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Sample records for linking soil mesofauna

  1. THE STRUCTURE OF SOIL MESOFAUNA AND MACROFAUNA IN GRODA CAVE, GUNUNGKIDUL

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    Andri Prasetyo

    2016-10-01

      The number of soil macrofauna and mesofauna in Groda Cave can be used as an indicator of bats abundance since bat droppings are food for macrofauna and mesofauna soils. The purpose of this study are to determine the community structure of Groda Cave soil macrofauna and mesofauna  and its correlation with the content of N, P, K. The method used is the observation, taking of macrofauna and mesofauna soils using pit fall traps and tool green technique. Testing the N, P, K of the soil was conducted in Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian (BPTP Yogyakarta. The analysis technique used Shannon diversity index-Wienner, Margaleff wealth index, frequency of attendance of  macrofauna and mesofauna soils and its correlation with N, P, K of the land in Groda Cave. The results obtained are that six families mesofauna and 20 families macrofauna soils with moderate diversity index, the highest wealth index was in the Margaleff lit zone, the frequency of the highest attendance in the light zone is Formicidae (0.12, ie dim zones Isotomidae and Diptera (a brown (0.04 and the dark zone is Gryllacididae (0.05. The correlation showed the more the content of N, P, K, the fewer mesofauna and macrofauna soils were found. The uniqueness found in this study is the discovery of one species of Isotomidae in Groda Cave, which has been considered spreading only in Sulawesi, Sumatera, Bali, Lombok, Ternate and Papua.   Keywords: community structure, mesofauna soil, macrofauna soil, Groda Cave

  2. Response of Soil Mesofauna to Long-Term Application of Feedlot Manure on Irrigated Cropland.

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    Miller, Jim J; Battigelli, Jeff P; Beasley, Bruce W; Drury, Craig F

    2017-01-01

    Long-term application of feedlot manure to cropland may influence soil mesofauna. These organisms affect the health, structure, and fertility of soils, organic matter decomposition, and crop growth. The objective was to study the long-term (16-17 yr) influence of feedlot manure type and bedding on soil mesofauna over 2 yr (2014-2015). Stockpiled or composted feedlot manure with straw (ST) or wood-chip (WD) bedding (plus unamended control) was annually applied (13 Mg ha dry wt.) to an irrigated clay loam soil with continuous barley (). Intact cores were taken from surface (0-5 cm) soil in the fall, and the densities of Acari (mites) suborders and Collembola (springtails) families were determined. Manure type had no significant ( > 0.05) effect on soil mesofauna density. In contrast, there was a significant two- to sixfold increase in density with WD- compared with ST-amended soils of total Acari in 2014 and 2015, as well as total Collembola, total Acari and Collembola, oribatid mites, and entomobryid springtails in 2014. The bedding effect was attributed to significantly greater soil water content and lower bulk density for WD than ST. Density of soil mesofauna was not significantly greater in amended soils than in unamended soils. A shift by feedlot producers from stockpiled to composted feedlot manure application should have no effect on soil mesofauna density, whereas a shift from ST to WD bedding may increase the density of certain soil mesofauna, which may have a beneficial effect on soil. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Produced water irrigation changes the soil mesofauna community in a semiarid agroecosystem.

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    Ferreira, Raimundo Nonato Costa; Weber, Olmar Baller; Crisóstomo, Lindbergue Araujo

    2015-08-01

    The scarcity of water in semiarid regions requires alternative sources for irrigation to improve agricultural production. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of produced water from oil exploration on the structure of soil mesofauna during the dry and rainy seasons in irrigated sunflower and castor bean fields in a Brazilian semiarid region. Three irrigation treatments were applied on plots cultivated with castor beans and sunflowers: produced water treated by filtration (filtrated) or treated by reverse osmosis (reverse osmosis) and groundwater. The mesofauna under the biofuel crops was collected and identified during the dry and rainy seasons. Although the abundance and richness of the total fauna did not differ between seasons in sunflower plots, the community was altered. In castor beans, the abundance, richness, and community of mesofauna observed in plots irrigated with produced water differed from the groundwater treatment. Irrigation with produced water promotes important changes in soil fauna community that justify their assessment for the maintenance and monitoring of agroecosystems.

  4. The structure of salt marsh soil mesofauna food webs - The prevalence of disturbance.

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    Haynert, Kristin; Kiggen, Mirijam; Klarner, Bernhard; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Mesofauna taxa fill key trophic positions in soil food webs, even in terrestrial-marine boundary habitats characterized by frequent natural disturbances. Salt marshes represent such boundary habitats, characterized by frequent inundations increasing from the terrestrial upper to the marine pioneer zone. Despite the high abundance of soil mesofauna in salt marshes and their important function by facilitating energy and carbon flows, the structure, trophic ecology and habitat-related diet shifts of mesofauna species in natural salt marsh habitats is virtually unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of natural disturbance (inundation frequency) on community structure, food web complexity and resource use of soil mesofauna using stable isotope analysis (15N, 13C) in three salt marsh zones. In this intertidal habitat, the pioneer zone is exposed to inundations twice a day, but lower and upper salt marshes are less frequently inundated based on shore height. The mesofauna comprised 86 species / taxa dominated by Collembola, Oribatida and Mesostigmata. Shifts in environmental disturbances influenced the structure of food webs, diversity and density declined strongly from the land to the sea pointing to the importance of increasing levels of inundation frequency. Accordingly, the reduced diversity and density was associated by a simplification of the food web in the pioneer zone as compared to the less inundated lower and upper salt marsh with a higher number of trophic levels. Strong variations in δ15N signatures demonstrated that mesofauna species are feeding at multiple trophic levels. Primary decomposers were low and most mesofauna species functioned as secondary decomposers or predators including second order predators or scavengers. The results document that major decomposer taxa, such as Collembola and Oribatida, are more diverse than previously assumed and predominantly dwell on autochthonous resources of the respective salt marsh zone. The results further

  5. [Species composition and diversity of soil mesofauna in the 'Holy Hills' fragmentary tropical rain forest of Xishuangbanna, China].

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    Yang, X; Sha, L

    2001-04-01

    The species composition and diversity of soil mesofauna were examined in fragmented dry tropical seasonal rainforest of tow 'Holy Hills' of Dai nationality, compared with the continuous moist tropical seasonal rain forest of Nature Reserve in Xishuangbanna area. 5 sample quadrats were selected along the diagonal of 20 m x 20 m sampling plot, and the samples of litterfall and 0-3 cm soil were collected from each 50 cm x 10 cm sample quadrat. Animals in soil sample were collected by using dry-funnel(Tullgren's), were identified to their groups according to the order. The H' index, D.G index and the pattern of relative abundance of species were used to compare the diversity of soil mesofauna. The results showed that the disturbance of vegetation and soil resulted by tropical rainforest fragmentation was the major factor affecting the diversity of soil mesofauna. Because the fragmented forest was intruded by some pioneer tree species and the "dry and warm" effect operated, this forest had more litterfall on the floor and more humus in the soil than the continuous moist rain forest. The soil condition with more soil organic matter, total N and P, higher pH value and lower soil bulk density became more favorable to the soil mesofauna. Therefore, the species richness, abundance and diversity of soil mesofauna in fragmented forests were higher than those in continuous forest, but the similarity of species composition in fragmented forest to the continuous forest was minimal. Soil mesofauna diversity in fragmented forests did not change with decreasing fragmented area, indicating that there was no species-area effect operation in this forest. The pattern of relative abundance of species in these forest soils was logarithmic series distribution.

  6. Do alterations in mesofauna community affect earthworms?

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    Uvarov, Alexei V; Karaban, Kamil

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between the saprotrophic animal groups that strongly control soil microbial activities and the functioning of detrital food webs, such as earthworms and mesofauna, are not well understood. Earthworm trophic and engineering activities strongly affect mesofauna abundance and diversity through various direct and indirect pathways. In contrast, mesofauna effects on earthworm populations are less evident; however, their importance may be high, considering the keystone significance of earthworms for the functioning of the soil system. We studied effects of a diverse mesofauna community of a deciduous forest on two earthworm species representing epigeic (Lumbricus rubellus) and endogeic (Aporrectodea caliginosa) ecological groups. In microcosms, the density of total mesofauna or its separate groups (enchytraeids, collembolans, gamasid mites) was manipulated (increased) and responses of earthworms and soil systems were recorded. A rise in mesofauna density resulted in a decrease of biomass and an increased mortality in L. rubellus, presumably due to competition with mesofauna for litter resources. In contrast, similar mesofauna manipulations promoted reproduction of A. caliginosa, suggesting a facilitated exploitation of litter resources due to increased mesofauna activities. Changes of microcosm respiration rates, litter organic matter content and microbial activities across the manipulation treatments indicate that mesofauna modify responses of soil systems in the presence of earthworms. However, similar mesofauna manipulations could induce different responses in soil systems with either epigeic or endogeic lumbricids, which suggests that earthworm/mesofauna interactions are species-specific. Thus, mesofauna impacts should be treated as a factor affecting the engineering activities of epigeic and endogeic earthworms in the soil.

  7. Irrigating poplar energy crops with landfill leachate negatively affects soil micro- and meso-fauna.

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    Coyle, David R; Zalesny, Jill A; Zalesny, Ronald S; Wiese, Adam H

    2011-10-01

    Increased municipal solid waste generated worldwide combined with substantial demand for renewable energy has prompted testing and deployment of woody feedstock production systems that reuse and recycle wastewaters as irrigation and fertilization. Populus selections are ideal for such systems given their fast growth, extensive root systems, and high water usage rates. Maintaining ecological sustainability (i.e., the capacity for an ecosystem to maintain its function and retain its biodiversity over time) during tree establishment and development is an important component of plantation success, especially for belowground faunal populations. To determine the impact of solid waste leachate on soil micro- and meso-fauna, we compared soilfrom eight different Populus clones receiving municipal solid waste landfill leachate irrigation with clones receiving fertilized (N, P K) well water irrigation. Microfauna (i.e., nematodes) communities were more diverse in control soils. Mesofauna (i.e., insects) were associated with all clones; however, they were four times more abundant around trees found within the control plot than those that received leachate treatments. Nematode and insect abundance varied among Populus clones yet insect diversity was greater in the leachate-treated soils. Phytotechnologies must allow for soil faunal sustainability, as upsetting this balance could lead to great reductions in phytotechnology efficacy.

  8. Impact of set-aside management on soil mesofauna

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    Landi, Silvia; d'Errico, Giada; Mazza, Giuseppe; Mocali, Stefano; Bazzoffi, Paolo; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2014-05-01

    To contrast the biodiversity decline, the current Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 2014-2020 responds to urgent environmental challenges and provides some new greening attempts as pastures, rotations, orchard grasses, ecological set-aside and organic farming. This study, supported by the Italian National Project MONACO (MIPAAF), aims to provide preliminary indications about the ecological impact of set-aside on soil biodiversity. Soil invertebrates, mainly nematodes and microarthropods, are excellent candidates to study the human activity impacts on the environment. Indeed, invertebrates are abundant, relatively easy to sample, and they can quickly respond to soil disturbance. Nematode assemblages offer several advantages for assessing the quality of terrestrial ecosystems because of their permeable cuticle through which they are in direct contact with solvents in the soil capillary water. Moreover, nematodes have high diversity and represent a trophically heterogeneous group. The Maturity Index (MI), based on the nematode fauna, represents a gauge of the conditions of the soil ecosystem. Edaphic microarthropods play an important role in the soil system in organic matter degradation and nutrient cycling. They show morphological characters that reveal adaptation to soil environments, such as reduction or loss of pigmentation and visual apparatus, streamlined body form with appendages reduction, reduction or loss of flying, jumping or running adaptations, thinner cuticle for reduced water-retention capacity. The "Qualità Biologica del Suolo" (QBS) index, namely "Biological Quality of Soil", is based on the types of edaphic microarthropods to assess soil biological quality. Three different set-aside managements were compared with a conventional annual crop in three Italian sites (Caorle, VE; Fagna, FI; Metaponto, MT). After five years the biological quality of soils using MI and QBS was evaluated. Regarding nematodes, the family richness and the biological quality

  9. [Soil mesofauna in differents systems of land use soil in Upper River Solimões, AM, Brazil].

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    Morais, José W De; Oliveira, Viviane Dos S; Dambros, Cristian De S; Tapia-Coral, Sandra C; Acioli, Agno N S

    2010-01-01

    The mesofauna has an important function in the soil and it is represented mainly by Acari Oribatida and Collembola. We report the first data on the density and diversity of the soil mesofauna in Benjamin Constant, Amazonas State, Brazil. The following systems were evaluated: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry system, cultivated areas and pastures. A total of 101 samples were collected 100 m apart from each other and specimens were collected by using Berlese-Tullgren method. The highest density was registered in secondary forest (29,776 specimens.m-2). Acari Oribatida was the dominant group (7.072 specimens.m-2) in the pasture, suggesting that mites show higher capacity of adaptation to disturbed environments and/or due to the presence of gregarious species. The density of Collembola (5,632 specimens.m-2) was higher in secondary forest. Formicidae was the dominant group (27,824 specimens.m-2) and its highest density occurred in the secondary forest (12,336 specimens.m-2). Seven species and ten morphospecies of Isoptera and three species of Symphyla were identified. The highest density and diversity were found in secondary forest. One supposes that the low density of mesofauna found in all of the studied systems is being influenced by soil structure and composition as well as litter volume. For SUT, the composition of taxonomic groups in the cultivated areas is similar to the one found in primary forest, while the groups found in the agroforestry system are similar to those in the pasture, which may help to decide on land use strategies.

  10. Indicadores de qualidade de solos de área de mineração e metalurgia de chumbo: II - Mesofauna e plantas Soil quality indicators in lead mining and metalurgy area: II - Mesofauna and plants

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    Yara Jurema Barros

    2010-08-01

    riqueza de grupos de organismos e ocorrência de representantes dos grupos Pseudoscorpiones, Mollusca e Isopoda apenas nesse solo. Os grupos Aracnídeos e Psocoptera também foram considerados bons indicadores ambientais, com incremento de suas populações nos solos com maiores teores de metais pesados (solos 2, 3 e 5, possivelmente devido à menor ocorrência de organismos competidores/predadores desses grupos. Os teores de metais pesados nos indivíduos do grupo Formicidae tiveram relação direta com os teores de Pb extraídos com HNO3 0,5 mol L-1 no solo. Quanto ao acúmulo de metais pesados nas plantas coletadas na área, com exceção do solo 1, todas as espécies encontravam-se sob efeito fitotóxico para Pb e Zn, o que sugere a proibição de pastejo na área.The influence of soil management or the contaminant application to the soil, usually induce to a quicker response in the soil mesofauna than in other pedogenic properties; these organisms are therefore good environmental quality indicators. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the organisms groups of the soil mesofauna and determine Pb and Zn contents in plants in the mining and metallurgy plant in Adrianópolis (PR,to originate biological indicators of the quality of these solis. At the selected locations the following contamination forms were analized: site 1 - reference (native wood; site 2 - residue incorporated in the profile; sites 3 and 6 - close to the chimneys of the plant, with potential import of particulate matter; site 5 - great waste volume covering the soil. Berlese funnels were utilized to collect samples from the 0 to 5 cm layer (20 funnels x 5 sites x 1 layer x 4 times = 400 samples. After the separation of the mesofauna, the organisms were selected and identified. Ants samples were microwave digested with concentrated HNO3 and the Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. Plants from Poaceae family were

  11. Wood ash application increases pH but does not harm the soil mesofauna

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    Qin, Jiayi; Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Ekelund, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Application of bioash from biofuel combustion to soil supports nutrient recycling, but may have unwanted and detrimental ecotoxicological side-effects, as the ash is a complex mixture of compounds that could affect soil invertebrates directly or through changes in their food or habitat conditions...... is the likely cause of effects while high pH and heavy metals is of minor importance.......Application of bioash from biofuel combustion to soil supports nutrient recycling, but may have unwanted and detrimental ecotoxicological side-effects, as the ash is a complex mixture of compounds that could affect soil invertebrates directly or through changes in their food or habitat conditions....... To examine this, we performed laboratory toxicity studies of the effects of wood-ash added to an agricultural soil and the organic horizon of a coniferous plantation soil with the detrivore soil collembolans Folsomia candida and Onychiurus yodai, the gamasid predaceous mite Hypoaspis aculeifer...

  12. Wood ash application increases pH but does not harm the soil mesofauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Jiayi; Hovmand, M.; Ekelund, Flemming; Rønn, Regin; Christensen, S.; Groot, de G.A.; Mortensen, L.H.; Skov, Simon; Henning Krogh, P.

    2017-01-01

    Application of bioash from biofuel combustion to soil supports nutrient recycling, but may have unwanted and detrimental ecotoxicological side-effects, as the ash is a complex mixture of compounds that could affect soil invertebrates directly or through changes in their food or habitat conditions.

  13. Comunidade microbiana e mesofauna edáficas em solo sob caatinga no semi-árido da Paraíba Soil microbial community and mesofauna under dry forest vegetation in the semi-arid region of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Patrícia Carneiro Souto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A atividade biológica do solo é responsável por inúmeras transformações físicas e químicas dos resíduos orgânicos que são depositados, mantendo, assim, a sustentabilidade do ambiente. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a distribuição da comunidade microbiana e da mesofauna edáfica no semi-árido da Paraíba. Para determinação da população de microrganismos, foram coletadas amostras de solo na profundidade de 0-15 cm. A contagem total de fungos e de bactérias foi realizada em meios de cultura específicos. A extração da mesofauna foi feita pelo método de Berlese-Tullgren modificado. Oscilações no conteúdo de água do solo e na temperatura promoveram variações na população microbiana. A população de fungos foi superior à de bactérias nos dois anos de observação, provavelmente devido ao pH do solo da área de estudo, que é ligeiramente ácido. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H e o de Pielou (e variaram de acordo com a época de coleta. Os grupos mais freqüentes da mesofauna do solo foram Diptera (42,5 %, Acarinae (40,3 % e Collembola (8,8 %, indicando que esses organismos possuem papel importante na ciclagem de nutrientes em área de Caatinga.The biological soil activity is responsible for several physical and chemical transformations of deposited organic residues, therefore maintaining the environmental sustainability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of the soil microbial community and mesofauna in a dry forest (Caatinga in the semi-arid region of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. To determine the microorganism population soil samples from the 0-15 cm soil layer were evaluated. Total counts of fungi and bacteria were evaluated in specific culture media. The Berleusse-Tüllgren modified method was used to extract the soil mesofauna. Oscillations in the soil water content and high temperatures promoted variations in the microbial population. The fungi population was larger than that of

  14. POPULASI DAN KEANEKARAGAMAN MESOFAUNA SERASAH DAN TANAH AKIBAT PERUBAHAN TUTUPAN LAHAN HUTAN DI RESORT PEMERIHAN TAMAN NASIONAL BUKIT BARISAN SELATAN

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    Frendika Mahendra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study about abundance and diversity of soil and litter mesofauna to the effect of forest cover change that occurred in the Pemerihan Resort, Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. This research was compiled in a completely randomized design (CRD and there were four different lands, which were: (1 primary forest, (2 coffee plantation, (3 corn field, and (4 grassland. The observation of mesofauna was taken in soil and litter from four different lands cover. The variable of observation were mesofauna abundance and diversity index, soil chemical properties (pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, P available, and exchanged potassium, and soil physics properties (bulk density, soil temperature, humidity, and porosity. Data were analyzed using F test and further test using least significant differences (LSD at 5%. The results showed that the different of lands cover affect the diversity index of litter mesofauna, the abundance of litter and soil mesofauna, yet did not affect the diversity index of mesofauna underground. However, the abundance and diversity index of soil and litter mesofauna in the primary forest was higher than the other lands.

  15. Evaluation of different agronomic managements on rice mesofauna: a case study in Piedmont (North Italy)

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    Landi, Silvia; d'Errico, Giada; Gagnarli, Elena; Barzanti, Gian Paolo; Cito, Annarita; Papini, Rossella; Simoni, Sauro; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2014-05-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop in the developing world and, in Europe, Italy is leader in rice production. The intensive cultivation of rice leads to continuous inputs chemicals as fertilizers, weeding and pesticides. The intensification of sustainable rice production by minimizing the impact on the environment of cultivation is a main issue . In this context this study, supported by the Italian National Project POLORISO (MIPAAF), aims to afford preliminary indications about the evaluation of ecological impact by different managements on soil mesofauna biodiversity. Biomonitoring of soil mesofauna, in particular nematodes and microarthropods, allows to determine the effects of crop management on the communities; the lack and/or reduction of these organisms can allow inference on the soil quality. This preliminary study aims at evaluate the different influence of conventional, integrated and biological managements on mesofauna communities. The samplings were conducted in Summer and Autumn 2013 near Vercelli (North Italy) in three study sites with similar pedologic characteristics but different in control strategies (conventional, organic farming, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)). The extraction of nematodes and microarthropods was performed by Bermann method and the Berlese-Tullgren selector, respectively. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The biological soil quality was evaluated by Maturity Index (MI) for nematodes, BSQar and the soil Biological Classes (sBC)(range I-VII) for microarthropods. Regarding nematodes, Rhabditidae, Dorylamidae, Mononchidae, Tylenchidae and Heteroderidae were the most represented families. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) evidenced that the trophic group of plant parasites was favored in organic farming, while groups of omnivores and predators were abundant in the other managements. The lowest nematodes' abundance was found in submerged rice soil with dominance of omnivores and plant

  16. Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum

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    O' Brien, Sarah L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The soil environment remains one of the most complex and poorly understood research frontiers in ecology. Soil organic matter (SOM), which spans a continuum from fresh detritus to highly processed, mineral-associated organic matter, is the foundation of sustainable terrestrial ecosystems. Heterogeneous SOM pools are fueled by inputs from living and dead plants, driven by the activity of micro- and mesofauna, and are shaped by a multitude of abiotic factors. The specialization required to measure unseen processes that occur on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales has led to the partitioning of soil ecology research across several disciplines. In the organized oral session 'Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum' at the annual Ecological Society of America meeting in Albuquerque, NM, USA, we joined the call for greater communication and collaboration among ecologists who work at the root-soil interface (e.g. Coleman, 2008). Our goal was to bridge the gap between scientific disciplines and to synthesize disconnected pieces of knowledge from root-centric and soil-centric studies into an integrated understanding of belowground ecosystem processes. We focused this report around three compelling themes that arose from the session: (1) the influence of the rhizosphere on SOM cycling, (2) the role of soil heterotrophs in driving the transformation of root detritus to SOM, and (3) the controlling influence of the soil environment on SOM dynamics. We conclude with a discussion of new approaches for gathering data to bridge gaps in the root-SOM continuum and to inform the next generation of ecosystem models. Although leaf litter has often been considered to be the main source of organic inputs to soil, Ann Russell synthesized a convincing body of work demonstrating that roots, rather than surface residues, control the accumulation of SOM in a variety of ecosystems. Living roots, which are chemically diverse and highly dynamic, also influence a

  17. Few apparent short-term effects of elevated soil temperature and increased frequency of summer precipitation on the abundance and taxonomic diversity of desert soil micro- and meso-fauna

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    Darby, B.J.; Neher, D.A.; Housman, D.C.; Belnap, J.

    2011-01-01

    Frequent hydration and drying of soils in arid systems can accelerate desert carbon and nitrogen mobilization due to respiration, microbial death, and release of intracellular solutes. Because desert microinvertebrates can mediate nutrient cycling, and the autotrophic components of crusts are known to be sensitive to rapid desiccation due to elevated temperatures after wetting events, we studied whether altered soil temperature and frequency of summer precipitation can also affect the composition of food web consumer functional groups. We conducted a two-year field study with experimentally-elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation in the Colorado Plateau desert, measuring the change in abundance of nematodes, protozoans, and microarthropods. We hypothesized that microfauna would be more adversely affected by the combination of elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation than either effect alone, as found previously for phototrophic crust biota. Microfauna experienced normal seasonal fluctuations in abundance, but the effect of elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation was statistically non-significant for most microfaunal groups, except amoebae. The seasonal increase in abundance of amoebae was reduced with combined elevated temperature and increased frequency of summer precipitation compared to either treatment alone, but comparable with control (untreated) plots. Based on our findings, we suggest that desert soil microfauna are relatively more tolerant to increases in ambient temperature and frequency of summer precipitation than the autotrophic components of biological soil crust at the surface.

  18. Analysis of litter mesofauna of Poltava region forest ecosystems

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    O. S. Komarov

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of research of litter mesofauna of 48 forest biogeocenoses the regularities of invertebrate communities formation on the species and families levels are determined. The degree of similarity of test plots are analysed by taxonomic structure of the communities. The factors of the litter invertebrate communities formation in forest ecosystems of the Poltava region are revealed.

  19. A comparative study of the chemical and integrated treatments impact against the defoliating insects on the structure and dynamics of the edaphic mesofauna in two oak forests from North-Eastern Romania

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    Adina Cãlugãr

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The author presents in this paper some aspects about the edaphicmicroarthropods from the organic horizon of two forest soils belonging to the Ciurea Forest District, Iasi County: ªanta (mixed stands mainly with oak, chemically treated against defoliating insects and Poieni - Tomesti (Quercus robur and Quercuspetraea stands with integrated treatments. The study of edaphic microarthropods was performed both from qualitative and quantitative point of view. It considered the average of the total density of the microarthropod populations and by each taxonomic group, according to stations and subhorizons, as well as the ratio between thetaxonomical and trophic groups. The investigations concerning edaphic mesofauna consist in inventory and analysis of the mites belonging to Oribatida, Gamasida, Actinedida and Acaridida orders, of the Collembola, as well as other insects; other groups of microarthropods were taken into consideration too (pseudoscorpiones,myriapods etc. The consequences of the treatments against the defoliators on theedaphic mesofauna were performed at four different moments. Generally, lower densities were observed in the case of the chemically treated stands. The communities of the edaphic mesofauna from the integrated management treated stands are more stableduring the time. In the chemically treated stands, the densities of the microartropods vary between large limits; this instability could be assigned to this kind of treatment. The vertical distribution of the mesofauna depends on the textural characteristics of the soil, being at the same time a dynamic parameter that is modifyed according to the variation of the climatic factors.

  20. Preliminary results of a study on the soil mesofauna in disturbed spruce forest stands near Čertovo and Plešné Lakes in the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čuchta, Peter; Starý, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 3 (2015), s. 161-167 ISSN 1211-376X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1218 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : windthrow * bark beetle * soil arthropod s * Bohemian Forest Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Interspecific Relationships Among Soil Invertebrates Influence Pollutant Effects of Phenanthrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortet, J.; Joffre, R.; Elmholt, S.

    2006-01-01

    , nitrogen concentration). The effects of each community on the fate of phenanthrene were also assessed. We hypothesize that phenanthrene affects the population dynamics of mesofauna and soil biological functioning depending on exposure duration, type of community, or both. Results show that phenanthrene...... toxic effects of organic pollutants on mesofauna species and soil biological functioning....... exerted an effect on mesofauna and that the effects on some species, like Folsomia fimetaria, were influenced by the species composition in the mesocosms, the soil layer, and the sampling date. However, the effects of phenanthrene on ergosterol content and organic matter decomposition were...

  2. Mesofauna edáfica en diferentes usos de la tierra en la Llanura Roja de Mayabeque y Artemisa, Cuba Edaphic mesofauna in different land uses in the Red Plain of Mayabeque and Artemisa, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana A Socarrás

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó, a través de la composición taxonómica y trófica de la mesofauna edáfica, el estado de conservación de los suelos con diferentes usos. La investigación se realizó durante el período lluvioso del año 2009, en 11 sitios seleccionados bajo cuatro clases generales de uso de la tierra (CGUT: bosques regenerados, pastizales, caña de azúcar y cultivos varios (principalmente papa. Se tomaron tres muestras de suelo en cada réplica de uso de la tierra, a un solo nivel de profundidad (0-10 cm, siguiendo un diseño de muestreo completamente aleatorizado estratificado. Para su extracción se utilizaron los embudos de Berlese-Tullgren, con una fuente de luz y calor, durante siete días. Los mayores valores de composición taxonómica de estos microartrópodos del suelo se encontraron en los bosques, con 16 familias, seguido de los pastizales con nueve familias, cultivos varios y cañaverales con seis familias cada uno. Por otra parte, la mayor representación de los grupos detritívoros apareció en el bosque con cuatro órdenes, 15 familias y 151 individuos, seguido de los cultivos varios con dos órdenes, cinco familias y 62 individuos, y el pastizal con dos órdenes, ocho familias y 37 individuos; mientras que en la caña de azúcar los fungívoros fueron los mejor representados por un orden y 22 ejemplares. La composición taxonómica y trófica de los grupos que integran la mesofauna edáfica, indicó el estado de degradación del suelo en el orden caña de azúcar-cultivos varios, seguidos de pastizal y, por último, bosque.The conservation status of soils with different uses was characterized using the taxonomic and trophic composition of the edaphic mesofauna. The research was conducted during the rainy season of 2009 in 11 sites selected under four general classes of land use (GCLU: regenerated forests, pasturelands, sugarcane plantations and varied crops (mainly potatoes. Three soil samples were taken in each land use

  3. Effects of soil mesofauna and microclimate on nitrogen dynamics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-13

    Jul 13, 2011 ... In this paper, carbon (C) and N dynamics in decomposing. Castanopsis ... between litter wet and dry weights divided by the dry weight and ..... 45. 55. 65. 75. EVB. COF. DWF. ALM sites. M e a n a n n u a. l a ir te m p e ra tu re.

  4. Linking soil systems to societal value systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Katharina; Daedlow, Katrin; Techen, Anja; Kaiser, David Brian

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable management of soils is needed to avoid soil degradation and to maintain soil functions. This requires the assessment of how human activities drive soil management, how soil management affect soil functions and soil degradation, which trade-offs occur and how they compromise sustainable development targets. In the frame of the German research programme "Soils as a sustainable resource for the bio-economy - BonaRes", we developed an enhanced approach of the DPSIR (driver-pressure-state-impact-response) cycle which helps to assess these interrelations. Because not all soil functions can be maximized simultaneously in space and time and trade-offs are inevitable, it depends on the societal value system to decide which management practices and respective soil functional performances are valued sustainably. We analysed the applicability of three valuation concepts being prominent in research about social-ecological systems, namely resource efficiency, ecosystem services, and ethics and equity. The concept of resource efficiency is based in the life-cycle thinking and is often applied at the level of the farming systems and in the context of bio-economy strategies. It covers the use of natural (water, energy, nutrients, land) and economic resources. At the landscape level, the concept of ecosystem services is prominent. Here, the contribution of soils to the provisioning, regulating and cultural services of the natural ecosystems is considered. Ethical considerations include the intrinsic values of nature as well as issues of local and global equity between different societal groups, generations, and localities. The three concepts cover different problem dimensions and complexity levels of soil management and decision making. Alone, none of them are capable to discover complex questions of sustainable soil management and development. Rather, the exact spatial and temporal framing of the sustainability problem at stake determines which combination of the value

  5. Underestimation of boreal soil carbon stocks by mathematical soil carbon models linked to soil nutrient status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ťupek, Boris; Ortiz, Carina A.; Hashimoto, Shoji; Stendahl, Johan; Dahlgren, Jonas; Karltun, Erik; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2016-08-01

    Inaccurate estimate of the largest terrestrial carbon pool, soil organic carbon (SOC) stock, is the major source of uncertainty in simulating feedback of climate warming on ecosystem-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange by process-based ecosystem and soil carbon models. Although the models need to simplify complex environmental processes of soil carbon sequestration, in a large mosaic of environments a missing key driver could lead to a modeling bias in predictions of SOC stock change.We aimed to evaluate SOC stock estimates of process-based models (Yasso07, Q, and CENTURY soil sub-model v4) against a massive Swedish forest soil inventory data set (3230 samples) organized by a recursive partitioning method into distinct soil groups with underlying SOC stock development linked to physicochemical conditions.For two-thirds of measurements all models predicted accurate SOC stock levels regardless of the detail of input data, e.g., whether they ignored or included soil properties. However, in fertile sites with high N deposition, high cation exchange capacity, or moderately increased soil water content, Yasso07 and Q models underestimated SOC stocks. In comparison to Yasso07 and Q, accounting for the site-specific soil characteristics (e. g. clay content and topsoil mineral N) by CENTURY improved SOC stock estimates for sites with high clay content, but not for sites with high N deposition.Our analysis suggested that the soils with poorly predicted SOC stocks, as characterized by the high nutrient status and well-sorted parent material, indeed have had other predominant drivers of SOC stabilization lacking in the models, presumably the mycorrhizal organic uptake and organo-mineral stabilization processes. Our results imply that the role of soil nutrient status as regulator of organic matter mineralization has to be re-evaluated, since correct SOC stocks are decisive for predicting future SOC change and soil CO2 efflux.

  6. iSOIL: Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Peter; Werban, Ulrike; Sauer, Uta

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution soil property maps are one major prerequisite for the specific protection of soil functions and restoration of degraded soils as well as sustainable land use, water and environmental management. To generate such maps the combination of digital soil mapping approaches and remote as well as proximal soil sensing techniques is most promising. However, a feasible and reliable combination of these technologies for the investigation of large areas (e.g. catchments and landscapes) and the assessment of soil degradation threats is missing. Furthermore, there is insufficient dissemination of knowledge on digital soil mapping and proximal soil sensing in the scientific community, to relevant authorities as well as prospective users. As one consequence there is inadequate standardization of techniques. At the poster we present the EU collaborative project iSOIL within the 7th framework program of the European Commission. iSOIL focuses on improving fast and reliable mapping methods of soil properties, soil functions and soil degradation risks. This requires the improvement and integration of advanced soil sampling approaches, geophysical and spectroscopic measuring techniques, as well as pedometric and pedophysical approaches. The focus of the iSOIL project is to develop new and to improve existing strategies and innovative methods for generating accurate, high resolution soil property maps. At the same time the developments will reduce costs compared to traditional soil mapping. ISOIL tackles the challenges by the integration of three major components: (i)high resolution, non-destructive geophysical (e.g. Electromagnetic Induction EMI; Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR; magnetics, seismics) and spectroscopic (e.g., Near Surface Infrared, NIR) methods, (ii)Concepts of Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) and pedometrics as well as (iii)optimized soil sampling with respect to profound soil scientific and (geo)statistical strategies. A special focus of iSOIL lies on the

  7. Linking plants, fungi and soil mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Anil; Graf, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Plants provide important functions in respect soil strength and are increasingly considered for slope stabilisation within eco-engineering methods, particularly to prevent superficial soil failure. The protective functions include hydrological regulation through interception and evapo-transpiration as well as mechanical stabilisation through root reinforcement and, to a certain extent, chemical stabilisation through sticky metabolites. The ever-growing application of plants in slope stabilisation demanded more precise information of the vegetation effects and, concomitant, led the models for quantifying the reinforcement shoot up like mushrooms. However, so far, the framework and interrelationships for both the role of plants and the quantification concepts have not been thoroughly analysed and comprehensively considered, respectively, often resulting in unsatisfactory results. Although it seems obvious and is implicitly presupposed that the plant specific functions related to slope stability require growth and development, this is anything but given, particularly under the often hostile conditions dominating on bare and steep slopes. There, the superficial soil layer is often characterised by a lack of fines and missing medium-sized and fine pores due to an unstable soil matrix, predominantly formed by coarse grains. Low water retention capacity and substantial leaching of nutrients are the adverse consequences. Given this general set-up, sustainable plant growth and, particularly, root development is virtually unachievable. At exactly this point mycorrhizal fungi, the symbiotic partners of almost all plants used in eco-engineering, come into play. Though, they are probably well-known within the eco-engineering community, mycorrhizal fungi lead a humble existence. This is in spite of the fact that they supply their hosts with water and nutrients, improving the plant's ability to master otherwise unbridgeable environmental conditions. However, in order to support

  8. Abiotic and Biotic Soil Characteristics in Old Growth Forests and Thinned or Unthinned Mature Stands in Three Regions of Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Perry

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We compared forest floor depth, soil organic matter, soil moisture, anaerobic mineralizable nitrogen (a measure of microbial biomass, denitrification potential, and soil/litter arthropod communities among old growth, unthinned mature stands, and thinned mature stands at nine sites (each with all three stand types distributed among three regions of Oregon. Mineral soil measurements were restricted to the top 10 cm. Data were analyzed with both multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. Multivariate analyses were conducted with and without soil mesofauna or forest floor mesofauna, as data for those taxa were not collected on some sites. In multivariate analysis with soil mesofauna, the model giving the strongest separation among stand types (P = 0.019 included abundance and richness of soil mesofauna and anaerobic mineralizable nitrogen. The best model with forest floor mesofauna (P = 0.010 included anaerobic mineralizable nitrogen, soil moisture content, and richness of forest floor mesofauna. Old growth had the highest mean values for all variables, and in both models differed significantly from mature stands, while the latter did not differ. Old growth also averaged higher percent soil organic matter, and analysis including that variable was significant but not as strong as without it. Results of the multivariate analyses were mostly supported by univariate analyses, but there were some differences. In univariate analysis, the difference in percent soil organic matter between old growth and thinned mature was due to a single site in which the old growth had exceptionally high soil organic matter; without that site, percent soil organic matter did not differ between old growth and thinned mature, and a multivariate model containing soil organic matter was not statistically significant. In univariate analyses soil mesofauna had to be compared nonparametrically (because of heavy left-tails and differed only in the Siskiyou Mountains, where

  9. Global soil-climate-biome diagram: linking soil properties to climate and biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Yang, Y.; Fang, J.

    2017-12-01

    As a critical component of the Earth system, soils interact strongly with both climate and biota and provide fundamental ecosystem services that maintain food, climate, and human security. Despite significant progress in digital soil mapping techniques and the rapidly growing quantity of observed soil information, quantitative linkages between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale remain unclear. By compiling a large global soil database, we mapped seven major soil properties (bulk density [BD]; sand, silt and clay fractions; soil pH; soil organic carbon [SOC] density [SOCD]; and soil total nitrogen [STN] density [STND]) based on machine learning algorithms (regional random forest [RF] model) and quantitatively assessed the linkage between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale. Our results demonstrated a global soil-climate-biome diagram, which improves our understanding of the strong correspondence between soils, climate and biomes. Soil pH decreased with greater mean annual precipitation (MAP) and lower mean annual temperature (MAT), and the critical MAP for the transition from alkaline to acidic soil pH decreased with decreasing MAT. Specifically, the critical MAP ranged from 400-500 mm when the MAT exceeded 10 °C but could decrease to 50-100 mm when the MAT was approximately 0 °C. SOCD and STND were tightly linked; both increased in accordance with lower MAT and higher MAP across terrestrial biomes. Global stocks of SOC and STN were estimated to be 788 ± 39.4 Pg (1015 g, or billion tons) and 63 ± 3.3 Pg in the upper 30-cm soil layer, respectively, but these values increased to 1654 ± 94.5 Pg and 133 ± 7.8 Pg in the upper 100-cm soil layer, respectively. These results reveal quantitative linkages between soil properties, climate and biota at the global scale, suggesting co-evolution of the soil, climate and biota under conditions of global environmental change.

  10. Migration of 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu and 241Am in the chain soil-soil solution-plant. The soil-soil solution link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsyannikova, S.V.; Kil'chitskaya, S.L.; Ehjsmont, E.A.; Zhukovich, N.V.; Kimlenko, I.M.; Duksina, V.V.; Rubinchik, S.Ya.

    1999-01-01

    The mobility of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am in the link soil-soil solution is analysed for different soil types on the basis of radionuclide distribution coefficients between solid and liquid soil phases. The distribution coefficients allow to differentiate soils in correlation with radionuclide migration rate from the solid phase to the soil solution. The reasons of different radionuclide mobility are considered

  11. Linking biological soil crust diversity to ecological functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Karin; Borchhardt, Nadine; Schulz, Karoline; Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Baumann, Karen; Leinweber, Peter; Ulf, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are an association of different microorganisms and soil particles in the top millimeters of the soil. They are formed by algae, cyanobacteria, microfungi, bacteria, bryophytes and lichens in various compositions. Our aim was to determine and compare the biodiversity of all occurring organisms in biogeographically different habitats, ranging from polar (both Arctic and Antarctic), subpolar (Scandinavia), temperate (Germany) to dry regions (Chile). The combination of microscopy and molecular techniques (next-generation sequencing) revealed highly diverse crust communities, whose composition clustered by region and correlates with habitat characteristics such as water content. The BSC biodiversity was then linked to the ecological function of the crusts. The functional role of the BSCs in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous is evaluated using an array of state of the art soil chemistry methods including Py-FIMS (pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry) and XANES (x-ray absorbance near edge structure). Total P as well as P fractions were quantified in all BSCs, adjacent soil underneath and comparable nearby soil of BSC-free areas revealing a remarkable accumulation of total phosphorous and a distinct pattern of P fractions in the crust. Further, we observed an indication of a different P-speciation composition in the crust compared with BSC-free soil. The data allow answering the question whether BSCs act as sink or source for these compounds, and how biodiversity controls the biogeochemical function of BSCs.

  12. Observing and modeling links between soil moisture, microbes and CH4 fluxes from forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Jesper; Levy-Booth, David; Barker, Jason; Prescott, Cindy; Grayston, Sue

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key driver of methane (CH4) fluxes in forest soils, both of the net uptake of atmospheric CH4 and emission from the soil. Climate and land use change will alter spatial patterns of soil moisture as well as temporal variability impacting the net CH4 exchange. The impact on the resultant net CH4 exchange however is linked to the underlying spatial and temporal distribution of the soil microbial communities involved in CH4 cycling as well as the response of the soil microbial community to environmental changes. Significant progress has been made to target specific CH4 consuming and producing soil organisms, which is invaluable in order to understand the microbial regulation of the CH4 cycle in forest soils. However, it is not clear as to which extent soil moisture shapes the structure, function and abundance of CH4 specific microorganisms and how this is linked to observed net CH4 exchange under contrasting soil moisture regimes. Here we report on the results from a research project aiming to understand how the CH4 net exchange is shaped by the interactive effects soil moisture and the spatial distribution CH4 consuming (methanotrophs) and producing (methanogens). We studied the growing season variations of in situ CH4 fluxes, microbial gene abundances of methanotrophs and methanogens, soil hydrology, and nutrient availability in three typical forest types across a soil moisture gradient in a temperate rainforest on the Canadian Pacific coast. Furthermore, we conducted laboratory experiments to determine whether the net CH4 exchange from hydrologically contrasting forest soils responded differently to changes in soil moisture. Lastly, we modelled the microbial mediation of net CH4 exchange along the soil moisture gradient using structural equation modeling. Our study shows that it is possible to link spatial patterns of in situ net exchange of CH4 to microbial abundance of CH4 consuming and producing organisms. We also show that the microbial

  13. Linking soil biology and chemistry in biological soil crust using isolate exometabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Tami L; Karaoz, Ulas; Swenson, Joel M; Bowen, Benjamin P; Northen, Trent R

    2018-01-02

    Metagenomic sequencing provides a window into microbial community structure and metabolic potential; however, linking these data to exogenous metabolites that microorganisms process and produce (the exometabolome) remains challenging. Previously, we observed strong exometabolite niche partitioning among bacterial isolates from biological soil crust (biocrust). Here we examine native biocrust to determine if these patterns are reproduced in the environment. Overall, most soil metabolites display the expected relationship (positive or negative correlation) with four dominant bacteria following a wetting event and across biocrust developmental stages. For metabolites that were previously found to be consumed by an isolate, 70% are negatively correlated with the abundance of the isolate's closest matching environmental relative in situ, whereas for released metabolites, 67% were positively correlated. Our results demonstrate that metabolite profiling, shotgun sequencing and exometabolomics may be successfully integrated to functionally link microbial community structure with environmental chemistry in biocrust.

  14. Mesofauna edáfica: indicador biológico de la calidad del suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Socarrás

    Full Text Available La búsqueda, el uso y la aplicación de los indicadores de la calidad del suelo se han intensificado en las últimas décadas, debido a la necesidad de preservar este recurso no renovable e indispensable para la vida humana, ante el deterioro creciente. La selección de los indicadores se ha dirigido, fundamentalmente, a conocer el efecto de los usos aplicados y el curso de la rehabilitación de los suelos degradados o contaminados. Los grupos que integran la mesofauna edáfica son sensibles a las perturbaciones naturales y antrópicas del medio, las que provocan cambios en su composición específica y su abundancia, y ocasionan la pérdida de especies y de su diversidad, con la consiguiente disminución de la estabilidad y la fertilidad del suelo. Por ello la mesofauna edáfica es considerada como un buen indicador biológico de su estado de conservación. El número, la densidad y el balance de sus grupos permiten predecir y evaluar las transformaciones ocasionadas por la aplicación de diferentes métodos de producción agrícola en condiciones edafoclimáticas específicas, así como considerar integralmente el funcionamiento del ecosistema.

  15. Linking soil permeability and soil aggregate stability with root development: a pots experiment (preliminary results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Chiara; Graf, Frank; Gerber, Werner

    2015-04-01

    humidity of 75%, and at a night temperature of 17°C and relative humidity of 55% , with 15 hours of light per day. Four different growing periods have been distinguished (1, 2, 4 and 8 months). For each growing period 7 planted replicates have been set up, as well as 3 control pots with only bare soil treated the same way as the planted pots. After each growing period, the soil permeability was measured by means of a falling head procedure (Bagarello and Iovino, 2010) directly in the pots. Furthermore, soil aggregate stability was determined on soil samples applying a wet sieving method (Graf and Frei, 2013). Subsequently, root systems were collected and analyzed using different image software (Smartroot and Winrhizo). The permeability and soil aggregate stability values were finally linked with the root development stage and compared with field data coming from long-term stabilized slopes. Preliminary analysis reveals no significant influence of alder roots on both soil aggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity of soil after the one month growing period compared to the control. However, after two months we observed a decrease in the hydraulic conductivity values.

  16. Structure and diversity of ground mesofauna inUlmus and Populus consortia in the industrial areas of mining and smelting complex of krivyi rig basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kachinskaya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure and biological diversity of ground mesofauna on a consortium level of organisation of ecosystems are considered. Indicators of structural organisation and biodiversity of ground mesofauna were analised in Ulmus and Populus consortia in the conditions of industrial territories of mining and smelting complex of Krivyi Rig Basin. It is established that taxonomical structure of ground mesofauna is characterised by insignificant number and quantity of taxonomical groups. Prevalence of hortobionts and herpetobionts in morpho-ecological structure of the community testifies to their attachment to consortium’s determinants and influence of steppe climate on its structure. Dominance of phytophages and polyphages in trophic structure is caused by a combination of consortium determinants specificity and «a zone source» of the fauna formations. The structural organisation of ground mesofauna in consortia of Ulmus and Populus in the conditions of industrial sites is characterised by simplified taxonomical structure with low biodiversity at all levels.

  17. SPIDERS (ARANEI IN HEPRETOBIONT MESOFAUNA OF THE NORTHWEST CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ponomarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. We discussed in previous work a herpetobiont fauna of arachnids (Arachnida from the isolated yewboxwood wood, located in the Caucasian State Biosphere Reserve, 20 km near Sochi (Ponomarev, Chumachenko, 2007. The aim of the paper is to summarize available data about herpetobiont araneofauna of the Northwest Caucasus. Location. Republic of Adygea, Russia.Methods. Material was collected in 2009 on north macroslope of Main Caucasian Ridge within the territory of the Caucasian State Biosphere Reserve between 1000–1820 m. The following plant communities are studied: beech-silver fir (assotiation Abieti-Fagetion orientalis Korotkov et Belonovskaya 1987, maple forest (assotiation Petasito albae-Abietetum nordmannianae subassotiation Aceretosum trautvetteri Francuzov 2006, subalpine meadow (assotiation Poa longifolii – Calamagrostietum arundinaceae Semagina, 1992. Soil traps were used for collection of spiders.Results and main conclusions. During the period of study 100 species of spiders from 19 families are registered. Most diverse araneofauna of subalpine meadows includs 54 species belonging to 14 families. The least diverse araneofauna is in maple forest (24 species of 7 families. In beech-silver fir includes 45 species of 16 families of spiders. Only 3 species (Pireneitega ovtchinnikovi, Cybaeus abchasicus, Tenuiphantes mengei were found in all surveyed habitats. These 3 species clearly tend to forest habitats. Herpetobiont araneofauna of the Northwest Caucasus characterized by high taxonomic diversity with clear predominance of representatives of the family Linyphiidae. Specificity of araneofauna in different types of plant communities is high.

  18. Soil Organic Matter and Soil Productivity: Searching for the Missing Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez

    1998-01-01

    Soil-organic matter (SOM) is a complex array of components including soil fauna and flora at different stages of decomposition (Berg et al., 1982). Its concentration in soils can vary from 0.5% in mineral soils to almost 100% in peat soils (Brady, 1974). Organic matter (OM) in the surface mineral soil is considered a major determinant of forest ecosystem productivity...

  19. Linking biosensor responses to Cd, Cu and Zn partitioning in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.J.C.; Campbell, C.D.; Towers, W.; Cameron, C.M.; Paton, G.I.

    2006-01-01

    Soils bind heavy metals according to fundamental physico-chemical parameters. Bioassays, using bacterial biosensors, were performed in pore waters extracted from 19 contrasting soils individually amended with Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations related to the EU Sewage Sludge Directive. The biosensors were responsive to pore waters extracted from Zn amended soils but less so to those of Cu and showed no toxicity to pore water Cd at these environmentally relevant amended concentrations. Across the range of soils, the solid-solution heavy metal partitioning coefficient (K d ) decreased (p d values. Gompertz functions of Cu and Zn, K d values against luminescence explained the relationship between heavy metals and biosensors. Consequently, biosensors provide a link between biologically defined hazard assessments of metals and standard soil-metal physico-chemical parameters for determining critical metal loadings in soils. - Biosensors link biological hazard assessments of metals in soils with physico-chemical partitioning

  20. Links between matrix bulk density, macropore characteristics and hydraulic behavior of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, Sheela; Møldrup, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    characteristics on soil hydraulic functions has rarely been studied. With the objective of studying the links between these parameters we quantified macropore characteristics of intact soil columns (19 cm diameter x 20 cm high) from two agricultural field sites (Silstrup and Faardrup) in Denmark using coarse...... resolution X-ray CT and linked them with laboratory measurements of air permeability and leaching experiment. In addition to macropore characteristics, we also quantified the CT-number of the matrix as a measure of the bulk density of the matrix, i.e., excluding macropores in the soil. Soils from the two...

  1. Soil as the Central Link in the Hydrological Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillel, D.

    2005-05-01

    We present an overview of the function fulfilled by the soil in the chain of processes constituting the hydrological cycle in the terrestrial domain. Considering the height of the atmosphere, the thickness of the earth's rock mantle, and the depth of the ocean, we note that the soil is amazingly thin -- typically not much more than one meter thick. Yet, with its sponge-like porosity, internal surface area, and finite capacities to absorb, store, and transmit water and solutes, the soil determines the fate of precipitation reaching the ground surface - whether it flows over the land as runoff, is detained and made available to plant roots, or seeps downward to an aquifer. Without the soil as a buffer, rainfall would produce violent floods rather than sustained stream-flow. The soil also acts as a living filter, in which dissolved and suspended constituents are retained or transmuted into nutrients for the continual regeneration of life. Energy as well as matter is in constant flux as solar radiation is absorbed by the soil and growing plants and as heat is exchanged in evaporation and condensation as well as in biochemical reactions. Plant leaves absorb carbon dioxide from the air and synthesize it with soil-derived water to form the primary compounds of life, while oxygen emitted by the leaves makes the air breathable for animals, which in turn fertilize the plants. However unique in form and function, the soil is not an isolated body but interacts with the overlying atmosphere and underlying strata, and with surface and underground bodies of water. Especially important is the interrelation between the soil and the climate, enhancing or mitigating the greenhouse effect via the soil's uptake or release of radiatively active gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). For all these reasons, it is vital that we give full consideration to the soil's role in the context of hydrology. The problem to overcome, however, is the disjunct between the characteristic

  2. Verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance as indicators for changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Soares, Tielle; Rossetto, Raffaella; van Veen, Johannes Antonie; Tsai, Siu Mui; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya

    2015-09-01

    Here we show that verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance are extremely sensitive to changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint and real-time quantitative PCR assay were used to analyze changes in verrucomicrobial communities associated with contrasting soil nutrient conditions in tropical regions. In case study Model I ("Slash-and-burn deforestation") the verrucomicrobial community structures revealed disparate patterns in nutrient-enriched soils after slash-and-burn deforestation and natural nutrient-poor soils under an adjacent primary forest in the Amazonia (R = 0.819, P = 0.002). The relative proportion of Verrucomicrobia declined in response to increased soil fertility after slash-and-burn deforestation, accounting on average, for 4 and 2 % of the total bacterial signal, in natural nutrient-poor forest soils and nutrient-enriched deforested soils, respectively. In case study Model II ("Management practices for sugarcane") disparate patterns were revealed in sugarcane rhizosphere sampled on optimal and deficient soil fertility for sugarcane (R = 0.786, P = 0.002). Verrucomicrobial community abundance in sugarcane rhizosphere was negatively correlated with soil fertility, accounting for 2 and 5 % of the total bacterial signal, under optimal and deficient soil fertility conditions for sugarcane, respectively. In nutrient-enriched soils, verrucomicrobial community structures were related to soil factors linked to soil fertility, such as total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sum of bases, i.e., the sum of calcium, magnesium and potassium contents. We conclude that community structure and abundance represent important ecological aspects in soil verrucomicrobial communities for tracking the changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility under tropical environmental conditions.

  3. ANALYSIS OF SOIL AND DUST SAMPLES FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in house dust and soil. Soil and house dust samples were analyzed for PCB by both gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and ELISA methods. A correlati...

  4. Linking spatial patterns of soil redistribution traced with 137Cs and soil nutrients in a Mediterranean mountain agroecosystem (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Laura; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2016-04-01

    fractions to analyze the SOC pool dynamics is presented in this study. A detailed field topographic survey and mapping of the spatial variability of soil properties and nutrient contents from soil analyses displayed similar spatial patterns of 137Cs and soil nutrients that also were directly and significantly correlated (p≤0.01). As much as 70% of the surface of the study field had lower values of 137Cs inventory indicating a predominance of soil loss linked to a generalized loss of soil nutrients. SOC gain was found in less than 1% of the study field and there was a large loss of SON compared to the undisturbed reference site. Higher and significant (p≤0.01) contents of soil nutrients were found in topsoil samples than in the bulk ones. Furthermore, there was an enrichment of the relative contribution of ACF to total SOC in sampling points where there was a 137Cs gain in both bulk and topsoil samples. Understanding patterns of soil nutrients can be useful for developing and implementing land management strategies to preserve soil quality in Mediterranean agricultural areas.

  5. Linking diagnostic features to soil microbial biomass and respiration in agricultural grassland soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, A.; Huallacháin, D.O.; Doyle, E.; Clipson, N.; Leeuwen, Van J.P.; Heuvelink, G.B.; Creamer, R.E.

    2018-01-01

    The functional potential of soil ecosystems can be predicted from the activity and abundance of the microbial community in relation to key soil properties. When describing microbial community dynamics, soil physicochemical properties have traditionally been used. The extent of correlations between

  6. Effects of irrigating poplar energy crops with landfill leachate on soil micro- and meso-fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; David R. Coyle; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese

    2009-01-01

    Increased municipal solid waste generated worldwide combined with substantial demand for renewable energy has prompted testing and deployment of woody feedstock production systems that reuse and recycle wastewaters as irrigation and fertilization for the trees. Populus species and hybrids (i.e., poplars) are ideal for such systems given their fast...

  7. Teaching About the Links Between Soils and Climate: An International Year of Soil Outreach by the Soil Science Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Soil scientists are well aware of the intimate links that exist between soils and climate, but the same is not always true of the broader population. In an attempt to help address this, the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) has designated the theme "Soils and Climate" for the month of November, 2015 as part of the SSSA International Year of Soil (IYS) celebration. The topic has been further subdivided into three subthemes: 1) carbon sequestration and greenhouse gases, 2) Soils and past environments, and 3) Desertification and drought. Each subtheme outreach has two parts 1) lesson plans that K-12 educators can use in their classrooms, and 2) materials that a trained soil scientist can present to the general public. Activities developed for the theme include classroom activities to accompany an online game that students can play to see how farm management choices influence greenhouse gas emissions, questions to go with a vermicomposting activity, and discussion session questions to go with a movie on the USA Dust Bowl. All materials are available online free of charge. The Soils and Climate materials can be found at https://www.soils.org/iys/12-month-resources/november; all of the SSSA IYS materials can be found at https://www.soils.org/iys.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative data concerning the edaphic mesofauna in the forest ecosystems from the middle section of the Prut riverside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂLUGĂR Adina

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the results of some researches devoted to the diversity of the edaphic mesofauna, with a view to estimate the effects induced by secondary aridization phenomenon. This study has been developed in the middle section of Prut riverside, in natural forests and forest plantations. It was realized a comparison between the natural habitats and those exposed to the drought phenomenon, because of their emplacement, out of the built dike. It has been analyzed four orders of mites (Oribatida, Gamasida, Actinedida and Acaridida and one order of insects (Collembola; we are taken into consideration other groups of microarthropods, too.

  9. Linking soil O2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations in a wetland soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Jensen, Louise Askær; Jørgensen, Christian Juncher

    2011-01-01

    and CH4 were measured in the laboratory during flooding of soil columns using a combination of planar O2 optodes and membrane inlet mass spectrometry. Microsensors were used to assess apparent diffusivity under both field and laboratory conditions. Gas concentration profiles were analyzed...... plants tissue on soil gas dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions following marked changes in water level....

  10. Manejo de soja transgênica com glifosato e imazetapir: efeito sobre a mesofauna e microbiota do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Dufech Castilhos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A estabilidade de diferentes organismos da mesofauna, como ácaros e colêmbolos, e a atividade microbiana do solo são indicadores de qualidade físico-química e biológica do solo. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de métodos de controle de plantas concorrentes sobre a qualidade do solo cultivado com soja transgênica. Neste contexto, foram cultivados dois genótipos de soja, geneticamente modificada (GMRR BRS 244 RR e não modificada (NM BRS 154, no Centro Agropecuário da Palma da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (CAP, nas safras de 2005/2006 e 2006/2007. Para o controle de plantas daninhas, testaram-se, tratamentos com glifosato, imazetapir e capina. Avaliaram-se populações de ácaros e colêmbolos, o carbono da biomassa microbiana, a respiração basal e o quociente metabólico do solo. Verificou-se que a aplicação dos herbicidas, principalmente de glifosato, em soja BRS 244 RR cultivada em Planossolo resultou em desestabilidade da mesofauna e maior atividade da biomassa microbiana.

  11. Soil arthropod fauna from natural ecosites and reclaimed oil sands soils in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battigelli, J.P.; Leskiw, L.A. [Paragon Soil and Environmental Consulting Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An understanding of soil invertebrates may facilitate current reclamation activities in the oil sands region of Alberta. This paper presented the results of a study investigating the density, diversity, and structure of soil arthropod assemblages in natural habitats and reclaimed sites. The purpose of the study was to establish a baseline inventory of soil arthropod assemblages in order to enable long-term monitoring of soil arthropod recolonization in disturbed sites. Nine natural ecosites were sampled for the study, including peat mix over secondary material over tailing sand; direct placement over tailing sand; peat mix over secondary over overburden; direct placement over overburden; peat mix over tailing sand; and peat mix over overburden. Samples were collected from previously established long-term soil and vegetation treatment plots in both natural ecosites and reclaimed soil sites located near Fort McMurray, Alberta. Results showed that densities of mesofauna were significantly higher in samples collected from natural ecosites. Acari and Collembola represented approximately 97 to 98 per cent of the fauna collected. It was also noted that the overall structure of the soil mesofauna community differed between natural soils and reclaimed soils. A significant reduction in the abundance of oribatid mites was observed in soils that had been reclaimed for over 34 years. Changes in the soil mesofauna community structure suggested that reclaimed soils continue to represent disturbed ecosites, as was indicated by higher proportions of prostigmatid mites and some collembolan families. Differences in community structure may influence soil ecosystem functions, including decomposition rates; nutrient recycling; soil structure; and fungal and bacterial biomass. It was concluded that further research is needed to examine oribatid mites and collembolan species diversity and community structure in reclaimed soils. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Soil ciliate bioassay for the pore water habitat. A missing link between microflora and earthworm testing in soil toxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, A. [Lab. for Ecotoxicology, Univ. of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Jakl, T. [Chemicals Policy Unit, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, Vienna (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    Background, Scope and Goal. The chemical, pesticide and biocide legislation of the European Union assembles a variety of bioassays. Among the ecotoxicological tests involved, the testing strategy for the aquatic compartment builds up on three tests reflecting the main trophic levels (algae, Daphnia, fish). For the soil compartment at least one trophic level for a basic food chain is missing, namely between microflora and earthworms. Protozoa are an ideal missing link as they were shown to be the most prominent faunal contributors to nutrient cycling in soil ecosystems and as they represent the lacking first level consumers as well as the highly diverse microfauna. As protozoa inhabit the soil pore water, they can serve as direct indicators for the solved and thus bioavailable portion of xenobiotics. In order to widen the spectrum of available toxicity tests for a meaningful effect assessment for the soil compartment, a test with the soil ciliate Colpoda inflata (Ciliophora, Protozoa), introduced by Pratt et al. (1997), was improved. Methods. The novel improvements comprise a substantially refined inoculation and counting procedure, as well as the adaptation to yeast as a nutritional source. The test was designed to be rapid and easy to perform, in order to have both a higher degree of standardisation and reproducibility, as well as to be in compliance with international test guidelines. Results and Discussion. Five test substances, cadmium chloride, potassium dichromate, acetone, atrazine, and metolachlor, were used in single-compound, static, short-term exposure (24 h, 48 h) tests to examine the effect on the population growth of C. inflata. The median effective concentrations (EC50) were 0.17 to 0.26 mg/l for Cd, 34 to 63 mg/l for Cr, >3000 mg/l for acetone, 91-112 mg/l for atrazine and 83-119 mg/l for metolachlor. The equilibrium partitioning approach was used to extrapolate the results to total soil exposure and thus enable a sensitivity comparison to

  13. Link 'soil-plant' as critical in formation committed doses from uptake of long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravetz, A. P.; Pavlenko, Y. A.; Grodzinsky, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    General algorithm of calculation dose from intake 137 Cs and 90 Sr depending upon level of pollution and agrochemical type of soil where trophycal chains to begin with, have been proposed. This methods consider link 'soil → plant' as critical in formation of doses from the intake long-lived radionuclides. Calculation of committed dose as function of type of soil and level of radionuclide pollution have been realized for seven main soil types of the White Russian and Ukrainian Wooded district. (author)

  14. Linking variability in soil solution dissolved organic carbon to climate, soil type, and vegetation type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camino-Serrano, Marta; Gielen, Bert; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Ciais, Philippe; Vicca, Sara; Guenet, Bertrand; Vos, Bruno De; Cools, Nathalie; Ahrens, Bernhard; Altaf Arain, M.; Borken, Werner; Clarke, Nicholas; Clarkson, Beverley; Cummins, Thomas; Don, Axel; Pannatier, Elisabeth Graf; Laudon, Hjalmar; Moore, Tim; Nieminen, Tiina M.; Nilsson, Mats B.; Peichl, Matthias; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Siemens, Jan; Janssens, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Lateral transport of carbon plays an important role in linking the carbon cycles of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. There is, however, a lack of information on the factors controlling one of the main C sources of this lateral flux, i.e., the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in

  15. Soil stabilization linked to plant diversity and environmental context in coastal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Hilary; Garbutt, Angus; Ladd, Cai; Malarkey, Jonathan; Skov, Martin W

    2016-03-01

    Plants play a pivotal role in soil stabilization, with above-ground vegetation and roots combining to physically protect soil against erosion. It is possible that diverse plant communities boost root biomass, with knock-on positive effects for soil stability, but these relationships are yet to be disentangled. We hypothesize that soil erosion rates fall with increased plant species richness, and test explicitly how closely root biomass is associated with plant diversity. We tested this hypothesis in salt marsh grasslands, dynamic ecosystems with a key role in flood protection. Using step-wise regression, the influences of biotic (e.g. plant diversity) and abiotic variables on root biomass and soil stability were determined for salt marshes with two contrasting soil types: erosion-resistant clay (Essex, southeast UK) and erosion-prone sand (Morecambe Bay, northwest UK). A total of 132 (30-cm depth) cores of natural marsh were extracted and exposed to lateral erosion by water in a re-circulating flume. Soil erosion rates fell with increased plant species richness ( R 2  = 0.55), when richness was modelled as a single explanatory variable, but was more important in erosion-prone ( R 2  = 0.44) than erosion-resistant ( R 2  = 0.18) regions. As plant species richness increased from two to nine species·m -2 , the coefficient of variation in soil erosion rate decreased significantly ( R 2  = 0.92). Plant species richness was a significant predictor of root biomass ( R 2  = 0.22). Step-wise regression showed that five key variables accounted for 80% of variation in soil erosion rate across regions. Clay-silt fraction and soil carbon stock were linked to lower rates, contributing 24% and 31%, respectively, to variation in erosion rate. In regional analysis, abiotic factors declined in importance, with root biomass explaining 25% of variation. Plant diversity explained 12% of variation in the erosion-prone sandy region. Our study indicates that soil stabilization

  16. Characterization and effects of cross-linked potassium polyacrylate as soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Gómez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Falta palabras clave Cross-linked potassium polyacrylate (Luquasorb®1280R) is a granular anionic superabsorbent polymer with the ability to absorb large amounts of water. The objectives of this study were the physicochemical characterization of the material and its effects when used as soil amendment together with the evaluation of the impact on agronomical parameters when it was applied to processing varieties of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown under Mediterranean climate condit...

  17. Estimating soil water-holding capacities by linking the Food and Agriculture Organization Soil map of the world with global pedon databases and continuous pedotransfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C. A.; Jackson, T. J.; Rawls, W. J.

    2000-12-01

    Spatial soil water-holding capacities were estimated for the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) digital Soil Map of the World (SMW) by employing continuous pedotransfer functions (PTF) within global pedon databases and linking these results to the SMW. The procedure first estimated representative soil properties for the FAO soil units by statistical analyses and taxotransfer depth algorithms [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 1996]. The representative soil properties estimated for two layers of depths (0-30 and 30-100 cm) included particle-size distribution, dominant soil texture, organic carbon content, coarse fragments, bulk density, and porosity. After representative soil properties for the FAO soil units were estimated, these values were substituted into three different pedotransfer functions (PTF) models by Rawls et al. [1982], Saxton et al. [1986], and Batjes [1996a]. The Saxton PTF model was finally selected to calculate available water content because it only required particle-size distribution data and results closely agreed with the Rawls and Batjes PTF models that used both particle-size distribution and organic matter data. Soil water-holding capacities were then estimated by multiplying the available water content by the soil layer thickness and integrating over an effective crop root depth of 1 m or less (i.e., encountered shallow impermeable layers) and another soil depth data layer of 2.5 m or less.

  18. Link 'soil-plant' as critical in formation committed doses from uptake of long-lived radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravetz, A P; Pavlenko, Y A; Grodzinsky, D M [Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering AS Vasilcovsky st 31/17, Kiev 252022 (Ukraine)

    1994-11-01

    General algorithm of calculation dose from intake {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr depending upon level of pollution and agrochemical type of soil where trophycal chains to begin with, have been proposed. This methods consider link 'soil {yields} plant' as critical in formation of doses from the intake long-lived radionuclides. Calculation of committed dose as function of type of soil and level of radionuclide pollution have been realized for seven main soil types of the White Russian and Ukrainian Wooded district. (author)

  19. Differential contribution of soil biota groups to plant litter decomposition as mediated by soil use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Liliana B.; Sandler, Rosana V.; Coviella, Carlos E.

    2015-01-01

    Plant decomposition is dependant on the activity of the soil biota and its interactions with climate, soil properties, and plant residue inputs. This work assessed the roles of different groups of the soil biota on litter decomposition, and the way they are modulated by soil use. Litterbags of different mesh sizes for the selective exclusion of soil fauna by size (macro, meso, and microfauna) were filled with standardized dried leaves and placed on the same soil under different use intensities: naturalized grasslands, recent agriculture, and intensive agriculture fields. During five months, litterbags of each mesh size were collected once a month per system with five replicates. The remaining mass was measured and decomposition rates calculated. Differences were found for the different biota groups, and they were dependant on soil use. Within systems, the results show that in the naturalized grasslands, the macrofauna had the highest contribution to decomposition. In the recent agricultural system it was the combined activity of the macro- and mesofauna, and in the intensive agricultural use it was the mesofauna activity. These results underscore the relative importance and activity of the different groups of the edaphic biota and the effects of different soil uses on soil biota activity. PMID:25780777

  20. Differential contribution of soil biota groups to plant litter decomposition as mediated by soil use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Castro-Huerta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant decomposition is dependant on the activity of the soil biota and its interactions with climate, soil properties, and plant residue inputs. This work assessed the roles of different groups of the soil biota on litter decomposition, and the way they are modulated by soil use. Litterbags of different mesh sizes for the selective exclusion of soil fauna by size (macro, meso, and microfauna were filled with standardized dried leaves and placed on the same soil under different use intensities: naturalized grasslands, recent agriculture, and intensive agriculture fields. During five months, litterbags of each mesh size were collected once a month per system with five replicates. The remaining mass was measured and decomposition rates calculated. Differences were found for the different biota groups, and they were dependant on soil use. Within systems, the results show that in the naturalized grasslands, the macrofauna had the highest contribution to decomposition. In the recent agricultural system it was the combined activity of the macro- and mesofauna, and in the intensive agricultural use it was the mesofauna activity. These results underscore the relative importance and activity of the different groups of the edaphic biota and the effects of different soil uses on soil biota activity.

  1. Modelling soil nitrogen: The MAGIC model with nitrogen retention linked to carbon turnover using decomposer dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oulehle, F.; Cosby, B.J.; Wright, R.F.; Hruška, J.; Kopáček, J.; Krám, P.; Evans, C.D.; Moldan, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new formulation of the acidification model MAGIC that uses decomposer dynamics to link nitrogen (N) cycling to carbon (C) turnover in soils. The new model is evaluated by application to 15–30 years of water chemistry data at three coniferous-forested sites in the Czech Republic where deposition of sulphur (S) and N have decreased by >80% and 40%, respectively. Sulphate concentrations in waters have declined commensurately with S deposition, but nitrate concentrations have shown much larger decreases relative to N deposition. This behaviour is inconsistent with most conceptual models of N saturation, and with earlier versions of MAGIC which assume N retention to be a first-order function of N deposition and/or controlled by the soil C/N ratio. In comparison with earlier versions, the new formulation more correctly simulates observed short-term changes in nitrate leaching, as well as long-term retention of N in soils. The model suggests that, despite recent deposition reductions and recovery, progressive N saturation will lead to increased future nitrate leaching, ecosystem eutrophication and re-acidification. - Highlights: ► New version of the biogeochemical model MAGIC developed to simulate C/N dynamics. ► New formulation of N retention based directly on the decomposer processes. ► The new formulation simulates observed changes in nitrate leaching and in soil C/N. ► The model suggests progressive N saturation at sites examined. ► The model performance meets a growing need for realistic process-based simulations. - Process-based modelling of nitrogen dynamics and acidification in forest ecosystems.

  2. Phytotoxicity of trace metals in spiked and field-contaminated soils: Linking soil-extractable metals with toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamels, Fanny; Malevé, Jasmina; Sonnet, Philippe; Kleja, Dan Berggren; Smolders, Erik

    2014-11-01

    Soil tests have been widely developed to predict trace metal uptake by plants. The prediction of metal toxicity, however, has rarely been tested. The present study was set up to compare 8 established soil tests for diagnosing phytotoxicity in contaminated soils. Nine soils contaminated with Zn or Cu by metal mining, smelting, or processing were collected. Uncontaminated reference soils with similar soil properties were sampled, and series of increasing contamination were created by mixing each with the corresponding soil. In addition, each reference soil was spiked with either ZnCl2 or CuCl2 at several concentrations. Total metal toxicity to barley seedling growth in the field-contaminated soils was up to 30 times lower than that in corresponding spiked soils. Total metal (aqua regia-soluble) toxicity thresholds of 50% effective concentrations (EC50) varied by factors up to 260 (Zn) or 6 (Cu) among soils. For Zn, variations in EC50 thresholds decreased as aqua regia > 0.43 M HNO3  > 0.05 M ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) > 1 M NH4 NO3  > cobaltihexamine > diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) > 0.001 M CaCl2 , suggesting that the last extraction is the most robust phytotoxicity index for Zn. The EDTA extraction was the most robust for Cu-contaminated soils. The isotopically exchangeable fraction of the total soil metal in the field-contaminated soils markedly explained the lower toxicity compared with spiked soils. The isotope exchange method can be used to translate soil metal limits derived from soils spiked with metal salts to site-specific soil metal limits. © 2014 SETAC.

  3. Cyanobacterial crusts linked to soil productivity under different grazing management practices in Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alchin, Bruce; Williams, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    sites. Nitrogen fixation rates were significantly higher in the wet season samples compared to the dry season. Rates of nitrogen fixation, mineralisable nitrogen and cyanobacterial biomass were comparative to other studies both in Australia and globally. Eleven of the twelve sites had higher plant-available (mineralisable) nitrogen in the 0-1 cm depth compared to the 1-5 cm depth. Nitrogen isotopes showed that the nitrogen concentration found in the surface soils (0-1 cm) from five sites originated from cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation. At the remaining sites the isotopic signatures were slightly more positive, indicative of fractionation. The results have substantiated the link between cyanobacteria and their contribution to carbon and nitrogen cycling across the northern Australian rangelands. The data also highlights the variability between sites and management practices that influence biogeochemical processes that affect soil productivity.

  4. Biodegradation of the cross-linked copolymer of acrylamide and potassium acrylate by soil bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksińska, Małgorzata P; Magnucka, Elżbieta G; Lejcuś, Krzysztof; Pietr, Stanisław J

    2016-03-01

    Chemical cross-linking and the high molecular weight of superabsorbent copolymers (SAPs) are the two main causes of their resistance to biodegradation. However, SAP particles are colonized by microorganisms. For the purposes of this study, the dry technical copolymer of acrylamide and potassium acrylate containing 5.28 % of unpolymerized monomers was wrapped in a geotextile and incubated in unsterile Haplic Luvisol soil as a water absorbing geocomposite. The highest number of soil bacteria that colonized the hydrated SAP and utilized it as the sole carbon and energy source was found after the first month of incubation in soil. It was equal to 7.21-7.49 log10 cfu g(-1) of water absorbed by the SAP and decreased by 1.35-1.61 log10 units within the next 8 months. During this time, the initial SAP water holding capacity of 1665.8 g has decreased by 24.40 %. Moreover, the 5 g of SAP dry mass has declined by 31.70 %. Two bacteria, Rhizobium radiobacter 28SG and Bacillus aryabhattai 31SG isolated from the watered SAP were found to be able to biodegrade this SAP in pure cultures. They destroyed 25.07 and 41.85 mg of 300 mg of the technical SAP during the 60-day growth in mineral Burk's salt medium, and biodegradation activity was equal to 2.95 and 6.72 μg of SAP μg(-1) of protein, respectively. B. aryabhattai 31SG and R. radiobacter 28SG were also able to degrade 9.99 and 29.70 mg of 82 mg of the ultra-pure SAP in synthetic root exudate medium during the 30-day growth, respectively.

  5. High Energy Moisture Characteristics: Linking Between Soil Physical Processes and Structure Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water storage and flow in soils is usually complicated by the intricate nature of and changes in soil pore size distribution (PSD) due to modifications in soil structure following changes in agricultural management. The paper presents the Soil High Energy Moisture Characteristic (Soil-HEMC) method f...

  6. "Interred with their bones" - linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to unlock the hidden archive of archaeological human burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothwell, Don; Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Keely, Brendan; Pickering, Matt; Wilson, Clare

    2010-05-01

    "Interred with their bones" Acronym: InterArChive - an ERC-funded project *** " Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; " I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. " The evil that men do lives after them; " The good is oft 'interred with their bones'; " So let it be with Caesar. William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act III, Scene 2. *** Background The state of decay within soils in archaeological graves is often such that degradable objects are not preserved in a condition that can be visually recognised. However, microscopic soil features, inorganic element distributions and organic residues can be measured. Thus, archaeological burial soils have the potential to reveal signatures of decay; pre-burial treatment; presence and nature of associated clothing and perishable artefacts; diet of the individual; cause of death; evidence of morbidity and drug-use. Aims • To develop and test a multidisciplinary approach linking soil micromorphology and chemistry to recover environmental and cultural information; • Revealing the hidden archaeological archive within the burial soil • Developing soil sampling and analysis recommendations for archaeological human burials Methods 1: Sampling and soil field description from archaeological sites contrasting in soil, geology, age, and culture and from experimental piglet burials 2: Microscopic/micromorphological analysis (micro-scale observations) of remains and features in burial soils. We will establish the order of occurrence, spatial patterns, displacement, mode of formation and decay of micromorphological features including exotic components, parasites, hair and remnants of footwear and clothing [cf. pilot study of soils from Yemen]; microfabrics and textural pedofeatures, also to facilitate resolution of body decay products from other accumulations. 3: Microprobe analysis (nano-scale) will generate elemental maps of soil thin sections, allowing identification of features with distinct chemical signatures

  7. Linking the composition of bacterial and archaeal communities to characteristics of soil and flora composition in the Atlantic rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima-Perim, Julia Elidia; Romagnoli, Emiliana Manesco; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Durrer, Ademir; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2016-01-01

    The description of microbiomes as intrinsic fractions of any given ecosystem is an important issue, for instance, by linking their compositions and functions with other biotic and abiotic components of natural systems and hosts. Here we describe the archaeal and bacterial communities from soils of

  8. Underestimation of soil carbon stocks by Yasso07, Q, and CENTURY models in boreal forest linked to overlooking site fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ťupek, Boris; Ortiz, Carina; Hashimoto, Shoji; Stendahl, Johan; Dahlgren, Jonas; Karltun, Erik; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    The soil organic carbon stock (SOC) changes estimated by the most process based soil carbon models (e.g. Yasso07, Q and CENTURY), needed for reporting of changes in soil carbon amounts for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and for mitigation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions by soil carbon management, can be biased if in a large mosaic of environments the models are missing a key factor driving SOC sequestration. To our knowledge soil nutrient status as a missing driver of these models was not tested in previous studies. Although, it's known that models fail to reconstruct the spatial variation and that soil nutrient status drives the ecosystem carbon use efficiency and soil carbon sequestration. We evaluated SOC stock estimates of Yasso07, Q and CENTURY process based models against the field data from Swedish Forest Soil National Inventories (3230 samples) organized by recursive partitioning method (RPART) into distinct soil groups with underlying SOC stock development linked to physicochemical conditions. These models worked for most soils with approximately average SOC stocks, but could not reproduce higher measured SOC stocks in our application. The Yasso07 and Q models that used only climate and litterfall input data and ignored soil properties generally agreed with two third of measurements. However, in comparison with measurements grouped according to the gradient of soil nutrient status we found that the models underestimated for the Swedish boreal forest soils with higher site fertility. Accounting for soil texture (clay, silt, and sand content) and structure (bulk density) in CENTURY model showed no improvement on carbon stock estimates, as CENTURY deviated in similar manner. We highlighted the mechanisms why models deviate from the measurements and the ways of considering soil nutrient status in further model development. Our analysis suggested that the models indeed lack other predominat drivers of SOC stabilization

  9. Linking air and water transport in intact soils to macropore characteristics inferred from X-ray computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, S.; Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Soil macropores often control fluid flow and solute transport, and quantification of macropore characteristics including their variability in space and time are essential to predict soil hydraulic and hydrogeochemical functions. In this study, measurements of air and solute transport properties...... and direct macropore visualization by X-ray CT scanning were carried out on 17 large (19-cm diam.; 20-cm length) undisturbed soil columns sampled across a field site (Silstrup, Denmark) with natural gradients in texture and density. Air permeability (ka) at in-situ water content and -20 hPa of matric......-porosity, suggesting that density is the main control of functional soil structure and gas and solute transport at the Silstrup site. Linking gas transport and chemical tracer experiments with X-ray CT based visualization and quantification of macro-porosity was found to be a powerful method to understand field scale...

  10. Physical soil architectural traits are functionally linked to carbon decomposition and bacterial diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, S. M. F.; Daniel, H.; Lockwood, P. V.; MacDonald, C.; Pereg, L.; Tighe, M.; Wilson, B. R.; Young, I. M.

    2016-09-01

    Aggregates play a key role in protecting soil organic carbon (SOC) from microbial decomposition. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of pore geometry on the organic carbon decomposition rate and bacterial diversity in both macro- (250-2000 μm) and micro-aggregates (53-250 μm) using field samples. Four sites of contrasting land use on Alfisols (i.e. native pasture, crop/pasture rotation, woodland) were investigated. 3D Pore geometry of the micro-aggregates and macro-aggregates were examined by X-ray computed tomography (μCT). The occluded particulate organic carbon (oPOC) of aggregates was measured by size and density fractionation methods. Micro-aggregates had 54% less μCT observed porosity but 64% more oPOC compared with macro-aggregates. In addition, the pore connectivity in micro-aggregates was lower than macro-aggregates. Despite both lower μCT observed porosity and pore connectivity in micro-aggregates, the organic carbon decomposition rate constant (Ksoc) was similar in both aggregate size ranges. Structural equation modelling showed a strong positive relationship of the concentration of oPOC with bacterial diversity in aggregates. We use these findings to propose a conceptual model that illustrates the dynamic links between substrate, bacterial diversity, and pore geometry that suggests a structural explanation for differences in bacterial diversity across aggregate sizes.

  11. Linking Soil Physical Parameters Along a Density Gradient in a Loess-Soil Long-Term Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eden, Marie; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    It is important to understand the impact of texture and organic carbon (OC) on soil structure development. Only few studies investigated this for silt-dominated soils. In this study, soil physical properties were determined on samples from a controlled experiment (Static Fertilization Experiment...... hydraulic conductivity. The management resulted in a distinct gradient in OC. A bulk density gradient developed from differences in amount of clay not complexed with OC. This gradient in bulk density mainly affected content of pores larger than 3 [mu]m. The air-connected porosity measured by a pycnometer...

  12. LORICA - A new model for linking landscape and soil profile evolution: Development and sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.; Vanwalleghem, T.

    2016-01-01

    Soils and landscapes evolve in tandem. Landscape position is a strong determinant of vertical soil development, which has often been formalized in the catena concept. At the same time, soil properties are strong determinants of geomorphic processes such as overland erosion, landsliding and creep. We

  13. Linking measurements of biodegradability, thermal stability and chemical composition to evaluate the effects of management on soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorich, Ed; Gillespie, Adam; Beare, Mike; Curtin, Denis; Sanei, Hamed; Yanni, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    The stability of soil organic matter (SOM) as it relates to resistance to microbial degradation has important implications for nutrient cycling, emission of greenhouse gases, and C sequestration. Hence, there is interest in developing new ways to accurately quantify and characterise the labile and stable forms of soil organic C. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate and describe relationships among the biodegradability, thermal stability and chemistry of SOM in soil under widely contrasting management regimes. Samples from the same soil under permanent pasture, an arable cropping rotation, and chemical fallow were fractionated (sand: 2000-50 μm; silt: 50-5 μm, and clay: managements and that sand-associated organic matter was significantly more susceptible than that in the silt or clay fractions. Analysis by XANES showed accumulation of carboxylates and strong depletion of amides (protein) and aromatics in the fallow whole soil. Moreover, protein depletion was most significant in the sand fraction of the fallow soil. Sand fractions in fallow and cropped soils were, however, enriched in plant-derived phenols, aromatics and carboxylates compared to the sand fraction of pasture soils. In contrast, ketones, which have been identified as products of microbially-processed organic matter, were slightly enriched in the silt fraction of the pasture soil. These data suggest reduced inputs and cropping restrict the decomposition of plant residues and, without supplemental N additions, protein-N in native SOM is significantly mineralized in fallow systems to meet microbial C mineralization demands. Analytical pyrolysis showed distinct differences in the thermal stability of SOM among the size fractions and management treatments; it also showed that the loss of SOM generally involved dehydrogenation. The temperature at which half of the C was pyrolyzed showed strong correlation with mineralizable C and thus provides solid evidence for a link between the biological and

  14. Molecular distributions of phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids in a soil profile of the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyi Mao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA were used to investigate the microbial ecology and its association with carbon accumulation in one soil profile from the Dinghushan Biosphere Preserve in south China, in order to probe the mechanisms that control the carbon accumulation at the depth of 0 - 20 cm in the Dinghushan forest soil profile. The data show that sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB occur in the top 10 cm, and methanotrophic bacteria and fungi are not present below 10 cm, and the gram-negative bacteria are reduced with gram-positive bacteria dominating at that depth; all of which indicated that the activities of some of the microorganisms were inhibited, from which we infer that the available carbon source and oxygen content of micro environment may be reduced below 10 cm of the profile. The shallow depth (top 10 cm of the soil anaerobic zone at the Wukesong profile, compared to the normal soil anaerobic zone (top 20 - 30 cm, is considered to be mainly the result of the high precipitation of acidic rain. The physicochemical reactions caused by acid rain in the soil system result in a decreased soil porosity, and a correspondingly decreased porosity-dependent oxygen concentration, leading to the thriving of SRB in the shallow depth. Although the increase of soil organic carbon stock is attributed to numerous factors, the decreasing rate of litter decomposition in the topsoil layer, together with the rise of the depth of the anaerobic zone, may play key roles in the carbon accumulation in the depth of 0 - 20 cm in the soil profile from the Dinghushan Biosphere Preserve.

  15. Trophic position of soil nematodes in boreal forests as indicated by stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrin, Alexey; Tsurikov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Despite the well-developed trophic classification of soil nematodes, their position in soil food webs is still little understood. Observed deviations from the typical feeding strategy indicate that a simplified trophic classification probably does not fully reflect actual trophic interactions. Furthermore, the extent and functional significance of nematodes as prey for other soil animals remains unknown. Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is powerful tool for investigating the structure of soil food webs, but its application to the study of soil nematodes has been limited to only a few studies. We used stable isotope analysis to gain a better understanding of trophic links of several groups of soil nematodes in two boreal forests on albeluvisol. We investigated four taxonomic groups of nematodes: Mononchida, Dorylaimida, Plectidae and Tylenchidae (mostly from the genus Filenchus), that according to the conventional trophic classification represent predators, omnivores, bacterivores and root-fungal feeders, respectively. To assess the trophic position of nematodes, we used a comparison against a set of reference species including herbivorous, saprophagous and predatory macro-invertebrates, oribatid and mesostigmatid mites, and collembolans. Our results suggest that trophic position of the investigated groups of soil nematodes generally corresponds to the conventional classification. All nematodes were enriched in 13C relative to Picea abies roots and litter, and mycorrhizal fungal mycelium. Root-fungal feeders Tylenchidae had δ15N values similar to those of earthworms, enchytraeids and Entomobrya collembolans, but slightly lower δ13C values. Bacterivorous Plectidae were either equal or enriched in 15N compared with saprophagous macroinvertebrates and most mesofauna species. Omnivorous Dorylaimida and predatory Mononchida were further enriched in 15N and their isotopic signature was similar to that of predatory arthropods. These data confirm a clear separation of

  16. Linking soil type and rainfall characteristics towards estimation of surface evaporative capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, D.; Bickel, S.; Lehmann, P.

    2017-12-01

    Separation of evapotranspiration (ET) to evaporation (E) and transpiration (T) components for attribution of surface fluxes or for assessment of isotope fractionation in groundwater remains a challenge. Regional estimates of soil evaporation often rely on plant-based (Penman-Monteith) ET estimates where is E is obtained as a residual or a fraction of potential evaporation. We propose a novel method for estimating E from soil-specific properties, regional rainfall characteristics and considering concurrent internal drainage that shelters soil water from evaporation. A soil-dependent evaporative characteristic length defines a depth below which soil water cannot be pulled to the surface by capillarity; this depth determines the maximal soil evaporative capacitance (SEC). The SEC is recharged by rainfall and subsequently emptied by competition between drainage and surface evaporation (considering canopy interception evaporation). We show that E is strongly dependent on rainfall characteristics (mean annual, number of storms) and soil textural type, with up to 50% of rainfall lost to evaporation in loamy soil. The SEC concept applied to different soil types and climatic regions offers direct bounds on regional surface evaporation independent of plant-based parameterization or energy balance calculations.

  17. Potential Carbon Transport: Linking Soil Aggregate Stability and Sediment Enrichment for Updating the Soil Active Layer within Intensely Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacha, K.; Papanicolaou, T.; Abban, B. K.; Wilson, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    Currently, many biogeochemical models lack the mechanistic capacity to accurately simulate soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics, especially within intensely managed landscapes (IMLs) such as those found in the U.S. Midwest. These modeling limitations originate by not accounting for downslope connectivity of flowpathways initiated and governed by landscape processes and hydrologic forcing, which induce dynamic updates to the soil active layer (generally top 20-30cm of soil) with various sediment size fractions and aggregates being transported and deposited along the downslope. These hydro-geomorphic processes, often amplified in IMLs by tillage events and seasonal canopy, can greatly impact biogeochemical cycles (e.g., enhanced mineralization during aggregate breakdown) and in turn, have huge implications/uncertainty when determining SOC budgets. In this study, some of these limitations were addressed through a new concept, Potential Carbon Transport (PCT), a term which quantifies a maximum amount of material available for transport at various positions of the landscape, which was used to further refine a coupled modeling framework focused on SOC redistribution through downslope/lateral connectivity. Specifically, the size fractions slaked from large and small aggregates during raindrop-induced aggregate stability tests were used in conjunction with rainfall-simulated sediment enrichment ratio (ER) experiments to quantify the PCT under various management practices, soil types and landscape positions. Field samples used in determining aggregate stability and the ER experiments were collected/performed within the historic Clear Creek Watershed, home of the IML Critical Zone Observatory, located in Southeastern Iowa.

  18. Linking the Composition of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities to Characteristics of Soil and Flora Composition in the Atlantic Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Perim, Julia Elidia; Romagnoli, Emiliana Manesco; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Durrer, Ademir; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2016-01-01

    The description of microbiomes as intrinsic fractions of any given ecosystem is an important issue, for instance, by linking their compositions and functions with other biotic and abiotic components of natural systems and hosts. Here we describe the archaeal and bacterial communities from soils of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Based on the comparison of three areas located along an altitudinal gradient—namely, Santa Virginia, Picinguaba and Restinga—we detected the most abundant groups of Bacteria (Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria) and Archaea (Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota). The particular composition of such communities in each of these areas was first evidenced by PCR-DGGE patterns [determined for Bacteria, Archaea and ammonia-oxidizing organisms—ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB)]. Moreover, sequence-based analysis provided a better resolution of communities, which indicated distinct frequencies of archaeal phyla and bacterial OTUs across areas. We found, as indicated by the Mantel test and multivariate analyses, a potential effect of the flora composition that outpaces the effect of soil characteristics (either physical and chemical) influencing the assembly of these microbial communities in soils. Our results indicate a collective role of the ecosystem underlying observed differences in microbial communities in these soils. Particularly, we posit that rainforest preservation also needs to take into account the maintenance of the soil biodiversity, as this is prompted to influence major processes that affect ecosystem functioning. PMID:26752633

  19. Linking the Composition of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities to Characteristics of Soil and Flora Composition in the Atlantic Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Perim, Julia Elidia; Romagnoli, Emiliana Manesco; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Durrer, Ademir; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2016-01-01

    The description of microbiomes as intrinsic fractions of any given ecosystem is an important issue, for instance, by linking their compositions and functions with other biotic and abiotic components of natural systems and hosts. Here we describe the archaeal and bacterial communities from soils of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Based on the comparison of three areas located along an altitudinal gradient-namely, Santa Virginia, Picinguaba and Restinga-we detected the most abundant groups of Bacteria (Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria) and Archaea (Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota). The particular composition of such communities in each of these areas was first evidenced by PCR-DGGE patterns [determined for Bacteria, Archaea and ammonia-oxidizing organisms-ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB)]. Moreover, sequence-based analysis provided a better resolution of communities, which indicated distinct frequencies of archaeal phyla and bacterial OTUs across areas. We found, as indicated by the Mantel test and multivariate analyses, a potential effect of the flora composition that outpaces the effect of soil characteristics (either physical and chemical) influencing the assembly of these microbial communities in soils. Our results indicate a collective role of the ecosystem underlying observed differences in microbial communities in these soils. Particularly, we posit that rainforest preservation also needs to take into account the maintenance of the soil biodiversity, as this is prompted to influence major processes that affect ecosystem functioning.

  20. Root biomass and exudates link plant diversity with soil bacterial and fungal biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Lanoue, Arnaud; Strecker, Tanja; Scheu, Stefan; Steinauer, Katja; Thakur, Madhav P.; Mommer, Liesje

    2017-01-01

    Plant diversity has been shown to determine the composition and functioning of soil biota. Although root-derived organic inputs are discussed as the main drivers of soil communities, experimental evidence is scarce. While there is some evidence that higher root biomass at high plant diversity

  1. Linking organic carbon, water content and nitrous oxide emission in a reclaimed coal mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure-based organic amendments can restore soil quality and allow for intensive sustained biomass production on degraded lands. However the large quantities of nitrogen and organic carbon added with such amendments could create soil conditions favorable for nitrous oxide production and emissions. T...

  2. Linking Soil Microbial Ecology to Ecosystem Functioning in Integrated Crop-Livestock Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhanced soil stability, nutrient cycling and C sequestration potential are important ecosystem functions driven by soil microbial processes and are directly influenced by agricultural management. Integrated crop-livestock agroecosystems (ICL) can enhance these functions via high-residue returning c...

  3. Linking aboveground net primary productivity to soil carbon and dissolved organic carbon in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.S. Peterson; K. Lajtha

    2013-01-01

    Factors influencing soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content in complex terrain, where vegetation, climate, and topography vary over the scale of a few meters, are not well understood. We examined the spatial correlations of lidar and geographic information system-derived landscape topography, empirically measured soil...

  4. Data from: Root biomass and exudates link plant diversity with soil bacterial and fungal biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Strecker, Tanja; Lanoue, Arnaud; Scheu, Stefan; Steinauer, Katja; Thakur, Madhav P.; Mommer, L.

    2017-01-01

    Plant diversity has been shown to determine the composition and functioning of soil biota. Although root-derived organic inputs are discussed as the main drivers of soil communities, experimental evidence is scarce. While there is some evidence that higher root biomass at high plant diversity

  5. Plant biomass increase linked to biological activity in soils amended with sewage sludge compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez-Burgos, A.; Lopez-Lopez, G.; Vera, J.; Rovira, J. M.; Reolid, C.; Sastre-Conde, I.

    2009-01-01

    Sewage sludge compost application to almond tree plantations presents a potential management alternative to combat soil mismanagement in Mediterranean areas where almonds are grown. this practice could also be used to restore vegetable biomass to soils which are not fertile enough to support other crops, as well as to fight climatic change. (Author)

  6. Plant biomass increase linked to biological activity in soils amended with sewage sludge compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez-Burgos, A.; Lopez-Lopez, G.; Vera, J.; Rovira, J. M.; Reolid, C.; Sastre-Conde, I.

    2009-07-01

    Sewage sludge compost application to almond tree plantations presents a potential management alternative to combat soil mismanagement in Mediterranean areas where almonds are grown. this practice could also be used to restore vegetable biomass to soils which are not fertile enough to support other crops, as well as to fight climatic change. (Author)

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bioavailability in industrial and agricultural soils: Linking SPME and Tenax extraction with bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meixia; Gong, Zongqiang; Li, Xiaojun; Allinson, Graeme; Rookes, James; Cahill, David

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in industrial and agricultural soils using chemical methods and a bioassay, and to study the relationships between the methods. This was conducted by comparing the quantities of PAHs extracted from two manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils and an agricultural soil with low level contamination by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and Tenax-TA extraction with the quantities taken up by the earthworm (Eisenia fetida). In addition, a biodegradation experiment was conducted on one MGP soil (MGP-A) to clarify the relationship between PAH removal by biodegradation and the variation in PAH concentrations in soil pore water. Results demonstrated that the earthworm bioassay could not be used to examine PAH bioavailability in the tested MGP soils; which was the case even in the diluted MGP-A soils after biodegradation. However, the bioassay was successfully applied to the agricultural soil. These results suggest that earthworms can only be used for bioassays in soils with low toxicity. In general, rapidly desorbing concentrations extracted by Tenax-TA could predict PAH concentrations accumulated in earthworms (R 2 =0.66), while SPME underestimated earthworm concentrations by a factor of 2.5. Both SPME and Tenax extraction can provide a useful tool to predict PAH bioavailability for earthworms, but Tenax-TA extraction was proven to be a more sensitive and precise method than SPME for the prediction of earthworm exposure in the agricultural soil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Linking tephrochronology and soil characteristics in the Sila and Nebrodi Mountains, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Gerald; Halpern, Dieter; Scarciglia, Fabio; Raimondi, Salvatore; de Castro Portes, Raquel; Norton, Kevin; Egli, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean soils are an important key to understanding past volcanic events and landscape evolution. The influence and timing of Quaternary volcanic events on soils, however, remains still poorly understood in southern Italy. We used a multi-method approach to explore the origin and age of volcanic deposits (soils) in Sicily and Calabria. By comparing the geochemical signature of the soils with the chemical fingerprint of magmatic effusive rocks in southern Italy, we tried to identify the source material. It seems that the investigated soils on the Nebrodi (Sicily) and Sila (Calabria) mountains were both influenced by volcanic deposits having a high-K calc-alkaline series volcanic background. The Aeolian islands (Lipari and Vulcano) are the most likely sources of origin. Due to weathering processes of the volcanic sediments and the partial mixing with the underlying non-volcanic parent material, a direct relation with the potential source areas was not always straightforward. Immobile elements and their corresponding ratios (e.g. the Nb/Y vs Zr/Ti plot) or trace elements (Co, Th) and rare earth elements gave better hints of the origin of the deposits. Radiocarbon dating of the stable soil organic fraction (H2O2 resistant) indicated a minimum age of 8 - 10 ka of the Nebrodi and Sila soils. The chemical proxy of alteration (CPA) and weathering index according to Parker (WIP) were tested as proxies for an age estimate of the volcanic deposits and duration of soil formation. The soils and, subsequently, landscape are characterized by multiple volcanic depositional phases for the last 30 - 50 ka in the Sila mountains and about 70 ka in the Nebrodi mountains. We show that a multi-method approach (numerical dating, relative dating using weathering indices and the forensic procedure) enabled the identification of potential source areas, gave tentative age estimates of the ash deposits, duration of soil formation and, therefore, improved our understanding of volcanic

  9. Linking hydraulic properties of fire-affected soils to infiltration and water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Kinner, David A.; Úbeda, Xavier

    2009-12-01

    SummaryHeat from wildfires can produce a two-layer system composed of extremely dry soil covered by a layer of ash, which when subjected to rainfall, may produce extreme floods. To understand the soil physics controlling runoff for these initial conditions, we used a small, portable disk infiltrometer to measure two hydraulic properties: (1) near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, K f and (2) sorptivity, S( θ i), as a function of initial soil moisture content, θ i, ranging from extremely dry conditions ( θ i ash, reference soils, soils unaffected by fire, and fire-affected soils. Each has a different degrees of water repellency that influences K f and S( θ i). Values of K f ranged from 4.5 × 10 -3 to 53 × 10 -3 cm s -1 for ash; from 0.93 × 10 -3 to 130 × 10 -3 cm s -1 for reference soils; and from 0.86 × 10 -3 to 3.0 × 10 -3 cm s -1, for soil unaffected by fire, which had the lowest values of K f. Measurements indicated that S( θ i) could be represented by an empirical non-linear function of θ i with a sorptivity maximum of 0.18-0.20 cm s -0.5, between 0.03 and 0.08 cm 3 cm -3. This functional form differs from the monotonically decreasing non-linear functions often used to represent S( θ i) for rainfall-runoff modeling. The sorptivity maximum may represent the combined effects of gravity, capillarity, and adsorption in a transitional domain corresponding to extremely dry soil, and moreover, it may explain the observed non-linear behavior, and the critical soil-moisture threshold of water repellent soils. Laboratory measurements of K f and S( θ i) are the first for ash and fire-affected soil, but additional measurements are needed of these hydraulic properties for in situ fire-affected soils. They provide insight into water repellency behavior and infiltration under extremely dry conditions. Most importantly, they indicate how existing rainfall-runoff models can be modified to accommodate a possible two-layer system in extremely dry conditions. These

  10. Tempo de Captura de Organismos da Mesofauna do Solo e seus Reflexos na Interpretação de Índices da Comunidade Edáfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rodrigues Freire

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A mesofauna edáfica compreende organismos de dimensões entre 100 μm e 2 mm, sendo importante avaliar os métodos utilizados para sua caracterização. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram definir o período de tempo de permanência do material de solo no extrator Berlese-Tüllgren para a captura dos organismos da mesofauna e determinar o tempo mínimo de extração para a correta utilização dos índices de Shannon, Simpson, Pielou e Margalef, empregados na avaliação da diversidade, dominância e equabilidade das comunidades da mesofauna. O estudo foi conduzido no Departamento de Solos do Instituto de Agronomia da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, em terreno altamente antropizado. Foram instaladas parcelas experimentais com os seguintes tratamentos: feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrima, feijão-bravo-do-Ceará (Canavalia brasiliensis, guandu (Cajanus cajan e vegetação espontânea, em delineamento de quadrado latino. Em cada uma das unidades experimentais, foram coletadas amostras formadas por serapilheira e material de solo, nos primeiros 5 cm da camada superficial do solo realizada um dia antes do plantio das leguminosas (outubro e, posteriormente, por ocasião do corte da parte aérea das plantas (março. As amostras foram submetidas a uma bateria de extratores do tipo Berlese-Tüllgren, por um período de 15 dias, realizando-se a contagem diária dos organismos. A partir da contagem e identificação em nível de grupo (Ordem/Família dos organismos capturados, foram determinados os índices de Margalef, Simpson, Shannon e Pielou, bem como verificou-se a correlação por ordem de Kendall entre os valores obtidos dia a dia até o 8º dia de extração, usando-se o índice de Shannon como referência. Concluiu-se que é possível a redução do tempo de permanência das amostras de material de solo nos funis Berlese-Tüllgren, não sendo recomendável a ado

  11. Effects of agricultural practices of three crops on the soil communities under Mediterranean conditions: field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Sara; José Cerejeira, Maria; Abreu, Manuela; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable agricultural production relies on soil communities as the main actors in key soil processes necessary to maintain sustainable soil functioning. Soil biodiversity influences soil physical and chemical characteristics and thus the sustainability of crop and agro-ecosystems functioning. Agricultural practices (e.g.: soil tillage, pesticides and fertilizer applications, irrigation) may affects negatively or positively soil biodiversity and abundances by modifying the relationships between organisms in the soil ecosystem. The present study aimed to study the influence of agricultural practices of three crops (potato, onion and maize) under Mediterranean climate conditions on soil macro- and mesofauna during their entire crop cycles. Effects on soil communities were assessed at a higher tier of environmental risk assessment comprising field testing of indigenous edaphic communities in a selected study-site located in a major agriculture region of Central Portugal, Ribatejo e Oeste, neighbouring protected wetlands. A reference site near the agricultural field site was selected as a Control site to compare the terrestrial communities' composition and variation along the crop cycle. The field soil and Control site soil are sandy loam soils. Crops irrigation was performed by center-pivot (automated sprinkler that rotates in a half a circle area) and by sprinklers. Soil macro- and mesofauna were collected at both sites (field and Control) using two methodologies through pitfall trapping and soil sampling. The community of soil macro- and mesofauna of the three crops field varied versus control site along the crops cycles. Main differences were due to arachnids, coleopterans, ants and adult Diptera presence and abundance. The feeding activity of soil fauna between control site and crop areas varied only for potato and onion crops vs. control site but not among crops. Concentration of pesticides residues in soil did not cause apparent negative effects on the soil

  12. Trichoderma Biofertilizer Links to Altered Soil Chemistry, Altered Microbial Communities, and Improved Grassland Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengge Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In grasslands, forage and livestock production results in soil nutrient deficits as grasslands typically receive no nutrient inputs, leading to a loss of grassland biomass. The application of mature compost has been shown to effectively increase grassland nutrient availability. However, research on fertilization regime influence and potential microbial ecological regulation mechanisms are rarely conducted in grassland soil. We conducted a two-year experiment in meadow steppe grasslands, focusing on above- and belowground consequences of organic or Trichoderma biofertilizer applications and potential soil microbial ecological mechanisms underlying soil chemistry and microbial community responses. Grassland biomass significantly (p = 0.019 increased following amendment with 9,000 kg ha−1 of Trichoderma biofertilizer (composted cattle manure + inoculum compared with other assessed organic or biofertilizer rates, except for BOF3000 (fertilized with 3,000 kg ha−1 biofertilizer. This rate of Trichoderma biofertilizer treatment increased soil antifungal compounds that may suppress pathogenic fungi, potentially partially responsible for improved grassland biomass. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS revealed soil chemistry and fungal communities were all separated by different fertilization regime. Trichoderma biofertilizer (9,000 kg ha−1 increased relative abundances of Archaeorhizomyces and Trichoderma while decreasing Ophiosphaerella. Trichoderma can improve grassland biomass, while Ophiosphaerella has the opposite effect as it may secrete metabolites causing grass necrosis. Correlations between soil properties and microbial genera showed plant-available phosphorus may influence grassland biomass by increasing Archaeorhizomyces and Trichoderma while reducing Ophiosphaerella. According to our structural equation modeling (SEM, Trichoderma abundance was the primary contributor to aboveground grassland biomass. Our results suggest Trichoderma

  13. Trichoderma Biofertilizer Links to Altered Soil Chemistry, Altered Microbial Communities, and Improved Grassland Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengge; Huo, Yunqian; Cobb, Adam B; Luo, Gongwen; Zhou, Jiqiong; Yang, Gaowen; Wilson, Gail W T; Zhang, Yingjun

    2018-01-01

    In grasslands, forage and livestock production results in soil nutrient deficits as grasslands typically receive no nutrient inputs, leading to a loss of grassland biomass. The application of mature compost has been shown to effectively increase grassland nutrient availability. However, research on fertilization regime influence and potential microbial ecological regulation mechanisms are rarely conducted in grassland soil. We conducted a two-year experiment in meadow steppe grasslands, focusing on above- and belowground consequences of organic or Trichoderma biofertilizer applications and potential soil microbial ecological mechanisms underlying soil chemistry and microbial community responses. Grassland biomass significantly ( p = 0.019) increased following amendment with 9,000 kg ha -1 of Trichoderma biofertilizer (composted cattle manure + inoculum) compared with other assessed organic or biofertilizer rates, except for BOF3000 (fertilized with 3,000 kg ha -1 biofertilizer). This rate of Trichoderma biofertilizer treatment increased soil antifungal compounds that may suppress pathogenic fungi, potentially partially responsible for improved grassland biomass. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) revealed soil chemistry and fungal communities were all separated by different fertilization regime. Trichoderma biofertilizer (9,000 kg ha -1 ) increased relative abundances of Archaeorhizomyces and Trichoderma while decreasing Ophiosphaerella . Trichoderma can improve grassland biomass, while Ophiosphaerella has the opposite effect as it may secrete metabolites causing grass necrosis. Correlations between soil properties and microbial genera showed plant-available phosphorus may influence grassland biomass by increasing Archaeorhizomyces and Trichoderma while reducing Ophiosphaerella . According to our structural equation modeling (SEM), Trichoderma abundance was the primary contributor to aboveground grassland biomass. Our results suggest Trichoderma

  14. Variable pore connectivity model linking gas diffusivity and air-phase tortuosity to soil matric potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamindu, Deepagoda; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    information on soil functional pore structure, e.g., pore network tortuosity and connectivity, can also be revealed from Dp/Do–ψ relations. Based on Dp/Do measurements in a wide range of soil types across geographically remote vadose zone profiles, this study analyzed pore connectivity for the development...... of a variable pore connectivity factor, X, as a function of soil matric potential, expressed as pF (=log |−ψ|), for pF values ranging from 1.0 to 3.5. The new model takes the form of X = X* (F/F*)A with F = 1 + pF−1, where X* is the pore network tortuosity at reference F (F*) and A is a model parameter......- and intraaggregate pore regions of aggregated soils. We further suggest that the new model with parameter values of X* = 1.7 and A = 0 may be used for upper limit Dp/Do predictions in risk assessments of, e.g., fluxes of toxic volatile organics from soil to indoor air at polluted soil sites....

  15. Are there links between responses of soil microbes and ecosystem functioning to elevated CO2, N deposition and warming? A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Shaw, E Ashley; Dam, Marie; Post, Keith H; Ramirez, Kelly S; Sylvain, Zachary A; de Tomasel, Cecilia Milano; Wall, Diana H

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in research to understand how global changes' impacts on soil biota translate into altered ecosystem functioning. However, results vary between global change effects, soil taxa, and ecosystem processes studied, and a synthesis of relationships is lacking. Therefore, here we initiate such a synthesis to assess whether the effect size of global change drivers (elevated CO2, N deposition, and warming) on soil microbial abundance is related with the effect size of these drivers on ecosystem functioning (plant biomass, soil C cycle, and soil N cycle) using meta-analysis and structural equation modeling. For N deposition and warming, the global change effect size on soil microbes was positively associated with the global change effect size on ecosystem functioning, and these relationships were consistent across taxa and ecosystem processes. However, for elevated CO2, such links were more taxon and ecosystem process specific. For example, fungal abundance responses to elevated CO2 were positively correlated with those of plant biomass but negatively with those of the N cycle. Our results go beyond previous assessments of the sensitivity of soil microbes and ecosystem processes to global change, and demonstrate the existence of general links between the responses of soil microbial abundance and ecosystem functioning. Further we identify critical areas for future research, specifically altered precipitation, soil fauna, soil community composition, and litter decomposition, that are need to better quantify the ecosystem consequences of global change impacts on soil biodiversity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Comparing measured and modelled soil carbon: which site-specific variables are linked to high stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andy; Schipanski, Meagan; Ma, Liwang; Ahuja, Lajpat; McNamara, Niall; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Changes in soil carbon (C) stocks have been studied in depth over the last two decades, as net greenhouse gas (GHG) sinks are highlighted to be a partial solution to the causes of climate change. However, the stability of this soil C is often overlooked when measuring these changes. Ultimately a net sequestration in soils is far less beneficial if labile C is replacing more stable forms. To date there is no accepted framework for measuring soil C stability, and as a result there is considerable uncertainty associated with the simulated impacts of land management and land use change when using process-based systems models. However, a recent effort to equate measurable soil C fractions to model pools has generated data that help to assess the impacts of land management, and can ultimately help to reduce the uncertainty of model predictions. Our research compiles this existing fractionation data along with site metadata to create a simplistic statistical model able to quantify the relative importance of different site-specific conditions. Data was mined from 23 published studies and combined with original data to generate a dataset of 100+ land use change sites across Europe. For sites to be included they required soil C fractions isolated using the Zimmermann et al. (2007) method and specific site metadata (mean annual precipitation, MAP; mean annual temperature, MAT; soil pH; land use; altitude). Of the sites, 75% were used to develop a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to create coefficients where site parameters can be used to predict influence on the measured soil fraction C stocks. The remaining 25% of sites were used to evaluate uncertainty and validate this empirical model. Further, four of the aforementioned sites were used to simulate soil C dynamics using the RothC, DayCent and RZWQM2 models. A sensitivity analysis (4096 model runs for each variable applying Latin hypercube random sampling techniques) was then used to observe whether these models place

  17. Linking stoichiometric homeostasis of microorganisms with soil phosphorus dynamics in wetlands subjected to microcosm warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Wang

    Full Text Available Soil biogeochemical processes and the ecological stability of wetland ecosystems under global warming scenarios have gained increasing attention worldwide. Changes in the capacity of microorganisms to maintain stoichiometric homeostasis, or relatively stable internal concentrations of elements, may serve as an indicator of alterations to soil biogeochemical processes and their associated ecological feedbacks. In this study, an outdoor computerized microcosm was set up to simulate a warmed (+5°C climate scenario, using novel, minute-scale temperature manipulation technology. The principle of stoichiometric homeostasis was adopted to illustrate phosphorus (P biogeochemical cycling coupled with carbon (C dynamics within the soil-microorganism complex. We hypothesized that enhancing the flux of P from soil to water under warming scenarios is tightly coupled with a decrease in homeostatic regulation ability in wetland ecosystems. Results indicate that experimental warming impaired the ability of stoichiometric homeostasis (H to regulate biogeochemical processes, enhancing the ecological role of wetland soil as an ecological source for both P and C. The potential P flux from soil to water ranged from 0.11 to 34.51 mg m(-2 d(-1 in the control and 0.07 to 61.26 mg m(-2 d(-1 in the warmed treatment. The synergistic function of C-P acquisition is an important mechanism underlying C∶P stoichiometric balance for soil microorganisms under warming. For both treatment groups, strongly significant (p<0.001 relationships fitting a negative allometric power model with a fractional exponent were found between n-HC∶P (the specialized homeostatic regulation ability as a ratio of soil highly labile organic carbon to dissolved reactive phosphorus in porewater and potential P flux. Although many factors may affect soil P dynamics, the n-HC∶P term fundamentally reflects the stoichiometric balance or interactions between the energy landscape (i.e., C and flow of

  18. Linking activity, composition and seasonal dynamics of atmospheric methane oxidizers in a meadow soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Kammann, Claudia; Lenhart, Katharina; Dam, Bomba; Liesack, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Microbial oxidation is the only biological sink for atmospheric methane. We assessed seasonal changes in atmospheric methane oxidation and the underlying methanotrophic communities in grassland near Giessen (Germany), along a soil moisture gradient. Soil samples were taken from the surface layer (0–10 cm) of three sites in August 2007, November 2007, February 2008 and May 2008. The sites showed seasonal differences in hydrological parameters. Net uptake rates varied seasonally between 0 and 70 μg CH4 m−2 h−1. Greatest uptake rates coincided with lowest soil moisture in spring and summer. Over all sites and seasons, the methanotrophic communities were dominated by uncultivated methanotrophs. These formed a monophyletic cluster defined by the RA14, MHP and JR1 clades, referred to as upland soil cluster alphaproteobacteria (USCα)-like group. The copy numbers of pmoA genes ranged between 3.8 × 105–1.9 × 106 copies g−1 of soil. Temperature was positively correlated with CH4 uptake rates (P50 vol% and primarily related to members of the MHP clade. PMID:22189499

  19. Linking activity, composition and seasonal dynamics of atmospheric methane oxidizers in a meadow soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Kammann, Claudia; Lenhart, Katharina; Dam, Bomba; Liesack, Werner

    2012-06-01

    Microbial oxidation is the only biological sink for atmospheric methane. We assessed seasonal changes in atmospheric methane oxidation and the underlying methanotrophic communities in grassland near Giessen (Germany), along a soil moisture gradient. Soil samples were taken from the surface layer (0-10 cm) of three sites in August 2007, November 2007, February 2008 and May 2008. The sites showed seasonal differences in hydrological parameters. Net uptake rates varied seasonally between 0 and 70 μg CH(4) m(-2) h(-1). Greatest uptake rates coincided with lowest soil moisture in spring and summer. Over all sites and seasons, the methanotrophic communities were dominated by uncultivated methanotrophs. These formed a monophyletic cluster defined by the RA14, MHP and JR1 clades, referred to as upland soil cluster alphaproteobacteria (USCα)-like group. The copy numbers of pmoA genes ranged between 3.8 × 10(5)-1.9 × 10(6) copies g(-1) of soil. Temperature was positively correlated with CH(4) uptake rates (P50 vol% and primarily related to members of the MHP clade.

  20. Microbial links between sulfate reduction and metal retention in uranium- and heavy metal-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitte, Jana; Akob, Denise M; Kaufmann, Christian; Finster, Kai; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Burkhardt, Eva-Maria; Kostka, Joel E; Scheinost, Andreas C; Büchel, Georg; Küsel, Kirsten

    2010-05-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can affect metal mobility either directly by reductive transformation of metal ions, e.g., uranium, into their insoluble forms or indirectly by formation of metal sulfides. This study evaluated in situ and biostimulated activity of SRB in groundwater-influenced soils from a creek bank contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides within the former uranium mining district of Ronneburg, Germany. In situ activity of SRB, measured by the (35)SO(4)(2-) radiotracer method, was restricted to reduced soil horizons with rates of metals were enriched in the solid phase of the reduced horizons, whereas pore water concentrations were low. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements demonstrated that approximately 80% of uranium was present as reduced uranium but appeared to occur as a sorbed complex. Soil-based dsrAB clone libraries were dominated by sequences affiliated with members of the Desulfobacterales but also the Desulfovibrionales, Syntrophobacteraceae, and Clostridiales. [(13)C]acetate- and [(13)C]lactate-biostimulated soil microcosms were dominated by sulfate and Fe(III) reduction. These processes were associated with enrichment of SRB and Geobacteraceae; enriched SRB were closely related to organisms detected in soils by using the dsrAB marker. Concentrations of soluble nickel, cobalt, and occasionally zinc declined uranium increased in carbon-amended treatments, reaching metal attenuation and (ii) the fate of uranium mobility is not predictable and may lead to downstream contamination of adjacent ecosystems.

  1. Soil properties linked to Phytophthora cinnamomi presence and oak decline in Iberian dehesas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, G.; Vivas, M.; Pérez, A.; Cubera, E.; Madeira, M.; Solla, A.

    2009-04-01

    Dehesas cover about 3,100,000 ha in the Iberian Peninsula, and support an outstanding diversity of wildlife and flora endemisms. These open woodlands provide Spain and Portugal inhabitants with a high-quality food, derived from animal production, sustain rural population, and act as retardants of soil erosion and desertification, which are considered primary environmental concerns in the Mediterranean basin. Dehesas are considered examples of sustainable use, though in the last few decades intensive land use, imposed by a concomitant change in the technological and socio-economic conditions, and common agricultural policies threat their conservation. Soil compaction and erosion, oak regeneration failure, dieback of old-ageing stands, and loose of biodiversity are some of the most common threats. At the same time, a severe decline of Quercus ilex (Holm oak) has been reported since the 1990s in the southern Iberian Peninsula, and more recently in France, Italy, and Morocco. In the Iberian Peninsula, the decline has been mostly observed in dehesas, where a combination of factors, possibly acting in synergy, have been put forward to explain the disease. Severe drought episodes, flooding, and rapid fluctuations in soil water content have been reported as predisposing factors favoring tree invasion by bark borer insects and/or pathogenic fungi. It is mostly ignored to what extent decline is a natural or a man-induced process, and if it is associated to either basic, management-related soil properties, or both. To bring insight to this problem, extensive and integrative comparisons of some soil properties related to hydromorphism were initiated, comprising pairs of adjacent non-symptomatic and symptomatic Q. ilex trees. In 2008, 48 dehesa stands from western Spain (Cáceres), half of them located along stream banks and the other half located in slopes, were intensively studied. In each stand, soil and root samples were taken under 3 non-symptomatic (healthy) and 3

  2. Microbial links between sulfate reduction and metal retention in uranium- and heavy metal-contaminated soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitte, Jana; Akob, Denise M.; Kaufmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can affect metal mobility either directly by reductive transformation of metal ions, e.g., uranium, into their insoluble forms or indirectly by formation of metal sulfides. This study evaluated in situ and biostimulated activity of SRB in groundwater-influenced soils...... from a creek bank contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides within the former uranium mining district of Ronneburg, Germany. In situ activity of SRB, measured by the 35SO42– radiotracer method, was restricted to reduced soil horizons with rates of 142 ± 20 nmol cm–3 day–1. Concentrations...... of heavy metals were enriched in the solid phase of the reduced horizons, whereas pore water concentrations were low. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements demonstrated that 80% of uranium was present as reduced uranium but appeared to occur as a sorbed complex. Soil-based dsrAB clone...

  3. Links between seawater flooding, soil ammonia oxidiser communities and their response to changes in salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacke, Heiko; Schöning, Ingo; Schindler, Malte; Schrumpf, Marion; Daniel, Rolf; Nicol, Graeme W; Prosser, James I

    2017-11-01

    Coastal areas worldwide are challenged by climate change-associated increases in sea level and storm surge quantities that potentially lead to more frequent flooding of soil ecosystems. Currently, little is known of the effects of inundation events on microorganisms controlling nitrification in these ecosystems. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of seawater flooding on the abundance, community composition and salinity tolerance of soil ammonia oxidisers. Topsoil was sampled from three islands flooded at different frequencies by the Wadden Sea. Archaeal ammonia oxidiser amoA genes were more abundant than their betaproteobacterial counterparts, and the distribution of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidiser amoA and 16S rRNA gene sequences significantly differed between the islands. The findings indicate selection of ammonia oxidiser phylotypes with greater tolerance to high salinity and slightly alkaline pH (e.g. Nitrosopumilus representatives) in frequently flooded soils. A cluster phylogenetically related to gammaproteobacterial ammonia oxidisers was detected in all samples analysed in this survey. Nevertheless, no gammaprotebacterial amoA genes could be amplified via PCR and only betaproteobacterial ammonia oxidisers were detected in enrichment cultures. A slurry-based experiment demonstrated the tolerance of both bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidisers to a wide range of salinities (e.g. Wadden Sea water salinity) in soil naturally exposed to seawater at a high frequency. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Linking temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to its molecular structure, accessibility, and microbial physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagai, Rota; Kishimoto-Mo, Ayaka W; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Shirato, Yasuhito; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Yagasaki, Yasumi

    2013-04-01

    Temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition may have a significant impact on global warming. Enzyme-kinetic hypothesis suggests that decomposition of low-quality substrate (recalcitrant molecular structure) requires higher activation energy and thus has greater temperature sensitivity than that of high-quality, labile substrate. Supporting evidence, however, relies largely on indirect indices of substrate quality. Furthermore, the enzyme-substrate reactions that drive decomposition may be regulated by microbial physiology and/or constrained by protective effects of soil mineral matrix. We thus tested the kinetic hypothesis by directly assessing the carbon molecular structure of low-density fraction (LF) which represents readily accessible, mineral-free SOM pool. Using five mineral soil samples of contrasting SOM concentrations, we conducted 30-days incubations (15, 25, and 35 °C) to measure microbial respiration and quantified easily soluble C as well as microbial biomass C pools before and after the incubations. Carbon structure of LFs (soil was measured by solid-state (13) C-NMR. Decomposition Q10 was significantly correlated with the abundance of aromatic plus alkyl-C relative to O-alkyl-C groups in LFs but not in bulk soil fraction or with the indirect C quality indices based on microbial respiration or biomass. The warming did not significantly change the concentration of biomass C or the three types of soluble C despite two- to three-fold increase in respiration. Thus, enhanced microbial maintenance respiration (reduced C-use efficiency) especially in the soils rich in recalcitrant LF might lead to the apparent equilibrium between SOM solubilization and microbial C uptake. Our results showed physical fractionation coupled with direct assessment of molecular structure as an effective approach and supported the enzyme-kinetic interpretation of widely observed C quality-temperature relationship for short-term decomposition. Factors

  5. Linking precipitation, evapotranspiration and soil moisture content for the improvement of predictability over land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Franco; Alessandri, Andrea; De Felice, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    Climate change scenarios are expected to show an intensification of the hydrological cycle together with modifications of evapotranspiration and soil moisture content. Evapotranspiration changes have been already evidenced for the end of the 20th century. The variance of evapotranspiration has been shown to be strongly related to the variance of precipitation over land. Nevertheless, the feedbacks between evapotranspiration, soil moisture and precipitation have not yet been completely understood at present-day. Furthermore, soil moisture reservoirs are associated to a memory and thus their proper initialization may have a strong influence on predictability. In particular, the linkage between precipitation and soil moisture is modulated by the effects on evapotranspiration. Therefore, the investigation of the coupling between these variables appear to be of primary importance for the improvement of predictability over the continents. The coupled manifold (CM) technique (Navarra and Tribbia 2005) is a method designed to separate the effects of the variability of two variables which are connected. This method has proved to be successful for the analysis of different climate fields, like precipitation, vegetation and sea surface temperature. In particular, the coupled variables reveal patterns that may be connected with specific phenomena, thus providing hints regarding potential predictability. In this study we applied the CM to recent observational datasets of precipitation (from CRU), evapotranspiration (from GIMMS and MODIS satellite-based estimates) and soil moisture content (from ESA) spanning a time period of 23 years (1984-2006) with a monthly frequency. Different data stratification (monthly, seasonal, summer JJA) have been employed to analyze the persistence of the patterns and their characteristical time scales and seasonality. The three variables considered show a significant coupling among each other. Interestingly, most of the signal of the

  6. Linking Soil Moisture Variation and Abundance of Plants to Geomorphic Processes: A Generalized Model for Erosion-Uplifting Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Junyan; Johnson, Edward A.; Martin, Yvonne E.

    2018-03-01

    The diffusive and advective erosion-created landscapes have similar structure (hillslopes and channels) across different scales regardless of variations in drivers and controls. The relative magnitude of diffusive erosion to advective erosion (D/K ratio) in a landscape development model controls hillslope length, shape, and drainage density, which regulate soil moisture variation, one of the critical resources of plants, through the contributing area (A) and local slope (S) represented by a topographic index (TI). Here we explore the theoretical relation between geomorphic processes, TI, and the abundance and distribution of plants. We derived an analytical model that expresses the TI with D, K, and A. This gives us the relation between soil moisture variation and geomorphic processes. Plant tolerance curves are used to link plant performance to soil moisture. Using the hypothetical tolerance curves of three plants, we show that the abundance and distribution of xeric, mesic, and hydric plants on the landscape are regulated by the D/K ratio. Where diffusive erosion is the major erosion process (large D/K ratio), mesic plants have higher abundance relative to xeric and hydric plants and the landscape has longer and convex-upward hillslope and low channel density. Increasing the dominance of advective erosion increases relative abundance of xeric and hydric plants dominance, and the landscape has short and concave hillslope and high channel density.

  7. Linking air and water transport in intact soils to macro-porosity by combining laboratory measurements and X-ray Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, Sheela; Norgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per

    -porosity (R2 = 0.80 for air permeability: R2= 0.61 for 5% arrival time) and macro-porosity of the restricting layer (R2=0.83 for air permeability: R2= 0.71 for 5% arrival time) over air-filled porosity and all the correlations were positive. The high positive correlation these air and water transport...... functions with macro-porosity stressed the importance of continuity and tortuosity of pores in air, water and solute flow and transport through the soils. Negative correlations of air permeability, 5% arrival time of tracer and macro-porosity were obtained with bulk density whereas with other soil physical......With an objective to link the hydraulic properties of soil with the soil structural properties, air permeability and 5% arrival time of a conservative tracer was measured for large undisturbed soil columns from the same agricultural field. The same soil columns were scanned with a medical scanner...

  8. Linking soil DOC production rates and transport processes from landscapes to sub-basin scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y. Q.; Yu, Q.; Li, J.; Ye, C.

    2014-12-01

    Recent research rejects the traditional perspective that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) component in global carbon cycle are simply trivial, and in fact evidence demonstrates that lakes likely mediate carbon dynamics on a global scale. Riverine and estuarine carbon fluxes play a critical role in transporting and recycling carbon and nutrients, not only within watersheds but in their receiving waters. However, the underlying mechanisms that drive carbon fluxes, from land to rivers, lake and oceans, remain poorly understood. This presentation will report a research result of the scale-dependent DOC production rate in coastal watersheds and DOC transport processes in estuarine regions. We conducted a series of controlled experiments and field measurements for examining biogeochemical, biological, and geospatial variables that regulate downstream processing on global-relevant carbon fluxes. Results showed that increased temperatures and raised soil moistures accelerate decomposition rates of organic matter with significant variations between vegetation types. The measurements at meso-scale ecosystem demonstrated a good correlation to bulk concentration of DOC monitored in receiving waters at the outlets of sub-basins (R2 > 0.65). These field and experimental measurements improved the model of daily carbon exports through below-ground processes as a function of the organic matter content of surface soils, forest litter supply, and temperature. The study demonstrated a potential improvement in modeling the co-variance of CDOM and DOC with the unique terrestrial sources. This improvement indicated a significant promise for monitoring riverine and estuarine carbon flux from satellite images. The technical innovations include deployments of 1) mini-ecosystem (mesocosms) with soil as replicate controlled experiments for DOC production and leaching rates, and 2) aquatic mesocosms for co-variances of DOC and CDOM endmembers, and an instrumented incubation experiment for

  9. Evaluación de sistemas agroecológicos mediante indicadores biológicos de la calidad del suelo: mesofauna edáfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Socarrás

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el impacto de los métodos agroecológicos a través de la variación de la mesofauna del suelo, en una finca con manejo integrado ganadería-agricultura (en Cangrejeras, provincia Artemisa. Se seleccionaron tres sistemas de manejo: área de pastizal, designada como área control, y con más de 20 años de establecida; área de forraje, sembrada en forma de mosaico, con pequeñas parcelas de cultivos perennes, y sometida a un tratamiento de abono orgánico; y área de policultivos, con un sistema de rotación de cultivos de ciclo corto y aplicación de compost. Los muestreos se efectuaron a los seis y ocho años de haber realizado las transformaciones en las áreas de forraje y cultivo, en ambas estaciones del año. Se tomaron cinco muestras en cada sistema, a una profundidad de 0-10 cm, según un diseño completamente aleatorizado. Por lo general en las áreas de forraje y pastizal, en cuanto a las relaciones oribátidos/astigmados, oribátidos/prostigmados y astigmados/mesostigmados (en ambas estaciones y años de transformación, dominaron los grupos edáficos que constituyen indicadores de estabilidad y fertilidad del suelo (oribátidos y mesostigmados, al estar favorecidos por la incorporación de la materia orgánica y una mayor cobertura del suelo, lo cual estimula que la mesofauna recobre condiciones de mayor estabilidad. En el área de policultivo predominaron los grupos indicadores de la inestabilidad e infertilidad del suelo (astigmados y prostigmados, ya que la rotación de cultivos y el manejo de las técnicas agroecológicas no garantizaron las condiciones que benefician el establecimiento de los otros grupos.

  10. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  11. Linking particle and pore-size distribution parameters to soil gas transport properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    , respectively) and the Campbell water retention parameter b were used to characterize particle and pore size distributions, respectively. Campbell b yielded a wide interval (4.6–26.2) and was highly correlated with α, β, and volumetric clay content. Both Dp/Do and ka followed simple power-law functions (PLFs......) of air-filled porosity (εa). The PLF tortuosity–connectivity factors (X*) for Dp/Do and ka were both highly correlated with all basic soil characteristics, in the order of volumetric clay content = Campbell b > gravimetric clay content > α > β. The PLF water blockage factors (H) for Dp/Do and ka were...... also well (but relatively more weakly) correlated with the basic soil characteristics, again with the best correlations to volumetric clay content and b. As a first attempt at developing a simple Dp/Do model useful at the field scale, we extended the classical Buckingham Dp/Do model (εa2) by a scaling...

  12. Linking soil chemistry, treeline shifts and climate change: scenario modeling using an experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Anderson, Susanne; Blum, Alex; Wells, Aaron; Dahms, Dennis; Egli, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Climate change and global warming have a strong influence on the landscape development. As cold areas become warmer, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions (a). It is widely accepted that climate changes deeply influence the treeline shifts. In addition to that, wildfires, plant diseases and insect infestation (i.e. mountain pine beetle) can promote a selective replacement of plants, inhibiting some and favoring others, thus modifying the ecosystem in diverse ways. There is little knowledge on the behavior of soil chemistry when such changes occur. Will elemental availability become a crucial factor as a function of climate changes? The Sinks Canyon and Stough Basin - SE flank of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA - offer an ideal case study. Conceptually, the areas were divided into three main subsets: tundra, forest and a subarid environment. All soils were developed on granitoid moraines (b, c). From each subset, a liquid topsoil extract was produced and mixed with the solid subsoil samples in batch reactors at 50 °C. The batch experiments were carried out over 1800 h, and the progress of the dissolution was regularly monitored by analyzing liquid aliquots using IC and ICP-OES. The nutrients were mostly released within the first hours of the experiment. Silicon and Al were continuously released into the solution, while some alkali elements - i.e. Na - showed a more complex trend. Organic acids (acetic, citric) and other ligands produced during biodegradation played an active role in mineral dissolution and nutrient release. The mineral colloids detected in the extract (X-ray diffraction) can significantly control surface reactions (adsorption/desorption) and contributed to specific cationic concentrations. The experimental set up was then compared to a computed dissolution model using SerialSTEADYQL software (d, e). Decoding the mechanisms driving mineral weathering is the key to understand the main geochemical aspects of adaptation during climate

  13. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy links structural moieties of soil organic matter to the temperature sensitivity of its decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Erhagen, Björn; Öquist, Mats; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    be recognized. It was hence possible to follow the fate of specific structural moieties in soils. We observed differences between litter and soil samples, and were able to relate them to the decomposition of identifiable moieties. Using multivariate data analysis, we aimed at linking the detailed chemical fingerprints of SOM to turnover rates in a soil incubation experiment. With the multivariate models, we were able to relate signal patterns in the 2D spectra and intensities of identifiable molecular moieties to variability in the temperature response of organic matter decomposition, as assessed by Q10. In conclusion, the characterization of SOM composition at the molecular level by solution-state 2D NMR spectroscopy is highly promising; it offers unprecedented possibilities to link SOM molecular composition to ecosystem processes, and their responses to environmental changes.

  14. Linking soil moisture balance and source-responsive models to estimate diffuse and preferential components of groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, M.O.; Mackay, R.; Nimmo, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented of a detailed study into the vadose zone and shallow water table hydrodynamics of a field site in Shropshire, UK. A conceptual model is developed and tested using a range of numerical models, including a modified soil moisture balance model (SMBM) for estimating groundwater recharge in the presence of both diffuse and preferential flow components. Tensiometry reveals that the loamy sand topsoil wets up via macropore flow and subsequent redistribution of moisture into the soil matrix. Recharge does not occur until near-positive pressures are achieved at the top of the sandy glaciofluvial outwash material that underlies the topsoil, about 1 m above the water table. Once this occurs, very rapid water table rises follow. This threshold behaviour is attributed to the vertical discontinuity in the macropore system due to seasonal ploughing of the topsoil, and a lower permeability plough/iron pan restricting matrix flow between the topsoil and the lower outwash deposits. Although the wetting process in the topsoil is complex, a SMBM is shown to be effective in predicting the initiation of preferential flow from the base of the topsoil into the lower outwash horizon. The rapidity of the response at the water table and a water table rise during the summer period while flow gradients in the unsaturated profile were upward suggest that preferential flow is also occurring within the outwash deposits below the topsoil. A variation of the source-responsive model proposed by Nimmo (2010) is shown to reproduce the observed water table dynamics well in the lower outwash horizon when linked to a SMBM that quantifies the potential recharge from the topsoil. The results reveal new insights into preferential flow processes in cultivated soils and provide a useful and practical approach to accounting for preferential flow in studies of groundwater recharge estimation.

  15. Linking soil moisture balance and source-responsive models to estimate diffuse and preferential components of groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Cuthbert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented of a detailed study into the vadose zone and shallow water table hydrodynamics of a field site in Shropshire, UK. A conceptual model is presented and tested using a range of numerical models, including a modified soil moisture balance model (SMBM for estimating groundwater recharge in the presence of both diffuse and preferential flow components. Tensiometry reveals that the loamy sand topsoil wets up via preferential flow and subsequent redistribution of moisture into the soil matrix. Recharge does not occur until near-positive pressures are achieved at the top of the sandy glaciofluvial outwash material that underlies the topsoil, about 1 m above the water table. Once this occurs, very rapid water table rises follow. This threshold behaviour is attributed to the vertical discontinuity in preferential flow pathways due to seasonal ploughing of the topsoil and to a lower permeability plough/iron pan restricting matrix flow between the topsoil and the lower outwash deposits. Although the wetting process in the topsoil is complex, a SMBM is shown to be effective in predicting the initiation of preferential flow from the base of the topsoil into the lower outwash horizon. The rapidity of the response at the water table and a water table rise during the summer period while flow gradients in the unsaturated profile were upward suggest that preferential flow is also occurring within the outwash deposits below the topsoil. A variation of the source-responsive model proposed by Nimmo (2010 is shown to reproduce the observed water table dynamics well in the lower outwash horizon when linked to a SMBM that quantifies the potential recharge from the topsoil. The results reveal new insights into preferential flow processes in cultivated soils and provide a useful and practical approach to accounting for preferential flow in studies of groundwater recharge estimation.

  16. Influence of moisture conditions and mineralization of soil solution on structure of litter macrofauna of the deciduous forests of Ukraine steppe zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Brygadyrenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The accounting of litter mesofauna was carried out in the territory of Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhya, Nikolaev,Donetsk regions of Ukrainein the natural forest ecosystems in 2001–2014. 339 forest ecosystems were surveyed; xeromesophilic conditions of moistening were characteristic for 47 trial sites, mesophilic conditions – for 99 sites, hygro-mesophilic conditions – for 50 sites, meso-hygrophilic conditions – for 89 sites, hygrophilic conditions – for 54 sites; trophotope C was represented by 35 trial sites, Dc – by 44, Dac – by 76, Dn – by 128, De – by 37, E – by 19 forest ecosystems, accordingly. The relative number of saprophages reaches maximum values in hygro-mesophilic, meso-hygrophilic and hygrophilic conditions, and minimum values – in mesophilic conditions of moistening. The share of rare species is maximum in hygro-mesophilic conditions of moistening. The minimum quantity of mass species is also observed in conditions of hygro-mesophilic and meso-hygrophilic deciduous forests. With the growth of moistening of the soil, quantity of species of Carabidae, Formicidae and other dominant families remains without significant changes. The relative number of Formicidae is maximum in xeromesophilic and mesophilic conditions of soil moistening. In these hygrotopes, as well as in hygro-mesophilic conditions of moistening the Julidae numbers are maximum. The Isopoda percent in mesofauna significantly grows in meso-hygrophilic and hygrophilic conditions of moistening. The share of other dominant taxonomical groups in the structure of litter mesofauna remains without significant changes in numbers. In the majority of the analysed hygrotopes 7–8 families are withing the structure of dominants. In the conditions of salinization (trophotopes De and E, and also on light sandy loam soils, the numbers of litter mesofauna decrease. Share of saprophages is minimum in trophotopes Dc and E, while it increases in trophotopes C, Dac, Dn

  17. Biodiversity and soil quality in agroecosystems: the use of a qualitative multi-attribute model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortet, J.; Bohanec, M.; Griffiths, B.

    2009-01-01

    In ecological impact assessment, special emphasis is put on soil biology and estimating soil quality from the observed biological parameters. The aim of this study is to propose a tool easy to use for scientists and decision makers for agroecosystems soil quality assessment using these biological...... parameters. This tool was developed as a collaboration between ECOGEN (www.ecogen.dk) soil experts and decision analysts. Methodologically, we have addressed this goal using model-based Decision Support Systems (DSS), taking the approach of qualitative multi-attribute modelling. The approach is based...... on developing various hierarchical multiattribute models that consist of qualitative attributes and utility (aggregation) functions, represented by decision rules. The assessment of soil quality is based on two main indicators: (1) soil diversity (assessed through microfauna, mesofauna and macrofauna richness...

  18. Soil health in the Mediterranean region: Development and consolidation of a multifactor index to characterize the health of agricultural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Eshel; Guy, Levy; Oshri, Rinot; Michael, Borisover; Uri, Yermiyahu; Leah, Tsror; Hanan, Eizenberg; Tal, Svoray; Alex, Furman; Yael, Mishael; Yosef, Steinberger

    2017-04-01

    The link among between soil health, soil conservation, and food security, resilience, and function under a wide range of agricultural uses and different environmental systems, is at the heart of many ecofriendly research studies worldwide. We consider the health of soil as a function of its ability to provide ecosystem services, including agricultural production (provisional services); regulating natural cycles (regulation services) and as a habitat for plants (support services). Soil health is affected by a wide range of soil properties (biotic and abiotic) that maintain complex interactions among themselves. The decline in soil health includes degradation in its physical properties (e.g., deterioration of soil structure, compaction and sealing, water-repellency, soil erosion by water and wind), chemical properties (e.g., salinization, depletion of nutrients and organic matter content, accumulation of pollutants and reduction of the soils' ion exchange capacity) and biological properties (e.g., vulnerable populations of microflora, microfauna, and mesofauna, leading to a breach of ecological balance and biodiversity and, as a result, destruction of beneficial populations and pathogen outbreaks). Numerous studies show that agricultural practices have a major impact on soil functioning. Substituting longstanding tillage with no-till cropping and the amalgamation of cover crops in crop rotations were found to improve soil properties. Such changes contributed to the enhancement of the agronomical performance of the soil. On the other hand, these practices may result in lessened effectiveness of controlling perennial weeds. The evaluation of soil-health status in the Mediterranean region is very limited. Moreover, existing approaches for evaluation that have been used (such as the Cornell and Hany tests) do not give sufficient weight to important agronomic processes, such as soil erosion, salinization, sodification, spread of weeds in the fields (in particular, weeds

  19. Communities of microorganisms and invertebrates in soil-like bodies of soccer fields in Moscow oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutovaya, O. V.; Zamotaev, I. V.; Belobrov, V. P.

    2014-11-01

    Artificially created soil-like technogenic formations (STFs) of soccer fields are developed under combined action of intense technogenic and natural factors and processes, which cannot but affect the structure and biological activity of their microbial communities and mesofauna. The microflora of the STFs is very similar to the microflora of the background soddy-podzolic soils of Moscow oblast with respect to the composition of the physiological groups of microorganisms. However, they are drastically different in their quantitative characteristics. The numbers of all the trophic groups of microorganisms, except for the microscopic fungi, in the STFs are much higher than those in the zonal soils. An increased biological activity of the STFs is due to regular watering, heating, application of sand and mineral fertilizers, and technogenic turbation processes. The mesofauna of the STFs is represented by several ecological groups of earthworms, including soildwelling (endogeic) earthworms ( Aporrectodea caliginosa), epigeic earthworms dwelling at the soil-litter interface ( Lumbricus rubellus), and litter-dwelling earthworms ( Eisenia foetida).

  20. The Role of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes and Soil-Borne Fungi in the Decline of Ammophila-Arenaria (L) Link

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij van der Goes, P.C.E.M.

    1995-01-01

    In coastal foredunes, Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link grows vigorously when it is buried regularly by windblown sand and degenerates at stabilized sites. Nematodes and soil-borne fungi were found to be involved in its decline. In order to establish their role in the disease complex, seedlings of A.

  1. Development of a Multianalyte Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Permethrin and Aroclors and Its Implementation for Analysis of Soil/Sediment and House Dust ExtractsExtracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of a multianalyte enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of permethrin and aroclors 1248 or 1254, and implementation of the assay for analysis of soil/sediment samples are described. The feasibility of using the multianalyte ELISA to monitor aroclors ...

  2. Riparian soil development linked to forest succession above and below dams along the Elwha River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Laura G; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Perakis, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Riparian forest soils can be highly dynamic, due to frequent fluvial disturbance, erosion, and sediment deposition, but effects of dams on riparian soils are poorly understood. We examined soils along toposequences within three river segments located upstream, between, and downstream of two dams on the Elwha River to evaluate relationships between riparian soil development and forest age, succession, and channel proximity, explore dam effects on riparian soils, and provide a baseline for the largest dam removal in history. We found that older, later-successional forests and geomorphic surfaces contained soils with finer texture and greater depth to cobble, supporting greater forest floor mass, mineral soil nutrient levels, and cation exchange. Forest stand age was a better predictor than channel proximity for many soil characteristics, though elevation and distance from the channel were often also important, highlighting how complex interactions between fluvial disturbance, sediment deposition, and biotic retention regulate soil development in this ecosystem. Soils between the dams, and to a lesser extent below the lower dam, had finer textures and higher mineral soil carbon, nitrogen, and cation exchange than above the dams. These results suggested that decreased fluvial disturbance below the dams, due to reduced sediment supply and channel stabilization, accelerated soil development. In addition, reduced sediment supply below the dams may have decreased soil phosphorus. Soil δ15N suggested that salmon exclusion by the dams had no discernable effect on nitrogen inputs to upstream soils. Recent dam removal may alter riparian soils further, with ongoing implications for riparian ecosystems.

  3. Cracking up (and down): Linking multi-domain hydraulic properties with multi-scale hydrological processes in shrink-swell soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. D.; Rupp, D. E.; Abou Najm, M. R.; Selker, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Shrink-swell soils, often classified as Vertisols or vertic intergrades, are found on every continent except Antarctica and within many agricultural and urban regions. These soils are characterized by cyclical shrinking and swelling, in which bulk density and porosity distributions vary as functions of time and soil moisture. Crack networks that form in these soils act as dominant environmental controls on the movement of water, contaminants, and gases, making it important to develop fundamental understanding and tractable models of their hydrologic characteristics and behaviors. In this study, which took place primarily in the Secano Interior region of South-Central Chile, we quantified soil-water interactions across scales using a diverse and innovative dataset. These measurements were then utilized to develop a set of parsimonious multi-domain models for describing hydraulic properties and hydrological processes in shrink-swell soils. In a series of examples, we show how this model can predict porosity distributions, crack widths, saturated hydraulic conductivities, and surface runoff (i.e., overland flow) thresholds, by capturing the dominant mechanisms by which water moves through and interacts with clayey soils. Altogether, these models successfully link small-scale shrinkage/swelling behaviors with large-scale thresholds, and can be applied to describe important processes such as infiltration, overland flow development, and the preferential flow and transport of fluids and gases.

  4. ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR SCREENING DIOXIN SOIL CONTAMINATION BY UNCONTROLLED COMBUSTION DURING INFORMAL RECYCLING IN SLUMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Mirta; Nording, Malin; Nichkova, Mikaela; Spinnel, Erik; Haglund, Peter; Last, Michael S.; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce; Last, Jerold A.; González-Sapienza, Gualberto; Brena, Beatriz M.

    2010-01-01

    Uncontrolled combustion due to garbage recycling is a widespread activity among slum dwellers in distressed economy countries and has been indicated as a major source of dioxin contamination. However, because of the high cost and complexity of gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) analysis, the magnitude of the problem remains largely unknown. The present study describes a first approach toward the use of a dioxin antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as the basis for a sustainable, simple, and low-cost monitoring program to assess the toxicological impact of uncontrolled combustion in slums. A panel of 16 samples was analyzed by GC-HRMS and ELISA on split extracts. Close to 20% of the analyzed samples showed dioxin concentrations up to almost twice the guidance level for residential soil in several countries, pointing out the need for performing a large-scale monitoring program. Despite the potential for variations in dioxin congener distribution due to the mixed nature of the incinerated material, there was a good correlation between the toxic equivalents as determined by GC-HRMS and ELISA. Furthermore, an interlaboratory ELISA validation showed that the capacity to perform the dioxin ELISA was successfully transferred between laboratories. It was concluded that the ELISA method performed very well as a screening tool to prioritize samples for instrumental analysis, which allows cutting down costs significantly. PMID:18522475

  5. Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

  6. A Redescription of Acanthocreagris iranica (Pseudoscorpiones, Neobisiidae Inhabiting Soil Under Oak Trees in Zagros Forest, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassirkhani M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available During study on soil mesofauna in Choqa Sabz Forest and Dalab Protected Area in Ilam Province (western Iran, the following pseudoscorpions belonging to four families were collected and identified: Chthonius (Chthonius shelkovnikovi Redikorzev, 1930, Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius negarinae Nassirkhani and Vafai, 2015, Paramenthus nanus Mahnert, 2007, Cardiolpium asiaticum (Dashdamirov, 1990, and Acanthocreagris iranica Beier, in Mahnert 1976. All of these species are new to the fauna of western Iran. In this survey, the adults of A. iranica collected from Ilam and Lorestan Provinces are redescribed and figured. Additionally, its tritonymph and deutonymph are briefly described.

  7. Linking annual N2O emission in organic soils to mineral nitrogen input as estimated by heterotrophic respiration and soil C/N ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhijian; Huang, Aiying; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2014-01-01

    Organic soils are an important source of N2O, but global estimates of these fluxes remain uncertain because measurements are sparse. We tested the hypothesis that N2O fluxes can be predicted from estimates of mineral nitrogen input, calculated from readily-available measurements of CO2 flux and soil C/N ratio. From studies of organic soils throughout the world, we compiled a data set of annual CO2 and N2O fluxes which were measured concurrently. The input of soil mineral nitrogen in these studies was estimated from applied fertilizer nitrogen and organic nitrogen mineralization. The latter was calculated by dividing the rate of soil heterotrophic respiration by soil C/N ratio. This index of mineral nitrogen input explained up to 69% of the overall variability of N2O fluxes, whereas CO2 flux or soil C/N ratio alone explained only 49% and 36% of the variability, respectively. Including water table level in the model, along with mineral nitrogen input, further improved the model with the explanatory proportion of variability in N2O flux increasing to 75%. Unlike grassland or cropland soils, forest soils were evidently nitrogen-limited, so water table level had no significant effect on N2O flux. Our proposed approach, which uses the product of soil-derived CO2 flux and the inverse of soil C/N ratio as a proxy for nitrogen mineralization, shows promise for estimating regional or global N2O fluxes from organic soils, although some further enhancements may be warranted.

  8. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  9. High-Resolution Denitrification Kinetics in Pasture Soils Link N2O Emissions to pH, and Denitrification to C Mineralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Sainur Samad

    Full Text Available Denitrification in pasture soils is mediated by microbial and physicochemical processes leading to nitrogen loss through the emission of N2O and N2. It is known that N2O reduction to N2 is impaired by low soil pH yet controversy remains as inconsistent use of soil pH measurement methods by researchers, and differences in analytical methods between studies, undermine direct comparison of results. In addition, the link between denitrification and N2O emissions in response to carbon (C mineralization and pH in different pasture soils is still not well described. We hypothesized that potential denitrification rate and aerobic respiration rate would be positively associated with soils. This relationship was predicted to be more robust when a high resolution analysis is performed as opposed to a single time point comparison. We tested this by characterizing 13 different temperate pasture soils from northern and southern hemispheres sites (Ireland and New Zealand using a fully automated-high-resolution GC detection system that allowed us to detect a wide range of gas emissions simultaneously. We also compared the impact of using different extractants for determining pH on our conclusions. In all pH measurements, soil pH was strongly and negatively associated with both N2O production index (IN2O and N2O/(N2O+N2 product ratio. Furthermore, emission kinetics across all soils revealed that the denitrification rates under anoxic conditions (NO+N2O+N2 μmol N/h/vial were significantly associated with C mineralization (CO2 μmol/h/vial measured both under oxic (r2 = 0.62, p = 0.0015 and anoxic (r2 = 0.89, p<0.0001 conditions.

  10. Linking N2O emissions from biochar-amended soil to the structure and function of the N-cycling microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Johannes; Krause, Hans-Martin; Schuettler, Stefanie; Ruser, Reiner; Fromme, Markus; Scholten, Thomas; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes 8% to global greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural sources represent about 60% of anthropogenic N2O emissions. Most agricultural N2O emissions are due to increased fertilizer application. A considerable fraction of nitrogen fertilizers are converted to N2O by microbiological processes (that is, nitrification and denitrification). Soil amended with biochar (charcoal created by pyrolysis of biomass) has been demonstrated to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and affect greenhouse gas emissions, for example, reduce N2O emissions. Despite several studies on variations in the general microbial community structure due to soil biochar amendment, hitherto the specific role of the nitrogen cycling microbial community in mitigating soil N2O emissions has not been subject of systematic investigation. We performed a microcosm study with a water-saturated soil amended with different amounts (0%, 2% and 10% (w/w)) of high-temperature biochar. By quantifying the abundance and activity of functional marker genes of microbial nitrogen fixation (nifH), nitrification (amoA) and denitrification (nirK, nirS and nosZ) using quantitative PCR we found that biochar addition enhanced microbial nitrous oxide reduction and increased the abundance of microorganisms capable of N2-fixation. Soil biochar amendment increased the relative gene and transcript copy numbers of the nosZ-encoded bacterial N2O reductase, suggesting a mechanistic link to the observed reduction in N2O emissions. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the impact of biochar on the nitrogen cycling microbial community and the consequences of soil biochar amendment for microbial nitrogen transformation processes and N2O emissions from soil. PMID:24067258

  11. Collembolan trait patterns with climate modifications along a European gradient: the VULCAN case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfanti, Jonathan; Cortet, Jérôme; Hedde, Mickaël

    In a climate change context, soil ecosystem services can be threatened, notably through impacts on soil fauna. Collembola can be therefore used for bioindication of soil mesofauna functionality. Here we aim (i) to link distribution of the collembolan communities with their functional traits...

  12. Diversity of the soil biota in burned areas of southern taiga forests (Tver oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongalsky, K. B.; Zaitsev, A. S.; Korobushkin, D. I.; Saifutdinov, R. A.; Yazrikova, T. E.; Benediktova, A. I.; Gorbunova, A. Yu.; Gorshkova, I. A.; Butenko, K. O.; Kosina, N. V.; Lapygina, E. V.; Kuznetsova, D. M.; Rakhleeva, A. A.; Shakhab, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    Relations between soil biota diversity and its contribution to the performance of some ecosystem functions were assessed based on the results obtained in undisturbed and burned spruce forests near the Central Forest Nature Biosphere Reserve (Tver oblast). In August 2014, in two 4-year-old burned areas, abiotic parameters of the soils, indicators of the state of the microbial communities, the number, taxonomic diversity, and the abundance of the main groups of soil invertebrates (testate amoebae, nematodes, enchytraeids, mites, collembolans, and the mesofauna as a whole) were determined. In the soils of the burned areas, higher CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions were observed. The number of bacterial cells remained similar, and the total length of active mycelium was not significantly different. All this implies a certain intensification of biogenic processes promoting the mobilization of carbon and nitrogen after fire. The number of most of the groups of soil animals was lower (not always significantly) in the burned area than that in the soils of the undisturbed forests. The changes in the taxonomic diversity were specific for each taxon studied. Overall, the diversity of invertebrates was related to the litter thickness. However, the high taxonomic diversity of soil fauna did not always correspond to the active functioning of the ecosystem. Thus, for some taxa, a quite close correlation was found, for instance, between the total number of species (of testate amoebae in particular) and the berry crop, as well as between the soil mesofauna population and the dead wood stock. The total diversity of the investigated taxa included in the detrital trophic web was the most reliable indicator of the carbon stock in the burned areas.

  13. Localized enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil, spruce needles, and lake sediments linked to in-situ bitumen extraction near Cold Lake, Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosi, J.B.; Irvine, G.; Skierszkan, E.K.; Doyle, J.R.; Kimpe, L.E.; Janvier, J.; Blais, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of bitumen from the Alberta oil sands using in-situ technologies is expanding at a rapid rate; however, investigations into the environmental impacts of oil sands development have focused on surface mining in the Athabasca region. We measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soils, spruce needles, and lake sediment cores in the Cold Lake oil sands region to provide a historical and spatial perspective on PAH contamination related to in-situ extraction activities. A pronounced increase in PAH concentrations was recorded in one of two study lakes (Hilda Lake) corresponding to the onset of commercial bitumen production in ∼1985. Distance from extraction rigs was not an important predictor of PAH concentrations in soils, although two samples located near installations were elevated in alkyl PAHs. Evidence of localized PAH contamination in Hilda Lake and two soil samples suggests that continued environmental monitoring is justified to assess PAH contamination as development intensifies. -- Highlights: •In-situ bitumen extraction linked to rise in alkyl PAHs in one of two study lakes. •Alkyl PAHs elevated in two soil samples. •PAH contamination likely related to effluent sources, not atmospheric deposition. -- PAHs in sediments and soils were generally low in areas adjacent to in-situ bitumen extraction rigs in the Cold Lake Alberta oil sands, but evidence of localized contamination at some sites was evident

  14. Quantitative laws governing the migration of magnesium, calcium, radium-226, thorium-228 in the link between soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkinazi, E.I.

    1982-02-01

    Concentrations of magnesium, calcium, radium 226 and thorium 228 in podsolized chernozem and medium-loamy soils and in agricultural plants (wheat, barley, peas, potatoes, beets, and carrots) were determined. Transition coefficients of magnesium, calcium and radium 226 from soils to plants were calculated

  15. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy as a tool to link soil organic matter composition to ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Erhagen, Björn; Öquist, Mats; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Environmental factors (e.g. temperature and moisture) and the size and composition of soil microbial populations are often considered the main drivers of soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization. Less consideration is given to the role of SOM as a substrate for microbial metabolism and the importance of the organo-chemical composition of SOM on decomposition. In addition, a fraction of the SOM is often considered as recalcitrant to mineralization leading to accumulation of SOM. However, recently the concept of intrinsic recalcitrance of SOM to mineralization has been questioned. The challenge in investigating the role of SOM composition on its mineralization to a large extent stems from the difficulties in obtaining high resolution characterization of a very complex matrix. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a widely used tool to characterize SOM. However, SOM is a very complex mixture and in the resulting 13C NMR spectra, the identified functional groups may represent different molecular fragments that appear in the same spectral region leading to broad peaks. These overlaps defy attempts to identify molecular moieties, and this makes it impossible to derive information at a resolution needed for evaluating e.g. recalcitrance of SOM. Here we applied a method, developed in wood science for the pulp paper industry, to achieve a better characterization of SOM. We directly dissolved finely ground organic layers of boreal forest floors-litters, fibric and humic horizons of both coniferous and broadleaved stands-in dimethyl sulfoxide and analyzed the resulting solution with a two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13C NMR experiment. We will discuss methodological aspects related to the ability to identify and quantify individual molecular moieties in SOM. We will demonstrate how the spectra resolve signals of CH groups in a 2D plane determined by the 13C and 1H chemical shifts, thereby vastly increasing the resolving power and information content of NMR spectra. The

  16. Links between soil properties and steady-state solute transport through cultivated topsoil at the field scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koestel, J. K.; Nørgaard, Trine; Loung, N. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is known that solute transport through soil is heterogeneous at all spatial scales. However, little data are available to allow quantification of these heterogeneities at the field scale or larger. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of soil properties, hydrologic state variables......, and tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) at the field scale for the inert solute transport under a steady-state irrigation rate which produced near-saturated conditions. Sixty-five undisturbed soil columns approximately 20 cm in height and diameter were sampled from the loamy topsoil of an agricultural field...... to larger water saturation and the activation of larger macropores. Our study provides further evidence that it should be possible to estimate solute transport properties from soil properties such as soil texture or bulk density. We also demonstrated that estimation approaches established for the column...

  17. Effects of pesticides on soil and water microflora and mesofauna in wetland ricefields : a summary of current knowledge and extrapolation to temperate environments

    OpenAIRE

    Roger, Pierre-Armand; Simpson, I.; Oficial, R.; Ardales, S.; Jimenez, R.

    1994-01-01

    Cette revue bibliographique analyse les connaissances sur le devenir des pesticides et leurs impacts sur la microflore et la mésofaune des rizières inondées en climat tempéré. Une analyse bibliographique voulue exhaustive montre que les connaissances sur le sujet sont très fragmentaires et partiellement obsolètes. Les pesticides appliqués à des concentrations correspondant aux recommandations du fabriquant montrent rarement des effets néfastes à court terme sur la microflore. Les populations ...

  18. Linking hard and soft traits: Physiology, morphology and anatomy interact to determine habitat affinities to soil water availability in herbaceous dicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluau, Michaël; Shipley, Bill

    2018-01-01

    Species' habitat affinities along environmental gradients should be determined by a combination of physiological (hard) and morpho-anatomical (soft) traits. Using a gradient of soil water availability, we address three questions: How well can we predict habitat affinities from hard traits, from soft traits, and from a combination of the two? How well can we predict species' physiological responses to drought (hard traits) from their soft traits? Can we model a causal sequence as soft traits → hard traits → species distributions? We chose 25 species of herbaceous dicots whose affinities for soil moisture have already been linked to 5 physiological traits (stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis measured at soil field capacity, water use efficiency, stomatal conductance and soil water potential measured when leaves begin to wilt). Under controlled conditions in soils at field capacity, we measured five soft traits (leaf dry matter content, specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen content, stomatal area, specific root length). Soft traits alone were poor predictors (R2 = 0.129) while hard traits explained 48% of species habitat affinities. Moreover, hard traits were significantly related to combinations of soft traits. From a priori biological knowledge and hypothesized ecological links we built a path model showing a sequential pattern soft traits → hard traits → species distributions and accounting for 59.6% (p = 0.782) of habitat wetness. Both direct and indirect causal relationships existed between soft traits, hard traits and species' habitat preferences. The poor predictive abilities of soft traits alone were due to the existence of antagonistic and synergistic direct and indirect effects of soft traits on habitat preferences mediated by the hard traits. To obtain a more realistic model applicable to a population level, it has to be tested in an experiment including species competition for water supply.

  19. Perennial grasses as the ecological link for preserving the fertility of the peat soils polluted by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podolyak, A.G.; Saraseko, E.G.; Arastovich, T.V.; Suzko, O.V.; Tagaj, S.A.; Lasko, T.V.; Goloveshkin, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of degradation of peat soils polluted with 137Cs and 90Sr and cultivation of the crop production on them is considered. Distribution of grasslands and pastures on polluted peat soils by the regions of the Republic of Belarus is presented. Characteristics of the peat soils are shown. Coefficients of migration of radionuclides in perennial grasses' hay depending on mobile potassium availability (for 137Cs) and soil reaction pHkci (for 90sr) are evaluated. Inadequacy of the hay, harvested on polluted territories, to the main quality characteristics is presented and analyzed. Crop mixtures recommended for grasslands and pastures reseeding on polluted territories are suggested. The list of cultivars suitable for the conditions of over wetting is offered. It is recommended to use shallow peat soils as grasslands. Permanent cereal grasses restore organic matter of these soils and provide economic efficiency of agricultural use. According the results of the research the transfer factors of 137Cs and 90Sr to plants are relatively low. This fact is explained by the time that has passed since the accident on Chernobyl nuclear power plant and by the variations of mobile potassium and exchangeable acidity in peat soils

  20. Tracking Water, C, N, and P by Linking Local Scale Soil Hydrologic and Biogeochemical Features to Watershed Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghatdoost, A.; Mohanty, B.; Huang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) have many contemporary significance due to their critical roles in determining the structure and function of ecosystems. The objectives of our study is to find out temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of soil physical, chemical, and biological properties and their interaction with C, N, and P cycles in the soil for different land covers and weather conditions. The study is being conducted at three locations within Texas Water Observatory (TWO), including Riesel (USDA-ARS experimental watersheds), Texas A&M Agrilife Research Farm, and Danciger forest in Texas. Soil physical, hydraulic, chemical (total C, total N, total P, pH, EC, redox potential, N-NO3-, N-NH4+, PO42-, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, and Alox and Feox), and microbiological (Microbial biomass C, N, and P, PLFA analysis, enzymatic activity) properties are being measured in the top 30 cm of the soil profile. Our preliminary data shows that biogeochemical processes would be more profound in the areas with higher temperature and precipitation as these factors stimulate microbial activity and thus influence C, N, and P cycles. Also concentrations of C and N are greater in woodlands relative to remnant grasslands as a consequence of the greater above- and below-ground productivity of woodlands relative to remnant grasslands. We hypothesize that finer soil textures have more organic matter, microbial population, and reactive surfaces for chemicals than coarse soils, as described in some recent literature. However, the microbial activity may not be active in fine textured soils as organic materials may be sorbed to clay surfaces or protected from decomposing organisms. We also expect reduced condition in saturated soils which will decrease carbon mineralization while increase denitrification and alkalinity in the soil. Spatio-temporal data with initial evaluation of biogeochemical factors/processes for different land covers will be presented.

  1. Soil , phyto and zoocenosis characteristics along an elevational gradient in the Alps (NW Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Angelo; Freppaz, Michele; Filippa, Gianluca; Buffa, Giorgio; Rivella, Enrico; Griselli, Bona; Parodi, Alessandra; Zanini, Ermanno

    2010-05-01

    From a global point of view, the distribution of biodiversity can be associated with climate. In particular, a majority of patterns of species diversity can be explained in terms of climatic gradients. Within a given mountain range, climate may affect the distribution of soils and the abundance and richness of plant species and mesofauna composition. In this study, promoted in the framework of an INTERREG Project "Biodiversità: una ricchezza da conservare" we investigate the soil, plant characteristics and mesofauna communities along two elevational gradient in Italian North Western Alps. Mountain environments are well-suited for such studies because of pronounced climatic gradients within short distances. The study areas, named San Bernardo and Vannino, are located in North Italy, close to the border of Switzerland (San Bernardo: N 46°09' E 08°10'; Vannino: N 46°23'E 08°22'). The first one ranged form 1617 m ASL to 2595 m ASL. while the second one ranged from 1786 to 2515 m ASL , with both a prevalent south aspect. Along both elevational gradients we selected 7 sites, with a vegetation cover ranging from coniferous forest (Larix, Picea and Abies) to high-elevation prairies. In each site, soil material (0-10 cm depth) was collected and in the laboratory, samples were dried and passed through a 2-mm sieve. The pH and the particle size distribution was determined following standard methods (SISS, 1998, 2000). Total C and N contents of the soil were measured with a C/H/N analyser (Elementar Vario EL). Data on the vegetation structure were collected close to each soil sampling points, covering a surface of 16 m2; each sampling site has been further divided into 4 sub-areas of 4 m2. Soil texture ranged between sand and loamy sand, without any obvious distribution with altitude. On average, in the Vannino transect soil texture was slightly coarser than at San Bernardo. A total of 118 vascular species were found at the sampling sites. Landolt ecological spectrum

  2. Modeling Water and Nutrient Transport through the Soil-Root-Canopy Continuum: Explicitly Linking the Below- and Above-Ground Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Quijano, J. C.; Drewry, D.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetation roots provide a fundamental link between the below ground water and nutrient dynamics and above ground canopy processes such as photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and energy balance. The “hydraulic architecture” of roots, consisting of the structural organization of the root system and the flow properties of the conduits (xylem) as well as interfaces with the soil and the above ground canopy, affect stomatal conductance thereby directly linking them to the transpiration. Roots serve as preferential pathways for the movement of moisture from wet to dry soil layers during the night, both from upper soil layer to deeper layers during the wet season (‘hydraulic descent’) and vice-versa (‘hydraulic lift’) as determined by the moisture gradients. The conductivities of transport through the root system are significantly, often orders of magnitude, larger than that of the surrounding soil resulting in movement of soil-moisture at rates that are substantially larger than that through the soil. This phenomenon is called hydraulic redistribution (HR). The ability of the deep-rooted vegetation to “bank” the water through hydraulic descent during wet periods for utilization during dry periods provides them with a competitive advantage. However, during periods of hydraulic lift these deep-rooted trees may facilitate the growth of understory vegetation where the understory scavenges the hydraulically lifted soil water. In other words, understory vegetation with relatively shallow root systems have access to the banked deep-water reservoir. These inter-dependent root systems have a significant influence on water cycle and ecosystem productivity. HR induced available moisture may support rhizosphere microbial and mycorrhizal fungi activities and enable utilization of heterogeneously distributed water and nutrient resources To capture this complex inter-dependent nutrient and water transport through the soil-root-canopy continuum we present modeling

  3. Air-tough: A fully 3-dimensional linking of atmosphere with soil using eddy diffusivity concept and V-TOUGH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montazer, P. [Multimedia Environmental Technology, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In arid climates, evapotranspiration is a strongly-coupled thermodynamic process that is controlled by the interaction of the atmospheric boundary layer and the upper soil surface. Simulation of this process requires a fully-coupled thermodynamic multi-phase fluid-flow and energy-transport code. Such a code was developed in a previous investigation using V-TOUGH. The resulting efficient computer code, A-TOUGH, simulates the effect of dynamic atmospheric fluctuations on vapor movement between the soil and the atmosphere and the resulting moisture movement in the soil. However, the coupling between the atmosphere and soil employed eddy diffusivity which was only a function of time and not a function of space. In the present study the code is extended to allow spatial as well as temporal variation of eddy diffusivity.

  4. Links between soil properties and steady-state solute transport through cultivated topsoil at the field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, J. K.; Norgaard, T.; Luong, N. M.; Vendelboe, A. L.; Moldrup, P.; Jarvis, N. J.; Lamandé, M.; Iversen, B. V.; Wollesen de Jonge, L.

    2013-02-01

    It is known that solute transport through soil is heterogeneous at all spatial scales. However, little data are available to allow quantification of these heterogeneities at the field scale or larger. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of soil properties, hydrologic state variables, and tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) at the field scale for the inert solute transport under a steady-state irrigation rate which produced near-saturated conditions. Sixty-five undisturbed soil columns approximately 20 cm in height and diameter were sampled from the loamy topsoil of an agricultural field site in Silstrup (Denmark) at a sampling distance of approximately 15 m (with a few exceptions), covering an area of approximately 1 ha (60 m × 165 m). For 64 of the 65 investigated soil columns, we observed BTC shapes indicating a strong preferential transport. The strength of preferential transport was positively correlated with the bulk density and the degree of water saturation. The latter suggests that preferential macropore transport was the dominating transport process. Increased bulk densities were presumably related with a decrease in near-saturated hydraulic conductivities and as a consequence to larger water saturation and the activation of larger macropores. Our study provides further evidence that it should be possible to estimate solute transport properties from soil properties such as soil texture or bulk density. We also demonstrated that estimation approaches established for the column scale have to be upscaled when applied to the field scale or larger.

  5. Vertical migration of nematodes and soil-borne fungi to developing roots of Ammophila arenaria (L.) link after sand accretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rooij van der Goes, P.C.E.M.; Peters, B.A.M.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ammophila arenaria benefits from regular burial of windblown beach sand as it allows escape from soilborne pathogens (nematodes and fungi). The present study was done to obtain more insight into the timing and order of migration of the soil organisms towards the newly formed roots. Accordingly,

  6. Soil nitrogen levels are linked to decomposition enzyme activities along an urban-remote tropical forest gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. F. Cusack

    2013-01-01

    Urban areas in tropical regions are expanding rapidly, with significant potential to affect local ecosystem dynamics. In particular, nitrogen (N) availability may increase in urban-proximate forests because of atmospheric N deposition. Unlike temperate forests, many tropical forests on highly weathered soils have high background N availability, so plant growth is...

  7. Study of microarthopod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnarli, E.; Goggioli, D.; Tarchi, F.; Guidi, S.; Nannelli, R.; Vignozzi, N.; Valboa, G.; Lottero, M. R.; Corino, L.; Simoni, S.

    2015-01-01

    Land use influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the impact of different management strategies on soil quality is increasingly requested. The determination of communities' structures of edaphic fauna can represent an efficient tool. In this study, in some vineyards in Piedmont (Italy), the effects of two different management systems, organic and integrated pest management (IPM), on soil biota were evaluated. As microarthropods living in soil surface are an important component of soil ecosystem interacting with all the other system components, a multi disciplinary approach was adopted by characterizing also some soil physical and chemical characteristics (soil texture, soil pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, calcium carbonate). Soil samplings were carried out on Winter 2011 and Spring 2012. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The biological quality of the soil was defined through the determination of ecological indices, such as QBS-ar, species richness and indices of Shannon-Weaver, Pielou, Margalef and Simpson. The mesofauna abundance was affected by both the type of management and the soil texture. The analysis of microarthropod communities by QBS-ar showed higher values in organic than in IPM managed vineyards; in particular, the values registered in organic vineyards were similar to those characteristic of preserved soils.

  8. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS AGROECOLOGICAL LOADS ON BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shchur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of different levels of agri-environmental loads on the enzymatic activity of the soil.Methods. Isolation of soil fauna was conducted by thermogradient. Ecological characteristics of soil biota community was determined by ecological indices. The enzymatic activity of soil under different crops and at different levels of agri-environmental loads in our experiments was determined by methods proven in the laboratory soil enzymology Institute of Experimental Botany name V.F. Kuprevich and Belorussian Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry.Results. Community soil biota is polydominant character, as evidenced by the values of environmental indices. It does not set a significant impact on the community agrotechnological loads of soil micro and mesofauna. Absolute figures soil phosphatase activity averaged over all embodiments without recourse formation were higher by 63% compared with plowing. Invertase and catalase activity was much higher in stubble on all variants of the experiment and selection of terms. The content of peroxidase lower under pure steam. The laws have taken place in respect of peroxidase activity, marked for polifenoloksidase activity.Main conclusion. There was no major change in the ecological characteristics of soil biota. In the enzymatic activity of soil influenced by sampling time, fertilizer system, soil tillage methods and cultivated crops.

  9. Modeling stomatal conductance in the earth system: linking leaf water-use efficiency and water transport along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, G. B.; Williams, M.; Fisher, R. A.; Oleson, K. W.

    2014-09-01

    The Ball-Berry stomatal conductance model is commonly used in earth system models to simulate biotic regulation of evapotranspiration. However, the dependence of stomatal conductance (gs) on vapor pressure deficit (Ds) and soil moisture must be empirically parameterized. We evaluated the Ball-Berry model used in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) and an alternative stomatal conductance model that links leaf gas exchange, plant hydraulic constraints, and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPA). The SPA model simulates stomatal conductance numerically by (1) optimizing photosynthetic carbon gain per unit water loss while (2) constraining stomatal opening to prevent leaf water potential from dropping below a critical minimum. We evaluated two optimization algorithms: intrinsic water-use efficiency (ΔAn /Δgs, the marginal carbon gain of stomatal opening) and water-use efficiency (ΔAn /ΔEl, the marginal carbon gain of transpiration water loss). We implemented the stomatal models in a multi-layer plant canopy model to resolve profiles of gas exchange, leaf water potential, and plant hydraulics within the canopy, and evaluated the simulations using leaf analyses, eddy covariance fluxes at six forest sites, and parameter sensitivity analyses. The primary differences among stomatal models relate to soil moisture stress and vapor pressure deficit responses. Without soil moisture stress, the performance of the SPA stomatal model was comparable to or slightly better than the CLM Ball-Berry model in flux tower simulations, but was significantly better than the CLM Ball-Berry model when there was soil moisture stress. Functional dependence of gs on soil moisture emerged from water flow along the soil-to-leaf pathway rather than being imposed a priori, as in the CLM Ball-Berry model. Similar functional dependence of gs on Ds emerged from the ΔAn/ΔEl optimization, but not the ΔAn /gs optimization. Two parameters (stomatal efficiency and root hydraulic

  10. Linking an economic model for European agriculture with a mechanistic model to estimate nitrogen and carbon losses from arable soils in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leip

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive assessment of policy impact on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from agricultural soils requires careful consideration of both socio-economic aspects and the environmental heterogeneity of the landscape. We developed a modelling framework that links the large-scale economic model for agriculture CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact assessment with the biogeochemistry model DNDC (DeNitrification DeComposition to simulate GHG fluxes, carbon stock changes and the nitrogen budget of agricultural soils in Europe. The framework allows the ex-ante simulation of agricultural or agri-environmental policy impacts on a wide range of environmental problems such as climate change (GHG emissions, air pollution and groundwater pollution. Those environmental impacts can be analyzed in the context of economic and social indicators as calculated by the economic model. The methodology consists of four steps: (i definition of appropriate calculation units that can be considered as homogeneous in terms of economic behaviour and environmental response; (ii downscaling of regional agricultural statistics and farm management information from a CAPRI simulation run into the spatial calculation units; (iii designing environmental model scenarios and model runs; and finally (iv aggregating results for interpretation. We show the first results of the nitrogen budget in croplands in fourteen countries of the European Union and discuss possibilities to improve the detailed assessment of nitrogen and carbon fluxes from European arable soils.

  11. Impacts of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nitrification in a cold climate soil are linked to the bacterial ammonia oxidizer community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fenliang; Yang, Qianbao; Li, Zhaojun; Wei, Dan; Cui, Xi'an; Liang, Yongchao

    2011-11-01

    The microbiology underpinning soil nitrogen cycling in northeast China remains poorly understood. These agricultural systems are typified by widely contrasting temperature, ranging from -40 to 38°C. In a long-term site in this region, the impacts of mineral and organic fertilizer amendments on potential nitrification rate (PNR) were determined. PNR was found to be suppressed by long-term mineral fertilizer treatment but enhanced by manure treatment. The abundance and structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) and archaeal (AOA) communities were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis techniques. The abundance of AOA was reduced by all fertilizer treatments, while the opposite response was measured for AOB, leading to a six- to 60-fold reduction in AOA/AOB ratio. The community structure of AOA exhibited little variation across fertilization treatments, whereas the structure of the AOB community was highly responsive. PNR was correlated with community structure of AOB rather than that of AOA. Variation in the community structure of AOB was linked to soil pH, total carbon, and nitrogen contents induced by different long-term fertilization regimes. The results suggest that manure amendment establishes conditions which select for an AOB community type which recovers mineral fertilizer-suppressed soil nitrification.

  12. Characterising and linking X-ray CT derived macroporosity parameters to infiltration in soils with contrasting structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Karin; Katuwal, Sheela; Young, Iain

    2018-01-01

    with X-ray CT. Kunsat was significantly higher in the Andosol than in the Gleysol at all water potentials, and decreased significantly with depth in both soils. The in situ measurements guided the definition of new macroporosity parameters from the X-ray CT reconstructions. For the Andosol, Kunsat......Soils deliver the regulating ecosystem services of water infiltration and distribution, which can be controlled by macropores. Parameterizing macropore hydraulic properties is challenging due to the lack of direct measurement methods. With tension-disc infiltrometry hydraulic properties near...... saturation can be measured. Differentiating between hydrologically active and non-active pores, at a given water potential, indirectly assesses macropore continuity. Water flow through macropores is controlled by macropore size distribution, tortuosity, and connectivity, which can be directly derived by X...

  13. Nitrogen, organic carbon and sulphur cycling in terrestrial ecosystems: linking nitrogen saturation to carbon limitation of soil microbial processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Cosby, B. J.; Evans, C. D.; Hruška, J.; Moldan, F.; Oulehle, F.; Šantrůčková, H.; Tahovská, K.; Wright, R. F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 115, 1-3 (2013), s. 33-51 ISSN 0168-2563. [BIOGEOMON : international symposium on ecosystem behavior /7./. Northport, 15.07.2012-20.07.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nitrogen * carbon * sulphur * acidification * forest soil * modelling Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2013

  14. Linking Changes in Snow Cover with Nitrogen Cycling and Microbial Abundance and Functional Gene Expression in Agricultural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyer, C.; Brin, L.; Zebarth, B.; Burton, D.; Wertz, S.; Chantigny, M.

    2016-12-01

    In eastern Canada, climate change-related warming and increased precipitation may alter winter snow cover, with potential consequences for soil conditions, microbes, and N2O fluxes. We conducted a two-year field study with snow removal, passive snow addition, and ambient treatments in a potato-barley crop system. We measured in situ greenhouse gas (N2O and CO2) fluxes and belowground gas accumulation, and quantified abundance and expression of denitrifier (nirS, nirK, nosZ) and nitrifier (ammonium oxidizing archaeal (AOA) and bacterial (AOB) amoA) genes. Soil gas accumulated throughout winter, and surface fluxes were greatest during spring thaw. Greatest mid-winter soil N2O accumulation and spring thaw N2O fluxes were associated with snow removal in winter 1 and ambient snow in winter 2. High N2O accumulation and fluxes may have been due to increased substrate availability with increased frost intensity in removal plots in winter 1, but with greatest water content in ambient plots in winter 2. In each winter, greatest abundances of nirS, nirK gene denitrifiers and/or amoA gene of AOA were observed in the treatments with the greatest N2O accumulation and fluxes. Gene expression did not vary with treatment, but highest expression of amoA gene of AOA and AOB, and nosZ gene was measured near 0ºC, indicating activity during periods of stable snow cover and spring thaw. Results suggest that the magnitude of fluxes during spring thaw were related to soil conditions and microbial communities present during the prior winter, and not solely those during thaw. Furthermore, the effects of changing snow cover on microbes and N2O fluxes were not a straightforward effect of snow depth, but were likely mediated by temperature and moisture.

  15. Study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnarli, Elena; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Corino, Lorenzo; Goggioli, Donatella; Guidi, Silvia; Lottero, Mariarosa; Tarchi, Franca; Simoni, Sauro

    2014-05-01

    Land use type influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the effects of different crop managements on soil quality is commonly requested; it can be pursued by means of the determination of communities' structure of edaphic fauna. The development and application of biological indices may represent an efficient mean to assess soil quality. We evaluated the effect of crop managements (organic and Integrated Pest Management-IPM) in some vineyards in Piedmont (Italy) on soil biota in relation to some physical and chemical characteristics of the soil. The study was performed in eleven sites, including seven organic and four IPM managed vineyards located in the Costigliole d'Asti area. Samplings were carried out during the winter 2011 and the spring 2012. Soil samples were collected using a cylindrical soil core sampler (3cm diameter x 30cm height): each sample was a cylindrical soil core which was equally subdivided to study arthropod communities at different depth ranges. Additional samples were collected and analyzed for the following soil physical and chemical properties: texture (sedigraph method), pH (1:2.5 soil/water), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (NT) and calcium carbonate (dry combustion by CN analyzer). The extraction of microarthropods was performed using the selector Berlese-Tullgren. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The influence of soil properties and of agronomic practices on the abundance of mesofauna was evaluated by multivariate analysis (MANOVA). The biological soil quality was also defined through the determination of biotic indices such as the qualitative and quantitative QBSar (Quality Biological Soil - arthropods), and biodiversity indices such as species richness and indices of Shannon-Wiener (H') and Simpson (D). Overall, more than four thousands arthropods were collected and the highest abundance was in biological management with about 2:1 ratio (biological vs

  16. Linking River Basin Modifications and Rural Soil and Water Management Practices in Tropical Deltas to Sea Level Rise Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K. G.; Brondizio, E.; Roy, K.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The increased vulnerability of deltaic communities to coastal flooding as a result of upstream engineering has been acknowledged for decades. What has received less attention is the sensitivity of deltas to the interactions between river basin modifications and local scale cultivation and irrigation. Combined with reduced river and sediment discharge, soil and water management practices in coastal areas may exacerbate the risk of tidal flooding, erosion of arable land, and salinization of soils and groundwater associated with sea level rise. This represents a cruel irony to smallholder subsistence farmers whose priorities are food, water and economic security, rather than sustainability of the environment. Such issues challenge disciplinary approaches and require integrated social-biophysical models able to understand and diagnose these complex relationships. This study applies a new conceptual framework to define the relevant social and physical units operating on the common pool resources of climate, water and sediment in the Bengal Delta (Bangladesh). The new framework will inform development of a nested geospatial analysis and a coupled model to identify multi-scale social-biophysical feedbacks associated with smallholder soil and water management practices, coastal dynamics, basin modification, and climate vulnerability in tropical deltas. The framework was used to create household surveys for collecting data on climate perceptions, land and water management, and governance. Test surveys were administered to rural farmers in 14 villages during a reconnaissance visit to coastal Bangladesh. Initial results demonstrate complexity and heterogeneity at the local scale in both biophysical conditions and decision-making. More importantly, the results illuminate how national and geopolitical-level policies scale down to impact local-level environmental and social stability in communities already vulnerable to coastal flooding. Here, we will discuss components of the

  17. Beyond the Dams: Linking Rural Smallholder Soil and Water Management Practices in Tropical Deltas to Sea Level Rise Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K. G.; Syvitski, J. P.; Brondizio, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    The increased vulnerability of deltaic communities to coastal flooding as a result of upstream engineering has been acknowledged for decades. What has received less attention is the sensitivity of deltas to the interactions of river basin modifications and cultivation and irrigation in their coastal regions, particularly in tropical deltas. Embanking, tilling, and crop or stock choice all affect the movement of sediment and water on deltas. Combined with reduced river and sediment discharge, soil and water management practices in coastal areas may in fact exacerbate the risk of tidal flooding, erosion of arable land, and salinization of soils and groundwater associated with sea level rise. Thus exists a cruel irony to smallholder subsistence farmers whose priorities are food, water and economic security, rather than sustainability of the regional environment. Such issues challenge disciplinary approaches and require integrated social-biophysical models able to understand and diagnose these complex relationships. The complementary Institutional Analysis and Development and SocioEcological Systems frameworks are applied to the southwestern Bengal Delta (Bangladesh). The method helps to define the relevant social and physical units operating on the common pool of environmental resources, those of climate, water and sediment. The conceptual frameworks are designed to inform development of a nested geospatial analysis and a dynamic coupled model to identify the social-biophysical feedbacks associated with smallholder soil and water management practices, coastal dynamics, and climate vulnerability in rural Bangladesh. Our presentation will discuss components of the conceptual frameworks and will introduce a bi-directional pilot study designed for obtaining and disseminating information about environmental change to farmers in southwest Bangladesh with potential application to rural farming communities in other tropical deltas.

  18. Mechanistic link between uptake of sulfonamides and bacteriostatic effect: model development and application to experimental data from two soil microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focks, Andreas; Klasmeier, Jörg; Matthies, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Sulfonamides (SA) are antibiotic compounds that are widely used as human and veterinary pharmaceuticals. They are not rapidly biodegradable and have been detected in various environmental compartments. Effects of sulfonamides on microbial endpoints in soil have been reported from laboratory incubation studies. Sulfonamides inhibit the growth of sensitive microorganisms by competitive binding to the dihydropteroate-synthase (DHPS) enzyme of folic acid production. A mathematical model was developed that relates the extracellular SA concentration to the inhibition of the relative bacterial growth rate. Two factors--the anionic accumulation factor (AAF) and the cellular affinity factor (CAF)--determine the effective concentration of an SA. The AAF describes the SA uptake into bacterial cells and varies with both the extra- and intracellular pH values and with the acidic pKa value of an SA. The CAF subsumes relevant cellular and enzyme properties, and is directly proportional to the DHPS affinity constant for an SA. Based on the model, a mechanistic dose-response relationship is developed and evaluated against previously published data, where differences in the responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Panthoea agglomerans toward changing medium pH values were found, most likely as a result of their diverse pH regulation. The derived dose-response relationship explains the pH and pKa dependency of mean effective concentration values (EC50) of eight SA and two soil bacteria based on AAF and CAF values. The mathematical model can be used to extrapolate sulfonamide effects to other pH values and to calculate the CAF as a pH-independent measure for the SA effects on microbial growth. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  19. Seasonal exposure to drought and air warming affects soil Collembola and mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4 °C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length ≤ 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type.

  20. Seasonal exposure to drought and air warming affects soil Collembola and mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Xu

    Full Text Available Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4 °C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length ≤ 0.20 mm increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type.

  1. Seasonal Exposure to Drought and Air Warming Affects Soil Collembola and Mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M.; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4°C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type. PMID:22905210

  2. Case study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnarli, E.; Goggioli, D.; Tarchi, F.; Guidi, S.; Nannelli, R.; Vignozzi, N.; Valboa, G.; Lottero, M. R.; Corino, L.; Simoni, S.

    2015-07-01

    Land use influences the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods. The evaluation of the impact of different management strategies on soil quality is increasingly sought, and the determination of community structures of edaphic fauna can represent an efficient tool. In the area of Langhe (Piedmont, Italy), eight vineyards characterized for physical and chemical properties (soil texture, soil pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, calcium carbonate) were selected. We evaluated the effect of two types of crop management, organic and integrated pest management (IPM), on abundance and biodiversity of microarthropods living at the soil surface. Soil sampling was carried out in winter 2011 and spring 2012. All specimens were counted and determined up to the order level. The biodiversity analysis was performed using ecological indexes (taxa richness, dominance, Shannon-Wiener, Buzas and Gibson's evenness, Margalef, equitability, Berger-Parker), and the biological soil quality was assessed with the BSQ-ar index. The mesofauna abundance was affected by both the type of management and sampling time. On the whole, a higher abundance was in organic vineyards (N = 1981) than in IPM ones (N = 1062). The analysis performed by ecological indexes showed quite a high level of biodiversity in this environment, particularly in May 2012. Furthermore, the BSQ-ar values registered were similar to those obtained in preserved soils.

  3. Taxonomically-linked growth phenotypes during arsenic stress among arsenic resistant bacteria isolated from soils overlying the Centralia coal seam fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunivin, Taylor K; Miller, Justine; Shade, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    Arsenic (As), a toxic element, has impacted life since early Earth. Thus, microorganisms have evolved many As resistance and tolerance mechanisms to improve their survival outcomes given As exposure. We isolated As resistant bacteria from Centralia, PA, the site of an underground coal seam fire that has been burning since 1962. From a 57.4°C soil collected from a vent above the fire, we isolated 25 unique aerobic As resistant bacterial strains spanning seven genera. We examined their diversity, resistance gene content, transformation abilities, inhibitory concentrations, and growth phenotypes. Although As concentrations were low at the time of soil collection (2.58 ppm), isolates had high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of arsenate and arsenite (>300 mM and 20 mM respectively), and most isolates were capable of arsenate reduction. We screened isolates (PCR and sequencing) using 12 published primer sets for six As resistance genes (AsRGs). Genes encoding arsenate reductase (arsC) and arsenite efflux pumps (arsB, ACR3(2)) were present, and phylogenetic incongruence between 16S rRNA genes and AsRGs provided evidence for horizontal gene transfer. A detailed investigation of differences in isolate growth phenotypes across As concentrations (lag time to exponential growth, maximum growth rate, and maximum OD590) showed a relationship with taxonomy, providing information that could help to predict an isolate's performance given As exposure in situ. Our results suggest that microbiological management and remediation of environmental As could be informed by taxonomically-linked As tolerance, potential for resistance gene transferability, and the rare biosphere.

  4. Assessment of arsenic in Australian grown and imported rice varieties on sale in Australia and potential links with irrigation practises and soil geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransisca, Yunnita; Small, Darryl M; Morrison, Paul D; Spencer, Michelle J S; Ball, Andrew S; Jones, Oliver A H

    2015-11-01

    Chronic dietary exposure to arsenic, particularly the inorganic forms (defined as elemental arsenic, predominantly As(3+) and As(5+), and all its inorganic compounds except arsine), is a matter of concern for human health. Ingestion of arsenic usually occurs via contaminated water but recent studies show there is also a risk of exposure from food, particularly Asian rice (Oryza sativa). Australia is a rice growing country, contributing around 2% of the world rice trade, and a large proportion of the population consumes rice regularly. In the present study we investigated concentrations of arsenic in both Australian grown and imported rice on sale in Australia and examined the potential links with irrigation practises and soil geochemistry. The results indicated a wide spread of arsenic levels of 0.09-0.33 mg kg(-1), with Australian grown Arborio and sushi varieties of O. sativa containing the highest mean value of ∼0.22 mg kg(-1). Arsenic levels in all samples were below the 1 mg kg(-1) limit set by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Do soil organisms affect aboveground litter decomposition in the semiarid Patagonian steppe, Argentina?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Patricia I; Yahdjian, Laura; Austin, Amy T

    2012-01-01

    Surface litter decomposition in arid and semiarid ecosystems is often faster than predicted by climatic parameters such as annual precipitation or evapotranspiration, or based on standard indices of litter quality such as lignin or nitrogen concentrations. Abiotic photodegradation has been demonstrated to be an important factor controlling aboveground litter decomposition in aridland ecosystems, but soil fauna, particularly macrofauna such as termites and ants, have also been identified as key players affecting litter mass loss in warm deserts. Our objective was to quantify the importance of soil organisms on surface litter decomposition in the Patagonian steppe in the absence of photodegradative effects, to establish the relative importance of soil organisms on rates of mass loss and nitrogen release. We estimated the relative contribution of soil fauna and microbes to litter decomposition of a dominant grass using litterboxes with variable mesh sizes that excluded groups of soil fauna based on size class (10, 2, and 0.01 mm), which were placed beneath shrub canopies. We also employed chemical repellents (naphthalene and fungicide). The exclusion of macro- and mesofauna had no effect on litter mass loss over 3 years (P = 0.36), as litter decomposition was similar in all soil fauna exclusions and naphthalene-treated litter. In contrast, reduction of fungal activity significantly inhibited litter decomposition (P soil fauna have been mentioned as a key control of litter decomposition in warm deserts, biogeographic legacies and temperature limitation may constrain the importance of these organisms in temperate aridlands, particularly in the southern hemisphere.

  6. Soil health: looking for suitable indicators. What should be considered to assess the effects of use and management on soil health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil Health refers to the ecological equilibrium and the functionality of a soil and its capacity to maintain a well balanced ecosystem with high biodiversity above and below surface, and productivity. To understand and use soil health as a tool for sustainability, physical, chemical, and biological properties must be employed to verify which respond to the soil use and management within a desired timescale. Attributes with a rapid response to natural or anthropogenic actions are considered good indicators of soil health. Among the physical indicators, soil texture, aggregation, moisture, porosity, and bulk density have been used, while among chemical indicators total C and N, mineral nutrients, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, among others are well established. However, most of them generally have a slow response, when compared to the biological ones, such as microbial biomass C and N, biodiversity, soil enzymes, soil respiration, etc., in addition to macro and mesofauna. Thus, a systemic approach based on different kinds of indicators (physical, chemical and biological in assessing soil health would be safer than using only one kind of attribute. Many human activities have caused desertification, loss of biodiversity, disruption of aggregates, loss of organic matter and nutrients, among others. Today, it is imperious to maintain soil health and productivity with increasing emphasis on reforestation and recuperation of degraded areas through the use of organic amendments, reintroduction of plants, soil fauna and microorganisms. This review focused on an integrative view on indicators of soil health to be used as tools for prediction of sustainability in production systems.

  7. Soil microarthropods and their bioindicator value regarding the bio-edaphic conditions in forest ecosystems of Danube Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călugăr A.,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to compare soil mesofauna communities in natural and anthropogenic forests from Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve and establish a baseline data in monitoring the disturbed sites. The abundance and diversity of edaphic microarthropods were analyzed in five plots, three of them being natural forests and two plantations (Canada poplar, and respectively willow. The mites from Trombidiformes and Oribatida were closely investigated being identified at family level. Qualitative analysis of edaphic microarthropods evidences numerical dominance of mites, excepting only one stand (Canada poplar plantation. Among mites Oribatida owns the biggest weight (76.6 - 94.1% of the total mites, followed by Trombidiformes or Mesostigmata. Among insects the collembolans hold higher density in the poplar plantation, and the lowest one in the willow plantation. Structure of mites communities differs between the investigated ecosystems both in quantitative and qualitative aspects depending on particular conditions of each plot.

  8. Bacterial and enchytraeid abundance accelerate soil carbon turnover along a lowland vegetation gradient in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M.P.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Turetsky, M.R.; Petersen, D.G.; McGuire, A.D.; Briones, M.J.I.; Churchill, A.C.; Doctor, D.H.; Pruett, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    Boreal wetlands are characterized by a mosaic of plant communities, including forests, shrublands, grasslands, and fens, which are structured largely by changes in topography and water table position. The soil associated with these plant communities contain quantitatively and qualitatively different forms of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrient availability that drive changes in biogeochemical cycling rates. Therefore different boreal plant communities likely contain different soil biotic communities which in turn affect rates of organic matter decomposition. We examined relationships between plant communities, microbial communities, enchytraeids, and soil C turnover in near-surface soils along a shallow topographic soil moisture and vegetation gradient in interior Alaska. We tested the hypothesis that as soil moisture increases along the gradient, surface soils would become increasingly dominated by bacteria and mesofauna and have more rapid rates of C turnover. We utilized bomb radiocarbon techniques to infer rates of C turnover and the 13C isotopic composition of SOM and respired CO2 to infer the degree of soil humification. Soil phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activities were generally higher in the rich fen compared with the forest and bog birch sites. Results indicated greater C fluxes and more rapid C turnover in the surface soils of the fen sites compared to the wetland forest and shrub sites. Quantitative PCR analyses of soil bacteria and archaea, combined with enchytraeid counts, indicated that surface soils from the lowland fen ecosystems had higher abundances of these microbial and mesofaunal groups. Fungal abundance was highly variable and not significantly different among sites. Microbial data was utilized in a food web model that confirmed that rapidly cycling systems are dominated by bacterial activity and enchytraeid grazing. However, our results also suggest that oxidative enzymes play an important role in the C mineralization process in

  9. Links between root carbohydrates and seasonal pattern of soil microbial activity of diverse european populations of Pinus sylvestris grown in a provenance plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kaliszewska-Rokicka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity of soil dehydrogenase (DHA was measured in the mineral soil in a forest stand of 15 to 16-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. from geographically diverse populations, as an indicator of biological activity of soil microorganisms, in a provenance experiment in Poland. The pine populations originated from six European countries (Sweden, Russia, Latvia, Poland, Germany, France and differed widely in aboveground biomass and productivity. Soil DHA during two growing seasons showed pronounced seasonal variability, which was significantly related to the fine root concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates. Higher DHA was found in soil under canopies of the central and southern European populations than in those from more northern parts of the Scots pine range. Significant positive correlation between soil DHA and aboveground tree biomass suggest that these patterns most likely resulted from differences in carbon dynamics and productivity among populations.

  10. Are there links between responses of soil microbes and ecosystem functioning to elevated CO2, N deposition and warming? A global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Palacios, Pablo; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L.; Shaw, E. Ashley; Dam, Marie; Post, Keith H.; Ramirez, Kelly S.; Sylvain, Zachary A.; de Tomasel, Cecilia Milano; Wall, Diana H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in research to understand how global changes' impacts on soil biota translate into altered ecosystem functioning. However, results vary between global change effects, soil taxa, and ecosystem processes studied, and a synthesis of relationships is lacking.

  11. Soil organic matter dynamics and CO2 fluxes in relation to landscape scale processes: linking process understanding to regional scale carbon mass-balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oost, Kristof; Nadeu, Elisabet; Wiaux, François; Wang, Zhengang; Stevens, François; Vanclooster, Marnik; Tran, Anh; Bogaert, Patrick; Doetterl, Sebastian; Lambot, Sébastien; Van wesemael, Bas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we synthesize the main outcomes of a collaborative project (2009-2014) initiated at the UCL (Belgium). The main objective of the project was to increase our understanding of soil organic matter dynamics in complex landscapes and use this to improve predictions of regional scale soil carbon balances. In a first phase, the project characterized the emergent spatial variability in soil organic matter storage and key soil properties at the regional scale. Based on the integration of remote sensing, geomorphological and soil analysis techniques, we quantified the temporal and spatial variability of soil carbon stock and pool distribution at the local and regional scales. This work showed a linkage between lateral fluxes of C in relation with sediment transport and the spatial variation in carbon storage at multiple spatial scales. In a second phase, the project focused on characterizing key controlling factors and process interactions at the catena scale. In-situ experiments of soil CO2 respiration showed that the soil carbon response at the catena scale was spatially heterogeneous and was mainly controlled by the catenary variation of soil physical attributes (soil moisture, temperature, C quality). The hillslope scale characterization relied on advanced hydrogeophysical techniques such as GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar), EMI (Electromagnetic induction), ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography), and geophysical inversion and data mining tools. Finally, we report on the integration of these insights into a coupled and spatially explicit model and its application. Simulations showed that C stocks and redistribution of mass and energy fluxes are closely coupled, they induce structured spatial and temporal patterns with non negligible attached uncertainties. We discuss the main outcomes of these activities in relation to sink-source behavior and relevance of erosion processes for larger-scale C budgets.

  12. The abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are linked to the soil chemistry of screes and to slope in the Alpic paleo-endemic Berardia subacaulis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Casazza

    Full Text Available Berardia subacaulis Vill. is a monospecific genus that is endemic to the South-western Alps, where it grows on alpine screes, which are extreme habitats characterized by soil disturbance and limiting growth conditions. Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF is presumably of great importance in these environments, because of its positive effect on plant nutrition and stress tolerance, as well as on structuring the soil. However, there is currently a lack of information on this topic. In this paper, we tested which soil characteristics and biotic factors could contribute to determining the abundance and community composition of AMF in the roots of B. subacaulis, which had previously been found to be mycorrhizal. For such a reason, the influence of soil properties and environmental factors on AMF abundance and community composition in the roots of B. subacaulis, sampled on three different scree slopes, were analysed through microscopic and molecular analysis. The results have shown that the AMF community of Berardia roots was dominated by Glomeraceae, and included a core of AMF taxa, common to all three scree slopes. The vegetation coverage and dark septate endophytes were not related to the AMF colonization percentage and plant community did not influence the root AMF composition. The abundance of AMF in the roots was related to some chemical (available extractable calcium and potassium and physical (cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity and field capacity properties of the soil, thus suggesting an effect of AMF on improving the soil quality. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination of the AMF community composition showed that the diversity of AMF in the various sites was influenced not only by the soil quality, but also by the slope. Therefore, the slope-induced physical disturbance of alpine screes may contribute to the selection of disturbance-tolerant AMF taxa, which in turn may lead to different

  13. The abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are linked to the soil chemistry of screes and to slope in the Alpic paleo-endemic Berardia subacaulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Gabriele; Lumini, Erica; Ercole, Enrico; Dovana, Francesco; Guerrina, Maria; Arnulfo, Annamaria; Minuto, Luigi; Fusconi, Anna; Mucciarelli, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Berardia subacaulis Vill. is a monospecific genus that is endemic to the South-western Alps, where it grows on alpine screes, which are extreme habitats characterized by soil disturbance and limiting growth conditions. Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is presumably of great importance in these environments, because of its positive effect on plant nutrition and stress tolerance, as well as on structuring the soil. However, there is currently a lack of information on this topic. In this paper, we tested which soil characteristics and biotic factors could contribute to determining the abundance and community composition of AMF in the roots of B. subacaulis, which had previously been found to be mycorrhizal. For such a reason, the influence of soil properties and environmental factors on AMF abundance and community composition in the roots of B. subacaulis, sampled on three different scree slopes, were analysed through microscopic and molecular analysis. The results have shown that the AMF community of Berardia roots was dominated by Glomeraceae, and included a core of AMF taxa, common to all three scree slopes. The vegetation coverage and dark septate endophytes were not related to the AMF colonization percentage and plant community did not influence the root AMF composition. The abundance of AMF in the roots was related to some chemical (available extractable calcium and potassium) and physical (cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity and field capacity) properties of the soil, thus suggesting an effect of AMF on improving the soil quality. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination of the AMF community composition showed that the diversity of AMF in the various sites was influenced not only by the soil quality, but also by the slope. Therefore, the slope-induced physical disturbance of alpine screes may contribute to the selection of disturbance-tolerant AMF taxa, which in turn may lead to different plant

  14. Direct and indirect effects of metal contamination on soil biota in a Zn-Pb post-mining and smelting area (S Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapusta, Pawel; Szarek-Lukaszewska, Grazyna; Stefanowicz, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of metal contamination on soil biota activity were investigated at 43 sites in 5 different habitats (defined by substratum and vegetation type) in a post-mining area. Sites were characterised in terms of soil pH and texture, nutrient status, total and exchangeable metal concentrations, as well as plant species richness and cover, abundances of enchytraeids, nematodes and tardigrades, and microbial respiration and biomass. The concentrations of total trace metals were highest in soils developed on mining waste (metal-rich dolomite), but these habitats were more attractive than sandy sites for plants and soil biota because of their higher content of organic matter, clay and nutrients. Soil mesofauna and microbes were strongly dependent on natural habitat properties. Pollution (exchangeable Zn and Cd) negatively affected only enchytraeid density; due to a positive relationship between enchytraeids and microbes it indirectly reduced microbial activity. - Highlights: → Bioavailable zinc and cadmium reduce enchytraeid density. → Enchytraeids positively influence microbial respiration and biomass. → Total contents of heavy metals in soil are poor predictors of the distribution of plants and soil biota. - Elevated concentrations of exchangeable Zn and Cd reduce enchytraeid density and indirectly affect microbial activity adversely.

  15. Direct and indirect effects of metal contamination on soil biota in a Zn-Pb post-mining and smelting area (S Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapusta, Pawel, E-mail: p.kapusta@botany.pl [Department of Ecology, W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lubicz 46, 31-512 Krakow (Poland); Szarek-Lukaszewska, Grazyna; Stefanowicz, Anna M. [Department of Ecology, W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lubicz 46, 31-512 Krakow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    Effects of metal contamination on soil biota activity were investigated at 43 sites in 5 different habitats (defined by substratum and vegetation type) in a post-mining area. Sites were characterised in terms of soil pH and texture, nutrient status, total and exchangeable metal concentrations, as well as plant species richness and cover, abundances of enchytraeids, nematodes and tardigrades, and microbial respiration and biomass. The concentrations of total trace metals were highest in soils developed on mining waste (metal-rich dolomite), but these habitats were more attractive than sandy sites for plants and soil biota because of their higher content of organic matter, clay and nutrients. Soil mesofauna and microbes were strongly dependent on natural habitat properties. Pollution (exchangeable Zn and Cd) negatively affected only enchytraeid density; due to a positive relationship between enchytraeids and microbes it indirectly reduced microbial activity. - Highlights: > Bioavailable zinc and cadmium reduce enchytraeid density. > Enchytraeids positively influence microbial respiration and biomass. > Total contents of heavy metals in soil are poor predictors of the distribution of plants and soil biota. - Elevated concentrations of exchangeable Zn and Cd reduce enchytraeid density and indirectly affect microbial activity adversely.

  16. Linking the distribution of carbon isotope ratios in soil carbonates and speleothems to climate conditions in the past: A model for the dependence of respiration rate on soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Ibarra, D. E.; Winnick, M.; Caves Rugenstein, J. K.; Oster, J. L.; Druhan, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The carbon isotope compositions (δ13C) of atmospheric CO2, C3-origin organic carbon, and limestone epikarst differ substantially, resulting in variable δ13C signatures recorded in secondary soil carbonates and speleothems which represent a mixture of these sources. Even though this signal has been widely used in paleoclimate studies, the extent to which carbonate δ13C is influenced by the dynamic response of organic carbon respiration rates to soil moisture variations has yet to be fully evaluated [1]. Soils that are rewetted after a prolonged drought commonly display a peak in respiration rate followed by relaxation to a lower steady state in both lab incubation experiments and field observations. This transient behavior, known as the Birch effect, has been extensively observed across a broad range of locations and soil types, and may generate more than 50% of the total respired CO2 in some ecosystems [2]. Here, we seek to identify the influence of the Birch effect on carbonate δ13C records based on a moisture-dependent modeling approach. We report compiled respiration rates of soils from the literature and fit these data as a function of soil moisture, before imposing exponential dampening with depth and applying the resulting function in a production-diffusion equation [3]. We then implement a mass balance calculation for the δ13C value of carbonate precipitated from a mixture of atmospheric and respired CO2, including mass-dependent fractionation associated with diffusive transport. Our results offer a novel prediction for depth-resolved carbonate δ13C as a function of soil moisture, and suggest that Birch effect signals may be recorded in soil carbonates and influence the magnitude of carbonate δ13C variations in speleothems. Thus, we illustrate a prediction for the range of carbonate δ13C recorded in terrestrial carbonates and suggest that differences in the range of carbonate δ13C may indicate changes in soil moisture variability, providing a new

  17. VT Data - NRCS Soil Survey Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil...

  18. VT Data - Agriculturally Important Soil Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GeologicSoils_SOAG includes a pre-selected subset of SSURGO soil data depicting prime agricultural soils in Vermont. The SSURGO county coverages...

  19. Effect of acid deposition on soil animals and microorganisms: influence on structures and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, M.

    1989-01-01

    Principal effects of acid stress on the soil subsystem are increase or decrease in faunal and microfloral populations, changes in species assemblages and overall reductions in several soil microbiological processes. Little is known about the effects on nitrogen transformation (ammonification, nitrification, denitrification). Some possible but hypothetical scenarios for the effect of acidification stress on the forest ecosystem level are: (1) Inhibition of decomposition leads to an accumulation of litter. Immission and other disturbances may lead to humus disintegration and nitrate leaching; (2) Inhibition of mineralization reduces the availability of plant nutrients; (3) Decrease of the microfauna may cause disturbances of matter microcycling in the root zone; (4) Increase of the mesofauna may enhance the gracing pressure on mycorrhizal mycelia for even fine roots; (5) Decrease of the macrofauna (especially earthworms) lead to less bioturbation which impairs the buffer capacity of the litter and topsoil. A general outcome of liming experiments is stimulation of decomposition and mineralization: (1) Increased in nutrient arailability could lead to increased productivityin nutrient limited stands; (2) More irregular effects of animals on microbial activity may result in low stability of the soil-litter system and high liability to perturbations. (orig./vhe)

  20. New evidence of CO2 soil degassing anomalies on Piton de la Fournaise volcano and the link with volcano tectonic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzo, M.; Di Muro, A.; Giudice, G.; Michon, L.; Ferrazzini, V.; Gurrieri, S.

    2015-12-01

    Piton de la Fournaise (PdF) is recognized as one of the world's most active volcanoes in terms of eruptive frequency and the substantial quantity of lava produced. Yet with the sole exception of rather modest intracrateric fumarole activity, this seems to be in contrast with an apparent absence of any type of natural fluid emission during periods of quiescence. Measurement campaigns were undertaken during a long-lasting quiescent period (2012-2014) and just after a short-lived summit eruption (June 2014) in order to identify potential degassing areas in relation to the main structural features of the volcano (e.g., rift zones) with the aim of developing a broader understanding of the geometry of the plumbing and degassing system. In order to assess the possible existence of anomalous soil CO2 flux, 513 measurements were taken along transects roughly orthogonal to the known tectonic lineaments crossing PdF edifice. In addition, 53 samples of gas for C isotope analysis were taken at measurement points that showed a relatively high CO2 concentration in the soil. CO2 flux values range from 10 to 1300 g m-2 d-1 while δ13C are between -26.6 and -8‰. The results of our investigation clearly indicate that there is a strong spatial correlation between the anomalous high values of diffusive soil emissions and the main rift zones cutting the PdF massif and, moreover, that generally high soil CO2 fluxes show a δ13C signature clearly related to a magmatic origin.

  1. Short term recovery of soil biological functions in a new vineyard cultivated in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Agnelli, Alessandro; Fabiani, Arturo; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Valboa, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation completely upset soil profile and characteristics. The resulting soil features are often much more similar to the underlying substratum than original soil profile. The time needed to recover soil functions is ecologically relevant and affects vine phenology and grape yield, particularly in organic viticulture. The general aim of this research work was to investigate the time needed to recover soil functions after the earthworks made before vine plantation. This study compared for a four years period physical and chemical properties, microbial and mesofauna communities, in new and old vineyards, cultivated on the same soil type. The experiment was conducted in a farm of the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on clayey-calcareous flysches, with stony and calcareous soils (Haplic Cambisol (Calcaric, Skeletic)). The reference vine cultivar was Sangiovese. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011 after an equivalent earthwork carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and only compost at the rate of 1,000 kg ha-1 -a was added every year. The new vineyard was periodically cultivated by mechanical tillage, while the older only at alternate rows. Soil samples from the first 15 cm depth were collected in 4 replicates in the younger as well as in the older vineyard during the springtime of 2010-2013; in the older vineyard, two samples were from the periodically cultivated swaths and two under permanent grass cover. Samples were analysed for physical (particle size, field capacity, wilting point), chemical (pH, electrical conductivity, lime, active lime, organic carbon, total nitrogen), microbiological (soil respiration, microbial biomass, DGGE), and mesofauna features (abundance, taxa richness, BSQ index and

  2. SoilEffects – start characterization of the experimental soil

    OpenAIRE

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riley, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the establishment, experimental plan and initial soil characteristics of the field experiment linked to the project “Effects of anaerobically digested manure on soil fertility - establishment of a long-term study under Norwegian conditions” (SoilEffects, 2010-14). The aim of the SoilEffects project is to identify potential risks and benefits for soil fertility when animal manure is anaerobically digested for biogas production. The field experiment was established on...

  3. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education......, health professionalism, and management strategies pose the foremost challenge. Operational links indicates cooperative levels that facilitate a creative and innovative effort across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  4. Determination of Dioxins in Soil Samples from industrial and burned forest sites in Syria Using an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELIZA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, I.; Orfi, M.; Abu-Alnaser, A.

    2013-01-01

    Sixty soil samples were collected from three industrial locations and burnt forest locution of Syria, namely, Banyas refinery and the Thermal Electricity Generation Station area (7 samples), Central factory area, Tartous (11 samples), AlFrunlok Forest, Lattakia (22 samples), Alwaer and Oil refinery area in Homs (20 samples) Dioxin presence in these samples was determined using a specific ELIZA Kit, Results indicate the absence of any detectable levels of Dioxins from any of the samples collected in Banyas refinery, Electricity Generation Station of Banyas, Central factory and the area of Hsain AlBaher, Mazrahat AlArous in Tartous. Likewise, all samples (22 samples) taken from AlFrunlok forest area were free of Dioxin contamination except the samples taken from the road to Nubu Issa, and Shahrura, where 8 samples (36.36%) and 6 samples (27.27%) contained concentration of Dioxin ranging between 5-15 and 15-25 PPT respectively. Results showed the presence of Dioxins in samples collected at AlWa-er area, Homs (17 sample) at high concentration in comparison with samples collected in other areas. Three of those samples (17.6%) and four samples (23.5%) contained Dioxins at levels ranging between 15-25 and 15-25 PPT respectively. (58.8%) of all samples (10 samples) collected in this area, contained Dioxins at levels exceeding the maximum level detectable by the ELIZA kit (i.e. 50 PPT). The results reported in the present study justify a follow up and detailed study in AlWa-er area. (author)

  5. Potential link between plant and fungal distributions in a dipterocarp rainforest: community and phylogenetic structure of tropical ectomycorrhizal fungi across a plant and soil ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peay, Kabir G; Kennedy, Peter G; Davies, Stuart J; Tan, Sylvester; Bruns, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    *Relatively little is known about diversity or structure of tropical ectomycorrhizal communities or their roles in tropical ecosystem dynamics. In this study, we present one of the largest molecular studies to date of an ectomycorrhizal community in lowland dipterocarp rainforest. *We sampled roots from two 0.4 ha sites located across an ecotone within a 52 ha forest dynamics plot. Our plots contained > 500 tree species and > 40 species of ectomycorrhizal host plants. Fungi were identified by sequencing ribosomal RNA genes. *The community was dominated by the Russulales (30 species), Boletales (17), Agaricales (18), Thelephorales (13) and Cantharellales (12). Total species richness appeared comparable to molecular studies of temperate forests. Community structure changed across the ecotone, although it was not possible to separate the role of environmental factors vs host plant preferences. Phylogenetic analyses were consistent with a model of community assembly where habitat associations are influenced by evolutionary conservatism of functional traits within ectomycorrhizal lineages. *Because changes in the ectomycorrhizal fungal community parallel those of the tree community at this site, this study demonstrates the potential link between the distribution of tropical tree diversity and the distribution of tropical ectomycorrhizal diversity in relation to local-scale edaphic variation.

  6. Biological Soil Crust Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    www.soilcrust.org Crust 101 Advanced Gallery References CCERS site Links Biological Soil Crusts Textbook Corrections Level of Development Index Biological soil crusts are the community of organisms , mosses, liverworts and lichens. A Field Guide to Biological Soil Crusts of Western U.S. Drylands: Common

  7. Allelopathic effect of new introduced biofuel crops on the soil biota: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heděnec, Petr; Frouz, Jan; Ustak, Sergej; Novotny, David

    2015-04-01

    Biofuel crops as an alternative to fossil fuels are a component of the energy mix in many countries. Many of them are introduced plants, so they pose a serious threat of biological invasions. Production of allelopathic compounds can increase invasion success by limiting co-occurring species in the invaded environment (novel weapons hypothesis). In this study, we focused on plant chemistry and production of allelopathic compounds by biofuel crops (hybrid sorrel Rumex tianschanicus x Rumex patientia and miscanthus Miscanthus sinensis) in comparison with invasive knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis) and cultural meadow species. First, we tested the impact of leachates isolated from hybrid sorrel, miscanthus, knotweed and cultural meadow species compared to deionized water, used as a control, on seed germination of mustard (Sinapis arvensis) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivated on sand and soil. Secondly, we studied the effect of leachates on the growth of soil fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia solani and Cochliobolus sativus. Finally, we tested the effect of litter of hybrid sorrel, miscanthus, knotweed and cultural meadow litter mixed with soil on population growth of Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida. Miscanthus and knotweed litter had a higher C:N ratio than the control meadow and hybrid sorrel litter. Miscanthus and hybrid sorrel litter had a higher content of phenols than knotweed and cultural meadow litter. Leachates from hybrid sorrel, miscanthus and knotweed biomass significantly decreased seed germination of wheat and mustard in both substrates. Soil fungal pathogens grew less vigorously on agar enriched by leachates from both biofuel crops than on agar enriched by knotweed and leachates. Litter from hybrid sorrel, miscanthus and knotweed significantly altered (both ways) the population growth of the soil mesofauna.

  8. Comunidades de la mesofauna edáfica en una selva baja inundable de la Reseva de la Biósfera de Sian Kaan, Quintana Roo, México

    OpenAIRE

    Dania Prieto Trueba; Ma. Magdalena Vázquez González; Carlos Rodríguez Aragonés

    1999-01-01

    The flood lowland forest is a typical ecosystem of the Sian Kaan Biosphere in southeast Mexico. Two soil dwelling microarthropod samples were taken from areas with different topographies, one in the dry season (March 1995) and one in the rainy season (July 1995). In the rainy season, mean density was three times higher. Numerically, the Oribatid mites predominate, followed by Collembola and Pauropoda, regardless of the season or location. In March, the communities are concentrated in the soil...

  9. Sustainable Soil Water Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Basch, G.; Kassam, A.; Friedrich, T.; Santos, F.L.; Gubiani, P.I.; Calegari, A.; Reichert, J.M.; dos Santos, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Soil quality and its management must be considered as key elements for an effective management of water resources, given that the hydrological cycle and land management are intimately linked (Bossio et al. 2007). Soil degradation has been described by Bossio et al. (2010) as the starting point of a negative cycle of soil-water relationships, creating a positive, self-accelerating feedback loop with important negative impacts on water cycling and water productivity. Therefore, sustainable soil...

  10. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...... links' that indicate cooperative levels which facilitate a creative and innovative effort in disease prevention and health promotion targeted at children and adolescents - across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  11. Scandinavian links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    are impressive mega structures spanning international waterways. These waterways between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea have played major roles in history. The length of each of the crossings are around 20 km. The fixed links closes gaps between the Scandinavian and European motorway and rail networks...

  12. Soil map density and a nation's wealth and income

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Little effort has been made to link soil mapping and soil data density to a nation’s welfare. Soil map density in 31 European countries and 44 low and middle income countries is linked to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and the number of soil scientists per country.

  13. VT Data - Onsite Sewage Disposal Soil Ratings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ONSITE is a pre-selected subset of SSURGO certified soil data depicting onsite sewage disposal ratings of Vermont soils. The NRCS Top20 table was...

  14. Comunidades de la mesofauna edáfica en una selva baja inundable de la Reseva de la Biósfera de Sian Kaan, Quintana Roo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Prieto Trueba

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The flood lowland forest is a typical ecosystem of the Sian Kaan Biosphere in southeast Mexico. Two soil dwelling microarthropod samples were taken from areas with different topographies, one in the dry season (March 1995 and one in the rainy season (July 1995. In the rainy season, mean density was three times higher. Numerically, the Oribatid mites predominate, followed by Collembola and Pauropoda, regardless of the season or location. In March, the communities are concentrated in the soil, while the July sample showed a migration to the leaf litter. There was no significant seasonal difference in densities. The proportion Acarida: Collembola and the value of the Green Agregation Index for Collembola shows the marked effect of dry soils for this group.

  15. A new method to simulate the hydrological state of soil under natural conditions Um novo método para simular o estado hidrológico do solo em condições naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Katharina Wild

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Micro, macro and mesofauna in the soil often respond to fluctuating environmental conditions, resulting in changes of abundance and community structure. Effects of changing soil parameters are normally determined with samples taken in the field and brought to the laboratory, i.e. where natural environmental conditions may not apply. We devised a method (STAFD - soil tubes for artificial flood and drought, which simulates the hydrological state of soil in situ using implanted cores. Control tubes were compared with treatment tubes in which floods of 15, 30, 60 and 90 days, and droughts of 60, 90 and 120 days were simulated in the field. Flooding and drought were found to reduce number of individuals in all soil faunal groups, but the response to drought was slower and not in proportion to the expected decrease of the water content. The results of the simulated floods in particular show the value of the STAFD method for the investigation of such extreme events in natural habitats.As micro, macro e mesofaunas no solo respondem frequentemente à variação das condições ambientais, o que resulta em alterações na abundância e na estrutura da comunidade. Os efeitos das alterações nos parâmetros do solo são normalmente determinados com amostras recolhidas no campo e trazidas ao laboratório, ou seja, onde as condições ambientais naturais podem não ser aplicáveis. Criamos um método (STAFD - tubos de amostra de solo para inundações e secas artificiais, que simula o estado hidrológico do solo in situ com núcleos implantados. As amostras de controle foram comparadas com amostras de tratamentos em que foram simuladas inundações de 15, 30, 60 e 90 dias e secas de 60, 90 e 120 dias no campo. Verificou-se que as inundações e a seca reduziram a quantidade de individuos em todos os grupos de fauna de solo, mas a resposta à seca foi mais lenta e não proporcional à redução prevista no teor de água. Os resultados das inunda

  16. Metatranscriptomics reveals the diversity of genes expressed by eukaryotes in forest soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Damon

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic organisms play essential roles in the biology and fertility of soils. For example the micro and mesofauna contribute to the fragmentation and homogenization of plant organic matter, while its hydrolysis is primarily performed by the fungi. To get a global picture of the activities carried out by soil eukaryotes we sequenced 2×10,000 cDNAs synthesized from polyadenylated mRNA directly extracted from soils sampled in beech (Fagus sylvatica and spruce (Picea abies forests. Taxonomic affiliation of both cDNAs and 18S rRNA sequences showed a dominance of sequences from fungi (up to 60% and metazoans while protists represented less than 12% of the 18S rRNA sequences. Sixty percent of cDNA sequences from beech forest soil and 52% from spruce forest soil had no homologs in the GenBank/EMBL/DDJB protein database. A Gene Ontology term was attributed to 39% and 31.5% of the spruce and beech soil sequences respectively. Altogether 2076 sequences were putative homologs to different enzyme classes participating to 129 KEGG pathways among which several were implicated in the utilisation of soil nutrients such as nitrogen (ammonium, amino acids, oligopeptides, sugars, phosphates and sulfate. Specific annotation of plant cell wall degrading enzymes identified enzymes active on major polymers (cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectin, lignin and glycoside hydrolases represented 0.5% (beech soil-0.8% (spruce soil of the cDNAs. Other sequences coding enzymes active on organic matter (extracellular proteases, lipases, a phytase, P450 monooxygenases were identified, thus underlining the biotechnological potential of eukaryotic metatranscriptomes. The phylogenetic affiliation of 12 full-length carbohydrate active enzymes showed that most of them were distantly related to sequences from known fungi. For example, a putative GH45 endocellulase was closely associated to molluscan sequences, while a GH7 cellobiohydrolase was closest to crustacean sequences, thus

  17. 1169-IJBCS-Article-Fabian Ikpa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KODJIO NORBERT

    Diversity of mesofauna and macrofauna in protected and disturbed soils of ... soil habitats that have been depleted by human activities in ecological areas ..... Role of earthworms in soil fertility maintenance through the production of biogenic.

  18. Forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  19. Soil and Soil Water Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Easton, Zachary M.; Bock, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Discusses the relationships between soil, water and plants. Discusses different types of soil, and how these soils hold water. Provides information about differences in soil drainage. Discusses the concept of water balance.

  20. A Conceptual Framework for Soil management and its effect on Soil Biodiversity in Organic and Low Input Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmans, Dr. C.J.; Smeding, Dr. F.W.

    2008-01-01

    Learning how to manage beneficial soil biological processes may be a key step towards developing sustainable agricultural systems. We designed a conceptual framework linking soil management practices to important soil-life groups and soil fertility services like nutrient cycling, soil structure and disease suppression. We selected a necessary parameter set to gain insight between management, soil life and soil support services. The findings help to develop management practices that optimise y...

  1. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  2. European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh (contributor), Paul Henning

    Soil is one of the fundamental components for supporting life on Earth. Most ecosystem processes and global functions that occur within soil are driven by living organisms that, in turn, sustain life above ground. However, despite the fact that soils are home to a quarter of all living species on...... Biodiversity is an essential reference to the many and varied aspects of soil. The overall goal of this work is to convey the fundamental necessity to safeguard soil biodiversity in order to guarantee life on this planet.......Soil is one of the fundamental components for supporting life on Earth. Most ecosystem processes and global functions that occur within soil are driven by living organisms that, in turn, sustain life above ground. However, despite the fact that soils are home to a quarter of all living species...... on Earth, life within the soil is often hidden away and suffers by being 'out of sight and out of mind'. What kind of life is there in soil? What do we mean by soil biodiversity? What is special about soil biology? How do our activities affect soil ecosystems? What are the links between soil biota...

  3. Soil-Web: An online soil survey for California, Arizona, and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudette, D. E.; O'Geen, A. T.

    2009-10-01

    Digital soil survey products represent one of the largest and most comprehensive inventories of soils information currently available. The complex structure of these databases, intensive use of codes and scientific jargon make it difficult for non-specialists to utilize digital soil survey resources. A project was initiated to construct a web-based interface to digital soil survey products (STATSGO and SSURGO) for California, Arizona, and Nevada that would be accessible to the general public. A collection of mature, open source applications (including Mapserver, PostGIS and Apache Web Server) were used as a framework to support data storage, querying, map composition, data presentation, and contextual links to related materials. Application logic was written in the PHP language to "glue" together the many components of an online soil survey. A comprehensive website ( http://casoilresource.lawr.ucdavis.edu/map) was created to facilitate access to digital soil survey databases through several interfaces including: interactive map, Google Earth and HTTP-based application programming interface (API). Each soil polygon is linked to a map unit summary page, which includes links to soil component summary pages. The most commonly used soil properties, land interpretations and ratings are presented. Graphical and tabular summaries of soil profile information are dynamically created, and aid with rapid assessment of key soil properties. Quick links to official series descriptions (OSD) and other such information are presented. All terminology is linked back to the USDA-NRCS Soil Survey Handbook which contains extended definitions. The Google Earth interface to Soil-Web can be used to explore soils information in three dimensions. A flexible web API was implemented to allow advanced users of soils information to access our website via simple web page requests. Soil-Web has been successfully used in soil science curriculum, outreach activities, and current research projects

  4. The changes in the ecology and physiology of soil invertebrates under influences of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimova, S.

    2006-01-01

    rates of soil mesofauna reproduction. Thus, our studies allowed us to estimate correctly the changes induced by radioactive contamination caused by Chernobyl nuclear accident at the level of soil invertebrate communities and to reveal the pattern of their disturbance under constant radiological pressure

  5. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  6. Soil algae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Also, the importance of algae in soil formation and soil fertility improvement cannot be over ... The presence of nitrogen fixing microalgae (Nostoc azollae) in the top soil of both vegetable ..... dung, fish food and dirty water from fish ponds on.

  7. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  8. The Soil Mobilome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Wenting

    Soil is considered a reservoir of diverse bacterial cellular functions, of which resistance mechanisms towards biological antimicrobial agents are of substantial interest to us. Previous findings report that the long-term accumulation of copper in an agricultural soil significantly affects......-selected for among natural bacterial populations. One possible explanation is the horizontal transfer of resistance genes among soil bacteria mediated by mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, integrons, transposons and bacteriophages, of which copper and antibiotic resistance genes can be linked on the same...... mobile elements. To test this hypothesis, we collected non-polluted and CuSO4- contaminated soil samples and attempted to describe the co-selection of plasmid-encoded copper and antimicrobial resistance via both an endogenous plasmid isolation approach as well as a plasmid metagenomic approach...

  9. Design and Fabrication of a Soil Moisture Meter Using Thermal Conductivity Properties of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir DAS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Study of soil for agricultural purposes is one of the main focuses of research since the beginning of civilization as food related requirements is closely linked with the soil. The study of soil has generated an interest among the researchers for very similar other reasons including understanding of soil water dynamics, evolution of agricultural water stress and validation of soil moisture modeling. In this present work design of a soil moisture measurement meter using thermal conductivity properties of soil has been proposed and experimental results are reported.

  10. Climate Strategic Soil Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex and strong link between soil degradation, climate change and food insecurity is a global challenge. Sustainable agricultural systems must be integral to any agenda to address climate change and variability, improve renewable fresh water supply and quality, restore degraded soils and ecosystems and advance food security. These challenges are being exacerbated by increasing population and decreasing per capita arable land area and renewable fresh water supply, the increasing frequency of extreme events, the decreasing resilience of agroecosystems, an increasing income and affluent lifestyle with growing preference towards meat-based diet and a decreasing soil quality and use efficiency of inputs. Reversing these downward spirals implies the implementation of proven technologies, such as conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, precision agriculture, agroforestry systems, etc. Restoration of degraded soil and desertified ecosystems and the creation of positive soil and ecosystem C budgets are important. Urban agriculture and green roofs can reduce the energy footprint of production chains for urban and non-urban areas and enhance the recycling of by-products. Researchable priorities include sustainable land use and soil/water management options, judicious soil governance and modus operandi towards payments to land managers for the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  11. Soil moisture dynamics and smoldering combustion limits of pocosin soils in North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Reardon; Gary Curcio; Roberta Bartlette

    2009-01-01

    Smoldering combustion of wetland organic soils in the south-eastern USA is a serious management concern. Previous studies have reported smoldering was sensitive to a wide range of moisture contents, but studies of soil moisture dynamics and changing smoldering combustion potential in wetland communities are limited. Linking soil moisture measurements with estimates of...

  12. Soil macrofauna functional groups and their effects on soil structure, as related to agricultural management practices across agroecological zones of Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayuke, F.O.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the effects of crop management practices on soil macrofauna and the links with soil aggregation and soil organic matter dynamics, which is key to the improvement of infertile or degrading soils in Sub-Sahara Africa. Soil macrofauna, especially earthworms and

  13. Soil pollution and soil protection

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, de, F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international Training Centre (PHLO) of Wageningen Agricultural University.Of the three environmental compartments air, water and soil, it is soil that varies most in composition under natural conditions. The effects o...

  14. [Impact of heavy snow storm and freezing rain disasters on soil fauna in Chinese fir plantation in southern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shao-kui; Zhang, Wei-dong; Liu, Yan-xin; Fu, Sheng-lei; Li, Yuan-liang; Wang, Si-long

    2009-01-01

    In January 2008, southern China suffered an unusual heavy snowstorm and freezing rain over a large area for almost a month long. This catastrophic event was the worst one in past 50 years, which brought the area a serious impact on the infrastructure, ecology, and environment. To understand the long-term impact of this catastrophic event on the forest ecosystems in this area, a field investigation was conducted on the soil fauna in a pure Chinese fir plantation and a mixed Chinese fir plantation-alder plantation in Huitong County of Hunan Province on March 23, 2008, the date 40 days after the heavy snowstorm and freezing rain. With the abundance and community composition as the main parameters and the monitoring data from the two plantations on March 23, 2007 as the reference, the flexibility and resistance of soil fauna to the disturbances of the catastrophic event was preliminarily evaluated. The results showed that there was a significant deviation of soil fauna communities in the two plantations from the reference. An outbreak increase in microfauna nematode abundance was found from 12216.9 ind x m(-2) to 118343.9 ind x m(-2) in pure Chinese fir plantation and from 25435.9 ind x m(-2) to 84573.0 ind x m(-2) in mixed Chinese fir plantation-alder plantation, while a 27.0% and 85.6% decrease of macrofauna abundance was found in the two plantations, respectively, compared with the reference. Mesofauna abundance also had a significant decrease in litter layer but not in soil. The abundance recovery displayed a trend from quick rate for microfauna to slow rate for macrofauna, which indicated that the soil fauna functional groups, in terms of body size, could be used as a vulnerable indicator in evaluating disturbance event and post-disturbance recovery. By using community ordinations, no shift in soil fauna community composition was detected 40 days after the catastrophic event, suggesting that the community composition of soil invertebrate had a high resistance to

  15. Solarization soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Ghraibe, W.

    1995-01-01

    Solar energy could be used in pest control, in soil sterilization technology. The technique consists of covering humid soils by plastic films steadily fixed to the soil. Timing must be in summer during 4-8 weeks, where soil temperature increases to degrees high enough to control pests or to produce biological and chemical changes. The technique could be applied on many pests soil, mainly fungi, bacteria, nematods, weeds and pest insects. The technique could be used in greenhouses as well as in plastic film covers or in orchards where plastic films present double benefits: soil sterilization and production of black mulch. Mechanism of soil solarization is explained. Results show that soil solarization can be used in pest control after fruit crops cultivation and could be a method for an integrated pest control. 9 refs

  16. Relaxometry in soil science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumann, G. E.; Jaeger, F.; Bayer, J. V.

    2009-04-01

    -destructive way. Recent studies investigated wetting and swelling processes in soil samples, as well as the formation of microbial biofilms in soil the formation. This contribution gives an overview of current applications and the potential of NMR relaxometry in soil science with special emphasis on proton NMR relaxometry. References Bird, N.R.A., Preston, A.R., Randall, E.W., Whalley, W.R. & Whitmore, A.P. 2005. Measurement of the size distribution of water-filled pores at different matric potentials by stray field nuclear magnetic resonance. 56, 135-143. Bryar, T.R. & Knight, R.J. 2002. Sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Measurements to Changing Soil Redox Conditions. Geophysical Research Letters, 29, 50/1-50/4. Conte, P., Spaccini, R. & Piccolo, A. 2006. Advanced CPMAS-13C NMR techniques for molecular characterization of size-separated fractions from a soil humic acid. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 386, 382-390. Gunasekara, A.S., Simpson, M.I. & Xing, B. 2003. Identification and characterization of sorption domains in soil organic matter using strucuturally modified humic acids. Environmental Science & Technology, 37, 852-858. Jaeger, F., Grohmann, E., Boeckelmann, U. & Schaumann, G.E. 2006. Microbial effects on 1H NMR Relaxometry in soil samples and glass bead reactors. In Humic Substances - Linking Structure to Functions. Proceedings of the 13th Meeting of the International Humic Substances Societyin Karlsruhe eds. F.H. Frimmel & G. Abbt-Braun), pp. 929-932. Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe. Hurraß, J. & Schaumann, G.E. 2007. Hydration kinetics of wettable and water repellent soil samples. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71, 280-288. Jaeger, F., Grohmann, E. & Schaumann, G.E. 2006. 1H NMR Relaxometry in natural humous soil samples: Insights in microbial effects on relaxation time distributions. Plant and Soil, 280, 209-222. Jaeger, F., Rudolph, N., Lang, F. & Schaumann, G.E. 2008. Effects of soil solution's constituents on proton NMR

  17. Soil and public health: invisible bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Public health institutions, as ancient as civilizations itself, are intrinsically connected with soils. The massive body of the empirical knowledge about this connection has been accumulated. Recently unraveling the underlying mechanisms of this link has begun, and many of them appear to have the microbiological origin. The impressive progress in understanding the nexus between soil and health has been achieved by experimentation with preserved soil microbial systems functioning along with the metagenomic characterization. The objective of this work is to present an overview of some recent onsets. In the food safety arena, survival of human pathogens in soils has been related to the degree of soil eutrophication and/or related structure of soil microbial communities. Soil microbial systems affect the affinity of plants to internalizing pathogenic organisms. Pharmaceutical arsenals benefit from using field soil environment for developing antibiotics. Enzyme production by soil bacteria is used as the signal source for drug activation. Sanitary functions of sols are dependent on soil microbial system workings. The healthy living can be enhanced by the human immune system training received from direct contact with soils. The hygiene hypothesis considers the microbial input due to exposure to soil as the essential ecosystem service. The invisible links between soil and public health result in large-scale consequences. Examples of concurrent degradation of soil and public health are worth scrutinizing. Public health records can provide valuable sources of 'soil-public health' interactions. It may be worthwhile to examine current assessments of soil health from the public health standpoint. Soil management can be an efficient instrument of public health control.

  18. Discovering the essence of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frink, D.

    2012-04-01

    ancient prebiotic soils. Furthermore, the physiological approach sheds light on the emergence of new soil components (e.g. spodic horizons) as ancient prebiotic soils adapt to a plethora of biotic carbon compounds. Other emergent soil properties and behaviors can be linked to the kinds, frequencies, order and intensities of various ubiquitous pedo-perturbations.

  19. Soils - Volusia County Soils (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Soils: 1:24000 SSURGO Map. Polygon boundaries of Soils in Volusia County, downloaded from SJRWMD and created by NRCS and SJRWMD. This data set is a digital version...

  20. Soil microbiology and soil health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil scientists have long recognized the importance of soil biology in ecological health. In particular, soil microbes are crucial for many soil functions including decomposition, nutrient cycling, synthesis of plant growth regulators, and degradation of synthetic chemicals. Currently, soil biologis...

  1. Soil metagenomics and tropical soil productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation summarizes research in the soil metagenomics cross cutting research activity. Soil metagenomics studies soil microbial communities as contributors to soil health.C CCRA-4 (Soil Metagenomics)

  2. Linked data management

    CERN Document Server

    Hose, Katja; Schenkel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Desp...

  3. Regional conditions and land-use alter the potential contribution of soil arthropods to ecosystem services in grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus eBirkhofer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of regional conditions and land-use intensity on eight selected arthropod taxa of Mesostigmata (Parasitidae, Oribatida (3 species, Collembola (1 species, Chilopoda (2 species and Diplopoda (1 species sampled in differently managed permanent grasslands of three German study regions. By jointly analyzing changes in abundance and trophic behavior (measured as natural variation in 15N/14N and 13C/12C ratios we intended to develop a framework for evaluating the impact of local and regional conditions on the ecosystem services delivered by soil animals (mainly decomposition- and predation-related services. The investigated taxa could be assorted to three major groups: (1 numerical response only, (2 numerical and trophic response and (3 trophic response only. Since the combination of taxa assembled in the individual groups does not correspond to any of the conventional soil ecological classification systems, this grouping offers a new approach for analyzing soil communities. The complementing consideration of both the direction of the numerical response and the type of the trophic response (change of the basal food source vs. trophic level shift vs. variations in isotopic niches provided a differential insight into the effect of management and geographic differences on soil arthropods. It could be shown that the effect of land-use on the abundance of detritivorous microarthropods varies among regions, but does not induce any changes in feeding behavior. Our findings on Parasitidae indicate that carnivorous microarthropods exert substantial predation pressure on soil mesofauna and may be quite resistant to environmental changes due to high trophic flexibility. If conditions are favorable, centipedes may reach comparatively high densities in permanent grasslands and could be very important for controlling belowground pests. Concerning millipedes, isotopic signatures suggest that some species could exert a substantial disservice

  4. Monitor Soil Degradation or Triage for Soil Security? An Australian Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Koch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Australian National Soil Research, Development and Extension Strategy identifies soil security as a foundation for the current and future productivity and profitability of Australian agriculture. Current agricultural production is attenuated by soil degradation. Future production is highly dependent on the condition of Australian soils. Soil degradation in Australia is dominated in its areal extent by soil erosion. We reiterate the use of soil erosion as a reliable indicator of soil condition/quality and a practical measure of soil degradation. We describe three key phases of soil degradation since European settlement, and show a clear link between inappropriate agricultural practices and the resultant soil degradation. We demonstrate that modern agricultural practices have had a marked effect on reducing erosion. Current advances in agricultural soil management could lead to further stabilization and slowing of soil degradation in addition to improving productivity. However, policy complacency towards soil degradation, combined with future climate projections of increased rainfall intensity but decreased volumes, warmer temperatures and increased time in drought may once again accelerate soil degradation and susceptibility to erosion and thus limit the ability of agriculture to advance without further improving soil management practices. Monitoring soil degradation may indicate land degradation, but we contend that monitoring will not lead to soil security. We propose the adoption of a triaging approach to soil degradation using the soil security framework, to prioritise treatment plans that engage science and agriculture to develop practices that simultaneously increase productivity and improve soil condition. This will provide a public policy platform for efficient allocation of public and private resources to secure Australia’s soil resource.

  5. An Overview of Soils and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    Few people recognize the connection between soils and human health, even though soils are actually very important to health. Soils influence health through the nutrients taken up by plants and the animals that eat those plants, nutrients that are needed for adequate nutrition for growth and development. Soils can also act to harm human health in three major ways: i) toxic levels of substances or disease-causing organisms may enter the human food chain from the soil ii) humans can encounter pathogenic organisms through direct contact with the soil or inhaling dust from the soil, and iii) degraded soils produce nutrient-deficient foods leading to malnutrition. Soils have also been a major source of medicines. Therefore, soils form an integral link in the holistic view of human health. In this presentation, soils and their influence on human health are discussed from a broad perspective, including both direct influences of soils on health and indirect influences through things such as climate change, occupational exposure to soil amendments, and the role of soils in providing food security.

  6. Soil pollution and soil protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international

  7. Soils and public health: the vital nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Soils sustain life. They affect human health via quantity, quality, and safety of available food and water, and via direct exposure of individuals to soils. Throughout the history of civilization, soil-health relationships have inspired spiritual movements, philosophical systems, cultural exchanges, and interdisciplinary interactions, and provided medicinal substances of paramount impact. Given the climate, resource, and population pressures, understanding and managing the soil-health interactions becomes a modern imperative. We are witnessing a paradigm shift from recognizing and yet disregarding the 'soil-health' nexus complexity to parameterizing this complexity and identifying reliable controls. This becomes possible with the advent of modern research tools as a source of 'big data' on multivariate nonlinear soil systems and the multiplicity of health metrics. The phenomenon of suppression of human pathogens in soils and plants presents a recent example of these developments. Evidence is growing about the dependence of pathogen suppression on the soil microbial community structure which, in turn, is affected by the soil-plant system management. Soil eutrophication appears to create favorable conditions for pathogen survival. Another example of promising information-rich research considers links and feedbacks between the soil microbial community structure and structure of soil physical pore space. The two structures are intertwined and involved in the intricate self-organization that controls soil services to public health. This, in particular, affects functioning of soils as a powerful water filter and the capacity of this filter with respect to emerging contaminants in both 'green' and 'blue' waters. To evaluate effects of soil services to public health, upscaling procedures are needed for relating the fine-scale mechanistic knowledge to available coarse-scale information on soil properties and management. More needs to be learned about health effects of soils

  8. Soil Quality Indicator: a new concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão, Lúcia; Basch, Gottlieb

    2017-04-01

    During the last century, cultivated soils have been intensively exploited for food and feed production. This exploitation has compromised the soils' natural functions and many of the soil-mediated ecosystems services, including its production potential for agriculture. Also, soils became increasingly vulnerable and less resilient to a wide range of threats. To overcome this situation, new and better management practices are needed to prevent soil from degradation. However, to adopt the best management practices in a specific location, it is necessary to evaluate the soil quality status first. Different soil quality indicators have been suggested over the last decades in order to evaluate the soil status, and those are often based on the performance of soil chemical, physical and biological properties. However, the direct link between these properties and the associated soil functions or soil vulnerability to threats appears more difficult to be established. This present work is part of the iSQAPER project- Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience, where new soil quality concepts are explored to provide better information regarding the effects of the most promising agricultural management practices on soil quality. We have developed a new conceptual soil quality indicator which determines the soil quality status, regarding its vulnerability towards different threats. First, different indicators were specifically developed for each of the eight threats considered - Erosion, SOM decline, Poor Structure, Poor water holding capacity, Compaction, N-Leaching, Soil-borne pests and diseases and Salinization. As an example for the case of Erosion, the RUSLE equation for the estimate of the soil annual loss was used. Secondly, a reference classification was established for each indicator to integrate all possible results into a Good, Intermediate or Bad classification. Finally, all indicators were

  9. Soil friability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2011-01-01

    This review gathers and synthesizes literature on soil friability produced during the last three decades. Soil friability is of vital importance for crop production and the impact of crop production on the environment. A friable soil is characterized by an ease of fragmentation of undesirably large...... aggregates/clods and a difficulty in fragmentation of minor aggregates into undesirable small elements. Soil friability has been assessed using qualitative field methods as well as quantitative field and laboratory methods at different scales of observation. The qualitative field methods are broadly used...... by scientists, advisors and farmers, whereas the quantitative laboratory methods demand specialized skills and more or less sophisticated equipment. Most methods address only one aspect of soil friability, i.e. either the strength of unconfined soil or the fragment size distribution after applying a stress. All...

  10. Speciation of zinc in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, Chadi H.; Courchesne, Francois; Hendershot, William H.; McGrath, Steve P.; Chaudri, Amar M.; Sappin-Didier, Valerie; Sauve, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    The chemical speciation of zinc in soil solutions is critical to the understanding of its bioavailability and potential toxic effects. We studied the speciation of Zn in soil solution extracts from 66 contaminated soils representative of a wide range of field conditions in both North America and Europe. Within this dataset, we evaluated the links among the dissolved concentrations of zinc and the speciation of Zn 2+ , soil solution pH, total soil Zn, dissolved organic matter (DOM), soil organic matter (SOM) and the concentrations of different inorganic anions. The solid-liquid partitioning coefficient (K d ) for Zn ranged from 17 to 13,100 L kg -1 soil. The fraction of dissolved Zn bound to DOM varied from 60% to 98% and the soil solution free Zn 2+ varied from 40% to 60% of the labile Zn. Multiple regression equations to predict free Zn 2+ , dissolved Zn and the solid-liquid partitioning of Zn are given for potential use in environmental fate modeling and risk assessment. The multiple regressions also highlight some of the most important soil properties controlling the solubility and chemical speciation of zinc in contaminated soils. - We studied the relationships among the chemical speciation of Zn in soil solution extracts from 66 contaminated soils and various physicochemical properties of the soils

  11. Initial contents of residue quality parameters predict effects of larger soil fauna on decomposition of contrasting quality residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratikorn Sanghaw

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A 52-week decomposition study employing the soil larger fauna exclusion technique through litter bags of two mesh sizes (20 and 0.135 mm was conducted in a long-term (18 yr field experiment. Organic residues of contrasting quality of N, lignin (L, polyphenols (PP and cellulose (CL all in grams per kilogram: rice straw (RS: 4.5N, 22.2L, 3.9PP, 449CL, groundnut stover (GN: 21.2N, 71.4L, 8.1PP, 361CL, dipterocarp leaf litter (DP: 5.1N, 303L, 68.9PP, 271CL and tamarind leaf litter (TM: 11.6N, 190L, 27.7PP, 212CL were applied to soil annually to assess and predict soil larger fauna effects (LFE on decomposition based on the initial contents of the residue chemical constituents. Mass losses in all residues were not different under soil fauna inclusion and exclusion treatments during the early stage (up to week 4 after residue incorporation but became significantly higher under the inclusion than the exclusion treatments during the later stage (week 8 onwards. LFE were highest (2–51% under the resistant DP at most decomposition stages. During the early stage (weeks 1–4, both the initial contents of labile (N and CL and recalcitrant C, and recalcitrant C interaction with labile constituents of residues showed significant correlations (r = 0.64–0.90 with LFE. In the middle stage (week 16, LFE under resistant DP and TM had significant positive correlations with L, L + PP and L/CL. They were also affected by these quality parameters as shown by the multiple regression analysis. In the later stages (weeks 26–52, the L/CL ratio was the most prominent quality parameter affecting LFE. Keywords: Mesofauna and macrofauna, Microorganisms, Recalcitrant and labile compounds, Residue chemical composition, Tropical sandy soil

  12. Assessment of soil ecosystem in degraded areas of vineyards after organic treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Silvia; D'Errico, Giada; Gagnarli, Elena; Simoni, Sauro; Goggioli, Donatella; Guidi, Silvia; D'Avino, Lorenzo; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Valboa, Giuseppe; Castaldini, Maurizio; Elio Agnelli, Alessandro; Fantappiè, Maria; Lorenzetti, Romina; Priori, Simone; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.

    2017-04-01

    In Italian vineyards, it is quite common to have areas characterized by problems in vine health, grape production and quality, often caused by improper land preparation before vine plantation and/or management. Causes for soil malfunctioning can include reduced contribution of the soil fauna to the ecosystem services such as nutrient cycles and organic matter turnover. ReSolVe is a transnational and interdisciplinary project, supported by Core-Organic+ program, aimed at testing the effects of selective agronomic strategies for restoring optimal soil functionality in degraded areas within organic vineyard. For this purpose, the evaluation and biomonitoring of the abundance of soil mesofauna, nematodes and microarthropods, represents an efficient tool to characterize the effects of crop management on soil quality. Assessing enzyme activities involved in the main biogeochemical cycling of C, N, P and S can also provide indication of soil functions and health status. Italian experimental plots are situated in two commercial farms in Tuscany: i) Fontodi, Panzano in Chianti (FI), which has been managed organically for more than 20 years and ii) San Disdagio, Roccastrada (GR), under organic farming since 2014. In each farm, three plots (250 m2 each) in the degraded areas and three relative control plots in the non-degraded areas were selected. The different restoring strategies implemented in each area were: i) compost, produced on farm by manure + pruning residue + grass, ii) faba bean and winter barley green manure, iii) dry mulching after sowing with Trifolium squarrosum L. Each treated and control plot has been studied for soil nematodes, microarthropods, enzymatic activity, and organic matter turnover using tea-bag index, as well as total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN). Soil sampling was carried out to 0-30 cm depth for TOC, TN, enzymes and nematodes and to 10 cm for microarthropods. Tea-bag index was determined following the Keuskamp et al. method

  13. Soil Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Verruijt, A.

    2010-01-01

    This book is the text for the introductory course of Soil Mechanics in the Department of Civil Engineering of the Delft University of Technology, as I have given from 1980 until my retirement in 2002. It contains an introduction into the major principles and methods of soil mechanics, such as the analysis of stresses, deformations, and stability. The most important methods of determining soil parameters, in the laboratory and in situ, are also described. Some basic principles of applied mecha...

  14. On the value of soil biodiversity and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascual, U.; Termansen, M.; Hedlund, K.; Brussaard, L.; Faber, J.H.; Foudi, S.; Lemanceau, P.; Liv-Jørgensen, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a framework to understand the source of the economic value of soil biodiversity and soil ecosystem services and maps out the pathways of such values. We clarify the link between components of the economic value of soil biodiversity and their associated services of particular

  15. Soil carbon estimation from eucalyptus grandis using canopy spectra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping soil fertility parameters, such as soil carbon (C), is fundamentally important for forest management and research related to forest growth and climate change. This study seeks to establish the link between Eucalyptus grandis canopy spectra and soil carbon using raw and continuum-removed spectra. Canopy-level ...

  16. Dynamic link: user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hiroo; Asai, Kiyoshi; Kihara, Kazuhisa.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of dynamic link facility is to link a load module dynamically only when it is used in execution time. The facility is very useful for development, execution and maintenance of a large scale computer program which is too big to be saved as one load module in main memory, or it is poor economy to save it due to many unused subroutines depending on an input. It is also useful for standardization and common utilization of programs. Standard usage of dynamic link facility of FACOM M-200 computer system, a software tool which analyzes the effect of dynamic link facility and application of dynamic link to nuclear codes are described. (author)

  17. Soil Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of the soil solution in the root environment in the greenhouse industry differ much from those for field grown crops. This is caused firstly by the growing conditions in the greenhouse, which strongly differ from those in the field and secondly the function attributed to the soil

  18. Relationships at the aboveground-belowground interface: plants, soil biota and soil processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porazinska, D.L.; Bardgett, R.D.; Postma-Blaauw, M.B.; Hunt, H.W.; Parsons, A.N.; Seastedt, T.R.; Wall, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Interactions at the aboveground-below ground interface provide important feedbacks that regulate ecosystem processes. Organisms within soil food webs are involved in processes of decomposition and nutrient mineralization, and their abundance and activity have been linked to plant ecophysiological

  19. Case studies: Soil mapping using multiple methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hauke; Wunderlich, Tina; Hagrey, Said A. Al; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Stümpel, Harald

    2010-05-01

    application of geophysical methods, e.g. GPR on wet loessy soils will result in a high attenuation of signals. Furthermore, with this knowledge we support the development of geophysical pedo-transfer-functions, i.e. the link between geophysical to soil parameters, which is active researched in another work package of the iSOIL project. Acknowledgement: iSOIL-Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping is a Collaborative Project (Grant Agreement number 211386) co-funded by the Research DG of the European Commission within the RTD activities of the FP7 Thematic Priority Environment.

  20. Soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, R.S.; Diel, B.N.; Halpern, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Disposal of soils or sludges contaminated with organic and inorganic compounds is a major problem for environmental remedial activities, hazardous waste generators, and the disposal industry. This paper reports that many of these wastes can be effectively treated utilizing soil washing technology. CWM has been developing soil washing technology over the past few years, with extensive work being conducted on the bench scale. These studies have demonstrated consistently high removal efficiencies (95-99%) for a wide variety of PCB and petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste. Recently, a comprehensive study examining the removal of both organic and inorganic contraminants from two different types of surrogate soil matrices was completed. In addition to establishing the range of contaminants that can be removed from soil, a method for surfactant/water separation was evaluated. For example, using a thermal phase separation method, approximately 90% of the surfactant could be recovered from the water

  1. A review of the impacts of degradation threats on soil properties in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, A S; Ritz, K; McGrath, S P; Quinton, J N; Goulding, K W T; Jones, R J A; Harris, J A; Bol, R; Wallace, P; Pilgrim, E S; Whitmore, A P

    2015-10-01

    National governments are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of their soil resources and are shaping strategies accordingly. Implicit in any such strategy is that degradation threats and their potential effect on important soil properties and functions are defined and understood. In this paper, we aimed to review the principal degradation threats on important soil properties in the UK, seeking quantitative data where possible. Soil erosion results in the removal of important topsoil and, with it, nutrients, C and porosity. A decline in soil organic matter principally affects soil biological and microbiological properties, but also impacts on soil physical properties because of the link with soil structure. Soil contamination affects soil chemical properties, affecting nutrient availability and degrading microbial properties, whilst soil compaction degrades the soil pore network. Soil sealing removes the link between the soil and most of the 'spheres', significantly affecting hydrological and microbial functions, and soils on re-developed brownfield sites are typically degraded in most soil properties. Having synthesized the literature on the impact on soil properties, we discuss potential subsequent impacts on the important soil functions, including food and fibre production, storage of water and C, support for biodiversity, and protection of cultural and archaeological heritage. Looking forward, we suggest a twin approach of field-based monitoring supported by controlled laboratory experimentation to improve our mechanistic understanding of soils. This would enable us to better predict future impacts of degradation processes, including climate change, on soil properties and functions so that we may manage soil resources sustainably.

  2. Soil Forming Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! What is Soil? Chip Off the Old Block Soil Forming Factors Matters of Life and Death Underneath It All Wise Choices A World of Soils Soil Forming Factors 2 A Top to Bottom Guide 3 Making a Soil Monolith 4 Soil Orders 5 State Soil Monoliths 6 Where in the Soil World Are You? >> A Top to

  3. What is Soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! What is Soil? Chip Off the Old Block Soil Forming Factors Matters of Life and Death Underneath It All Wise Choices A World of Soils Soil? 2 The Skin of the Earth 3 Soil Ingredients 4 Soil Recipes 5 CLORPT for Short >> What Is Soil? Soils Make Life Plants grow in and from

  4. Visualisierung von typisierten Links in Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neubauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Themengebiet der Arbeit behandelt Visualisierungen von typisierten Links in Linked Data. Die wissenschaftlichen Gebiete, die im Allgemeinen den Inhalt des Beitrags abgrenzen, sind das Semantic Web, das Web of Data und Informationsvisualisierung. Das Semantic Web, das von Tim Berners Lee 2001 erfunden wurde, stellt eine Erweiterung zum World Wide Web (Web 2.0 dar. Aktuelle Forschungen beziehen sich auf die Verknüpfbarkeit von Informationen im World Wide Web. Um es zu ermöglichen, solche Verbindungen wahrnehmen und verarbeiten zu können sind Visualisierungen die wichtigsten Anforderungen als Hauptteil der Datenverarbeitung. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Sematic Web werden Repräsentationen von zuhammenhängenden Informationen anhand von Graphen gehandhabt. Der Grund des Entstehens dieser Arbeit ist in erster Linie die Beschreibung der Gestaltung von Linked Data-Visualisierungskonzepten, deren Prinzipien im Rahmen einer theoretischen Annäherung eingeführt werden. Anhand des Kontexts führt eine schrittweise Erweiterung der Informationen mit dem Ziel, praktische Richtlinien anzubieten, zur Vernetzung dieser ausgearbeiteten Gestaltungsrichtlinien. Indem die Entwürfe zweier alternativer Visualisierungen einer standardisierten Webapplikation beschrieben werden, die Linked Data als Netzwerk visualisiert, konnte ein Test durchgeführt werden, der deren Kompatibilität zum Inhalt hatte. Der praktische Teil behandelt daher die Designphase, die Resultate, und zukünftige Anforderungen des Projektes, die durch die Testung ausgearbeitet wurden.

  5. Stimulation of soil microorganisms in pesticide-contaminated soil using organic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ima Yudha Perwira; Kiwako S. Araki; Motoki Kubo; Dinesh Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Agrochemicals such as pesticides have contributed to significant increases in crop yields; however, they can also be linked to adverse effects on human health and soil microorganisms. For efficient bioremediation of pesticides accumulated in agricultural fields, stimulation of microorganisms is necessary. In this study, we investigated the relationships between bacterial biomass and total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) in 427 agricultural soils. The soil bacterial biomass was generally p...

  6. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  7. Integrating soil physical and biological properties in contrasting tillage systems in organic and conventional farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though soil physical and soil biological properties are intrinsically linked in the soil environment they are often studied separately. This work adds value to analyses of soil biophysical quality of tillage systems under organic and conventional farming systems by correlating physical and

  8. Sustaining "the Genius of Soils"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposito, G.

    2011-12-01

    Soils are weathered porous earth surficial materials that exhibit an approximately vertical stratification reflecting the continual action of percolating water and living organisms. They are complex open, multicomponent, multiphase biogeochemical systems which function as both provisioning and regulatory agents in terrestrial ecosystems while influencing aquatic ecosystems through their impacts on evapotranspiration and runoff. The ability of soils to engage in their supportive ecosystem functions depends on what has been termed metaphorically as their "natural capital," the defining properties that condition soil response to biological, geological, and hydrological processes as well as human-driven activities. Natural capital must necessarily differ among soils depending on how they have developed under the five soil-forming processes, but it also can be determined by land use and by the flows of matter and energy that link the global atmosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere. These latter two determinants have in recent decades begun to exhibit strong variability that exceeds what has been characteristic of them during the past 10 millennia of earth history, thereby raising the apocalyptic issue of whether a deleterious or even catastrophic undermining of the ability of soils to function supportively in ecosystems is in the offing. Resolving this issue will require deeper understanding of how soils perform their provisioning and regulatory functions, how they respond to land-use changes, and how they mediate the global flows of matter and energy.

  9. Finnish Society of Soil Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Katri; Hänninen, Pekka; Soinne, Helena; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Salo, Tapio; Pennanen, Taina

    2017-04-01

    In 1998 the organization of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) was renewed to better support national activities. That was also the new start in the operation of the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences, which became affiliated to the IUSS. The society was originally established in 1971 but it remained relatively inactive. Currently, there are around 200 members in the Finnish Society of Soil Sciences. The members of the executive board cover different fields of soil science from geology to microbiology. Mission statement of the society is to promote the soil sciences and their application in Finland, to act as a forum for creation of better links between soil scientists, interested end users and the public, and to promote distribution and appreciation of general and Finnish research findings in soil science. Every second year the society organizes a national two-day long conference. In 2017 the theme 'circular economy' collected all together 57 presentations. The members of the incoming student division carried responsibility in practical co-ordination committee, acting also as session chairs. In the intervening years the society organizes a weekend excursion to neighboring areas. Lately we have explored the use of biochar in landscaping of Stockholm.

  10. Ecosystem services of soil biota: In what context is a focus on soil biota meaningful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baveye, Philippe C.

    2016-04-01

    Over the last few years, the topic of the ecosystem services of soils has attracted considerable attention, in particular among researchers working on soil biota. A direct link is established explicitly in numerous articles between soil biota and specific ecosystem services, or between soil biodiversity and ecosystem services. A careful review of the literature indicates however that these links are, more often than not, strictly axiomatic, rather than based on actual observations. In fact, there are still at the moment virtually no measurements of ecosystem services of soils at any scale, measurements that would be required to establish such links. Furthermore, at a conceptual level, it is not clear to what extent the effect of soil biota in the delivery of ecosystem services can be separated from the contribution of other components of soil systems. Soil microorganisms, in particular, proliferate and are metabolically active in a pore space whose characteristics and dynamics could in principle have a profound effect on their activity. So also could the composition and spatial distribution of soil organic matter, or the spatial pattern of plant root propagation. By emphasizing the role of soil biota, at the exclusion of other aspects of soil systems, there is a risk that important features of the provision of ecosystem services by soils will be missed. In this talk (based in part on a workshop organized recently in France, and of a follow-up review article), an analysis of this general problem will be presented, as well as suggestions of how to avoid it by promoting truly interdisciplinary research involving not only soil ecologists but also physicists, hydrologists, and chemists.

  11. Agriculture: Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Productive soils, a favorable climate, and clean and abundant water resources are essential for growing crops, raising livestock, and for ecosystems to continue to provide the critical provisioning services that humans need.

  12. Evaluation of scour potential of cohesive soils : final report, August 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Prediction of scour at bridge river crossings is an evolving process. Hydraulic models to estimate water velocity and, therefore, the shear stresses that erode soil are reasonably well developed. The weak link remains methods for estimating soil erod...

  13. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueret, C.D.M.; de Boer, V.; Schlobach, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. The linked data community proudly emphasizes the economic and societal impact such technology shows. But a closer look proves that the design and deployment of

  14. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueret, Christophe; de Boer, Victor; Schlobach, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. A closer look at linked data technologies, however, proves that their design and deployment exclude the majority of the world’s population. It will take small

  15. Weierstrass polynomials for links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1997-01-01

    There is a natural way of identifying links in3-space with polynomial covering spaces over thecircle. Thereby any link in 3-space can be definedby a Weierstrass polynomial over the circle. Theequivalence relation for covering spaces over thecircle is, however, completely different from...

  16. Characterization for Soil Fixation by Polyelectrolyte Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kwon, Sang Woon; Yang, Heeman; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bumkyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon

    2014-01-01

    According to report, the radioactivity bulk (approx. 95%) is localized within topsoil. Therefore soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils with Cs-137 by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been also used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and make into the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of polyanion and polycation in an aqueous solution. It can be avoids using the chemical cross-linking agents, and reducing the possible toxicity and other undesirable effects of the reagents. PEC can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can also prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. Recently, PEC used for the solidification of soil near the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. In this study, it was investigated the fixation of the soil by PEC to avoid the spread of the contamination in addition to the separation of soil and PEC. The physicochemical properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by PEC were investigated. The mode of the addition is important to prepare the polyelectrolytes complex without PAA agglomerate. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation

  17. Characterization for Soil Fixation by Polyelectrolyte Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kwon, Sang Woon; Yang, Heeman; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bumkyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    According to report, the radioactivity bulk (approx. 95%) is localized within topsoil. Therefore soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils with Cs-137 by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been also used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and make into the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of polyanion and polycation in an aqueous solution. It can be avoids using the chemical cross-linking agents, and reducing the possible toxicity and other undesirable effects of the reagents. PEC can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can also prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. Recently, PEC used for the solidification of soil near the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. In this study, it was investigated the fixation of the soil by PEC to avoid the spread of the contamination in addition to the separation of soil and PEC. The physicochemical properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by PEC were investigated. The mode of the addition is important to prepare the polyelectrolytes complex without PAA agglomerate. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation.

  18. Distribution of cadmium among geochemical fractions in floodplain soils of progressing development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lair, G.J.; Graf, M.; Zehetner, F.; Gerzabek, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Initial soil development in river floodplains influences soil properties and processes. In this study, suites of young floodplain soils sampled at three European rivers (Danube/Austria, Ebro/Spain and Elbe/Germany) were used to link soil development to the soils' retention capacity for cadmium. Geochemichal fractionation of original and metal-spiked soils was conducted. Cadmium remained in weakly bound fractions in both original and spiked soils, representing an entirely different behaviour than observed for copper in an earlier study. The tendency of incorporation into more stable forms over time was only slightly expressed. Correlation analysis revealed the involvement of different sorption surfaces in soil, with no single soil constituent determining cadmium retention behaviour. Nevertheless, in the calcareous soils of the Danube floodplain, we found increased cadmium retention and decreased portions of desorbable cadmium with progressing soil development. - Distribution of cadmium among geochemical fractions in floodplain soils reveals high mobility but increased retention capacity with increasing soil age and development

  19. GEOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Low energy perturbations used in geophysical methods provide insightful information about constant-fabric soil properties and their spatial variability. There are causal links between soil type, index properties, elastic wave velocity, electromagnetic wave parameters and thermal properties. Soil type relates to the stress-dependent S-wave velocity, thermal and electrical conductivity and permittivity. The small strain stiffness reflects the state of stress, the extent of diagenetic cementation and/or freezing. Pore fluid chemistry, fluid phase and changes in either fluid chemistry or phase manifest through electromagnetic measurements. The volumetric water content measured with electromagnetic techniques is the best predictor of porosity if the water saturation is 100%. Changes in water saturation alter the P-wave velocity when Srà100%, the S-wave velocity at intermediate saturations, and the thermal conductivity when the saturation is low Srà0%. Finally, tabulated values suffice to estimate heat capacity and latent heat for engineering design, however thermal conductivity requires measurements under proper field conditions.

  20. Soil Organic Carbon dynamics in agricultural soils of Veneto Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampa, F. B.; Morari, F. M.; Hiederer, R. H.; Toth, G. T.; Giandon, P. G.; Vinci, I. V.; Montanarella, L. M.; Nocita, M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the eight soil threats expressed in the European Commission's Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (COM (2006)231 final) it's the decline in Soil Organic Matter (SOM). His preservation is recognized as with the objective to ensure that the soils of Europe remain healthy and capable of supporting human activities and ecosystems. One of the key goals of the strategy is to maintain and improve Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) levels. As climate change is identified as a common element in many of the soil threats, the European Commission (EC) intends to assess the actual contribution of the soil protection to climate change mitigation and the effects of climate change on the possible depletion of SOM. A substantial proportion of European land is occupied by agriculture, and consequently plays a crucial role in maintaining natural resources. Organic carbon preservation and sequestration in the EU's agricultural soils could have some potential to mitigate the effects of climate change, particularly linked to preventing certain land use changes and maintaining SOC stocks. The objective of this study is to assess the SOC dynamics in agricultural soils (cropland and grassland) at regional scale, focusing on changes due to land use. A sub-objective would be the evaluation of the most used land management practices and their effect on SOC content. This assessment aims to determine the geographical distribution of the potential GHG mitigation options, focusing on hot spots in the EU, where mitigation actions would be particularly efficient and is linked with the on-going work in the JRC SOIL Action. The pilot area is Veneto Region. The data available are coming from different sources, timing and involve different variables as: soil texture, climate, soil disturbance, managements and nutrients. The first source of data is the LUCAS project (Land Use/Land Cover Area Frame statistical Survey). Started in 2001, the LUCAS project aims to monitor changes in land cover/use and

  1. Link to paper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Link to the paper. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Naile, J., A.W. Garrison, J. Avants, and J. Washington. Isomers/enantiomers of...

  2. The Missing Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Laura Luise

    2014-01-01

    Paper presented at A Valentine to Gertrude Stein. The Reception of Gertrude Stein in the Arts and Humanities, held at the University of Copenhagen 8. - 10. May 2014, in collaboration with the universities of Ghent and Linköping......Paper presented at A Valentine to Gertrude Stein. The Reception of Gertrude Stein in the Arts and Humanities, held at the University of Copenhagen 8. - 10. May 2014, in collaboration with the universities of Ghent and Linköping...

  3. From Process Understanding Via Soil Functions to Sustainable Soil Management - A Systemic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschlaeger, U.; Bartke, S.; Bartkowski, B.; Daedlow, K.; Helming, K.; Kogel-Knabner, I.; Lang, B.; Rabot, E.; Russell, D.; Stößel, B.; Weller, U.; Wiesmeier, M.; Rabot, E.; Vogel, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Fertile soils are central resources for the production of biomass and the provision of food and energy. A growing world population and latest climate targets lead to an increasing demand for both, food and bio-energy, which requires preserving and improving the long-term productivity of soils as a bio-economic resource. At the same time, other soil functions and ecosystem services need to be maintained: filter for clean water, carbon sequestration, provision and recycling of nutrients, and habitat for biological activity. All these soil functions result from the interaction of a multitude of physical, chemical and biological processes that are not yet sufficiently understood. In addition, we lack understanding about the interplay between the socio-economic system and the soil system and how soil functions benefit human wellbeing. Hence, a solid and integrated assessment of soil quality requires the consideration of the ensemble of soil functions and its relation to soil management to finally be able to develop site-specific options for sustainable soil management. We present an integrated modeling approach that investigates the influence of soil management on the ensemble of soil functions. It is based on the mechanistic relationships between soil functional attributes, each explained by a network of interacting processes as derived from scientific evidence. As the evidence base required for feeding the model is for the most part stored in the existing scientific literature, another central component of our work is to set up a public "knowledge-portal" providing the infrastructure for a community effort towards a comprehensive knowledge base on soil processes as a basis for model developments. The connection to the socio-economic system is established using the Drivers-Pressures-Impacts-States-Responses (DPSIR) framework where our improved understanding about soil ecosystem processes is linked to ecosystem services and resource efficiency via the soil functions.

  4. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Magnesic Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Magnesic soils is a subset of the SSURGO dataset containing soil family selected based on the magnesic content and serpentinite parent material. The following soil...

  5. Soil shrinkage characteristics in swelling soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to understand soil swelling and shrinkage mechanisms, and the development of desiccation cracks, to distinguish between soils having different magnitude of swelling, as well as the consequences on soil structural behaviour, to know methods to characterize soil swell/shrink potential and to construct soil shrinkage curves, and derive shrinkage indices, as well to apply them to assess soil management effects

  6. Linked Ocean Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Adam; Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Shepherd, Adam

    2014-05-01

    "Linked Data" is a term used in Computer Science to encapsulate a methodology for publishing data and metadata in a structured format so that links may be created and exploited between objects. Berners-Lee (2006) outlines the following four design principles of a Linked Data system: Use Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) as names for things. Use HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) URIs so that people can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (Resource Description Framework [RDF] and the RDF query language [SPARQL]). Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. In 2010, Berners-Lee revisited his original design plan for Linked Data to encourage data owners along a path to "good Linked Data". This revision involved the creation of a five star rating system for Linked Data outlined below. One star: Available on the web (in any format). Two stars: Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. An Excel spreadsheet instead of an image scan of a table). Three stars: As two stars plus the use of a non-proprietary format (e.g. Comma Separated Values instead of Excel). Four stars: As three stars plus the use of open standards from the World Wide Web Commission (W3C) (i.e. RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point to your data and metadata. Five stars: All the above plus link your data to other people's data to provide context Here we present work building on the SeaDataNet common vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server, connecting projects such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) and other vocabularies such as the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Register and Repository and the NASA Global Change Master Directory to create a Linked Ocean Data cloud. Publishing the vocabularies and metadata in standard RDF XML and exposing SPARQL endpoints renders them five-star Linked

  7. Invited presentations. College on soil physics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriels, D.M.; Ghirardi, G.; Nielsen, D.R.; Pla Sentis, I.; Skidmore, E.L.

    2004-01-01

    The present book is a partial compilation of contributions from selected former participants of the College on Soil Physics invited to make presentations related to their achievements as a result of attending the College. It also serves as a testimony of the existing links between soil physicists throughout the world strengthened by the support and programs of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics originally envisioned by Abdus Salam to foster the growth of advanced studies and physics research in developing countries

  8. Invited presentations. College on soil physics 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriels, D M [Univ. Ghent (Belgium); Ghirardi, G [Univ. Trieste (Italy); Nielsen, D R [Univ. California (United States); Pla Sentis, I [Univ. Lleida (Spain); Skidmore, E L [Kansas State Univ. (United States)

    2004-05-15

    The present book is a partial compilation of contributions from selected former participants of the College on Soil Physics invited to make presentations related to their achievements as a result of attending the College. It also serves as a testimony of the existing links between soil physicists throughout the world strengthened by the support and programs of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics originally envisioned by Abdus Salam to foster the growth of advanced studies and physics research in developing countries.

  9. Soil infiltration based on bp neural network and grey relational analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Juan,Wang; Pute,Wu; Xining,Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Soil infiltration is a key link of the natural water cycle process. Studies on soil permeability are conducive for water resources assessment and estimation, runoff regulation and management, soil erosion modeling, nonpoint and point source pollution of farmland, among other aspects. The unequal influence of rainfall duration, rainfall intensity, antecedent soil moisture, vegetation cover, vegetation type, and slope gradient on soil cumulative infiltration was studied under simulated rainfall...

  10. Intraspecific plant-soil feedback as a mechanism underlying invasiveness of neophytes of the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Knobová, Pavlína

    2017-01-01

    Intraspecific plant-soil feedback is a relationship in which plant affects the composition of the soil and such modified soil affects growth of the same plant species. This relationship and its intensity may be linked with plant dominance and invasiveness. Dominant species can alter the composition of the soil in their favor and thus show positive intraspecific plant-soil feedback. As the invasive species are commonly being dominant in their new environment, it can be expected that intraspeci...

  11. Soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. L. Boersma; D. Kirkham; D. Norum; R. Ziemer; J. C. Guitjens; J. Davidson; J. N. Luthin

    1971-01-01

    Infiltration continues to occupy the attention of soil physicists and engineers. A theoretical and experimental analysis of the effect of surface sealing on infiltration by Edwards and Larson [1969] showed that raindrops reduced the infiltration rate by as much as 50% for a two-hour period of infiltration. The effect of raindrops on the surface infiltration rate of...

  12. Soil microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.C.; Legg, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The major areas of soil microbiological and biochemical research which have involved both stable and radioactive isotopes are summarized. These include microbial decomposition of naturally occurring materials, microbial biomass, interactions of plants and microbes, denitrification, mineralization and immobilization of nitrogen and biological nitrogen fixation. (U.K.)

  13. Soil fertility management: Impacts on soil macrofauna, soil aggregation and soil organic matter allocation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayuke, F.O.; Brussaard, L.; Vanlauwe, B.; Six, J.; Lelei, D.K.; Kibunja, C.N.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance of soil organic matter through integrated soil fertility management is important for soil quality and agricultural productivity, and for the persistence of soil faunal diversity and biomass. Little is known about the interactive effects of soil fertility management and soil macrofauna

  14. Basic Soils. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use in teaching a course in basic soils that is intended for college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: the way in which soil is formed, the physical properties of soil, the chemical properties of soil, the biotic properties of soil, plant-soil-water…

  15. Establishing an International Soil Modelling Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan

    2015-04-01

    -change-feedback processes, bridge basic soil science research and management, and facilitate the communication between science and society . To meet these challenges an international community effort is required, similar to initiatives in systems biology, hydrology, and climate and crop research. We therefore propose to establish an international soil modelling consortium with the aims of 1) bringing together leading experts in modelling soil processes within all major soil disciplines, 2) addressing major scientific gaps in describing key processes and their long term impacts with respect to the different functions and ecosystem services provided by soil, 3) intercomparing soil model performance based on standardized and harmonized data sets, 4) identifying interactions with other relevant platforms related to common data formats, protocols and ontologies, 5) developing new approaches to inverse modelling, calibration, and validation of soil models, 6) integrating soil modelling expertise and state of the art knowledge on soil processes in climate, land surface, ecological, crop and contaminant models, and 7) linking process models with new observation, measurement and data evaluation technologies for mapping and characterizing soil properties across scales. Our consortium will bring together modelers and experimental soil scientists at the forefront of new technologies and approaches to characterize soils. By addressing these aims, the consortium will contribute to improve the role of soil modeling as a knowledge dissemination instrument in addressing key global issues and stimulate the development of translational research activities. This presentation will provide a compelling case for this much-needed effort, with a focus on tangible benefits to the scientific and food security communities.

  16. Degradability of an Acrylate-Linked, Fluorotelomer Polymer in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorotelomer polymers are used in a broad array of products in modern societies worldwide and, if they degrade at significant rates, potentially are a significant source of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and related compounds to the environment. To evaluate this possibility, we i...

  17. Prediction of the soil water retention curve for structured soil from saturation to oven-dryness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup, Dan; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    2017-01-01

    . Independently measured SWRCs for 171 undisturbed soil samples with organic matter contents that ranged from 3 to 14% were used for model validation. The results indicate that consideration of the silt and organic matter fractions, in addition to the clay fraction, improved predictions for the dry-end SWRC......The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is the most fundamental soil hydraulic function required for modelling soil–plant–atmospheric water flow and transport processes. The SWRC is intimately linked to the distribution of the size of pores, the composition of the solid phase and the soil specific...... surface area. Detailed measurement of the SWRC is impractical in many cases because of the excessively long equilibration times inherent to most standard methods, especially for fine textured soil. Consequently, it is more efficient to predict the SWRCbased on easy-to-measure basic soil properties...

  18. Relations between soil hydraulic properties and burn severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moody, J.A.; Ebel, B.A.; Stoof, C.R.; Nyman, P.; Martin, D.A.; McKinley, R.

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire can affect soil hydraulic properties, often resulting in reduced infiltration. The magnitude of change in infiltration varies depending on the burn severity. Quantitative approaches to link burn severity with changes in infiltration are lacking. This study uses controlled laboratory

  19. Link til hjemmesider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bervild, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Link til læringsobjekter/undervisningsportalhttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/channel/10492641/charlotte-bervilds-undervisninghttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/video/8248508/3d-printer-v-lektor-charlotte-bervildFotoblog:http://charlottebervild.blogspot.dk/2008/10/fotocollager-af-charlotte-bervild.html......Link til læringsobjekter/undervisningsportalhttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/channel/10492641/charlotte-bervilds-undervisninghttp://videoportal.ucc.dk/video/8248508/3d-printer-v-lektor-charlotte-bervildFotoblog:http://charlottebervild.blogspot.dk/2008/10/fotocollager-af-charlotte-bervild.html...

  20. Moditored unsaturated soil transport processes as a support for large scale soil and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanclooster, Marnik

    2010-05-01

    The current societal demand for sustainable soil and water management is very large. The drivers of global and climate change exert many pressures on the soil and water ecosystems, endangering appropriate ecosystem functioning. The unsaturated soil transport processes play a key role in soil-water system functioning as it controls the fluxes of water and nutrients from the soil to plants (the pedo-biosphere link), the infiltration flux of precipitated water to groundwater and the evaporative flux, and hence the feed back from the soil to the climate system. Yet, unsaturated soil transport processes are difficult to quantify since they are affected by huge variability of the governing properties at different space-time scales and the intrinsic non-linearity of the transport processes. The incompatibility of the scales between the scale at which processes reasonably can be characterized, the scale at which the theoretical process correctly can be described and the scale at which the soil and water system need to be managed, calls for further development of scaling procedures in unsaturated zone science. It also calls for a better integration of theoretical and modelling approaches to elucidate transport processes at the appropriate scales, compatible with the sustainable soil and water management objective. Moditoring science, i.e the interdisciplinary research domain where modelling and monitoring science are linked, is currently evolving significantly in the unsaturated zone hydrology area. In this presentation, a review of current moditoring strategies/techniques will be given and illustrated for solving large scale soil and water management problems. This will also allow identifying research needs in the interdisciplinary domain of modelling and monitoring and to improve the integration of unsaturated zone science in solving soil and water management issues. A focus will be given on examples of large scale soil and water management problems in Europe.

  1. Helically linked mirror arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, P.

    1986-08-01

    A scheme is described for helical linking of mirror sections, which endeavors to combine the better features of toroidal and mirror devices by eliminating the longitudinal loss of mirror machines, having moderately high average β and steady state operation. This scheme is aimed at a device, with closed magnetic surfaces having rotational transform for equilibrium, one or more axisymmetric straight sections for reduced radial loss, a simple geometrical axis for the links and an overall positive magnetic well depth for stability. We start by describing several other attempts at linking of mirror sections, made both in the past and the present. Then a description of our helically linked mirror scheme is given. This example has three identical straight sections connected by three sections having helical geometric axes. A theoretical analysis of the magnetic field and single-particle orbits in them leads to the conclusion that most of the passing particles would be confined in the device and they would have orbits independent of pitch angle under certain conditions. Numerical results are presented, which agree well with the theoretical results as far as passing particle orbits are concerned

  2. Microbial links and element flows in nested detrital food-webs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokarzhevskii, A.D.; van Straalen, N.M.; Zaboev, D.P.; Zaitsev, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Microbial links are obligate in any food chain in soil, because detritivorous animals derive essential amino acids and other resources from microorganisms. To degrade recalcitrant substrates such as cellulose, soil animals do not produce their own cellulase, but they use cellulases derived from gut

  3. Soil tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Dierauer, Hansueli

    2013-01-01

    The web platform offers a compilation of various formats and materials dealing with reduced tillage and its challenges regarding weeds. A selection of short movies about mechanical weeding, green manure and tailor-made machinery is listed. Leaflets and publications on reduced tillage can be downloaded. In there, different treatments and machinery are tested and compared to advice farmers on how to conserve soil while keeping weed under control. For Swiss farmers information on the leg...

  4. Soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, G.U.; Banfi, C.; Pasturenzi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the problems associated with techniques and strategies of soil sampling. Keeping in mind the well defined objectives of a sampling campaign, the aim was to highlight the most important aspect of representativeness of samples as a function of the available resources. Particular emphasis was given to the techniques and particularly to a description of the many types of samplers which are in use. The procedures and techniques employed during the investigations following the Seveso accident are described. (orig.)

  5. Soil enzymology in the recycling of organic wastes and environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen [IIAG-CSIC, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Bioquimica del Suelo; Rad, Carlos [Burgos Univ. (Spain). Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Science; Hernandez, Teresa; Garcia, Carlos (eds.) [CEBAS-CSIC, Murcia (Spain). Dept. of Soil and Water Conservation; Gonzalez-Carcedo, Salvador [Burgos Univ. (Spain). Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Polytechnic High School

    2012-07-01

    Soil enzymes play a fundamental role in many soil processes such as the mineralization of organic matter, the synthesis of humic substances, the degradation of xenobiotics or the mechanisms involved in the biocontrol of plant pathogens. Their direct link with soil microorganisms gives them a key role as biomonitors of the evolution of soil quality or in the monitoring of the application of organic amendments to degraded soils. As a consequence of the importance of soil enzymes on soil processes, there is an increasing interest in their study, as well as in the application of molecular techniques as diagnostic tools. (orig.)

  6. Functional traits of soil invertebrates as indicators for exposure to soil disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedde, Mickaël; Oort, Folkert van; Lamy, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    We tested a trait-based approach to link a soil disturbance to changes in invertebrate communities. Soils and macro-invertebrates were sampled in sandy soils contaminated by long-term wastewater irrigation, adding notably organic matter and trace metals (TM). We hypothesized that functional traits of invertebrates depict ways of exposure and that exposure routes relate to specific TM pools. Geophages and soft-body invertebrates were chosen to inform on exposure by ingestion or contact, respectively. Trait-based indices depicted more accurately effects of pollution than community density and diversity did. Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than by contact. Both types of exposed invertebrates were influenced by TM, but geophages mainly responded to changes in soil organic matter contents. The trait-based approach requires to be applied in various conditions to uncorrelate specific TM impacts from those of other environmental factors. - Highlights: ► We linked pollution, exposure routes and impacts on soil invertebrates. ► Proportions of exposed animals accurately depicted pollution effects. ► Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than exposure by contact. ► Geophages decline reflected changes in soil organic matter. ► Soft-body proportions were mainly influenced by TM pools. - A trait-based approach hierarchized impacts of soil pollution on soil invertebrate communities following ways of exposure

  7. Assessing the dynamics of the upper soil layer relative to soil management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J.; Wacha, K.; Dold, C.

    2017-12-01

    The upper layer of the soil is the critical interface between the soil and the atmosphere and is the most dynamic in response to management practices. One of the soil properties most reflective to changes in management is the stability of the aggregates because this property controls infiltration of water and exchange of gases. An aggregation model has been developed based on the factors that control how aggregates form and the forces which degrade aggregates. One of the major factors for this model is the storage of carbon into the soil and the interaction with the soil biological component. To increase soil biology requires a stable microclimate that provides food, water, shelter, and oxygen which in turn facilitates the incorporation of organic material into forms that can be combined with soil particles to create stable aggregates. The processes that increase aggregate size and stability are directly linked the continual functioning of the biological component which in turn changes the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Soil aggregates begin to degrade as soon as there is no longer a supply of organic material into the soil. These processes can range from removal of organic material and excessive tillage. To increase aggregation of the upper soil layer requires a continual supply of organic material and the biological activity that incorporates organic material into substances that create a stable aggregate. Soils that exhibit stable soil aggregates at the surface have a prolonged infiltration rate with less runoff and a gas exchange that ensures adequate oxygen for maximum biological activity. Quantifying the dynamics of the soil surface layer provides a quantitative understanding of how management practices affect aggregate stability.

  8. Soil Penetration by Earthworms and Plant Roots--Mechanical Energetics of Bioturbation of Compacted Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siul Ruiz

    Full Text Available We quantify mechanical processes common to soil penetration by earthworms and growing plant roots, including the energetic requirements for soil plastic displacement. The basic mechanical model considers cavity expansion into a plastic wet soil involving wedging by root tips or earthworms via cone-like penetration followed by cavity expansion due to pressurized earthworm hydroskeleton or root radial growth. The mechanical stresses and resulting soil strains determine the mechanical energy required for bioturbation under different soil hydro-mechanical conditions for a realistic range of root/earthworm geometries. Modeling results suggest that higher soil water content and reduced clay content reduce the strain energy required for soil penetration. The critical earthworm or root pressure increases with increased diameter of root or earthworm, however, results are insensitive to the cone apex (shape of the tip. The invested mechanical energy per unit length increase with increasing earthworm and plant root diameters, whereas mechanical energy per unit of displaced soil volume decreases with larger diameters. The study provides a quantitative framework for estimating energy requirements for soil penetration work done by earthworms and plant roots, and delineates intrinsic and external mechanical limits for bioturbation processes. Estimated energy requirements for earthworm biopore networks are linked to consumption of soil organic matter and suggest that earthworm populations are likely to consume a significant fraction of ecosystem net primary production to sustain their subterranean activities.

  9. Ecological drivers of soil microbial diversity and soil biological networks in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Reith, Frank; Dennis, Paul G; Hamonts, Kelly; Powell, Jeff R; Young, Andrew; Singh, Brajesh K; Bissett, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    The ecological drivers of soil biodiversity in the Southern Hemisphere remain underexplored. Here, in a continental survey comprising 647 sites, across 58 degrees of latitude between tropical Australia and Antarctica, we evaluated the major ecological patterns in soil biodiversity and relative abundance of ecological clusters within a co-occurrence network of soil bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Six major ecological clusters (modules) of co-occurring soil taxa were identified. These clusters exhibited strong shifts in their relative abundances with increasing distance from the equator. Temperature was the major environmental driver of the relative abundance of ecological clusters when Australia and Antarctica are analyzed together. Temperature, aridity, soil properties and vegetation types were the major drivers of the relative abundance of different ecological clusters within Australia. Our data supports significant reductions in the diversity of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes in Antarctica vs. Australia linked to strong reductions in temperature. However, we only detected small latitudinal variations in soil biodiversity within Australia. Different environmental drivers regulate the diversity of soil archaea (temperature and soil carbon), bacteria (aridity, vegetation attributes and pH) and eukaryotes (vegetation type and soil carbon) across Australia. Together, our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms driving soil biodiversity in the Southern Hemisphere. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Stimulation of soil microorganisms in pesticide-contaminated soil using organic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima Yudha Perwira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Agrochemicals such as pesticides have contributed to significant increases in crop yields; however, they can also be linked to adverse effects on human health and soil microorganisms. For efficient bioremediation of pesticides accumulated in agricultural fields, stimulation of microorganisms is necessary. In this study, we investigated the relationships between bacterial biomass and total carbon (TC and total nitrogen (TN in 427 agricultural soils. The soil bacterial biomass was generally positively correlated with TC and TN contents in the soil, but some soils had a low bacterial biomass despite containing high amounts of TC and TN. Soils of two fields (fields A and B with low bacterial biomass but high TC and TN contents were investigated. Long-term pesticide use (dichloropropane-dichloropropene and fosthiazate in field A and chloropicrin in field B appeared to have contributed to the low bacterial biomass observed in these soils. Soil from field A was treated with different organic materials and incubated for 1 month under laboratory conditions. The bacterial biomass in field A soil was enhanced in treatments containing organic materials rich in TN. Application of organic materials stimulated the growth of microorganisms with the potential to bioremediate pesticide-polluted soils.

  11. The status of soil mapping for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.L.; Lee, R.D.; Jeppesen, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report discusses the production of a revised version of the general soil map of the 2304-km 2 (890-mi 2 ) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site in southeastern Idaho and the production of a geographic information system (GIS) soil map and supporting database. The revised general soil map replaces an INEL soil map produced in 1978 and incorporates the most current information on INEL soils. The general soil map delineates large soil associations based on National Resources Conservation Services [formerly the Soil Conservation Service (SCS)] principles of soil mapping. The GIS map incorporates detailed information that could not be presented on the general soil map and is linked to a database that contains the soil map unit descriptions, surficial geology codes, and other pertinent information

  12. A process-based framework for soil ecosystem services study and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Changhong; Liu, Huifang; Wang, Shuai

    2018-06-15

    Soil provides various indispensable ecosystem services for human society. Soil's complex structure and property makes the soil ecological processes complicated and brings about tough challenges for soil ecosystem services study. Most of the current frameworks on soil services focus exclusively on services per se, neglecting the links and underlying ecological mechanisms. This article put forward a framework on soil services by stressing the underlying soil mechanisms and processes, which includes: 1) analyzing soil natural capital stock based on soil structure and property, 2) disentangling the underlying complex links and soil processes, 3) soil services valuation based on field investigation and spatial explicit models, and 4) enacting soil management strategy based on soil services and their driving factors. By application of this framework, we assessed the soil services of sediment retention, water yield, and grain production in the Upper-reach Fenhe Watershed. Based on the ecosystem services and human driving factors, the whole watershed was clustered into five groups: 1) municipal area, 2) typical coal mining area, 3) traditional farming area, 4) unsustainable urbanizing area, and 5) ecological conservation area. Management strategies on soils were made according to the clustering based soil services and human activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Website Policies / Important Links | DOepatents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links Website Policies / Important Links Javascript Not Enabled OSTI Security Website Policies and first) Publication Date (oldest first) Close Clear All Find DOepatents Website Policies / Important Important Links Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from

  14. Bottom-linked innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Catharina Juul

    2018-01-01

    hitherto been paid little explicit attention, namely collaboration between middle managers and employees in innovation processes. In contrast to most studies, middle managers and employees are here both subjects of explicit investigation. The collaboration processes explored in this article are termed...... ‘bottom-linked innovation’. The empirical analysis is based on an in-depth qualitative study of bottom-linked innovation in a public frontline institution in Denmark. By combining research on employee-driven innovation and middle management, the article offers new insights into such collaborative......Employee-driven innovation is gaining ground as a strategy for developing sustainable organisations in the public and private sector. This type of innovation is characterised by active employee participation, and the bottom-up perspective is often emphasised. This article explores an issue that has...

  15. Soil use and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; White, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This four-volume set, edited by leading experts in soil science, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of soil science as a defined discipline. Volume 3 on Soil Use and Management covers: - Soil evaluation and land use planning - Soil and

  16. Soil properties and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; White, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This four-volume set, edited by leading experts in soil science, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of soil science as a defined discipline. Tis volume 2 on Soil Properties and Processes covers: - Soil physics - Soil (bio)chemistry -

  17. Soil and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Soil and Pesticides Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides español Soil and Pesticides Soil can be degraded and the community of organisms living in the soil can

  18. Linking lab and field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronje, P.B.

    1988-01-01

    The multitude of different supplements recommended for animals grazing natural pastures, which testifies to the need for a metabolic basis for supplementary feeding practices. The first approach to this problem was to simulate different feeding conditions in the laboratory, where the metabolic responses of body tissues to changes in the supply of purified nutrients could be studied using radioisotope techniques. The second step was to link these fundamental studies to field conditions. The results of these studies suggest that the efficiency of feed conversion and growth rates of ruminants grazing winter pastures in the highveld region of South Africa could be substantially improved by strategic supplementation with glucose precursors. Acetate clearance rate represents a valuable link in the process of applying information obtained from controlled laboratory experiments to field conditions. As this technique is inexpensive, quick and simple to carry out, it is ideally suited to application under field conditions where the use of isotopes is impractical. By providing a link with field conditions, it greatly extended the scope and practical application of isotope tracer techniques

  19. Habitat and Biodiversity: One out of five essential soil functions for agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinsoutrot Gattin, Isabelle; Creamer, Rachel; van Leeuwen, Jeroen; Vrebos, Dirk; Gatti, Fabio; Bampa, Francesca; Schulte, Rogier; Rutgers, Michiel

    2017-04-01

    Current agricultural challenges require developing new agricultural systems that can optimize the ecological functioning of soils in order to limit the use of chemical inputs (i.e. disease suppression) and maintain a high organic matter content. This implies our ability to evaluate the effects of management practices on immediate performance objectives (i.e. fertility linked to nutrient cycling) but also in longer-term objective (i.e. C cycling and storage) in a variety of agro-climatic conditions. These issues demand the development of systemic approaches for understanding the determinants of soil functioning. In ecology, it is generally accepted that there are many positive relationships between soil biodiversity indicators and the functioning of ecosystems. Indeed, soil organisms and their interactions are essential drivers of ecosystem processes and impact the response, resilience and adaptability of ecosystems to environmental pressures. Thus, maintaining soil biodiversity is a condition for the sustainability of cropping systems. In this new context, the European project Landmark considers soil functions as a key to the improvement of agricultural land management towards sustainable development goals, amongst the five functions is soil biodiversity and habitat provisioning. We propose to present how we manage within this project to deal with this challenging objective at three spatial scales : field, landscape (regional) and European (policy). We aim to define a link between the physical, chemical and biological soil properties and "habitat & biodiversity" soil function in order to identify key indicators which modulate biodiversity. This will allow us to quantify and assess this soil function, in order to provide insight in win wins and tradeoffs in soil functions to enhance management practices which optimise the biodiversity in European agricultural systems.

  20. Uncertainty indication in soil function maps - transparent and easy-to-use information to support sustainable use of soil resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Lucie; Nussbaum, Madlene; Papritz, Andreas; Zimmermann, Stephan; Gubler, Andreas; Grêt-Regamey, Adrienne; Keller, Armin

    2018-05-01

    Spatial information on soil function fulfillment (SFF) is increasingly being used to inform decision-making in spatial planning programs to support sustainable use of soil resources. Soil function maps visualize soils abilities to fulfill their functions, e.g., regulating water and nutrient flows, providing habitats, and supporting biomass production based on soil properties. Such information must be reliable for informed and transparent decision-making in spatial planning programs. In this study, we add to the transparency of soil function maps by (1) indicating uncertainties arising from the prediction of soil properties generated by digital soil mapping (DSM) that are used for soil function assessment (SFA) and (2) showing the response of different SFA methods to the propagation of uncertainties through the assessment. For a study area of 170 km2 in the Swiss Plateau, we map 10 static soil sub-functions for agricultural soils for a spatial resolution of 20 × 20 m together with their uncertainties. Mapping the 10 soil sub-functions using simple ordinal assessment scales reveals pronounced spatial patterns with a high variability of SFF scores across the region, linked to the inherent properties of the soils and terrain attributes and climate conditions. Uncertainties in soil properties propagated through SFA methods generally lead to substantial uncertainty in the mapped soil sub-functions. We propose two types of uncertainty maps that can be readily understood by stakeholders. Cumulative distribution functions of SFF scores indicate that SFA methods respond differently to the propagated uncertainty of soil properties. Even where methods are comparable on the level of complexity and assessment scale, their comparability in view of uncertainty propagation might be different. We conclude that comparable uncertainty indications in soil function maps are relevant to enable informed and transparent decisions on the sustainable use of soil resources.

  1. Biological soil crusts in deserts: A short review of their role in soil fertility, stabilization, and water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and cyanolichens dominate most desert soil surfaces as the major component of biological soil crusts (BSC). BSCs contribute to soil fertility in many ways. BSC can increase weathering of parent materials by up to 100 times. Soil surface biota are often sticky, and help retain dust falling on the soil surface; this dust provides many plant-essential nutrients including N, P, K, Mg, Na, Mn, Cu, and Fe. BSCs also provide roughened soil surfaces that slow water runoff and aid in retaining seeds and organic matter. They provide inputs of newly-fixed carbon and nitrogen to soils. They are essential in stabilizing soil surfaces by linking soil particles together with filamentous sheaths, enabling soils to resist both water and wind erosion. These same sheaths are important in keeping soil nutrients from becoming bound into plant-unavailable forms. Experimental disturbances applied in US deserts show soil surface impacts decrease N and C inputs from soil biota by up to 100%. The ability to hold aeolian deposits in place is compromised, and underlying soils are exposed to erosion. While most undisturbed sites show little sediment production, disturbance by vehicles or livestock produces up to 36 times more sediment production, with soil movement initiated at wind velocities well below commonly-occurring wind speeds. Winds across disturbed areas can quickly remove this material from the soil surface, thereby potentially removing much of current and future soil fertility. Thus, reduction in the cover of cyanophytes in desert soils can both reduce fertility inputs and accelerate fertility losses.

  2. Microbial community responses in forest mineral soil to compaction, organic matter removal, and vegetation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt D. Busse; Samual E. Beattie; Robert F. Powers; Filpe G. Sanchez; Allan E. Tiarks

    2006-01-01

    We tested three disturbance hypotheses in young conifer plantations: H1: soil compaction and removal of surface organic matter produces sustained changes in microbial community size, activity, and structure in mineral soil; H2: microbial community characteristics in mineral soil are linked to the recovery of plant diversity...

  3. Biological Activity Assessment in Mexican Tropical Soils with Different Hydrocarbon Contamination Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Riveroll-Larios, Jessica; Escalante-Espinosa, Erika; Fócil-Monterrubio, Reyna L.; Díaz-Ramírez, Ildefonso J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of soil health indicators linked to microbial activities, such as key enzymes and respirometric profiles, helps assess the natural attenuation potential of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. In this study, the intrinsic physicochemical characteristics, biological activity and biodegradation potential were recorded for two soils with different contamination histories (>5 years and

  4. Nitrogen Soil Testing for Corn in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Evanylo, Gregory K.; Alley, Marcus M., 1947-

    2009-01-01

    An adequate supply of plant-available nitrogen (N) is crucial for efficient corn production, and corn N requirements are greater than any other nutrient. This publication reviews the link between nitrogen and corn production, nitrogen behavior, soil testing, test procedures and recommendations.

  5. Soil and public health: invisible bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public health institutions, as ancient as civilizations itself, are intrinsically connected with soils. The massive body of the empirical knowledge about this connection has been accumulated. Recently unraveling the underlying mechanisms of this link has begun, and many of them appear to have the m...

  6. Soil Plant and plant mammal transfer factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs ACM; Vermeire TG

    1990-01-01

    In order to assess the lifetime hazard of ingestion exposure of man to new substances, the RIVM Assessment System for New Substances links environmental concentrations in water and soil to human exposure applying transfer factors. This report discusses indirect human exposure to new substances via

  7. The significance of soils and soil science towards realization of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia D.; Bouma, Johan; Wallinga, Jakob; Tittonell, Pablo; Smith, Pete; Cerdà, Artemi; Montanarella, Luca; Quinton, John N.; Pachepsky, Yakov; van der Putten, Wim H.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Moolenaar, Simon; Mol, Gerben; Jansen, Boris; Fresco, Louise O.

    2016-04-01

    In this forum paper we discuss how soil scientists can help to reach the recently adopted UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the most effective manner. Soil science, as a land-related discipline, has important links to several of the SDGs, which are demonstrated through the functions of soils and the ecosystem services that are linked to those functions (see graphical abstract in the Supplement). We explore and discuss how soil scientists can rise to the challenge both internally, in terms of our procedures and practices, and externally, in terms of our relations with colleague scientists in other disciplines, diverse groups of stakeholders and the policy arena. To meet these goals we recommend the following steps to be taken by the soil science community as a whole: (i) embrace the UN SDGs, as they provide a platform that allows soil science to demonstrate its relevance for realizing a sustainable society by 2030; (ii) show the specific value of soil science: research should explicitly show how using modern soil information can improve the results of inter- and transdisciplinary studies on SDGs related to food security, water scarcity, climate change, biodiversity loss and health threats; (iii) take leadership in overarching system analysis of ecosystems, as soils and soil scientists have an integrated nature and this places soil scientists in a unique position; (iii) raise awareness of soil organic matter as a key attribute of soils to illustrate its importance for soil functions and ecosystem services; (iv) improve the transfer of knowledge through knowledge brokers with a soil background; (v) start at the basis: educational programmes are needed at all levels, starting in primary schools, and emphasizing practical, down-to-earth examples; (vi) facilitate communication with the policy arena by framing research in terms that resonate with politicians in terms of the policy cycle or by considering drivers, pressures and responses affecting impacts of land

  8. Detailed Soils 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  9. Indicators: Soil Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical makeup of the soil can provide information on wetland condition, wetland water quality and services being provided by the wetland ecosystem. Analyzing soil chemistry reveals if the soil is contaminated with a toxic chemical or heavy metal.

  10. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  11. Long-term rice cultivation stabilizes soil organic carbon and promotes soil microbial activity in a salt marsh derived soil chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Yalong; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Joseph, Stephen; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration with enhanced stable carbon storage has been widely accepted as a very important ecosystem property. Yet, the link between carbon stability and bio-activity for ecosystem functioning with OC accumulation in field soils has not been characterized. We assessed the changes in microbial activity versus carbon stability along a paddy soil chronosequence shifting from salt marsh in East China. We used mean weight diameter, normalized enzyme activity (NEA) and carbon gain from straw amendment for addressing soil aggregation, microbial biochemical activity and potential C sequestration, respectively. In addition, a response ratio was employed to infer the changes in all analyzed parameters with prolonged rice cultivation. While stable carbon pools varied with total SOC accumulation, soil respiration and both bacterial and fungal diversity were relatively constant in the rice soils. Bacterial abundance and NEA were positively but highly correlated to total SOC accumulation, indicating an enhanced bio-activity with carbon stabilization. This could be linked to an enhancement of particulate organic carbon pool due to physical protection with enhanced soil aggregation in the rice soils under long-term rice cultivation. However, the mechanism underpinning these changes should be explored in future studies in rice soils where dynamic redox conditions exist. PMID:26503629

  12. Linking consumer experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Karina Madsen

    become part of the individual self, worldview, and behaviour. This paper seeks to explore links between consumer experiences through the exploration of narrative sequences in travel blogs. Findings indicate that non-consumption is a central element to the bloggers and also indicative of a community......Consumers consume products in various ways serving a number of purposes. Much attention has been paid to experiences attached to consumption, sometimes very explicitly, e.g. in tourism, the essence of which is experiences of various sorts, but often also implicitly as internalised experiences...

  13. Knots and links

    CERN Document Server

    Rolfsen, Dale

    2003-01-01

    Rolfsen's beautiful book on knots and links can be read by anyone, from beginner to expert, who wants to learn about knot theory. Beginners with a basic background find an inviting introduction to the elements of topology, emphasizing the tools needed for understanding knots, the fundamental group and van Kampen's theorem, for example, which are then applied to concrete problems, such as computing knot groups. For experts, Rolfsen explains advanced topics, such as the connections between knot theory and surgery and how they are useful to understanding three-manifolds. Besides providing a guide

  14. Sorters for soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R.; Tomicich, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    A soil sorter is a system with conveyor, radiation detectors, and a gate. The system activates the gate based on radiation measurements to sort soil to either clean or contaminated paths. Automatic soil sorters have been perfected for use in the cleanup of plutonium contaminated soil at Johnston Atoll. The cleanup processes soil through a plant which mines plutonium to make soil clean. Sorters at various locations in the plant effectively reduce the volume of soil for mining and they aid in assuring clean soil meets guidelines

  15. Improving Soil Seed Bank Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Steven C; Flessner, Michael L

    2018-05-08

    Problems associated with simplified weed management motivate efforts for diversification. Integrated weed management uses fundamentals of weed biology and applied ecology to provide a framework for diversified weed management programs; the soil seed bank comprises a necessary part of this framework. By targeting seeds, growers can inhibit the propagule pressure on which annual weeds depend for agricultural invasion. Some current management practices affect weed seed banks, such as crop rotation and tillage, but these tools are often used without specific intention to manage weed seeds. Difficulties quantifying the weed seed bank, understanding seed bank phenology, and linking seed banks to emerged weed communities challenge existing soil seed bank management practices. Improved seed bank quantification methods could include DNA profiling of the soil seed bank, mark and recapture, or 3D LIDAR mapping. Successful and sustainable soil seed bank management must constrain functionally diverse and changing weed communities. Harvest weed seed controls represent a step forward, but over-reliance on this singular technique could make it short-lived. Researchers must explore tools inspired by other pest management disciplines, such as gene drives or habitat modification for predatory organisms. Future weed seed bank management will combine multiple complementary practices that enhance diverse agroecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Soil-structure interaction including nonlinear soil

    OpenAIRE

    Gicev, Vlado

    2008-01-01

    There are two types of models of soil-structure system depending upon the rigidity of foundation: models with rigid and models with flexible foundation. Main features of the soil-structure interaction phenomenon: -wave scattering, -radiation damping, -reduction of the system frequencies. In this presentation, the influence of interaction on the development of nonlinear zones in the soil is studied.

  17. Dangerous enemy in Estonian garden soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersell, V.; Mottus, V.; Taeht, K.

    2005-01-01

    Radon is thoroughly discussed in the article. Its generation and the heath risks it can cause. The distribution of radon in the soil is analysed (one soil lithotype at a time (kBq/m)). The measurements received on different surveyed sites are compared to the standards allowed for the construction works. There is also the link between lung cancer cases and radon's radiance and incense/smoking. The North of Estonia is the pearl of Estonia landscape. The sea being near, beautiful seaside views attract people and inspire them to build their houses in this kind of surroundings. However, these areas are natural danger sources, as the percentage of radon concentration in the soil is often high or very high. South Estonia also has a lot of spectacular places with high concentration of radon in the soil [et

  18. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; Ferro Vázquez, Cruz; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Costa Casais, Manuela; Taboada Rodríguez, Teresa; Rodríguez Lado, Luis

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  19. Thinking and Countermeasures for Rational Utilization of Soil Fertility in Modern Agriculture Developping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WENG Bo-qi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil is not only an important foundation for agricultural production, but also is the safeguard of human survival. Soil quality is close-ly related with food safety and argo-ecological environment. Soil fertility is the support of modern agricultural development. Multiple disci-plines and specialties are involved in researches of soil cultivating process. Nowadays, the understanding of soil fertility has changed from a-gricultural production to environmental security and resource exploitation, even larger scales to ecological health and global soil change. In this review, the characteristics and inherent link between soil and agriculture were comprehensive expounded from the aspects of long-term fertilization trials, soil cultivation techniques, and modern agriculture development. The challenge and prospect faced in soil science research field were also analyzed. Finally, several suggestions and countermeasures were proposed to the researches of soil science in future.

  20. GEMAS - Soil geochemistry and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Ladenberger, Anna; Wragg, Joanna; Gulan, Aleksandra

    2014-05-01

    The GEMAS Project resulted in a large coherent data set displaying baseline levels of elements in agricultural and grazing land soil, which has a wide variety of applications. Medical geology is an emerging new discipline providing a link between geoscience and medicine by interpreting natural geological factors in relation to human and animal health and their geographical distribution. Medical geology shows not only problems related to harmful health effects of natural geological materials and processes, but also deals with their beneficial aspects. Since the GEMAS project demonstrates the importance of geological factors in geochemical patterns in European soil, this data set can be used in improving our understanding of how the geological processes may affect human health in Europe. The main potential health problems are related to deficiency of nutrients in soil and toxic effects of potentially harmful elements. Deficiency in macro- (e.g., K, Fe, Mg, P) and micro-nutrients (e.g., Se, Zn, Cl) can be responsible for a reduction in crop productivity and certain health issues for livestock and humans. On the other hand, bioavailability of crucial elements depends on soil parameters, e.g., pH; namely, low pH in soil (in northern Europe) makes more micronutrients bioavailable, with the exception of Mo, P and Ca. Rocks underlying the soil layer have a major impact on soil composition, and soil parent material can be a main source of toxic metals, for instance, soil developed on black shale (e.g., Oslo region) shows potentially toxic levels of metals, such as As, Cd, U, Zn and Pb. High content of organic matter is another factor amplifying the toxic levels of metals in soil. Several important topics with health implications can be then addressed using the GEMAS data set, namely, soil properties and element bioavailability, arsenic toxicity, selenium deficiency, potential health effects of liming, uranium in European soil, influence of recent and historical volcanic

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the link between drug misuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, ... present time. The virus (HIV) and the disease it causes (AIDS) are often linked and referred to ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... teens and young adults have never known a world without it. NIDA’s "Learn the Link" campaign continues ... for HIV infection through risky sexual behaviors. NIDA researchers have studied and continue to study the links ...

  4. The HANDSS-55 Linking Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, S.

    2001-01-01

    The Bucket Translation Unit (BTU) and the Drum Handler are two of the HANDSS-55 subsystems identified as linking components. Both subsystems link other modules together by moving material to or from another module

  5. Phosphorylation of human link proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oester, D.A.; Caterson, B.; Schwartz, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    Three link proteins of 48, 44 and 40 kDa were purified from human articular cartilage and identified with monoclonal anti-link protein antibody 8-A-4. Two sets of lower molecular weight proteins of 30-31 kDa and 24-26 kDa also contained link protein epitopes recognized by the monoclonal antibody and were most likely degradative products of the intact link proteins. The link proteins of 48 and 40 kDa were identified as phosphoproteins while the 44 kDa link protein did not contain 32 P. The phosphorylated 48 and 40 kDa link proteins contained approximately 2 moles PO 4 /mole link protein

  6. The sensitivity of soil respiration to soil temperature, moisture, and carbon supply at the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursh, Andrew; Ballantyne, Ashley; Cooper, Leila; Maneta, Marco; Kimball, John; Watts, Jennifer

    2017-05-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is a major pathway by which fixed carbon in the biosphere is returned to the atmosphere, yet there are limits to our ability to predict respiration rates using environmental drivers at the global scale. While temperature, moisture, carbon supply, and other site characteristics are known to regulate soil respiration rates at plot scales within certain biomes, quantitative frameworks for evaluating the relative importance of these factors across different biomes and at the global scale require tests of the relationships between field estimates and global climatic data. This study evaluates the factors driving Rs at the global scale by linking global datasets of soil moisture, soil temperature, primary productivity, and soil carbon estimates with observations of annual Rs from the Global Soil Respiration Database (SRDB). We find that calibrating models with parabolic soil moisture functions can improve predictive power over similar models with asymptotic functions of mean annual precipitation. Soil temperature is comparable with previously reported air temperature observations used in predicting Rs and is the dominant driver of Rs in global models; however, within certain biomes soil moisture and soil carbon emerge as dominant predictors of Rs. We identify regions where typical temperature-driven responses are further mediated by soil moisture, precipitation, and carbon supply and regions in which environmental controls on high Rs values are difficult to ascertain due to limited field data. Because soil moisture integrates temperature and precipitation dynamics, it can more directly constrain the heterotrophic component of Rs, but global-scale models tend to smooth its spatial heterogeneity by aggregating factors that increase moisture variability within and across biomes. We compare statistical and mechanistic models that provide independent estimates of global Rs ranging from 83 to 108 Pg yr -1 , but also highlight regions of uncertainty

  7. Soils Newsletter, Vol. 38, No. 2, January 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    In 2015 the Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition (SWMCN) Subprogramme held several events to celebrate the “International Year of Soils” (IYS), to raise awareness and improve the understanding on the importance of soil for food security and essential ecosystem functions. The side event on ‘Managing Soils for Climate-Smart Agriculture’ on 16 September 2015 during the 59th IAEA General Conference was well attended with more than 80 participants including many country delegations attending the IAEA General Conference. The four speakers from Member States showcased the successes and impacts in the field as well as their experience on the importance of soils in global food security, the impacts of climate change on soil and the crucial roles of nuclear applications for climate-smart agriculture. Similarly, the one-day conference on 7 December 2015 on “Celebration of the 2015 International Year of Soils: Achievements and Future Challenges”, with the International Union of Soil Science (IUSS), to coincide with World Soil Day on 5 December and to mark the closing of IYS. Speakers from all Regional Soil Science Societies reported on their achievements with regards to managing soils for sustainable crop production and intensification. Working groups discussed future challenges and opportunities for soil research and development, and international partnership and collaboration. The roles of isotopic and nuclear techniques for managing soils to combat land degradation, improve soil fertility and resource use efficiency, while reducing the environmental impacts of agriculture, and improving the nutritional quality of crops were highlighted during the conference. At the event, participants proclaimed the ‘Vienna Soil Declaration: Soil matters for humans and ecosystems’, which sets the framework for future research in soil science and links achievements to the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals and global endeavours to combat climate change

  8. ITK optical links backup document

    CERN Document Server

    Huffman, B T; The ATLAS collaboration; Flick, T; Ye, J

    2013-01-01

    This document describes the proposed optical links to be used for the ITK in the phase II upgrade. The current R&D for optical links pursued in the Versatile Link group is reviewed. In particular the results demonstrating the radiation tolerance of all the on-detector components are documented. The bandwidth requirements and the resulting numerology are given.

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links to our latest research findings and news updates. Read on to Learn the Link between ... to this site at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . ... Social Media Send the message to young people and to ...

  10. Seismic link at plate boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    time series to determine the causality and related orientation. The resulting link ... Triggering causes changes in the Coulomb stress on a specified fault, which is ... work link shows that the alignment of the links is parallel to the Honshu Trench ...

  11. Fermions and link invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, L.; Saleur, H.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of knot theory are discussed when fermionic degrees of freedom are taken into account in the braid group representations and in the state models. It is discussed how the R matrix for the Alexander polynomial arises from the Fox differential calculus, and how it is related to the quantum group U q gl(1,1). New families of solutions of the Yang Baxter equation obtained from ''linear'' representations of the braid group and exterior algebra are investigated. State models associated with U q sl(n,m), and in the case n=m=1 a state model for the multivariable Alexander polynomial are studied. Invariants of links in solid handlebodies are considered and it is shown how the non trivial topology lifts the boson fermion degeneracy is present in S 3 . (author) 36 refs

  12. Multilevel DC link inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2003-06-10

    A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.

  13. Linking Wayfinding and Wayfaring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we propose to expand and enhance the understanding of wayfi nding beyond the strictly “instrumental” (i.e., getting from point A to point B), to include the qualities and multi-sensorial inputs that inform and shape people’s movement through space. We take as a point of departure...... of environmental information , which includes the embodied, multi-sensorial experience of moving through physical space. We base our examination in part on the classic positions of the wayfi nding literature—for example, Lynch’s seminal study, The Image of the City ( 1960 ). However, we also examine the so......-called mobilities turn in which mobility is viewed as a complex, multilayered process that entails much more than simply getting from point A to point B (see Cresswell 2006 ; Jensen 2013 ; Urry 2007 ).The structure of the chapter is simple: We fi rst introduce the concepts that are key to linking wayfi nding...

  14. LinkLights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönvall, Erik; Kramp, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    The project described in this paper aims to provide assistive tools to support elderly people affected by vestibular dysfunction (i.e. a form of balance disorder leading to dizziness and nausea) in their home-based rehabilitation activities. Challenges emerge as the rehabilitation moves from...... a supervised hospital setting to private homes. Our studies have shown that the elderly people are less motivated to perform the training at home. This paper presents a tangible, portable, two dimensional modular platform called LinkLights that has been developed to sustain the home-based rehabilitation......, giving clear guidelines what to do, adding motivational cues and elements of variation and surprise in the activity. Furthermore, a set of challenges for successful translocation of the therapeutic regimen from a supervised, hospital setting to an unsupervised home-based setting together with some early...

  15. Soil transference patterns on bras: Image processing and laboratory dragging experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathleen R; Fitzpatrick, Robert W; Bottrill, Ralph S; Berry, Ron; Kobus, Hilton

    2016-01-01

    In a recent Australian homicide, trace soil on the victim's clothing suggested she was initially attacked in her front yard and not the park where her body was buried. However the important issue that emerged during the trial was how soil was transferred to her clothing. This became the catalyst for designing a range of soil transference experiments (STEs) to study, recognise and classify soil patterns transferred onto fabric when a body is dragged across a soil surface. Soil deposits of interest in this murder were on the victim's bra and this paper reports the results of anthropogenic soil transfer to bra-cups and straps caused by dragging. Transfer patterns were recorded by digital photography and photomicroscopy. Eight soil transfer patterns on fabric, specific to dragging as the transfer method, appeared consistently throughout the STEs. The distinctive soil patterns were largely dependent on a wide range of soil features that were measured and identified for each soil tested using X-ray Diffraction and Non-Dispersive Infra-Red analysis. Digital photographs of soil transfer patterns on fabric were analysed using image processing software to provide a soil object-oriented classification of all soil objects with a diameter of 2 pixels and above transferred. Although soil transfer patterns were easily identifiable by naked-eye alone, image processing software provided objective numerical data to support this traditional (but subjective) interpretation. Image software soil colour analysis assigned a range of Munsell colours to identify and compare trace soil on fabric to other trace soil evidence from the same location; without requiring a spectrophotometer. Trace soil from the same location was identified by linking soils with similar dominant and sub-dominant Munsell colour peaks. Image processing numerical data on the quantity of soil transferred to fabric, enabled a relationship to be discovered between soil type, clay mineralogy (smectite), particle size and

  16. Named Entity Linking Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Panteleev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tasks of processing text in natural language, Named Entity Linking (NEL represents the task to define and link some entity, which is found in the text, with some entity in the knowledge base (for example, Dbpedia. Currently, there is a diversity of approaches to solve this problem, but two main classes can be identified: graph-based approaches and machine learning-based ones. Graph and Machine Learning approaches-based algorithm is proposed accordingly to the stated assumptions about the interrelations of named entities in a sentence and in general.In the case of graph-based approaches, it is necessary to solve the problem of identifying an optimal set of the related entities according to some metric that characterizes the distance between these entities in a graph built on some knowledge base. Due to limitations in processing power, to solve this task directly is impossible. Therefore, its modification is proposed. Based on the algorithms of machine learning, an independent solution cannot be built due to small volumes of training datasets relevant to NEL task. However, their use can contribute to improving the quality of the algorithm. The adaptation of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model is proposed in order to obtain a measure of the compatibility of attributes of various entities encountered in one context.The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was experimentally tested. A test dataset was independently generated. On its basis the performance of the model was compared using the proposed algorithm with the open source product DBpedia Spotlight, which solves the NEL problem.The mockup, based on the proposed algorithm, showed a low speed as compared to DBpedia Spotlight. However, the fact that it has shown higher accuracy, stipulates the prospects for work in this direction.The main directions of development were proposed in order to increase the accuracy of the system and its productivity.

  17. Soil structural behaviour of flooded soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to: identify factors determining of the structural behaviour of flooded soils, as compared to those acting in upland soils; analyse the influence of reductive processes on aggregate stabilising agents; discuss mechanisms of structural deterioration and recovery during the flooding-drying cycle, on the basis of a case study: cattle trampling effects in the flooding Pampa of Argentina. Flooded soils, now known as Hydric soils, are characteristic of wetlands and irrigated fields cropped to rice (paddy soils). In them, water covers the soil, or is present either at or near the surface of the soil all year or for varying periods of time during the year. Hydric soils belong to different taxa of the FAO-UNESCO Soil Map (2000). Fluvisols, Planosols and Gleysols are widespread distributed in the globe. The generation of redoximorphic features is due to different causes in each of them. Fluvisols are covered part of the year by surface water from river overflows; Planosols are soils having an impervious Bt horizon, supporting perched water during short periods; and Gleysols are soils affected by stagnant water tables during long periods

  18. Visual soil evaluation and soil compaction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M.L. Guimarães, Rachel; Keller, Thomas; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2017-01-01

    Following on from discussions that took place during the 19th International Conference of the International Soil Tillage Research Organization (ISTRO) in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 2012, the ISTRO working groups “Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation” (VSEE) and “Subsoil Compaction” decided...... to organize a joint workshop. The present special issue is an outcome from the workshop on “Soil structural quality of tropical soils: Visual evaluation methods and soil compaction prevention strategies” that was held 26–29 May 2014 in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. There has been a long-lasting interest in Visual...... Soil Evaluation (VSE). An ISTRO working group was established more than 30 years ago with the objectives to exchange knowledge and experiences on field methods of visual-tactile soil assessment and to foster international cooperation on new or refined methods. The three previous meeting of the group...

  19. 11 Soil Microbial Biomass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    186–198. Insam H. (1990). Are the soil microbial biomass and basal respiration governed by the climatic regime? Soil. Biol. Biochem. 22: 525–532. Insam H. D. and Domsch K. H. (1989). Influence of microclimate on soil microbial biomass. Soil Biol. Biochem. 21: 211–21. Jenkinson D. S. (1988). Determination of microbial.

  20. Hot fire, cool soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Fernandes, P.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Fernandes, R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events by removing vegetation and changing soils. Fire damage to soil increases with increasing soil temperature, and, for fires where smoldering combustion is absent, the current understanding is that soil temperatures

  1. Visual soil evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) provides land users and environmental authorities with the tools to assess soil quality for crop performance. This book describes the assessment of the various structural conditions of soil, especially after quality degradation such as compaction, erosion or organic...... and nutrient leaching, and for diagnosing and rectifying erosion and compaction in soils....

  2. Restoring Soil Quality to Mitigate Soil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding the world population, 7.3 billion in 2015 and projected to increase to 9.5 billion by 2050, necessitates an increase in agricultural production of ~70% between 2005 and 2050. Soil degradation, characterized by decline in quality and decrease in ecosystem goods and services, is a major constraint to achieving the required increase in agricultural production. Soil is a non-renewable resource on human time scales with its vulnerability to degradation depending on complex interactions between processes, factors and causes occurring at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Among the major soil degradation processes are accelerated erosion, depletion of the soil organic carbon (SOC pool and loss in biodiversity, loss of soil fertility and elemental imbalance, acidification and salinization. Soil degradation trends can be reversed by conversion to a restorative land use and adoption of recommended management practices. The strategy is to minimize soil erosion, create positive SOC and N budgets, enhance activity and species diversity of soil biota (micro, meso, and macro, and improve structural stability and pore geometry. Improving soil quality (i.e., increasing SOC pool, improving soil structure, enhancing soil fertility can reduce risks of soil degradation (physical, chemical, biological and ecological while improving the environment. Increasing the SOC pool to above the critical level (10 to 15 g/kg is essential to set-in-motion the restorative trends. Site-specific techniques of restoring soil quality include conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, continuous vegetative cover such as residue mulch and cover cropping, and controlled grazing at appropriate stocking rates. The strategy is to produce “more from less” by reducing losses and increasing soil, water, and nutrient use efficiency.

  3. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 37 are included in this Volume II. The topics covered in this volume include: biochemical transformation of organic matter in soils; bitumens in soil organic matter; characterization of humic acids; carbon dating of organic matter in soils; use of modern techniques in soil organic matter research; use of municipal sludge with special reference to heavy metals constituents, soil nitrogen, and physical and chemical properties of soils; relationship of soil organic matter and plant metabolism; interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter; and peat. Separate entries have been prepared for those 20 papers which discuss the use of nuclear techniques in these studies

  4. Soil water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.R.; Cassel, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The use of radiation and tracer techniques in investigations into soil water management in agriculture, hydrology etc. is described. These techniques include 1) neutron moisture gauges to monitor soil water content and soil water properties, 2) gamma radiation attenuation for measuring the total density of soil and soil water content, 3) beta radiation attenuation for measuring changes in the water status of crop plants and 4) radioactive and stable tracers for identifying pathways, reactions and retention times of the constituents in soils and groundwater aquifers. The number and spacing of soil observations that should be taken to represent the management unit are also considered. (U.K.)

  5. Soil Organic Matter Stability and Soil Carbon Storage with Changes in Land Use Intensity in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, L. K.; Grandy, S.; Hartter, J.

    2014-12-01

    As the foundation of soil fertility, soil organic matter (SOM) formation and break-down is a critical factor of agroecosystem sustainability. In tropical systems where soils are quickly weathered, the link between SOM and soil fertility is particularly strong; however, the mechanisms controlling the stabilization and destabilization of SOM are not well characterized in tropical soils. In western Uganda, we collected soil samples under different levels of land use intensity including maize fields, banana plantations and inside an un-cultivated native tropical forest, Kibale National Park (KNP). To better understand the link between land use intensity and SOM stability we measured total soil C and N, and respiration rates during a 369 d soil incubation. In addition, we separated soils into particle size fractions, and mineral adsorbed SOM in the silt (2-50 μm ) and clay (fractions was dissociated, purified and chemically characterized via pyrolysis-GC/MS. Cultivated soil C and N have declined by 22 and 48%, respectively, in comparison to uncultivated KNP soils. Incubation data indicate that over the last decade, relatively accessible and labile soil organic carbon (SOC) pools have been depleted by 55-59% in cultivated soils. As a result of this depletion, the chemical composition of SOM has been altered such that clay and silt associated SOM differed significantly between agricultural fields and KNP. In particular, nitrogen containing compounds were in lower abundance in agricultural compared to KNP soils. This suggests that N depletion due to agriculture has advanced to pools of mineral associated organic N that are typically protected from break-down. In areas where land use intensity is relatively greater, increases in polysaccharides and lipids in maize fields compared to KNP indicate increases in microbial residues and decomposition by-products as microbes mine SOM for organic N. Chemical characterization of post-incubation SOM will help us better understand

  6. Soil physical properties affecting soil erosion in tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Lujan, D.

    2004-01-01

    The total vegetated land area of the earth is about 11,500 hectare. Of this, about 12% is in South America. Of this, about 14% is degraded area. Water erosion, chemical degradation, wind erosion, and physical degradation have been reported as main types of degradation. In South America water erosion is a major process for soil degradation. Nevertheless, water erosion can be a consequence of degradation of the soil structure, especially the functional attributes of soil pores to transmit and retain water, and to facilitate root growth. Climate, soil and topographic characteristics determine runoff and erosion potential from agricultural lands. The main factors causing soil erosion can be divided into three groups: Energy factors: rainfall erosivity, runoff volume, wind strength, relief, slope angle, slope length; Protection factors: population density, plant cover, amenity value (pressure for use) and land management; and resistance factors: soil erodibility, infiltration capacity and soil management. The degree of soil erosion in a particular climatic zone, with particular soils, land use and socioeconomic conditions, will always result from a combination of the above mentioned factors. It is not easy to isolate a single factor. However, the soil physical properties that determine the soil erosion process, because the deterioration of soil physical properties is manifested through interrelated problems of surface sealing, crusting, soil compaction, poor drainage, impeded root growth, excessive runoff and accelerated erosion. When an unprotected soil surface is exposed to the direct impact of raindrops it can produce different responses: Production of smaller aggregates, dispersed particles, particles in suspension and translocation and deposition of particles. When this has occurred, the material is reorganized at the location into a surface seal. Aggregate breakdown under rainfall depends on soil strength and a certain threshold kinetic energy is needed to start

  7. Cross-cutting activities: Soil quality and soil metagenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Motavalli, Peter P.; Garrett, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation reports on the work of the SANREM CRSP cross-cutting activities "Assessing and Managing Soil Quality for Sustainable Agricultural Systems" and "Soil Metagenomics to Construct Indicators of Soil Degradation." The introduction gives an overview of the extensiveness of soil degradation globally and defines soil quality. The objectives of the soil quality cross cutting activity are: CCRA-4 (Soil Metagenomics)

  8. Too Many Links in the Horizon; What is Next? Linked Views and Linked History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Liarou (Erietta); S. Idreos (Stratos)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe trend for more online linked data becomes stronger. Foreseeing a future where ``everything" will be online and linked, we ask the critical question; what is next? We envision that managing, querying and storing large amounts of links and data is far from yet another query

  9. Soil stabilization 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenberg, E. J.; Thompson, M. R.; Tayabji, S. D.; Nussbaum, P. J.; Ciolko, A. T.

    Seven papers cover the following areas: design, construction and performance of lime, fly ash, and slag pavement; evaluation of heavily loaded cement stabilized bases; coal refuse and fly ash compositions; potential highway base course materials; lime soil mixture design considerations for soils of southeastern United States; short term active soil property changes caused by injection of lime and fly ash; soil cement for use in stream channel grade stabilization structures; and reaction products of lime treated southeastern soils.

  10. THE POTENTIAL OF γ-RAY SPECTROSCOPY FOR SOIL PROXIMAL SURVEY IN CLAYEY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Priori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray spectroscopy surveys the intensity and distribution of γ-rays emitted from radionuclides of soils and bedrocks. The most important radionuclides of soils and rocks are: 40K, 232Th, 238U and 137Cs, the latter due to Chernobyl burst or radioactive pollution. Distribution and quantity of these radionuclides into the soil is strictly linked to parent material mineralogy and soil cation exchange capacity. The aim of this work is to show the makings of γ-ray spectroscopy proximal survey within experimental fields with clayey soils in western Sicily.The γ-ray spectrometer used for the fieldwork was “The Mole”, made by “The Soil Company”, “Medusa system” and the University of Groningen, from The Netherlands. During the survey of eight experimental fields, 55 soil samples were collected for laboratory analysis of particle size distribution, calcium carbonate, organic carbon and total nitrogen content. The results of the work showed the statistical correlations between soil features and γ-ray data. 

  11. Relationships between soil properties and community structure of soil macroinvertebrates in oak-history forests along an acidic deposition gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuperman, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-02-01

    Soil macroinvertebrate communities were studied in ecologically analogous oak-hickory forests across a three-state atmospheric pollution gradient in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The goal was to investigate changes in the community structure of soil fauna in study sites receiving different amounts of acidic deposition for several decades and the possible relationships between these changes and physico-chemical properties of soil. The study revealed significant differences in the numbers of soil animals among the three study sites. The sharply differentiated pattern of soil macroinvertebrate fauna seems closely linked to soil chemistry. Significant correlations of the abundance of soil macroinvertebrates with soil parameters suggest that their populations could have been affected by acidic deposition in the region. Abundance of total soil macroinvertebrates decreased with the increased cumulative loading of acidic deposition. Among the groups most sensitive to deposition were: earthworms gastropods, dipteran larvae, termites, and predatory beetles. The results of the study support the hypothesis that chronic long-term acidic deposition could aversely affect the soil decomposer community which could cause lower organic matter turnover rates leading to an increase in soil organic matter content in high deposition sites.

  12. Deploying Linked Open Vocabulary (LOV to Enhance Library Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh, Sam Gyun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of Linked Data (LD as a method for building webs of data, there have been many attempts to apply and implement LD in various settings. Efforts have been made to convert bibliographic data in libraries into Linked Data, thereby generating Library Linked Data (LLD. However, when memory institutions have tried to link their data with external sources based on principles suggested by Tim Berners-Lee, identifying appropriate vocabularies for use in describing their bibliographic data has proved challenging. The objective of this paper is to discuss the potential role of Linked Open Vocabularies (LOV in providing better access to various open datasets and facilitating effective linking. The paper will also examine the ways in which memory institutions can utilize LOV to enhance the quality of LLD and LLD-based ontology design.

  13. Link for Injured Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Toussaint, Maisha; Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Harland, Karisa; Wetjen, Kristel; Wilgenbusch, Tammy; Pitcher, Graeme; Jennissen, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Objective Injury, the most common type of pediatric trauma, can lead to a number of adverse psychosocial outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder. Currently, few evidence-based parent programs exist to support children hospitalized after a traumatic injury. Using methods in evaluation and intervention research, we completed a formative research study to develop a new program of psychological first aid, Link for Injured Kids, aimed to educate parents in supporting their children after a severe traumatic injury. Methods Using qualitative methods, we held focus groups with parents and pediatric trauma providers of children hospitalized at a Level I Children's Hospital because of an injury in 2012. We asked focus group participants to describe reactions to trauma and review drafts of our intervention materials. Results Health professionals and caregivers reported a broad spectrum of emotional responses by their children or patients; however, difficulties were experienced during recovery at home and upon returning to school. All parents and health professionals recommended that interventions be offered to parents either in the emergency department or close to discharge among admissions. Conclusions Results from this study strongly indicate a need for posttrauma interventions, particularly in rural settings, to support families of children to address the psychosocial outcomes in the aftermath of an injury. Findings presented here describe the process of intervention development that responds to the needs of an affected population. PMID:26428077

  14. The CMS link system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, I.

    1999-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a multi-purpose detector that is going to be installed in the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Muons are one of the main physical signatures of the expected new physics. The muons are going to be detected by the Central Tracker (CT) and the Muon Spectrometer (MS). Both, the CT and MS can provide an independent muon momentum measurement, but for all η and momentum values the highest precision for muon momentum measurement is achieved when the muon tracks are reconstructed using both tracking detectors. The calorimeters and the solenoid volumes separate about three meters the CT and the MS. It has been shown that the alignment of the CT with respect to the MS can not be guaranteed by a software alignment in a reasonable time scale. Therefore, an opto-mechanical system (the multipoint link system) have been designed to monitor, on-line, the relative position of both sub-detectors providing a common reference frame for both of them. The local alignment of the muon barrel spectrometer determines the relative position of the muon chambers with respect to themselves and also with respect to a carbon fiber rigid structure called MAB (Module for the Alignment of the Barrel). There are a total of 36 MABs distributed in the boundary planes of each muon spectrometer sector. This paper describes all the equipment and presents the principle of measurement. (author)

  15. Diabetes and dementia links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Jankowska

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus is growing globally. It is expected to observe 253.4 million sufferers in geriatric population in 2045. In this time, also 131.5 million of people is going to have dementia and other cognitive problems. In people aged over 65 these two diseases are concomitant quite often. What are the connections in the area of etiology and treatment? Aim The purpose of this study is to present links between dementia and diabetes are depicted in professional literature. Results Diabetes and dementia are associated on many levels. These conditions have common risk factors. Diabetes may contribute to cognitive impairment in many ways, promoting development of atherosclerosis, brain vessel damage and vascular dementia. Alzheimer disease may be promoted by hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. On contrary also hypoglycaemia, often met in elderly diabetic patients has negative impact on cognitive function. Dementia seriously affects treatment of diabetes. The main problems are not satisfying adherence and diabetes self-management. Conclusions Prevention of diabetes and dementia risk factors can be performed simultaneously as the are common for both diseases. Enhancing physical activity, reducing saturated fats consumption, levels of cholesterol and body mass are considered to be beneficial in the context of described conditions. Furthermore, treatment of diabetes is strongly affected by cognitive dysfunction. Management of dementive diabetics requires individualization and using long-acting drugs. It is crucial to reduce risk of life-threatening hypoglycaemias and to create wide team to take care of these patients.

  16. Hierarchical Linked Views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erbacher, Robert; Frincke, Deb

    2007-07-02

    Coordinated views have proven critical to the development of effective visualization environments. This results from the fact that a single view or representation of the data cannot show all of the intricacies of a given data set. Additionally, users will often need to correlate more data parameters than can effectively be integrated into a single visual display. Typically, development of multiple-linked views results in an adhoc configuration of views and associated interactions. The hierarchical model we are proposing is geared towards more effective organization of such environments and the views they encompass. At the same time, this model can effectively integrate much of the prior work on interactive and visual frameworks. Additionally, we expand the concept of views to incorporate perceptual views. This is related to the fact that visual displays can have information encoded at various levels of focus. Thus, a global view of the display provides overall trends of the data while focusing in on individual elements provides detailed specifics. By integrating interaction and perception into a single model, we show how one impacts the other. Typically, interaction and perception are considered separately, however, when interaction is being considered at a fundamental level and allowed to direct/modify the visualization directly we must consider them simultaneously and how they impact one another.

  17. Linking to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-09-01

    of JCE in the mail each month, and I expect you do too. I can glance at the cover to get an overview of an issue's content, and I usually am enticed inside by intriguing cover art. I can scan the table of contents to find articles I want to read, or I can just browse through the issue to see what looks interesting. Usually the editors have juxtaposed related articles so that I often find a small treasure trove. The printed Journal is quite portable and can be read in a car or airplane. It will last a long time, and until the paper deteriorates, I will never have a problem reading back issues. I have almost every issue from the first day I subscribed and have even added some older ones from collections of retired colleagues who no longer had shelf space for them. I certainly would not want to give up my printed copies, and I want to keep getting them. I find that JCE Online provides a different kind of resource that is equally valuable. It contains more information, and information that is more appropriate in electronic form. It links related ideas into a much more complex web of information than is possible in print. And it opens pathways to lots of information that is not part of JCE but resides elsewhere. Using this issue as an example, let's take a tour of what JCE Online can do. Point your Web browser to http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu Click on Journal and then on Current Issue (unless September 1999 is no longer the current issue, in which case you will find it in Past Issues). In the table of contents, find the article "UV Catalysis, Cyanotype Photography, and Sunscreens". Click on the title. When the abstract appears, click on Full Text (PDF) to see the article, just as it appears on page 1199 in this issue. When you are prompted, enter the name and subscriber number from your address label. At the end of the article you will find that supplementary materials are available (including a procedure for testing sunscreens) and you can click on the link to view them

  18. Object linking in repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  19. Grassland Soil Carbon Responses to Nitrogen Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmockel, K. S.; Tfailly, M.; Callister, S.; Bramer, L.; Thompson, A.

    2017-12-01

    Using a long-term continental scale experiment, we tested if increases in nitrogen (N) inputs augment the accumulation of plant and microbial residues onto mineral soil surfaces. This research investigates N effects on molecular biogeochemistry across six sites from the Nutrient Network (NutNet) experiment. The coupling between concurrently changing carbon (C) and N cycles remains a key uncertainty in understanding feedbacks between the terrestrial C cycle and climate change. Existing models do not consider the full suite of linked C-N processes, particularly belowground, that could drive future C-climate feedbacks. Soil harbors a wealth of diverse organic molecules, most of which have not been measured in hypothesis driven field research. For the first time we systematically assess the chemical composition of soil organic matter (SOM) and functional characteristics of the soil microbiome, to enhance our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of ecosystem C and N cycling. We have acquired soils from 5 ecosystem experiments across the US that have been subjected to 8 years of N addition treatments. These soils have been analyzed for chemical composition to identify how the soil fertility and stability is altered by N fertilization. We found distinct SOM signatures from our field experiments and shifts in soil chemistry in response to 8 years of N fertilization. Across all sites, we found the molecular composition of SOM varied with clay content, supporting the importance of soil mineralogy in the accumulation of specific chemical classes of SOM. While many molecules were common across sites, we discovered a suite of molecules that were site specific. N fertilization had a significant effect on SOM composition. Differences between control and N amended plots were greater in sites rich in lipids and more complex molecules, compared to sites with SOM rich in amino-sugar and protein like substances. Our results have important implications for how SOM is

  20. Soil hydraulic properties of Cuban soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, M.E.; Medina, H.

    2004-01-01

    Because soil hydraulic properties are indispensable for determining soil water retention and soil water movement, their input for deterministic crop simulation models is essential. From these models is possible to access the effect of the weather changes, soil type or different irrigation schedules on crop yields. With these models, possibilities are provided to answer questions regarding virtual 'what happen if' experiments with a minimum of fieldwork. Nevertheless, determining soil hydraulic properties can be very difficult owing to unavailability of necessary equipment or the lack of personal with the proper knowledge for those tasks. These deficiencies are a real problem in developing countries, and even more so when there is not enough financial possibilities for research work. This paper briefly presents the way these properties have been accessed for Cuban soils, which methods have been used and the work now in progress. (author)

  1. [Microscopic soil fungi - bioindicators organisms contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donerian, L G; Vodianova, M A; Tarasova, Zh E

    In the paper there are considered methodological issues for the evaluation of soil biota in terms of oil pollution. Experimental studies have shown that under the exposure of a various levels of oil pollution meeting certain gradations of the state and optimal alteration in microbocenosis in sod-podzolic soils, there is occurred a transformation of structure of the complex of micromycetes and the accumulation of toxic species, hardly typical for podzolic soils - primarily represantatives of the genus Aspergillus (A.niger and A. versicolor), Paecilomyces (P.variotii Bainer), Trichoderma (T.hamatum), the genus of phytopathogens Fusarium (F.oxysporum), dermatophytes of genus Sporothrix (S. schenckii) and dark-colored melanin containing fungi of Dematiaceae family. Besides that there are presented data on the study of microbiocenosis of the urban soil, the urban soil differed from the zone soil, but shaped in similar landscape and climatic conditions, and therefore having a tendency to a similar response from the side of microorganisms inhabiting the soil. Isolated complex of soil microscopic fungi is described by many authors as a complex, characteristic for soils of megalopolises. This allowed authors of this work to suggest that in urban soils the gain in the occurrence of pathogenic species micromycetes also increases against a background of chronic, continuously renewed inflow of petroleum hydrocarbons from various sources of pollution. Because changes in the species composition of micromycetes occurred in accordance with the increasing load of oil, so far as microscopic soil fungi can be recommended as a bioindicator organisms for oil. In the article there is also provided information about the distinctive features of modern DNA identification method of soil microscopic fungi and accepted in our country methodology of isolation of micromycetes with the use of a nutrient Czapek medium.

  2. Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4 degrees C during the 21st century and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change (IPCC, 2007). Soils are intricately linked to the atmospheric/climate system through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles. Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties. Studies into the effects of climate change on soil processes and properties are still incomplete, but have revealed that climate change will impact soil organic matter dynamics including soil organisms and the multiple soil properties that are tied to organic matter, soil water, and soil erosion. The exact direction and magnitude of those impacts will be dependent on the amount of change in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise; this is particularly true of high latitude regions with permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. These soil changes will lead to both direct and indirect impacts on human health. Possible indirect impacts include temperature extremes, food safety and air quality issues, increased and/or expanded disease incidences, and occupational health issues. Potential direct impacts include decreased food security and increased atmospheric dust levels. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water-CO2 level-temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and how that affects soil organic matter dynamics is a critical

  3. Soil washing technology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suer, A.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis

  4. Functional traits of soil invertebrates as indicators for exposure to soil disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedde, Mickaël; van Oort, Folkert; Lamy, Isabelle

    2012-05-01

    We tested a trait-based approach to link a soil disturbance to changes in invertebrate communities. Soils and macro-invertebrates were sampled in sandy soils contaminated by long-term wastewater irrigation, adding notably organic matter and trace metals (TM). We hypothesized that functional traits of invertebrates depict ways of exposure and that exposure routes relate to specific TM pools. Geophages and soft-body invertebrates were chosen to inform on exposure by ingestion or contact, respectively. Trait-based indices depicted more accurately effects of pollution than community density and diversity did. Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than by contact. Both types of exposed invertebrates were influenced by TM, but geophages mainly responded to changes in soil organic matter contents. The trait-based approach requires to be applied in various conditions to uncorrelate specific TM impacts from those of other environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soil manganese enrichment from industrial inputs: a gastropod perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina-Maria Bordean

    Full Text Available Manganese is one of the most abundant metal in natural environments and serves as an essential microelement for all living systems. However, the enrichment of soil with manganese resulting from industrial inputs may threaten terrestrial ecosystems. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of manganese exposure by cutaneous contact and/or by soil ingestion to a wide range of soil invertebrates. The link between soil manganese and land snails has never been made although these invertebrates routinely come in contact with the upper soil horizons through cutaneous contact, egg-laying, and feeding activities in soil. Therefore, we have investigated the direct transfer of manganese from soils to snails and assessed its toxicity at background concentrations in the soil. Juvenile Cantareus aspersus snails were caged under semi-field conditions and exposed first, for a period of 30 days, to a series of soil manganese concentrations, and then, for a second period of 30 days, to soils with higher manganese concentrations. Manganese levels were measured in the snail hepatopancreas, foot, and shell. The snail survival and shell growth were used to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of manganese exposure. The transfer of manganese from soil to snails occurred independently of food ingestion, but had no consistent effect on either the snail survival or shell growth. The hepatopancreas was the best biomarker of manganese exposure, whereas the shell did not serve as a long-term sink for this metal. The kinetics of manganese retention in the hepatopancreas of snails previously exposed to manganese-spiked soils was significantly influenced by a new exposure event. The results of this study reveal the importance of land snails for manganese cycling in terrestrial biotopes and suggest that the direct transfer from soils to snails should be considered when precisely assessing the impact of anthropogenic Mn releases on soil ecosystems.

  6. Soil Infrastructure, Interfaces & Translocation Processes in Inner Space ("Soil-it-is": towards a road map for the constraints and crossroads of soil architecture and biophysical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. de Jonge

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil functions and their impact on health, economy, and the environment are evident at the macro scale but determined at the micro scale, based on interactions between soil micro-architecture and the transport and transformation processes occurring in the soil infrastructure comprising pore and particle networks and at their interfaces. Soil structure formation and its resilience to disturbance are highly dynamic features affected by management (energy input, moisture (matric potential, and solids composition and complexation (organic matter and clay interactions. In this paper we review and put into perspective preliminary results of the newly started research program "Soil-it-is" on functional soil architecture. To identify and quantify biophysical constraints on soil structure changes and resilience, we claim that new approaches are needed to better interpret processes and parameters measured at the bulk soil scale and their links to the seemingly chaotic soil inner space behavior at the micro scale. As a first step, we revisit the soil matrix (solids phase and pore system (water and air phases, constituting the complementary and interactive networks of soil infrastructure. For a field-pair with contrasting soil management, we suggest new ways of data analysis on measured soil-gas transport parameters at different moisture conditions to evaluate controls of soil matrix and pore network formation. Results imply that some soils form sponge-like pore networks (mostly healthy soils in terms of agricultural and environmental functions, while other soils form pipe-like structures (agriculturally poorly functioning soils, with the difference related to both complexation of organic matter and degradation of soil structure. The recently presented Dexter et al. (2008 threshold (ratio of clay to organic carbon of 10 kg kg−1 is found to be a promising constraint for a soil's ability to maintain or regenerate functional structure. Next

  7. Local soil classification and crop suitability: Implications for the historical land use and soil management in Monti di Trapani (Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vila, Margarita; Corselli, Rocco; Bonet, María Teresa; Lopapa, Giuseppe; Pillitteri, Valentina; Fereres, Elias

    2017-04-01

    In the past, the lack of technologies (e.g. synthetic fertilizers) to overcome biophysical limitations has played a central role in land use planning. Thus, landscape management and agronomic practices are reactions to local knowledge and perceptions on natural resources, particularly soil. In the framework of the European research project MEMOLA (FP7), the role of local farmers knowledge and perceptions on soil for the historical land use through the spatial distribution of crops and the various management practices have been assessed in three different areas of Monti di Trapani region (Sicily). The identification of the soil classification systems of farmers and the criteria on which it is based, linked to the evaluation of the farmers' ability to identify and map the different soil types, was a key step. Nevertheless, beyond the comparison of the ethnopedological classification approach versus standard soil classification systems, the study also aims at understanding local soil management and land use decisions. The applied methodology was based on an interdisciplinary approach, combining soil science methods and participatory appraisal tools, particularly: i) semi-structured interviews; ii) soil sampling and analysis; iii) discussion groups; and iv) a workshop with local edafologists and agronomists. A rich local glossary of terms associated with the soil conditions and an own soil classification system have been identified in the region. Also, a detailed soil map, including process of soil degradation and soil capability, has been generated. This traditional soil knowledge has conditioned the management and the spatial distribution of the crops, and therefore the configuration of the landscape, until the 1990s. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union project MEMOLA (Grant agreement no: 613265).

  8. Changes in soil moisture drive soil methane uptake along a fire regeneration chronosequence in a eucalypt forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fest, Benedikt; Wardlaw, Tim; Livesley, Stephen J; Duff, Thomas J; Arndt, Stefan K

    2015-11-01

    Disturbance associated with severe wildfires (WF) and WF simulating harvest operations can potentially alter soil methane (CH4 ) oxidation in well-aerated forest soils due to the effect on soil properties linked to diffusivity, methanotrophic activity or changes in methanotrophic bacterial community structure. However, changes in soil CH4 flux related to such disturbances are still rarely studied even though WF frequency is predicted to increase as a consequence of global climate change. We measured in-situ soil-atmosphere CH4 exchange along a wet sclerophyll eucalypt forest regeneration chronosequence in Tasmania, Australia, where the time since the last severe fire or harvesting disturbance ranged from 9 to >200 years. On all sampling occasions, mean CH4 uptake increased from most recently disturbed sites (9 year) to sites at stand 'maturity' (44 and 76 years). In stands >76 years since disturbance, we observed a decrease in soil CH4 uptake. A similar age dependency of potential CH4 oxidation for three soil layers (0.0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.15 m) could be observed on incubated soils under controlled laboratory conditions. The differences in soil CH4 uptake between forest stands of different age were predominantly driven by differences in soil moisture status, which affected the diffusion of atmospheric CH4 into the soil. The observed soil moisture pattern was likely driven by changes in interception or evapotranspiration with forest age, which have been well described for similar eucalypt forest systems in south-eastern Australia. Our results imply that there is a large amount of variability in CH4 uptake at a landscape scale that can be attributed to stand age and soil moisture differences. An increase in severe WF frequency in response to climate change could potentially increase overall forest soil CH4 sinks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Leaching of soils during laboratory incubations does not affect soil organic carbon mineralisation but solubilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Beatriz; Studer, Mirjam S; Hagedorn, Frank; Niklaus, Pascal A; Abiven, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory soil incubations provide controlled conditions to investigate carbon and nutrient dynamics; however, they are not free of artefacts. As carbon and nitrogen cycles are tightly linked, we aimed at investigating whether the incubation-induced accumulation of mineral nitrogen (Nmin) biases soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralisation. For this, we selected two soils representative of the C:N ratio values found in European temperate forests, and applied two incubation systems: 'closed' beakers and 'open' microlysimeters. The latter allowed leaching the soil samples during the incubation. By the end of the 121-day experiment, the low C:N soil significantly accumulated more Nmin in beakers (5.12 g kg-1 OC) than in microlysimeters (3.00 g kg-1 OC) but there was not a significant difference in SOC mineralisation at any point of the experiment. On the other hand, Nmin did not accumulate in the high C:N soil but, by the end of the experiment, leaching had promoted 33.9% more SOC solubilisation than beakers. Therefore, we did not find evidence that incubation experiments introduce a bias on SOC mineralisation. This outcome strengthens results from soil incubation studies.

  10. CONSIDERATIONS ON URBAN SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lacatusu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban soil is an material that has been manipulated, disturbed or transported by man’s activities in the urban environment and is used as a medium for plant growth and for constructions. The physical, chemical, and biological properties are generally less favorable as a rooting medium than soil found on the natural landscape. The main characteristics of urban soils are: great vertical and spatial variability; modified soil structure leading to compaction; presence of a surface crust; modified soil reaction, usually elevated; restricted aeration and water drainage; modified abundance of chemical elements, interrupted nutrient cycling and soil organism activity; presence of anthropic materials contaminants and pollutants; modified soil temperature regime. The urbic horizon is designated as U (always capital letter and for indication of processes are used different small letters. It is necessary elaboration a new classification of urban soils for our country.

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... link between drug misuse and HIV. http://1.usa.gov/1z20ww6 How many of us think about ... can’t ignore. Learn the Link: http://1.usa.gov/1uSUAI3 Think you’re not at risk? ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug misuse and HIV. Post on Facebook or Twitter ; add photos to your Flickr , ...

  13. Decouplink: Dynamic Links for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Lykke Rytter; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    of dimensions of extension that can be exploited without performing modification of existing types. Thus, dynamic links make it possible to enforce the open/closed principle in situations where it would otherwise not be possible. We present Decouplink – a library-based implementation of dynamic links for Java...

  14. [Sex-linked juvenile retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, P; Turut, P; Soltysik, C; Hache, J C

    1976-02-01

    About 13 observations of sexe linked juvenile retinoschisis, the authors describe the ophthalmoscopic, fluorographic and functional aspects of the disease whose caracteristics are:--its sexe linked recessive heredity; --its clinical characterestics associating: a microcystic macular degeneration, peripheral retinal lesions, vitreous body alterations, --an electroretinogram of the negative type.

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn the Link campaign uses TV, print, and Web public service announcements (PSAs), as well as posters, e-cards, ... to misuse drugs. The Learn the Link public service campaign is just one ... site. Sincerely, Nora D. Volkow, M.D. Director ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Link Need ideas for posts? We’ve provided sample Facebook status updates that you can easily copy ... LearntheLink. Need ideas for tweets? We’ve provided sample tweets that you can easily copy and paste ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ... HIV/AIDS and the discovery of promising treatment interventions for breaking the harmful links between them, we ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse ... Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse are ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV. Post on Facebook About Learn the Link Need ideas for posts? We’ve provided sample Facebook ... HIV, be sure to use the hashtag #LearntheLink. Need ideas for tweets? We’ve provided sample tweets ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging ... Badges Other Resources Strategic Plan Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public Education Projects » Learn the Link - ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site. Please link these banners back to this site at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs ... HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug misuse ...

  4. Electrochemical soil remediation - accelerated soil weathering?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosen, L.M.; Villumsen, A.; Hansen, H.K.; Jensen, P.E.; Pedersen, A.J. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Ribeiro, A.B. [Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, New Univ. of Lisbon, Monte da Caparica (Portugal)

    2001-07-01

    In electrochemical soil remediation systems, where enhancement solutions and complexing agents are not used, a developing acidic front is mobilizing the heavy metals and the electric current is removing the mobilized elements from the soil. The hypotheses investigated in this paper is whether this process may be comparable to the chemical soil weathering that occurs in the environment due to the acidic rain, where the mobilized elements are removed from the soil by the penetrating water. Even through the weathering process is highly accelerated in the electrochemical cell. This paper shows results from electrodialytic remediation experiments performed with four different Danish heavy metal polluted soils. The main emphasis is laid on the relation between the developing acidic front and electromigration of Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg, Fe and Ca. (orig.)

  5. Soil conservation measures: exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Tomás de; Fonseca, Felícia

    2009-01-01

    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  6. The Soil Atlas of Africa: raising awareness and educate to the importance of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Olivier; Jones, Arwyn; Bosco, Claudio; Spaargaren, Otto; Montanarella, Luca

    2010-05-01

    available. These datasets will be useful for making broad distinction among soil types and provide general trends at the global and regional scales. The datasets will be made accessible for free downloading from the portals of the SOIL Action (http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/) and the ACP Observatory for Sustainable Development (http://acpobservatory.jrc.ec.europa.eu). The Atlas links the theme of soil with rural development and, at the same time, supports the goals of the EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection in conserving a threatened natural resource that is vital to human existence. Not only climate change, but also desertification and loss of biodiversity are strongly affecting soils globally, making the "Soil Atlas of Africa" relevant to a much larger community of stakeholders involved in the implementation of the three "Rio-Conventions" and allowing to explore possible synergies among international multilateral agreements towards global soil protection.

  7. LinkMind: Link Optimization in Swarming Mobile Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2012-01-01

    of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link...... optimization of swarming mobile sensor networks. The new method is based on combination of the artificial potential force guaranteeing connectivities of the mobile sensor nodes and the max-flow min-cut theorem of graph theory ensuring optimization of the network link capacity. The developed algorithm...

  8. Phosphorus in agricultural soils:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringeval, Bruno; Augusto, Laurent; Monod, Hervé; Apeldoorn, van D.F.; Bouwman, A.F.; Yang, X.; Achat, D.L.; Chini, L.P.; Oost, van K.; Guenet, Bertrand; Wang, R.; Decharme, B.; Nesme, T.; Pellerin, S.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability in soils limits crop yields in many regions of the World, while excess of soil P triggers aquatic eutrophication in other regions. Numerous processes drive the global spatial distribution of P in agricultural soils, but their relative roles remain unclear. Here, we

  9. Thermal Properties of Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    plagio - clase feldspar and pyroxene. The tine fraction may Surface area and its effects contain the clay "sheet" minerals (i.e. kaolinite. illite...Pyroxene, Kaoliniwe Unified By By Ortho. Plagio . amphibole, Basic clay min. Hematite Soil Soil soil petrogr. X.ray clase clase and Igneous and clay and no

  10. Restoration of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda J, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    A great variety of techniques are used for the restoration of contaminated soils. The contamination is present by both organic and inorganic pollutants. Environmental conditions and soil characteristics should take into account in order to implement a remedial technique. The bioremediation technologies are showed as help to remove a variety of soil contaminants. (author) [es

  11. Soil burden by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.E.H.; Wenzel, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural radioactivity - half-lifes and radiation type of man-made nuclides, radionuclide behaviour in soils, effects on soil condition and soil functions are described. The only mode of decontamination is by decay and thus primarily dependent on the half-life of nuclides

  12. Soil life under stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobor-Kaplon, Maria Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I studied how long-term soil contamination affects microbial populations and processes, ecosystem properties and functional stability. I also investigated which parameters are suitable as indicators of soil quality in long-term contaminated soils. I found that contamination had a

  13. Biogeochemistry of paddy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kögel-Knabner, I.; Amelung, W.; Cao, Z.; Fiedler, S.; Frenzel, P.; Jahn, R.; Kalbitz, K.; Kölbl, A.; Schloter, M.

    2010-01-01

    Paddy soils make up the largest anthropogenic wetlands on earth. They may originate from any type of soil in pedological terms, but are highly modified by anthropogenic activities. The formation of these Anthrosols is induced by tilling the wet soil (puddling), and the flooding and drainage regime

  14. ISRIC - World Soil Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dent, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    ISRICWorld Soil Information is an independent foundation, funded by the Netherlands Government with a mandate to increase knowledge of the land, its soils in particular, and to support the sustainable use of land resources; in short, to help people understand soils. Its aims are to -Inform and

  15. Harvesting soil with potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Norwegian authorities demand soil leaving potato packing plants to be deposited as waste. Depositing soil from potato processing plants is associated with significant cost for Norwegian producers. Therefore CYCLE investigated potato soil harvesting from an innovation and socio-economic perspective....

  16. Mechanical impedance of soil crusts and water content in loamy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josa March, Ramon; Verdú, Antoni M. C.; Mas, Maria Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Soil crust development affects soil water dynamics and soil aeration. Soil crusts act as mechanical barriers to fluid flow and, as their mechanical impedance increases with drying, they also become obstacles to seedling emergence. As a consequence, the emergence of seedling cohorts (sensitive seeds) might be reduced. However, this may be of interest to be used as an effective system of weed control. Soil crusting is determined by several factors: soil texture, rain intensity, sedimentation processes, etc. There are different ways to characterize the crusts. One of them is to measure their mechanical impedance (MI), which is linked to their moisture level. In this study, we measured the evolution of the mechanical impedance of crusts formed by three loamy soil types (clay loam, loam and sandy clay loam, USDA) with different soil water contents. The aim of this communication was to establish a mathematical relationship between the crust water content and its MI. A saturated soil paste was prepared and placed in PVC cylinders (50 mm diameter and 10 mm height) arranged on a plastic tray. Previously the plastic tray was sprayed with a hydrophobic liquid to prevent the adherence of samples. The samples on the plastic tray were left to air-dry under laboratory conditions until their IM was measured. To measure IM, a food texture analyzer was used. The equipment incorporates a mobile arm, a load cell to apply force and a probe. The arm moves down vertically at a constant rate and the cylindrical steel probe (4 mm diameter) penetrates the soil sample vertically at a constant rate. The equipment is provided with software to store data (time, vertical distance and force values) at a rate of up to 500 points per second. Water content in crust soil samples was determined as the loss of weight after oven-drying (105°C). From the results, an exponential regression between MI and the water content was obtained (determination coefficient very close to 1). This methodology allows

  17. Uncertainty indication in soil function maps – transparent and easy-to-use information to support sustainable use of soil resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Greiner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial information on soil function fulfillment (SFF is increasingly being used to inform decision-making in spatial planning programs to support sustainable use of soil resources. Soil function maps visualize soils abilities to fulfill their functions, e.g., regulating water and nutrient flows, providing habitats, and supporting biomass production based on soil properties. Such information must be reliable for informed and transparent decision-making in spatial planning programs. In this study, we add to the transparency of soil function maps by (1 indicating uncertainties arising from the prediction of soil properties generated by digital soil mapping (DSM that are used for soil function assessment (SFA and (2 showing the response of different SFA methods to the propagation of uncertainties through the assessment. For a study area of 170 km2 in the Swiss Plateau, we map 10 static soil sub-functions for agricultural soils for a spatial resolution of 20 × 20 m together with their uncertainties. Mapping the 10 soil sub-functions using simple ordinal assessment scales reveals pronounced spatial patterns with a high variability of SFF scores across the region, linked to the inherent properties of the soils and terrain attributes and climate conditions. Uncertainties in soil properties propagated through SFA methods generally lead to substantial uncertainty in the mapped soil sub-functions. We propose two types of uncertainty maps that can be readily understood by stakeholders. Cumulative distribution functions of SFF scores indicate that SFA methods respond differently to the propagated uncertainty of soil properties. Even where methods are comparable on the level of complexity and assessment scale, their comparability in view of uncertainty propagation might be different. We conclude that comparable uncertainty indications in soil function maps are relevant to enable informed and transparent decisions on the sustainable use of soil

  18. Remediation of soil contaminated with the heavy metal (Cd2+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-C.; Lin, H.-L.

    2005-01-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals is increasing. The biosorption process for removal of the heavy metal Cd 2+ from contaminated soil is chosen for this study due to its economy, commercial applications, and because it acts without destroying soil structure. The study is divided into four parts (1) soil leaching: the relationships between the soil leaching effect and agitation rates, solvent concentrations, ratios of soil to solvent, leaching time and pH were studied to identify their optimum conditions; (2) adsorption Cd 2+ tests of immobilized Saccharomycetes pombe beads: different weight percentages of chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol (PVAL) were added to alginate (10 wt.%) and then blended or cross-linked by epichlorohydrin (ECH) to increase their mechanical strength. Next, before blending or cross-linking, different weight percentages of S. pombe 806 or S. pombe ATCC 2476 were added to increase Cd 2+ adsorption. Thus, the optimum beads (blending or cross-linking, the percentages of chitosan, PVAL and S. pombe 806 or S. pombe ATCC 2476) and the optimum adsorption conditions (agitation rate, equilibrium adsorption time, and pH in the aqueous solution) were ascertained; (3) regeneration tests of the optimum beads: the optimum beads adsorbing Cd 2+ were regenerated by various concentrations of aqueous HCl solutions. The results indicate that the reuse of immobilized pombe beads was feasible; and (4) adsorption model/kinetic model/thermodynamic property: the equilibrium adsorption, kinetics, change in Gibbs free energy of adsorption of Cd 2+ on optimum beads were also investigated

  19. Improving soil enzyme activities and related quality properties of reclaimed soil by applying weathered coal in opencast-mining areas of the Chinese loess plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hua [College of Environment and Resources, Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China); CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Process, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Shao, Hongbo [CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Process, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Institute for Life Sciences, Qingdao University of Science and Technology (QUST), Qingdao (China); Li, Weixiang; Bi, Rutian [Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu (China); Bai, Zhongke [Department of Land Science Technology, University of Geosciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-03-15

    There are many problems for the reclaimed soil in opencast-mining areas of the Loess Plateau of China such as poor soil structure and extreme poverty in soil nutrients and so on. For the sake of finding a better way to improve soil quality, the current study was to apply the weathered coal for repairing soil media and investigate the physicochemical properties of the reclaimed soil and the changes in enzyme activities after planting Robinia pseucdoacacia. The results showed that the application of the weathered coal significantly improved the quality of soil aggregates, increased the content of water stable aggregates, and the organic matter, humus, and the cation exchange capacity of topsoil were significantly improved, but it did not have a significant effect on soil pH. Planting R. pseucdoacacia significantly enhanced the activities of soil catalase, urease, and invertase, but the application of the weathered coal inhibited the activity of catalase. Although the application of appropriate weathered coal was able to significantly increase urease activity, the activities of catalase, urease, or invertase had a close link with the soil profile levels and time. This study suggests that applying weathered coals could improve the physicochemical properties and soil enzyme activities of the reclaimed soil in opencast-mining areas of the Loess Plateau of China and the optimum applied amount of the weathered coal for reclaimed soil remediation is about 27 000 kg hm{sup -2}. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Responses of seminal wheat seedling roots to soil water deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, Carlos; Else, Mark A; Atkinson, Christopher J

    2018-04-01

    The aims of this paper are to develop our understanding of the ways by which soil water deficits influence early wheat root growth responses, particularly how seminal roots respond to soil drying and the extent to which information on differences in soil water content are conveyed to the shoot and their impact on shoot behaviour. To achieve this, wheat seedlings have been grown, individually for around 25 days after germination in segmented soil columns within vertical plastic compartments. Roots were exposed to different soil volumetric moisture contents (SVMC) within the two compartments. Experiments where the soil in the lower compartment was allowed to dry to different extents, while the upper was maintained close to field capacity, showed that wheat seedlings allocated proportionally more root dry matter to the lower drier soil compartment. The total production of root, irrespective of the upper or lower SVMC, was similar and there were no detected effects on leaf growth rate or gas exchange. The response of seminal roots to proportionally increase their allocation of dry matter, to the drier soil was unexpected with such plasticity of roots system development traditionally linked to heterogeneous nutrient distribution than accessing soil water. In experiments where the upper soil compartment was allowed to dry, root growth slowed and leaf growth and gas exchange declined. Subsequent experiments used root growth rates to determine when seminal root tips first came into contact with drying soil, with the intentions of determining how the observed root growth rates were maintained as an explanation for the observed changes in root allocation. Measurements of seminal root ABA and ethylene from roots within the drying soil are interpreted with respect to what is known about the physiological control of root growth in drying soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. The Italian contribution to the World Soils Book Series: The Soils of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Dazzi, Carmelo

    2015-04-01

    Passing to the age of "Anthropocene", man has forgotten the ancient bond that ties him to the soil, and turning from "homo sapiens" to "homo technologicus" he has stopped considering how much his well-being and the quality of life on Earth are fundamentally linked to the quality of soils. Yet today, as never before, maintaining the quality of soils is of paramount relevance for the sustainable development of humanity. Unfortunately, as soils are a crypto-resource, not many lay-people recognize its importance in the biosphere equilibrium and, unfortunately, seldom consider it among the environmental resources that must be protected! To fill such a gap in knowledge, the Springer editor, under the leading of professor Alfred Hartemink, has published the World Soils Book Series, whose aim is to spread the knowledge on the soils in a particular country in a concise and highly reader-friendly way. The volume "The Soils of Italy" belongs to this international series of books. Its ambitious goals are to establish a broad base for the knowledge of the soils of Italy, and to give useful information on i) their characteristics, diffusion and fertility, ii) the main threats they are subjected, and iii) the future scenarios of relationships between soil sciences and the disciplines, which are not traditionally linked to the world of agriculture, such as urban development, medicine, economics, sociology, archaeology. In Italy there is about 75% of the global pedodiversity. A vast majority of the WRB reference soil groups (25 out of 32), as well as soil orders of Soil Taxonomy (10 out of 12) are represented in the main Italian soil typological units (STUs). More than a fourth of STUs belongs to Cambisols, more than a half to only four reference soil groups (Cambisols, Luvisols, Regosols, Phaeozems), and 88% to nine RSGs (the former plus Calcisols, Vertisols, Fluvisols, Leptosols, and Andosols), while the remaining 16 RSGs are represented in 12% of STUs. The clear skewness and

  2. Bioindication with soil microfauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aescht, E.; Foissner, W.

    1992-01-01

    The state of a soil can be characterised through its inhabitant micro-, meso-, and macrofauna. For an appropriate assessment of soil quality at least one representative of each of these size categories should be studied (e.g. testacea, mites, earthworms). This contribution summarizes the insights gained from microscopic soil fauna in this context. The following practical examples are discussed: pesticides, organic and artificial fertilisers, soil compaction, ecological and conventional farming, recolonisation. The 'weighted cenosis index' represents a quantitative measure for the influence of anthropogenic activity on a soil. (orig.) [de

  3. Critical Zone Experimental Design to Assess Soil Processes and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwart, Steve

    2010-05-01

    Through unsustainable land use practices, mining, deforestation, urbanisation and degradation by industrial pollution, soil losses are now hypothesized to be much faster (100 times or more) than soil formation - with the consequence that soil has become a finite resource. The crucial challenge for the international research community is to understand the rates of processes that dictate soil mass stocks and their function within Earth's Critical Zone (CZ). The CZ is the environment where soils are formed, degrade and provide their essential ecosystem services. Key among these ecosystem services are food and fibre production, filtering, buffering and transformation of water, nutrients and contaminants, storage of carbon and maintaining biological habitat and genetic diversity. We have initiated a new research project to address the priority research areas identified in the European Union Soil Thematic Strategy and to contribute to the development of a global network of Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) committed to soil research. Our hypothesis is that the combined physical-chemical-biological structure of soil can be assessed from first-principles and the resulting soil functions can be quantified in process models that couple the formation and loss of soil stocks with descriptions of biodiversity and nutrient dynamics. The objectives of this research are to 1. Describe from 1st principles how soil structure influences processes and functions of soils, 2. Establish 4 European Critical Zone Observatories to link with established CZOs, 3. Develop a CZ Integrated Model of soil processes and function, 4. Create a GIS-based modelling framework to assess soil threats and mitigation at EU scale, 5. Quantify impacts of changing land use, climate and biodiversity on soil function and its value and 6. Form with international partners a global network of CZOs for soil research and deliver a programme of public outreach and research transfer on soil sustainability. The

  4. Field assessment of soil structural quality - a development of the Peerlkamp test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, B C; Batey, T; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2007-01-01

    properties (bulk density, penetration resistance and porosity) and crop growth. Indicative thresholds of soil management are suggested. The assessment should be viewed as complementary to conventional laboratory assessments of soil structure. Visual soil structure assessment can indicate to the soil......Increased awareness of the role of soil structure in defining the physical fertility or quality of soil has led to the need for a simple assessment relevant to the environmental and economic sustainability of soil productivity. A test is required that is usable by farmer, consultant and researcher...... alike. Here an assessment of soil structure quality (Sq) is described which is based on a visual key linked to criteria chosen to be as objective as possible. The influences of operator, tillage and crop type on Sq value were tested. The test takes 5-15 min per location and enough replicates were...

  5. Soil heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  6. From soil in art towards Soil Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, C.; Landa, E. R.; Toland, A.; Wessolek, G.

    2015-02-01

    The range of art forms and genres dealing with soil is wide and diverse, spanning many centuries and artistic traditions, from prehistoric painting and ceramics to early Renaissance works in Western literature, poetry, paintings, and sculpture, to recent developments in cinema, architecture and contemporary art. Case studies focused on painting, installation, and cinema are presented with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, with, or featuring soil or soil conservation issues, created by artists, and occasionally scientists, educators or collaborative efforts thereof.

  7. The natural radioactivity of soils in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannink, D.W.; Keen, A.; Koester, H.W.; Pennders, R.M.J.; Winkel, J.H. de

    1986-02-01

    Forty percent of the natural radiation exposure of man is caused by the primordial radionuclides - U-238, Th-232 and K-40 - and their daughters in the soil. It is shown that the activity concentrations of these nuclides vary between Dutch soils and that they lie within the normal range reported by the UNSCEAR committee. In linear regression models a clear link was found between the activity concentrations and the following soil properties: grain size distribution, organic matter and lime content, whether or not in combination with soil type. The same models are capable to predict the activity concentrations in various soils with reasonable precision. No improvement of the models was obtained by incorporating the pH and/or sampling depth. Possible further investigations to refine the models are suggested. (Auth.)

  8. The role of soil moisture on the coevolution of soil and vegetation in mountain grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Claudia, Notarnicola; Brenner, Johannes; Castelli, Mariapina; Greifeneder, Felix; Niedrist, Georg; Seeber, Julia; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    One of the key variables controlling the organization of vegetation and the coevolution of soils and landforms is soil moisture content (SMC). For this reason, understanding the controls on the spatial and temporal patterns of SMC is essential to predict how perturbations in vegetation and climate will affect mountain ecosystem functioning. In this contribution, we focus on the dynamic of surface SMC of water-limited alpine grasslands in the Long Term Ecological Research area Mazia Valley in the European Alps. We analyze the impacts of different land managements (meadows versus pastures) and its relationships with climate and topography. The area has been equipped since 2009 with a network of more than 20 stations, measuring SMC and climatic variables and with two eddy-covariance stations, measuring surface fluxes over meadows and pastures. Monthly biomass production data have been collected and detailed soil and spatial soil moisture surveys are available. Moreover, high spatial resolution SMC maps have been derived from satellites Synthetic Aperture Radar Radar (SAR) images (Sentinel 1 and RADARSAT2 images). Both ground surveys and remote sensing observations show persistent landscape-level patterns. Meadows, in general located in flatter areas, tend to be wetter. This leads to higher vegetation productivity and to the development of soils with higher water holding capacity, thus to a positive feedback on SMC. In contrast, pastures, located on steeper slopes with lower vegetation density and higher soil erosion, tend to be drier, leading to a negative feedback on SMC and soil development. This co-evolution of land cover and SMC leads therefore to persistent spatial patterns. In order to understand quantitatively such linked interactions, a sensitivity analysis has been performed with the GEOtop hydrological model. Results show how both abiotic (mainly slope and elevation) and anthropogenic (irrigation and soil management) factors exert a significant control on

  9. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  10. Soil Organic Carbon in the Soil Scapes of Southeastern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Joni

    2009-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is well known to maintain several functions. On the one hand, being the major component of soil organic matter (SOM),it is a determinant of soil physical and chemical properties, an important proxy for soil biological activity and a measure of soil productivity. Land use management that will enhance soil carbon (C) levels is therefore important for farmers and land use planners, particularly in semiarid and sub-humid Africa where severe soil degradation and desertifi...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog ... Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering Festival Drug & Alcohol Chat Day HBO Addiction Project Learn the Link ...

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    Full Text Available ... she went to a party and under the influence of drugs and alcohol engaged in risky sexual ... the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug ...

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  14. Medicare and Medicaid Linked Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare-Medicaid Linked Enrollee Analytic Data Source (MMLEADS) has been developed to allow for the examination of all Medicare and Medicaid enrollment and...

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    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu ...

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    Full Text Available ... Link between drug use and HIV and to help us Send the Message . Get the Facts What ... and the public. Send the Message Overview Please help us send the message to young people and ...

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    Full Text Available ... people on HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy), for example, who continue to misuse drugs. The Learn the Link public service campaign is just one example of how NIDA continues to respond to the ...

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  2. Front end data link processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    It is possible to expand the data acquisition capabilities of an existing process computer to include other dedicated computer based systems, provided each system has at least minimal data link capabilities. The following paper discusses the addition of three computer based acquisition systems to a Honeywell 4500C (also designated the 45000) running the SEER system. Only one data link port was required to support the link. Each of the three specialized systems implemented data link protocols used by their suppliers in previous projects: none of the three were compatible with Honeywell's protocol. Part one of the following provides a generic overview of the project and would be relevent to the operator of any process system interested in expansion. Part two provides specific details of this project and may serve to provide performance benchmarks to those who wish to consider a similar project

  3. EPA Linked Open Data (Collection)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a collection item referencing the following EPA Linked Data resources: - EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS) - EPA Substance Registry Service (SRS) -...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... NIDA Donating to NIDA Frequently Asked Questions Contact Us Sharing Tools and Badges Other Resources Strategic Plan Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public Education Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... contracting or transmitting HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Research Reports: HIV/AIDS : Explores the link between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ...

  6. Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters January 14, 2013 Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis Normal skin from a ... in mice suggests that lack of a certain protein may trigger atopic dermatitis, the most common type ...

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    Full Text Available ... Process Funding Priorities Research Training News & Events News Nora's Blog NIDA in the News NIDA Notes Podcasts ... of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Dr. Nora D. Volkow. Message from the Director The Link ...

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    Full Text Available ... their lives , but now their night out always will be associated with HIV/AIDS. The “d’cisions” ... for breaking the harmful links between them, we will continue to update this Web site. Sincerely, Nora ...

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    Full Text Available ... Link" campaign continues to raise awareness among this generation of the real risks of drug use for ... Resource Center (NWHRC) Mujeres Unidas Contra el SIDA New Mexico AIDS Services African Advocates Against AIDS The ...

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    Full Text Available ... link between non-injection drug use and HIV. Television Networks: MunDos Azteca America ... and Families The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) The United Negro College Fund, ...

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    Full Text Available ... of people infected with HIV, drug misuse can interfere with an individual's likelihood of adhering to the ... HIV/AIDS and the discovery of promising treatment interventions for breaking the harmful links between them, we ...

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  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... can affect anyone. Watch the “d’cisions” Videos Campaign Materials After the Party Posters: We have developed ... share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn the Link campaign uses TV, ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the ... about the link between drug misuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and ...

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    Full Text Available ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts ...

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    Full Text Available ... En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Facebook ... HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links to ...

  17. Analytic invariants of boundary links

    OpenAIRE

    Garoufalidis, Stavros; Levine, Jerome

    2001-01-01

    Using basic topology and linear algebra, we define a plethora of invariants of boundary links whose values are power series with noncommuting variables. These turn out to be useful and elementary reformulations of an invariant originally defined by M. Farber.

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    Full Text Available ... NIDA’s "Learn the Link" campaign continues to raise awareness among this generation of the real risks of ... Collaborators Thanks to Those Who Have Helped Raise Awareness of Our Campaign! NIDA acknowledges the following television ...

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    Full Text Available ... educational institutions, magazines, newspapers, companies, events, and radio stations for helping to raise awareness of the link ... Poets Sistahs Getting Real About HIV Conference Radio Stations: WTOP Radio WPFW Radio WOL Radio News & Events ...

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    Full Text Available ... Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

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  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Prevention Recovery Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search ... the link between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ...

  18. Linked data and user interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Cervone, H Frank

    2015-01-01

    This collection of research papers provides extensive information on deploying services, concepts, and approaches for using open linked data from libraries and other cultural heritage institutions. With a special emphasis on how libraries and other cultural heritage institutions can create effective end user interfaces using open, linked data or other datasets. These papers are essential reading for any one interesting in user interface design or the semantic web.

  19. Wireless data link for FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, M.K.; Prabhakara Rao, G.; Ilango Sambasivan, S.; Swaminathan, P.; Ramakrishna, P.V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and development of a wireless data link for transmission of block pile signals at the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) of Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research (IGCAR). This link is to establish wireless connectivity, typically at RS232C rates, over distances of the order of 50 m, and is expected to operate under electrically hostile conditions. (author)

  20. Linking Ethics and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    Hunt (2012) builds on his work concerning ethics and resource-advantage theory to link personal ethical standards, societal norms, and economic growth but offers few details concerning the precise mechanisms that link ethics and growth. This comment suggests a number of such mechanisms – for exam...... – for example, the influence of prevailing ethical norms on the aggregate elasticity of substitution and, therefore, total factor productivity and growth....

  1. Manual de LinkedIn

    OpenAIRE

    Blázquez Sevilla, Alegría; Borrás Gené, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    Manual básico sobre la red profesional LinkedIn, donde se analiza la red y se explica a fondo cómo crear un perfil y gestionarlo. Incluye información sobre las diferentes secciones características de la red LinkedIn y ofrece consejos para la correcta gestión de un perfil, buscando su mejor rendimiento.

  2. Soil organic matter degradation and enzymatic profiles of intertidal and subaqueous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferronato, Chiara; Marinari, Sara; Bello, Diana; Vianello, Gilmo; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen; Vittori Antisari, Livia

    2017-04-01

    of epipedons, reflect the influence of the type of annual biomass depositions on ITSs (i.e. Salicornia europaea), but also the important role of the tide oscillation that promotes the continuous alternation of red-ox exchanges and thus fasten the organic matter turnover in ITSs. On these pedons, invertase was the most effective enzymes (11.6 μmol glucose g-1h-1). Moreover, in SASs and ITSs, most of the activities linked to the degradation of exoskeletons and fungi (e.g. chitinase) increase along the soil profile, probably due to the disrupting effect of water on the soil and to the type of SOM in saltmarshes soils. By considering the specific activity (enzymatic activity/TOC content), data showed how SASs, ITSs and TESs had different oxidoreductases and hydrolases trends, suggesting a different path and effectiveness of SOM degradation, which probably depends both on the soil hydric regime, and on the different type of organic compounds. A particular increase of catalase and invertase specific activities along the soil profiles, suggests the presence of microaerophilic environment in some saturated AC and C sandy horizons but generally, it was observed a gradual decrease of biochemical alteration of the SOM by enzymatic activities along the soil profile due to the progressive restriction of the edaphic conditions.

  3. Mass Transport within Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated

  4. Khovanov homology of graph-links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikonov, Igor M [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-31

    Graph-links arise as the intersection graphs of turning chord diagrams of links. Speaking informally, graph-links provide a combinatorial description of links up to mutations. Many link invariants can be reformulated in the language of graph-links. Khovanov homology, a well-known and useful knot invariant, is defined for graph-links in this paper (in the case of the ground field of characteristic two). Bibliography: 14 titles.

  5. Nitrogen as a regulatory factor of methane oxidation in soils and sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The oxidation of methane by methane-oxidising microorganisms is an important link in the global methane budget. Oxic soils are a net sink while wetland soils are a net source of atmospheric methane. It has generally been accepted that the consumption of methane in upland as well as lowland systems

  6. Accounting for non-stationary variance in geostatistical mapping of soil properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wadoux, Alexandre M.J.C.; Brus, Dick J.; Heuvelink, Gerard B.M.

    2018-01-01

    Simple and ordinary kriging assume a constant mean and variance of the soil variable of interest. This assumption is often implausible because the mean and/or variance are linked to terrain attributes, parent material or other soil forming factors. In kriging with external drift (KED)

  7. Assessment the effect of homogenized soil on soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohawesh, O.; Janssen, M.; Maaitah, O.; Lennartz, B.

    2017-09-01

    Soil hydraulic properties play a crucial role in simulating water flow and contaminant transport. Soil hydraulic properties are commonly measured using homogenized soil samples. However, soil structure has a significant effect on the soil ability to retain and to conduct water, particularly in aggregated soils. In order to determine the effect of soil homogenization on soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport, undisturbed soil samples were carefully collected. Five different soil structures were identified: Angular-blocky, Crumble, Angular-blocky (different soil texture), Granular, and subangular-blocky. The soil hydraulic properties were determined for undisturbed and homogenized soil samples for each soil structure. The soil hydraulic properties were used to model soil water transport using HYDRUS-1D.The homogenized soil samples showed a significant increase in wide pores (wCP) and a decrease in narrow pores (nCP). The wCP increased by 95.6, 141.2, 391.6, 3.9, 261.3%, and nCP decreased by 69.5, 10.5, 33.8, 72.7, and 39.3% for homogenized soil samples compared to undisturbed soil samples. The soil water retention curves exhibited a significant decrease in water holding capacity for homogenized soil samples compared with the undisturbed soil samples. The homogenized soil samples showed also a decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity. The simulated results showed that water movement and distribution were affected by soil homogenizing. Moreover, soil homogenizing affected soil hydraulic properties and soil water transport. However, field studies are being needed to find the effect of these differences on water, chemical, and pollutant transport under several scenarios.

  8. HONO (nitrous acid) emissions from acidic northern soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljanen, Marja; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Martikainen, Pertti J.

    2015-04-01

    The photolysis of HONO (nitrous acid) is an important source of OH radical, the key oxidizing agent in the atmosphere, contributing also to removal of atmospheric methane (CH4), the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide (CO2). The emissions of HONO from soils have been recently reported in few studies. Soil HONO emissions are regarded as missing sources of HONO when considering the chemical reactions in the atmosphere. The soil-derived HONO has been connected to soil nitrite (NO2-) and also directly to the activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria, which has been studied with one pure culture. Our hypothesis was that boreal acidic soils with high nitrification activity could be also sources of HONO and the emissions of HONO are connected with nitrification. We selected a range of dominant northern acidic soils and showed in microcosm experiments that soils which have the highest nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions (drained peatlands) also have the highest HONO production rates. The emissions of HONO are thus linked to nitrogen cycle and also NO and N2O emissions. Natural peatlands and boreal coniferous forests on mineral soils had the lowest HONO emissions. It is known that in natural peatlands with high water table and in boreal coniferous forest soils, low nitrification activity (microbial production of nitrite and nitrate) limits their N2O production. Low availability of nitrite in these soils is the likely reason also for their low HONO production rates. We also studied the origin of HONO in one peat soil with acetylene and other nitrification inhibitors and we found that HONO production is not closely connected to ammonium oxidation (nitrification). Acetylene blocked NO emissions but did not affect HONO or N2O emissions, thus there is another source behind HONO emission from these soils than ammonium oxidation. It is still an open question if this process is microbial or chemical origin.

  9. A Brief History of Soils and Human Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Sauer, Thomas J.

    2013-04-01

    The idea that there are links between soils and human health is an ancient one. The Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people in approximately 1400 B.C. as they entered Canaan, and in 400 B.C. Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered in a proper medical evaluation, including the ground. Moving into the 18th and 19th Centuries, some North American farmers have been documented as recognizing a link between soils and human vitality. However, the recognition of links between soils and human health by these early people was based on casual observations leading to logical conclusions rather than scientific investigation. In the 1900s the idea that soils influence human health gained considerable traction. At least three chapters in the 1938 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture included recognition of the importance of soil as the origin of many of the mineral elements necessary for human health and in the 1957 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture scientists realized that soils were not only important in the supply of essential nutrients, but that they could also supply toxic levels of elements to the human diet. The U.S. Department of Agriculture established the Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research Unit (PSNRU) on the Cornell University campus in 1940 with a mission to conduct research at the interface of human nutrition and agriculture to improve the nutritional quality and health-promoting properties of food crops. A major human health breakthrough in 1940 was the isolation of antibiotic compounds from soil organisms by the research group at Rutgers University lead by Selman Waksman. Soil microorganisms create antibiotic compounds in an effort to gain a competitive advantage in the soil ecosystem. Humans have been able to isolate those compounds and use them advantageously in the fight against bacterial infections. Waksman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1952, the only soil

  10. Effect of the soil type on the microbiome in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiter, Susanne; Ding, Guo-Chun; Heuer, Holger; Neumann, Günter; Sandmann, Martin; Grosch, Rita; Kropf, Siegfried; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-01-01

    The complex and enormous diversity of microorganisms associated with plant roots is important for plant health and growth and is shaped by numerous factors. This study aimed to unravel the effects of the soil type on bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce. We used an experimental plot system with three different soil types that were stored at the same site for 10 years under the same agricultural management to reveal differences directly linked to the soil type and no...

  11. Effect of the soil type on the microbiome in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne eSchreiter; Susanne eSchreiter; Guo-chun eDing; Guo-chun eDing; Holger eHeuer; Günter eNeumann; Martin eSandmann; Rita eGrosch; Siegfried eKropf; Kornelia eSmalla

    2014-01-01

    The complex and enormous diversity of microorganisms associated with plant roots is important for plant health and growth and is shaped by numerous factors. This study aimed to unravel the effects of the soil type on bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce. We used an experimental plot system with three different soil types that were stored at the same site for ten years under the same agricultural management to reveal differences directly linked to the soil type and n...

  12. A Dynamic Economic Analysis of Nitrogen-Induced Soil Acidification in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ziyan

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the environmental value of nitrogen fertilizer in a rapeseed-rice double-crop system in China to address the issue of nitrogen-induced soil acidification in China’s farmland. Previous literature always regarded the acid rain as the most important contributor to soil acidification. Thus, previous literature seldom linked soil quality with nitrogen leaching but studied acidification as a side product of air pollution. However, the latest scientific evidences show that China’s...

  13. Effects of natural and synthetic soil conditioners on soil moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of a natural soil conditioner, Coco-Peat (C-P), and synthetic soil conditioners, Terawet (T-200) and Teraflow (T-F), in improving soil moisture content were examined on five Ghanaian soil series (Akroso, Akuse, Amo, Hake and Oyarifa). In general, the water retention of T-200 and C-P treated soils were similar ...

  14. Modelling soil anaerobiosis from water retention characteristics and soil respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurgers, G.; Dörsch, P.; Bakken, L.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Egil Haugen, L.

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen is a prerequisite for some and an inhibitor to other microbial functions in soils, hence the temporal and spatial distribution of oxygen within the soil matrix is crucial in soil biogeochemistry and soil biology. Various attempts have been made to model the anaerobic fraction of the soil

  15. LinkMind: link optimization in swarming mobile sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2011-01-01

    A swarming mobile sensor network is comprised of a swarm of wirelessly connected mobile robots equipped with various sensors. Such a network can be applied in an uncertain environment for services such as cooperative navigation and exploration, object identification and information gathering. One of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link optimization of swarming mobile sensor networks. The new method is based on combination of the artificial potential force guaranteeing connectivities of the mobile sensor nodes and the max-flow min-cut theorem of graph theory ensuring optimization of the network link capacity. The developed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated in simulation.

  16. LinkMind: Link Optimization in Swarming Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Dung Ngo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A swarming mobile sensor network is comprised of a swarm of wirelessly connected mobile robots equipped with various sensors. Such a network can be applied in an uncertain environment for services such as cooperative navigation and exploration, object identification and information gathering. One of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link optimization of swarming mobile sensor networks. The new method is based on combination of the artificial potential force guaranteeing connectivities of the mobile sensor nodes and the max-flow min-cut theorem of graph theory ensuring optimization of the network link capacity. The developed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated in simulation.

  17. Long-term Fertilization Structures Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along Soil Depth Gradient in a Paddy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfu Gu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbes provide important ecosystem services. Though the effects of changes in nutrient availability due to fertilization on the soil microbial communities in the topsoil (tilled layer, 0–20 cm have been extensively explored, the effects on communities and their associations with soil nutrients in the subsoil (below 20 cm which is rarely impacted by tillage are still unclear. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to investigate bacterial and archaeal communities in a Pup-Calric-Entisol soil treated for 32 years with chemical fertilizer (CF and CF combined with farmyard manure (CFM, and to reveal links between soil properties and specific bacterial and archaeal taxa in both the top- and subsoil. The results showed that both CF and CFM treatments increased soil organic carbon (SOC, soil moisture (MO and total nitrogen (TN while decreased the nitrate_N content through the profile. Fertilizer applications also increased Olsen phosphorus (OP content in most soil layers. Microbial communities in the topsoil were significantly different from those in subsoil. Compared to the CF treatment, taxa such as Nitrososphaera, Nitrospira, and several members of Acidobacteria in topsoil and Subdivision 3 genera incertae sedis, Leptolinea, and Bellilinea in subsoil were substantially more abundant in CFM. A co-occurrence based network analysis demonstrated that SOC and OP were the most important soil parameters that positively correlated with specific bacterial and archaeal taxa in topsoil and subsoil, respectively. Hydrogenophaga was identified as the keystone genus in the topsoil, while genera Phenylobacterium and Steroidobacter were identified as the keystone taxa in subsoil. The taxa identified above are involved in the decomposition of complex organic compounds and soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus transformations. This study revealed that the spatial variability of soil properties due to long-term fertilization strongly shapes the bacterial

  18. Advances in soil dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Advances in Soil Dynamics, Volume 3, represents the culmination of the work undertaken by the Advances in Soil Dynamics Monograph Committee, PM-45-01, about 15 years ago to summarize important developments in this field over the last 35 years. When this project was initiated, the main goal...... was to abridge major strides made in the general area of soil dynamics during the sixties, seventies, and eighties. However, by about the mid-nineties soil dynamics research in the US and much of the developed world had come to a virtual standstill. Although significant progress was made prior to the mid......-nineties, we still do not have a sound fundamental knowledge of soil-machine and soil-plant interactions. It is the hope of the editors that these three volumes will provide a ready reference for much needed future research in this area....

  19. Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover depending on land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Köster

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover of normally developed (or postlithogenic mineral soils are analysed on the basis of four sampling soil groups. The four-link pedo-ecological sequence of analysed soils, rendzinas → brown soils → pseudopodzolic soils → gley-podzols, forms a representative cross section in relation to the normal mineral soils of Estonia. All groups differ substantially from each other in terms of soil properties (calcareousness, acidity, nutrition conditions, profile fabric and humus cover. The primary tasks of the research were (1 to elucidate the main pedo-ecological characteristics of the four soil groups and their suitability for plant cover, (2 to evaluate comparatively soils in terms of productivity, sustainability, biodiversity and environmental protection ability and (3 to analyse possibilities for ecologically sound matching of soil cover with suitable plant cover. On the basis of the same material, the influence of land-use change on humus cover (epipedon fabric, properties of the entire soil cover and soil–plant interrelationship were also analysed. An ecosystem approach enables us to observe particularities caused by specific properties of a soil type (species, variety in biological turnover and in the formation of biodiversity.

  20. Soil Organic Matter Stabilization via Mineral Interactions in Forest Soils with Varying Saturation Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possinger, A. R.; Inagaki, T.; Bailey, S. W.; Kogel-Knabner, I.; Lehmann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) interaction with minerals and metals through surface adsorption and co-precipitation processes is important for soil organic C (SOC) stabilization. Co-precipitation (i.e., the incorporation of C as an "impurity" in metal precipitates as they form) may increase the potential quantity of mineral-associated C per unit mineral surface compared to surface adsorption: a potentially important and as yet unaccounted for mechanism of C stabilization in soil. However, chemical, physical, and biological characterization of co-precipitated SOM as such in natural soils is limited, and the relative persistence of co-precipitated C is unknown, particularly under dynamic environmental conditions. To better understand the relationships between SOM stabilization via organometallic co-precipitation and environmental variables, this study compares mineral-SOM characteristics across a forest soil (Spodosol) hydrological gradient with expected differences in co-precipitation of SOM with iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) due to variable saturation frequency. Soils were collected from a steep, well-drained forest soil transect with low, medium, and high frequency of water table intrusion into surface soils (Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Woodstock, NH). Lower saturation frequency soils generally had higher C content, C/Fe, C/Al, and other indicators of co-precipitation interactions resulting from SOM complexation, transport, and precipitation, an important process of Spodosol formation. Preliminary Fe X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic (XAS) characterization of SOM and metal chemistry in low frequency profiles suggest co-precipitation of SOM in the fine fraction (soils showed greater SOC mineralization per unit soil C for low saturation frequency (i.e., higher co-precipitation) soils; however, increased mineralization may be attributed to non-mineral associated fractions of SOM. Further work to identify the component of SOM contributing to rapid mineralization using 13C

  1. Soil-dithiocarbamate interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghu, K.

    1980-01-01

    Soil is the ultimate repository of the pesticides applied for the control of plant pests and diseases. A variety of interactions like leaching, adsorption, chemical and microbial degradation etc take place between soil and pesticide. Results on work on two dialkyldithiocarbamates viz. thiram (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) and ziram (zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate) with respect to above interactions in soil are discussed and summarised. 35 S-labelled thiram and ziram were used in the studies. (author)

  2. Soil Management for Hardwood Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; B. G. Blackmon; J. B. Baker

    1971-01-01

    Soil management is the key to successful hardwood management because soil properties are probably the most important determinants of forest productivity. Because of the lack of soil uniformity, however, many foresters have become frustrated with attempts to relate soil to satisfactory growth. Since soil scientists have been unable to predict site quality for trees in...

  3. Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Russo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available La lista de enlaces ofrecida a continuación tiene como objetivo la creación de una base de datos sobre los principales sitios de interés para el estudio de la imagen (en America Latina y más allá. Se ha tratado de incluir una vasta gama de instituciones (museos, colecciones, institutos, representando sin embargo también a revistas, proyectos de investigación, y catálogos en línea. Sin tener la pretensión de ser exhaustiva, esta selección es evolutiva y se pone al día continuamente. MuseosI...

  4. Links

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Russo

    2006-01-01

    La lista de enlaces ofrecida a continuación tiene como objetivo la creación de una base de datos sobre los principales sitios de interés para el estudio de la imagen (en America Latina y más allá). Se ha tratado de incluir una vasta gama de instituciones (museos, colecciones, institutos), representando sin embargo también a revistas, proyectos de investigación, y catálogos en línea. Sin tener la pretensión de ser exhaustiva, esta selección es evolutiva y se pone al día continuamente. MuseosI...

  5. Microbial reduction of Fe(III) and turnover of acetate in Hawaiian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsel, Kirsten; Wagner, Christine; Trinkwalter, Tanja; Gössner, Anita S; Bäumler, Rupert; Drake, Harold L

    2002-04-01

    Soils contain anoxic microzones, and acetate is an intermediate during the turnover of soil organic carbon. Due to negligible methanogenic activities in well-drained soils, acetate accumulates under experimentally imposed short-term anoxic conditions. In contrast to forest, agricultural, and prairie soils, grassland soils from Hawaii rapidly consumed rather than formed acetate when incubated under anoxic conditions. Thus, alternative electron acceptors that might be linked to the anaerobic oxidation of soil organic carbon in Hawaiian soils were assessed. Under anoxic conditions, high amounts of Fe(II) were formed by Hawaiian soils as soon as soils were depleted of nitrate. Rates of Fe(II) formation for different soils ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 micromol (g dry weight soil)(-1) h(-1), but were not positively correlated to increasing amounts of poorly crystallized iron oxides. In general, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activities were negligible. Supplemental acetate was rapidly oxidized to CO2 via the sequential reduction of nitrate and Fe(III) in grassland soil (obtained near Kaena State Park). Supplemental H2 stimulated the formation of Fe(II), but H2-utilizing acetogens appeared to also be involved in the consumption of H2. Approximately 270 micromol Fe(III) (g dry weight soil)(-1) was available for Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, and acetate became a stable end product when Fe(III) was depleted in long-term incubations. Most-probable-number estimates of H2- and acetate-utilizing Fe(III) reducers and of H2-utilizing acetogens were similar. These results indicate that (i) the microbial reduction of Fe(III) is an important electron-accepting process for the anaerobic oxidation of organic matter in Fe(III)-rich Hawaiian soils of volcanic origin, and (ii) acetate, formed by the combined activity of fermentative and acetogenic bacteria, is an important trophic link in anoxic microsites of these soils.

  6. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  7. Radioisotopes in soil science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Soils form a thin veneer of the Earth that sustain the entire flora and fauna of the terra firma. To that extent the soil as a natural resource is very precious and needs to be managed in a sustainable manner. The fate of degradation of pesticides in soil and build-up of heavy metals in the overall biosafety scenario is also studied gainfully using radioisotopes. Radioisotopes are a very potent tool in the hands of the Soil Scientists, perhaps, the most important among the peaceful applications in service of the mankind

  8. Microbiological soil regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, D.; Wiesner, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Interdiciplinary Task Force ''Environmental Biotechnology - Soil'' of DECHEMA aims to pool the knowledge potential of the Dechema study committees on environmental biotechnology and soil protection with a view to the advancement of microbiological soil decontamination techniques. This conference volume on the 9th expert meeting of Dechema on environmental protection subjects entitled ''Microbiological Soil Regeneration'', held on February 27th and 28th, 1991, and the subsequent compilation of results give an intermediate account of the ongoing work of the Dechema Task Force. (orig.) [de

  9. Soil physics and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dourado Neto, Durval; Reichardt, K.; Sparovek, G.

    2004-01-01

    The approach that integrates knowledge is very important in Agriculture, including farmers, extensionists, researchers and professors. The specialists, including the soil physicists, must have a global view of the crop production system. Therefore, their expertise can be useful for the society. The Essence of scientific knowledge is its practical application. The soil physics is a sub area of Agronomy. There are many examples of this specific subject related to Agriculture. This paper will focus, in general, the following cases: (i) erosion, environmental pollution and human health, (ii) plant population and distribution, soil fertility, evapo-transpiration and soil water flux density, and (iii) productivity, effective root depth, water deficit and yield

  10. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1997-01-01

    It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective......It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective...

  11. Soil microbial activities and its relationship with soil chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fields assessed are organically managed Soils (OMS), Inorganically Managed Soils (IMS) and an Uncultivated Land having grass coverage (ULS). Soil Microbial Respiration (SMR), Microbial Biomass Carbon (MBC), Microbial Biomass Nitrogen (MBN) and Microbial Biomass Phosphorus (MBP) were analyzed.

  12. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Kinds and Distribution of Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  13. The OceanLink Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narock, T.; Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Cheatham, M.; Finin, T.; Hitzler, P.; Krisnadhi, A.; Raymond, L. M.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    A wide spectrum of maturing methods and tools, collectively characterized as the Semantic Web, is helping to vastly improve the dissemination of scientific research. Creating semantic integration requires input from both domain and cyberinfrastructure scientists. OceanLink, an NSF EarthCube Building Block, is demonstrating semantic technologies through the integration of geoscience data repositories, library holdings, conference abstracts, and funded research awards. Meeting project objectives involves applying semantic technologies to support data representation, discovery, sharing and integration. Our semantic cyberinfrastructure components include ontology design patterns, Linked Data collections, semantic provenance, and associated services to enhance data and knowledge discovery, interoperation, and integration. We discuss how these components are integrated, the continued automated and semi-automated creation of semantic metadata, and techniques we have developed to integrate ontologies, link resources, and preserve provenance and attribution.

  14. The ALICE detector data link

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, G; Csató, P; Dénes, E; Kiss, T; Meggyesi, Z; Sulyán, J; Vesztergombi, G; Eged, B; Gerencsér, I; Novák, I; Soós, C; Tarján, D; Telegdy, A; Tóth, N

    1999-01-01

    The ALICE detector data link has been designed to cover all the needs for data transfer between the detector and the data-acquisition system. It is a 1 Gbit/s, full-duplex, multi-purpose fibre optic link that can be used as a medium for the bi-directional transmission of data blocks between the front-end electronics and the data- acquisition system and also for the remote control and test of the front-end electronics, In this paper the concept, the protocol, the specific test tools, the prototypes of the detector data link and the read-out receiver card, their application in the ALICE-TPC test system and the integration with the DATE software are presented. The test results on the performance are also shown. (14 refs).

  15. Exploring functional relationships between post-fire soil water repellency, soil structure and physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarfeld, Jamie; Brook, Anna; Keestra, Saskia; Wittenberg, Lea

    2016-04-01

    composition in determining wettability rather than quantity, as evidenced both by the high variation observed in the field and the strong presence of aliphatic functional groups in the absence of WR; and (ii) commonly proposed mechanisms affecting soil aggregate properties - albeit with differing temperature thresholds and longer exposure times employed in this study. Namely, these mechanisms tend to involve: (i) soil OM and WR reduction at low to moderate temperatures, and (ii) thermal fusion of particles within moderate to high temperatures. Overall, results suggest a positive influence of management on soil properties as well as high soil resilience to moderate severity fire disturbance in the studied areas. However, the specific changes in soil OM and mineral composition that are responsible for destruction of WR and subsequent changes in AS remain poorly understood. Based on these results, a key next step within this study will entail a closer examination of OC ratios and their potential links with certain mineral species known to influence soil aggregation and soil WR. Noting the importance of soil OM-mineralogical interactions on run-off and erosion processes, results may contribute to better prediction of post-fire responses in the future and improve the ability to fine-tune site specific management approaches accordingly.

  16. The effect of moisture content on the thermal conductivity of moss and organic soil horizons from black spruce ecosystems in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan A. O' Donnell; Vladimir E. Romanovsky; Jennifer W. Harden; A. David. McGuire

    2009-01-01

    Organic soil horizons function as important controls on the thermal state of near-surface soil and permafrost in high-latitude ecosystems. The thermal conductivity of organic horizons is typically lower than mineral soils and is closely linked to moisture content, bulk density, and water phase. In this study, we examined the relationship between thermal conductivity...

  17. When He Said Linking, He Really Meant Linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnov, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    There are many reasons to improve web links, starting with their design. The author tends to think about "design" on the web in terms of two things: (1) graphic/industrial design; and (2) human usability. A nice, clean URI (uniform resource identifier) that does not change, is readable to humans, is amenable to common web behaviors such as…

  18. Soil-Borne Microbial Functional Structure across Different Land Uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, E.E.; Zhou, J.Z.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; van Veen, J.A..

    2014-01-01

    Land use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities. However, the links between environmental factors and microbial functions are not well understood. Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. In a multivariate

  19. Soil-borne microbial functional structure across different land uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, Eiko E; Zhou, Jizhong Z; Kowalchuk, George A; van Veen, Johannes A

    2014-01-01

    Land use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities. However, the links between environmental factors and microbial functions are not well understood. Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. In a multivariate

  20. Mechanistic modelling of the vertical soil organic matter profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) constitutes a large global pool of carbon that may play a considerable role for future climate. The vertical distribution of SOM in the profile may be important due to depth-dependence of physical, chemical, and biological conditions, and links to physical processes