Carvalho,1 Sofia K Uehara,2 Glorimar Rosa1,21Medicine Department, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Nutrition and Dietetic Department, Josué de Castro Institute of Nutrition, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome.Methods: This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention.Results: There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T90 – T0 = −12.87 ± 4.26 µU/mL, P = 0.02. Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = −2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02, which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = −3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02 in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = −1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02, but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T90 – T0 = −4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03.Conclusion: Supplementation with mixed

  2. Expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes and changes in carotenoids during ripening in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Namitha, Kanakapura Krishnamurthy; Archana, Surya Narayana; Negi, Pradeep Singh

    2011-04-01

    To study the expression pattern of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes, changes in their expression at different stages of maturity in tomato fruit (cv. Arka Ahuti) were investigated. The genes regulating carotenoid production were quantified by a dot blot method using a DIG (dioxigenin) labelling and detection kit. The results revealed that there was an increase in the levels of upstream genes of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway such as 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (Lyt B), phytoene synthase (PSY), phytoene desaturase (PDS) and ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS) by 2-4 fold at the breaker stage as compared to leaf. The lycopene and β-carotene content was analyzed by HPLC at different stages of maturity. The lycopene (15.33 ± 0.24 mg per 100 g) and β-carotene (10.37 ± 0.46 mg per 100 g) content were found to be highest at 5 days post-breaker and 10 days post-breaker stage, respectively. The lycopene accumulation pattern also coincided with the color values at different stages of maturity. These studies may provide insight into devising gene-based strategies for enhancing carotenoid accumulation in tomato fruits.

  3. Effects of Lactation Stage and Individual Performance on Milk -9, -11 Conjugated Linoleic Acids Content in Dairy Cows

    T. Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactation stage and individual performance on milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content in dairy cows. In experiment 1, the milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA content from dairy cows in early (0.33±0.014%, middle (0.37±0.010%, and late stages (0.44±0.020% showed significant differences (p<0.05; and the individual contents of the major fatty acids, especially cis-9, trans-11 CLA in cows of the same lactation were also variable. In the second experiment design as a validation test, our results once again showed that the individual contents of cis-9, trans-11 CLA were various, and a difference of about 2-fold (0.55% vs 0.95% was observed, although the animals were offered same diet. These data demonstrated that lactation stage and individual performance have considerable effects on milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA contents.

  4. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice.

    Alice Chaplin

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.

  5. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice.

    Chaplin, Alice; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat) or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat) diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.

  6. In vitro synergistic efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid, oleic acid, safflower oil and taxol cytotoxicity on PC3 cells.

    Kızılşahin, Sadi; Nalbantsoy, Ayşe; Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü Karabay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine in vitro synergistic efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), oleic acid (OLA), safflower oil and taxol (Tax) cytotoxicity on human prostate cancer (PC3) cell line. To determine synergistic efficacy of oil combinations, PC3 treated with different doses of compounds alone and combined with 10 μg/mL Tax. The MTT results indicated that OLA-Tax combinations exhibited cytotoxicity against PC3 at doses of 30 nM+10 μg-Tax, 15 nM+5 μg-Tax and 7.5 nM+2.5 μg-Tax. The treatment of OLA or Tax did not show significant inhibition on PC3, while OLA-Tax combinations showed effective cytotoxicity at treated doses. CLA-Tax combinations demonstrated the same effect on PC3 as combined form with 45.72% versus the alone form as 74.51% viability. Cytotoxic synergy between Tax, OLA and CLA shows enhanced cytotoxicity on PC3 which might be used in the therapy of prostate cancer.

  7. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Ameliorates Inflammation-Induced Colorectal Cancer in Mice through Activation of PPARγ1–3

    Evans, Nicholas P.; Misyak, Sarah A.; Schmelz, Eva M.; Guri, Amir J.; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) exerts a protective effect on experimental inflammatory bowel disease and shows promise as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer (CRC) in mice, although the mechanisms by which it exerts its beneficial effects against malignancies in the gut are not completely understood. Mice lacking PPARγ in immune and epithelial cells and PPARγ-expressing littermates were fed either control or CLA-supplemented (1 g CLA/100 g) diets to determine the role of PPARγ in inflammation-induced CRC. To induce tumor formation and colitis, mice were treated with azoxymethane and then challenged with 2% dextran sodium sulfate, respectively. Dietary CLA ameliorated disease activity, decreased colitis, and prevented adenocarcinoma formation in the PPARγ-expressing floxed mice but not in the tissue-specific PPARγ-null mice. Dietary CLA supplementation significantly decreased the percentages of macrophages in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) regardless of the genotype and increased regulatory T cell numbers in MLN of PPARγ-expressing, but not in the tissue-specific, PPARγ-null mice. Colonic tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression was significantly suppressed in CLA-fed, PPARγ-expressing mice. This study suggests CLA ameliorates colitis and prevents tumor formation in part through a PPARγ-dependent mechanism. PMID:20089779

  8. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (P.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched triacylglycerol mixtures by isocratic silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Adlof, R O; Menzel, A; Dorovska-Taran, V

    2002-04-12

    Silver-ion HPLC (Ag-HPLC) was applied to the fractionation of a triacylglycerol (TAG) sample enriched (>80%) with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). After conversion of the TAGs to fatty acid methyl esters using sodium methoxide in methanol, Ag-HPLC (dual-column; isocratic solvent system of 0.1% acetonitrile in hexane; UV detection at 233 nm) was used to determine the CLA isomer distribution (50:50 mixture of 9c 11t- and 10t,12c-18:2). Three or four Ag-HPLC columns connected in series (0.6-1.0% acetonitrile in hexane as solvent; UV detection at 206 nm) were used to analyze the sample in TAG form. Elution times for CLA-enriched TAGs averaged 30 min or less. Isocratic solvent conditions were used to eliminate the solvent equilibration times (often 30 min or more) required between sample injections when solvent programming is used. The ratio of TAGs containing three vs. only two CLA molecules was found to be approximately 3 to 1. Ag-HPLC has thus been shown to be a useful method for rapidly analyzing not only CLA isomers as esters, but also in the TAG form.

  10. Determination of Double Bond Positions and Geometry of Methyl Linoleate Isomers with Dimethyl Disulfide Adducts by GC/MS.

    Shibamoto, Shigeaki; Murata, Tasuku; Yamamoto, Kouhei

    2016-09-01

    The dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) adduct method is one of the convenient and effective methods for determining double bond positions of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) except conjugated FAME. When analyzed using gas chromatography/electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS), unsaturated FAME with DMDS added to the double bonds yields high intensity MS spectra of characteristic ions. The MS spectra of characteristic ions can then be used to easily confirm double bond positions. Here we explore the GC/EI-MS analysis of the DMDS adducts of methyl linoleate geometrical isomers isolated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a silver nitrate column. For C18:2-c9, c12 and C18:2-t9, t12, DMDS randomly formed adducts with double bonds at either carbon 9-10 or carbon 12-13, but not both at the same time due to steric hindrance. For C18:2-c9, t12 and C18:2-t9, c12, however, DMDS only formed adducts with the double bond in the cis configuration. Consequently, when analyzing fatty acids with methylene interrupted double bonds, with one double bond in the cis and one in the trans configuration, double bond positions cannot be completely confirmed.

  11. Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.

    Herzallah, Saqer

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts.

  12. One-pot conjugated linoleic acid production from castor oil by Rhizopus oryzae lipase and resting cells of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Khaskheli, Abid Ali; Talpur, Farah Naz; Cebeci Aydin, Aysun; Jawaid, Sana; Surhio, Muhammad Ali; Afridi, Hassan Imran

    2017-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has attracted as novel type of fatty acids having unusual health-promoting properties such as anticarcinogenic and antiobesitic effects. The present work employed castor oil as substrate for one-pot production of CLA using washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and lipases as catalysts. Among the screened lipases, the lipase Rhizopus oryzae (ROL) greatly assisted resting cells to produce CLA. Mass spectral analysis of the product showed that two major isomers of CLA were produced in the reaction mixture i.e. cis-9, trans-11 56.55% and trans-10, cis-12 43.45%. Optimum factors for CLA synthesis were found as substrate concentration (8 mg/mL), pH (6.5), washed cell concentration (12% w/v), and incubation time of 20 h. Hence, the combination of ROL with L. plantarum offers one pot production of CLA selectively using castor oil as a cost-effective substrate.

  13. Contrasting apoptotic responses of conjugated linoleic acid in the liver of obese Zucker rats fed palm oil or ovine fat.

    Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Viana, Ricardo S J; Ramalho, Rita M; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinho, Mário S; Jerónimo, Eliana; Bessa, Rui J B; Castro, Matilde F; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Prates, José A M

    2011-08-01

    We hypothesized that reducing weight properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are due to adipocyte apoptosis and that CLA differentially modulates the apoptotic responses in hepatic lipotoxicity from rats fed saturated fat diets. Obese Zucker rats were fed atherogenic diets (2%w/w of cholesterol) formulated with high (15%w/w) saturated fat, from vegetable or animal origin, supplemented or not with 1% of a mixture (1:1) of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers for 14 weeks. CLA induced no changes on retroperitoneal fat depot weight, which was in line with similar levels of apoptosis. Interestingly, CLA had a contrasting effect on cell death in the liver according to the dietary fat. CLA increased hepatocyte apoptosis, associated with upregulation of Fas protein in rats fed palm oil, compared to rats receiving palm oil alone. However, rats fed ovine fat alone displayed the highest levels of hepatic cell death, which were decreased in rats fed ovine fat plus CLA. This reducing effect of CLA was related to positively restoring endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ATF-6α, BiP and CHOP protein levels and increasing phosphorylated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun, thus suggesting an adaptive response of cell survival. These findings reinforce the role of CLA as regulator of apoptosis in the liver. Moreover, the dietary fat composition is a key factor in activation of apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    Rosario Barone

    Full Text Available A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  15. Absorption Kinetics of the Main Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers in Commercial-Rich Oil after Oral Administration in Rats.

    Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Ares, Irma; Fontecha, Javier; Martínez-Larrañaga, María-Rosa; Anadón, Arturo; Martínez, María-Aránzazu

    2017-09-06

    This study aimed to assess the oral absorption and plasma kinetics of two main isomers contained in commercial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oil (Tonalin TG-80), rumenic acid (RA), and C18:2 trans-10, cis-12. The isomer plasma disposition after the single oral dose of 3000 mg of Tonalin TG-80/kg, containing 1200 mg/kg of each isomer, was studied in rats. The isomer plasma concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The plasma kinetics showed rapid oral absorption of RA and C18:2 trans-10, cis-12 (t 1/2a 0.34 ± 0.09 and 0.53 ± 0.01 h) and slow elimination (t 1/2β 25.68 ± 3.29 and 18.12 ± 1.71 h); the maximal isomer plasma concentrations (C max ) of 8.48 ± 0.98 and 7.67 ± 0.80 μg mL -1 , respectively, were estimated at 2.08 ± 0.14 and 2.26 ± 0.11 h. Our results from a preclinical kinetic study in rats help to design future studies in humans for evaluating the CLA isomer dose-response.

  16. Linoleic Acid-Induced Ultra-Weak Photon Emission from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a Tool for Monitoring of Lipid Peroxidation in the Cell Membranes

    Prasad, Ankush; Pospíšil, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species formed as a response to various abiotic and biotic stresses cause an oxidative damage of cellular component such are lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Lipid peroxidation is considered as one of the major processes responsible for the oxidative damage of the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes. Various methods such as a loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids, amount of the primary and the secondary products are used to monitor the level of lipid peroxidation. To investigate the use of ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation, the involvement of lipid peroxidation in ultra-weak photon emission was studied in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Lipid peroxidation initiated by addition of exogenous linoleic acid to the cells was monitored by ultra-weak photon emission measured with the employment of highly sensitive charged couple device camera and photomultiplier tube. It was found that the addition of linoleic acid to the cells significantly increased the ultra-weak photon emission that correlates with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation product as measured using thiobarbituric acid assay. Scavenging of hydroxyl radical by mannitol, inhibition of intrinsic lipoxygenase by catechol and removal of molecular oxygen considerably suppressed ultra-weak photon emission measured after the addition of linoleic acid. The photon emission dominated at the red region of the spectrum with emission maximum at 680 nm. These observations reveal that the oxidation of linoleic acid by hydroxyl radical and intrinsic lipoxygenase results in the ultra-weak photon emission. Electronically excited species such as excited triplet carbonyls are the likely candidates for the primary excited species formed during the lipid peroxidation, whereas chlorophylls are the final emitters of photons. We propose here that the ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non-invasive tool for the

  17. Linoleic acid-induced ultra-weak photon emission from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation in the cell membranes.

    Ankush Prasad

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species formed as a response to various abiotic and biotic stresses cause an oxidative damage of cellular component such are lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Lipid peroxidation is considered as one of the major processes responsible for the oxidative damage of the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the cell membranes. Various methods such as a loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids, amount of the primary and the secondary products are used to monitor the level of lipid peroxidation. To investigate the use of ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive tool for monitoring of lipid peroxidation, the involvement of lipid peroxidation in ultra-weak photon emission was studied in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Lipid peroxidation initiated by addition of exogenous linoleic acid to the cells was monitored by ultra-weak photon emission measured with the employment of highly sensitive charged couple device camera and photomultiplier tube. It was found that the addition of linoleic acid to the cells significantly increased the ultra-weak photon emission that correlates with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation product as measured using thiobarbituric acid assay. Scavenging of hydroxyl radical by mannitol, inhibition of intrinsic lipoxygenase by catechol and removal of molecular oxygen considerably suppressed ultra-weak photon emission measured after the addition of linoleic acid. The photon emission dominated at the red region of the spectrum with emission maximum at 680 nm. These observations reveal that the oxidation of linoleic acid by hydroxyl radical and intrinsic lipoxygenase results in the ultra-weak photon emission. Electronically excited species such as excited triplet carbonyls are the likely candidates for the primary excited species formed during the lipid peroxidation, whereas chlorophylls are the final emitters of photons. We propose here that the ultra-weak photon emission can be used as a non

  18. Virus-induced gene silencing of Withania somnifera squalene synthase negatively regulates sterol and defence-related genes resulting in reduced withanolides and biotic stress tolerance.

    Singh, Anup Kumar; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Reddy, Sajjalavarahalli Gangireddy Eswara; Rao, Dodaghatta Krishnarao Venkata; Shasany, Ajit Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2015-12-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is an important Indian medicinal plant that produces withanolides, which are triterpenoid steroidal lactones having diverse biological activities. To enable fast and efficient functional characterization of genes in this slow-growing and difficult-to-transform plant, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was established by silencing phytoene desaturase (PDS) and squalene synthase (SQS). VIGS of the gene encoding SQS, which provides precursors for triterpenoids, resulted in significant reduction of squalene and withanolides, demonstrating its application in studying withanolides biosynthesis in W. somnifera leaves. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression and sterol pathway intermediates in WsSQS-vigs plants revealed transcriptional modulation with positive feedback regulation of mevalonate pathway genes, and negative feed-forward regulation of downstream sterol pathway genes including DWF1 (delta-24-sterol reductase) and CYP710A1 (C-22-sterol desaturase), resulting in significant reduction of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. However, there was little effect of SQS silencing on cholesterol, indicating the contribution of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, but not of cholesterol, towards withanolides formation. Branch-point oxidosqualene synthases in WsSQS-vigs plants exhibited differential regulation with reduced CAS (cycloartenol synthase) and cycloartenol, and induced BAS (β-amyrin synthase) and β-amyrin. Moreover, SQS silencing also led to the down-regulation of brassinosteroid-6-oxidase-2 (BR6OX2), pathogenesis-related (PR) and nonexpressor of PR (NPR) genes, resulting in reduced tolerance to bacterial and fungal infection as well as to insect feeding. Taken together, SQS silencing negatively regulated sterol and defence-related genes leading to reduced phytosterols, withanolides and biotic stress tolerance, thus implicating the application of VIGS for functional analysis of genes related to withanolides

  19. ESR studies of radiation induced radical products from linoleic acid and linolenic acid and the radioprotective effect by α-tocopherol

    Zhu Younan; Tu Tiecheng; Dong Jirong; Zhang Jiashan; Li Nianyun

    1993-01-01

    Primary radicals from the γ-radiolysis of air-saturated linoleic acid and linolenic acid at 77 K, and the subsequent secondary radicals appeared during the course of variable temperature elevation were investigated by ESR. The ESR spectrum from samples irradiated and observed at 77 K shows the presence of the radical anion doublet arise from the electron adducts of the carboxy groups and the poorly resolved broad singlet results from some carbon-centered radicals. Annealing to approximately 125 K which allows for molecular oxygen migration results in the formation of peroxyl radicals. At 247 K, the ESR spectrum is a multi-line pattern which is attributable to structure of the α-carbon radical superimposed on the pentadienyl radicals. The ESR spectra from linoleic acid-α-tocopherol and linolenic acid-α-tocopherol binary systems irradiated at 77 K and recorded at 140 K or 215 K revealed the characteristic similarity to that from α-tocopherol alone, no trace of ESR signal from either peroxyl or the composite pattern from superposition of pentadienyl radical and α-carbon radicals can be found out. Therefore α-tocopherol has exerted radioprotection effect on peroxidation of linoleic acid and linolenic acid

  20. Algerian mint species:high performance thin layer chromatography quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid and in vitro inhibitory effects on linoleic acid peroxidation

    Brahmi Fatiha; Madani Khodir; Stvigny Caroline; Chibane Mohamed; Duez Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the quantitative paremeters of rosmarinic acid in Algerian mints,Mentha spicata L. (M. spicata), Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometric method and screen the effects of these plant extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation.Methods:The analyses were performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform:acetone: formic acid (75:16.5:8.5, v/v) as the mobile phase. Rosmarinic acid was determined in UV at 365 nm and fluorescence at λexc 325 nm with a 550 nm filter, respectively. The effects of plants extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation were measured by an indirect in vitro colorimetric method.Results:Chromatographic resolution permitted reliable quantification in both measurement modes and calibration curves were linear in a range of 150-1000 ng/spot. M. spicata was found to contain significantly higher concentrations of rosmarinic acid. The densitometric quantification allowed the analysis of many samples in a short time with reasonable precision (total precision for Mentha spp extracts, 5.1% and 5.8% for UV and fluorescence detection, respectively). The HPTLC data, allied to assays of linoleic acid peroxidation prevention, suggested the potential of M. spicata (52% Trolox®equivalents) as a natural source for inhibitors of lipid peroxidation.Conclusions:Densitometry can be used for routine determination and quality control of rosmarinic acid in herbal and formulations containing Mentha species.

  1. Algerian mint species: high performance thin layer chromatography quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid and in vitro inhibitory effects on linoleic acid peroxidation

    Brahmi Fatiha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the quantitative paremeters of rosmarinic acid in Algerian mints, Mentha spicata L. (M. spicata, Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC-densitometric method and screen the effects of these plant extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation. Methods: The analyses were performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform: acetone: formic acid (75:16.5:8.5, v/v as the mobile phase. Rosmarinic acid was determined in UV at 365 nm and fluorescence at λexc 325 nm with a 550 nm filter, respectively. The effects of plants extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation were measured by an indirect in vitro colorimetric method. Results: Chromatographic resolution permitted reliable quantification in both measurement modes and calibration curves were linear in a range of 150-1 000 ng/spot. M. spicata was found to contain significantly higher concentrations of rosmarinic acid. The densitometric quantification allowed the analysis of many samples in a short time with reasonable precision (total precision for Mentha spp extracts, 5.1% and 5.8% for UV and fluorescence detection, respectively. The HPTLC data, allied to assays of linoleic acid peroxidation prevention, suggested the potential of M. spicata (52% Trolox® equivalents as a natural source for inhibitors of lipid peroxidation. Conclusions: Densitometry can be used for routine determination and quality control of rosmarinic acid in herbal and formulations containing Mentha species.

  2. Effect of spirulina on the levels of zinc, vitamin E and linoleic acid in the palm skin extracts of people with prolonged exposure to arsenic

    Mir Misbahuddin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina, a dietary supplement, improves the symptoms of arsenical palmer keratosis. To understand its mechanism of action, palm skin extracts of moderate palmer arsenical keratosis (n=10, arsenic exposed controls (n=10 and healthy volunteers (n=10 were collected before and after treatment with spirulina powder 10 g/day orally for 12 weeks. The mean (±SD amount of zinc in the palm skin of healthy volunteers was 13.1 ± 5.7 ng/cm2, which was not changed significantly in patients (11.3 ± 5.3 ng/cm2. The amount of vitamin E in healthy volunteers was 6.0 ± 0.3 ng/cm2 which was severely reduced in patients (3.5 ± 0.6 ng/cm2. The amount of linoleic acid was lowered in patient (26.7 ± 17.1 ng/cm2 which was statistically significant in comparison to healthy volunteers (p=0.029. After supplementation of spirulina, zinc level in the palm skin of arsenic exposed controls was increased but it was not statistically significant (p=0.068. The vitamin E and linoleic acid levels were not changed significantly in the skin of palm. In conclusion, arsenical keratosis showed significantly low levels of vitamin E and linoleic acid without any significant change in zinc level. After supplementation of spirulina, low levels of these three compounds were not returned towards the normal levels.

  3. A rumen unprotected conjugated linoleic acid supplement inhibits milk fat synthesis and improves energy balance in lactating goats.

    Baldin, M; Gama, M A S; Dresch, R; Harvatine, K J; Oliveira, D E

    2013-07-01

    Feeding trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplements in a rumen-protected form has been shown to cause milk fat depression (MFD) in cows, ewes, and goats. Methyl esters of CLA were shown to be as effective as FFA in inducing MFD when infused postruminally, but their efficacy as a feed supplement has not been addressed in studies with lactating ruminants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an unprotected trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplement as methyl esters on performance, milk composition, and energy status of dairy goats. Eighteen multiparous Toggenburg goats were randomly assigned to dietary treatments in a crossover experimental design (14 d treatment periods separated by a 7 d washout interval): 30 g/d of calcium salts of fatty acids (Control) or 30 g/d of a rumen unprotected CLA supplement containing 29.9% of trans-10, cis-12 CLA as methyl esters (CLA). Lipid supplements were mixed into a concentrate and fed individually to animals 3 times a day as a total mixed ration component. The DMI, milk yield, milk protein and lactose content and secretion, and somatic cell count were unaffected by CLA treatment. On the other hand, milk fat content and yield were reduced by 19.9 and 17.9% in CLA-fed goats. Reduced milk fat yield in CLA-fed goats was a consequence of a lower secretion of both preformed and de novo synthesized fatty acids. The CLA treatment also changed the milk fatty acid profile, which included a reduction in the concentration of SFA (2.5%), increased MUFA and PUFA (5.6 and 5.4%, respectively), and a pronounced increase (1576%) in milk fat trans-10, cis-12 CLA. Consistent with the high milk fat trans-10, cis-12 CLA content, all desaturase indexes were reduced in milk fat from CLA-fed goats. The MFD induced by CLA reduced the energy required for milk production by 22%, which was accompanied by an improvement in the estimated energy balance (P rumen biohydrogenation and indirect comparisons with data obtained from other studies suggest equivalent MFD

  4. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the FADS Gene Cluster but not the ELOVL2 Gene are Associated with Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition and Development of Allergy (in a Swedish Birth Cohort

    Malin Barman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA influences immune function and may affect the risk of allergy development. Long chain PUFAs are produced from dietary precursors catalyzed by desaturases and elongases encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes. In 211 subjects, we investigated whether polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL2 gene were associated with allergy or PUFA composition in serum phospholipids in a Swedish birth-cohort sampled at birth and at 13 years of age; allergy was diagnosed at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs102275 and rs174448 (FADS gene cluster had decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord and adolescent serum and increased proportions of 20:3 n-6 in cord serum as well as a nominally reduced risk of developing atopic eczema, but not respiratory allergy, at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs17606561 in the ELOVL2 gene had nominally decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord serum but ELOVL polymorphisms (rs2236212 and rs17606561 were not associated with allergy development. Thus, reduced capacity to desaturase n-6 PUFAs due to FADS polymorphisms was nominally associated with reduced risk for eczema development, which could indicate a pathogenic role for long-chain PUFAs in allergy development.

  5. [Overexpression of four fatty acid synthase genes elevated the efficiency of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis in mammalian cells].

    Zhu, Guiming; Saleh, Abdulmomen Ali Mohammed; Bahwal, Said Ahmed; Wang, Kunfu; Wang, Mingfu; Wang, Didi; Ge, Tangdong; Sun, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Three long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6), are the most biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids in the body. They are important in developing and maintaining the brain function, and in preventing and treating many diseases such as cardiovascular disease, inflammation and cancer. Although mammals can biosynthesize these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, the efficiency is very low and dietary intake is needed to meet the requirement. In this study, a multiple-genes expression vector carrying mammalian A6/A5 fatty acid desaturases and multiple-genes expression vector carrying mammalian Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid desaturases and Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid elongases coding genes was used to transfect HEK293T cells, then the overexpression of the target genes was detected. GC-MS analysis shows that the biosynthesis efficiency and level of DHA, EPA and ARA were significantly increased in cells transfected with the multiple-genes expression vector. Particularly, DHA level in these cells was 2.5 times higher than in the control cells. This study indicates mammal possess a certain mechanism for suppression of high level of biosynthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the overexpression of Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid desaturases and Δ6/Δ5 fatty acid elongases broke this suppression mechanism so that the level of DHA, EPA and ARA was significantly increased. This study also provides a basis for potential applications of this gene construct in transgenic animal to produce high level of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid.

  6. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in early and late hepatocarcinogenesis with focus on the role of linoleic acid and its hydroperoxides

    Sagmeister, S

    2009-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas are devastating cancers with high mortality rates. Major risk factors are chronic hepatitis and associated cirrhosis as consequence of viral hepatitis infections, chronically ethanol consumption or metabolic disorders. While the stepwise development of liver cancer is well investigated, the role of mesenchymal cells in this process is largely unknown. To analyse epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in advanced stages of hepatocarcinogenesis, we established new cell lines from human hepatocellular carcinomas and obtained several hepatocarcinoma (HCC)-, B-lymphoblastoid (BLC)- and myofibroblastoid (MF)-lines. BLC- and MF-supernatants were able to increase DNA replication of premalignant hepatocytes. Supernatants of MF-lines enhanced angiogenesis and increased migration of HCC-lines. Besides these pro-tumourigenic effects we could also observe tumouricidal properties of mesenchymal cells, as BLC-supernatants induced cell death of HCC-lines. Linoleic acid is an important source for hydroperoxides, which may be generated either endogenously in the course of inflammation or exogenously during food processing. We found that linoleic acid hydroperoxides (=LOOH) were able to activate mesenchymal cells of the liver resulting in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors including TNF-alpha (=tumour necrosis factor alpha) and HB-EGF (=heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor), which turned out to be a growth factor for premalignant hepatocytes. Furthermore LOOH enhanced the growth of hepatocarcinoma cells via upregulation of the antiapoptotic enzyme heme oxygenase 1 and stimulation of cell proliferation. In conclusion, the results of our studies confirm the crucial role of different mesenchymal cells in early and late hepatocarcinogenesis and propose a tumour-promoting effect of LOOH. (author) [German] Bei hepatozellulaeren Karzinomen handelt es sich um Krebserkrankungen mit einer ausserordentlich hohen

  7. Transesterification of linoleic and oleic sunflower oils to biodiesel using CaO as a solid base catalyst

    Predojević Zlatica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to characterize biodiesel (i.e. methyl esters, MEs produced from linoleic and oleic sunflower oils (LSO and OSO, respectively by alkali transesterification with methanol and CaO as a heterogeneous catalyst under different reaction parameters. The parameters investigated were the methanol/oil molar ratio (4.5:1, 6:1, 7.5:1, 9:1 and 12:1 and the mass ratio of CaO to oil (2% and 3%. The physical and chemical properties of the feedstocks and MEs, like density at 15oC, kinematic viscosity at 40oC, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, cetane index, fatty acid (methyl ester composition, were determined in order to investigate the effects of LSO and OSO properties and reaction parameters on the product characteristics, yields and purity. The properties of feedstock had decisive effect on the physical and chemical properties of MEs as majority of them did not differ significantly under studied reaction conditions. The MEs produced generally met the criteria required for commercial biodiesel; in fact, the only exception was in the case of iodine value of ME produced from LSO. The product yields only slightly changed with the applied conditions; the highest yield (99.22% was obtained for ME-LSO produced at 6 mol% methanol to oil ratio, while the lowest one (93.20% was for ME-OSO produced under the lowest methanol/oil molar ratio (4.5:1. The applied catalyst amounts had similar influence on the oil conversion to biodiesel. The yields of ME-LSOs were in general somewhat higher than those obtained for ME-OSOs under the same conditions, which was attributed to the influence of the respective feedstocks' acid value and viscosity.

  8. Effect of Safflower Oil on Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid of Kefir Prepared by Low-fat Milk.

    Farsad-Naeimi, Alireza; Imani, Saeid; Arefhosseini, Seyed R; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a special fatty acid in dairy products with unique antioxidant and anti-cancerous effects. Kefir, a milk product, comprises normalized homogenized cow's milk, the fructose and lactulose syrup as well as a symbiotic starter which has improved probiotic characteristics. The study was aimed to discuss patents and to examine the effect of different safflower oil concentrations on CLA content of the kefir drink prepared by low-fat milk. Safflower oil was added at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% (V/V) to low-fat cow's milk and six formulations of kefir samples were prepared. The CLA content of the kefir products was measured at pH=6.0 and pH=6.8 by gas chromatography. Acid and bile tolerance of bacterial microenvironment in the products were also determined. Substitution of natural fat content of milk with safflower oil resulted in proportional increase in the CLA contents of kefir in a dose dependent manner. The highest concentration of CLA was found under 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil at pH 6.0 and temperature of 37 °C. Adding the Safflower oil into milk used for kefir production, increased CLA content from 0.123 (g/100 g) in pure safflower free samples to 0.322 (g/100 g) in samples with 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil. The current study revealed that substitution of safflower oil with natural fat of cow's milk may help the production of kefir samples with remarkable increase in CLA content of final product.

  9. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and exercise on bone mass in young male Balb/C mice

    O'Shea Marianne

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is an increase in obesity among the population of industrialized countries, and dietary supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA has been reported to lower body fat mass. However, weight loss is generally associated with negative effects on bone mass, but CLA is reported to have beneficial effects on bone. Furthermore, another factor that is well established to have a beneficial effect on bone is exercise (EX. However, a combination therapy of CLA and EX on bone health has not been studied. In this paper, we report the beneficial effects of CLA and EX on bone, in four different groups of Balb-C young, male mice. There were 4 groups in our study: 1. Safflower oil (SFO sedentary (SED; 2. SFO EX; 3. CLA SED; 4. CLA EX. Two months old mice, under their respective treatment regimens were followed for 14 weeks. Mice were scanned in vivo using a DEXA scanner before and after treatment. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were sacrificed, the left tibia was removed and scanned using peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT. The results showed that although CLA decreased gain in body weight by 35%, it however increased bone mass by both reducing bone resorption and increasing bone formation. EX also decreased gain in body weight by 21% and increased bone mass; but a combination of CLA and EX, however, did not show any further increase in bone mass. In conclusion, CLA increases bone mass in both cancellous and cortical bones, and the effects of CLA on bone is not further improved by EX in pure cortical bone of young male mice.

  10. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake on Endurance Exercise Performance and Anti-fatigue in Student Athletes.

    Terasawa, Naoko; Okamoto, Ken; Nakada, Kenta; Masuda, Kazumi

    2017-07-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) intake has been reported to reduce body fat mass or increase lean body mass and to improve exercise outcome by modulating testosterone in humans. These reports have studied mostly overweight subjects; few were athletes. Therefore, in this study, the effect of CLA intake on endurance performance and anti-fatigue in student athletes was investigated. A double-blind, crossover study was conducted with 10 male student athletes. Each subject was administered with either CLA (net 0.9 g/day) or a placebo for 14 days. They were subjected to an exercise tolerance test (steady loading) using a cycle ergometer on days 0 and 14. Peak VO 2 was determined for each subject using a graded loading test. The steady loading test was performed with a pedaling exercise load of 50% peak VO 2 for 40 min and then with a load of 70% peak VO 2 until exhaustion. Blood sampling and measurement of critical flicker frequency (CFF) were performed before and after exercise. The rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured serially during exercise. In the results, amount of body weight variation significantly increased and amount of body fat percentage variation tended to decrease by CLA intake, it might have an effect by increase in muscle mass. In addition, amount of exercise time variation significantly increased, amount of variation of CFF before and after exercise tended to increase, that of RPE during exercise tended to decrease, and that of creatine phosphokinase before and after exercise tended to decrease in the CLA group. These results suggested that CLA intake for 14 days might have an effect on endurance performance and anti-fatigue in student athletes.

  11. Short communication: Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in milk of lactating ewes.

    Zeitz, J O; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are well known as milk fat-reducing feed supplements in diets for lactating ruminants. However, their effects on milk concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins are unknown. This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that CLA affect the concentrations of retinol and tocopherol in ewe milk. For that purpose, group-housed Merino ewes (101 ± 13.7 kg) nursing twin lambs and fed with a hay:concentrate diet were supplemented with either 45 g of a rumen-protected CLA supplement containing 3.4 g of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and 3.4 g of trans-10,cis-12-CLA (CLA group, n=11) or with 45 g of a hydrogenated vegetable fat (control group, n=12) per ewe per day during the first 6 wk of lactation. Feed intake was recorded daily (concentrate) or weekly (hay) per group. Milk spot samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment (5 ± 2.4 d postpartum) and then weekly after lambs had been separated for 2 h from their mothers. The milk fat content was determined and feed and milk were analyzed for concentrations of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and for retinol by HPLC. Dietary intake of tocopherol and retinol was similar in both groups. Feeding CLA decreased milk fat concentration by 23% on average, and during the first 3 wk of the study milk tocopherol concentration tended to be increased by feeding CLA (+17%), but retinol concentrations were not influenced. When related to milk fat, CLA feeding significantly increased both milk tocopherol (+40%) and retinol (+32%) and these effects were evident during the whole experimental period corresponding to the first half of lactation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Conjugated linoleic acid prevents age-induced bone loss in mice by regulating both osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis.

    Lin, Guanlin; Wang, Huan; Dai, Jun; Li, Xiao; Guan, Ming; Gao, Shutao; Ding, Qing; Wang, Huaixi; Fang, Huang

    2017-08-26

    Osteoporosis (OP) can increase the risk of bone fracture and other complications, which is a major clinical problem. Previous researches have revealed that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can promote the bone formation. But the mechanisms are not clear. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that CLA acts on bone formation might be via mTOR Complex1 (mTORC 1) pathway by in vitro and vivo assays. We studied the effect of CLA mix on MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts differentiation into osteoblasts, and bone formation under osteoporotic conditions. At the same time, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte with the same CLA mix concentration gradient for 8 days with adipogenic differentiation medium. We found that Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteocalcin (OCN) expressions of pre-osteoblasts were up-regulated. Moreover in presence of CLA, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ(PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα) were down-regulated. Osteoporosis mice bone parameters in the distal femoral meraphysis were significantly increased compared with placebo mice. Furthermore, the phosphor-S6 (P-S6) was suppressed and phosphor-AKT (P-AKT) was up-regulated. Consistently, CLA can stimulate differentiation of osteoblasts and inhibited pre-adipocytes differentiated into adipocytes via AKT/mTORC1 signal pathway. Overall CLA thus be a suitable candidate for the treatment of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of bioactive substances by intestinal bacteria as a basis for explaining probiotic mechanisms: bacteriocins and conjugated linoleic acid.

    O'Shea, Eileen F; Cotter, Paul D; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-01-16

    The mechanisms by which intestinal bacteria achieve their associated health benefits can be complex and multifaceted. In this respect, the diverse microbial composition of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) provides an almost unlimited potential source of bioactive substances (pharmabiotics) which can directly or indirectly affect human health. Bacteriocins and fatty acids are just two examples of pharmabiotic substances which may contribute to probiotic functionality within the mammalian GIT. Bacteriocin production is believed to confer producing strains with a competitive advantage within complex microbial environments as a consequence of their associated antimicrobial activity. This has the potential to enable the establishment and prevalence of producing strains as well as directly inhibiting pathogens within the GIT. Consequently, these antimicrobial peptides and the associated intestinal producing strains may be exploited to beneficially influence microbial populations. Intestinal bacteria are also known to produce a diverse array of health-promoting fatty acids. Indeed, certain strains of intestinal bifidobacteria have been shown to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid which has been associated with a variety of systemic health-promoting effects. Recently, the ability to modulate the fatty acid composition of the liver and adipose tissue of the host upon oral administration of CLA-producing bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was demonstrated in a murine model. Importantly, this implies a potential therapeutic role for probiotics in the treatment of certain metabolic and immunoinflammatory disorders. Such examples serve to highlight the potential contribution of pharmabiotic production to probiotic functionality in relation to human health maintenance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with the cold adaptation of Rhodotorula glutinis.

    He, Jing; Yang, Zhaojie; Hu, Binbin; Ji, Xiuling; Wei, Yunlin; Lin, Lianbing; Zhang, Qi

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the cold adaptation of Rhodotorula glutinis YM25079 and the membrane fluidity, content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and mRNA expression level of the Δ(12)-desaturase gene. The optimum temperature for YM25079 growth was analysed first, then the composition changes of membrane lipid in YM25079 were detected by GC-MS and membrane fluidity was evaluated by 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate (ANS) fluorescence. Meanwhile, the encoding sequence of Δ(12)-fatty acid desaturase in YM25079 was cloned and further transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae INVScl for functional analysis. The mRNA expression levels of Δ(12)-fatty acid desaturase at 15°C and 25°C were analysed by real-time PCR. YM25079 could grow at 5-30°C, with the optimum temperature of 15°C. The membrane fluidity of YM25079 was not significantly reduced when the culture temperature decreased from 25°C to 15°C, but the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including linoleic acid and α-Linolenic acid increased significantly from 29.4% to 55.39%. Furthermore, a novel Δ(12)-fatty acid desaturase gene YM25079RGD12 from YM25079 was successfully identified and characterized, and the mRNA transcription level of the Δ(12)-desaturase gene was about five-fold higher in YM25079 cells grown at 15°C than that at 25°C. These results suggests that the cold adaptation of Rhodotorula glutinis YM25079 might result from higher expression of genes, especially the Δ(12)-fatty acid desaturase gene, during polyunsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis, which increased the content of PUFAs in the cell membrane and maintained the membrane fluidity at low temperature. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 is associated with hepatitis C virus replication complex and regulates viral replication

    Nguyen, LN; Lim, YS; Pham, Long

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle is tightly regulated by lipid metabolism of host cells. In order to identify host factors involved in HCV propagation, we have recently screened a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting host genes that control lipid metabolism and lipid droplet...

  16. A novel approach to identify optimal metabotypes of elongase and desaturase activities in prevention of acute coronary syndrome

    Both metabolomic and genomic approaches are valuable for risk analysis, however typical approaches evaluating differences in means do not model the changes well. Gene polymorphisms that alter function would appear as distinct populations, or metabotypes, from the predominant one, in which case risk...

  17. Alterations by peroxisome proliferators of acyl composition of hepatic phosphatidylcholine in rats, mice and guinea-pigs. Role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase.

    Kawashima, Y; Hirose, A; Kozuka, H

    1986-01-01

    Rats, mice and guinea-pigs were administered p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (clofibric acid) or 2,2'-(decamethylenedithio)diethanol (tiadenol). The treatments of rats and mice with either clofibric acid or tiadenol increased markedly the activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase, palmitoyl-CoA chain elongation, 1-acylglycerophosphate (1-acyl-GP) acyltransferase and 1-acylglycerophosphocholine (1-acyl-GPC) acyltransferase, but not 2-acylglycerophosphocholine (2-acyl-GPC) acyltransferase in liver microsomes. The treatment of guinea-pigs with clofibric acid did not cause any change in the activities of these enzymes. The treatment of guinea-pigs with tiadenol caused a slight, but significant, increase in the activities of 1-acyl-GP acyltransferase and 1-acyl-GPC acyltransferase. The treatment of rats and mice with either clofibric acid or tiadenol increased markedly the proportion of 18:1 and decreased greatly the proportion of 18:0 in liver microsomal phosphatidylcholine. However, there is a considerable difference in the effects of the two peroxisome proliferators on the composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidylcholine between rats and mice. The treatment of guinea-pigs with either of the two peroxisome proliferators caused no change in acyl composition of phosphatidylcholine. The possible role of stearoyl-CoA desaturation in the regulation of acyl composition of phosphatidylcholine was discussed. PMID:2874791

  18. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity is elevated by the suppression of its degradation by clofibric acid in the liver of rats.

    Toyama, Tomoaki; Kudo, Naomi; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Hibino, Yasuhide; Tsuda, Tadashi; Kawashima, Yoichi

    2007-04-01

    A mechanism by which fibrates control stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in the liver was studied. Treatment of rats with 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (clofibric acid) or feeding of a fat-free diet markedly elevated hepatic activity of SCD. Both the treatment with clofibric acid and the feeding of the fat-free diet caused an increase in the steady-state level of SCD1 mRNA and enhanced transcriptional rate. The half-lives of SCD for control rats, rats treated with clofibric acid rats, and rats fed the fat-free diet were estimated to be 2.0, 3.9, and 1.9 h, respectively. Activity of palmitoyl-CoA chain elongase (PCE) was increased by both clofibric acid treatment and feeding of the fat-free diet as was observed with SCD. Steady-state level of rat fatty acid elongase 2 mRNA was increased by the treatment with clofibric acid or feeding of fat-free diet, although the transcriptional rate was not altered. Different from SCD, PCE was highly stable and its half-life was not changed by either clofibric acid or fat-free diet. These results strongly suggest that the decreased degradation of SCD is responsible for the increase in its activity in addition to increased transcription of SCD1 in the rats treated with clofibric acid.

  19. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Razor Clam Sinonovacula constricta: Characterization of Δ5 and Δ6 Fatty Acid Desaturases.

    Ran, Zhaoshou; Xu, Jilin; Liao, Kai; Li, Shuang; Chen, Shubing; Yan, Xiaojun

    2018-05-09

    To investigate the endogenous long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthetic ability in Sinonovacula constricta, fatty acid desaturases (Fads) of this bivalve, namely, Scfad5a, Scfad5b, and Scfad6, were cloned and characterized in the current study. Meanwhile, the tissue distributions of S. constricta Fads and fatty acids (FAs) were examined. Heterologous expression in yeasts confirmed that Scfad5a and Scfad5b were both Δ5 Fads, while Scfad6 was a Δ6 Fad. However, compared with Fads in other organisms, the desaturation activities of S. constricta Fads were relatively low (especially for Scfad6), indicating an adaptation to living conditions. S. constricta Fads were expressed in all tissues examined, and particularly high expressions were found in intestine and gonad. Moreover, FAs were differently distributed among tissues, which might be correlated with their corresponding physiological roles. Taken together, the results provided an insight into LC-PUFA biosynthesis in S. constricta. Notably, Scfad6 was the first functionally characterized Δ6 Fad in marine molluscs to date.

  20. Conserved Function of ACYL–ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE 5 on Seed Oil and Oleic Acid Biosynthesis between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica napus

    Changyu Jin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that several ACYL–ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE (AtAAD members in Arabidopsis thaliana are responsible for oleic acid (C18:1 biosynthesis. Limited research has been conducted on another member, AtAAD5, and its paralog BnAAD5 in the closely related and commercially important plant, Brassica napus. Here, we found that AtAAD5 was predominantly and exclusively expressed in developing embryos at the whole seed developmental stages. The aad5 mutation caused a significant decrease in the amounts of oil and C18:1, and a considerable increase in the content of stearic acid (C18:0 in mature seeds, suggesting that AtAAD5 functioned as an important facilitator of seed oil biosynthesis. We also cloned the full-length coding sequence of BnAAD5-1 from the A3 subgenome of the B. napus inbred line L111. We showed that ectopic expression of BnAAD5-1 in the A. thaliana aad5-2 mutant fully complemented the phenotypes of the mutant, such as lower oil content and altered contents of C18:0 and C18:1. These results help us to better understand the functions of AAD members in A. thaliana and B. napus and provide a promising target for genetic manipulation of B. napus.

  1. Apple latent spherical virus vectors for reliable and effective virus-induced gene silencing among a broad range of plants including tobacco, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucurbits, and legumes

    Igarashi, Aki; Yamagata, Kousuke; Sugai, Tomokazu; Takahashi, Yukari; Sugawara, Emiko; Tamura, Akihiro; Yaegashi, Hajime; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Isogai, Masamichi; Takahashi, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors were evaluated for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of endogenous genes among a broad range of plant species. ALSV vectors carrying partial sequences of a subunit of magnesium chelatase (SU) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) genes induced highly uniform knockout phenotypes typical of SU and PDS inhibition on model plants such as tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana, and economically important crops such as tomato, legume, and cucurbit species. The silencing phenotypes persisted throughout plant growth in these plants. In addition, ALSV vectors could be successfully used to silence a meristem gene, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and disease resistant N gene in tobacco and RCY1 gene in A. thaliana. As ALSV infects most host plants symptomlessly and effectively induces stable VIGS for long periods, the ALSV vector is a valuable tool to determine the functions of interested genes among a broad range of plant species.

  2. Genes and Gene Therapy

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  3. Intérêt nutritionnel des huiles de tournesols : tournesol linoléique et tournesol à haute teneur en oléique

    Delplanque Bernadette

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Depuis les années 60 le tournesol traditionnel représentait le chef de file des « huiles poly-insaturées ». Depuis l’apparition des premières variétés riches en acide oléique (18:1, les sélections naturelles ou traditionnelles de variétés nouvelles de tournesol oléique ont trouvé leur place et leur justification sur le plan nutritionnel, par la qualité diversifiée de leurs acides gras, mais aussi par la préservation des qualités de l’insaponifiable (riche en vitamine E et en phytostérols. Une complémentarité entre les tournesols linoléique et oléique pourrait être tout à fait intéressante par l’utilisation d’huiles combinées, en vue d’un équilibre diététique mono/poly-insaturé dont l’effet serait d’assurer l’expression optimale des paramètres de protection vis-à-vis de l’athérothrombose à l’origine des maladies cardiovasculaires. Le développement du « tournesol-mid-oléique » (mid-range-oleic pourrait également apporter une source d’oléique et de linoléique naturellement plus équilibrée. Cependant, il restera à satisfaire les besoins en alpha-linolénique (importance de la balance n-6/n-3 qui pourraient être apportés par le colza.

  4. Bifidobacterium breve with α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism in the maternal separation model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Barrett, Eoin; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; Ross, R Paul; Quigley, Eamonn M; Shanahan, Fergus; Kiely, Barry; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; O'Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15) were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (10(9) microorganisms/day) alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w) linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w) α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (pbreve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (pbreve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (pbreve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (pbreve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (pbreve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated rats significantly modified the palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents in tissues. The effect was not observed in non-separated animals.

  5. Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat.

    Bell, J A; Griinari, J M; Kennelly, J J

    2006-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after the discovery of its health-promoting properties, including potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Both experiments were organized as a randomized complete block design with a repeated measures treatment structure. In Experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 3 treatments for a period of 2 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, fed as a total mixed ration (TMR). The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels in milk fat after 2 wk of feeding were 0.45, 0.52, 3.36, and 5.15% of total fatty acids for control, MON, SAFF, and SAFF/M, respectively. In Experiment 2, 62 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 5 treatment diets for a period of 9 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a DM basis, fed as a TMR. The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/E), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/ME), or 6% of DM flaxseed oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (FLAX/E). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels during the treatment period were 0.68, 4.12, 3.48, 4.55, 4.75, and 2.80% of total fatty acids for control, SAFF, SAFF/E, SAFF

  6. [Linoleic acid emulsion on the peri-lesion skin of venal ulcers. Action and cicatrizant effect. Corpus study].

    Maicas, Vicente Tormo; Rochina, Iván Julián

    2008-04-01

    The authors present a clinical and documented follow up on the peri-lesion skin in 44 venal blood vessel ulcers which were treated by a hyper-oxygenized fatty acid emulsion. All the elderly in this study belonged to the Number 3 Health Department of the Valencia Sanitary Council. This study's protocol and its data collection register received a favourable report from the Committee on Research Ethics at the "La Plana" Hospital. With a total percentage of 60 in essential linoleic fatty acid, CORPITOLINOL 60, is the emulsion which has the greatest quantity of this element so necessary for human skin. In effect, this is the essential fatty acid which has the greatest presence in human skin, besides being a vital element for skin hydration and its viability to form part of a fundamental structure: intercellular layers in the corneum layer of the epidermis. On the other hand, in the hyper-oxygenation process, this product helps the skin to obtain molecules very similar to prostaglandins land 2 which favour tissue perfusion. The main objective of this study has been to evaluate, after the application of this emulsion over a four week time period, the reduction of erythema and peri-lesion hyperkeratosis in venal blood vessel ulcers. But at the same time, as a secondary objective, this study evaluated peri-lesion skin based on other criteria such as pruritus, lesions due to scratching, or edema; this study verified whether treatment of peri-lesion skin influences the cicatrisation of wounds, as well as treatment acceptance by health professionals and patients. Incidences of erythemas and hyperkeratosis totally disappeared in 40% and 50% of those cases, respectively; in those lesions where these symptoms continued after four weeks of treatment there was a significant reduction in the degree of both erythemas and hyperkeratosis, 25% in each case. These researchers consider that good treatment of peri-lesion skin combined with a standard cure protocol, using "Urgotul" as the

  7. Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Metabolism Response of Growing Meat Rabbits to Dietary Linoleic Acid

    R. G. Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different amounts of dietary linoleic acid (LA on growth performance, serum biochemical traits, meat quality, fatty acids composition of muscle and liver, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT 1 mRNA expression in the liver of 9 wks old to 13 wks old growing meat rabbits. One hundred and fifty 9 wks old meat rabbits were allocated to individual cages and randomly divided into five groups. Animals in each group were fed with a diet with the following LA addition concentrations: 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 g/kg diet (as-fed basis and LA concentrations were 0.84, 1.21, 1.34, 1.61 and 1.80% in the diet, respectively. The results showed as follows: the dietary LA levels significantly affected muscle color of LL included a* and b* of experimental rabbits (p<0.05. The linear effect of LA on serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was obtained (p = 0.0119. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs contents of LL decreased and the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs content of LL increased with dietary LA increase (p<0.0001. The PUFA n-6 content and PUFA n-3 content in the LL was significantly affected by the dietary LA levels (p<0.01, p<0.05. The MUFAs content in the liver decreased and the PUFAs contents in the liver increased with dietary LA increase (p<0.0001. The PUFA n-6 content and the PUFA n-6/n-3 ratio in the liver increased and PUFA n-3 content in the liver decreased with dietary LA increase (p<0.01. The linear effect of LA on CPT 1 mRNA expression in the liver was obtained (p = 0.0081. In summary, dietary LA addition had significant effects on liver and muscle fatty acid composition (increased PUFAs of 9 wks old to 13 wks old growing meat rabbits, but had little effects on growth performance, meat physical traits and mRNA expression of liver relative enzyme of experimental rabbits.

  8. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome.

    Carvalho, Roberta F; Uehara, Sofia K; Rosa, Glorimar

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome. This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day) as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention. There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T₉₀ - T₀ = -12.87 ± 4.26 μU/mL, P = 0.02). Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = -2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02), which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = -3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02) in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = -1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02), but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T₉₀ - T₀ = -4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03). Supplementation with mixed-isomer microencapsulated CLA may have a favorable effect on glycemic control and body fat mass loss at an earlier time in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome, although there were no effects on lipid profile and blood pressure.

  9. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome

    Carvalho, Roberta F; Uehara, Sofia K; Rosa, Glorimar

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome. Methods This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day) as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention. Results There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T90 – T0 = −12.87 ± 4.26 μU/mL, P = 0.02). Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = −2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02), which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = −3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02) in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = −1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02), but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T90 – T0 = −4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03). Conclusion Supplementation with mixed-isomer microencapsulated CLA may have a favorable effect on glycemic control and body fat mass loss at an earlier time in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome, although there were no effects on lipid profile and blood pressure. PMID:23271912

  10. Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight people.

    López-Plaza, Bricia; Bermejo, Laura M; Koester Weber, Thabata; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Hernández, Marta; Palma Milla, Samara; Gómez-Candela, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) have shown beneficial effects in weight control therapy however this relation is not clear. The aim of the study was to examine the effects and safety of 3g of a 1:1 mix of c9-t11 and t10-c12 on weight control and body composition in healthy overweight individuals. A prospective, placebo-controlled, randomised double-blind, parallel clinical trial lasting 24 weeks was carried out in 38 volunteers (29w, 9m) aged 30-55 years and BMI ≥27-oil (placebo). Anthropometric, biochemical and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) tests were measured. Diet and physical activity were assessed. Subjects maintained their habitual dietary and exercise patterns over the study. Only CLA group showed a significant decrease in weight (74.43 ± 10.45 vs 73.54 ± 11.66 kg, p = 0.029) and waist circumference (91.45 ± 10.33 vs 90.65 ± 9.84 cm, p = 0.012) between baseline and end of the study. BMI and waist height ratio decreased (28.44 ± 1.08 vs 27.81 ± 1.43 kg/m2, p = 0.030 and 0.57 ± 0.05 vs 0.56 ± 0.04 p = 0.013 respectively) in CLA group at the end. CLA group experienced a reduction in total fat mass after 24 weeks (38.62 ± 5.02 vs 36.65 ± 5.64%, p = 0.035). No decrease was observed in Control group. HOMA index had no changes. The consumption of skimmed milk enriched with 3g of a 1:1 mixture of c9-t11 and t10-c12 for 24 weeks led to a decrease in body weight and total fat mass in healthy, overweight subjects who maintained habitual diets and exercise patterns. No adverse effects were observed. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier No. NCT01503047. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary linoleic acid elevates endogenous 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and mice, and induces weight gain and inflammation in mice

    Alvheim, Anita R.; Torstensen, Bente E.; Lin, Yu Hong

    2013-01-01

    , arachidonic acid (AA), decreased EPA and DHA, elevated the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), and increased TAG accumulation in the salmon liver. In mice, the SO salmon diet increased LA and AA and decreased EPA and DHA in the liver and erythrocyte phospholipids, and elevated......Dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA) has increased dramatically during the twentieth century and is associated with a greater prevalence of obesity. Vegetable oils are recognised as suitable alternatives to fish oil (FO) in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) but introduce high amounts of LA......-inflammatory properties of EPA and DHA in mice....

  12. Quantitative determination of conjugated linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk with C17 as internal marker – Evaluation of different methylation procedures

    Lashkari, Saman; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2017-01-01

    in the methylation steps, as they are sensitive to pH changes and oxidation. The present study was carried out to determine the efficiency of different methylation procedures on quantitative determination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), PUFA and response of internal standard. The highest response of internal...... standard was observed for boron trifluoride (BF3)/methanol and methanolic HCl followed by NaOCH3, while cis-9, trans-11 CLA, total CLA and PUFA was higher with methanolic HCl followed by NaOCH3 compared with the BF3 method. These data can be useful for quantitating of milk FA....

  13. Carrot Juice Administration Decreases Liver Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Improves Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels, but Not Steatosis in High Fructose Diet-Fed Weanling Wistar Rats.

    Mahesh, Malleswarapu; Bharathi, Munugala; Reddy, Mooli Raja Gopal; Kumar, Manchiryala Sravan; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula; Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M

    2016-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, plasma biochemical markers, such as triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and β-hydroxy butyrate levels were comparable among the 4 groups. Although, the liver injury marker, aspartate aminotransferase, levels in plasma showed a reduction, hepatic triglycerides levels were not significantly reduced by carrot juice ingestion in the HFr diet-fed rats (HFr-CJ). On the other hand, the key triglyceride synthesis pathway enzyme, hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), expression at mRNA level was augmented by carrot juice ingestion, while their protein levels showed a significant reduction, which corroborated with decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Notably, it also improved the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) content of the liver in HFr-CJ. In conclusion, carrot juice ingestion decreased the SCD1-mediated production of MUFA and improved DHA levels in liver, under high fructose diet-fed conditions. However, these changes did not significantly lower the hepatic triglyceride levels.

  14. One-night sleep deprivation induces changes in the DNA methylation and serum activity indices of stearoyl-CoA desaturase in young healthy men.

    Skuladottir, Gudrun Valgerdur; Nilsson, Emil Karl; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schiöth, Helgi Birgir

    2016-08-26

    Sleep deprivation has been associated with obesity among adults, and accumulating data suggests that stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) expression has a relevant impact on fatty acid (FA) composition of lipid pools and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of one-night total sleep deprivation (TSD) on DNA methylation in the 5'-prime region of SCD1, and whether detected changes in DNA methylation are associated with SCD activity indices (product to precursor FA ratios; 16:1n-7/16:0 and 18:1n-9/18:0) derived from serum phospholipids (PL). Sixteen young, normal-weight, healthy men completed two study sessions, one with one-night TSD and one with one-night normal sleep (NS). Sleep quality and length was assessed by polysomnography, and consisted of electroencephalography, electrooculography, and electromyography. Fasting whole blood samples were collected on the subsequent morning for analysis of DNA methylation and FAs in serum PL. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between changes in DNA methylation and SCD activity indices. Three CpG sites close to the transcription start site (TSS) of SCD1 (cg00954566, cg24503796, cg14089512) were significantly differentially methylated in dependency of sleep duration (-log10 P-value > 1.3). Both SCD-16 and SCD-18 activity indices were significantly elevated (P DNA methylation changes of the three mentioned probes in the 5' region of SCD1. Our results suggest a relevant link between TSD, hepatic SCD1 expression and de-novo fatty acid synthesis via epigenetically driven regulatory mechanisms.

  15. Identification of a Δ5-like fatty acyl desaturase from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier 1797) involved in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids.

    Monroig, Oscar; Navarro, Juan C; Dick, James R; Alemany, Frederic; Tocher, Douglas R

    2012-08-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) have been identified as essential compounds for common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), but precise dietary requirements have not been determined due, in part, to the inherent difficulties of performing feeding trials on paralarvae. Our objective is to establish the essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements for paralarval stages of the common octopus through characterisation of the enzymes of endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways. In this study, we isolated a cDNA with high homology to fatty acyl desaturases (Fad). Functional characterisation in recombinant yeast showed that the octopus Fad exhibited Δ5-desaturation activity towards saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acyl substrates. Thus, it efficiently converted the yeast's endogenous 16:0 and 18:0 to 16:1n-11 and 18:1n-13, respectively, and desaturated exogenously added PUFA substrates 20:4n-3 and 20:3n-6 to 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 20:4n-6 (ARA), respectively. Although the Δ5 Fad enables common octopus to produce EPA and ARA, the low availability of its adequate substrates 20:4n-3 and 20:3n-6, either in the diet or by limited endogenous synthesis from C(18) PUFA, might indicate that EPA and ARA are indeed EFA for this species. Interestingly, the octopus Δ5 Fad can also participate in the biosynthesis of non-methylene-interrupted FA, PUFA that are generally uncommon in vertebrates but have been found previously in marine invertebrates, including molluscs, and now also confirmed to be present in specific tissues of common octopus.

  16. CAR gene cluster and transcript levels of carotenogenic genes in Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.

    Landolfo, Sara; Ianiri, Giuseppe; Camiolo, Salvatore; Porceddu, Andrea; Mulas, Giuliana; Chessa, Rossella; Zara, Giacomo; Mannazzu, Ilaria

    2018-01-01

    A molecular approach was applied to the study of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. At first, functional annotation of the genome of R. mucilaginosa C2.5t1 was carried out and gene ontology categories were assigned to 4033 predicted proteins. Then, a set of genes involved in different steps of carotenogenesis was identified and those coding for phytoene desaturase, phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase and carotenoid dioxygenase (CAR genes) proved to be clustered within a region of ~10 kb. Quantitative PCR of the genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis showed that genes coding for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-CoA reductase and mevalonate kinase are induced during exponential phase while no clear trend of induction was observed for phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase and phytoene dehydrogenase encoding genes. Thus, in R. mucilaginosa the induction of genes involved in the early steps of carotenoid biosynthesis is transient and accompanies the onset of carotenoid production, while that of CAR genes does not correlate with the amount of carotenoids produced. The transcript levels of genes coding for carotenoid dioxygenase, superoxide dismutase and catalase A increased during the accumulation of carotenoids, thus suggesting the activation of a mechanism aimed at the protection of cell structures from oxidative stress during carotenoid biosynthesis. The data presented herein, besides being suitable for the elucidation of the mechanisms that underlie carotenoid biosynthesis, will contribute to boosting the biotechnological potential of this yeast by improving the outcome of further research efforts aimed at also exploring other features of interest.

  17. Effectiveness of hCMV, mEF1a and mAct promoters on driving of foreign gene expression in transgenic zebrafish

    . Alimuddin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA have long been recognized for its beneficial effect for human health and development.   The D6 fatty acid desaturase is generally considered to be the rate-limiting factor in HUFA biosynthesis.  Here, as the first step of study, we conducted experiment to select an appropriate construct that allows higher expression levels of masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou D6-desaturase gene in zebrafish (Danio rerio in order to increase its activity for synthesizing EPA/DHA.  Salmon D6-desaturase cDNA (sD6 was separately ligated with human cytomegalovirus (hCMV, medaka elongation factor 1a (mEF1a and medaka b-actin (mAct promoters.  The resulted construct was designated as hCMV-sD6, mEF1a-sD6 and mAct-sD6, respectively.  Each of the constructs in circular DNA form was microinjected into 1-cell stage embryos at a concentration of 30mg/ml. Transgenic individuals were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and their expression levels were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR.  The first (F1 and second (F2 generation was produced by crossing the transgenic founder F0 and F1, respectively, with wild-type fish.  The results showed that the highest transient gene expression level was obtained from the mAct-D6 construct, followed respectively by EF1a-D6 and hCMV-D6 construct. The transmission rate of transgene into F1 generation was 4.2%-44.1%, and into F2 was followed the Mendellian segregation pattern.   Expression of transgene in F2 generation was varied between strains regarding as the mosaics of F0 fish.  Now, a transgenic system to study the modification of fatty acid biosynthesis pathways in fish was established.  Further investigations are to produce fish containing higher levels of EPA and DHA. Keywords: desaturase, nutraceutical fatty acid, transgenic, zebrafish, masu salmon   Abstrak Promoter merupakan regulator yang menentukan

  18. c9t11-Conjugated linoleic acid-rich oil fails to attenuate wasting in colon-26 tumor-induced late-stage cancer cachexia in male CD2F1 mice.

    Tian, Min; Kliewer, Kara L; Asp, Michelle L; Stout, Michael B; Belury, Martha A

    2011-02-01

    Cancer cachexia is characterized by muscle and adipose tissue wasting caused partly by chronic, systemic inflammation. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are a group of fatty acids with various properties including anti-inflammatory cis9, trans11 (c9t11)-CLA and lipid-mobilizing trans10, cis12 (t10c12)-CLA. The purpose of this study was to test whether dietary supplementation of a c9t11-CLA-rich oil (6:1 c9t11:t10c12) could attenuate wasting of muscle and adipose tissue in colon-26 adenocarcinoma-induced cachexia in mice. Loss of body weight, muscle and adipose tissue mass caused by tumors were not rescued by supplementation with the c9t11-CLA-rich oil. In quadriceps muscle, c9t11-CLA-rich oil exacerbated tumor-induced gene expression of inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6 receptor and the E3 ligase MuRF-1 involved in muscle proteolysis. In epididymal adipose tissue, tumor-driven delipidation and atrophy was aggravated by the c9,t11-CLA-rich oil, demonstrated by further reduced adipocyte size and lower adiponectin expression. However, expression of inflammatory cytokines and macrophage markers were not altered by tumors, or CLA supplementation. These data suggest that addition of c9t11-CLA-rich oil (0.6% c9t11, 0.1% t10c12) in diet did not ameliorate wasting in mice with cancer cachexia. Instead, it increased expression of inflammatory markers in the muscle and increased adipose delipidation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Using linoleic acid embedded cellulose acetate membranes to in situ monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lakes and predict their bioavailability to submerged macrophytes.

    Tao, Yuqiang; Xue, Bin; Yao, Shuchun

    2015-05-19

    To date no passive sampler has been used to predict bioavailability of contaminants to macrophytes. Here a novel passive sampler, linoleic acid embedded cellulose acetate membrane (LAECAM), was developed and used to in situ measure the freely dissolved concentrations of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediment porewaters and the water columns of two lakes in both winter and summer and predict their bioavailability to the shoots of resident submerged macrophytes (Potamogeton malainus, Myriophyllum spicata, Najas minor All., and Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara). PAH sampling by LAECAMs could reach equilibrium within 21 days. The influence of temperature on LAECAM-water partition coefficients was 0.0008-0.0116 log units/°C. The method of LAECAM was comparable with the active sampling methods of liquid-liquid extraction combined with fDOC adjustment, centrifugation/solid-phase extraction (SPE), and filtration/SPE but had several advantages. After lipid normalization, concentrations of the PAHs in LAECAMs were not significantly different from those in the macrophytes. In contrast, concentrations of the PAHs in the triolein containing passive sampler (TECAM) deployed simultaneously with LAECAM were much higher. The results suggest that linoleic acid is more suitable than triolein as the model lipid for passive samplers to predict bioavailability of PAHs to submerged macrophytes.

  20. Effects of enrichment with polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid) on consumer liking of beef aged for 7 or 21 d evaluated at different locations.

    Pérez-Juan, María; Realini, Carolina E; Barahona, Marta; Sarriés, Maria Victoria; del Mar Campo, Maria; Beriain, María José; Vitale, Mauro; Gil, Marta; Albertí, Pere

    2014-11-01

    The effect of different animal diets supplemented with linseed (source of omega-3 fatty acids: n-3) and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CON: control, LIN: 10% linseed, CLA: 2% conjugated linoleic acid, LINCLA: 10% linseed plus 2% CLA) on consumer liking of beef aged for 7 or 21 d was assessed in 3 Spanish cities. Overall, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor liking of beef were evaluated by consumers (n = 720) using 9-point scales. Hedonic scores assigned by consumers did not differ (P > 0.05) for beef from animals fed the different diets and aged for 7 or 21 d. Consumer scores showed an increasing trend in beef liking with aging time. Consumers from Pamplona assigned lower (P consumers from Barcelona and Zaragoza. Linseed and/or CLA can be fed to improve the fatty acid profile in beef with minimal impact on consumer liking. Consumer ratings seem to depend on regional tastes and preferences. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi extract and linoleic acid from Passiflora edulis synergistically decrease melanin synthesis in B16 cells and reconstituted epidermis.

    Jorge, A T S; Arroteia, K F; Santos, I A; Andres, E; Medina, S P H; Ferrari, C R; Lourenço, C B; Biaggio, R M T T; Moreira, P L

    2012-10-01

    Several treatments for skin whitening are available today, but few of them are completely adequate, especially owing to the carcinogenic potential attributed to classical drugs like hydroquinone, arbutin and kojic acid. To provide an alternative and safer technology for whitening, we developed two botanical compounds originated from Brazilian biodiversity, an extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi and a linoleic acid fraction isolated from Passiflora edulis oil. The whitening effect of these compounds was assessed using biochemical assays and in vitro models including cellular assays and equivalent skin. The results showed that S. terebinthifolius Raddi extract is able to reduce the tyrosinase activity in vitro, and the combination of this extract with linoleic acid is able to decrease the level of melanin produced by B16 cells cultured with melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Furthermore, melanin was also reduced in human reconstituted epidermis (containing melanocytes) treated with the compounds. The combination of the compounds may provide a synergistic positive whitening effect rather than their isolated use. Finally, we demonstrated that the performance of these mixed compounds is comparable to classical molecules used for skin whitening, as kojic acid. This new natural mixture could be considered an alternative therapeutic agent for treating hyperpigmentation and an effective component in whitening cosmetics. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Production of Conjugated Linoleic and Conjugated α-Linolenic Acid in a Reconstituted Skim Milk-Based Medium by Bifidobacterial Strains Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    María Antonia Villar-Tajadura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight bifidobacterial strains isolated from human breast milk have been tested for their abilities to convert linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (LNA to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLNA, respectively. These bioactive lipids display important properties that may contribute to the maintenance and improvement human health. Three selected Bifidobacterium breve strains produced CLA from LA and CLNA from LNA in MRS (160–170 and 210–230 μg mL−1, resp. and, also, in reconstituted skim milk (75–95 and 210–244 μg mL−1, resp.. These bifidobacterial strains were also able to simultaneously produce both CLA (90–105 μg mL−1 and CLNA (290–320 μg mL−1 in reconstituted skim milk. Globally, our findings suggest that these bifidobacterial strains are potential candidates for the design of new fermented dairy products naturally containing very high concentrations of these bioactive lipids. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing CLNA production and coproduction of CLA and CLNA by Bifidobacterium breve strains isolated from human milk in reconstituted skim milk.

  3. SCREENING OF COMMON FLAX FAD GENES BY PCR

    Veronika Štefúnová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is an important crop from commercial and economical aspects. In the spotlight is the linseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid. The aim of presented study was to analyse fatty acid desaturase (FAD genes in flax. Several genotypes of flax (Hohenheim, La Plata 1938, Redwing USA and Escalina were used. The primers described by Vrinten et al. (2005 were used for PCR amplification reactions. Two FAD3 genes, LuFAD3A and LuFAD3B, were identified in a genome of flax. Subsequently the nucleotide sequences between origins and genotypes of flax FAD genes were compared. Primarily were used the nucleotide sequences of FAD2 and FAD3C genes available in NCBI database. Differences were found using BLAST program in nucleotide sequences of FAD genes and the specific primers were designed to amplify a specific target sequences in a genome of flax. These primers were used in PCR amplification reactions to identification of FAD2 and FAD3C genes. The PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on agarose gel.

  4. Genes affecting novel seed constituents in Limnanthes alba Benth: transcriptome analysis of developing embryos and a new genetic map of meadowfoam

    Mary B. Slabaugh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of meadowfoam, a new crop in the Limnanthaceae family, is highly enriched in very long chain fatty acids that are desaturated at the Δ5 position. The unusual oil is desirable for cosmetics and innovative industrial applications and the seed meal remaining after oil extraction contains glucolimnanthin, a methoxylated benzylglucosinolate whose degradation products are herbicidal and anti-microbial. Here we describe EST analysis of the developing seed transcriptome that identified major genes involved in biosynthesis and assembly of the seed oil and in glucosinolate metabolic pathways. mRNAs encoding acyl-CoA Δ5 desaturase were notably abundant. The library was searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Fifty-four new SSR markers and eight candidate gene markers were developed and combined with previously developed SSRs to construct a new genetic map for Limnanthes alba. Mapped genes in the lipid biosynthetic pathway encode 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS, Δ5 desaturase (Δ5DS, lysophosphatidylacyl-acyl transferase (LPAT, and acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyl transferase (DGAT. Mapped genes in glucosinolate biosynthetic and degradation pathways encode CYP79A, myrosinase (TGG, and epithiospecifier modifier protein (ESM. The resources developed in this study will further the domestication and improvement of meadowfoam as an oilseed crop.

  5. Effect of the inclusion of quebracho tannins in a diet rich in linoleic acid on milk fatty acid composition in dairy ewes.

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Bichi, E; Frutos, P

    2013-01-01

    Despite controversy surrounding the ability of tannins to modulate the fatty acid (FA) profile of ruminant-derived products, reports on this issue are still very limited for dairy sheep. This study was conducted to examine the effect of the inclusion of quebracho tannins in a diet rich in linoleic acid on ewe performance and milk FA composition. Thirty-six lactating ewes were distributed into 6 lots and allocated to 2 treatments (3 lots/treatment): control or quebracho. All sheep received a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and a concentrate (forage:concentrate ratio of 40:60) supplemented with 20 g of sunflower oil/kg of dry matter plus 0 (control diet) or 20 g of an extract of quebracho tannins/kg of dry matter (QUE diet). Milk production and composition were analyzed on d 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, and 27 on treatments, and milk FA profile on d 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 27. On d 27, samples of rumen fluid were collected for pH, and lactate, ammonia, and volatile FA concentration analysis. Feeding the QUE diet had no apparent effect on animal performance and hardly modified ruminal fermentation characteristics, except for a reduction in the molar proportions of minor volatile FA. Dietary tannins increased the milk concentration of several 18:1 and 18:2 isomers and decreased that of branched-chain FA. Some of these changes were relatively constant throughout the experiment (e.g., cis-12 18:1 and trans-9,cis-12 18:2), whereas others varied over time (e.g., trans-10 18:1, which increased gradually with the QUE diet). Significant differences between treatments in trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid were only observed on d 3. Overall, addition of quebracho tannins to a diet rich in linoleic acid did not prove useful to beneficially modify milk FA composition, especially over the long term. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bifidobacterium breve with α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid alters fatty acid metabolism in the maternal separation model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Eoin Barrett

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15 were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (10(9 microorganisms/day alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11 in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11 in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (p<0.05, whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05 compared with the NS un-supplemented controls. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (p<0.01 and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001, whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (p<0.05, and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001. B. breve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated

  7. Tumor biology of non-metastatic stages of clear cell renal cell carcinoma; overexpression of stearoyl desaturase-1, EPO/EPO-R system and hypoxia-related proteins.

    Stoyanoff, Tania Romina; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Todaro, Juan Santiago; Espada, Joaquín Diego; Colavita, Juan Pablo Melana; Brandan, Nora Cristina; Torres, Adriana Mónica; Aguirre, María Victoria

    2016-10-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of renal carcinomas. There is great interest to know the molecular basis of the tumor biology of ccRCC that might contribute to a better understanding of the aggressive biological behavior of this cancer and to identify early biomarkers of disease. This study describes the relationship among proliferation, survival, and apoptosis with the expression of key molecules related to tumoral hypoxia (hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)), their receptors (EPO-R, VEGFR-2), and stearoyl desaturase-1 (SCD-1) in early stages of ccRCC. Tissue samples were obtained at the Urology Unit of the J.R. Vidal Hospital (Corrientes, Argentina), from patients who underwent radical nephrectomy for renal cancer between 2011 and 2014. Four experimental groups according to pathological stage and nuclear grade were organized: T1G1 (n = 6), T2G1 (n = 4), T1G2 (n = 7), and T2G2 (n = 7). The expression of HIF-1α, EPO, EPO-R, VEGF, VEGFR-2, Bcl-x L , and SCD-1 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and/or RT-PCR. Apoptosis was assessed by the TUNEL in situ assay, and tumor proliferation was determined by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. Data revealed that HIF-1α, EPO, EPO-R, VEGF, and VEGF-R2 were overexpressed in most samples. The T1G1 group showed the highest EPO levels, approximately 200 % compared with distal renal tissue. Bcl-x L overexpression was concomitant with the enhancement of proliferative indexes. SCD-1 expression increased with the tumor size and nuclear grade. Moreover, the direct correlations observed between SCD-1/HIF-1α and SCD-1/Ki-67 increments suggest a link among these molecules, which would determine tumor progression in early stages of ccRCC. Our results demonstrate the relationship among proliferation, survival, and apoptosis with the expression of key molecules related to tumoral hypoxia (HIF-1α, EPO, VEGF), their

  8. Use of radiolabeled substrates to determine the desaturase and elongase activities involved in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid biosynthesis in the marine microalga Pavlova lutheri.

    Guihéneuf, Freddy; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Tremblin, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    The marine flagellate Pavlova lutheri is a microalga known to be rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and able to produce large amounts of n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). As no previous study had attempted to measure the metabolic step of fatty acid synthesis in this alga, we used radiolabeled precursors to explore the various desaturation and elongation steps involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathways. The incorporation of (14)C-labeled palmitic ([1-(14)C] 16:0) and dihomo-γ-linolenic ([1-(14)C] 20:3n-6) acids as ammonium salts within the cells was monitored during incubation periods lasting 3, 10 or 24h. Total lipids and each of the fatty acids were also monitored during these incubation periods. A decrease in the availability and/or accessibility of the radiolabeled substrates was observed over the incubation time. This decrease with incubation time observed using [1-(14)C] 16:0 and [1-(14)C] 20:3n-6 as substrates was used to monitor the conversion of (14)C-labeled arachidonic acid ([1-(14)C] 20:4n-6) into longer and more unsaturated fatty acids, such as 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, over shorter incubation times (1 and 3h). A metabolic relationship between the n-6 and n-3 fatty acid series was demonstrated in P. lutheri by measuring the Δ17-desaturation activity involved in the conversion of eicosatetraenoic acid to 20:5n-3. Our findings suggest that the biosynthesis pathway leading to n-3 LC-PUFA involves fatty acids of the n-6 family, which act as precursors in the biosynthesis of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. This preliminary work provides a method for studying microalgal LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathways and desaturase and elongase activities in vivo using externally-radiolabeled fatty acid precursors as substrates. The use of the [1-(14)C] 20:4n-6 substrate also highlighted the relationships between the n-6 and the n-3 fatty acid series (e.g. Δ17-desaturation), and the final elongation

  9. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar

    2008-01-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk...... fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type 11, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA...... esters, and phospholipids reflected that of the intervention diets. The CLA diet resulted in increased lipid peroxidation measured as an 83% higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F-2 alpha concentration compared with the control, P...

  10. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  11. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis.

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia; Ohue, Ryuji; Nomura, Wataru; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Kitamura, Nahoko; Park, Si-Bum; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Kawada, Teruo

    2015-04-17

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inflammation and insulin resistance induced by trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid depend on intracellular calcium levels in primary cultures of human adipocytes

    Kennedy, Arion; Martinez, Kristina; Chung, Soonkyu

    2010-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that trans-10, cis-12 (10,12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induced inflammation and insulin resistance in primary human adipocytes by activating nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling. In this study, we demonstrated...... that the initial increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) mediated by 10,12 CLA was attenuated by TMB-8, an inhibitor of calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), by BAPTA, an intracellular calcium chelator, and by D609, a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor. Moreover, BAPTA, TMB-8, and D609 attenuated......, and suppression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma protein levels and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These data suggest that 10,12 CLA increases inflammation and insulin resistance in human adipocytes, in part by increasing [Ca2+]i levels, particularly calcium from the ER....

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid induces human adipocyte delipidation: autocrine/paracrine regulation of MEK/ERK signaling by adipocytokines

    Brown, J Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Chung, Soonkyu

    2004-01-01

    of MEK/ERK could be attenuated by pretreatment with U0126 and pertussis toxin. In parallel, pretreatment with U0126 blocked the ability of trans-10, cis-12 CLA to alter gene expression and attenuate glucose and fatty acid uptake of the cultures. Intriguingly, the induction by CLA of MEK/ERK signaling...

  14. Conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and other biohydrogenation intermediates in plasma and milk fat of cows fed raw or extruded linseed.

    Akraim, F; Nicot, M C; Juaneda, P; Enjalbert, F

    2007-07-01

    Thirty lactating dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design to investigate the effects of a raw or extruded blend of linseed and wheat bran (70:30) on plasma and milk fatty-acids (FA). Linseed diets, containing 16.6% linseed blend on a dry-matter basis, decreased milk yield and protein percentage. They decreased the proportions of FA with less than 18 carbons in plasma and milk and resulted in cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3 proportions that were more than three and four times higher in plasma and milk, respectively, whereas cis-9, cis-12 18:2 proportions were decreased by 10-15%. The cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 18:3 isomer of conjugated linolenic acid was not detected in the milk of control cows, but was over 0.15% of total FA in the milk fat of linseed-supplemented cows. Similarly, linseed increased plasma and milk proportions of all biohydrogenation (BH) intermediates in plasma and milk, including the main isomer of conjugated linoleic acid cis-9, trans-11 18:2, except trans-4 18:1 and cis-11, trans-15 18:2 in plasma lipids. In milk fat, compared with raw linseed, extruded linseed further reduced 6:0-16:0 even-chain FA, did not significantly affect the proportions of 18:0, cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, cis-12 18:2, tended to increase cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3, and resulted in an additional increase in the proportions of most BH intermediates. It was concluded that linseed addition can improve the proportion of conjugated linoleic and linolenic acids, and that extrusion further increases the proportions of intermediates of ruminal BH in milk fat.

  15. Distribution of 14C after oral administration of [U-14C]labeled methyl linoleate hydroperoxides and their secondary oxidation products in rats

    Oarada, M.; Miyazawa, T.; Kaneda, T.

    1986-01-01

    To study the toxicity of low molecular weight (LMW) compounds formed during the autoxidation of oils, 14 C-labeled primary monomeric compounds (methyl linoleate hydroperoxides) and secondary oxidation products, i.e., polymer and LMW compounds prepared from autoxidized methyl [U- 14 C]linoleate hydroperoxides (MLHPO) were orally administered to rats, and their radioactive distributions in tissues and organs were compared. The polymeric fraction consisted mainly of dimers of MLHPO. For the LMW fraction, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, 8-hydroxy methyl octanoate and 10-formyl methyl-9-decenoate were identified as major constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after chemical reduction and derivatization. When LMW compounds were administered to rats, 14 CO 2 expiration and the excreted radioactivity in urine in 12 hr were significantly higher than those from polymer or MLHPO administration. Maximum 14 CO 2 expiration appeared 2-4 hr after the dose of LMW compounds. Radioactivity of the upper part of small intestines six hr after the dose of LMW compounds was higher than the values from administered polymer or MLHPO. The remaining radioactivity in the digestive contents and feces 12 hr after administration of LMW compounds was much lower than the values observed from administered polymer or MLHPO. Among internal organs, the liver contained the highest concentration of radioactivities from polymer, MLHPO and LMW fractions, and an especially higher level of radioactivity was found in liver six hr after the administration of LMW compounds. Six hours after the dose of LMW compounds, a relatively higher level of radioactivity also was detected in kidney, brain, heart and lung

  16. Purification and site-directed mutagenesis of linoleate 9S-dioxygenase-allene oxide synthase of Fusarium oxysporum confirms the oxygenation mechanism.

    Chen, Yang; Jernerén, Fredrik; Oliw, Ernst H

    2017-07-01

    Plants and fungi form jasmonic acid from α-linolenic acid. The first two steps of biosynthesis in plants occur by sequential transformation by 13S-lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase (AOS). The biosynthesis in fungi may follow this classical scheme, but the only fungal AOS discovered so far are cytochromes P450 (CYP) fused to 8- and 9-dioxygenases (DOX). In the present report, we purified recombinant 9S-DOX-AOS of Fusarium oxysporum from cell lysate by cobalt affinity chromatography to near homogeneity and studied key residues by site-directed mutagenesis. Sequence homology with 8R-DOX-linoleate diol synthases (8R-DOX-LDS) suggested that Tyr414 catalyzes hydrogen abstraction and that Cys1051 forms the heme thiolate ligand. Site-directed mutagenesis (Tyr414Phe; Cys1051Ser) led to loss of 9S-DOX and 9S-AOS activities, respectively, but other important residues in the CYP parts of 5,8- and 7,8-LDS or 9R-AOS were not conserved. The UV-visible spectrum of 9S-DOX-AOS showed a Soret band at 409 nm, which shifted to 413 nm in the Cys1051Ser mutant. The 9S-AOS of the Tyr414Phe mutant transformed 9S-hydroperoxides of α-linolenic and linoleic acids to allene oxides/α-ketols, but it did not transform 13-hydroperoxides. We conclude that 9S- and 8R-DOX catalyze hydrogen abstraction at C-11 and C-8, respectively, by homologous Tyr residues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in CLA-rich soy oil by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

    Kadamne, Jeta V; Jain, Vishal P; Saleh, Mohammed; Proctor, Andrew

    2009-11-25

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in oils are currently measured as fatty acid methyl esters by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) technique, which requires approximately 2 h to complete the analysis. Hence, we aim to develop a method to rapidly determine CLA isomers in CLA-rich soy oil. Soy oil with 0.38-25.11% total CLA was obtained by photo-isomerization of 96 soy oil samples for 24 h. A sample was withdrawn at 30 min intervals with repeated processing using a second batch of oil. Six replicates of GC-FID fatty acid analysis were conducted for each oil sample. The oil samples were scanned using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and the spectrum was collected. Calibration models were developed using partial least-squares (PLS-1) regression using Unscrambler software. Models were validated using a full cross-validation technique and tested using samples that were not included in the calibration sample set. Measured and predicted total CLA, trans,trans CLA isomers, total mono trans CLA isomers, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA and cis-10,trans-12 CLA, and cis-9,trans-11 CLA had cross-validated coefficients of determinations (R2v) of 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, and 0.99 and corresponding root-mean-square error of validation (RMSEV) of 1.14, 0.69, 0.27, 0.07, 0.14, and 0.07% CLA, respectively. The ATR-FTIR technique is a rapid and less expensive method for determining CLA isomers in linoleic acid photo-isomerized soy oil than GC-FID.

  18. Culture Conditions stimulating high γ-Linolenic Acid accumulation by Spirulina platensis Condições de cultura simulando o levado acúmulo de ácido γ-linolênico por Spirulina platensis

    Srinivasa Reddy Ronda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA production by Spirulina platensis under different stress-inducing conditions was studied. Submerged culture studies showed that low temperature (25ºC, strong light intensity (6 klux and primrose oil supplement (0.8%w/v induced 13.2 mg/g, 14.6 mg/g and 13.5 mg linolenic acid per gram dry cell weight respectively. A careful observation of fatty acid profile of the cyanobacteria shows that, oleic acid and linoleic acid, in experiments with varying growth temperature and oil supplements respectively, helped in accumulating excess γ-linolenic acid. In addition, cultures grown at increasing light regimes maintained the γ-linolenic acid to the total fatty acid ratio(GLA/TFA constant, despite any change in γ-linolenic acid content of the cyanobacteria.Estudou-se a produção de ácido γ-linolênico por Spirulina platensis em diferentes condições de estresse. Culturas submersas indicaram que temperatura baixa (25ºC, forte intensidade de luz (6 klux e suplementação com óleo de prímula (0,8% p/v induziram a produção de ácido linolênico de 13,2 mg/g, 14,6 mg/g e 13,5 mg/g peso seco, respectivamente. Uma observação cuidadosa do perfil de ácidos graxos da cianobacteria indica que os ácidos oléico e linoléico, em experimentos com diferentes temperaturas de crescimento e suplementos de óleo, auxiliaram no acúmulo de excesso de ácido γ-linolênico. Além disso, as culturas obtidas em intensidades crescentes de luz mantiveram a relação ácido γ-linolênico/ácidos graxos totais constante, independentemente de qualquer mudança no conteúdo de ácido γ-linolênico da cianobactéria.

  19. Oleic and linoleic acids are active principles in Nigella sativa and stabilize an E(2)P conformation of the Na,K-ATPase. Fatty acids differentially regulate cardiac glycoside interaction with the pump.

    Mahmmoud, Yasser A; Christensen, S Brøgger

    2011-10-01

    Nigella sativa seed oil was found to contain a modulator of Na,K-ATPase. Separation analyses combined with (1)H NMR and GCMS identified the inhibitory fraction as a mixture of oleic and linoleic acids. These two fatty acids are specifically concentrated in several medicinal plant oils, and have particularly been implicated in decreasing high blood pressure. The ouabain binding site on Na,K-ATPase has also been implicated in blood pressure regulation. Thus, we aimed to determine how these two molecules modify pig kidney Na,K-ATPase. Oleic and linoleic acids did not modify reactions involving the E(1) (Na(+)) conformations of the Na,K-ATPase. In contrast, K(+) dependent reactions were strongly modified after treatment. Oleic and linoleic acids were found to stabilize a pump conformation that binds ouabain with high affinity, i.e., an ion free E(2)P form. Time-resolved binding assays using anthroylouabain, a fluorescent ouabain analog, revealed that the increased ouabain affinity is unique to oleic and linoleic acids, as compared with γ-linolenic acid, which decreased pump-mediated ATP hydrolysis but did not equally increase ouabain interaction with the pump. Thus, the dynamic changes in plasma levels of oleic and linoleic acids are important in the modulation of the sensitivity of the sodium pump to cardiac glycosides. Given the possible involvement of the cardiac glycoside binding site on Na,K-ATPase in the regulation of hypertension, we suggest oleic acid to be a specific chaperon that modulates interaction of cardiac glycosides with the sodium pump. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Efecto del ácido linoléico sobre la producción de las prostaglandinas PGF2α y PGE2 en células endometriales

    Yasser Lenis S.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto in vitro del ácido linoléico sobre la producción de PGF2α y PGE2 en células endometriales epiteliales bovinas (CEEP. Materiales y métodos. Se cultivaron CEEP aisladas de tejido uterino y se suplementaron con AL a diferentes concentraciones (1 μM, 10 μM, 100 μM, oxitocina (OT (0.1 μM e interferón trofoectodérmico bovino (bINT-τ (50 ng/ml. Se cuantificó la PGF2α y PGE2 a distintos tiempos (12, 24 y 36h. En el control, la PGF2α en el sobrenadante aumentó en el tiempo de cultivo y fue 1.2 veces mayor que la producción de PGE2. Resultados. El ácido linoléico disminuyó la concentración de PGF2α (p0.05 la producción de PGE2. El efecto conjunto de AL y OT sobre la producción de PGF2α difirió para cada uno de los tiempos; el ácido linoléico inhibió parcialmente el efecto estimulante de la OT sobre la producción de PGE2, el efecto conjunto del AL y el bINT-τ aumentó (p<0.05 esta inhibición hasta la hora 24. Conclusiones. El ácido linoléico afecta negativamente la concentración de PGF2α en el sobrenadante a través del tiempo. Respecto a la PGE2 se concluye que el ácido linoléico por sí solo no afecta la concentración en el sobrenadante.

  1. Lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen down-regulates stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression and alters fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet.

    Xu, Tianle; Tao, Hui; Chang, Guangjun; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Lei; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2015-03-07

    Dairy cows are often fed a high-concentrate diet to meet lactating demands, yet long-term concentrate feeding induces subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and leads to a decrease in milk fat. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 (SCD1) participates in fatty acid biosynthesis in the liver of lactating ruminants. Here, we conducted this study to investigate the impact of lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen on SCD1 expression and on fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet. Eight multiparous mid-lactating Holstein cows (455 ± 28 kg) were randomly assigned into two groups in the experiment and were fed a low-concentrate diet (LC) or high-concentrate diet (HC) for 18 weeks. The results showed that the total volatile fatty acids and lactic acid accumulated in the rumen, leading to a decreased rumen pH and elevated lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in the HC group. The long chain fatty acid profile in the rumen and hepatic vein was remarkably altered in the animals fed the HC diet. The triglyceride (TG), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and total cholesterol (TCH) content in the plasma was significantly decreased, whereas plasma glucose and insulin levels were increased. The expression of SCD1 in the liver was significantly down-regulated in the HC group. In regards to transcriptional regulators, the expression of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factors (SREBF1c, SREBF2) and SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP) was down-regulated, while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was up-regulated. These data indicate that lipopolysaccharide derived from the rumen down-regulates stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 expression and alters fatty acid composition in the liver of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet.

  2. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  3. Starch and oil in the donor cow diet and starch in substrate differently affect the in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acids.

    Zened, A; Troegeler-Meynadier, A; Nicot, M C; Combes, S; Cauquil, L; Farizon, Y; Enjalbert, F

    2011-11-01

    Trans isomers of fatty acids exhibit different health properties. Among them, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on milk fat production and can affect human health. A shift from the trans-11 to the trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of dairy cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with highly unsaturated fat sources. The differences of BH patterns between linoleic acid (LeA) and linolenic acid (LnA) in such ruminal conditions remain unknown; thus, the aim of this work was to investigate in vitro the effects of starch and sunflower oil in the diet of the donor cows and starch level in the incubates on the BH patterns and efficiencies of LeA and LnA. The design was a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 cows, 4 periods, and 4 diets with combinations of 21 or 34% starch and 0 or 5% sunflower oil. The rumen content of each cow during each period was incubated with 4 substrates, combining 2 starch levels and either LeA or LnA addition. Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism of incubates showed that dietary starch decreased the diversity of the bacterial community and the high-starch plus oil diet modified its structure. High-starch diets poorly affected isomerization and first reduction of LeA and LnA, but decreased the efficiencies of trans-11,cis-15-C18:2 and trans C18:1 reduction. Dietary sunflower oil increased the efficiency of LeA isomerization but decreased the efficiency of trans C18:1 reduction. An interaction between dietary starch and dietary oil resulted in the highest trans-10 isomers production in incubates when the donor cow received the high-starch plus oil diet. The partition between trans-10 and trans-11 isomers was also affected by an interaction between starch level and the fatty acid added to the incubates, showing that the trans-10 shift only occurred with LeA, whereas LnA was mainly hydrogenated via the more usual trans-11

  4. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid, vitamin E and their combination on lipid profiles and blood pressure of Iranian adults with active rheumatoid arthritis

    Naheed Aryaeian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Naheed Aryaeian1, Farhad Shahram2, Mahmoud Djalali1, Mohammad R Eshragian3, Abolghasem Djazayeri1, Abdolfatah Sarrafnejad4, Nasim Naderi2, Maryam Chamari1, Fariha Fatehi1, Mahnaz Zarei11Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 2Rheumatology Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 4Department of Immunology, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, IranAbstract: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs, vitamin E, and combination of these nutrients on serum lipid profiles and blood pressure (BP in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 87 patients with active RA were divided into four groups receiving one of the following daily supplements for three months: Group C: CLAs 2.5 g equivalent to 2 g mixture of cis 9-trans 11 and trans 10-cis12 CLAs in a rate of 50/50; Group E: vitamin E: 400 mg; Group CE: CLAs and vitamin E at above doses: Group P: placebo. After supplementation, SBP levels decreased significantly in the group C in comparison with groups E and P and mean arterial pressure reduced signifi cantly in groups C and CE. There weren’t significant differences in the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL/HDL, cholesterol/HDL, fasting blood sugar, C-reactive protein (CRP, arylestrase activity, platelet count and body mass index between groups. CRP dropped nonsignificantly in groups P, C, E and CE (19%, 24%, 55%, and 39%, respectively. Erythrocytes

  5. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid, vitamin E and their combination on lipid profiles and blood pressure of Iranian adults with active rheumatoid arthritis

    Naheed Aryaeian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Naheed Aryaeian1, Farhad Shahram2, Mahmoud Djalali1, Mohammad R Eshragian3, Abolghasem Djazayeri1, Abdolfatah Sarrafnejad4, Nasim Naderi2, Maryam Chamari1, Fariha Fatehi1, Mahnaz Zarei11Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 2Rheumatology Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran; 4Department of Immunology, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, IranAbstract: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs, vitamin E, and combination of these nutrients on serum lipid profiles and blood pressure (BP in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 87 patients with active RA were divided into four groups receiving one of the following daily supplements for three months: Group C: CLAs 2.5 g equivalent to 2 g mixture of cis 9-trans 11 and trans 10-cis12 CLAs in a rate of 50/50; Group E: vitamin E: 400 mg; Group CE: CLAs and vitamin E at above doses: Group P: placebo. After supplementation, SBP levels decreased significantly in the group C in comparison with groups E and P and mean arterial pressure reduced signifi cantly in groups C and CE. There weren’t significant differences in the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL/HDL, cholesterol/HDL, fasting blood sugar, C-reactive protein (CRP, arylestrase activity, platelet count and body mass index between groups. CRP dropped nonsignificantly in groups P, C, E and CE (19%, 24%, 55%, and 39%, respectively. Erythrocytes

  6. Quantitative determination of conjugated linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk with C17:0 as internal marker – Evaluation of different methylation procedures

    S. Lashkari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are commonly analysed by gas chromatography as their corresponding fatty acid (FA methyl esters (FAME. For quantitative determination of individual FA an internal standard like C17:0 is necessary. Conjugated FA and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA represents a challenge in the methylation steps, as they are sensitive to pH changes and oxidation. The present study was carried out to determine the efficiency of different methylation procedures on quantitative determination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, PUFA and response of internal standard. The highest response of internal standard was observed for boron trifluoride (BF3/methanol and methanolic HCl followed by NaOCH3, while cis-9, trans-11 CLA, total CLA and PUFA was higher with methanolic HCl followed by NaOCH3 compared with the BF3 method. These data can be useful for quantitating of milk FA. Keywords: Methylation procedures, Milk fatty acid, Conjugated linoleic acid

  7. Effects of Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphism on Lipogenic Gene Expression Levels in Diaphragm Tissues of Japanese Black Heifers

    Astrid Ardiyanti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two SNPs, i.e. L127V and T172M, of bovine growth hormone (GH causing the presence of GH gene haplotypes A, B, and C was previously shown to alter intramuscular fatty acid (FA composition in Japanese Black (JB heifers. To determine the SNP effect on somatotropic hormone concentration and lipogenesis, we measured plasma GH, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 concentrations. We also measured mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-coA desaturase (SCD, and sterol regulatory element binding proteins-1 (SREBP-1 and FA composition in diaphragm tissues. Heifers with genotype CC had the lowest plasma insulin concentration and FASN and SCD mRNA levels among genotypes. FASN mRNA levels in haplotype A tended to positively correlate with saturated FA (SFA content and negatively correlated with C18:2 and unsaturated FA (USFA contents. SCD mRNA levels in haplotype A positively correlated with monounsaturated FA (MUFA contents and negatively correlated with C18:0 content. They also tended to positively correlate with C16:1, C18:1, and USFA contents and USFA/SFA ratio and negatively correlate with SFA content. Taken together, GH gene polymorphism affects the lipogenic genes expression levels and their relationships with fatty acid compositions in diaphragm tissues of JB heifers at 31 months of age.

  8. Fish oil in combination with high or low intakes of linoleic acid lowers plasma triacylglycerols but does not affect other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Andersen, Anders D.

    2008-01-01

    with a high- or low-LA intake affects overall CVD risk profile. Healthy men (n = 64) were randomized to 5 mL/d fish oil capsules (FO) [mean intake 3.1 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil capsules (control) and to oils and spreads with either a high (S/B) or a low (R/K) LA content, resulting in a 7.3 g/d higher LA......Both (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and linoleic acid [LA, 18:2(n-6)] improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but a high-LA intake may weaken the effect of (n-3) LCPUFA. In a controlled, double-blind, 2 x 2-factorial 8-wk intervention, we investigated whether fish oil combined......, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, oxidized LDL, cluster of differentiation antigen 40 ligand (CD40L), adiponectin, or fasting or postprandial BP or HR after adjustment for body weight changes. In conclusion, neither fish oil supplementation nor the LA...

  9. Reaction of Pb(II) and Zn(II) with Ethyl Linoleate To Form Structured Hybrid Inorganic–Organic Complexes: A Model for Degradation in Historic Paint Films

    MacDonald, Margaret G.; Palmer, Michael R.; Suchomel, Matthew R.; Berrie, Barbara H. (NGA); (Bordeaux)

    2016-09-23

    To investigate soap formation in drying oils in historic paints, the reaction between metal acetates (K+, Zn2+, Pb2+) and ethyl linoleate (EL) was studied using optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and electron microscopy. Pb(II) and Zn(II) react rapidly with EL to form highly structured, spherulitic, luminescent crystallites that aggregate. Evidence from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis and high-resolution synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction indicates that these are organic–inorganic hybrid complexes or coordination polymers. FTIR absorbance peaks at ca. 1540 cm–1 for Pb(II) and ca. 1580 cm–1 for Zn(II) are consistent with the formation of carboxylate complexes. The complexes formed offer insight into the degradation processes observed in oil paint films, suggesting that soap formation is rapid when metal ions are solubilized and can occur with unsaturated fatty acids that are present in fresh oils. These complexes may account for the atypical luminescence observed in lead-containing cured oil paint films.

  10. Antiproliferative Action of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Mediated by Enhancement of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication through Inactivation of NF-κB

    Md. Abdur Rakib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers, c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA, have anticancer effects; however, the exact mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Evidence suggests that reversal of reduced gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC in cancer cells inhibits cell growth and induces cell death. Hence, we determined that CLA isomers enhance GJIC in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. The CLA isomers significantly enhanced GJIC of MCF-7 cells at 40 μM concentration, whereas CLA inhibited cell growth and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. CLA increased connexin43 (Cx43 expression both at the transcriptional and translational levels. CLA inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activity and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. No significant difference was observed in the efficacy of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA. These results suggest that the anticancer effect of CLA is associated with upregulation of GJIC mediated by enhanced Cx43 expression through inactivation of NF-κB and generation of ROS in MCF-7 cells.

  11. Etheno-DNA adduct formation in rats gavaged with linoleic acid, oleic acid and coconut oil is organ- and gender specific

    Fang Qingming [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nair, Jagadeesan [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: j.nair@dkfz.de; Sun Xin [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hadjiolov, Dimiter [National Oncological Centre, Sofia (Bulgaria); Bartsch, Helmut [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-11-01

    Intake of linoleic acid (LA) increased etheno-DNA adducts induced by lipid peroxidation (LPO) in white blood cells (WBC) of female but not of male volunteers [J. Nair, C.E. Vaca, I. Velic, M. Mutanen, L.M. Valsta, H. Bartsch, High dietary {omega}-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids drastically increase the formation of etheno-DNA adducts in white blood cells of female subjects, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 6 (1997) 597-601]. Etheno-adducts were measured in rats gavaged with LA, oleic acid (OA) and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil for 30 days. DNA from organs and total WBC was analyzed for 1, N{sup 6}-ethenodeoxyadenosine ({epsilon}dA) and 3, N{sup 4}-ethenodeoxycytidine ({epsilon}dC) by immunoaffinity/{sup 32}P-postlabeling. Colon was the most affected target with LA-treatment, where etheno-adducts were significantly elevated in both sexes. In WBC both adducts were elevated only in LA-treated females. Unexpectedly, OA treatment enhanced etheno-adduct levels in prostate 3-9 fold. Our results in rodents confirm the gender-specific increase of etheno-adducts in WBC-DNA, likely due to LPO induced by redox-cycling of 4-hydroxyestradiol. Colon was a target for LPO-derived DNA-adducts in both LA-treated male and female rats, supporting their role in {omega}-6 PUFA induced colon carcinogenesis.

  12. Conjugated linoleic acids content in M.longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers fed a concentrate supplemented with soybean oil, sodium bicarbonate-based monensin, fish oil.

    Song, M K; Jin, G L; Ji, B J; Chang, S S; Jeong, J; Smith, S B; Choi, S H

    2010-06-01

    We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and daily gain (P<0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M.longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P=0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Effects of fat source and dietary sodium bicarbonate plus straw on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk of dairy cows.

    Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Nicot, Marie-Claude; Enjalbert, Francis

    2007-10-01

    The effects of fat source (0.7 kg of fatty acids from extruded soybeans or palmitic acid), of sodium bicarbonate (0.3 kg) plus straw (1 kg) and the interaction of these treatments on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the milk of dairy cows were examined. During nine weeks a group of 10 cows received a ration with palmitic acid and bicarbonate plus straw (ration PAB). During three periods of three weeks a second group of 10 cows received successively a ration with extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw (ration ESB), a ration with palmitic acid without bicarbonate or straw (ration PA), and a ration with extruded soybeans without bicarbonate or straw (ration ES). Rations ES and ESB increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk, but decreased milk fat content, compared to rations PAB and PA. Ration ESB led to the greatest milk CLA content, by a synergy between the high amount of dietary fat, and the action of bicarbonate plus straw, favouring trans11 isomers of CLA and C18:1, presumably via a ruminal pH near neutrality. Ration ES favoured trans10 isomers, not desaturated in the mammary gland, so that the milk CLA content was lower than with ration ESB, and resulted in the lowest milk fat content. In conclusion, a ration supplemented with both extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw, was an efficient way to increase the CLA content in the milk of dairy cows.

  14. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis

    Goto, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tgoto@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, The Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University (Japan); Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, The Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University (Japan); Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Ohue, Ryuji [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Research Unit for Physiological Chemistry, The Center for the Promotion of Interdisciplinary Education and Research, Kyoto University (Japan); Nomura, Wataru [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Sugawara, Tatsuya [Laboratory of Marine Bioproducts Technology, Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yu, Rina [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kitamura, Nahoko [Laboratory of Fermentation Physiology and Applied Microbiology, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); and others

    2015-04-17

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. - Highlights: • Most LA-derived fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria potently activated PPARα. • Among tested fatty acids, KetoA and KetoC significantly activated PPARγ. • KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ. • KetoA enhanced adiponectin production and glucose uptake during adipogenesis.

  15. Transport of C-13-labelled linoleic and C-13-labelled caprylic acid in rat plasma after administration of specific structured triacylglycerols

    Vistisen, Bodil; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    the transport of dietary C-13-labelled fatty acids in rat plasma to compare the chylomicron fatty acid metabolism after administration of specific structured, long chain and medium chain triacylglycerols. Rats were fed ML*M, M*LM*, L*L*L* or M*M*M* (L=linoleic acid, 18:2n-6, M=caprylic acid, 8:0, * = C-13......-labelled fatty acid) by gavage. A maximum transport of 0.5% of the administered C-13-labelled 18:2n-6 was observed in 1mL rat plasma both after administration of L*L*L* and ML*M, while approximately 0.04% of the administered C-13-labelled 8:0 was detected in 1mL plasma following administration of M......*M*M* or M*LM*. After L*L*L* administration C-13-labelled 20:4n-6 was observed in plasma, probably formed by elongation and desaturation of 18:2n-6 in the enterocyte or liver cells. Furthermore, C-13-labelled 16:0, 48:0, 18: 1n-9 and 20:4n-6 were observed in plasma of rats fed M*M*M* and M*LM* due...

  16. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia; Ohue, Ryuji; Nomura, Wataru; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Kitamura, Nahoko

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. - Highlights: • Most LA-derived fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria potently activated PPARα. • Among tested fatty acids, KetoA and KetoC significantly activated PPARγ. • KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ. • KetoA enhanced adiponectin production and glucose uptake during adipogenesis

  17. Distribution of 14C after oral administration of [1-14C]linoleic acid in rats fed different levels of essential fatty acids

    Becker, W.

    1984-01-01

    Rats from an inbred Sprague-Dawley strain were fed semisynthetic diets with a low [0.3 energy percent (en %)], normal (3 en %) or high (10 en %) content of essential fatty acids (EFA) for at least three generations. Twenty-nine- to 33-day-old male rats were given a single intragastric dose of [1-14C]linoleic acid in olive oil, and the respiratory CO2, urine and feces were collected for 46 hours (expt 1) or 20 hours (expt 2). The 14C activity in respiratory CO2, feces, urine and the carcass was determined in both experiments. In experiment 2 it was also measured in samples of the brown fat, liver, adrenals, white fat, skeletal muscles and brain. In both experiments the rats fed the low EFA diet retained significantly more 14C activity than the rats fed the normal or high EFA diets. In all groups the concentration of label was highest in the brown fat and the adrenals, but the above differences among the groups with respect to 14C retention were mainly observed in the liver, skeletal muscles and brain

  18. Etheno-DNA adduct formation in rats gavaged with linoleic acid, oleic acid and coconut oil is organ- and gender specific

    Fang Qingming; Nair, Jagadeesan; Sun Xin; Hadjiolov, Dimiter; Bartsch, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Intake of linoleic acid (LA) increased etheno-DNA adducts induced by lipid peroxidation (LPO) in white blood cells (WBC) of female but not of male volunteers [J. Nair, C.E. Vaca, I. Velic, M. Mutanen, L.M. Valsta, H. Bartsch, High dietary ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids drastically increase the formation of etheno-DNA adducts in white blood cells of female subjects, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 6 (1997) 597-601]. Etheno-adducts were measured in rats gavaged with LA, oleic acid (OA) and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil for 30 days. DNA from organs and total WBC was analyzed for 1, N 6 -ethenodeoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3, N 4 -ethenodeoxycytidine (εdC) by immunoaffinity/ 32 P-postlabeling. Colon was the most affected target with LA-treatment, where etheno-adducts were significantly elevated in both sexes. In WBC both adducts were elevated only in LA-treated females. Unexpectedly, OA treatment enhanced etheno-adduct levels in prostate 3-9 fold. Our results in rodents confirm the gender-specific increase of etheno-adducts in WBC-DNA, likely due to LPO induced by redox-cycling of 4-hydroxyestradiol. Colon was a target for LPO-derived DNA-adducts in both LA-treated male and female rats, supporting their role in ω-6 PUFA induced colon carcinogenesis

  19. Direct nuclear magnetic resonance identification and quantification of geometric isomers of conjugated linoleic acid in milk lipid fraction without derivatization steps: Overcoming sensitivity and resolution barriers

    Tsiafoulis, Constantinos G.; Skarlas, Theodore; Tzamaloukas, Ouranios; Miltiadou, Despoina; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The first NMR quantification of four geometric 18:2 CLA isomers has been achieved. • Sensitivity and resolution NMR barriers have been overcome. • Selective suppression and reduced 13 C spectral width have been utilized. • The method is applied in the milk lipid fraction without derivatization steps. • The method is selective, sensitive with very good analytical characteristics. - Abstract: We report the first successful direct and unequivocal identification and quantification of four minor geometric (9-cis, 11-trans) 18:2, (9-trans, 11-cis) 18:2, (9-cis, 11-cis) 18:2 and (9-trans, 11-trans) 18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in lipid fractions of lyophilized milk samples with the combined use of 1D 1 H-NMR, 2D 1 H- 1 H TOCSY and 2D 1 H- 13 C HSQC NMR. The significant sensitivity barrier has been successfully overcome under selective suppression of the major resonances, with over 10 4 greater equilibrium magnetization of the -(CH 2 ) n - 1 H spins compared to that of the 1 H spins of the conjugated bonds of the CLA isomers. The resolution barrier has been significantly increased using reduced 13 C spectral width in the 2D 1 H- 13 C HSQC experiment. The assignment was confirmed with spiking experiments with CLA standard compounds and the method does not require any derivatization steps for the lipid fraction. The proposed method is selective, sensitive and compares favorably with the GS-MS method of analysis

  20. Effect of oleic and conjugated linoleic acid in the diet of broiler chickens on the live growth performances, carcass traits and meat fatty acid profile

    Stefano Rapaccini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil and CLA enriched olive oil were compared with each other in a growth trial with broiler chickens, as energy supplements to the diet. A commercial CLA blend was used at the level of 1 kg per 100 kg mixed integrated feed. Two hundred and forty commercial hybrid broilers (Ross 308 were randomly subdivided and allotted to 8 pens of 30 birds each. Four pens of birds were fed the olive oil diet and considered the control group; the other 4 pens were fed the olive oil supplemented with CLA and considered the treated group. The experiment lasted 47 days. The live performance of the treated birds resulted different from the performance of the control ones: the final body weight was slightly lighter (2.544 kg vs 2.639 kg; P≤0.05 with a lower feed intake (4.886 kg feed vs 4.998 kg, P≤0.05 and, of course, an almost perfectly overlapping feed/gain ratio (1.90 vs 1.91. The fatty acid composition of the breast fat of the CLA treated birds resulted enriched by the two major CLA isomers, trans 10 cis 12 and cis 9 trans 11, whereas oleic acid and the linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic polyunsaturated acids showed a decrease (P≤0.05. CLA appears a recommendable ingredient in the diets of broilers as it improves the beneficial characteristics of poultry meat.

  1. Structural characterization and bioavailability of ternary nanoparticles consisting of amylose, α-linoleic acid and β-lactoglobulin complexed with naringin.

    Feng, Tao; Wang, Ke; Liu, Fangfang; Ye, Ran; Zhu, Xiao; Zhuang, Haining; Xu, Zhimin

    2017-06-01

    Naringin is a bioflavonoid that is rich in citrus plants and possesses enormous health benefits. However, the use of naringin as a nutraceutical is significantly limited by its low bioavailability. In this study, a novel water-soluble ternary nanoparticle material consisting of amylose, α-linoleic acid and β-lactoglobulin was developed to encapsulate naringin to improve its bioavailability. The physicochemical characteristics of the ternary nanoparticle-naringin inclusion complex were analysed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and particle size distribution. The results confirmed the formation of the ternary nanoparticle-naringin inclusion complex. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) and loading content (LC) of the ternary nanoparticle-naringin inclusion complex were 78.73±4.17% and 14.51±3.43%, respectively. In addition, the results of the ternary nanoparticle-naringin inclusion complex in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) demonstrated that naringin can be gradually released from the complex. In conclusion, ternary nanoparticles are considered promising carriers to effectively improve the bioavailability of naringin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of dietary linoleate/alpha-linolenate balance on the brain lipid composition, reproductive outcome and behavior of rats during their prenatal and postnatal development.

    Cheon, S H; Huh, M H; Lee, Y B; Park, J S; Sohn, H S; Chung, C W

    2000-11-01

    The effect of the dietary linoleate (LA)/alpha-linolenate (LNA) balance during development on the brain lipid composition, reproductive outcome and behavior of rats was studied. Female rats were fed on experimental diets during pregnancy and the resulting pups for 16 weeks. The dietary LA/LNA ratios were 1.07 (LA1), 2.64 (LA2), 4.45 (LA3), 7.68 (LA4) and 10.35 (LA5). The relative content of docosahexaenoate (DHA) in the brain of pups tended to increase with decreasing LA/LNA ratio at 0 and 3 weeks, while the level of DHA was maintained constant at 16 weeks regardless of the dietary LA/LNA ratio. The learning ability was measured at 12 weeks of age, and there was no difference among the groups. In an open field test, the exploratory index was significantly lower in the LA1 group than in the LA2 group. The LA1 group had a smaller litter size and lower survival rate than the other groups. We conclude that if the diet contained appropriate amounts and balance of LA and LNA, it was possible for rats to synthesize an appropriate amount of DHA and have normal behavioral activity without DHA supplementation.

  3. A reference gene set for sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, based on genome and transcriptome digital gene expression analyses.

    He, Peng; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Hong, Duan-Yang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xing-Liang; Zuo, Ling-Hua; Tang, Xian-Fu; Xu, Wei-Ming; He, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Female moths synthesize species-specific sex pheromone components and release them to attract male moths, which depend on precise sex pheromone chemosensory system to locate females. Two types of genes involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways play essential roles in this important moth behavior. To understand the function of genes in the sex pheromone pathway, this study investigated the genome-wide and digital gene expression of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes in various adult tissues in the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, which is a notorious vegetable pest worldwide. A massive transcriptome data (at least 39.04 Gb) was generated by sequencing 6 adult tissues including male antennae, female antennae, heads, legs, abdomen and female pheromone glands from DBM by using Illumina 4000 next-generation sequencing and mapping to a published DBM genome. Bioinformatics analysis yielded a total of 89,332 unigenes among which 87 transcripts were putatively related to seven gene families in the sex pheromone biosynthesis pathway. Among these, seven [two desaturases (DES), three fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR) one acetyltransferase (ACT) and one alcohol dehydrogenase (AD)] were mainly expressed in the pheromone glands with likely function in the three essential sex pheromone biosynthesis steps: desaturation, reduction, and esterification. We also identified 210 odorant-degradation related genes (including sex pheromone-degradation related genes) from seven major enzyme groups. Among these genes, 100 genes are new identified and two aldehyde oxidases (AOXs), one aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), five carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs), five UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), eight cytochrome P450 (CYP) and three glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) displayed more robust expression in the antennae, and thus are proposed to participate in the degradation of sex pheromone components and plant volatiles. To date, this is the most

  4. Gene Therapy

    Gene therapy Overview Gene therapy involves altering the genes inside your body's cells in an effort to treat or stop disease. Genes contain your ... that don't work properly can cause disease. Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds a new ...

  5. Cold perception and gene expression differ in Olea europaea seed coat and embryo during drupe cold acclimation.

    D'Angeli, S; Falasca, G; Matteucci, M; Altamura, M M

    2013-01-01

    FAD2 and FAD7 desaturases are involved in cold acclimation of olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp. There is no research information available on cold acclimation of seeds during mesocarp cold acclimation or on differences in the cold response of the seed coat and embryo. How FAD2 and FAD7 affect seed coat and embryo cold responses is unknown. Osmotin positively affects cold acclimation in olive tree vegetative organs, but its role in the seeds requires investigation. OeFAD2.1, OeFAD2.2, OeFAD7 and Oeosmotin were investigated before and after mesocarp acclimation by transcriptomic, lipidomic and immunolabelling analyses, and cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) signalling, F-actin changes and seed development were investigated by epifluorescence/histological analyses. Transient [Ca(2+)](cyt) rises and F-actin disassembly were found in cold-shocked protoplasts from the seed coat, but not from the embryo. The thickness of the outer endosperm cuticle increased during drupe exposure to lowering of temperature, whereas the embryo protoderm always lacked cuticle. OeFAD2 transcription increased in both the embryo and seed coat in the cold-acclimated drupe, but linoleic acid (i.e. the product of FAD2 activity) increased solely in the seed coat. Osmotin was immunodetected in the seed coat and endosperm of the cold-acclimated drupe, and not in the embryo. The results show cold responsiveness in the seed coat and cold tolerance in the embryo. We propose a role for the seed coat in maintaining embryo cold tolerance by increasing endosperm cutinization through FAD2 and osmotin activities. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. A Foxtail mosaic virus Vector for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Maize.

    Mei, Yu; Zhang, Chunquan; Kernodle, Bliss M; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A

    2016-06-01

    Plant viruses have been widely used as vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A limited number of viruses have been developed into viral vectors for the purposes of gene expression or VIGS in monocotyledonous plants, and among these, the tripartite viruses Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus have been shown to induce VIGS in maize (Zea mays). We describe here a new DNA-based VIGS system derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a monopartite virus that is able to establish systemic infection and silencing of endogenous maize genes homologous to gene fragments inserted into the FoMV genome. To demonstrate VIGS applications of this FoMV vector system, four genes, phytoene desaturase (functions in carotenoid biosynthesis), lesion mimic22 (encodes a key enzyme of the porphyrin pathway), iojap (functions in plastid development), and brown midrib3 (caffeic acid O-methyltransferase), were silenced and characterized in the sweet corn line Golden × Bantam. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the FoMV infectious clone establishes systemic infection in maize inbred lines, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and green foxtail (Setaria viridis), indicating the potential wide applications of this viral vector system for functional genomics studies in maize and other monocots. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. A Foxtail mosaic virus Vector for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Maize1[OPEN

    Mei, Yu; Kernodle, Bliss M.; Hill, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses have been widely used as vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A limited number of viruses have been developed into viral vectors for the purposes of gene expression or VIGS in monocotyledonous plants, and among these, the tripartite viruses Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus have been shown to induce VIGS in maize (Zea mays). We describe here a new DNA-based VIGS system derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a monopartite virus that is able to establish systemic infection and silencing of endogenous maize genes homologous to gene fragments inserted into the FoMV genome. To demonstrate VIGS applications of this FoMV vector system, four genes, phytoene desaturase (functions in carotenoid biosynthesis), lesion mimic22 (encodes a key enzyme of the porphyrin pathway), iojap (functions in plastid development), and brown midrib3 (caffeic acid O-methyltransferase), were silenced and characterized in the sweet corn line Golden × Bantam. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the FoMV infectious clone establishes systemic infection in maize inbred lines, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and green foxtail (Setaria viridis), indicating the potential wide applications of this viral vector system for functional genomics studies in maize and other monocots. PMID:27208311

  8. Identification and characterization of an oleate hydratase-encoding gene from Bifidobacterium breve.

    O'Connell, Kerry Joan; Motherway, Mary O'Connell; Hennessey, Alan A; Brodhun, Florian; Ross, R Paul; Feussner, Ivo; Stanton, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are common commensals of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies have suggested that a bifidobacterial myosin cross reactive antigen (MCRA) protein plays a role in bacterial stress tolerance, while this protein has also been linked to the biosynthesis of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in bifidobacteria. In order to increase our understanding on the role of MCRA in bifidobacteria we created and analyzed an insertion mutant of the MCRA-encoding gene of B. breve NCFB 2258. Our results demonstrate that the MCRA protein of B. breve NCFB 2258 does not appear to play a role in CLA production, yet is an oleate hydratase, which contributes to bifidobacterial solvent stress protection.

  9. Dietary fat and risk of colon and rectal cancer with aberrant MLH1 expression, APC or KRAS genes.

    Weijenberg, Matty P; Lüchtenborg, Margreet; de Goeij, Anton F P M; Brink, Mirian; van Muijen, Goos N P; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2007-10-01

    To investigate baseline fat intake and the risk of colon and rectal tumors lacking MLH1 (mutL homolog 1, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 2) repair gene expression and harboring mutations in the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) tumor suppressor gene and in the KRAS (v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) oncogene. After 7.3 years of follow-up of the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 120,852), adjusted incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed, based on 401 colon and 130 rectal cancer patients. Total, saturated and monounsaturated fat were not associated with the risk of colon or rectal cancer, or different molecular subgroups. There was also no association between polyunsaturated fat and the risk of overall or subgroups of rectal cancer. Linoleic acid, the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the diet, was associated with increased risk of colon tumors with only a KRAS mutation and no additional truncating APC mutation or lack of MLH1 expression (RR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.18-1.69 for one standard deviation (i.e., 7.5 g/day) increase in intake, p-trend over the quartiles of intake colon tumors without any of the gene defects, or with tumors harboring aberrations in either MLH1 or APC. Linoleic acid intake is associated with colon tumors with an aberrant KRAS gene, but an intact APC gene and MLH1 expression, suggesting a unique etiology of tumors with specific genetic aberrations.

  10. Modification of carotenoid levels by abscission agents and expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in 'valencia' sweet orange.

    Alferez, Fernando; Pozo, Luis V; Rouseff, Russell R; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2013-03-27

    The effect of 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP) and ethephon on peel color, flavedo carotenoid gene expression, and carotenoid accumulation was investigated in mature 'Valencia' orange ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) fruit flavedo at three maturation stages. Abscission agent application altered peel color. CMNP was more effective than ethephon in promoting green-to-red (a) and blue-to-yellow (b) color at the middle and late maturation stages and total carotenoid changes at all maturation stages. Altered flow of carotenoid precursors during maturation due to abscission agents was suggested by changes in phytoene desaturase (Pds) and ζ-carotene desaturase (Zds) gene expression. However, each abscission agent affected downstream expression differentially. Ethephon application increased β-carotene hydroxilase (β-Chx) transcript accumulation 12-fold as maturation advanced from the early to middle and late stages. CMNP markedly increased β- and ε-lycopene cyclase (Lcy) transcript accumulation 45- and 15-fold, respectively, at midmaturation. Patterns of carotenoid accumulation in flavedo were supported in part by gene expression changes. CMNP caused greater accumulation of total flavedo carotenoids at all maturation stages when compared with ethephon or controls. In general, CMNP treatment increased total red carotenoids more than ethephon or the control but decreased total yellow carotenoids at each maturation stage. In control fruit flavedo, total red carotenoids increased and yellow carotenoids decreased as maturation progressed. Trends in total red carotenoids during maturation were consistent with measured a values. Changes in carotenoid accumulation and expression patterns in flavedo suggest that regulation of carotenoid accumulation is under transcriptional, translational, and post-translational control.

  11. Short communication. Effect of forage source (grazing vs. silage) on conjugated linoleic acid content in milk fat of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from Galicia (NW Spain)

    Roca-Fernandez, A. I.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A.; Vazquez-Yanez, O. P.; Fernandez-Casado, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different feeding proportions of forage ?grazing vs. silage? on milk fatty acids (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of autumn calving Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 61) at CIAM (Galicia, NW Spain). Three treatments (S, 100% silage; G/S, 50% grazing + 50% silage; G, 100% grazing) were set and milk FA profile of dairy cows was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The G group showed a decrease in short (p < 0.05) and medium chain FA (p < 0.001), with an increase in long chain FA (p < 0.001) in comparison to the G/S and S groups, which showed the lowest levels (p < 0.001) of mono- and polyunsaturated FA. The CLA content in milk fat increased (p < 0.001) linearly in relation to the increased proportion of fresh grass in the diet of dairy cows from 0.49 and 0.82 to 1.14 g/100 g FA for the treatments S, G/S and G, respectively. During spring and summer, the levels of CLA were three times higher (p < 0.001, +0.76 g/100 g FA) in milk from dairy cows at the G group than in cows at the S group and twice higher (p < 0.001, +0.40 g/100 g FA) than in cows at the G/S group. High proportion of grass in the diet of cows increased CLA content, with the highest levels of unsaturated FA and the lowest levels of saturated FA, increasing the added value of milk on grazing systems using available farm resources. (Author) 20 refs.

  12. Comparison of dietary conjugated linoleic acid with safflower oil on body composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus1234

    Norris, Leigh E; Collene, Angela L; Asp, Michelle L; Hsu, Jason C; Liu, Li-Fen; Richardson, Julia R; Li, Dongmei; Bell, Doris; Osei, Kwame; Jackson, Rebecca D

    2009-01-01

    Background: Weight loss may improve glucose control in persons with type 2 diabetes. The effects of fat quality, as opposed to quantity, on weight loss are not well understood. Objective: We compared the effects of 2 dietary oils, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and safflower oil (SAF), on body weight and composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Design: This was a 36-wk randomized, double-masked, crossover study. Fifty-five obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes received SAF or CLA (8 g oil/d) during two 16-wk diet periods separated by a 4-wk washout period. Subjects met monthly with the study coordinator to receive new supplements and for assessment of energy balance, biochemical endpoints, or anthropometric variables. Results: Thirty-five women completed the 36-wk intervention. Supplementation with CLA reduced body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0022) and total adipose mass (P = 0.0187) without altering lean mass. The effect of CLA in lowering BMI was detected during the last 8 wk of each 16-wk diet period. In contrast, SAF had no effect on BMI or total adipose mass but reduced trunk adipose mass (P = 0.0422) and increased lean mass (P = 0.0432). SAF also significantly lowered fasting glucose (P = 0.0343) and increased adiponectin (P = 0.0051). No differences were observed in dietary energy intake, total fat intake, and fat quality in either diet period for either intervention. Conclusions: Supplementation with CLA and SAF exerted different effects on BMI, total and trunk adipose mass, and lean tissue mass in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Supplementation with these dietary oils may be beneficial for weight loss, glycemic control, or both. PMID:19535429

  13. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Does Not Reduce Visceral Adipose Tissue in Middle-Aged Men Engaged in a Resistance-Training Program

    King Clay

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation has shown convincing effects at reducing body fat in animals; yet human study results have been somewhat inconclusive. The purpose of this study is to determine whether four weeks of CLA supplementation, the approximate length of a commercial package, can result in a positive change in visceral adipose tissue in resistance-trained middle-aged men. Thirty overweight and moderately obese, but otherwise healthy male subjects (aged 35 to 55 years currently involved in resistance training, were randomly assigned into CLA and placebo groups in a double-blind, placebo controlled approach. The study lasted for 12 weeks and consisted of three four-week periods. During the first four weeks (run-in period each subject received placebo (4 g safflower oil. Throughout the next four weeks (supplementation period, the placebo group continued receiving placebo, while the CLA group received 3.2 g/d of CLA. During the final four weeks (run-out period all subjects received the placebo. Computed tomography (CT scans were used to measure visceral adipose tissue (VAT at weeks 4, 8 and 12. No significant reduction in VAT cross-sectional area was determined in the CLA group during the study. On the contrary, a significant reduction in cross-sectional area of VAT of 23.12 cm2 during the supplementation period was measured in the placebo group, which was abated during the run-out period. Our results suggest that CLA supplementation of 3.2 g/d for four weeks does not promote decreases in VAT in middle-aged men currently participating in a resistance-training program.

  14. Comparison of dietary conjugated linoleic acid with safflower oil on body composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Norris, Leigh E; Collene, Angela L; Asp, Michelle L; Hsu, Jason C; Liu, Li-Fen; Richardson, Julia R; Li, Dongmei; Bell, Doris; Osei, Kwame; Jackson, Rebecca D; Belury, Martha A

    2009-09-01

    Weight loss may improve glucose control in persons with type 2 diabetes. The effects of fat quality, as opposed to quantity, on weight loss are not well understood. We compared the effects of 2 dietary oils, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and safflower oil (SAF), on body weight and composition in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. This was a 36-wk randomized, double-masked, crossover study. Fifty-five obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes received SAF or CLA (8 g oil/d) during two 16-wk diet periods separated by a 4-wk washout period. Subjects met monthly with the study coordinator to receive new supplements and for assessment of energy balance, biochemical endpoints, or anthropometric variables. Thirty-five women completed the 36-wk intervention. Supplementation with CLA reduced body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0022) and total adipose mass (P = 0.0187) without altering lean mass. The effect of CLA in lowering BMI was detected during the last 8 wk of each 16-wk diet period. In contrast, SAF had no effect on BMI or total adipose mass but reduced trunk adipose mass (P = 0.0422) and increased lean mass (P = 0.0432). SAF also significantly lowered fasting glucose (P = 0.0343) and increased adiponectin (P = 0.0051). No differences were observed in dietary energy intake, total fat intake, and fat quality in either diet period for either intervention. Supplementation with CLA and SAF exerted different effects on BMI, total and trunk adipose mass, and lean tissue mass in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Supplementation with these dietary oils may be beneficial for weight loss, glycemic control, or both.

  15. Estimation of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid content in UK foods and assessment of dietary intake in a cohort of healthy adults.

    Mushtaq, Sohail; Heather Mangiapane, E; Hunter, Kirsty A

    2010-05-01

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from ruminant-derived foods may be potentially beneficial to health. The quantity of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA in a range of UK foodstuffs (112 foods) was determined using triple-column silver ion HPLC. The cis-9, trans-11 CLA content ranged from 1.9 mg/g lipid (mild Cheddar) to 7.3 mg/g lipid (processed cheese) in cheeses, from 0.9 mg/g lipid (ice cream) to 3.7 mg/g lipid (double cream) in non-cheese dairy products, and from 2.9 mg/g lipid (Swedish meatballs) to 6.0 mg/g lipid (minced lamb) in meat products. cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations for chocolate and sweets ranged from 0.1 mg/g lipid (hot chocolate) to 4.8 mg/g lipid (buttermint). The trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer was undetected or negligible in the food samples examined. To provide information about dietary cis-9, trans-11 CLA intakes in the UK, a study was performed to estimate the daily intake of CLA in a cohort of eighteen healthy volunteers (nine female and nine male; aged 21-60 years; mean BMI = 24.0 kg/m2 (sd 2.2)) with a 7-d weighed food record. This information combined with the CLA isomer contents of UK foodstuffs was used to estimate the daily intake of the cohort. The mean daily intake of cis-9, trans-11 CLA was estimated to be 97.5 (sd 73.3) mg/d. Due to its potential health benefits, it is important to determine the CLA content of food and dietary intake as these data will be useful in determining the role of CLA in health and disease.

  16. Contents of conjugated linoleic acid isomers cis9,trans11 and trans10,cis12 in ruminant and non-ruminant meats available in the Italian market

    Francesca M. Cicognini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers are considered healthy factors due to their anticarcinogenic, anti-atherosclerotic and lipolytic effect. A recommended daily intake from 0.8 to 3 g CLA/day/person has been proposed to obtain biological effects in humans. The aim of this work was to provide data on cis9,trans11 (c9,t11 CLA and trans10,cis12 (t10,c12 CLA contents in meats collected from Italian largescale retail trade and completing a food CLA database. In a first trial, beef loin meats were characterised for label information available for consumers: origin (i.e., Ireland, France- Italy, Piedmont and sex of animals. No differences were observed for c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA contents (mg/g fat of loin meat from male or female. Piedmontese meat showed lower (P<0.05 c9,t11 CLA level (mg/g fat than Irish and French-Italian meats, whereas similar t10,c12 CLA contents were measured in Piedmontese, Irish and French-Italian meats. Successively, meat samples from different animal species (male and female beef, veal, suckling lamb, belly beef, canned beef meat, pork and horse were characterised for their contents in c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. Lamb meat had the highest (P<0.05 c9,t11 CLA content (mg/g fat. The c9,t11 CLA was lower than 2 mg/g fat in veal, pork and horse meats. Low t10,c12 CLA amounts were found in all analysed meat samples. These data provided information to estimate the average daily intake of CLA from meats in an Italian cohort, which can be used in epidemiological studies.

  17. Oxidation of linoleic and palmitic acid in pre-hibernating and hibernating common noctule bats revealed by 13C breath testing.

    Rosner, Elisabeth; Voigt, Christian C

    2018-02-19

    Mammals fuel hibernation by oxidizing saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from triacylglycerols in adipocytes, yet the relative importance of these two categories as an oxidative fuel may change during hibernation. We studied the selective use of fatty acids as an oxidative fuel in noctule bats ( Nyctalus noctula ). Pre-hibernating noctule bats that were fed 13 C-enriched linoleic acid (LA) showed 12 times higher tracer oxidation rates compared with conspecifics fed 13 C-enriched palmitic acid (PA). After this experiment, we supplemented the diet of bats with the same fatty acids on five subsequent days to enrich their fat depots with the respective tracer. We then compared the excess 13 C enrichment (excess atom percentage, APE) in breath of bats for torpor and arousal events during early and late hibernation. We observed higher APE values in breath of bats fed 13 C-enriched LA than in bats fed 13 C-enriched PA for both states (torpor and arousal), and also for both periods. Thus, hibernating bats selectively oxidized endogenous LA instead of PA, probably because of faster transportation rates of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with saturated fatty acids. We did not observe changes in APE values in the breath of torpid animals between early and late hibernation. Skin temperature of torpid animals increased by 0.7°C between early and late hibernation in bats fed PA, whereas it decreased by -0.8°C in bats fed LA, highlighting that endogenous LA may fulfil two functions when available in excess: serving as an oxidative fuel and supporting cell membrane functionality. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    Haug Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA and trans vaccenic acid (VA. These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0 and palmitic acid (16:0 were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs.

  19. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    Haug, Anna; Sjøgren, Per; Hølland, Nina; Müller, Hanne; Kjos, Nils P; Taugbøl, Ole; Fjerdingby, Nina; Biong, Anne S; Selmer-Olsen, Eirik; Harstad, Odd M

    2008-01-01

    Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA) and trans vaccenic acid (VA). These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0) were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs. PMID:18759970

  20. Linoleic Acid Permeabilizes Gastric Epithelial Cells by Increasing Connexin43 Levels in the Cell Membrane Via a GPR40- and Akt-Dependent Mechanism

    Puebla, Carlos; Cisterna, Bruno A.; Salas, Daniela P.; Delgado-López, Fernando; Lampe, Paul D.; Sáez, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Linoleic acid (LA) is known to activate G-protein coupled receptors and connexin hemichannels (Cx HCs) but possible interlinks between these two responses remain unexplored. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of action of LA on the membrane permeability mediated by Cx HCs in MKN28 cells. These cells were found to express connexins, GPR40, GPR120, and CD36 receptors. The Cx HC activity of these cells increased after 5 min of treatment with LA or GW9508, an agonist of GPR40/GPR120; or exposure to extracellular divalent cation-free solution (DCFS), known to increase the open probability of Cx HCs, yields an immediate increase in Cx HC of similar intensity and additive with LA-induced change. Treatment with a CD36 blocker or transfection with siRNA-GPR120 maintain the LA-induced Cx HC activity. However, cells transfected with siRNA-GPR40 did not show LA-induced Cx HC activity but activity was increased upon exposure to DCFS, confirming the presence of activatable Cx HCs in the cell membrane. Treatment with AKTi (Akt inhibitor) abrogated the LA-induced Cx HC activity. In HeLa cells transfected with Cx43 (HeLa-Cx43), LA induced phosphorylation of surface Cx43 at serine 373 (S373), site for Akt phosphorylation. HeLa-Cx43 but not HeLa-Cx43 cells with a S373A mutation showed a LA-induced Cx HC activity directly related to an increase in cell surface Cx43 levels. Thus, the increase in membrane permeability induced by LA is mediated by an intracellular signaling pathway activated by GPR40 that leads to an increase in membrane levels of Cx43 phosphorylated at serine 373 via Akt. PMID:26869446

  1. The palatability of corn oil and linoleic acid to mice as measured by short-term two-bottle choice and licking tests.

    Yoneda, Takeshi; Saitou, Katsuyoshi; Mizushige, Takafumi; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Manabe, Yasuko; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2007-06-08

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) were reported to be recognized in the oral cavity and possibly involved in fatty foods recognition. To understand the importance of oil recognition in the oral cavity, we investigated the effect of various concentrations of a fatty acid or corn oil on fluid intake as well as mice's preferences in a two-bottle choice test and a licking test. Linoleic acid (LA), which is a main component of corn oil, was used as a representative FFA. In the two-bottle choice test between a pair of different concentrations of corn oil, the mice consistently adopted the higher concentration of corn oil. In the licking test for corn oil, the licking rates for the serial concentration of corn oils (0, 1, 5, 10 and 100%) were increased in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, in the two-bottle test for a pair of different concentrations of LA (0, 0.125, 0.25 and 1%), 0.25% and 1% LA were preferred to mineral oil, but 0.25% and 1% LA were preferred equally in mice. In the licking test for LA, the mice showed the largest number of initial lickings for the 1% LA, while the licking rates for the high concentration of LA decreased. These results suggest that mice could discriminate the concentration of corn oil and LA in the oral cavity. We also suggest that pure corn oil is a highly preferable solution, while an optimal concentration of LA according to the preferences of mice is a low-range concentration (0.25-1%).

  2. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on serum C-reactive protein: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Karimi, Ehsan; Rezaie, Peyman; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-12-01

    To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the effect of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) supplementation on serum C-reactive protein (CRP). PubMed-Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar databases were searched (up until May 2016) to identify prospective studies evaluating the impact of CLAs supplementation on serum CRP. Random-effects models meta-analysis was used for quantitative data synthesis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using the leave-one-out method. Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the I 2 index. Systematic review registration: CRD42016038945. From a total of 85 entries identified via searches, 14 studies were included in the final selection. The meta-analysis indicated a significant increase in serum CRP concentrations following supplementation with CLAs (weighted mean difference [WMD] 0.63 mg/dL, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.13-1.13, N=21 arms, heterogeneity P=.026; I 2 =52.3%). These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. Random-effects meta-regression revealed that changes in serum CRP levels were independent of the dosage of CLAs supplementation (slope: -0.02; 95% CI: -0.10, 0.12; P=.889) or duration of follow-up (slope: 0.271; 95% CI: -0.05, 0.59; P=.098). This meta-analysis suggests that CLA supplementation is associated with an increase in plasma CRP concentrations and a reduction in serum adiponectin concentrations, which indicates that CLA supplements have a proinflammatory effect. Randomized control trials with larger sample size and a longer follow-up period may be required for future investigations to provide an unequivocal answer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA versus saturated fats/cholesterol: their proportion in fatty and lean meats may affect the risk of developing colon cancer

    Lopez Cristina B

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological research about the consumption of red meat, total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol with regard to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC, the issue remains controversial. The general belief is a reduction of red meat intake, and subsequent nutritional advice usually strongly recommends this. Paradoxically, beef together with whole milk and dairy derivatives, are almost the only sources for conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs family. Furthermore CLAs are the only natural fatty acids accepted by the National Academy of Sciences of USA as exhibiting consistent antitumor properties at levels as low as 0.25 – 1.0 per cent of total fats. Beside CLA, other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA belonging to the essential fatty acid (EFA n-3 family, whose main source are fish and seafood, are generally believed to be antipromoters for several cancers. The purpose of this work is to critically analyze the epidemiological and experimental evidence by tentatively assuming that the reciprocal proportions of saturated fats (SA plus cholesterol (CH versus CLAs levels in fatty or lean beef may play an antagonistic role underlying the contradictory effects reported for red meats consumption and CRC risk. Recent results about meat intake and risk for CRC in Argentina have shown an unexpected dual behaviour related to the type of meats. Fatty meat derivatives, such as cold cuts and sausages, mainly prepared from fatty beef (up to 37% fat were associated with higher risk, whereas high consumption of lean beef (

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid content in milk of Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions and supplemented with canola seed (Brassica napus concentrate

    J. P. Avilez Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is limited and contradictory information about the effects of the use of canola (Brassica napus seed as supplement on the contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk of grazing cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement with canola seed on the production and composition of milk, and CLA concentration in Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions. Three experiments were done. Experiment 1: control group was fed 5 kg d-1 of commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC1 and treatment group that was fed 3.75 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.16 kg of whole canola seed (1.16-TC1. Experiment 2: Control group was fed 8 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC2 and treatment group that was fed 6.2 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.2 kg of ground canola seed (1.2-TC2. Experiment 3: control group was fed 6 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC3 and treatment group was fed 6 kg of commercial concentrate with 20% of whole canola seed (1.2 kg d-1, 1.2-TC3. The duration of each experiment was 60 days. No differences in milk production and quality were observed among the experimental groups in every assay. The CLA isomers trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 were higher than those normally found in the scientific literature. There was no effect of the inclusion of canola seed on total CLA content or the content of cis-9, trans-11, trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 isomers.

  5. Supplementation with linoleic acid-rich soybean oil stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via increased oxidative stress and diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-mediated triglyceride biosynthesis.

    Rom, Oren; Jeries, Helana; Hayek, Tony; Aviram, Michael

    2017-01-02

    During the last decades there has been a staggering rise in human consumption of soybean oil (SO) and its major polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (LA). The role of SO or LA in cardiovascular diseases is highly controversial, and their impact on macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherogenesis, is unclear. To investigate the effects of high SO or LA intake on macrophage lipid metabolism and the related mechanisms of action, C57BL/6 mice were orally supplemented with increasing levels of SO-based emulsion or equivalent levels of purified LA for 1 month, followed by analyses of lipid accumulation and peroxidation in aortas, serum and in peritoneal macrophages (MPM) of the mice. Lipid peroxidation and triglyceride mass in aortas from SO or LA supplemented mice were dose-dependently and significantly increased. In MPM from SO or LA supplemented mice, lipid peroxides were significantly increased and a marked accumulation of cellular triglycerides was found in accordance with enhanced triglyceride biosynthesis rate and overexpression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1), the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis. In cultured J774A.1 macrophages treated with SO or LA, triglyceride accumulated via increased oxidative stress and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated overexpression of DGAT1. Accordingly, anti-oxidants (pomegranate polyphenols), inhibition of p38 MAPK (by SB202190) or DGAT1 (by oleanolic acid), all significantly attenuated SO or LA-induced macrophage triglyceride accumulation. These findings reveal novel mechanisms by which supplementation with SO or LA stimulate macrophage foam cell formation, suggesting a pro-atherogenic role for overconsumption of SO or LA. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):100-116, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-based gene knockout in watermelon.

    Tian, Shouwei; Jiang, Linjian; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Zong, Mei; Zhang, Haiying; Ren, Yi; Guo, Shaogui; Gong, Guoyi; Liu, Fan; Xu, Yong

    2017-03-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 system can precisely edit genomic sequence and effectively create knockout mutations in T0 generation watermelon plants. Genome editing offers great advantage to reveal gene function and generate agronomically important mutations to crops. Recently, RNA-guided genome editing system using the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) has been applied to several plant species, achieving successful targeted mutagenesis. Here, we report the genome of watermelon, an important fruit crop, can also be precisely edited by CRISPR/Cas9 system. ClPDS, phytoene desaturase in watermelon, was selected as the target gene because its mutant bears evident albino phenotype. CRISPR/Cas9 system performed genome editing, such as insertions or deletions at the expected position, in transfected watermelon protoplast cells. More importantly, all transgenic watermelon plants harbored ClPDS mutations and showed clear or mosaic albino phenotype, indicating that CRISPR/Cas9 system has technically 100% of genome editing efficiency in transgenic watermelon lines. Furthermore, there were very likely no off-target mutations, indicated by examining regions that were highly homologous to sgRNA sequences. Our results show that CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool to effectively create knockout mutations in watermelon.

  7. Suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado: estabilidade oxidativa dos suplementos e correlações com conteúdo dos lípides totais hepáticos e indicadores da oxidação dos lípides biológicos de ratos Wistar Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation: oxidative stability of supplements and correlations with total hepatic lipid contents and biological lipid oxidation indicators in Wistar rats

    Lilia Ferreira Santos-Zago

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade oxidativa de misturas comerciais de ácido linoléico conjugado e buscar possível correlação entre a suplementação e o conteúdo total de lípides hepáticos, e também de alguns indicadores da oxidação lipídica em ratos. MÉTODOS:Um ensaio biológico com 30 ratos divididos em três grupos (n=10 caracterizando os grupos controle e suplementados com as misturas comerciais AdvantEdge® e One® foi realizado. A concentração administrada foi de 2% em relação ao consumo de dieta e os animais foram suplementados durante 42 dias. O conteúdo total de lípides do fígado foi determinado e a morfologia do órgão foi examinada por meio de microscopia ótica. Índice de peróxido e malondialdeído foram determinados para avaliar a estabilidade oxidativa dos suplementos in vitro. Índice de peróxido, malondialdeído, 8-iso-PGF2α isoprostana e catalase foram determinados como indicadores da oxidação dos lípides biológicos. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram baixa estabilidade das misturas comerciais à oxidação in vitro. As associações entre o consumo de ácido linoléico conjugado e malondialdeído (r=-0,7914, pOBJECTIVE:The claimed action of conjugated linoleic acid as an antioxidant is unexpected and unclear, in view of its chemical structure - a conjugated diene, i.e., a fatty acid in its initial stage of autoxidation. Indeed, it can be speculated that it could act as a pro-oxidant, increasing oxidative stress in biological systems, nevertheless it has carbon-carbon bonds in the trans configuration. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the oxidative stability of commercial mixtures, and to investigate a possible correlation between conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and total hepatic lipid content, as well as some lipid oxidation indicators in rats. METHODS:A biological assay was done with thirty rats divided into three groups (n=10 characterized as