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Sample records for linking maternal reminiscing

  1. Does pedagogical documentation support maternal reminiscing conversations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Fleck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When parents talk with their children about lessons learned in school, they are participating in reminiscing of an unshared event. This study sought to understand if pedagogical documentation, from the Reggio Approach to early childhood education, would support and enhance the conversation. Mother–child dyads reminisced two separate times about preschool lessons, one time with documentation available to them and one time without. Transcripts were coded extracting variables indicative of high and low maternal reminiscing styles. Results indicate that mother and child conversation characteristics were more highly elaborative when documentation was present than when it was not. In addition, children added more information to the conversation supporting the notion that such conversations enhanced memory for lessons. Documentation could be used as a support tool for conversations and children’s memory about lessons learned in school.

  2. Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing Mediates the Effect of Child Maltreatment on Behavioral and Physiological Functioning

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    Valentino, Kristin; Hibel, Leah C; Cummings, E. Mark; Nuttall, Amy K.; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggest that the way in which parents discuss everyday emotional experiences with their young children (i.e., elaborative reminiscing) has significant implications for child cognitive and socio-emotional functioning, and that maltreating parents have a particularly difficult time in engaging in this type of dialogue. This dyadic interactional exchange, therefore, has the potential to be an important process variable linking child maltreatment to developmental outcomes at multiple levels of analysis. The current investigation evaluated the role of maternal elaborative reminiscing in associations between maltreatment and child cognitive, emotional, and physiological functioning. Participants included 43 maltreated and 49 nonmaltreated children (aged 3–6) and their mothers. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about four past emotional events, and children participated in assessments of receptive language and emotion knowledge. Child salivary cortisol was also collected from children three times a day (waking, midday, and bedtime) on two consecutive days to assess daily levels and diurnal decline. Results indicated that maltreating mothers engaged in significantly less elaborative reminiscing than nonmaltreating mothers. Maternal elaborative reminiscing mediated associations between child maltreatment and child receptive language and child emotion knowledge. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between child maltreatment and child cortisol diurnal decline through maternal elaborative reminiscing. Directions for future research are discussed and potential clinical implications are addressed. PMID:26535941

  3. Maternal attachment is differentially associated with mother-child reminiscing among maltreating and nonmaltreating families.

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    Lawson, Monica; Valentino, Kristin; McDonnell, Christina G; Speidel, Ruth

    2018-05-01

    In the current investigation, we examined associations between maternal attachment and the way that mothers and children discuss past emotional experiences (i.e., reminiscing) among 146 maltreating and 73 nonmaltreating mothers and their 3- to 6-year-old children. Recent studies demonstrate that maltreating mothers engage in less elaborative reminiscing compared with nonmaltreating mothers. To further explicate the nature of reminiscing among maltreating families, we examined maternal and child contributions to reminiscing, their interrelations, and associations with maternal attachment among dyads from maltreating and nonmaltreating families. Maternal attachment is theoretically and empirically associated with mother-child reminiscing, and an insecure maternal attachment style was hypothesized to exacerbate poor elaborative reminiscing among maltreating families. Mothers and children reminisced about four emotional experiences. Maternal attachment was measured with the Experience in Close Relationships-Revised questionnaire. Mothers and children from maltreating families engaged in less elaborative and emotion-rich reminiscing compared with nonmaltreating dyads. Maternal attachment anxiety was negatively associated with maternal elaborative reminiscing, but only among nonmaltreating mothers. Mother-child reminiscing among dyads with nonmaltreating and low attachment anxiety mothers was highly collaborative; whereas reminiscing among dyads with maltreating and high attachment anxiety mothers was less reciprocal. Our findings largely support communicative perspectives of attachment theory and also indicate that maternal attachment is differentially associated with mother-child reminiscing among maltreating and nonmaltreating families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Reminiscing in Cultural Contexts: Cultural Models, Maternal Reminiscing Styles, and Children's Memories

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    Schroder, Lisa; Keller, Heidi; Kartner, Joscha; Kleis, Astrid; Abels, Monika; Yovsi, Relindis D.; Chaudhary, Nandita; Jensen, Henning; Papaligoura, Zaira

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined conversations of 164 mothers from seven different cultural contexts when reminiscing with their 3-year-old children. We chose samples based on their sociodemographic profiles, which represented three different cultural models: (1) autonomy (urban middle-class families from Western societies), (2) relatedness (rural…

  5. Elaboration and Autonomy Support in Low-Income Mothers' Reminiscing: Links to Children's Autobiographical Narratives

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    Leyva, Diana; Reese, Elaine; Grolnick, Wendy; Price, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    Maternal elaboration and autonomy support during reminiscing facilitate middle-class children's autobiographical narrative skills. In this study, low-income Hispanic, White, and Black mothers' elaboration and autonomy support in reminiscing were examined in relation to children's joint and independent autobiographical narratives and engagement.…

  6. A Review of Reminiscing in Early Childhood Settings and Links to Sustained Shared Thinking

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    Neale, Dave; Pino-Pasternak, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The importance of parent-child reminiscing for young children's social and cognitive development has been well established, but despite the increasing numbers of children attending formal early childhood settings such as nurseries and preschools, there has been surprisingly little research exploring educator-child reminiscing in these contexts.…

  7. Socialization of Past Event Talk: Cultural Differences in Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing

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    Tougu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Schroder, Lisa; Keller, Heidi; De Geer, Boel

    2011-01-01

    This study examines mother-child reminiscing conversations with respect to variation in use and function of mothers' elaborations, the nature of children's memory elaborations, and the connections between the two, in three Western middle-class cultures where autonomy is valued over relatedness. Mothers participated with their 4-year-old children…

  8. Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories

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    Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

  9. The Link between Preschoolers' Phonological Awareness and Mothers' Book-Reading and Reminiscing Practices in Low-Income Families

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    Leyva, Diana; Sparks, Alison; Reese, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The relation between preschoolers' phonological awareness and the frequency and quality of parents' book-reading and reminiscing practices were examined in 54 low-income and ethnically diverse families. Children's phonological awareness was assessed at the beginning and end of preschool. Mothers reported the frequency with which they read books…

  10. [Reminiscence on the municipal out-of-hospital maternity unit and the motherhood home in Novi Sad].

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    Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Breberina, Milan; Vujosević, Bozica; Pećanac, Marija; Zakula, Nenad; Trajković, Velicko

    2013-01-01

    In the mid-twentieth century, the health care of women and children was inadequate in the post-war Yugoslavia, including the city of Novi Sad, due to the severe post-war reality: poverty in the devastated country, shortage of all commodities and services and especially of medical supplies, equipment and educated staff. OUT-OF-HOSPITAL MATERNITY UNIT: One of the serious problems was parturition at home and morbidity and mortality of the newborns and women. Soon after the World War II the action programme of improving the women's health was realized on the state level by establishing out-of-hospital maternity units but under the expert supervision. The Maternity unit at 30 Ljudevita Gaja Street in Novi Sad played a great role in providing skilled birth attendance at mainly normal deliveries. With a minimal number of medical staff and modest medical equipment, about 2000 healthy babies were born in this house. After 5 years of functioning in that way, this unit was transformed into the Motherhood Home and became a social and medical institution for pregnant women and new mothers. Regardless of the redefined organization concept the curative and preventive health care as well as women and children social protection programmes were provided successfully for the next 12 years. Although the Motherhood Home was moved into the Women Health Centre of Novi Sad and later into the former Maternity Hospital in Sremski Karlovci, its great importance for women and children's health care remained unchanged. In 1979 the overall social situation and mostly economic issues led to its closing. The house in Gajeva Street is now used as the municipality office. However, this house with its story recommends itself to become a house for a special social function, such as a museum of medical history of Novi Sad. A small investment could make it possible to collect, preserve and display the valuable records of our past, which is something we do owe to the generations to come.

  11. Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.

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    Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Maternal emotion regulation during child distress, child anxiety accommodation, and links between maternal and child anxiety.

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    Kerns, Caroline E; Pincus, Donna B; McLaughlin, Katie A; Comer, Jonathan S

    2017-08-01

    Environmental contributions are thought to play a primary role in the familial aggregation of anxiety, but parenting influences remain poorly understood. We examined dynamic relations between maternal anxiety, maternal emotion regulation (ER) during child distress, maternal accommodation of child distress, and child anxiety. Mothers (N=45) of youth ages 3-8 years (M=4.8) participated in an experimental task during which they listened to a standardized audio recording of a child in anxious distress pleading for parental intervention. Measures of maternal and child anxiety, mothers' affective states, mothers' ER strategies during the child distress, and maternal accommodation of child anxiety were collected. Mothers' resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during the recording was also acquired. Higher maternal negative affect and greater maternal ER switching (i.e., using multiple ER strategies in a short time without positive regulatory results) during child distress were associated with child anxiety. Sequential mediation modeling showed that maternal anxiety predicted ineffective maternal ER during child distress exposure, which in turn predicted greater maternal accommodation, which in turn predicted higher child anxiety. Findings support the mediating roles of maternal ER and accommodation in linking maternal and child anxiety, and suggest that ineffective maternal ER and subsequent attempts to accommodate child distress may act as mechanisms underlying the familial aggregation of anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Does It Matter if Preschool Children and Mothers Discuss Positive vs. Negative Events during Reminiscing? Links with Mother-Reported Attachment, Family Emotional Climate, and Socioemotional Development

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    Laible, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the differential relations between mother-child reminiscing about a positive emotional event vs. a negative emotional event and attachment security, family climate, and young children's socioemotional development. Fifty preschool children (M age = 50.69 months, SD = 4.64) and their mothers completed two…

  14. Congenital heart disease linked to maternal autoimmunity against cardiac myosin.

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    Cole, Charles R; Yutzey, Katherine E; Brar, Anoop K; Goessling, Lisa S; Van Vickle-Chavez, Sarah J; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Eghtesady, Pirooz

    2014-05-01

    Structural congenital heart disease (CHD) has not previously been linked to autoimmunity. In our study, we developed an autoimmune model of structural CHD that resembles hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), a life-threatening CHD primarily affecting the left ventricle. Because cardiac myosin (CM) is a dominant autoantigen in autoimmune heart disease, we hypothesized that immunization with CM might lead to transplacental passage of maternal autoantibodies and a prenatal HLHS phenotype in exposed fetuses. Elevated anti-CM autoantibodies in maternal and fetal sera, as well as IgG reactivity in fetal myocardium, were correlated with structural CHD that included diminished left ventricular cavity dimensions in the affected progeny. Further, fetuses that developed a marked HLHS phenotype had elevated serum titers of anti-β-adrenergic receptor Abs, as well as increased protein kinase A activity, suggesting a potential mechanism for the observed pathological changes. Our maternal-fetal model presents a new concept linking autoimmunity against CM and cardiomyocyte proliferation with cardinal features of HLHS. To our knowledge, this report shows the first evidence in support of a novel immune-mediated mechanism for pathogenesis of structural CHD that may have implications in its future diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Diallel analysis for sex-linked and maternal effects.

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    Zhu, J; Weir, B S

    1996-01-01

    Genetic models including sex-linked and maternal effects as well as autosomal gene effects are described. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to compare efficiencies of estimation by minimum norm quadratic unbiased estimation (MINQUE) and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) methods. MINQUE(1), which has 1 for all prior values, has a similar efficiency to MINQUE(θ), which requires prior estimates of parameter values. MINQUE(1) has the advantage over REML of unbiased estimation and convenient computation. An adjusted unbiased prediction (AUP) method is developed for predicting random genetic effects. AUP is desirable for its easy computation and unbiasedness of both mean and variance of predictors. The jackknife procedure is appropriate for estimating the sampling variances of estimated variances (or covariances) and of predicted genetic effects. A t-test based on jackknife variances is applicable for detecting significance of variation. Worked examples from mice and silkworm data are given in order to demonstrate variance and covariance estimation and genetic effect prediction.

  16. Maternal Employment Stability in Early Childhood: Links with Child Behavior and Cognitive Skills

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    Pilkauskas, Natasha V.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated links between maternal employment and children's wellbeing, less research has considered whether the stability of maternal employment is linked with child outcomes. Using unique employment calendar data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,011), an urban birth cohort study of largely…

  17. Reminiscence therapy for dementia.

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    Woods, Bob; O'Philbin, Laura; Farrell, Emma M; Spector, Aimee E; Orrell, Martin

    2018-03-01

    This updated Cochrane Review of reminiscence therapy (RT) for dementia was first published in 1998, and last updated in 2005. RT involves the discussion of memories and past experiences with other people using tangible prompts such as photographs or music to evoke memories and stimulate conversation. RT is implemented widely in a range of settings using a variety of formats. To assess the effects of RT on people living with dementia and their carers, taking into account differences in its implementation, including setting (care home, community) and modality (group, individual). We searched ALOIS (the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register) on 6 April 2017 using the search term 'reminiscence.' We included all randomised controlled trials of RT for dementia in which the duration of the intervention was at least four weeks (or six sessions) and that had a 'no treatment' or passive control group. Outcomes of interest were quality of life (QoL), cognition, communication, behaviour, mood and carer outcomes. Two authors (LOP and EF) independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Where necessary, we contacted study authors for additional information. We pooled data from all sufficiently similar studies reporting on each outcome. We undertook subgroup analysis by setting (community versus care home) and by modality (individual versus group). We used GRADE methods to assess the overall quality of evidence for each outcome. We included 22 studies involving 1972 people with dementia. Meta-analyses included data from 16 studies (1749 participants). Apart from six studies with risk of selection bias, the overall risk of bias in the studies was low.Overall, moderate quality evidence indicated RT did not have an important effect on QoL immediately after the intervention period compared with no treatment (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.12 to 0.33; I 2 = 59%; 8 studies; 1060 participants

  18. Consequences from use of reminiscence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudex, Claire; Horsted, Charlotte; Jensen, Anders Møller

    2010-01-01

    Background: Reminiscence is the systematic use of memories and recollections to strengthen self-identity and self-worth. The study aim was to investigate the consequences for nursing home residents and staff of integrating reminiscence into daily nursing care. Methods: In this randomised study, ten...... than those in the Control Group for Personal accomplishment, Emotional exhaustion, Depersonalisation, ‘Attitude towards individual contact with residents’ and SF-12 self-rated mental health. At 12 months after start of reminiscence, staff in the Intervention Group had significantly better scores than...

  19. Maternal condition but not corticosterone is linked to offspring sex ratio in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J Henderson

    Full Text Available There is evidence of offspring sex ratio adjustment in a range of species, but the potential mechanisms remain largely unknown. Elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT is associated with factors that can favour brood sex ratio adjustment, such as reduced maternal condition, food availability and partner attractiveness. Therefore, the steroid hormone has been suggested to play a key role in sex ratio manipulation. However, despite correlative and causal evidence CORT is linked to sex ratio manipulation in some avian species, the timing of adjustment varies between studies. Consequently, whether CORT is consistently involved in sex-ratio adjustment, and how the hormone acts as a mechanism for this adjustment remains unclear. Here we measured maternal baseline CORT and body condition in free-living blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus over three years and related these factors to brood sex ratio and nestling quality. In addition, a non-invasive technique was employed to experimentally elevate maternal CORT during egg laying, and its effects upon sex ratio and nestling quality were measured. We found that maternal CORT was not correlated with brood sex ratio, but mothers with elevated CORT fledged lighter offspring. Also, experimental elevation of maternal CORT did not influence brood sex ratio or nestling quality. In one year, mothers in superior body condition produced male biased broods, and maternal condition was positively correlated with both nestling mass and growth rate in all years. Unlike previous studies maternal condition was not correlated with maternal CORT. This study provides evidence that maternal condition is linked to brood sex ratio manipulation in blue tits. However, maternal baseline CORT may not be the mechanistic link between the maternal condition and sex ratio adjustment. Overall, this study serves to highlight the complexity of sex ratio adjustment in birds and the difficulties associated with identifying sex biasing mechanisms.

  20. Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior

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    Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

  1. Exploring the Link between Maternity Leave and Postpartum Depression.

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    Kornfeind, Katelin R; Sipsma, Heather L

    2018-05-02

    Postpartum depression affects a substantial proportion of new mothers in the United States. Although most employed women return to paid work after birth, the association between duration of maternity leave and postpartum depression is unclear. We therefore aimed to explore this relationship among mothers in the United States. Data included 177 mothers from a national survey who had returned to work full time after having a baby. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the independent association between duration of maternity leave and experiencing of postpartum depressive symptoms in the 2 weeks preceding the postpartum survey completion. Overall, duration of maternity leave was not significantly associated with experiencing postpartum depression symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80-1.01). This effect, however, varied by duration of maternity leave. Among women who took maternity leaves of 12 weeks or less, every additional week of leave was associated with a lesser odds of experiencing postpartum depressive symptoms (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.84). Among women who took maternity leaves longer than 12 weeks, leave duration was not associated with postpartum depression symptoms (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.73-1.29). Maternity leaves equaling 12 weeks or less may contribute additional risk for postpartum depressive symptoms, possibly because mothers are juggling employment alongside of important physical and emotional changes during this period. This association underscores the importance of ensuring that mothers have at least 12 weeks of leave from full-time employment after the birth of a baby. Copyright © 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Infant sleep development from 3 to 6 months postpartum: links with maternal sleep and paternal involvement.

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    Tikotzky, Liat; Sadeh, Avi; Volkovich, Ella; Manber, Rachel; Meiri, Gal; Shahar, Golan

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine (a) development of infant sleep and maternal sleep from 3 to 6 months postpartum; (b) concomitant and prospective links between maternal sleep and infant sleep; and (c) triadic links between paternal involvement in infant caregiving and maternal and infant sleep. The study included 57 families that were recruited during pregnancy. Maternal and infant sleep was assessed using actigraphy and sleep diaries for 5 nights. Both fathers and mothers completed a questionnaire assessing the involvement of fathers relative to mothers in infant caregiving. The results demonstrated moderate improvement in infant and maternal sleep percent between 3 and 6 months. Maternal sleep percent at 3 months significantly predicted infant sleep percent at 6 months. Greater paternal involvement in infant daytime and nighttime caregiving at 3 months significantly predicted more consolidated maternal and infant sleep at 6 months. These findings suggest that maternal sleep is an important predictor of infant sleep and that increased involvement of fathers in infant caregiving responsibilities may contribute to improvements in both maternal and infant sleep during the first 6 months postpartum. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Linking Maternal Warmth and Responsiveness to Children's Self-Regulation

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    von Suchodoletz, Antje; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Heikamp, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    The present study demonstrated that a more differentiated view of positive parenting practices is necessary in the study of children's acquisition of self-regulation. Here, the unique contributions of maternal warmth and responsiveness to distress to children's self-regulation were tested in a sample of 102 German mothers and their kindergarten…

  4. The Socialization of Children’s Memory: Linking Maternal Conversational Style to the Development of Children’s Autobiographical and Deliberate Memory Skills

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    Langley, Hillary A.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a large-scale, longitudinal research study with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample were utilized to explore linkages between maternal elaborative conversational style and the development of children’s autobiographical and deliberate memory. Assessments were made when the children were 3, 5, and 6 years of age, and the results reveal concurrent and longitudinal linkages between maternal conversational style in a mother-child reminiscing task and children’s autobiographical memory performance. Maternal conversational style while reminiscing was also significantly related to children’s strategic behaviors and recall in two deliberate memory tasks, both concurrently and longitudinally. Results from this examination replicate and extend what is known about the linkages between maternal conversational style, children’s abilities to talk about previous experiences, and children’s deliberate memory skills as they transition from the preschool to early elementary school years. PMID:29270083

  5. Socioeconomic risk moderates the link between household chaos and maternal executive function.

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    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-06-01

    We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling for other measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., verbal ability), and 2) this link would be strongest in the most socioeconomically distressed or lowest-socioeconomic status households. The diverse sample included 153 mothers from urban and rural areas who completed a questionnaire and a battery of cognitive executive function tasks and a verbal ability task in the laboratory. Results were mixed for Hypothesis 1, and consistent with Hypothesis 2. Two-thirds of the variance overlapped between household chaos and maternal executive function, but only in families with high levels of socioeconomic risk. This pattern was not found for chaos and maternal verbal ability, suggesting that the potentially deleterious effects of household chaos may be specific to maternal executive function. The findings implicate household chaos as a powerful statistical predictor of maternal executive function in socioeconomically distressed contexts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Socioeconomic Risk Moderates the Link between Household Chaos and Maternal Executive Function

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    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling for other measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., verbal ability), and 2) this link would be strongest in the most socioeconomically distressed or lowest-socioeconomic status households. The diverse sample included 153 mothers from urban and rural areas who completed a questionnaire and a battery of cognitive executive function tasks and a verbal ability task in the laboratory. Results were mixed for hypothesis 1, and consistent with hypothesis 2. Two-thirds of the variance overlapped between household chaos and maternal executive function, but only in families with high levels of socioeconomic risk. This pattern was not found for chaos and maternal verbal ability, suggesting that the potentially deleterious effects of household chaos may be specific to maternal executive function. The findings implicate household chaos as a powerful statistical predictor of maternal executive function in socioeconomically distressed contexts. PMID:22563703

  7. A link between thrifty phenotype and maternal care across two generations of intercrossed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sauce

    Full Text Available Maternal effects are causal influences from mother to offspring beyond genetic information, and have lifelong consequences for multiple traits. Previously, we reported that mice whose mothers did not nurse properly had low birth weight followed by rapid fat accumulation and disturbed development of some organs. That pattern resembles metabolic syndromes known collectively as the thrifty phenotype, which is believed to be an adaptation to a stressful environment which prepares offspring for reduced nutrient supply. The potential link between maternal care, stress reactivity, and the thrifty phenotype, however, has been poorly explored in the human and animal literature: only a couple of studies even mention (much less, test these concepts under a cohesive framework. Here, we explored this link using mice of the parental inbred strains SM/J and LG/J-who differ dramatically in their maternal care-and the intercrossed generations F1 and F2. We measured individual differences in 15 phenotypes and used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. We found a remarkable relationship between thrifty phenotype and lower quality of maternal behaviors, including nest building, pup retrieval, grooming/licking, and nursing. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show, in any mammal, a clear connection between the natural variation in thrifty phenotype and maternal care. Both traits in the mother also had a substantial effect on survival rate in the F3 offspring. To our surprise, however, stress reactivity seemed to play no role in our models. Furthermore, the strain of maternal grandmother, but not of paternal grandmother, affected the variation of maternal care in F2 mice, and this effect was mediated by thrifty phenotype in F2. Since F1 animals were all genetically identical, this finding suggests that maternal effects pass down both maternal care and thrifty phenotype in these mice across generations via epigenetic transmission.

  8. Theory of mind as a link between oxytocin and maternal behavior.

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    MacKinnon, Anna L; Carter, C Sue; Feeley, Nancy; Gold, Ian; Hayton, Barbara; Santhakumaran, Sangeetha; Zelkowitz, Phyllis

    2018-06-01

    Oxytocin is a neuropeptide associated with maternal behavior. However the mechanisms underlying this link remain unclear. In a previous study we observed an indirect effect of increased plasma oxytocin during late pregnancy on early postpartum maternal interactive behavior via theory of mind, as assessed by the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). The current study aimed to extend these findings by testing whether this indirect effect would hold longitudinally for maternal behavior at 2-3 years postpartum, as well as for an additional observational measure of maternal mind-mindedness. The original sample of 316 pregnant women (M age  = 31.92 years) was assessed at 12-14 weeks gestation (T1), 32-34 weeks gestation (T2), and 7-9 weeks postpartum (T3). Follow-up measures were taken at 2-3 years postpartum (T4). Mothers' RMET performance (T3) was associated with more structuring and less intrusive maternal behavior at 2-3 years (T4), while their tendency to use mind-related comments (T3) was associated with greater sensitivity (T4). Bootstrap estimates also revealed a significant indirect effect of plasma oxytocin levels during late pregnancy (T2) on maternal structuring and non-intrusive behavior at 2-3 years postpartum (T4) through RMET performance (T3). Results: of the current study confirm and extend the previous findings, demonstrating that theory of mind may represent a social cognitive mechanism linking endogenous oxytocin and maternal behavior. Important changes in the oxytocinergic system during late pregnancy may help prepare for motherhood by promoting the awareness of social cues, which in turn promote maternal behavior from the early postpartum to the early childhood years. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Household chaos moderates the link between maternal attribution bias and parenting: Parenting: Science and Practice.

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    Wang, Z; Deater-Deckard, K; Bell, M A

    2013-10-01

    Parents who attribute child misbehavior to children's intentions and dismiss situational factors tend to show more hostility and less warmth in their parenting behavior, and are at greater risk for maltreatment. We extended this literature by investigating the role of household chaos as a moderator of the link between maternal attribution biases and parenting behaviors. The current sample included 160 mothers of 3- to7-year-old children. Mothers provided reports on their attribution biases and household chaos levels. Maternal negativity and positivity were measured using self-reports and observers' ratings. The links between attribution bias and parenting behavior were stronger in more chaotic environments, with the moderating effect of chaos being particularly strong for internal attribution bias. The findings point to the importance of social cognitive biases in the etiology of maternal behavior in family contexts that lack order and predictability.

  10. Household chaos moderates the link between maternal attribution bias and parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Deater-Deckard, K.; Bell, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Parents who attribute child misbehavior to children's intentions and dismiss situational factors tend to show more hostility and less warmth in their parenting behavior, and are at greater risk for maltreatment. We extended this literature by investigating the role of household chaos as a moderator of the link between maternal attribution biases and parenting behaviors. Design The current sample included 160 mothers of 3- to7-year-old children. Mothers provided reports on their attribution biases and household chaos levels. Maternal negativity and positivity were measured using self-reports and observers’ ratings. Results The links between attribution bias and parenting behavior were stronger in more chaotic environments, with the moderating effect of chaos being particularly strong for internal attribution bias. Conclusions The findings point to the importance of social cognitive biases in the etiology of maternal behavior in family contexts that lack order and predictability. PMID:24358017

  11. Community-Based Cause of Death Study Linked to Maternal and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community-Based Cause of Death Study Linked to Maternal and Child ... newborn, and child health "Know-Do Gap" in Ethiopia by piloting a low-cost, ... platform to decrease the cost, while increasing the quality and feasibility, of COD surveys.

  12. Linking Employment Status, Maternal Psychological Well-Being, Parenting, and Children's Attributions about Poverty in Families Receiving Government Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Brown, Anita; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    Using an ecological risk-protection perspective, explores functional changes in single African American mothers (N=96) receiving government assistance. Examines links among maternal employment, mothers' physical and psychological health, and children's attributions about causes of poverty. Maternal psychological distress was linked with children's…

  13. Reminiscences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakita, Bunji

    In the spring of 1967 I stayed at the ICTP in Trieste for five months. Towards the end of the stay K. C. Wali and I traveled to Israel, specifically the Weizmann Institute for ten days at the invitation of H. J. Lipkin. When we arrived in Israel we found that the atmosphere was extremely tense and people busy preparing for a war with the neighboring Arabic countries. Although the touristy places were deserted, we could manage to rent a car to visit many places including Jerusalem, Haifa and Acre. Since most of the young Israeli physicists had already been drafted, the physicists working at the Institute were mainly foreigners, among whom were H. Rubinstein, G. Veneziano and M. Virasoro. They were working together on superconvergence relations, which was a subject that I was also interested in at that time. In the discussions we had during this visit, the dual resonance program must have come up, since I remember that afterward in Trieste I started discussing with others about the possibility of constructing scattering amplitudes by summing only the s-channel resonance poles. We l Israel as scheduled on June 4 and the very next day in Ankara, Turkey we heard of the outbreak of the Six Day War…

  14. Parenting self-efficacy: links with maternal depression, infant behaviour and adult attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhoff, Jane; Barnett, Bryanne

    2013-04-01

    This study examined predictors of parenting self-efficacy (PSE) in a sample of first-time mothers during the first year after childbirth and evaluated the effect of a brief, intensive, mother-infant residential intervention on PSE and infant behaviour. 83 primiparous women with infants aged 0-12 months admitted to a residential parent-infant program participated in a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnosis of depressive and anxiety disorders and completed questionnaires assessing psychological distress, adult attachment and childhood parenting experiences. During their residential stay, nurses recorded infant behaviour using 24-hour charts. Results showed PSE to be inversely correlated with maternal depression, maternal anxiety and attachment insecurity. Low levels of parental abuse during childhood, avoidant attachment, male infant gender and depressive symptom severity were found to predict low PSE. Major depression mediated the relation between attachment insecurity and PSE, but there were no links between PSE and infant behaviour. After the intervention, there was a significant improvement in PSE, with abusive parenting during childhood and depressive symptom severity being predictive of change. This study highlights the links between maternal psychopathology and maternal background factors such as childhood parenting experiences and attachment style in the development of postnatal PSE. Directions for future research are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Profiles of Maternal Parenting Practices: Exploring the Link With Maternal Delinquency, Offending, Mental Health, and Children's Physical Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumakis, Stacy; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-11-01

    Studies have often linked parenting to children's subsequent antisocial behavior; however, the circumstances under which this might occur are less clear. The current study explores patterns in mothers' parenting practices, and associated correlates including maternal delinquency and offending, mental health, and children's physical aggression. This study is based on the first wave of the ongoing Vancouver Longitudinal Study; the objective of this prospective study is to identify the early risk and protective factors for aggression and violence from the earliest developmental periods. Parenting practices of 287 mothers with preschoolers are examined using a series of latent class analyses. Three different patterns of parenting emerged: Positive, Negative, and Intermittent. Patterns identified are associated with several key criminogenic, socio-demographic, historical, and developmental factors including current maternal adult offending, mothers' mental health, ethnicity, and frequency of children's physical aggression. Importantly, mothers who show parenting in line with the more negative classes also rely on a number of positive practices. Implications of the study suggest that parenting is influenced by mothers' immediate situations and contexts (e.g., current offending rather that past delinquency), which can be targeted for intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

  17. Empirical validation of a model of reminiscence and health in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappeliez, Philippe; O'Rourke, Norm

    2006-07-01

    This study addresses the adaptive value of functions of reminiscence with respect to physical and mental health in later life. A model examining the relationships between the functions of reminiscence and life satisfaction, psychiatric distress, and health is presented and tested. Self-positive (reminiscence for Identity, Death Preparation, and Problem Solving) and self-negative (reminiscence for Boredom Reduction, Bitterness Revival, and Intimacy Maintenance) functions have statistically significant and direct associations with the well-being of this sample of older adults, the first positively and the second negatively. Prosocial functions (reminiscence for Conversation, and to Teach-Inform Others) appear to have no direct link with health. Self-functions appear to have an important and lasting influence on physical and mental health, whereas prosocial functions may affect health by means of their role in emotional regulation.

  18. Recalling Memories Through Reminiscence Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Gürgens Gjærum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study how a reminiscence theatre production develops dramaturgically, and to discuss what impact it has on the participants who take part in the project “The aged as a resource”. The theatre performance Number Our Days is visually and verbally presented and interpreted in this article. The reader also gets an opportunity to look at film extracts from the performance in electronic form. The theoretical framing is based on a performative mindset, Ryum’s dramaturgic model, Ranciere’s view on the emancipated spectator, Turner and Behrndt’s devising theatre universe, Saldana’s ethnodrama method and Ricoeur’s perspective of the capable and relational human being who builds their own narrative identity through communication.

  19. Culture-specific links between maternal executive function, parenting, and preschool children's executive function in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Baker, Sara; Whitebread, David

    2018-06-01

    Research on the relationships between parental factors and children's executive function (EF) has been conducted mainly in Western cultures. This study provides the first empirical test, in a non-Western context, of how maternal EF and parenting behaviours relate to child EF. South Korean mothers and their preschool children (N = 95 dyads) completed EF tasks. Two aspects of parental scaffolding were observed during a puzzle task: contingency (i.e., adjusting among levels of scaffolding according to the child's ongoing evidence of understanding) and intrusiveness (i.e., directive, mother-centred interactions). Maternal EF and maternal contingency each accounted for unique variance in child EF, above and beyond child age, child language and maternal education. Maternal intrusiveness, however, was not significantly related to child EF. Additionally, no mediating role of parenting was found in the maternal and child EF link. However, child language was found to partially mediate the link between maternal contingency and child EF. These results complement prior findings by revealing distinctive patterns in the link between maternal EF, parenting behaviours, and child EF in the Korean context. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Experiential avoidance mediates the link between maternal attachment style and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwoerden, Salome; Kalpakci, Allison H; Sharp, Carla

    2015-02-01

    Theoretical and empirical models suggest a relation between attachment style and theory of mind (ToM) in childhood and adulthood; however, this link has not been evaluated to the same extent in adolescence. Additionally, these models typically fail to consider mechanisms by which attachment style affects ToM abilities. The present study sought to test a mediational model in which experiential avoidance mediates the relation between maternal attachment style and ToM. A sample of 282 adolescents (Mage=15.42years, SD=1.44, 62.8% female) was recruited from an inpatient psychiatric hospital. Findings revealed that maternal attachment style in females was related to ToM, through experiential avoidance. Specifically, those with a disorganized maternal attachment were most likely to engage in experiential avoidant cognitive and emotional strategies, which in turn related to lower levels of ToM ability. Implications and areas for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reminiscence in dementia: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Laura; Murphy, Kathy; Cooney, Adeline; Casey, Dympna; O'Shea, Eamon; Devane, Declan; Jordan, Fionnuala; Hunter, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of reminiscence in dementia and highlights its uses as a therapeutic intervention used on individuals with dementia. No single definition of reminiscence exists in healthcare literature; however, definitions offered have similar components. The term life review is commonly used when discussing reminiscence; however, both terms are quite different in their goals, theory base and content. This concept analysis identified reminiscence as a process which occurs in stages, involving the recalling of early life events and interaction between individuals. The antecedents of reminiscence are age, life transitions, attention span, ability to recall, ability to vocalise and stressful situations. Reminiscence can lead to positive mental health, enhanced self esteem and improved communication skills. It also facilitates preparation for death, increases interaction between people, prepares for the future and evaluates a past life. Reminiscence therapy is used extensively in dementia care and evidence shows when used effectively it helps individuals retain a sense of self worth, identity and individuality.

  2. Does intelligence account for the link between maternal literacy and child survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, P; Cassel, J; Sanchez, G; Coldham, C

    1997-10-01

    The strong and consistent correlation between maternal education and child health is now well known, and numerous studies have shown that wealth and income cannot explain the link. Policy-makers have therefore assumed that the relationship is causal and explicitly advocate schooling as a child health intervention. However, there are other factors which could account for the apparent effect of maternal education on child morbidity and mortality, one of which is intelligence. This paper examines the effect of maternal intelligence on child health and looks at the degree to which it can explain the literacy associations with child survival and risk of malnutrition. The data are from a retrospective cohort study of 1294 mothers and their 7475 offspring, of whom 454 were women who had learned to read and write as adults in Nicaragua's literacy programme, 457 were illiterate, and 383 had become literate as young girls attending school. The women's intelligence was tested using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. Acquisition of literacy was strongly related to intelligence. Statistically significant associations with maternal literacy were found for under five mortality, infant mortality, and the risk of low mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) for age, before and after controlling for a wide range of socio-economic factors. Under five, child (one to four years), infant and post-neonatal mortality plus the risk of low height for age were significantly correlated with intelligence, but only with infant and under mortality rates did the association remain significant after controlling for socio-economic factors. A significant interaction between intelligence and literacy for under five mortality was due to literacy having a strong effect in the women of low intelligence, and a negligible effect among those of high intelligence. This study provides evidence that intelligence is an important determinant of child health among the illiterate, and that education may have the

  3. Functions of Memory Sharing and Mother-Child Reminiscing Behaviors: Individual and Cultural Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkofsky, Sarah; Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined maternal beliefs about the functions of memory sharing and the relations between these beliefs and mother-child reminiscing behaviors in a cross-cultural context. Sixty-three European American and 47 Chinese mothers completed an open-ended questionnaire concerning their beliefs about the functions of parent-child memory…

  4. Links between maternal feeding practices and children's eating difficulties. Validation of French tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigal, Natalie; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Monnery-Patris, Sandrine

    2012-04-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to validate measures of young children's eating difficulties and maternal feeding practices in a French sample, as well as to assess the links between these practices and children's eating difficulties. Mothers (n=502) of French children aged 20-36 months completed four questionnaires that were validated using a Structural Equation Modelling approach. Links between children and maternal components were investigated using a PLS regression. The Children's Eating Difficulties Questionnaire yielded a 4-dimension solution: Neophobia, Pickiness, Low Appetite and Low Enjoyment in food. The Feeding Style Questionnaire assessed three dimensions: Authoritarian, Authoritative and Permissive Styles. The Feeding Strategy Questionnaire, designed to evaluate strategies used by mothers to make their child taste rejected foods, resulted in four factors: Coercion, Explanation, Contingency and Preference. The Questionnaire relating to Parental Motivations when buying food for children presented a 6-dimension solution: Convenience, Weight-control, Natural, Health-concern, Preference and Price. The factors associated positively with the four dimensions of the Children's Eating Difficulties Questionnaire were on the one hand Permissive Style and Practices to fulfil child's desires, and on the other hand Authoritarian Style, Contingent and Coercive Practices aimed at forcing children to taste rejected foods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting the Quality of Mother-Child Reminiscing Surrounding Negative Emotional Events at 42 and 48 Months Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have speculated that a number of factors likely predict the quality of reminiscing between preschool children and their mothers. This study was designed to investigate three such factors, including child temperament, maternal personality, and maternal caregiving representations. Seventy mothers and their preschool children were…

  6. Male homosexuality and maternal immune responsivity to the Y-linked protein NLGN4Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Skorska, Malvina N; Wang, Chao; Gabrie, José; MacNeil, Adam J; Hoffarth, Mark R; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J; Blanchard, Ray

    2018-01-09

    We conducted a direct test of an immunological explanation of the finding that gay men have a greater number of older brothers than do heterosexual men. This explanation posits that some mothers develop antibodies against a Y-linked protein important in male brain development, and that this effect becomes increasingly likely with each male gestation, altering brain structures underlying sexual orientation in their later-born sons. Immune assays targeting two Y-linked proteins important in brain development-protocadherin 11 Y-linked (PCDH11Y) and neuroligin 4 Y-linked (NLGN4Y; isoforms 1 and 2)-were developed. Plasma from mothers of sons, about half of whom had a gay son, along with additional controls (women with no sons, men) was analyzed for male protein-specific antibodies. Results indicated women had significantly higher anti-NLGN4Y levels than men. In addition, after statistically controlling for number of pregnancies, mothers of gay sons, particularly those with older brothers, had significantly higher anti-NLGN4Y levels than did the control samples of women, including mothers of heterosexual sons. The results suggest an association between a maternal immune response to NLGN4Y and subsequent sexual orientation in male offspring. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  7. Children's Executive Function Attenuate the Link Between Maternal Intrusiveness and Internalizing Behaviors at School Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueron-Sela, Noa; Bedford, Rachael; Wagner, Nicholas J; Propper, Cathi B

    2017-10-20

    The goal of this study was to examine the independent and interactive roles of harsh-intrusive maternal behaviors and children's executive function in the development of internalizing behaviors across the first years of school. A diverse sample (58% African American, 42% European American) of 137 children (48% female) was followed from kindergarten (age 5 years) through school entry (ages 6-7 years). At age 5, maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors were rated from a mother-child structured play task, and children completed 3 executive function tasks that measured inhibitory control, working memory, and attention set-shifting. Teachers reported on children's internalizing behaviors at ages 5, 6, and 7. Harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors at age 5 years were positively related to internalizing behaviors in the first years of school, whereas high executive function abilities at age 5 years were related to lower internalizing behaviors in the first years of school. In addition, executive function buffered the association between parenting behaviors and internalizing behaviors such that the link between harsh-intrusive parenting and child internalizing behaviors was evident only among children with low executive function and not among children with high executive function. Interventions that focus on reducing negative parenting behaviors and improving children's executive function may prevent internalizing behaviors from increasing during times of social and academic challenge.

  8. Elevated Plasma Corticosterone Decreases Yolk Testosterone and Progesterone in Chickens : Linking Maternal Stress and Hormone-Mediated Maternal Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksen, Rie; Groothuis, Ton G.; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Bartell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress

  9. Microglia, the missing link in maternal immune activation and fetal neurodevelopment; and a possible link in preeclampsia and disturbed neurodevelopment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Jelmer R; Eskandar, Sharon; Eggen, Bart J L; Scherjon, Sicco A

    Disturbances in fetal neurodevelopment have extensively been related to neurodevelopmental disorders in early and later life. Fetal neurodevelopment is dependent on adequate functioning of the fetal immune system. During pregnancy, the maternal immune system is challenged to both tolerate the

  10. Nostalgic Reminiscences | Elimimian | Lwati: A Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The theme of the past and the present, or the now and then -- however we may like to re-phrase it -- is a dominant motif in Leopold Sedar Senghor's poetic art. Often and then in our life, we have moments of reflections or nostalgic reminiscences in which we compare and contrast in our mind situations or circumstances by ...

  11. Reminiscences by Dr. I.I. Rabi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabi, I.I.

    1973-01-01

    Dr. I.I. Rabi, Professor of Physics, Columbia University, Nobel Laureate, adviser to presidents and an original member of the scientific advisory committees both of the United Nations and the IAEA, delivered the following address at the Salazar Atomic Centre, Mexico, in October 1972 he spoke on 'reminiscences from scientific advisory services to governments and international organizations'. (author)

  12. Reminiscence bump in memory for public events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.M.J.; Murre, J.M.J.; Meeter, M.

    2008-01-01

    People tend to recall more personal events from adolescence and early adulthood than from other lifetime periods. Most evidence suggests that differential encoding causes this reminiscence bump. However, the question why personal events are encoded better in those periods is still unanswered. To

  13. Medial prefrontal cortex: genes linked to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have altered expression in the highly social maternal phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Eisinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition to motherhood involves CNS changes that modify sociability and affective state. However, these changes also put females at risk for postpartum depression and psychosis, which impairs parenting abilities and adversely affects children. Thus, changes in expression and interactions in a core subset of genes may be critical for emergence of a healthy maternal phenotype, but inappropriate changes of the same genes could put women at risk for postpartum disorders. This study evaluated microarray gene expression changes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, a region implicated in both maternal behavior and psychiatric disorders. Postpartum mice were compared to virgin controls housed with females and isolated for identical durations. Using the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET, we found that the genetic landscape of maternal mPFC bears statistical similarity to gene databases associated with schizophrenia (5 of 5 sets and bipolar disorder (BPD, 3 of 3 sets. In contrast to previous studies of maternal lateral septum and medial preoptic area, enrichment of autism and depression-linked genes was not significant (2 of 9 sets, 0 of 4 sets. Among genes linked to multiple disorders were fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7, glutamate metabotropic receptor 3 (Grm3, platelet derived growth factor, beta polypeptide (Pdgfrb, and nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Nr1d1. RT-qPCR confirmed these gene changes as well as FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1 and proenkephalin (Penk. Systems-level methods revealed involvement of developmental gene networks in establishing the maternal phenotype and indirectly suggested a role for numerous microRNAs and transcription factors in mediating expression changes. Together, this study suggests that a subset of genes involved in shaping the healthy maternal brain may also be dysregulated in mental health disorders and put females at risk for postpartum psychosis with aspects of schizophrenia and BPD.

  14. Training Mothers in Elaborative Reminiscing Enhances Children's Autobiographical Memory and Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Elaine; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal intervention assessed children's memory at 2-1/2 years (short-term posttest; N = 115) and their memory and narrative at 3-1/2 years (long-term posttest; N = 100) as a function of maternal training in elaborative reminiscing when children were 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 years. At both posttests, trained mothers were more elaborative in their…

  15. Mother-child reminiscing and autobiographical memory specificity among preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G; Piper, Brianna; Thomas, Taylor E; Fanuele, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall is more commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared with those without. Despite significant advances in theory and identification of mechanisms that underlie the etiology of OGM, there has been little integration between normative research on the development of autobiographical memory and research on OGM. Informed by a developmental psychopathology perspective and drawing on normative developmental research on the social construction of autobiographical memory, the current investigation examined whether the elaborative quantity and elaborative quality of maternal reminiscing are predictive of preschool-age children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, this investigation tested whether children's positive self-representations may explain these hypothesized associations. Participants consisted of 95 mother-child dyads. Children's ages ranged between 3.5 and 6 years, and the sample was predominantly low income and of minority race/ethnicity. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about 4 past events, and children participated in assessments of autobiographical memory specificity and self-representations. Results indicated that the elaborative quality, defined by maternal-sensitive guidance and emotional narrative coherence, but not the elaborative quantity, of maternal reminiscing style was significantly associated with children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between maternal reminiscing quality and child memory specificity through children's positive self-representations. Directions for future research are discussed, and potential clinical implications are addressed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A; Allen, Joseph P; Hafen, Christopher A; Hessel, Elenda T; Szwedo, David E; Spilker, Ann

    2014-05-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior.

  17. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. PMID:25328265

  18. The Link Between Daycare Experience and Attitudes Toward Daycare and Maternal Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpancer, Noam; Bennett-Murphy, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Participants (n = 308; mean age = 20 years) completed questionnaires about their history, attitudes, and expectations regarding childcare, maternal employment and future parenting. Participants who experienced non-parental care as children had more favorable attitudes toward such care and toward maternal employment than did home-reared…

  19. Reminiscences a journey through particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Melissinos, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    A personal recount in areas of particle physics and related fields as a research physicist for over 50 years, Adrian Melissinos' insights into the ways that general research was carried out, as well as the evolution of particle physics from 1958 to 2008 will prove valuable to science history enthusiasts, as well as particle physicists. Be it conventional accelerator experiments, the use of microwave techniques in search of cosmic axions, or taking advantage of high power lasers to observe light-by-light scattering, the excitement of searching for something new in the face of failures and then successes is enriching, and the collaboration with gifted and outstanding colleagues and students proves insightful. A hybrid of personal reminiscences and a professional journey, readers get to relive the joy and excitement of researching and teaching in small groups during those early years while gaining a partial historical perspective of particle physics since 1958 - all in "Reminiscences: A Journey through Particle ...

  20. A Summary of Pathways or Mechanisms Linking Preconception Maternal Nutrition with Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Janet C

    2016-07-01

    Population, human, animal, tissue, and molecular studies show collectively and consistently that maternal nutrition in the pre- or periconception period influences fetal growth and development, which subsequently affects the individual's long-term health. It is known that nutrition during pregnancy is an important determinant of the offspring's growth and health. However, now there is evidence that the mother's nutritional status at conception also influences pregnancy outcome and long-term health. For example, the mother's nutritional status at conception influences the way energy is partitioned between maternal and fetal needs. Furthermore, placental development during the first weeks of gestation reflects maternal nutrition and establishes mechanisms for balancing maternal and fetal nutritional needs. Also, maternal nutritional signals at fertilization influence epigenetic remodeling of fetal genes. These findings all indicate that maternal parenting begins before conception. The following papers from a symposium on preconception nutrition presented at the 2015 Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting of the ASN emphasize the importance of maternal nutrition at conception on the growth and long-term health of the child. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Re-examining the link between prenatal maternal anxiety and child emotional difficulties, using a sibling design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkhus, Mona; Lee, Yunsung; Nordhagen, Rannveig; Magnus, Per; Samuelsen, Sven O; Borge, Anne I H

    2018-02-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal anxiety has been associated with child emotional difficulties in a number of epidemiological studies. One key concern, however, is that this link is vulnerable to confounding by pleiotropic genes or environmental family factors. Data on 82 383 mothers and children from the population-based Mother and Child Cohort Study and data on 21 980 siblings were used in this study. Mothers filled out questionnaires for each unique pregnancy, for infant difficulties at 6 months and for emotional difficulties at 36 months. The link between prenatal maternal anxiety and child difficulties were examined using logistic regression analyses and multiple linear regression analyses for the full study sample and the sibling sample. In the conventional full-cohort analyses, prenatal exposure to maternal anxiety was associated with child difficulties at both 6 months [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1 (1.94-2.27)] and 36 months [OR = 2.72 (2.47-2.99)]. The findings were essentially the same whether we examined difficulties at 6 months or at 36 months. However, these associations were no longer present once we controlled for potential social and genetic confounders in the sibling comparison analyses, either at 6 months [OR = 1.32 (0.91-1.90)] or at 36 months [OR = 1.28 (0.63-2.60)]. Findings from multiple regression analyses with continuous measures were essentially the same. Our finding lends little support for there being an independent prenatal effect on child emotional difficulties; rather, our findings suggest that the link between prenatal maternal anxiety and child difficulties could be confounded by pleiotropic genes or environmental family factors. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  2. Maternal Depression Mediates the Link Between Therapeutic Alliance and Improvements in Adolescent Externalizing Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granic, I.; Otten, R.; Blokland, K.; Solomon, T.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Ferguson, B.

    2012-01-01

    The current study: (1) examined the relation between therapeutic alliance and changes in adolescent externalizing behavior in Multisystemic Therapy; (2) tested whether maternal depression mediates this relation; and (3) determined whether mothers' and clinicians' perceptions of the alliance

  3. Attachment quality of children with ID and its link to maternal sensitivity and structuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feniger-Schaal, Rinat; Joels, Tirtsa

    2018-05-01

    Attachment theory produced a fertile field of research and clinical application. Although the topic of attachment of children with intellectual disability (ID) has received increasing research attention over the past 15 years, the empirical evidence is still limited. We applied theoretical and empirical knowledge of parenting typically developing children to examine the mother-child relationship in the ID population. The aim was to examine maternal sensitivity and structuring and its association with children's attachment classification and their disability. Forty preschool children (mean age 47.25, range 26-75 months) with non-specific ID and their mothers participated in the study. The mean developmental age was 25.92 months (SD = 10.89), The DQ mean score was 55.45 (SD = 17.28). We assessed children's quality of attachment using the SSP and maternal interactive behavior using the Emotional Availability Scales. Forty percent of children showed secure attachment, and 32.5% showed disorganized attachment. Attachment classifications correlated significantly with maternal sensitivity and maternal structuring but not with the child's cognitive disability. The results point to the importance of maternal interactive behavior for children with ID. Clinical implication may consider interventions aiming to enhance maternal sensitivity and structuring to improve children's quality of attachment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Don't fret, be supportive! maternal characteristics linking child shyness to psychosocial and school adjustment in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Robert J; Arbeau, Kimberley A; Armer, Mandana

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the moderating role of maternal personality and parenting characteristics in the links between shyness and adjustment in kindergarten. Participants were 197 children enrolled in kindergarten programs (and their mothers and teachers). Multisource assessment was employed, including maternal ratings, behavioral observations, teacher ratings, and individual child interviews. Results indicated that shyness was associated with a wide range of socio-emotional and school adjustment difficulties in kindergarten. Moreover, support for the moderating role of parenting was also found. Relations between shyness and certain indices of maladjustment were stronger among children with mothers characterized by higher neuroticism, BIS sensitivity, and an overprotective parenting style, and weaker for mothers characterized by high agree-ableness and an authoritative parenting style.

  5. Functions of reminiscence and the psychological well-being of young-old and older adults over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Norm; Cappeliez, Philippe; Claxton, Amy

    2011-03-01

    Existing cross-sectional research demonstrates an association between reminiscence functions and well-being in later life. The results of this study replicate and extend previous findings in separate participant samples above and below 70 years of age. Findings suggest a link between reminiscence functions and psychological well-being, and indirectly between reminiscence and well-being 16 months thereafter. Invariance analyses reveal few differences in association between reminiscence and well-being when young-old (n = 196) and older adults (n = 215) are compared. These findings suggest a direct positive association between self-positive reminiscence functions (identity, death preparation, and problem-solving) and a direct negative association between self-negative functions (boredom reduction, bitterness revival, and intimacy maintenance) and psychological well-being (life satisfaction, depressive, and anxiety symptoms). In contrast, prosocial reminiscence functions (conversation, teach/inform others) appear to have an indirect association with well-being (i.e., via self-positive and self-negative functions). These findings are discussed relative to evolving theory and research linking cognition and health.

  6. Linking data sources for measurement of effective coverage in maternal and newborn health: what do we learn from individual- vs ecological-linking methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Barbara; Waiswa, Peter; Kajjo, Darious; Munos, Melinda; Akuze, Joseph; Allen, Elizabeth; Marchant, Tanya

    2018-06-01

    Improving maternal and newborn health requires improvements in the quality of facility-based care. This is challenging to measure: routine data may be unreliable; respondents in population surveys may be unable to accurately report on quality indicators; and facility assessments lack population level denominators. We explored methods for linking access to skilled birth attendance (SBA) from household surveys to data on provision of care from facility surveys with the aim of estimating population level effective coverage reflecting access to quality care. We used data from Mayuge District, Uganda. Data from household surveys on access to SBA were linked to health facility assessment census data on readiness to provide basic emergency obstetric and newborn care (BEmONC) in the same district. One individual- and two ecological-linking methods were applied. All methods used household survey reports on where care at birth was accessed. The individual-linking method linked this to data about facility readiness from the specific facility where each woman delivered. The first ecological-linking approach used a district-wide mean estimate of facility readiness. The second used an estimate of facility readiness adjusted by level of health facility accessed. Absolute differences between estimates derived from the different linking methods were calculated, and agreement examined using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. A total of 1177 women resident in Mayuge reported a birth during 2012-13. Of these, 664 took place in facilities within Mayuge, and were eligible for linking to the census of the district's 38 facilities. 55% were assisted by a SBA in a facility. Using the individual-linking method, effective coverage of births that took place with an SBA in a facility ready to provide BEmONC was just 10% (95% confidence interval CI 3-17). The absolute difference between the individual- and ecological-level linking method adjusting for facility level was one percentage

  7. Recent advances in understanding the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Rubin, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The reminiscence bump is the increased proportion of autobiographical memories from youth and early adulthood observed in adults over 40. It is one of the most robust findings in autobiographical-memory research. Although described as a single period from which there are more memories, a recent...... meta-analysis that reported the beginning and ending ages of the bump from individual studies found that different classes of cues produce distinct bumps that vary in size and temporal location. The bump obtained in response to cue words is both smaller and located earlier in the life span than...

  8. Review: Adiponectin – The Missing Link between Maternal Adiposity, Placental Transport and Fetal Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L. M. H.; Powell, Theresa L.; Jansson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin has well-established insulin-sensitizing effects in non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant women who are obese or have gestational diabetes typically have low circulating levels of adiponectin, which is associated with increased fetal growth. Lean women, on the other hand, have high circulating levels of adiponectin. As a result, maternal serum adiponectin is inversely correlated to fetal growth across the full range of birth weights, suggesting that maternal adiponectin may limit fetal growth. In the mother, adiponectin is predicted to promote insulin sensitivity and stimulate glucose uptake in maternal skeletal muscle thereby reducing nutrient availability for placental transfer. Adiponectin prevents insulin-stimulated amino acid uptake in cultured primary human trophoblast cells by modulating insulin receptor substrate phosphorylation. Furthermore, chronic administration of adiponectin to pregnant mice inhibits placental insulin and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, down-regulates the activity and expression of key placental nutrient transporters and decreases fetal growth. Preliminary findings indicate that adiponectin binds to the adiponectin receptor-2 on the trophoblast cell and activates p38 MAPK and PPAR-α, which inhibits the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway. In contrast to maternal adiponectin, recent reports suggest that fetal adiponectin may promote expansion of adipose tissue and stimulate fetal growth. Regulation of placental function by adiponectin constitutes a novel physiological mechanism by which the endocrine functions of maternal adipose tissue influence fetal growth. These findings may help us better understand the factors determining birth weight in normal pregnancies and in pregnancy complications associated with altered maternal adiponectin levels such as obesity and gestational diabetes. PMID:23245987

  9. Cascading reminiscence bumps in popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, Carol Lynne; Zupnick, Justin Adam

    2013-10-01

    Autobiographical memories are disproportionately recalled for events in late adolescence and early adulthood, a phenomenon called the reminiscence bump. Previous studies on music have found autobiographical memories and life-long preferences for music from this period. In the present study, we probed young adults' personal memories associated with top hits over 5-and-a-half decades, as well as the context of their memories and their recognition of, preference for, quality judgments of, and emotional reactions to that music. All these measures showed the typical increase for music released during the two decades of their lives. Unexpectedly, we found that the same measures peaked for the music of participants' parents' generation. This finding points to the impact of music in childhood and suggests that these results reflect the prevalence of music in the home environment. An earlier peak occurred for 1960s music, which may be explained by its quality or by its transmission through two generations. We refer to this pattern of musical cultural transmission over generations as cascading reminiscence bumps.

  10. Children's Disclosure and Secrecy: Links to Maternal Parenting Characteristics and Children's Coping Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almas, Alisa N.; Grusec, Joan E.; Tackett, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The relations between maternal parenting characteristics, child disclosure and secrecy, and child outcomes (positive and negative strategies for coping with distress), were examined in a study of 140 children (10-12-year-olds) and their mothers. Child disclosure and secrecy were shown to be distinct but related constructs with authoritativeness…

  11. Depressive symptoms in adolescence : Longitudinal links with maternal empathy and psychological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Lente L. A. A.; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, Susan J. T.

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers'

  12. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, L.A.A.; van der Graaff, J.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, S.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/ S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms, through mothers’

  13. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions: Longitudinal links to adolescent disclosure and maternal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Giessen, D.; Branje, S.; Keijsers, L.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relations of emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions in early adolescence with adolescent disclosure and maternal control in early and late adolescence. Data were used from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (M age T1 = 13.05; 65.20% boys)

  14. International health policy and stagnating maternal mortality: is there a causal link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jean-Pierre; Van Dessel, Patrick; Sen, Kasturi; De Paepe, Pierre

    2009-05-01

    This paper examines why progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 on maternal health appears to have stagnated in much of the global south. We contend that besides the widely recognised existence of weak health systems, including weak services, low staffing levels, managerial weaknesses, and lack of infrastructure and information, this stagnation relates to the inability of most countries to meet two essential conditions: to develop access to publicly funded, comprehensive health care, and to provide the not-for-profit sector with needed political, technical and financial support. This paper offers a critical perspective on the past 15 years of international health policies as a possible cofactor of high maternal mortality, because of their emphasis on disease control in public health services at the expense of access to comprehensive health care, and failures of contracting out and public-private partnerships in health care. Health care delivery cannot be an issue both of trade and of right. Without policies to make health systems in the global south more publicly-oriented and accountable, the current standards of maternal and child health care are likely to remain poor, and maternal deaths will continue to affect women and their families at an intolerably high level.

  15. Community-Based Cause of Death Study Linked to Maternal and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While Ethiopia has successfully reduced under-five childhood mortality, there have been slower gains in reducing neonatal (newborn) and maternal mortality rates. About 220,000 children and mothers die every year in Ethiopia. For most, the causes of death are unknown as fewer than 30% of Ethiopia's births and deaths ...

  16. Verbal responses, depressive symptoms, reminiscence functions and cognitive emotion regulation in older women receiving individual reminiscence therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongmei; Chen, Taolin; Yang, Hao; Gong, Qiyong; Hu, Xiuying

    2018-07-01

    To examine the effectiveness of individual reminiscence therapy in community-dwelling older women with depressive symptoms and to explore the characteristics of participants' verbalisation in the process. Previous studies have found reminiscence was related to depression and anxiety. Although reminiscence therapy is widely used to reduce depression, little is known about how it works, and the content of verbalisations might provide one explanation. The study employed a one-group pretest-post-test design. Twenty-seven participants underwent 6-week interventions of individual reminiscence therapy at home that were conducted by one nurse and induced through seeing old photographs. The Geriatric Depression Scale, Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, Reminiscence Functions Scale and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire were used to measure the emotional states, reminiscence functions and cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Participants' verbalisations were categorised using the Client Behavior System. Reminiscence therapy relieved depression and anxiety. Both the reminiscence function and cognitive emotion regulation became more favourable after interventions. Furthermore, higher frequencies of recounting, cognitive-behavioural exploration and affective exploration were noted in the process. Participants with more severe depressive symptoms tended to display a higher frequency of affective exploration. The reduction in depression, self-negative reminiscence and negative-focused emotion regulation were respectively associated with verbalisations. Individual reminiscence therapy might relieve negative emotion and improve reminiscence function and cognitive emotion regulation. The participants' verbalisation is worthy of our attention, due to its correlation with the severity of depression and its mitigating effects on the depression, anxiety, self-negative reminiscence and negative-focused regulation in older women. The results contribute to our understanding of

  17. A link between maternal malnutrition and depletion of glutathione in the developing lens: a possible explanation for idiopathic childhood cataract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepa; Lim, Julie C; Donaldson, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    Lens cataract is the leading cause of blindness in developing countries. While cataract is primarily a disease of old age and is relatively rare in children, accounting for only four per cent of global blindness, childhood cataract is responsible for a third of the economic cost of blindness. While many of the causes of cataract in children are known, over half of childhood cataracts are idiopathic with no known cause. The incidence of idiopathic cataract is highest in developing countries and studies have discovered that low birth weight is a risk factor in the development of idiopathic childhood cataract. As low birth weight is a reflection of poor foetal growth, it is possible that maternal malnutrition, which is endemic in some developing countries, results in the altered physiology of the foetal lens. We have conducted a review of the literature that provides evidence for a link between maternal malnutrition, low birth weight and the development of childhood cataract. Using our accumulated knowledge on the pathways that deliver nutrients to the adult lens, we propose a cellular mechanism, by which oxidative stress caused by maternal malnutrition affects the development of antioxidant defence pathways in the embryonic lens, leading to an accelerated onset of nuclear cataract in childhood. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  18. Quantifying maternal incarceration: a whole-population linked data study of Western Australian children born 1985-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Caitlin M; Preen, David B; Segal, Leonie

    2016-11-20

    To measure the prevalence of children affected by maternal incarceration in Western Australia (WA). Using linked administrative data we identified all children born in WA between 1985 and 2011, whose biological mother was imprisoned during their childhood. Data was obtained through the WA Data Linkage Branch from the Department of Corrective Services, Midwives Notifications System and Birth Registrations data collections. Descriptive characteristics of the children (n=9,352) and their mothers (n=3,827) are reported. Prevalence was measured in two-ways, the proportion of children ever affected in childhood and affected annually. Childhood prevalence of maternal incarceration was 26-times higher (95%CI 23.9-28.2) for Indigenous children born 1992-1996 with 18.8% Indigenous children and 0.7% non-Indigenous children affected while aged 0-17 years. On average 1,544 children were affected each year across 2003-2011, at rates of 2,929 per 100,000 Indigenous children and 108 per 100,000 non-Indigenous children. The findings present the first census of children affected by maternal incarceration within an Australian State and identify a large disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Implications for Public Health: This study highlights the importance of formal consideration of children of women prisoners in the development of criminal justice policies and practices. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  19. Maternal hemodynamics early in labor: a possible link with obstetric risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valensise, H; Tiralongo, G M; Pisani, I; Farsetti, D; Lo Presti, D; Gagliardi, G; Basile, M R; Novelli, G P; Vasapollo, B

    2018-04-01

    To determine if hemodynamic assessment in 'low-risk' pregnant women at term with an appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) fetus can improve the identification of patients who will suffer maternal or fetal/neonatal complications during labor. This was a prospective observational study of 77 women with low-risk term pregnancy and AGA fetus, in the early stages of labor. Hemodynamic indices were obtained using the UltraSonic Cardiac Output Monitor (USCOM ® ) system. Patients were followed until the end of labor to identify fetal/neonatal and maternal outcomes, and those which developed complications of labor were compared with those delivering without complications. Eleven (14.3%) patients had a complication during labor: in seven there was fetal distress and in four there were maternal complications (postpartum hemorrhage and/or uterine atony). Patients who developed complications during labor had lower cardiac output (5.6 ± 1.0 vs 6.7 ± 1.3 L/min, P = 0.01) and cardiac index (3.1 ± 0.6 vs 3.5 ± 0.7 L/min/m 2 , P = 0.04), and higher total vascular resistance (1195.3 ± 205.3 vs 1017.8 ± 225.6 dynes × s/cm 5 , P = 0.017) early in labor, compared with those who did not develop complications. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis to determine cut-offs showed cardiac output ≤ 5.8 L/min (sensitivity, 81.8%; specificity, 69.7%), cardiac index ≤ 2.9 L/min/m 2 (sensitivity, 63.6%; specificity, 76.9%) and total vascular resistance > 1069 dynes × s/cm 5 (sensitivity, 81.8%; specificity, 63.6%) to best predict maternal or fetal/neonatal complications. The study of maternal cardiovascular adaptation at the end of pregnancy could help to identify low-risk patients who may develop complications during labor. In particular, low cardiac output and high total vascular resistance are apparently associated with higher risk of fetal distress or maternal complications. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley

  20. Low estriol levels in the maternal marker screen as a predictor of X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durković Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC is a rare cause of adrenocortical insufficiency. Early postnatal diagnosis may prevent severe hypoglycemia, Addisonian crises and death. Low maternal estriol (E3 levels in the second trimester of pregnancy could indicate the possibility that the fetus suffers from a disorder that causes adrenal insufficiency. Suspicion is based on the fact that E3 originates from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA synthesized in the fetal adrenals. In case of adrenal insufficiency, the impaired production of fetal DHEA leads to a subsequent reduction of E3 concentrations in maternal serum. There are only a few reports of AHC suspected prenatally due to low maternal E3 levels. Case Outline. We describe two brothers with adrenal insufficiency due to AHC. The older brother was admitted to the hospital at the age of 33 days due to failure to thrive, vomiting, and dehydration. Genetic analysis revealed a hemizygous mutation in DAX-1 gene, thus confirming the diagnosis of ACH. The same mutation was detected in his mother. In the second pregnancy, E3 concentrations were determined from maternal serum. Estriol levels during the second trimester were extremely low suggesting the diagnosis of AHC. The diagnosis was confirmed during the neonatal period by genetic testing, and replacement therapy was started at the age of 10 days. This boy never experienced an adverse episode such as hypoglycemia or adrenal crises. Conclusion. Since determination of E3 is a simple, sensitive, noninvasive and cheap method, its use as an obligatory prenatal screening test should be accepted as a standard practice in Serbia.

  1. A Summary of Pathways or Mechanisms Linking Preconception Maternal Nutrition with Birth Outcomes123

    OpenAIRE

    King, Janet C

    2016-01-01

    Population, human, animal, tissue, and molecular studies show collectively and consistently that maternal nutrition in the pre- or periconception period influences fetal growth and development, which subsequently affects the individual?s long-term health. It is known that nutrition during pregnancy is an important determinant of the offspring?s growth and health. However, now there is evidence that the mother?s nutritional status at conception also influences pregnancy outcome and long-term h...

  2. The placental problem: Linking abnormal cytotrophoblast differentiation to the maternal symptoms of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Susan J

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The placenta is a remarkable organ. In normal pregnancy its specialized cells (termed cytotrophoblasts differentiate into various specialized subpopulations that play pivotal roles in governing fetal growth and development. One cytotrophoblast subset acquires tumor-like properties that allow the cells to invade the decidua and myometrium, a process that attaches the placenta to the uterus. The same subset also adopts a vascular phenotype that allows these fetal cells to breach and subsequently line uterine blood vessels, a process that channels maternal blood to the rest of the placenta. In the pregnancy complication preeclampsia, which is characterized by the sudden onset of maternal hypertension, proteinuria and edema, cytotrophoblast invasion is shallow and vascular transformation incomplete. These findings, together with very recent evidence from animal models, suggest that preeclampsia is associated with abnormal placental production of vasculogenic/angiogenic substances that reach the maternal circulation with the potential to produce at least a subset of the clinical signs of this syndrome. The current challenge is to build on this knowledge to design clinically useful tests for predicting, diagnosing and treating this dangerous disorder.

  3. Anamnesis of the radioimmunoassay: A historical reminiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallee, E

    1984-01-27

    Anamnesis of the Radioimmunoassay - A Historical Reminiscence: Several requirements have to be met before the first radioimmunoassay of a proteohormone (i.e., insulin) could be developed. One of these requirements was that iodination ought not substantially impair the immunologic properties of the insulin molecule. Since the reversibility of antigen adsorption to antibodies is the most important basis of all immunoassays, the adsorptive behavior of proteins first had to be studied at extremely low protein concentrations. Only after these requirements had been investigated was direct electrophoretic detection of a nonprecipitating anti-hormone antibody possible by desorption of insulin on filter paper. Later, the inaccuracy of the species specificity of insulin-binding antibodies proved to be particularly useful for the determination of insulin in human sera.

  4. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Lente L A A; der Graaff, Jolien Van; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T

    2016-08-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 , 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents' need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in turn predict adolescents' depressive symptoms. Moreover, according to interpersonal theory of depression (Coyne in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186-193. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.85.2.186 , 1976), adolescents' depressive symptoms may elicit rejecting responses, such as mothers' psychological control. For six waves, 497 adolescents (57 % boys, M age T1 = 13.03) annually completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control, while mothers reported on their empathy. Cross-lagged path analyses showed that throughout adolescence, both mothers' affective and cognitive empathy indirectly predicted boys' and girls' depressive symptoms, through psychological control. Additionally, depressive symptoms predicted psychological control for boys, and early adolescent girls. These results highlight the importance of (1) mothers' affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (2) taking gender into account when examining adolescent-effects.

  5. Interrelations of maternal expressed emotion, maltreatment, and separation/divorce and links to family conflict and children's externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-02-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children's externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children's externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2 % males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children's externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children's externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. Key Words: expressed emotion, EE-Crit, Five-Minute Speech Sample; maltreatment, divorce

  6. Sticking out and fitting in: culture-specific predictors of 3-year-olds' autobiographical memories during joint reminiscing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Lisa; Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi; Chaudhary, Nandita

    2012-12-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between mother-child interaction styles with 19 months and children's autobiographical memory with 3 years of age in two cultural contexts: New Delhi, India (n = 25) and Berlin, Germany (n = 33). Results demonstrate similarities as well as culture specificities. In both contexts, maternal elaborations during reminiscing were related to children's memory contributions. Over time, maternal support for toddlers' self-expression during free play at 19 months predicted their children's memory elaborations at 3 years in the Berlin context. In the Delhi context, toddlers' willingness to carry out their mothers' requests at 19 months predicted their memory elaborations at 3 years. These results suggest different motivational bases underlying children's autobiographical memory contributions during mother-child reminiscing related to different cultural orientations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving Information on Maternal Medication Use by Linking Prescription Data to Congenital Anomaly Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jonge, Linda; Garne, Ester; Gini, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Research on associations between medication use during pregnancy and congenital anomalies is significative for assessing the safe use of a medicine in pregnancy. Congenital anomaly (CA) registries do not have optimal information on medicine exposure, in contrast to prescription...... databases. Linkage of prescription databases to the CA registries is a potentially effective method of obtaining accurate information on medicine use in pregnancies and the risk of congenital anomalies. METHODS: We linked data from primary care and prescription databases to five European Surveillance...... of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) CA registries. The linkage was evaluated by looking at linkage rate, characteristics of linked and non-linked cases, first trimester exposure rates for six groups of medicines according to the prescription data and information on medication use registered in the CA databases...

  8. Reminiscence and mental health: a review of recent progress in theory, research and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Webster, Jeffrey Dean; Webster, Jeffrey Dean

    2010-01-01

    This article explores recent progress in theory, research and practical applications of reminiscence. It first describes the evidence for reminiscence as a naturally occurring process, and discusses the different functions of reminiscence and their relationships with mental health and lifespan

  9. The link between maternal sleep and permissive parenting during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kelly M; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Buckhalt, Joseph A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2018-03-05

    Utilizing a multi-method design, the present study examined the association between maternal sleep, assessed via actigraphy and self-reports, and permissive parenting (e.g. lax, inconsistent discipline) during adolescence, as well as the extent to which this association differed by mothers' race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The sample was comprised of 234 mothers (M age = 41.76 years, SD = 6.25; 67% European-American, 31% African-American, 2% other race/ethnicities) and 237 adolescents (113 boys, 124 girls; M age = 15.80 years, SD = 0.80; 66% European-American, 34% African-American). Mothers' sleep duration (actual sleep minutes) and quality (sleep efficiency, latency, long wake episodes) were assessed using actigraphy. Mothers also reported on their sleep problems and adolescents reported on mothers' permissive parenting behaviours. Results revealed that actigraphy-based longer sleep duration and shorter sleep latency were associated with lower levels of permissive parenting. Further, mothers' race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status moderated the association between actigraphy-based sleep quality (i.e. sleep efficiency, long wake episodes) and permissive parenting. Specifically, a negative association between sleep efficiency and permissive parenting was evident only for African-American mothers. In addition, a positive association between more frequent night wakings and permissive parenting was evident only for mothers from lower socioeconomic status households. The findings highlight the benefits of longer and higher-quality sleep for reducing the risk of permissive parenting, especially among ethnic minority mothers and mothers from lower socioeconomic status households. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Effects of a reminiscence program among institutionalized elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-Moral, Juan Carlos; Charco-Ruiz, Laura; Mayordomo-Rodríguez, Teresa; Sales-Galán, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Institutionalization during old age requires tremendous adaptability. Among the main consequences of the difficulty of adapting to the institutional context are prevalent depressive symptoms and low well-being. Reminiscence therapy has proven to be among the most effective at minimizing these outcomes. This study purpose was to investigate the usefulness of reminiscence intervention in an elderly, institutionalized sample. Following a group format, the intervention lasted eight sessions and compared a treatment group and a control group, using pre-post measures and a single-blind design. We predicted that reminiscence intervention would have a positive impact on depressive symptoms, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being. Significant results were obtained, including a drop in depressive symptoms and improved self-esteem, satisfaction, and psychological well-being. We conclude that reminiscence intervention yielded positive effects in institutionalized, elderly participants.

  11. Maternal and paternal parenting styles: unique and combined links to adolescent and early adult delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H; Smeenk, Wilma

    2011-10-01

    The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and mothers were linked to delinquency. A significant parenting style by sex interaction was found: neglectful parenting was related to higher levels of delinquency in males and permissive parenting was linked to delinquency in females. A long term relationship was found between fathers' neglectful parenting style and delinquency in males. Furthermore, results revealed that levels of delinquency were the lowest in families with at least one authoritative parent and highest in families with two neglectful parents, indicating that the level of delinquency was dependent on the combination of mother's and father's parenting styles. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An enzyme-linked immuno-filtration assay used to compare infant and maternal antibody profiles in toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinon, J M; Thoannes, H; Gruson, N

    1985-02-28

    Enzyme-linked immuno-filtration assay is carried out on a micropore membrane. This doubly analytical technique permits simultaneous study of antibody specificity by immunoprecipitation and characterisation of antibody isotypes by immuno-filtration with enzyme-labelled antibodies. Recognition of the same T. gondii antigenic constituent by IgG, IgA, IgM or IgE antibodies produces couplets (IgG-IgM; IgG-IgA) or triplets (IgG-IgM-IgA; IgG-IgM-IgE) which identify the functional fractions of the toxoplasmosis antigen. In acquired toxoplasmosis, the persistence of IgM antibody long after infestation puts in question the implication of recent infestation normally linked to detection of this isotype. For sera of comparable titres, comparison of immunological profiles by the method described demonstrates disparities in the composition of the specific antibody content as expressed in international units. Use of the same method to detect IgM antibodies or distinguish between transmitted maternal IgG and IgG antibodies synthesised by the foetus or neonate makes a diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis possible in 85% of cases during the first few days of life. With the method described the diagnosis may be made on average 5 months earlier than with classical techniques. In the course of surveillance for latent congenital toxoplasmosis, the appearance of IgM or IgE antibodies raises the possibility of complications (hydrocephalus, chorioretinitis). After cessation of treatment, a rise in IgG antibodies indicating persistence of infection is detected earlier by the present than by classical methods.

  13. Public and private maternal health service capacity and patient flows in Southern Tanzania: using a geographic information system to link hospital and national census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, Patrik; Henke, Stefanie; Sušac, Katharina; Kisanga, Oberlin M E; Baumgarten, Inge; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Ramroth, Heribert; Marx, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to improve maternal health in low-income countries are increasingly embracing partnership approaches between public and private stakeholders in health. In Tanzania, such partnerships are a declared policy goal. However, implementation remains challenging as unfamiliarity between partners and insufficient recognition of private health providers prevail. This hinders cooperation and reflects the need to improve the evidence base of private sector contribution. To map and analyse the capacities of public and private hospitals to provide maternal health care in southern Tanzania and the population reached with these services. A hospital questionnaire was applied in all 16 hospitals (public n=10; private faith-based n=6) in 12 districts of southern Tanzania. Areas of inquiry included selected maternal health service indicators (human resources, maternity/delivery beds), provider-fees for obstetric services and patient turnover (antenatal care, births). Spatial information was linked to the 2002 Population Census dataset and a geographic information system to map patient flows and socio-geographic characteristics of service recipients. The contribution of faith-based organizations (FBOs) to hospital maternal health services is substantial. FBO hospitals are primarily located in rural areas and their patient composition places a higher emphasis on rural populations. Also, maternal health service capacity was more favourable in FBO hospitals. We approximated that 19.9% of deliveries in the study area were performed in hospitals and that the proportion of c-sections was 2.7%. Mapping of patient flows demonstrated that women often travelled far to seek hospital care and where catchment areas of public and FBO hospitals overlap. We conclude that the important contribution of FBOs to maternal health services and capacity as well as their emphasis on serving rural populations makes them promising partners in health programming. Inclusive partnerships could increase

  14. What can child silhouette data tell us? Exploring links to parenting, food and activity behaviors, and maternal concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: A study of resiliency to overweight explored how child silhouettes (maternal perception of child’s body size) related to child BMI, maternal concerns, parenting styles and practices. Methods: In a diverse, multi-state sample, 175 low-income mother-child (ages 3-11) dyads were assessed for...

  15. Children’s Perceptions of Maternal Hostility as a Mediator of the Link between Discipline and Children’s Adjustment in Four Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Chang, Lei; Chaudhary, Nandita; Tapanya, Sombat; Oburu, Paul; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2010-01-01

    Using data from 195 dyads of mothers and children (age range = 8–12 years; M = 10.63) in four countries (China, India, the Philippines, and Thailand), this study examined children’s perceptions of maternal hostility as a mediator of the links between physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline and children’s adjustment. Both physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline had direct effects on mothers’ reports of children’s anxiety and aggression; three of these four links were mediated by children’s perceptions of maternal hostility. In contrast, there were no significant direct effects of physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline on children’s reports of their own anxiety and aggression. Instead, both physical discipline and harsh verbal discipline had indirect effects on the outcomes through children’s perceptions of maternal hostility. We identified a significant interaction between perceived normativeness and use of harsh verbal discipline on children’s perception of maternal hostility, but children’s perception of the normativeness of physical discipline did not moderate the relation between physical discipline and perceived maternal hostility. The effects of harsh verbal discipline were more adverse when children perceived that form of discipline as being nonnormative than when children perceived that form of discipline as being normative. Results are largely consistent with a theoretical model positing that the meaning children attach to parents’ discipline strategies is important in understanding associations between discipline and children’s adjustment, and that cultural context is associated with children’s interpretations of their parents’ behavior. PMID:20823943

  16. The link between infant regulatory problems, temperament traits, maternal depressive symptoms and children's psychopathological symptoms at age three: a longitudinal study in a German at-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidor, Anna; Fischer, Cristina; Cierpka, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Difficult conditions during childhood can limit an individual's development in many ways. Factors such as being raised in an at-risk family, child temperamental traits or maternal traits can potentially influence a child's later behaviour. The present study investigated the extent of regulatory problems in 6-month-old infants and their link to temperamental traits and impact on externalizing and internalizing problems at 36 months. Moderating effects of maternal distress and maternal depressive symptoms were tested as well. In a quasi-experimental, longitudinal study, a sample of 185 mother-infant dyads at psychosocial risk was investigated at 6 months with SFS (infants' regulatory problems) and at 3 years with CBCL (children's behavioural problems), EAS (children's temperament), ADS (maternal depressive symptoms) and PSI-SF (maternal stress). A hierarchical regression analysis yielded a significant association between infants' regulatory problems and both externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems at age 3 (accounting for 16% and 14% variance), with both externalizing and internalizing problems being linked to current maternal depressive symptoms (12 and 9% of the variance). Externalizing and internalizing problems were found to be related also to children's temperamental difficulty (18 and 13% of variance) and their negative emotionality. With temperamental traits having been taken into account, only feeding problems at 6 months contributed near-significant to internalizing problems at 3 years. Our results underscore the crucial role of temperament in the path between early regulatory problems and subsequent behavioural difficulties. Children's unfavourable temperamental predispositions such as negative emotionality and generally "difficult temperament" contributed substantially to both externalizing and internalizing behavioural problems in the high-risk sample. The decreased predictive power of regulatory problems following the inclusion of

  17. Reminiscence can be misleading | Orpen | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 4 (1980) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Reminiscence can be ...

  18. Aplasia cutis congenita reminiscent of the lines of Blaschko

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    A male newborn showing congenital symmetrical abdominal skin defects and an alopecia on the scalp following a spiral pattern is described. The pattern of distribution of both skin anomalies was reminiscent of the lines of Blaschko, indicating that somatic mosaicism is the most probable cause for the

  19. Maternal reflective functioning among mothers with childhood maltreatment histories: links to sensitive parenting and infant attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacks, Ann M; Muzik, Maria; Wong, Kristyn; Beeghly, Marjorie; Huth-Bocks, Alissa; Irwin, Jessica L; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relationships among maternal reflective functioning, parenting, infant attachment, and demographic risk in a relatively large (N = 83) socioeconomically diverse sample of women with and without a history of childhood maltreatment and their infants. Most prior research on parental reflective functioning has utilized small homogenous samples. Reflective functioning was assessed with the Parent Development Interview, parenting was coded from videotaped mother-child interactions, and infant attachment was evaluated in Ainsworth's Strange Situation by independent teams of reliable coders masked to maternal history. Reflective functioning was associated with parenting sensitivity and secure attachment, and inversely associated with demographic risk and parenting negativity; however, it was not associated with maternal maltreatment history or PTSD. Parenting sensitivity mediated the relationship between reflective functioning and infant attachment, controlling for demographic risk. Findings are discussed in the context of prior research on reflective functioning and the importance of targeting reflective functioning in interventions.

  20. Moving beyond the mother-child dyad: exploring the link between maternal sensitivity and siblings' attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mark; Betts, Lucy R; Underwood, Jean D M

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory asserts that secure attachment representations are developed through sensitive and consistent caregiving. If sensitive caregiving is a constant characteristic of the parent, then siblings should have concordant attachment classifications. The authors explored maternal attachment quality assessed by the Attachment Q-Set, maternal sensitivity, and specific mother-child interactions between siblings. Hour-long observations took place in the homes of 9 preschool sibling pairs and their immediate caregivers. The interactions were analyzed using a modified version of Bales' Small Group Analysis. The results reveal attachment discordance in a third of sibling pairs. While maternal sensitivity was higher with older siblings and mothers displayed more positive emotions when interacting with their younger siblings, attachment quality was not associated with birth order. Therefore, a shift toward a more contextual, family-based perspective of attachment is recommended to further understand how attachment strategies are created and maintained within the child's everyday context.

  1. Linking maternal and somatic 5S rRNA types with different sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locati, Mauro D; Pagano, Johanna F B; Ensink, Wim A; van Olst, Marina; van Leeuwen, Selina; Nehrdich, Ulrike; Zhu, Kongju; Spaink, Herman P; Girard, Geneviève; Rauwerda, Han; Jonker, Martijs J; Dekker, Rob J; Breit, Timo M

    2017-04-01

    5S rRNA is a ribosomal core component, transcribed from many gene copies organized in genomic repeats. Some eukaryotic species have two 5S rRNA types defined by their predominant expression in oogenesis or adult tissue. Our next-generation sequencing study on zebrafish egg, embryo, and adult tissue identified maternal-type 5S rRNA that is exclusively accumulated during oogenesis, replaced throughout the embryogenesis by a somatic-type, and thus virtually absent in adult somatic tissue. The maternal-type 5S rDNA contains several thousands of gene copies on chromosome 4 in tandem repeats with small intergenic regions, whereas the somatic-type is present in only 12 gene copies on chromosome 18 with large intergenic regions. The nine-nucleotide variation between the two 5S rRNA types likely affects TFIII binding and riboprotein L5 binding, probably leading to storage of maternal-type rRNA. Remarkably, these sequence differences are located exactly at the sequence-specific target site for genome integration by the 5S rRNA-specific Mutsu retrotransposon family. Thus, we could define maternal- and somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies. Furthermore, we identified four additional maternal-type and two new somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies, each with their own target sequence. This target-site specificity, frequently intact maternal-type retrotransposon elements, plus specific presence of Mutsu retrotransposon RNA and piRNA in egg and adult tissue, suggest an involvement of retrotransposons in achieving the differential copy number of the two types of 5S rDNA loci. © 2017 Locati et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  2. Palmo-Plantar hyperkeratosis, intellectual disability, and spastic paraplegia in two maternal half brothers: further evidence for an X-linked inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidor, Bertrand; Lefebvre, Tiphaine; Barbarot, Sébastien; Perrier, Julie; Mercier, Sandra; Péréon, Yann; Le Caignec, Cédric; David, Albert

    2013-06-01

    In 1983, Fitzsimmons et al. reported four brothers with an unrecognized disorder characterized by intellectual disability, spastic paraplegia, and palmo-plantar hyperkeratosis (OMIM 309500). In this report, we describe a family in which two males, maternal half-brothers, had learning disabilities. Both patients also showed spasticity in the lower limbs and palmo-plantar hyperkeratosis. The mother of the affected boys had learning difficulties but did not show any dermatological symptoms. This report confirms that the association of features reported by Fitzsimmons et al. is a distinct entity and further suggests an X-linked mode of inheritance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Algorithms for assessing person-based consistency among linked records for the investigation of maternal use of medications and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Tran

    2017-04-01

    Quality assessment indicated high consistency among linked records. The set of algorithms developed in this project can be applied to similar linked perinatal datasets to promote a consistent approach and comparability across studies.

  4. Reminiscence Spike in Reading Recall between the Ages of 8-11: The Influence of Early Memories on Attitudes and Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freestone, Margaret; O'Toole, J. Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    An investigation into the recalled reading of 31 environmental educators has uncovered a potential link between early reading and pro-environmental attitudes. The recalled books are not only from the recognised "reminiscence bump" of adolescence and early adulthood, but there also appears to be a spike in recall of books within the…

  5. Links between Family Social Status and Preschoolers' Persistence: The Role of Maternal Values and Quality of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrova, Irina L.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Children who develop persistence in the preschool years are likely to function more effectively during the transition into school. In this study of 231 3-year-old children and their mothers, we examined the relations among family social status, maternal values of self-direction, quality of parenting, and children's persistence in challenging…

  6. The Link between Perceived Maternal and Paternal Autonomy Support and Adolescent Well-Being across Three Major Educational Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duineveld, Jasper J.; Parker, Philip D.; Ryan, Richard M.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2017-01-01

    To what extent does maternal and paternal autonomy support enhance well-being across the major transitions of high school? We tested the degree to which perceived autonomy supportive parenting facilitated positive changes in self-esteem and life satisfaction and buffered against negative changes in depressive symptoms and school related burnout in…

  7. The Socialization of Children's Memory: Linking Maternal Conversational Style to the Development of Children's Autobiographical and Deliberate Memory Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Hillary A.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a large-scale, longitudinal research study with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample were utilized to explore linkages between maternal elaborative conversational style and the development of children's autobiographical and deliberate memory. Assessments were made when the children were aged 3, 5, and 6 years old, and the…

  8. The Effect of Group Reminiscence Therapy on Depression of Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Nemati Dehkordi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & objective: Global investigations show that the elderly population is increasing because of the health care developments. However, this group is continuously experiencing health problems for example, depression is one of their major problems. The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of group reminiscence therapy on depression of elderly resident of Shahrekord, Iran. Methods and Materials: This is a clinical trial study. The sample was consisted of 64 elderly referring to retirement centre in Shahrekord in 1385 that were selected by convenience sampling, and then divided randomly into two groups: an experimental and a control group. Group reminiscence meetings for experimental group and group meetings for control group were formed each 8 session for one hour and a half. Depression level of investigated subjects’ pre and post intervention were assessed with the use of Geriatric Depression Scale. Descriptive and conceptual statistics were used for data analysis (Chi-square Test, mean - standard deviation- Paired t-test. Results: Findings of this study showed a significant difference between pre and post intervention, where the elderly depression mean score in experimental group changed from 17.95 to 12.99 (p=0.04 but no significant difference were observed in the control group. Conclusion: Considering the result of this study, it can be suggested that group reminiscence therapy is effective on the reduction of elderly depression level. Therefore, we can use this forgotten, easy and practicable and cheap technique in all nursing-homes and even at home.

  9. Programming social behavior by the maternal fragile X protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, B; Sharma, A; Frazier, A; Klein, S; Toth, M

    2016-07-01

    The developing fetus and neonate are highly sensitive to maternal environment. Besides the well-documented effects of maternal stress, nutrition and infections, maternal mutations, by altering the fetal, perinatal and/or early postnatal environment, can impact the behavior of genetically normal offspring. Mutation/premutation in the X-linked FMR1 (encoding the translational regulator FMRP) in females, although primarily responsible for causing fragile X syndrome (FXS) in their children, may also elicit such maternal effects. We showed that a deficit in maternal FMRP in mice results in hyperactivity in the genetically normal offspring. To test if maternal FMRP has a broader intergenerational effect, we measured social behavior, a core dimension of neurodevelopmental disorders, in offspring of FMRP-deficient dams. We found that male offspring of Fmr1(+/-) mothers, independent of their own Fmr1 genotype, exhibit increased approach and reduced avoidance toward conspecific strangers, reminiscent of 'indiscriminate friendliness' or the lack of stranger anxiety, diagnosed in neglected children and in patients with Asperger's and Williams syndrome. Furthermore, social interaction failed to activate mesolimbic/amygdala regions, encoding social aversion, in these mice, providing a neurobiological basis for the behavioral abnormality. This work identifies a novel role for FMRP that extends its function beyond the well-established genetic function into intergenerational non-genetic inheritance/programming of social behavior and the corresponding neuronal circuit. As FXS premutation and some psychiatric conditions that can be associated with reduced FMRP expression are more prevalent in mothers than full FMR1 mutation, our findings potentially broaden the significance of FMRP-dependent programming of social behavior beyond the FXS population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  10. LINKING CHILD HEALTH, MATERNAL LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND HOUSEHOLD ASSET ENDOWMENTS IN CAMEROON: WHAT THE PEOPLE SAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbu Daniel Tambi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is targeted objectives: to document the determinants of child health as informed by focus group discussion, to analyze what the people say concerning the relationship between child health and maternal labour force participation, to explore the perception of the people on the effects of child health on asset accumulation and to suggest public policies on the basis of the findings. We used seven focus groups to explore what the people say based on different health domains: access to public goods; inputs to health; benefits from better health; better child health and complementary activities; benefits of maternity leave and better child health, decision making concerning family health. Each focus group was made of eight participants: housewife, traders, farmers, drivers, teachers, technicians, medical personnel and military drawn from different religious groups: catholic, protestant mainline, protestant non-mainline, other protestant, Muslim, systemic and traditional belief. We observed that, parents make used of the extra time accrue to them due to better health for their children and family to do extra work that fetched them money. The increased family income is use to send their children to better schools, carter for their wellbeing as well as to promote asset growth and redistribution, thus, improving economic well-being and reducing poverty. In case of retirement or sudden retrenchment from the labour market, parents make use of the accumulated assets to increase their family income and maintain well-being, hence, reducing the psychological trauma on parents due to poverty. Based on these findings, we recommend that decision makers and actors concern with child health issues should considered, ease and promote child health outcomes. This is a key to narrowing the poverty and inequality gap between the poor and non-poor, rural and urban household residence, married and unmarried, employed and the unemployed, promote maternal labour

  11. The Effect of Narrative Reminiscence on Happiness of Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Zahra; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Tagharrobi, Zahra; Akbari, Hossien

    2015-11-01

    Happiness has a considerable impact on elderly quality of life. Reminiscence therapy can be an effective intervention in increasing the positive emotions among elderly. This study was performed to investigate the effect of reminiscence therapy on Iranian elderly women's happiness. This randomized clinical trial conducted on 32 elderly women (census sampling) attending the jahandidegan daycare elderly center IN Gorgan city, Iran, in 2013. Happiness scores of 4 phases were measured: before, the third session, the sixth session and one month after the intervention. Three instruments were used in this study including a demographic questionnaire, the mini mental state examination test, and Oxford happiness questionnaire. The intervention group participated in six sessions of narrative group reminiscence that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. The control group was also participated in six sessions of group discussions that were held in three consecutive weeks, two sessions per week. Data analysis was performed the chi-square, independent t-test, Paired t-test. From a total of 32 elderly women, 29 cases completed the study. No significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics. The mean happiness scores before the intervention between the two groups were not significantly different (P = 0.824). Comparison of the mean happiness scores of the intervention group in the four measurement times revealed a significant difference only after the third and sixth sessions (P = 0.03), and no significant difference was found between the mean happiness scores of the control group in the four measurement times. The elderly participating in the matched group sessions can be effective in increasing positive emotions.

  12. The Effect of Reminiscence Therapy on Elderly Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Moradinejad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of reminiscence Abstract therapy on elderly mental health. Methods & Materials: This was a quasi-experimental study .The sample was consisted of 57 elderly men and women who were residing in the HASHEMI NEJAD institution, were selected by stratified random sampling. Inclusion criteria were: 1 65 years of age or more, 2 Mental health score between 0-66.6, 3 Speaking in Farsi, 4 Listening and speaking ability acceptable to participate in meetings, 5 Full-time life in nursing home, 6 No history of psychiatric hospitalization and psychiatric treatment and grief experience during the past 6 months, 7 Willingness to participate in research, 8 orientation of data/place/person, 9 At least six months staying in the nursing home, 10 Not receiving any treatment that disturbed the mental ability or memory, or thought Mental health level of subjects was assessed with the use of the 28-item Goldberg General Health Questionnaire. The intervention consisted of 8 reminiscence sessions, twice in a week, for one hour and half. In these sessions the elderly told their good memories. The data were analyzed by spss16 software and compared by t-test. Results: Findings of this study showed significant difference between pre and post test scores in all mental health dimensions (somatic symptom, anxiety and insomnia, social function and depressionand in total scores (P=0.001. Conclusion: Considering the results of this study, it is suggested that reminiscence therapy is effective on the elderly mental health improvement. Therefore we can use this easy, practicable and low cost technique in all nursing home.

  13. The link between perceived maternal and paternal autonomy support and adolescent well-being across three major educational transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duineveld, Jasper J; Parker, Philip D; Ryan, Richard M; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2017-10-01

    To what extent does maternal and paternal autonomy support enhance well-being across the major transitions of high school? We tested the degree to which perceived autonomy supportive parenting facilitated positive changes in self-esteem and life satisfaction and buffered against negative changes in depressive symptoms and school related burnout in 3 Finnish longitudinal studies, each with a measurement point before and after a major transition (middle school, N1 = 760, 55.7% girls; high school, N2 = 214, 51.9% girls; post high school, N3 = 858, 47.8% girls). Results showed that perceived parental autonomy support was negatively related to depressive symptoms and positively related to self-esteem. The findings for the effects on depressive symptoms were replicated across all 3 transitions, while effects on self-esteem were only found for the high school and post high school transitions. Moreover, evidence of coregulation was found for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms before the transition were found to decrease autonomy support after the transition for both the high school and post high school transitions. Maternal and paternal autonomy support was of equal importance. Importantly, the effects on depressive symptoms increased as children developed, suggesting the continual importance of parents throughout high school and into emerging adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Interrelations of Maternal Expressed Emotion, Maltreatment, and Separation/Divorce and Links to Family Conflict and Children’s Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children’s externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children’s externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2% males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children’s externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children’s externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. PMID:25037461

  15. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety

  16. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  17. The incidence of preeclampsia and eclampsia and associated maternal mortality in Australia from population-linked datasets: 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Charlene; Dahlen, Hannah; Korda, Andrew; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2013-06-01

    To determine the incidence of preeclampsia and eclampsia and associated mortality in Australia between 2000 and 2008. Analysis of statutorily collected datasets of singleton births in New South Wales using International Classification of Disease coding. Analyzed using cross tabulation, logistic regression, and means testing, where appropriate. The overall incidence of preeclampsia was 3.3% with a decrease from 4.6% to 2.3%. The overall rate of eclampsia was 8.6/10,000 births or 2.6% of preeclampsia cases, with an increase from 2.3% to 4.2%. The relative risk of eclampsia in preeclamptic women in 2008 was 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.92) when compared with the year 2000. The relative risk of a woman with preeclampsia/eclampsia dying in the first 12 months following birth compared with normotensive women is 5.1 (95% confidence interval, 3.07-8.60). Falling rates of preeclampsia have not equated to a decline in the incidence of eclampsia. An accurate rate of both preeclampsia and eclampsia is vital considering the considerable contribution that these diseases make to maternal mortality. The identification and treatment of eclampsia should remain a priority in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation of reminiscent aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkohara, Kaori; Fuji, Maiko; Nakao, Akito; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2016-01-01

    To prepare an aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce by fewest components, the aroma concentrate of good sensory attributes was prepared by polyethylene membrane extraction, which could extract only the volatiles with diethyl ether. GC-MS-Olfactometry was done with the aroma concentrate, and 28 odor-active compounds were detected. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to the separated fraction revealed high flavor dilution factors with respect to acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-2(or5)-ethyl-5(or2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional). A model aroma mixture containing above four odorants showed a good similarity with the aroma of the soy sauce itself. Consequently, the reminiscent aroma mixture of soy sauce was prepared in water. The ratio of acetic acid, HEMF, isoamyl alcohol, and methional was 2500:300:100:1.

  19. Life story chapters, specific memories and the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Pillemer, David B.; Ivcevic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory posit that extended time periods (here termed chapters) and memories are organised hierarchically. If chapters organise memories and guide their recall, then chapters and memories should show similar temporal distributions over the life course. Previous research...... are over-represented at the beginning of chapters. Potential connections between chapters and the cultural life script are also examined. Adult participants first divided their life story into chapters and identified their most positive and most negative chapter. They then recalled a specific memory from...... demonstrates that positive but not negative memories show a reminiscence bump and that memories cluster at the beginning of extended time periods. The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) ages marking the beginning of positive but not negative chapters produce a bump, and that (2) specific memories...

  20. The reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory and for public events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    of public events. We did so between-subjects, through two cueing methods administered within-subjects, the cue word method and the important memories method. For word-cued memories, we found a similar bump from ages 5 to 19 for both types of memories. However, the bump was more pronounced...... for autobiographical memories. For most important memories, we found a bump from ages 20 to 29 in autobiographical memory, but little discernible age pattern for public events. Rather, specific public events (e.g., the Fall of the Berlin Wall) dominated recall, producing a chronological distribution characterised......The reminiscence bump has been found for both autobiographical memories and memories of public events. However, there have been few comparisons of the bump across each type of event. In the current study, therefore, we compared the bump for autobiographical memories versus the bump for memories...

  1. Vitaly Ginzburg and high temperature superconductivity: Personal reminiscences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazin, Igor I.

    2008-01-01

    This article is an attempt to give Western readers, as well as young researchers in Russia, a glance at the atmosphere in one of the leading physics institutions in the USSR from 1977-1988, through the eye of a graduate student and later a posdoc in the theory group led by Vitaly Ginzburg, arguably the most enthusiatic proponent of high-temperature superconductivity before the discovery of Bednorz and Muller. This is a very personal narration, wherein the events of my own life and career are inevitably intertwined with scientific events and with my reminiscences of great Russian physicists whom I had the pleasure to meet with while working in the 'High-Temperature Superconductivity Section' at the Lebedev Institute within the aforementioned 12 years

  2. Maternal Structure and Autonomy Support in Conversations about the Past: Contributions to Children's Autobiographical Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Emily Sutcliffe; Reese, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the contributions of maternal structure and autonomy support to children's collaborative and independent reminiscing. Fifty mother-child dyads discussed past experiences when the children were 40 and 65 months old. Children also discussed past events with an experimenter at each age. Maternal structure and autonomy support…

  3. Reminiscence and adaptation to critical life events in older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, J.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The role of reminiscence as a way of adapting to critical life events and chronic medical conditions was investigated in older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Reminiscence is the (non)volitional act or process of recollecting memories of one's self in the past. Method:

  4. The stories we live by : the adaptive role of reminiscence in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, J.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis has demonstrated how reminiscence can have an adaptive value for mental health in later life. The first aim of this thesis was to study the relationship between reminiscence and mental health. In a sample of older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptomatology, it has been shown

  5. Family Reminiscing Style: Parent Gender and Emotional Focus in Relation to Child Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fivush, Robyn; Marin, Kelly; McWilliams, Kelly; Bohanek, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    Family reminiscing is a critical part of family interaction related to child outcome. In this study, we extended previous research by examining both mothers and fathers, in two-parent racially diverse middle-class families, reminiscing with their 9- to 12-year-old children about both the facts and the emotional aspects of shared positive and…

  6. Children's 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the link between maternal criticism and attentional biases specifically for facial displays of anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Brandon E; Johnson, Ashley L; Benas, Jessica S; Uhrlass, Dorothy J; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E

    2011-09-01

    Theorists have proposed that negative experiences in childhood may contribute to the development of experience-specific information-processing biases, including attentional biases. There are also clear genetic influences on cognitive processes, with evidence that polymorphisms in specific candidate genes may moderate the impact of environmental stress on attentional biases (e.g., a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene; 5-HTTLPR). In the current study, we tested a gene×environment (G×E) model of risk for attentional biases. We hypothesised that children whose mothers exhibit high levels of expressed emotion criticism (EE-Crit) would display attentional biases specifically for angry, but not happy or sad, faces, and that this link would be stronger among children carrying one or two copies of the 5-HTTLPR short allele than among those homozygous for the long allele. Results generally supported these hypotheses, though we found that carriers of the 5-HTTLPR short allele who also had a critical mother exhibited attentional avoidance of angry faces rather than preferential attention.

  7. O-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine deposition in placental proteins varies according to maternal glycemic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Justina, Vanessa; Dos Passos Junior, Rinaldo R; Bressan, Alecsander F; Tostes, Rita C; Carneiro, Fernando S; Soares, Thaigra S; Volpato, Gustavo T; Lima, Victor Vitorino; Martin, Sebastian San; Giachini, Fernanda R

    2018-05-07

    Hyperglycemia increases glycosylation with O-linked N‑acetyl‑glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) contributing to placental dysfunction and fetal growth impairment. Our aim was to determine how O-GlcNAc levels are affected by hyperglycemia and the O-GlcNAc distribution in different placental regions. Female Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: severe hyperglycemia (>300 mg/dL; n = 5); mild hyperglycemia (>140 mg/dL, at least than two time points during oral glucose tolerance test; n = 7) or normoglycemia (O-GlcNAc were detected in all regions, with increased O-GlcNAc levels in the hyperglycemic group compared to control and mild hyperglycemic rats. Proteins in endothelial and trophoblast cells were the main target for O-GlcNAc. Whereas no changes in O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) expression were detected, O-GlcNAcase (OGA) expression was reduced in placentas from the severe hyperglycemic group and augmented in placentas from the mild hyperglycemic group, compared with their respective control groups. Placental O-GlcNAc overexpression may contribute to placental dysfunction, as indicated by the placental index. Additionally, morphometric alterations, occurring simultaneously with increased O-GlcNAc accumulation in the placental tissue may contribute to placental dysfunction during hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Questioning the causal link between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring use of psychotropic medication: a sibling design analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Söderström

    Full Text Available A recent population-based, longitudinal study from Finland observed a dose-response association between smoking during pregnancy (SDP and use of psychotropic medications in exposed children and young adults. However, this association may be confounded by unmeasured familial characteristics related to both SDP and offspring mental health. Consequently, we aim to investigate the effect of SDP by means of a sibling design that to some extent allows controlling for unknown environmental and genetic confounders. Using the Swedish Medical Birth Register (1987-1993, which was linked to the Swedish Prescribed Drugs Register (July 2005-December 2008, we investigated 579,543 children and among them 39, 007 were discordant for use of psychotropic medication and 4,021 siblings discordant for both use of psychotropic medication and for smoking exposure. Replicating the Finnish study using traditional logistic regression methods we found an association between exposure to ≥10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy and psychotropic drug use (odds ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.56, 1.66. Similar in size to the association reported from Finland (odds ratio = 1.63; 95% confidence interval 1.53, 1.74. However, in the adjusted sibling analysis using conditional logistic regression, the association was considerably reduced (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.08, 1.38. Preventing smoking is of major public health importance. However, SDP per se appears to have less influence on offspring psychotropic drug use than previously suggested.

  9. SenseCam reminiscence and action recall in memory-unimpaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, John G; Moskowitz, Tacie N; Swan, Ashley E; Zhong, Boyuan; Golembeski, Amy; Liong, Christopher; Narzikul, Alexa C; Sosan, Olumide A

    2014-01-01

    Case studies of memory-impaired individuals consistently show that reminiscing with SenseCam images enhances event recall. This exploratory study examined whether a similar benefit would occur for the consolidation of memories in memory-unimpaired people. We tested delayed recall for atypical actions observed on a lengthy walk. Participants used SenseCam, a diary, or no external memory aid while walking, followed by reminiscence with SenseCam images, diary entries, or no aid, either alone (self-reminiscence) or with the experimenter (social reminiscence). One week later, when tested without SenseCam images or diary entries, prior social reminiscence produced greater recall than self-reminiscence, but there were no differences between memory aid conditions for action free recall or action order recall. When methodological variables were controlled, there was no recall advantage for SenseCam reminiscence with memory-unimpaired participants. The case studies and present study differ in multiple ways, making direct comparisons problematic. SenseCam is a valuable aid to the memory impaired, but its mnemonic value for non-clinical populations remains to be determined.

  10. Ukrainian nutrition behavior through the prism of childhood reminiscences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepurko, Tetiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This exploratory research has been conducted in order to find out what reminiscences young Ukrainians preserve about their childhood nutrition. METHODS: 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with respondents aged 17 - 34 yy. RESULTS: According to respondents’ answers, the parents tried to supply their children with a varied diet. There exists the cult of "traditional Ukrainian cuisine". Food is considered to be healthy if it is home-made. Such dishes have always been and are still considered to be the most popular: borsch, dumplings, stuffed cabbage rolls, potatoes, cereals, meat, and lard. Earlier and nowadays, parents maintain the principle of regular, non-separate nutrition. This implies that children should eat three to five times a day. Parents truly believe that children’s diet should consist of all kinds of food. The majority of respondents told that one of their parents’ greatest responsibilities was to serve at least one soup and one hot dish a day.DISCUSSION: Such popular traditional dishes like soup or cutlets are usually considered to be healthy and useful food, despite being rich in fat and salt. Moreover, the desire to feed children as much as might be a manifestation of the self-preservation instinct, because our society has experienced famine caused by wars, disasters, and the Holodomor tragedy.CONCLUSIONS: The research revealed that the traditional concept what healthy nutrition is, passes from one generation to another. Nevertheless, there is the tendency to reconsideration of "healthy food" in adulthood in favor of separate nutrition. These preliminary results of the exploratory research should be deepen to clarify what proper nutrition means for older and younger Ukrainian generations regarding regional, socio-demographic, and economic factors, which, in turn, will contribute to adapting the program of healthy eating promotion to the needs of Ukrainian people.

  11. A Potential Psychological Mechanism Linking Disaster-Related Prenatal Maternal Stress with Child Cognitive and Motor Development at 16 Months: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Katrina M.; Simcock, Gabrielle; Cobham, Vanessa; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P.; King, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Fetal exposure to prenatal maternal stress can have lifelong consequences, with different types of maternal stress associated with different areas of child development. Fewer studies have focused on motor skills, even though they are strongly predictive of later development across a range of domains. Research on mechanisms of transmission has…

  12. Lexical and Acoustic Features of Maternal Utterances Addressing Preverbal Infants in Picture Book Reading Link to 5-Year-Old Children's Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: I examined the long-term association between the lexical and acoustic features of maternal utterances during book reading and the language skills of infants and children. Maternal utterances were collected from 22 mother-child dyads in picture book-reading episodes when children were ages 6-12 months and 5 years. Two aspects of…

  13. Effects of group reminiscence on elderly depression: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Song

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Group reminiscence was associated with short-term depression relief among elderly patients with depression and effectively improved self-esteem and life satisfaction. Higher-quality large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  14. Effects of group reminiscence on elderly depression: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Song; Qin Shen; Tu-Zhen Xu; Qiu-Hua Sun

    2014-01-01

    Background/purpose: The present meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of group reminiscence on depression in elderly patients. Methods: Published and unpublished randomised controlled trials that assessed the effects of group reminiscence on depression in elderly patients were systematically reviewed using multiple electronic databases. Relative risks for dichotomous data and weighted mean differences for continuous data were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. ...

  15. The Relationship Between Reminiscence Functions, Optimism, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Activity, and Pain in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Deborah Dillon; Shellman, Juliette M; Graham, Lindsey; Harrison, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The study purpose was to examine the association between reminiscence functions, optimism, depressive symptoms, physical activity, and pain in older adults with chronic lower extremity osteoarthritis pain. One hundred ninety-five community-dwelling adults were interviewed using the Modified Reminiscence Functions Scale, Brief Pain Inventory, Life Orientation Test-Revised, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale, and Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly in random counterbalanced order. Structural equation modeling supported chronic pain as positively associated with depressive symptoms and comorbidities and unrelated to physical activity. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with self-negative reminiscence and negatively associated with optimism. Spontaneous reminiscence was not associated with increased physical activity or reduced pain. Individuals may require facilitated integrative reminiscence to assist them in reinterpreting negative memories in a more positive way. Facilitated integrative reminiscence about enjoyed past physical activity is a potential way to increase physical activity, but must be tested in future research. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2016; 9(5):223-231.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Individual Reminiscence Therapy can Decrease Depression Level on Elderly at Social Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laily Nur Hidayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in oldest old. The psychosocial development of the elderly to enhance self-integration. Reminiscence therapy is one of psychosocial treatment for elderly using memory recall of one’s life event in the past. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of individual reminiscence therapy on depression among elderly in the social homes. Method: The study design was used Quasy-Eksperiment Pre-Post Test with Control Group. A total of 60 elderly people were recruited in this study and assigned into two groups,  31 participants in the intervention group and 29 participants in the control group. Independent variable was reminiscence therapy five sessions, which given to the intervention group. While, dependent variable was the level of depression on elderly. Data were collected by using GDS, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney statistical test with level of significance α≤0.05. Result: After providing individual reminiscence therapy, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in depression as compared to those in the control group was found (p=0.008. Discussion: The individual reminiscence therapy is useful to overcome depression among elderly. The nurse can know the personality of each elderly so as to improve the quality of nursing care for elderly Keywords: individual reminiscence therapy, depression, elderly

  17. Holocaust Survivors' Memories of Past Trauma and the Functions of Reminiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Norm; Canham, Sarah; Wertman, Annette; Chaudhury, Habib; Carmel, Sara; Bachner, Yaacov G; Peres, Hagit

    2016-08-01

    Existing research suggests that specific ways of recalling autobiographical memories of one's past cluster in self-positive, self-negative, and prosocial reminiscence functions. We undertook the present qualitative study to gain understanding of reminiscence functions as described by 269 Israeli Holocaust survivors and to see whether groupings of themes that emerged would correspond to our tripartite model of the reminiscence functions. Participants (M = 80.4 years; SD = 6.87) were asked to describe memories that typify a reminiscence function in which they frequently or very frequently engage. Thematic analyses were conducted in English (translated) and Hebrew. Responses reflect the range of ways in which Holocaust survivors reminisce. The task of describing early life memories was difficult for some participants, while others' lived experiences enabled them to teach others to ensure that their collective memory remains in the consciousness of the next generation of Israelis and the Jewish state. Data are imbued with examples of horror, resilience, generativity, and gratitude. As hypothesized, survivors' memories cluster in self-positive, self-negative, and prosocial groupings consistent with the tripartite model of reminiscence functions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Structured reminiscence: an intervention to decrease depression and increase self-transcendence in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Cynthia Kellam; Kirk, Edythe

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of group reminiscing on depression and self-transcendence of older women residing in an assisted living facility in southeast Texas. There were two major objectives for this study. One objective was to determine if depression decreased in older women after structured reminiscence group sessions held twice weekly for a six-week period. A second objective was to determine if self-transcendence increased after structured reminiscence group sessions held twice weekly for a six-week period. Reminiscence has been studied to determine its impact on a variety of conditions including but not limited to depression, self-esteem, fatigue, isolation, socialization, well-being, language acquisition and cognitive functioning. This review of research specifically focused on reminiscence, depression, self-transcendence and older people. Two groups were assessed at baseline, three and six weeks to answer the research questions. A sample of 24 women between the ages of 72 and 96 years were randomly assigned to either a reminiscence (experimental) group or the activity (control) group of the facility. Pearson's r was used to determine the magnitude of the relationship between subjects' responses on the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Self-Transcendence Scale. A mixed design analysis of variance (anova) was used to determine if there was a difference between the experimental and control groups on scores of the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Self-Transcendence Scale at baseline, three and six weeks. Data revealed a non-significant decrease in depression and increase in self-transcendence in the reminiscence group at the completion of six weeks, indicating a trend toward a positive result with reminiscence group sessions. The study also revealed an inverse relationship between depression and self-transcendence. These findings underscore the importance of screening older people for depression. One of the primary modalities used for

  19. Consequences from use of reminiscence - a randomised intervention study in ten Danish nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Jan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reminiscence is the systematic use of memories and recollections to strengthen self-identity and self-worth. The study aim was to investigate the consequences for nursing home residents and staff of integrating reminiscence into daily nursing care. Methods In this randomised study, ten nursing homes were matched into two groups on the basis of location, type and size. In the period August 2006 - August 2007, staff in the Intervention Group were trained and supported in the use of reminiscence, involving individual and group sessions with residents as well as reminiscence boxes, posters and exhibitions. At baseline and again 6 and 12 months after the intervention start, data were collected on residents' cognitive level, agitated behaviour, general functioning and proxy-assessed quality of life, as well as on staff well-being and job satisfaction. Mixed linear modelling was used to analyse differences in outcome between the intervention and control groups. Results Project drop-out rates were 32% for residents and 38% for nursing staff. Most staff in the Intervention Group considered reminiscence a useful tool that improved their communication with residents, and that they would recommend to other nursing homes. There were no significant differences between residents in the Intervention and the Control Group in cognitive level, agitated behaviour or general functioning. Residents in the Intervention Group showed significant higher score at 6 months in quality of life subscale 'Response to surroundings', but there was no significant difference at 12 months. Positive effects of reminiscence were observed for all staff outcome measures, the only exception being SF-12 self-rated physical health. At 6 months after start of reminiscence, staff in the Intervention Group had significantly better scores than those in the Control Group for Personal accomplishment, Emotional exhaustion, Depersonalisation, 'Attitude towards individual

  20. The Effect of Group Reminiscence Therapy on Depression in Women With Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of psychological disorders and symptoms. Objectives This research investigated the effect of group reminiscence therapy on depression among women with type II diabetes. Patients and Methods The present study was a clinical trial study. Twenty-four patients referring to the diabetic clinic of Golestan hospital in Ahvaz, Iran were selected through simple random sampling and were divided in two groups. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. Group reminiscence therapy was held over eight biweekly sessions, each lasting 90 minutes. Finally, data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney, Friedman, and Chi-Square tests, using SPSS version 20. Results A significant difference was observed between the two groups after the intervention (P = 0.001. The rating for depression decreased significantly in the experimental group. Before the group reminiscence therapy, the highest rating for depression obtained by the experimental group was “need for consultation” (50%, whereas after the intervention, the highest rating was “no depression” (50%. One month after the intervention, the highest rating obtained for depression was “low” (50%. Conclusions Reminiscence therapy decreased depression among diabetic female patients after the intervention and one month after the intervention. It can be said that, through the reminiscence therapy, patients’ past memories were reviewed and emphasis on the positive aspects thereof in the group setting was followed by an increased sense of self-worth and a decrease in depression.

  1. When Reminiscence is Harmful: The Relationship Between Self-Negative Reminiscence Functions, Need Satisfaction, and Depressive Symptoms Among Elderly People from Cameroon, the Czech Republic, and Germany

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, J.; Busch, H.; Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Tavel, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2017), s. 389-407 ISSN 1389-4978 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-02889P; GA ČR GA17-02634S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Reminiscence * Self-negative functions * Depression * Need satisfaction * Old age * Culture Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Cognitive sciences Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2016

  2. La toxicomanía en adolescentes, un intento fallido de retorno al vínculo materno. The addiction in adolescents, a failed attempt to return to the maternal link.

    OpenAIRE

    Ortegón Machado, David Stevens

    2012-01-01

    The addiction in adolescents, a failed attempt to return to the maternal link. Resumen El articulo presenta resultados de investigación donde se buscó explorar la significación de la figura materna y su posible relación con la dependencia a sustancias psicoactivas en adolescentes institucionalizados en un centro de tratamiento para las adicciones. El estudio asumió una perspectiva psicoanalítica de corte cualitativo, su población fue conformada por tres adolescentes y el método utilizado ...

  3. Insulin sensitivity linked skeletal muscle Nr4a1 DNA methylation is programmed by the maternal diet and modulated by voluntary exercise in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasch, Juliane; Kanzleiter, Isabel; Saussenthaler, Sophie; Schürmann, Annette; Keijer, Jaap; Schothorst, Van Evert; Klaus, Susanne; Schumann, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Perinatal maternal high-fat consumption is known to increase the obesity and type 2 diabetes susceptibility and to impair exercise performance in the
    offspring. We hypothesize that epigenetic modifications in the skeletal muscle are partly responsible for this phenotype. To detect skeletal

  4. Linking high parity and maternal and child mortality: what is the impact of lower health services coverage among higher order births?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneveldt, Emily; DeCormier Plosky, Willyanne; Stover, John

    2013-01-01

    A number of data sets show that high parity births are associated with higher child mortality than low parity births. The reasons for this relationship are not clear. In this paper we investigate whether high parity is associated with lower coverage of key health interventions that might lead to increased mortality. We used DHS data from 10 high fertility countries to examine the relationship between parity and coverage for 8 child health intervention and 9 maternal health interventions. We also used the LiST model to estimate the effect on maternal and child mortality of the lower coverage associated with high parity births. Our results show a significant relationship between coverage of maternal and child health services and birth order, even when controlling for poverty. The association between coverage and parity for maternal health interventions was more consistently significant across countries all countries, while for child health interventions there were fewer overall significant relationships and more variation both between and within countries. The differences in coverage between children of parity 3 and those of parity 6 are large enough to account for a 12% difference in the under-five mortality rate and a 22% difference in maternal mortality ratio in the countries studied. This study shows that coverage of key health interventions is lower for high parity children and the pattern is consistent across countries. This could be a partial explanation for the higher mortality rates associated with high parity. Actions to address this gap could help reduce the higher mortality experienced by high parity birth.

  5. Reminiscence groups for people with dementia and their family carers: pragmatic eight-centre randomised trial of joint reminiscence and maintenance versus usual treatment: a protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orrell Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing number of people with dementia, and the increasing cost of care, provides a major incentive to develop and test methods of supporting them in the community for longer. Most attention has been given to pharmacological interventions, but there is increasing recognition that psychosocial interventions may be equally effective, even preferable where medication has negative side-effects. Reminiscence groups, run by professionals and volunteers, which use photographs, recordings and other objects to trigger personal memories are probably the most popular therapeutic approach to working with people with dementia, but there is little evidence for their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The recent inclusion of family carers in groups with people with dementia, notably in our own pilot studies, has generated informal evidence that this joint approach improves relationships between people with dementia and their carers, and benefits both. Design and methods This multi-centre, pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of joint reminiscence groups for people with dementia and their family care-givers has two parallel arms – an intervention group and a control group who receive care as usual. The intervention consists of joint reminiscence groups held weekly for twelve consecutive weeks, followed by monthly maintenance sessions for a further seven months. The primary outcome measures are the quality of life of people with dementia, as assessed by QoL-AD, and their care-givers' mental health as assessed by the GHQ-28. Secondary outcomes include: the autobiographical memories of people with dementia; the quality of the relationship between them and their care-givers; and the levels of depression and anxiety felt by them and their care-giver. Using a 5% significance level, comparison of 200 pairs attending joint reminiscence groups with 200 pairs receiving usual treatment

  6. Maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Daniels, Lynne; Jansen, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Establishing healthy eating habits early in life is one important strategy to combat childhood obesity. Given that early maternal child feeding practices have been linked to child food intake and weight, identifying the maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices is important in order to understand the determinants of childhood obesity; this was the overall aim of the current review. Academic databases were searched for studies examining the relationship between maternal child feeding practices and parenting, personal characteristics and psychopathology of mothers with preschoolers. Papers were limited to those published in English, between January 2000 and June 2012. Only studies with mothers of normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years were included. There were no restrictions regarding the inclusion of maternal nationality or socioeconomic status (SES). Seventeen eligible studies were sourced. Information on the aim, sample, measures and findings of these was summarised into tables. The findings of this review support a relationship between maternal controlling parenting, general and eating psychopathology, and SES and maternal child feeding practices. The main methodological issues of the studies reviewed included inconsistency in measures of maternal variables across studies and cross-sectional designs. We conclude that the maternal correlates associated with maternal child feeding practices are complex, and the pathways by which maternal correlates impact these feeding practices require further investigation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Collage as a Therapeutic Modality for Reminiscence in Patients with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhiser Stallings, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Traditional therapy, with its emphasis on verbal communication between therapist and client, may not be appropriate for patients with dementia due to impaired cognitive and verbal abilities. This brief report presents a qualitative study on the use of collage in art therapy to aid in the process of reminiscence in individuals with dementia. Data…

  8. A study of group reminiscence therapy and emotional intelligence among elderly members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Bazooband

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of group reminiscence therapy on elderly’s emotional intelligence. A quasi-experimental research with a pre-test-post-test control group was conducted in July 2015, with a sample of 40 elderly members referring to an (anonymous Community Center in the city of Shiraz, Iran. A predesigned instrument, i.e., the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire developed by Schering, was applied to collect data. SPSS Statistics v. 22.0 (Released 2013; IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA was used to analyze data, with a 95% confidence level and a measurement error of α=0.05. Hypothesis tests were mainly conducted to examine whether group reminiscence therapy correlates with emotional intelligence among the respondents. Findings revealed that the applied intervention i.e., group reminiscence therapy significantly associates with various dimensions of emotional intelligence including self-awareness, self-control, self-motivation, empathy and social skills in the older adults within the experiment group; i.e., the mean scores of the variables for the post-test administered on the experimental group were significantly higher than those on the control group. Group reminiscence therapy has the potential to enhance emotional intelligence in the elderly by helping them control their thoughts and emotions and learn problem-solving skills.

  9. Mapping the future of reminiscence: a conceptual guide for research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webster, Jeffrey Dean; Webster, Jeffrey Dean; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Westerhof, Gerben Johan

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 50 years after Butler’s seminal 1963 contribution, the field of reminiscence and life review is entering a more mature stage. Isolated examples of increasingly sophisticated studies have recently emerged that can serve as a sound, cumulative data base. However, the field lacks an overarching

  10. The effects of reminiscence on psychological well-being in older adults: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohlmeijer, E.; Roemer, M.; Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of reminiscence on psychological well-being across different target groups and treatment modalities. Fifteen controlled outcome studies were included. An overall effect size of 0.54 was found, indicating a moderate

  11. The effects of reminiscence on psychological well-being in older adults: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohlmeijer, E.; Roemer, M.; Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of reminiscence on psychological well-being across different target groups and treatment modalities. Fifteen controlled outcome studies were included. An overall effect size of 0.54 was found, indicating a moderate

  12. How to Make Reminiscence Movies: A Project-Based Gerontology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancura, Loriena A.

    2013-01-01

    One key to successful gerontological education lies in teaching students to integrate information from diverse academic disciplines into practical contexts. This article describes a project-based course within which students learn to integrate theories by working with older adult partners to make reminiscence movies based on an important event or…

  13. Creative reminiscence as an early intervention for depression: results of a pilot project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohlmeijer, E.; Valenkamp, M.; Westerhof, G.; Smit, H.F.E.; Cuijpers, P.

    2005-01-01

    Reminiscence may help in resolving conflicts from the past and making up the balance of one's life. Life-review may be further enhanced by the creative expression of memories in stories, poems or drawings. In this way people are encouraged to create and discover metaphors, images and stories that

  14. Interactive jewellery as memory cue : designing a sound locket for individual reminiscence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, K.; Versteeg, M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design of Memento: an interactive sound locket for individual reminiscence that triggers a similar sense of intimacy and values as its non-technological predecessor. Jewellery often forms a cue for autobiographical memory. In this work we investigate the role that

  15. Adaptive autobiographical memory in younger and older adults: the indirect association of integrative and instrumental reminiscence with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallford, D J; Mellor, D; Cummins, R A

    2013-01-01

    Despite the established effectiveness of reminiscence-based interventions for depression, little research exists into the pathways through which specific reminiscence functions are related to depressive symptoms. Drawing on theory of the mechanisms of change in cognitive-reminiscence therapy, the current study tests the hypothesised indirect associations of adaptive integrative and instrumental reminiscence functions with depressive symptoms and whether these relationships might differ among younger and older adults. Questionnaires were completed by a large community sample of the Australian population. Multiple mediation models were tested in two groups: younger adults (n = 730, M age = 52.24, SD=9.84) and older adults (n = 725, M age= 73.59, SD=6.29). Results were consistent across age groups, indicating that there was direct relationship between these reminiscence functions and depressive symptoms, but that integrative reminiscence is indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through meaning in life, self-esteem, and optimism, and that instrumental reminiscence is indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through primary control and self-efficacy. This study provides support for the relationships between constructs underlying the proposed mechanisms of change in cognitive-reminiscence therapy for the treatment of depression, and suggests these relationships are similar for younger and older adults.

  16. The Effect of Reminiscence Group Work on Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem and Mood of Ageing People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Puyenbroeck, Joris; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the effects of reminiscence group work on the subjective well-being of ageing people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The content of the successive group work sessions was manipulated as follows: a control-phase with three "current topics" sessions, an experimental phase with six "reminiscence" sessions and…

  17. Application of reminiscence treatment on older people with dementia: a case study in Pingtung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song-Lin; Li, Chih-Ming; Yang, Chiu-Yen; Chen, Jia-Jin J

    2009-06-01

    Reminiscence therapy has been utilized for many years in the treatment of dementia in older people. Purposes of the research included examining different methods of promoting interactivity, social participation, cognitive function improvement in those with dementia, and the effectiveness in reducing symptoms of depression following group treatment. This study used pretest and posttest electroencephalography (EEG) measurements to test reminiscence therapy efficacy on participants. This research organized a social group work with 12 elderly clients with dementia (mild to moderate stage) selected from among 90 residents of an older persons care facility in Pingtung. Eleven agreed to join the study, and 10 completed successfully all treatment sessions. Eight sessions of reminiscence cooking lessons were conducted. The effectiveness of interventions was evaluated by comparing presession and postsession EEG, mental health status, depression scale, and feeling of participation scale scores. Significant differences in values, particularly for EEG, were found between the two sets of scores. The average value of participants' fast waves rose from 43.88 to 55.12, whereas average slow-wave values fell from 56.12 to 44.13. After analysis using the Wilcoxon matched paired signed rank test, significant differences were noted. Findings and suggestions include the following: (a) The rise in Mini-Mental State Examination and reduction in depression scale scores, although noted, were not significant, and (b) the self-achievement, emotional stability, family atmosphere, and physical needs of participants were met. The authors recommend that reminiscence group work be promoted in the home for older persons and that childhood cooking sessions twice each week may be the ideal format for reminiscence group work.

  18. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  19. Can formalizing links among community health workers, accredited drug dispensing outlet dispensers, and health facility staff increase their collaboration to improve prompt access to maternal and child care? A qualitative study in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillip, Angel; Kimatta, Suleiman; Embrey, Martha; Chalker, John C; Valimba, Richard; Malliwah, Mariam; Meena, John; Lieber, Rachel; Johnson, Keith

    2017-06-19

    In Tanzania, progress toward achieving the 2015 Millennium Development Goals for maternal and newborn health was slow. An intervention brought together community health workers, health facility staff, and accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) dispensers to improve maternal and newborn health through a mechanism of collaboration and referral. This study explored barriers, successes, and promising approaches to increasing timely access to care by linking the three levels of health care provision. The study was conducted in the Kibaha district, where we applied qualitative approaches with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. In-depth interview participants included retail drug shop dispensers (36), community health workers (45), and health facility staff members (15). We conducted one focus group discussion with district officials and four with mothers of newborns and children under 5 years old. Relationships among the three levels of care improved after the linkage intervention, especially for ADDO dispensers and health facility staff who previously had no formal communication pathway. The study participants perceptions of success included improved knowledge of case management and relationships among the three levels of care, more timely access to care, increased numbers of patients/customers, more meetings between community health workers and health facility staff, and a decrease in child and maternal mortality. Reported challenges included stock-outs of medicines at the health facility, participating ADDO dispensers who left to work in other regions, documentation of referrals, and lack of treatment available at health facilities on the weekend. The primary issue that threatens the sustainability of the intervention is that local council health management team members, who are responsible for facilitating the linkage, had not made any supervision visits and were therefore unaware of how the program was running. The study highlights the benefits of

  20. Preschoolers' influence on and help with beverage selection at the grocery store is linked to maternal responsiveness and child beverage intake: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Karina R; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Guzman, Melissa; Wakefield, Dorothy; Sisson, Susan B; Mayeux, Lara

    2016-12-01

    Children's involvement in beverage selection or purchase has seldom been investigated. The responsiveness dimension of parental feeding styles has been related to healthy maternal feeding practices. Assessing mothers' reports of responsiveness and demandingness in grocery stores may shed light on influences on purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fruit juice (FJ). Study objectives were to explore whether (1) maternal responsiveness and demandingness were associated with preschoolers' a) help with selection of and b) influence on SSB and FJ purchases during grocery shopping and whether (2) preschoolers' a) help with selection of and b) influence on SSB and FJ purchases were associated with child intake of these beverages. Mothers of 3-to-5-year-old children (n=185) who co-shopped with the child completed the Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire, reported frequency of child help with selection and influence on beverage purchase via questionnaire, and provided a one-day weekend food recall for the child. In adjusted logistic regressions, responsiveness was associated with child help selecting FJ (OR=6.50, 95% CI[1.04, 40.75], pparenting behaviors associated with grocery shopping should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Outbreak of bullous impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains of phage type 3C/71 in a maternity ward linked to nasal carriage of a healthcare worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechowicz, Lidia; Garbacz, Katarzyna; Budzyńska, Anna; Dąbrowska-Szponar, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of bullous impetigo (BI) that occurred in a maternity unit and show phenotypic and genotypic properties and relatedness of isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains. Clinical material was obtained from 11 affected neonates. Additionally, nasal swabs from 67 healthy care workers (HCWs) as well as 107 environmental swabs were investigated. All isolates were screened for exfoliative toxin genes (eta, etb), antibiotic susceptibility and phage typed. Chromosomal DNA was genotyped by MLVF method and PCR/RFLP of coagulase gene were tested. Affected neonates were infected by two clusters of eta-positive S. aureus of phage type 3C/71: (1) MLVF type A isolates resistant only to penicillin, and (2) MLVF type B isolates resistant to penicillin and erythromycin/clindamycin. All isolates were susceptible to methicillin. We found 19 of 67 HCWs to be S. aureus nasal carriers. Two nasal isolates from HCWs were related to the outbreak on the basis of phage typing, PCR detection of eta/etb genes, antibiotyping and genotyping. Additionally, environmental swabs from the maternity unit revealed a 3C/71 S. aureus in the mattress of a baby bed. This is the first documented case of an outbreak of BI caused by phage type 3C/71 eta-positive strain of S. aureus.

  2. Self-Criticism as a Mechanism Linking Childhood Maltreatment and Maternal Efficacy Beliefs in Low-Income Mothers With and Without Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michl, Louisa C; Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-11-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to examine self-criticism as a potential mechanism mediating the relation between mothers' own childhood maltreatment history and changes in subsequent maternal efficacy beliefs in a diverse sample of low-income mothers with and without major depressive disorder. Longitudinal data were drawn from a larger randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression among low-income mothers and their 12-month-old infant. Results indicated that higher levels of maltreatment in childhood led mothers to hold more self-critical judgments in adulthood. Additionally, mothers who had experienced more extensive childhood maltreatment histories perceived themselves as less efficacious in their role as mother. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-criticism mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and mothers' decreased perceived competency in her maternal role from when her child was an infant to the more demanding toddler years. Finally, this relationship held over and above the influence of mothers' depressive diagnostic status. Directions for future research and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. First trimester bleeding and maternal cardiovascular morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2012-01-01

    First trimester bleeding without miscarriage is a risk factor for complications later in the pregnancy, such as preterm delivery. Also, first trimester miscarriage has been linked to subsequent maternal ischemic heart disease. We investigated the link between maternal cardiovascular disease prior...... to and subsequent to first trimester bleeding without miscarriage....

  4. [Maternal phenylketonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókay, János; Kiss, Erika; Simon, Erika; Szőnyi, László

    2013-05-05

    Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic, and may result in embryo-foetopathy, which could lead to stillbirth, significant psychomotor handicaps and birth defects. This foetal damage is known as maternal phenylketonuria. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninaemia, should receive detailed counselling regarding their risks for adverse foetal effects, optimally before contemplating pregnancy. The most assured way to prevent maternal phenylketonuria is to maintain the maternal phenylalanine levels within the optimal range already before conception and throughout the whole pregnancy. Authors review the comprehensive programme for prevention of maternal phenylketonuria at the Metabolic Center of Budapest, they survey the practical approach of the continuous maternal metabolic control and delineate the outcome of pregnancies of mothers with phenylketonuria from the introduction of newborn screening until most recently.

  5. Art, Age & Health: A Research Journey about Developing Reminiscence Theatre in an Age-Exchange Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Gürgens Gjærum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the researcher studies how it is possible to develop a reminiscence theatre production in an age-exchange project, created with life stories from pensioners, and how the audience experiences the performance. The article is based on six focus group interviews with nine pensioners, a theatre production and a “reminiscence café” between the audience and the actors, arranged after the performance. The researcher designed the study, “The aged as a resource”, based on guidelines for performance ethnography, art-based research, practice-led research and artistic research, in order to combine science and art, which could be said to represent two different epistemological traditions.

  6. Data cleaning and management protocols for linked perinatal research data: a good practice example from the Smoking MUMS (Maternal Use of Medications and Safety) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duong Thuy; Havard, Alys; Jorm, Louisa R

    2017-07-11

    Data cleaning is an important quality assurance in data linkage research studies. This paper presents the data cleaning and preparation process for a large-scale cross-jurisdictional Australian study (the Smoking MUMS Study) to evaluate the utilisation and safety of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies during pregnancy. Perinatal records for all deliveries (2003-2012) in the States of New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia were linked to State-based data collections including hospital separation, emergency department and death data (mothers and babies) and congenital defect notifications (babies in NSW) by State-based data linkage units. A national data linkage unit linked pharmaceutical dispensing data for the mothers. All linkages were probabilistic. Twenty two steps assessed the uniqueness of records and consistency of items within and across data sources, resolved discrepancies in the linkages between units, and identified women having records in both States. State-based linkages yielded a cohort of 783,471 mothers and 1,232,440 babies. Likely false positive links relating to 3703 mothers were identified. Corrections of baby's date of birth and age, and parity were made for 43,578 records while 1996 records were flagged as duplicates. Checks for the uniqueness of the matches between State and national linkages detected 3404 ID clusters, suggestive of missed links in the State linkages, and identified 1986 women who had records in both States. Analysis of content data can identify inaccurate links that cannot be detected by data linkage units that have access to personal identifiers only. Perinatal researchers are encouraged to adopt the methods presented to ensure quality and consistency among studies using linked administrative data.

  7. An intergenerational reminiscence programme for older adults with early dementia and youth volunteers: values and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jenny C C

    2009-06-01

    To examine the values of a reminiscence programme, adopting an intergenerational approach, on older persons with early dementia and youth volunteers. A pre- and post- one group design was adopted. Forty-nine elderly participants with early dementia and 117 youth volunteers participated in the study. Each elderly participant was assigned to two youth participants. This dyad group participated in a 12-session reminiscence programme. The youth participants acted as facilitators to prompt the elderly participants to share and discuss past events and experiences, and to support them to fabricate a personalized life-story book. An occupational therapist provided ongoing support and monitoring. The elderly participants were evaluated by the Chinese version of Mini-mental State Examination, Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD), and Chinese version of Geriatric Depression Scale (CGDS) before and after the programme. Dementia Quiz (DQ), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and a 20-item feedback questionnaire on the programme were used to evaluate the youth participants. Significant pre- and postprogramme differences were found for QoL-AD (mean change = -1.91; 95% CI = -3.18, -0.64) and CGDS (mean change = 1.86; 95% CI = 0.92, 2.80) among the elderly participants, and for DQ (mean change = -1.14; 95% CI = -2.11, -0.17) among the youth participants. Volunteers also showed positive appreciation of older persons and opined that this community service provided them an opportunity to reflect on their relationship with elderly relatives. Some volunteers, however, commented the heavy workload of the reminiscence programme. The intergenerational reminiscence programme suggests mutually beneficial values for both groups of participants. Whilst it is feasible to involve trained volunteers in the implementation of dementia-related programmes, it is essential that they are adequately trained and that ongoing support and monitoring are provided.

  8. Development of Dual-Retrieval Processes in Recall: Learning, Forgetting, and Reminiscence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Aydin, C.; Reyna, V. F.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the development of dual-retrieval processes with a low-burden paradigm that is suitable for research with children and neurocognitively impaired populations (e.g., older adults with mild cognitive impairment or dementia). Rich quantitative information can be obtained about recollection, reconstruction, and familiarity judgment by defining a Markov model over simple recall tasks like those that are used in clinical neuropsychology batteries. The model measures these processes separately for learning, forgetting, and reminiscence. We implemented this procedure in some developmental experiments, whose aims were (a) to measure age changes in recollective and nonrecollective retrieval during learning, forgetting, and reminiscence and (b) to measure age changes in content dimensions (e.g., taxonomic relatedness) that affect the two forms of retrieval. The model provided excellent fits in all three domains. Concerning (a), recollection, reconstruction, and familiarity judgment all improved during the child-to-adolescent age range in the learning domain, whereas only recollection improved in the forgetting domain, and the processes were age-invariant in the reminiscence domain. Concerning (b), although some elements of the adult pattern of taxonomic relatedness effects were detected by early adolescence, the adult pattern differs qualitatively from corresponding patterns in children and adolescents. PMID:22778491

  9. Social integration, a sense of belonging and the Cenotaph Service: old soldiers reminisce about Remembrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Duncan S; Davies, Stephen P; Wiggins, Richard D

    2008-07-01

    This study explored how war commemorations such as the Cenotaph Service in the UK enable older veterans to benefit from a feeling of integration and belonging gained from both comradeship and acknowledgement from wider society. Focus groups preceded by a video clip of the Cenotaph Service with 45 veterans were used to discuss the significance of collective commemorations for older veterans. Findings indicated that social integration and a sense of belonging are fostered both by comradeship and societal support during collective commemorations allowing veterans to reminisce safely. Spontaneous reminiscences involving troubling memories may be processed more easily with the support, social integration and sense of belonging which occurs at collective commemorations. Many Korean War and female World War II veterans felt forgotten and socially isolated, but described gaining vicarious support via collective commemorations. Cohen and Wills' (1985) main-effects and buffering models of social support are used to discuss the findings further. Collective commemorations can be important sources of support for many older veterans. Both comradeship and societal support promote social integration and a sense of belonging (main-effects), which enabled reminiscing and processing (buffering) to occur.

  10. [The Effect of Structured Group Reminiscence Therapy on the Life Satisfaction of Institutionalized Elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Mei; Kuo, Chien-Lin; Chen, Mei-Rong; Lee, Lai-Ling; Lee, Pi-Yueh; Wang, Shu-Fen

    2016-08-01

    Long-term care institutions have become an option for older people who are dependent in daily living. However, insufficient attention has been focused on assessing the life satisfaction of those currently residing in these institutions in Taiwan. Previous research indicates that group reminiscence may improve the life satisfaction of older adults. However, there is currently no consensus regarding the implementation and evaluation of reminiscence interventions. To examine the effect of a structured group reminiscence protocol on the life satisfaction of institutionalized older adults. The study used a quasi-experimental design. A total of 48 older adults were conveniently recruited from two long-term care institutions in southern Taiwan. The experimental group (n = 23) received 8 weeks of structured-group reminiscence for 40 minutes weekly, while the control group (n = 25) received routine care from the institution. Both groups were evaluated using a life-satisfaction questionnaire before and after the intervention and again four weeks later. Life satisfaction scores were statistically similar on the pre-test and significantly different on both post-test questionnaires for the two groups. The scores for the experimental and control groups were pre-test: 24.22 vs 23.36 (p = .063); post-test I: 27.22 vs 23.32 (p < .001); and post-test II: 26.43 vs 23.00 (p < .001). The mean post-test scores for the experimental group were significantly higher than the pre-test score (p < .001). The generalized estimating equation test showed that the overall score of life satisfaction for the experimental group increased by 0.85-points (p = .042) more than the control group, which is a significant difference. The results support that the 8-week structured group reminiscence protocol effectively enhances life satisfaction in older adults. The results of this study may be referenced in the continuing education of nurses working in long-term care institutions in the context of helping

  11. A Reminiscence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobind Khorana, H.

    1997-12-01

    Leslie Orgel and Francis Crick with Gobind Khorana in Madison, Wisconsin (December 1965). I first met Leslie at the Endicott House (MIT) in February 1964. Leslie was then spending a period of time at MIT and the occasion was a party for him. During our conversation, Leslie talked about starting some experimental work. He seemed to be particularly interested in polyphosphates and the chemical activation of small molecules (building blocks). Shortly after his move to the Salk Institute in the Fall of 1964 I visited him in January 1965. He already had a lab going. I remember meeting Jim Ferris, in particular, and John Sulston sometime later. That particular time was exciting for my research as well. We had the first results on the Genetic Code using the chemical-biochemical approach that my lab had developed. Francis Crick was also at the Salk Institute during the time of my visit. Both Leslie and Francis were very excited by my results and they began to ask a lot of questions and gave me a whole lot of suggestions about further experiments. In fact, my thinking and planning of things that we were doing were so scrutinized and clarified during these discussions that, it seemed to me, my own group had only to turn out all the experiments that were needed. These interactions with Francis and Leslie continued intensively throughout that year and later. In fact, both Leslie and Francis accepted my invitation to Madison in December 1965 for more discussions. Since those early days of the Salk Institute, I have made numerous visits over the years to Leslie and his research group. It has always been very exciting to learn about the many discoveries bearing on chemical evolution that have unfolded from Leslie's research group. In addition, I have always benefitted from the insightful comments that Leslie invariably provided on my own research. I look forward to our continued interactions and friendship in the future. Leslie, A Happy Birthday!

  12. Brief reminiscence activities improve state well-being and self-concept in young adults: a randomised controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallford, David John; Mellor, David

    2016-11-01

    Reminiscence-based psychotherapies have been demonstrated to have robust effects on a range of therapeutic outcomes. However, little research has been conducted on the immediate effects of guided activities they are composed of, or how these might differ dependent on the type of reminiscence. The current study utilised a controlled experimental design, whereby 321 young adults (mean age = 25.5 years, SD = 3.0) were randomised to one of four conditions of online reminiscence activity: problem-solving (successful coping experiences), identity (self-defining events contributing to a meaningful and continuous personal identity), bitterness revival (negative or adverse events), or a control condition (any memory from their past). Participants recalled autobiographical memories congruent with the condition, and answered questions to facilitate reflection on the memories. The results indicated that problem-solving and identity reminiscence activities caused significant improvements in self-esteem, meaning in life, self-efficacy and affect, whereas no effects were found in the bitterness revival and control conditions. Problem-solving reminiscence also caused a small effect in increasing perceptions of a life narrative/s. Differences between the conditions did not appear to be explained by the positive-valence of memories. These results provide evidence for the specific effects of adaptive types of problem-solving and identity reminiscence in young adults.

  13. Effectiveness of a structured education reminiscence-based programme for staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units: A study protocol for a cluster randomised trial

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Eamon

    2011-02-14

    Abstract Background Current projections indicate that there will be a significant increase in the number of people with dementia in Ireland, from approximately 40,000 at present to 100,000 by 2036. Psychosocial interventions, such as reminiscence, have the potential to improve the quality of life of people with dementia. However, while reminiscence is used widely in dementia care, its impact on the quality of life of people with dementia remains largely undocumented and there is a need for a robust and fair assessment of its overall effectiveness. The DementiA education programme incorporating REminiscence for Staff study will evaluate the effectiveness of a structured reminiscence-based education programme for care staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units. Methods\\/Design The study is a two-group, single-blind cluster randomised trial conducted in public and private long-stay residential settings in Ireland. Randomisation to control and intervention is at the level of the long-stay residential unit. Sample size calculations suggest that 18 residential units each containing 17 people with dementia are required for randomisation to control and intervention groups to achieve power of at least 80% with alpha levels of 0.05. Each resident in the intervention group is linked with a nurse and care assistant who have taken the structured reminiscence-based education programme. Participants in the control group will receive usual care. The primary outcome is quality of life of residents as measured by the Quality of Life-AD instrument. Secondary outcomes include agitation, depression and carer burden. Blinded outcome assessment is undertaken at baseline and at 18-22 weeks post-randomisation. Discussion Trials on reminiscence-based interventions for people with dementia have been scarce and the quality of the information arising from those that have been done has been undermined by methodological problems, particularly in relation to scale

  14. Effectiveness of a structured education reminiscence-based programme for staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units: A study protocol for a cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Fionnuala

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current projections indicate that there will be a significant increase in the number of people with dementia in Ireland, from approximately 40,000 at present to 100,000 by 2036. Psychosocial interventions, such as reminiscence, have the potential to improve the quality of life of people with dementia. However, while reminiscence is used widely in dementia care, its impact on the quality of life of people with dementia remains largely undocumented and there is a need for a robust and fair assessment of its overall effectiveness. The DementiA education programme incorporating REminiscence for Staff study will evaluate the effectiveness of a structured reminiscence-based education programme for care staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units. Methods/Design The study is a two-group, single-blind cluster randomised trial conducted in public and private long-stay residential settings in Ireland. Randomisation to control and intervention is at the level of the long-stay residential unit. Sample size calculations suggest that 18 residential units each containing 17 people with dementia are required for randomisation to control and intervention groups to achieve power of at least 80% with alpha levels of 0.05. Each resident in the intervention group is linked with a nurse and care assistant who have taken the structured reminiscence-based education programme. Participants in the control group will receive usual care. The primary outcome is quality of life of residents as measured by the Quality of Life-AD instrument. Secondary outcomes include agitation, depression and carer burden. Blinded outcome assessment is undertaken at baseline and at 18-22 weeks post-randomisation. Discussion Trials on reminiscence-based interventions for people with dementia have been scarce and the quality of the information arising from those that have been done has been undermined by methodological problems, particularly in

  15. Inadequate Gestational Weight Gain, the Hidden Link Between Maternal IBD and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: Results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, May-Bente; Aamodt, Geir; Mahadevan, Uma; Vatn, Morten H

    2017-07-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are in general prone to weight loss. We explored the risk of inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG), and the impact of GWG on adverse pregnancy outcomes, among mothers with IBD in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The MoBa with 95,200 mothers enrolled from 1999 to 2008, comprised 217 mothers with ulcerative colitis and 166 with Crohn's disease. Demographics were ascertained through a basic questionnaire before the first ultrasound visit and an IBD history and disease activity during pregnancy through a questionnaire mailed out in 2013. Inadequate GWG was based on the US Institute of Medicine recommendations. The associations between IBD and inadequate GWG or adverse pregnancy outcomes were explored, adjusted for diabetes, hypertension, smoking, maternal age, education, and disease activity. Mothers with Crohn's disease (34.3%) and ulcerative colitis (26.7%) were more frequently exposed to inadequate GWG compared with non-IBD mothers (19.4%) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-2.86 and aOR = 1.46, 95% CI, 1.04-2.05, respectively). Mothers with IBD with inadequate GWG (exposed) had a 2-fold risk of small for gestational age infants compared with exposed non-IBD mothers (aOR = 1.93, 95% CI, 1.13-3.29). Exposed mothers with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis had a several-fold increased risk of small for gestational age compared with nonexposed IBD mothers (aOR = 4.5, 95% CI, 1.3-16.2, aOR = 5.5, 95% CI, 1.6-18.5). Disease activity was associated with reduced GWG (17.5 kg) (aOR = 3.34, 95% CI, 1.33-8.38). Inadequate GWG should be considered as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes or as a marker of disease activity.

  16. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  17. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  18. Measuring coverage in MNCH: a validation study linking population survey derived coverage to maternal, newborn, and child health care records in rural China.

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    Li Liu

    Full Text Available Accurate data on coverage of key maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH interventions are crucial for monitoring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Coverage estimates are primarily obtained from routine population surveys through self-reporting, the validity of which is not well understood. We aimed to examine the validity of the coverage of selected MNCH interventions in Gongcheng County, China.We conducted a validation study by comparing women's self-reported coverage of MNCH interventions relating to antenatal and postnatal care, mode of delivery, and child vaccinations in a community survey with their paper- and electronic-based health care records, treating the health care records as the reference standard. Of 936 women recruited, 914 (97.6% completed the survey. Results show that self-reported coverage of these interventions had moderate to high sensitivity (0.57 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.50-0.63] to 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98-1.00] and low to high specificity (0 to 0.83 [95% CI: 0.80-0.86]. Despite varying overall validity, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ranging between 0.49 [95% CI: 0.39-0.57] and 0.90 [95% CI: 0.88-0.92], bias in the coverage estimates at the population level was small to moderate, with the test to actual positive (TAP ratio ranging between 0.8 and 1.5 for 24 of the 28 indicators examined. Our ability to accurately estimate validity was affected by several caveats associated with the reference standard. Caution should be exercised when generalizing the results to other settings.The overall validity of self-reported coverage was moderate across selected MNCH indicators. However, at the population level, self-reported coverage appears to have small to moderate degree of bias. Accuracy of the coverage was particularly high for indicators with high recorded coverage or low recorded coverage but high specificity. The study provides insights into the accuracy of

  19. Reminiscence spike in reading recall between the ages of 8–11: The influence of early memories on attitudes and actions

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    Margaret Freestone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the recalled reading of 31 environmental educators has uncovered a potential link between early reading and pro-environmental attitudes. The recalled books are not only from the recognised “reminiscence bump” of adolescence and early adulthood, but there also appears to be a spike in recall of books within the 8–11-year reading age group. This 8–11-year age group, also known as middle childhood is recognised within other disciplines as being an influential or significant time for learning. The discovery of these earlier memories from stories and their ongoing influence highlights the potential of incidental learning and pre-adolescent attitude formation.

  20. The Challenge of Prenatal Diagnostic Work-Up of Maternally Inherited X-Linked Opitz G/BBB: Case Report and Literature Review

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    Marialuigia Spinelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prenatal diagnosis of Optiz G/BBB syndrome (OS is challenging because the characteristic clinical features, such as facial and genitourinary anomalies, may be subtle at sonography and rather unspecific. Furthermore, molecular testing of the disease gene is not routinely performed, unless a specific diagnosis is suggested. Method. Both familial and ultrasound data were used to achieve the diagnosis of X-linked OS (XLOS, which was confirmed by molecular testing of MID1 gene (Xp22.3 at birth. Results. Sequencing of MID1 gene disclosed the nucleotide change c.1285 +1 G>T, previously associated with XLOS. Conclusions. This case illustrates current challenges of the prenatal diagnostic work-up of XLOS and exemplifies how clinical investigation, including family history, and accurate US foetal investigations can lead to the correct diagnosis.

  1. Max Graf's "Reminiscences of Professor Sigmund Freud" revisited: new evidence from the Freud archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2007-01-01

    Recently derestricted Freud Archive interviews with Max and Herbert Graf and Herbert's wife shed new light on Max Graf's article, "Reminiscences of Professor Sigmund Freud," published in The Psychoanalytic Quarterly in 1942. To explain discrepancies between the interviews and the earlier article, the author postulates that, in the article, Max Graf purposely distorted or omitted certain details in order not to reveal Herbert's identity as "Little Hans" (Freud 1909). The interviews place incidents reported in the article in a new and more complex light, and also underscore the intensely personal nature of the intellectual development of the psychoanalytic movement.

  2. Group integrative reminiscence therapy on self-esteem, life satisfaction and depressive symptoms in institutionalised older veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Fen

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use group integrative reminiscence as a nursing intervention to evaluate the immediate effects on self-esteem, life satisfaction and depressive symptoms for a special group named 'institutionalised older veterans' after a 12-week intervention. The study group comprised institutionalised older veterans with combat experience, including being wounded in war and who were twice forced to relocate. The group participants had lower life satisfaction, and greater use for mental health services and greater non-specific health complaints were reported from this group. Reminiscence therapy has been considered an effective nursing intervention, but the effects on institutionalised older veterans have not been studied. A quasi-experimental design and purposive sampling were conducted. A total of 74 participants were studied with pre- and post-tests to measure the effect of group integrative reminiscence therapy. The activity was held once weekly for 12 weeks. The Life Satisfaction Index A, self-esteem scale and Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form were used as research tools, and the t-test, Fisher's exact test and generalised estimating equation were used for data analysis. All participants were male, with an average age of 81·34 years old, 91·9% unmarried and were in bad health. After 12 weeks of intervention, the reminiscence groups significantly improved their self-esteem and life satisfaction and decreased depressive symptoms compared with control groups. Group integrative reminiscence revealed immediate effects on improving the self-esteem and life satisfaction of institutionalised older veterans, and depressive symptoms were also decreased. Moreover, a sense of positive self-value and belonging to the institution was produced. Group integrative reminiscence is an applicable nursing intervention for vulnerable persons such as institutionalised older veterans. A structured protocol based on the characteristics of the residents and the

  3. Maternal Emotional Availability and Its Association with Maternal Psychopathology, Attachment Style Insecurity and Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Träuble, Birgit; Sodian, Beate; Reck, Corinna

    High maternal emotional availability (EA) positively affects various domains of child development. However, the question of which factors promote or hinder maternal EA has not been investigated systematically. The present study investigated several maternal characteristics, namely maternal psychopathology, maternal attachment style insecurity, and theory of mind (ToM) as possible factors that influence maternal EA. The sample was comprised of 56 mothers and their preschool-aged children. Half of the mothers were diagnosed with postpartum depression and or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and the other half were healthy controls. The results showed that both low maternal attachment style insecurity and high ToM skills significantly predicted maternal EA sensitivity, independently from maternal postpartum and concurrent psychopathology and education. Moreover, maternal attachment style insecurity fully mediated the link between maternal postpartum psychopathology and sensitivity. The findings suggest that maternal attachment style security can buffer negative effects of maternal psychopathology on maternal sensitivity in the mother-child interaction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Children’s 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the link between maternal criticism and attentional biases specifically for facial displays of anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Brandon E.; Johnson, Ashley L.; Benas, Jessica S.; Uhrlass, Dorothy J.; Knopik, Valerie S.; McGeary, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Theorists have proposed that negative experiences in childhood may contribute to the development of experience-specific information-processing biases, including attentional biases. There are also clear genetic influences on cognitive processes, with evidence that polymorphisms in specific candidate genes may moderate the impact of environmental stress on attentional biases (e.g., a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene [5-HTTLPR]). In the current study, we tested a gene × environment (G × E) model of risk for attentional biases. We hypothesized that children whose mothers exhibit high levels of expressed emotion criticism (EE-Crit) would display attentional biases specifically for angry, but not happy or sad, faces, and that this link would be stronger among children carrying one or two copies of the 5-HTTLPR short allele than among those homozygous for the long allele. Results generally supported these hypotheses, though we found that carriers of the 5-HTTLPR short allele who also had a critical mother exhibited attentional avoidance of angry faces rather than preferential attention. PMID:21895572

  5. A Mobile Multimedia Reminiscence Therapy Application to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Persons with Alzheimer's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Danish; Khan, Arshia; Seelye, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a novel and innovative mobile solution to address behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) that occur in individuals with Alzheimer's. BPSD can include agitation, restlessness, aggression, apathy, obsessive-compulsive and repetitive behaviors, hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and wandering. Alzheimer's currently affects 5.4 million adults in the United States and that number is projected to increase to 14 million by 2050. Almost 90% of all affected with AD experience BPSD, resulting in increased healthcare costs, heavier burden on caregivers, poor patient outcomes, early nursing home placement, long-term hospitalizations, and misuse of medications. Pharmacological support may have undesirable side effects such as sedation. Nonpharmacological interventions are alternative solutions that have shown to be effective without undesirable side effects. Music therapy has been found to lower BPSD symptoms significantly. Our study is based on combination of the reminiscence and the music therapies where past memorable events are recalled using prompts such as photos, videos, and music. We are proposing a mobile multimedia solution, a technical version of the combined reminiscence, and music therapies to prevent the occurrence of BPSD, especially for the rural population who have reduced access to dementia care services.

  6. The Effects of Integrative Reminiscence Therapy on Signs and Symptoms of Depression in the Elderly

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    Asghar Mohammadzadeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Main aim of this study was to determine the effects of integrative reminiscence therapy on signs and symptoms of depression in the institutionalized elderly. Methods & Materials: This study was an experimental study with pre-test and post-test along with control group. The statistical society in this study consisted of all elderly adults residing in centers of Isfahan. Sample selection style was simple random sampling. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS and Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE were primarily administered and the scores of higher than ten in GDS (severe and moderate depression and higher than twenty one in MMSE were identified and a number of 36 subjects were randomly selected and were randomly divided into two groups, 18 participants to experiment group and 18 participants to the control group. Results: The analysis of the results was performed using independent t-test and chisquare. Mean of the difference of pretest and posttest results was acquired in experimental group (M=2.5385, SD=0.87706and control group (M=1, SD=0.93541. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that integrative reminiscence therapy can significantly result in reducing depression signs and symptoms in older adults. This intervention can serve as a supplementary treatment along with pharmaceutical treatment.

  7. The reminiscence bump reconsidered: children's prospective life stories show a bump in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2011-02-01

    The reminiscence bump-the reporting of more memories from young adulthood than from other stages of life-is considered a hallmark of autobiographical memory research. The most prevalent explanations for this effect assume that events in young adulthood are favored because of the way they are encoded and maintained in long-term memory. Here we show that a similar increase of events in early adulthood is found when children narrate their personal futures. In Study 1, children wrote their future life stories. The events in these life stories were mostly life-script events, and their distribution showed a clear bump in young adulthood. In Study 2, children were prompted by word cues to write down events from their future lives. The events generated consisted mostly of non-life-script events, and those events did not show a bump in young adulthood. Our findings challenge prevailing explanations of the reminiscence bump and suggest that the cultural life script forms an overarching organizational principle for autobiographical memories and future representations across the life span.

  8. The effects of group reminiscence therapy on depression, self esteem, and life satisfaction of elderly nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Hsing-Yuan; Wu, Chiu-Yen; Jin, Suh-Fen; Chu, Tsung-Lan; Huang, Tzu-Shin; Clark, Mary Jo

    2006-03-01

    The need to provide quality mental health care for elders in nursing home settings has been a critical issue, as the aging population grows rapidly and institutional care becomes a necessity for some elders. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to describe the effect of participation in reminiscence group therapy on older nursing home residents' depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants who met the study criteria. Residents of one ward were assigned to the reminiscence therapy group intervention, while residents of the other ward served as controls. Nine weekly one-hour sessions were designed to elicit reminiscence as group therapy for 12 elders in the experimental group. Another 12 elders were recruited for a control group matched to experimental subjects on relevant criteria. Depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction were measured one week before and after the therapy. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, Version 10.0) was used to analyze data. Results indicated that group reminiscence therapy significantly improved self-esteem, although effects on depression and life satisfaction were not significant. Reminiscence groups could enhance elders' social interaction with one another in nursing home settings and become support groups for participants. The model we created here can serve as a reference for future application in institutional care.

  9. The effects of reminiscence therapy on depressive symptoms of Chinese elderly: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

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    Chen Ting-ji

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is one of the most common mental disorders with a high prevalence among the older adults. In recent years, after realizing some side effects of the antidepressants, non-pharmacological psychological treatments begin to attract accruing attention. Reminiscence therapy is one of the psychological treatments that specially designed for the elderly to improve their mental health status by recalling and assessing their existing memory. Though some studies indicate reminiscence therapy can be effective and beneficial for the mental health of elderly, the conclusions are not consistent yet. The aim of this research is to assess the effectiveness of reminiscence therapy for Chinese elderly. Methods Sixty older adults (≥60 years of age with mild to moderate depression will be randomly assigned to an experimental or a control condition. The participants in the experiment group will receive the reminiscence therapy under the Watt’s protocol with adaptation to Chinese Culture which consists of six weekly sessions of 90 minutes each. The control group will be treated as before. An assessor who is blind to intervention will conduct the measures before treatment, after treatment immediately, and three months after treatment. Discussion This study will provide the evidence whether the reminiscence therapy is effective to treat depressive symptoms of Chinese elderly. This research has been registered in the clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01553669.

  10. Reminiscence functions and the health of Israeli Holocaust survivors as compared to other older Israelis and older Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Norm; Bachner, Yaacov G; Cappeliez, Philippe; Chaudhury, Habib; Carmel, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Existing research with English-speaking samples indicates that various ways in which older adults recall their past affect both their physical and mental health. Self-positive reminiscence functions (i.e. identity, problem-solving, death preparation) correlate and predict mental health in later life whereas self-negative functions (i.e. bitterness revival, boredom reduction, intimacy maintenance) correlate and predict the physical health of older adults. For this study, we recruited 295 Israeli Holocaust survivors to ascertain if early life trauma affects these associations between reminiscence and health. In order to distinguish cross-national differences from survivor-specific effects, we also recruited two comparative samples of other older Israelis (not Holocaust survivors; n = 205) and a second comparative sample of 335 older Canadians. Three separate structural equation models were computed to replicate this tripartite reminiscence and health model. Coefficients for self-negative functions significantly differed between survivors and both Canadians and other older Israelis, and between Canadians and both Israeli samples. However, no differences were found between prosocial and self-positive functions. Moreover, the higher order structure of reminiscence and health appears largely indistinguishable across these three groups. Early life trauma does not appear to fundamentally affect associations between reminiscence and health. These findings underscore the resilience of Holocaust survivors.

  11. Relations of Maternal Style and Child Self-Concept to Autobiographical Memories in Chinese, Chinese Immigrant, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    2006-01-01

    The relations of maternal reminiscing style and child self-concept to children's shared and independent autobiographical memories were examined in a sample of 189 three-year-olds and their mothers from Chinese families in China, first-generation Chinese immigrant families in the United States, and European American families. Mothers shared…

  12. Effectiveness of group reminiscence for improving wellbeing of institutionalized elderly adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Scaratti, Chiara; Morganti, Luca; Stramba-Badiale, Marco; Agostoni, Monica; Spatola, Chiara A M; Molinari, Enrico; Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-10-25

    Group reminiscence therapy is a brief and structured intervention in which participants share personal past events with peers. This approach has been shown to be promising for improving wellbeing and reducing depressive symptoms among institutionalized older adults. However, despite the considerable interest in reminiscence group therapy, controlled studies to determine its specific benefits as compared to generic social interactions with peers (group conversations about everyday subjects) are still lacking. We have designed a randomized controlled trial aimed at comparing the effects of group reminiscence therapy with those of group recreational activity on the psychological wellbeing of an institutionalized sample of older adults. The study includes two groups of 20 hospitalized elderly participants: the experimental group and the control group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive six sessions of group reminiscence therapy, while the control group will participate in a recreational group discussion. A repeated-measures design will be used post-intervention and three months post-intervention to evaluate changes in self-reported outcome measures of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and quality of life from baseline. The protocol of a study aimed at examining the specific effects of group reminiscence therapy on psychological wellbeing, depression, and quality of life among institutionalized elderly people is described. It is expected that the outcomes of this trial will contribute to our knowledge about the process of group reminiscence, evaluate its effectiveness in improving psychological wellbeing of institutionalized individuals, and identify the best conditions for optimizing this approach. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (registration number: NCT02077153) on 31 January 2014.

  13. Developing a structured education reminiscence-based programme for staff in long-stay care facilities in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline; O'Shea, Eamon; Casey, Dympna; Murphy, Kathy; Dempsey, Laura; Smyth, Siobhan; Hunter, Andrew; Murphy, Edel; Devane, Declan; Jordan, Fionnuala

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the steps used in developing and piloting a structured education programme - the Structured Education Reminiscence-based Programme for Staff (SERPS). The programme aimed to prepare nurses and care assistants to use reminiscence when caring for people with dementia living in long-term care. Reminiscence involves facilitating people to talk or think about their past. Structured education programmes are used widely as interventions in randomised controlled trials. However, the process of developing a structured education programme has received little attention relative to that given to evaluating the effectiveness of such programmes. This paper makes explicit the steps followed to develop the SERPS, thereby making a contribution to the methodology of designing and implementing effective structured education programmes. The approach to designing the SERPS was informed by the Van Meijel et al. (2004) model (Journal of Advanced Nursing 48, 84): (1) problem definition, (2) accumulation of building blocks for intervention design, (3) intervention design and (4) intervention validation. Grounded theory was used (1) to generate data to shape the 'building blocks' for the SERPS and (2) to explore residents, family and staff's experience of using/receiving reminiscence. Analysis of the pilot data indicated that the programme met its objective of preparing staff to use reminiscence with residents with dementia. Staff were positive both about the SERPS and the use of reminiscence with residents with dementia. This paper outlines a systematic approach to developing and validating a structured education programme. Participation in a structured education programme is more positive for staff if they are expected to actively implement what they have learnt. Ongoing support during the delivery of the programme is important for successful implementation. The incorporation of client and professional experience in the design phase is a key strength of this approach

  14. Prediction of the Reminiscence Functions in Older Adults on the Basis of the Five Personality Factor Model

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    Azam Farmani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study is to examine the prediction of the reminiscence functions in older adults on the basis of the five personality factor model.  Methods & Materials: 242 elderly adults older than 60 were recruited from retirement clubs of the city of Shiraz via available sampling method. The participants completed the Reminiscence Functions Scale and Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool. Forty participants were deleted from the sample because they did not complete the questionnaires fully. All the participants took part in the study with their conscious consent. To conduct the necessary descriptive and inferential statistical operations, SPSS (Version 16 was used. Mean, standard deviation and Pearson correlation coefficient were utilized to analyze the data in the descriptive statistics section, And in inferential statistics section, simultaneous multiple regression was used to predict reminiscence functions.  Results: According to the results of the multiple regression analysis, Neuroticism predicted the reminiscence functions of Bitterness Revival (β=0.28, P≤0.001 and Intimacy Maintenance (β=0.25, P≤0.001 and Extraversion predicted the reminiscence functions of Teach/Inform (β=0.18, P<0.05.  Conclusion: The results indicated that people with higher levels of psychological distress tend to rehash and ruminate on bitter memories and hold onto memories of intimate social relations who are no longer part of their lives. Moreover, extravert people tend to share memories to transmit a lesson of life and share personal ideologies and experiences. Clinicians should focus on more adaptive functions of reminiscence (e.g., identity, problem solving and teach/inform and teach such functions.

  15. Day of mourning and time of reminiscence: Death, funeral and reminiscence of political famous persons in Serbia in socialist era and afterwards

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    Pavićević Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The most impressive event of death in the Yugoslav region in the last 50 years was definitely associated with death and funeral of Josip Broz Tito, in May 1980. The departure of one of the last European pharaohs has marked the beginning of an end of an era, with still hard to measure ideological and political consequences. In a symbolic sense, the departure represented a final breakdown of the proclaimed rational and secular walls of communist ideology, whose foundations contained complex religious symbolic and rhetoric. Tito came to be remembered while he was still alive. He was the only living hero portrayed in monuments, whose name was displayed in street appellations and public institutions. Media concept of his death and funeral represented a confirmation and continuation of this reminiscence; in addition, the deeper meaning of this reminiscence revealed an essential negation of the fact that the mighty ruler is actually dead. Tito's position of a supreme deity, acquired during his lifetime, was even more firmly established by his death. In this way, it could be argued that death has contributed to Broz' deification, thus extending his cult furthermore. The question remains whether the faith in his divine soul would persevere the temptations of history if he had lived for a few years more? It appears that the same question could be posed in regards to the deification of assassinated prime minister, Dr Zoran Djindjic, whose death, funeral and post mortem glory represent almost the only comparable event from the recent Serbian history, to those of the complex death related rhetoric of Broz? The post mortem image of Dr Djindjic was created based on Christian model of martyr and sufferer, but also on the model of exemplar death, that is, heroic and martyr's death in the name of nation, an important element of a special religious system, i.e., religion of nation. In 2006, during the annual commemoration dedicated to Zoran Djindjic, media

  16. The peaks of life: The differential temporal locations of the reminiscence bump across disparate cueing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    The reminiscence bump has generally been assessed through either (1) the cue word method, or (2) several related methods which we refer to under the umbrella of the important memories method. Here we provide a review of the literature demonstrating that the temporal location of the bump varies...... systematically according to cueing method, with the mean range of the bump located from 8.7 to 22.5 years of age for word-cued memories, versus 15.1 to 27.9 for important memories. This finding has hitherto been under-acknowledged, as existing theoretical accounts of the bump generally hold its location...... to be stable across cueing methods. We therefore re-evaluate existing theoretical accounts of the bump in light of these varying locations, addressing each account’s consistency with (1) the respective bumps found through each method taken individually, and (2) the sensitivity of the bump’s location to cueing...

  17. REMINISCENCES, QUOTATIONS AND MOTIFS OF THE PSALTER IN THE WORKS OF I. A. BUNIN

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    Olga Anatolyevna Berdnikova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the reminiscences, quotations and motifs borrowed from the Book of Psalms by I.A. Bunin in his poetry and prose. Discovering such reminiscences and quotations helps to clarify some debatable issues of the writer's personal position and outlook. The Book of Psalms acts as a major text of precedence in Bunin's works. Some of his poems are poetic variations of psalms (The Psalter, 1916; To Russia, 1922. Day and night as dominant images of Bunin's poetry are viewed as constants of being due to their creation by God. Night as an especially important and most frequent image in the whole heritage of I.A. Bunin becomes for him the time of self-knowledge and discovery of God, which is quite consistent with the poetic world of the Psalmist. In Bunin's prose, reading from the Book of Psalms often appears after a character dies. Death is thus viewed as a solemn and majestic event, and eternity becomes the main motif of such stories as The Pine Trees (1901, The Exodus (1918, Transfiguration (1923. It is from the psalmodic tradition that the title of one of Bunin's most conceptually important stories comes – Many waters (1911-1926. In this story, the author views the eternal through the lens of revolutionary perturbations in the 1917 Russia. The whole host of symbols associated in the Book of Psalms with 'many waters' finds a new life in Bunin's story. The author shows facing God as a profoundly Christian feeling. His protagonist feels not only fear, but primarily “the love and joy of being”. Cosmological, historical and providential 'plots' and images borrowed from the psalms prove that the Orthodox tradition was very important for Bunin's creative consciousness.

  18. The experience of family carers attending a joint reminiscence group with people with dementia: A thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melunsky, Nina; Crellin, Nadia; Dudzinski, Emma; Orrell, Martin; Wenborn, Jennifer; Poland, Fiona; Woods, Bob; Charlesworth, Georgina

    2015-11-01

    Reminiscence therapy has the potential to improve quality of life for people with dementia. In recent years reminiscence groups have extended to include family members, but carers' experience of attending joint sessions is undocumented. This qualitative study explored the experience of 18 family carers attending 'Remembering Yesterday Caring Today' groups. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Five themes were identified: experiencing carer support; shared experience; expectations (met and unmet), carer perspectives of the person with dementia's experience; and learning and comparing. Family carers' experiences varied, with some experiencing the intervention as entirely positive whereas others had more mixed feelings. Negative aspects included the lack of respite from their relative, the lack of emphasis on their own needs, and experiencing additional stress and guilt through not being able to implement newly acquired skills. These findings may explain the failure of a recent trial of joint reminiscence groups to replicate previous findings of positive benefit. More targeted research within subgroups of carers is required to justify the continued use of joint reminiscence groups in dementia care. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Temporal distribution of autobiographical memory: uncovering the reminiscence bump in Japanese young and middle-aged adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawasaki, Y.; Janssen, S.M.J.; Inoue, T.

    2011-01-01

    The reminiscence bump is the effect that people recall more personal events from their teenage period than from adjacent lifetime periods. The effect is generally found in studies that divide the results of participants, who were at least 40 years old, into age bins of 10 years. In this study, the

  20. Secondary Traumatic Stress, Psychological Distress, Sharing of Traumatic Reminisces, and Marital Quality among Spouses of Holocaust Child Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2001-01-01

    Examined the issue of secondary traumatic stress (STS) among spouses of Holocaust survivors who were children during World War II. Results showed that about one third of spouses suffered from some degree of STS symptoms. STS among spouses was related to hostility, anger and interpersonal sensitivity in the survivor, but not to reminiscences with…

  1. Effects of Group Reminiscence Therapy on Disability of Nursing Home Residents in Mashhad –Iran 1390

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    Hadi Kooshyar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Examine the effects of group reminiscence therapy on disability of nursing home residents in Mashhad -Iran. Methods & Materials: In this semi-experimental study, 56 residents of nursing homes in Mashhad –Iran were selected by convenience sampling. Subjects in each nursing home randomly assigned to reminiscence group therapy (30 and control group (26. Thus six groups with 4-8 members were made. Reminiscence group therapy was done one hour weekly for eight weeks. Disability, depression, cognitive function, and pain were measured by World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II, 15-Item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS respectively. SPSS version 11.5 and parametric and non-parametric tests were used for data analysis. Results: The result of ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests showed there was no significant difference about total disability score (P=0.94 and its subscales: communication and understanding (P=0.20, getting around (P=0.20, self-care (P=0.92, dealing with other (P=0.72, and participation (P=0.88 between experimental and control group. Conclusion: One hour weekly group reminiscence therapy for eight weeks can't reduce disability and its subdivisions in nursing home residents. Therefore we advise further studies in this field.

  2. Celebrating fifty years of research and applications in reminiscence and life review: State of the art and new directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years ago, psychiatrist Robert Butler (1963) published an influential article on the recollection and evaluation of personal memories in later life. We discuss the major insights and applications in psychological gerontology that were inspired by Butler. Reminiscence and life review serve to

  3. Meaning in life and mastery mediate the relationship of negative reminiscence with psychological distress among older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, J.; Cappeliez, Philippe; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Westerhof, Gerben Johan

    2012-01-01

    To understand the adaptive value of reminiscence, a mediational model of reminiscence was tested in a sample of older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Using structural equation modeling, we investigated if psychological resources (mastery and meaning in life) mediate the relation

  4. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  5. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  6. Maternal Resources, Parenting Practices, and Child Competence in Rural, Single-Parent African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.

    1998-01-01

    Tested a model linking maternal/family characteristics to child cognitive and psychosocial competence in African-American 6- to 9-year olds in rural single-mother-headed households. Found that maternal education, religiosity, and financial resources were linked with parenting style, mother-child relationship, and maternal school involvement.…

  7. Maternal immunocompetence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    The studies of distribution patterns of 51 Cr-labelled lymphocytes in pregnant mice were designed to explore the effect of pregnancy on the immunologic behaviour of the intact pregnant animal rather than on the isolated maternal lymphocyte. The distribution pattern of 51 Cr-labelled syngenic and semiallogenic lymphocytes was studied in intact primigravida mice, and there was no difference between interstrain and intrastrain pregnant mice, and there was no evidence of immunologically specific 'trapping' in the para-aortic lymph nodes draining the interstrain pregnant uterus. There is little evidence that the primigravida animal is even immunologically aware of the 'foreignness'of a semiallogenic fetus. (JIW)

  8. Effectiveness of follow-up reminiscence therapy on autobiographical memory in pathological ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Juan C; Torres, Marta; Redondo, Rita; Mayordomo, Teresa; Sales, Alicia

    2017-08-01

    The objective is to examine the effects of reminiscence therapy (RT) on total, episodic and semantic autobiographical memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) groups, testing the effects of RT on different stages of autobiographical memory, and its effectiveness at follow-up. A sample composed of 43 aMCI (27 treatments, 16 controls) and 30 AD (15 treatments, 15 controls) subjects were evaluated with the Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI) test. The RT consisted of 10 sessions lasting 60 minutes each. Both groups, aMCI and AD, showed significant effects on overall autobiographical memory; aMCI showed significant main effects on episodic and semantic autobiographical memory in the treatment group, increasing scores in both cases. For AD, significant effects were observed on autobiographical episodic memory, showing an increase in the treatment group from Time 1 to follow-up; semantic memory showed a decrease in the control group from Time 1 to follow-up. Results show that RT implementation and follow-up are effective in increasing autobiographical memory in subjects with aMCI and AD. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Does recall of a past music event invoke a reminiscence bump in young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-08-01

    Many studies of the reminiscence bump (RB) in music invoke memories from different autobiographical times by using stimulus specific prompts (SSPs). This study investigated the utility of a non-SSP paradigm to determine whether the RB would emerge when participants were asked to recall a single memorable musical event from "a time long ago". The presence of a RB in response to music has not been obtained in such a manner for younger participants. Eighty-eight 20-22 year olds reported music episodes that peaked when their autobiographical age was 13-14 years. Self-selected stimuli included a range of musical styles, including classical and non-Western pop forms, such as J-pop and K-pop, as well as generational pop music, such as the Beatles. However, most participants reported pop/rock music that was contemporaneous with encoding age, providing support for the utility of published SSP paradigms using pop music. Implications for and limitations of SSP paradigms are discussed. Participants were also asked to relate the selected musical piece to current musical tastes. Most participants liked the music that they selected, with many continuing to like the music, but most also reported a general broadening of their taste, consistent with developmental literature on open-earedness.

  10. The individual reminiscence therapy for patients with dementia. Assessment with SPECT and neuropsychological test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Katsuaki

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated psychosocial and neuronal effects of the individual reminiscence therapy (IRT) for patients with cognitive impairment. 25 IRT- treated outpatients with Alzheimer disease were compared with 14 outpatients who were not receiving any treatments including IRT. The subjects were treated with the total of 8 IRT sessions within 4 months. The changes of cognitive function, mood, volition, and the ability of caregiver were measured with questionnaires. The changes in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with IRT were measured using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In IRT group, depressed mood was improved after 4 month-IRT, which reached the significance level one year later. On the contrary, we could not observe any psychosocial changes in control group. Significant increase in regional blood flow was observed in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and in the right temporoparietal cortex in IRT group. On the contrary, the significant increase in the rCBF was observed only in the left DLPFC in control group. These results suggest that the IRT might improve the depressed mood and the spatial cognition in patients with cognitive impairment with neuronal change. (author)

  11. Maternal folate status in early pregnancy and child emotional and behavioral problems: The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien); S.J. Roza (Sabine); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Maternal prenatal folate status has been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, but the association with child emotional and behavioral problems is unclear. Objectives: We assessed the association of maternal folate status during pregnancy with child emotional and behavioral

  12. Looking back at Facebook content and the positive impact upon wellbeing: Exploring reminiscing as a tool for self soothing

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Alice; Sambhanthan, Arunasalam; Panjganj, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    The premise of this paper is to explore the potential of reminiscing in facilitating self soothing. The research presented looks at people’s activities on Facebook and whether these particular activities impact upon their perceived sense of wellbeing, furthermore, whether specific Facebook activities enable a self –soothing effect when feeling low in mood. A survey was distributed amongst Facebook users. The results from the study appear to indicate that in comparison to other Facebook activi...

  13. The Effect of Individual Reminiscence Therapy on Self-Esteem and Depression Among Institutionalized Elderly in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorneselvan, Catherine; Steefel, Lorraine

    2018-04-01

    Nurses often elicit patients' stories as a means to an end-for example, getting to know patients better and providing better care or treatments. However, the act of listening in itself can be therapeutic. Through the use of reminiscence therapy (RT), eliciting stories from elderly residents of a nursing home in India improved their sense of well-being. This article describes a study of the use of RT and presents one resident's story.

  14. Personalized reminiscence therapy M-health application for patients living with dementia: Innovating using open source code repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Roger C M

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is known to be an illness which brings forth marked disability amongst the elderly individuals. At times, patients living with dementia do also experience non-cognitive symptoms, and these symptoms include that of hallucinations, delusional beliefs as well as emotional liability, sexualized behaviours and aggression. According to the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines, non-pharmacological techniques are typically the first-line option prior to the consideration of adjuvant pharmacological options. Reminiscence and music therapy are thus viable options. Lazar et al. [3] previously performed a systematic review with regards to the utilization of technology to delivery reminiscence based therapy to individuals who are living with dementia and has highlighted that technology does have benefits in the delivery of reminiscence therapy. However, to date, there has been a paucity of M-health innovations in this area. In addition, most of the current innovations are not personalized for each of the person living with Dementia. Prior research has highlighted the utility for open source repository in bioinformatics study. The authors hoped to explain how they managed to tap upon and make use of open source repository in the development of a personalized M-health reminiscence therapy innovation for patients living with dementia. The availability of open source code repository has changed the way healthcare professionals and developers develop smartphone applications today. Conventionally, a long iterative process is needed in the development of native application, mainly because of the need for native programming and coding, especially so if the application needs to have interactive features or features that could be personalized. Such repository enables the rapid and cost effective development of application. Moreover, developers are also able to further innovate, as less time is spend in the iterative process.

  15. Reminiscing about Jan Evangelista Purkinje: a pioneer of modern experimental physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, Icilio; Guillon, Jean-Michel; Holzgrefe, Henry H

    2017-12-01

    This article reminisces about the life and key scientific achievements of Jan Evangelista Purkinje (1787-1869), a versatile 19th century Czech pioneer of modern experimental physiology. In 1804, after completing senior high school, Purkinje joined the Piarist monk order, but, after a 3-yr novitiate, he gave up the religious calling "to deal more freely with science." In 1818, he earned a Medical Doctor degree from Prague University by defending a dissertation on intraocular phenomena observed in oneself. In 1823, Purkinje became a Physiology and Pathology professor at the Prussian Medical University in Breslau, where he innovated the traditional teaching methods of physiology. Purkinje's contributions to physiology were manifold: accurate descriptions of various visual phenomena (e.g., Purkinje-Sanson images, Purkinje phenomenon), discovery of the terminal network of the cardiac conduction system (Purkinje fibers), identification of cerebellar neuronal bodies (Purkinje cells), formulation of the vertigo law (Purkinje's law), discovery of criteria to classify human fingerprints, etc. In 1850, Purkinje accepted and held until his death the Physiology chair at Prague Medical Faculty. During this period, he succeeded in introducing the Czech idiom (in addition to long-established German and Latin) as a Medical Faculty teaching language. Additionally, as a zealous Czech patriot, he actively contributed to the naissance and consolidation of a national Czech identity conscience. Purkinje was a trend-setting scientist who, throughout his career, worked to pave the way for the renovation of physiology from a speculative discipline, ancilla of anatomy, into a factual, autonomous science committed to the discovery of mechanisms governing in-life functions. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Protecting cognition from aging and Alzheimer's disease: a computerized cognitive training combined with reminiscence therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barban, Francesco; Annicchiarico, Roberta; Pantelopoulos, Stelios; Federici, Alessia; Perri, Roberta; Fadda, Lucia; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Ricci, Claudia; Giuli, Simone; Scalici, Francesco; Turchetta, Chiara Stella; Adriano, Fulvia; Lombardi, Maria Giovanna; Zaccarelli, Chiara; Cirillo, Giulio; Passuti, Simone; Mattarelli, Paolo; Lymperopoulou, Olga; Sakka, Paraskevi; Ntanasi, Eva; Moliner, Reyes; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the efficacy of process-based cognitive training (pb-CT) combined with reminiscence therapy (RT) in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (mAD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and in healthy elderly (HE) subjects. This multicenter, randomized, controlled trial involved 348 participants with mAD, MCI, and HE from four European countries. Participants were randomly assigned to two arms of a crossover design: those in arm A underwent 3 months of computerized pb-CT for memory and executive functions combined with RT and 3 months of rest; those in arm B underwent the reverse. The primary outcome was the effect of the training on memory and executive functions performance. The secondary outcome was the effect of the training on functional abilities in mAD assessed with the instrumental activities of daily living. We found a significant effect of the training for memory in all three groups on delayed recall of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and for executive functions in HE on the phonological fluency test. MCI and HE participants maintained these effects at follow-up. MCI and mAD participants also showed a significant effect of the training on the Mini-mental state examination scale. Participants with mAD showed more stable instrumental activities of daily living during the training versus the rest period. Our results corroborate the positive effect of pb-CT and its maintenance primarily on memory in HE and MCI participants that did not seem to be potentiated by RT. Moreover, our results are very promising for the mAD participants. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  18. Maternal Parity and Blood Oxidative Stress in Mother and Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Golalizadeh; Shobeiri; Ranjbar; Nazari

    2016-01-01

    Background Parturition has been associated with free radicals, itself linked with poor pregnancy outcome. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers levels of maternal and cord blood samples at the second stage of labor with the maternal parity number. Materials and Methods In this analytical cross-sectional study, subjects were ...

  19. Review Maternally derived egg yolk steroid hormones and sex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    some kind of functional link between maternally derived ... one progresses from the phylogenetically primitive boids to the more advanced ... but also in birds and fishes (Arcos 1972; Conley et al 1997;. McCormic ..... Ecology 79 1873–1883.

  20. Building maternal e-health in Vietnam | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-03-30

    Mar 30, 2015 ... Home · Resources · Publications ... An electronic maternal health platform, called mMOM, links health system users ... Minority women are thus gaining knowledge and trust in reproductive health services available to them.

  1. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  2. Maternal obesity and prenatal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshenawy, Summer; Simmons, Rebecca

    2016-11-05

    Obesity is a significant and increasing public health concern in the United States and worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological evidence clearly shows that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the increased susceptibility of humans to obesity and its associated comorbidities; the interplay of these factors is explained by the concept of epigenetics. The impact of maternal obesity goes beyond the newborn period; fetal programming during the critical window of pregnancy, can have long term detrimental effects on the offspring as well as future generations. Emerging evidence is uncovering a link between the clinical and molecular findings in the offspring with epigenetic changes in the setting of maternal obesity. Research targeted towards reducing the transgenerational propagation and developmental programming of obesity is vital in reducing the increasing rates of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Mobile Multimedia Reminiscence Therapy Application to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Persons with Alzheimer’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish Imtiaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project is to develop a novel and innovative mobile solution to address behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD that occur in individuals with Alzheimer’s. BPSD can include agitation, restlessness, aggression, apathy, obsessive-compulsive and repetitive behaviors, hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and wandering. Alzheimer’s currently affects 5.4 million adults in the United States and that number is projected to increase to 14 million by 2050. Almost 90% of all affected with AD experience BPSD, resulting in increased healthcare costs, heavier burden on caregivers, poor patient outcomes, early nursing home placement, long-term hospitalizations, and misuse of medications. Pharmacological support may have undesirable side effects such as sedation. Nonpharmacological interventions are alternative solutions that have shown to be effective without undesirable side effects. Music therapy has been found to lower BPSD symptoms significantly. Our study is based on combination of the reminiscence and the music therapies where past memorable events are recalled using prompts such as photos, videos, and music. We are proposing a mobile multimedia solution, a technical version of the combined reminiscence, and music therapies to prevent the occurrence of BPSD, especially for the rural population who have reduced access to dementia care services.

  4. Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

  5. Maternity Protection at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World of Work, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the need for maternity benefits for working women. Suggests that although most countries provide paid maternity leave by law, there is a gap between that law and practice. Includes a chart depicting maternity protection (length of leave, cash benefits, who pays) around the world. (JOW)

  6. Randomized controlled trial of a six-week spiritual reminiscence intervention on hope, life satisfaction, and spiritual well-being in elderly with mild and moderate dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Fen; Koo, Malcolm

    2016-02-01

    Reminiscence therapy has been reported to improve the well-being in patients with dementia. However, few studies have examined the effects of spiritual reminiscence, which emphasizes on reconnecting and enhancing the meaning of one's own experience, on patients with dementia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of spiritual reminiscence on hope, life satisfaction, and spiritual well-being in elderly Taiwanese with mild or moderate dementia. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 103 patients with mild or moderate dementia recruited from a medical center in central Taiwan. The patients were randomly assigned to either a 6-week spiritual reminiscence group (n = 53) or control group (n = 50). The Herth Hope Index, the Life Satisfaction Scale, the Spirituality Index of Well-Being were administered before and after the 6-week period. The interaction terms between group and time for the three outcome measures were found to be significant (P hope, life satisfaction, and spiritual well-being of elderly patients with mild or moderate dementia could significantly be improved with a 6-week spiritual reminiscence intervention. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Influences of maternal overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Lipscombe, P

    1981-04-01

    While maternal overprotection appears associated with several neurotic and psychotic disorders, little is known about determinants of such a parental characteristic. Several hypotheses have been tested in a large nonclinical sample. Maternal and cultural factors seemed of greater relevance than characteristics in the child. Overprotective mothers gave evidence of marked maternal preoccupations before having children, of showing a capacity to be overprotective after the active stage of mothering, and of having personality characteristics of high anxiety, obsessionality and a need to control. Maternal overprotection appears associated with low, rather than with high maternal care. This has important primary prevention and treatment implications.

  8. Reconfiguring Maternity Care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Nis

    This dissertation constitutes a reflection on two initiatives seeking to reconfigure maternity care. One initiative sought to digitalise maternity records and included a pilot run of an electronic maternity record in a Danish county. The other consisted of a collaboration between a maternity ward...... at a hospital and a group of researchers which included me. Both initiatives involved numerous seemingly different interests that were held together and related to reconfiguring maternity care. None of the initiatives can unequivocally be labelled a success, as neither managed to change maternity care, at least...... experimental designs are constructed. The consequences and the politics of the proposed changes are engaged with in laboratory manner through collaborative development of the designs and through exposing them to members of field of maternity care...

  9. Maternal Mortality in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Sonia; Archer, Natalie P; Ruggiero, Karen; Hall, Manda; Stagg, Julie; Interis, Evelyn Coronado; Vega, Rachelle; Delgado, Evelyn; Hellerstedt, John; Hankins, Gary; Hollier, Lisa M

    2017-05-01

    A commentary on maternal mortality in Texas is provided in response to a 2016 article in Obstetrics & Gynecology by MacDorman et al. While the Texas Department of State Health Services and the Texas Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Task Force agree that maternal mortality increased sharply from 2010 to 2011, the percentage change or the magnitude of the increase in the maternal mortality rate in Texas differs depending on the statistical methods used to compute and display it. Methodologic challenges in identifying maternal death are also discussed, as well as risk factors and causes of maternal death in Texas. Finally, several state efforts currently underway to address maternal mortality in Texas are described. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. A First Standardized Swiss Electronic Maternity Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murbach, Michel; Martin, Sabine; Denecke, Kerstin; Nüssli, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    During the nine months of pregnancy, women have to regularly visit several physicians for continuous monitoring of the health and development of the fetus and mother. Comprehensive examination results of different types are generated in this process; documentation and data transmission standards are still unavailable or not in use. Relevant information is collected in a paper-based maternity record carried by the pregnant women. To improve availability and transmission of data, we aim at developing a first prototype for an electronic maternity record for Switzerland. By analyzing the documentation workflow during pregnancy, we determined a maternity record data set. Further, we collected requirements towards a digital maternity record. As data exchange format, the Swiss specific exchange format SMEEX (swiss medical data exchange) was exploited. Feedback from 27 potential users was collected to identify further improvements. The relevant data is extracted from the primary care information system as SMEEX file, stored in a database and made available in a web and a mobile application, developed as prototypes of an electronic maternity record. The user confirmed the usefulness of the system and provided multiple suggestions for an extension. An electronical maternity record as developed in this work could be in future linked to the electronic patient record.

  11. Cesarean deliveries and maternal weight retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinos, Kandice A; Yakusheva, Olga; Weiss, Marianne

    2017-10-04

    Cesarean delivery accounts for nearly one-third of all births in the U.S. and contributes to an additional $38 billion in healthcare costs each year. Although Cesarean delivery has a long record of improving maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, increased utilization over time has yielded public health concerns and calls for reductions. Observational evidence suggests Cesarean delivery is associated with increased maternal postpartum weight, which may have significant implications for the obesity epidemic. Previous literature, however, typically does not address selection biases stemming from correlations of pre-pregnancy weight and reproductive health with Cesarean delivery. We used fetal malpresentation as a natural experiment as it predicts Cesarean delivery but is uncorrelated with pre-pregnancy weight or maternal health. We used hospital administrative data (including fields used in vital birth record) from the state of Wisconsin from 2006 to 2013 to create a sample of mothers with at least two births. Using propensity score methods, we compared maternal weight prior to the second pregnancy of mothers who delivered via Cesarean due to fetal malpresentation to mothers who deliver vaginally. We found no evidence that Cesarean delivery in the first pregnancy causally leads to greater maternal weight, BMI, or movement to a higher BMI classification prior to the second pregnancy. After accounting for correlations between pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, and mode of delivery, there is no evidence of a causal link between Cesarean delivery and maternal weight retention.

  12. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Behavior: The Role of Maternal Psychopathology, Child Responsiveness and Maternal Attachment Style Insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Corinna; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Zietlow, Anna-Lena

    Maternal depression and anxiety disorders are risk factors for the development of internalizing disorders in offspring. Maternal attachment has been discussed as one factor accounting for transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate child internalizing behavior at preschool age on a symptomatic and behavioral level and possible links to maternal mental health over time and maternal attachment style insecurity in a sample of postpartum depressed and anxious mothers. Child internalizing behavior at preschool age was rated by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), and during a mother-child free-play situation. We focused on child responsiveness as it has been linked to child internalizing behavior. Maternal attachment style insecurity was tested to mediate the link between maternal mental health (assessed postpartum and at preschool age with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders, SCID-I) and child internalizing behavior/child responsiveness. Of the overall sample (n = 58), 28 women were diagnosed with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and 30 were healthy controls. Data were collected 3-9 months after delivery and at preschool age (mean = 4.6 years). At preschool age, children of postpartum depressed and anxious mothers were rated significantly higher on child internalizing behavior by mothers, fathers, and additional caregivers compared to the control group. Child internalizing behavior rated by mothers was influenced by current psychiatric symptoms; maternal attachment style insecurity did not mediate this link. During interaction, children in the clinical group displayed significantly less child responsiveness compared to the control group. Maternal attachment style insecurity mediated the relationship between maternal mental health over time and child responsiveness. The results emphasize the need for interventions focusing on mother-child interaction and

  13. Severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal death audit - a rapid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal death audit - a rapid diagnostic tool for evaluating maternal care. L Cochet, R.C. Pattinson, A.P. Macdonald. Abstract. Objective. To analyse severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) and maternal mortality in the Pretoria region over a 2-year period (2000 - 2001). Setting.

  14. Parental Co-Construction of 5- to 13-Year-Olds' Global Self-Esteem Through Reminiscing About Past Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michelle A; Donnellan, M B; Guo, Jen; McAdams, Dan P; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Trzesniewski, Kali H

    2017-11-01

    The current study explored parental processes associated with children's global self-esteem development. Eighty 5- to 13-year-olds and one of their parents provided qualitative and quantitative data through questionnaires, open-ended questions, and a laboratory-based reminiscing task. Parents who included more explanations of emotions when writing about the lowest points in their lives were more likely to discuss explanations of emotions experienced in negative past events with their child, which was associated with child attachment security. Attachment was associated with concurrent self-esteem, which predicted relative increases in self-esteem 16 months later, on average. Finally, parent support also predicted residual increases in self-esteem. Findings extend prior research by including younger ages and uncovering a process by which two theoretically relevant parenting behaviors impact self-esteem development. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Maternal diets trigger sex-specific divergent trajectories of gene expression and epigenetic systems in mouse placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gabory

    Full Text Available Males and females responses to gestational overnutrition set the stage for subsequent sex-specific differences in adult onset non communicable diseases. Placenta, as a widely recognized programming agent, contibutes to the underlying processes. According to our previous findings, a high-fat diet during gestation triggers sex-specific epigenetic alterations within CpG and throughout the genome, together with the deregulation of clusters of imprinted genes. We further investigated the impact of diet and sex on placental histology, transcriptomic and epigenetic signatures in mice. Both basal gene expression and response to maternal high-fat diet were sexually dimorphic in whole placentas. Numerous genes showed sexually dimorphic expression, but only 11 genes regardless of the diet. In line with the key role of genes belonging to the sex chromosomes, 3 of these genes were Y-specific and 3 were X-specific. Amongst all the genes that were differentially expressed under a high-fat diet, only 16 genes were consistently affected in both males and females. The differences were not only quantitative but remarkably qualitative. The biological functions and networks of genes dysregulated differed markedly between the sexes. Seven genes of the epigenetic machinery were dysregulated, due to effects of diet, sex or both, including the Y- and X-linked histone demethylase paralogues Kdm5c and Kdm5d, which could mark differently male and female epigenomes. The DNA methyltransferase cofactor Dnmt3l gene expression was affected, reminiscent of our previous observation of changes in global DNA methylation. Overall, this striking sexual dimorphism of programming trajectories impose a considerable revision of the current dietary interventions protocols.

  16. Maternal periodontal disease, pregnancy, and neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Gennaro, Susan; Hendricks-Muñoz, Karen D; Chhun, Nok

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the association between maternal periodontal disease and poor pregnancy and neonatal outcomes and outline the role nurses can play in improving the oral health of pregnant women. Maternal periodontal disease is linked to preterm birth, low birthweight, and preterm low birthweight, but treatment of periodontal disease during pregnancy has been shown to be safe and effective. Nurses, nurse practitioners, and nurse-midwives are in a position to educate pregnant women on the benefits of good oral health and identify and refer women who are in need of dental care for treatment.

  17. Maternal irradiation and Down Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.L.; Uh, S.H.; Miller, J.R.

    1978-04-01

    The role of preconception irradiation in the etiology of Down Syndrome was examined using the techniques of record linkage. Although 909 cases of Down Syndrome, born in B.C. between 1952-70, were ascertained through a system of linked vital and health registrations, interest was restricted to the 348 case/control pairs born in the greater Vancouver area. The maternal identifying information routinely recorded on birth and ill-health registrations was used to link 155 Down Syndrome mothers and 116 control mothers to patient files at the Vancouver General Hospital. Only 28 of the case and 25 of the control mothers were subjected to diagnostic irradiation at the Vancouver Ganeral Hospital. The difference was not significant at the 5% level

  18. The reminiscence bump without memories: The distribution of imagined word-cued and important autobiographical memories in a hypothetical 70-year-old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    The reminiscence bump is the disproportionate number of autobiographical memories dating from adolescence and early adulthood. It has often been ascribed to a consolidation of the mature self in the period covered by the bump. Here we stripped away factors relating to the characteristics of autob...

  19. An XXX male resulting from paternal X-Y interchange and maternal X-X nondisjunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerén, G; Andersson, M; Page, D C; Brown, L G; Berg, M; Läckgren, G; Gustavson, K H; de la Chapelle, A

    1987-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy was found to have a 47,XXX karyotype. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism analysis showed that, of his three X chromosomes, one is of paternal and two are of maternal origin. The results of Y-DNA hybridization were reminiscent of those in XX males in two respects. First, hybridization to Southern transfers revealed the presence in this XXX male of sequences derived from the Y-chromosomal short arm. Second, in situ hybridization showed that this Y DNA was located on the tip of the X-chromosomal short arm. We conclude that this XXX male resulted from the coincidence of X-X nondisjunction during maternal meiosis and aberrant X-Y interchange either during or prior to paternal meiosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2889356

  20. Reminiscence Therapy Improves Cognitive Functions and Reduces Depressive Symptoms in Elderly People With Dementia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Pin-Yuan; Huey-Lan Hu, Sophia; Liu, Fang; Kuo, Ying-Ling; Chiu, Hsiao-Yean

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive function impairments and depressive symptoms are common in elderly people with dementia. Previous meta-analyses of outdated and small-scale studies have reported inconsistent results regarding the effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms; therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis by including more recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with large sample sizes to investigate the immediate and long-term (6-10 months) effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms in elderly people with dementia. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and Chinese databases were searched to select eligible articles. Primary outcome measures included the scores of cognitive functions and depressive symptoms. In total, 12 RCT studies investigating the effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms in elderly people with dementia were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data. All analyses were performed using a random-effects model. Reminiscence therapy had a small-size effect on cognitive functions (g = 0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05-0.30) and a moderate-size effect on depressive symptoms (g = -0.49, 95% CI -0.70 to -0.28) in elderly people with dementia. Long-term effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms were not confirmed. Moderator analysis revealed that institutionalized elderly people with dementia exhibited greater improvement in depressive symptoms than community-dwelling people with dementia did (g = -0.59 vs. -0.16, P = .003). This meta-analysis confirms that reminiscence therapy is effective in improving cognitive functions and depressive symptoms in elderly people with dementia. Our findings suggest that regular reminiscence therapy should be considered for inclusion as routine care for the improvement

  1. Paid Maternity Leave in the United States: Associations with Maternal and Infant Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Judy; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Abraham, Jean M; Blewett, Lynn A; McGovern, Patricia M

    2018-02-01

    Objectives The United States is one of only three countries worldwide with no national policy guaranteeing paid leave to employed women who give birth. While maternity leave has been linked to improved maternal and child outcomes in international contexts, up-to-date research evidence in the U.S. context is needed to inform current policy debates on paid family leave. Methods Using data from Listening to Mothers III, a national survey of women ages 18-45 who gave birth in 2011-2012, we conducted multivariate logistic regression to predict the likelihood of outcomes related to infant health, maternal physical and mental health, and maternal health behaviors by the use and duration of paid maternity leave. Results Use of paid and unpaid leave varied significantly by race/ethnicity and household income. Women who took paid maternity leave experienced a 47% decrease in the odds of re-hospitalizing their infants (95% CI 0.3, 1.0) and a 51% decrease in the odds of being re-hospitalized themselves (95% CI 0.3, 0.9) at 21 months postpartum, compared to women taking unpaid or no leave. They also had 1.8 times the odds of doing well with exercise (95% CI 1.1, 3.0) and stress management (95% CI 1.1, 2.8), compared to women taking only unpaid leave. Conclusions for Practice Paid maternity leave significantly predicts lower odds of maternal and infant re-hospitalization and higher odds of doing well with exercise and stress management. Policies aimed at expanding access to paid maternity and family leave may contribute toward reducing socio-demographic disparities in paid leave use and its associated health benefits.

  2. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education......, health professionalism, and management strategies pose the foremost challenge. Operational links indicates cooperative levels that facilitate a creative and innovative effort across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  3. Maternal Employment: 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lois Wladis

    1979-01-01

    Maternal employment is a part of modern family life, a response to changes such as smaller families and more efficient household management. Not only does maternal employment meet parents' needs, but it is a pattern better suited for socializing the child for the adult role s/he will occupy. (Author/GC)

  4. Trends in adverse maternal outcomes during childbirth: a population-based study of severe maternal morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christine L; Ford, Jane B; Algert, Charles S; Bell, Jane C; Simpson, Judy M; Morris, Jonathan M

    2009-02-25

    Maternal mortality is too rare in high income countries to be used as a marker of the quality of maternity care. Consequently severe maternal morbidity has been suggested as a better indicator. Using the maternal morbidity outcome indicator (MMOI) developed and validated for use in routinely collected population health data, we aimed to determine trends in severe adverse maternal outcomes during the birth admission and in particular to examine the contribution of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). We applied the MMOI to the linked birth-hospital discharge records for all women who gave birth in New South Wales, Australia from 1999 to 2004 and determined rates of severe adverse maternal outcomes. We used frequency distributions and contingency table analyses to examine the association between adverse outcomes and maternal, pregnancy and birth characteristics, among all women and among only those with PPH. Using logistic regression, we modelled the effects of these characteristics on adverse maternal outcomes. The impact of adverse outcomes on duration of hospital admission was also examined. Of 500,603 women with linked birth and hospital records, 6242 (12.5 per 1,000) suffered an adverse outcome, including 22 who died. The rate of adverse maternal outcomes increased from 11.5 in 1999 to 13.8 per 1000 deliveries in 2004, an annual increase of 3.8% (95%CI 2.3-5.3%). This increase occurred almost entirely among women with a PPH. Changes in pregnancy and birth factors during the study period did not account for increases in adverse outcomes either overall, or among the subgroup of women with PPH. Among women with severe adverse outcomes there was a 12% decrease in hospital days over the study period, whereas women with no severe adverse outcome occupied 23% fewer hospital days in 2004 than in 1999. Severe adverse maternal outcomes associated with childbirth have increased in Australia and the increase was entirely among women who experienced a PPH. Reducing or stabilising

  5. Trends in adverse maternal outcomes during childbirth: a population-based study of severe maternal morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algert Charles S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality is too rare in high income countries to be used as a marker of the quality of maternity care. Consequently severe maternal morbidity has been suggested as a better indicator. Using the maternal morbidity outcome indicator (MMOI developed and validated for use in routinely collected population health data, we aimed to determine trends in severe adverse maternal outcomes during the birth admission and in particular to examine the contribution of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH. Methods We applied the MMOI to the linked birth-hospital discharge records for all women who gave birth in New South Wales, Australia from 1999 to 2004 and determined rates of severe adverse maternal outcomes. We used frequency distributions and contingency table analyses to examine the association between adverse outcomes and maternal, pregnancy and birth characteristics, among all women and among only those with PPH. Using logistic regression, we modelled the effects of these characteristics on adverse maternal outcomes. The impact of adverse outcomes on duration of hospital admission was also examined. Results Of 500,603 women with linked birth and hospital records, 6242 (12.5 per 1,000 suffered an adverse outcome, including 22 who died. The rate of adverse maternal outcomes increased from 11.5 in 1999 to 13.8 per 1000 deliveries in 2004, an annual increase of 3.8% (95%CI 2.3–5.3%. This increase occurred almost entirely among women with a PPH. Changes in pregnancy and birth factors during the study period did not account for increases in adverse outcomes either overall, or among the subgroup of women with PPH. Among women with severe adverse outcomes there was a 12% decrease in hospital days over the study period, whereas women with no severe adverse outcome occupied 23% fewer hospital days in 2004 than in 1999. Conclusion Severe adverse maternal outcomes associated with childbirth have increased in Australia and the increase was

  6. Maternal sensitivity: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjeong; Park, Young-Joo; Ryu, Hosihn; Seomun, Gyeong-Ae

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a concept analysis of maternal sensitivity. Maternal sensitivity is a broad concept encompassing a variety of interrelated affective and behavioural caregiving attributes. It is used interchangeably with the terms maternal responsiveness or maternal competency, with no consistency of use. There is a need to clarify the concept of maternal sensitivity for research and practice. A search was performed on the CINAHL and Ovid MEDLINE databases using 'maternal sensitivity', 'maternal responsiveness' and 'sensitive mothering' as key words. The searches yielded 54 records for the years 1981-2007. Rodgers' method of evolutionary concept analysis was used to analyse the material. Four critical attributes of maternal sensitivity were identified: (a) dynamic process involving maternal abilities; (b) reciprocal give-and-take with the infant; (c) contingency on the infant's behaviour and (d) quality of maternal behaviours. Maternal identity and infant's needs and cues are antecedents for these attributes. The consequences are infant's comfort, mother-infant attachment and infant development. In addition, three positive affecting factors (social support, maternal-foetal attachment and high self-esteem) and three negative affecting factors (maternal depression, maternal stress and maternal anxiety) were identified. A clear understanding of the concept of maternal sensitivity could be useful for developing ways to enhance maternal sensitivity and to maximize the developmental potential of infants. Knowledge of the attributes of maternal sensitivity identified in this concept analysis may be helpful for constructing measuring items or dimensions.

  7. Effects of Maternal Anxiety Disorders on Infant Self-Comforting Behaviors: The Role of Maternal Bonding, Infant Gender and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mitho; Tronick, Ed; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Verschoor, Stephan; Träuble, Birgit

    We investigated the links between maternal bonding, maternal anxiety disorders, and infant self-comforting behaviors. Furthermore, we looked at the moderating roles of infant gender and age. Our sample (n = 69) comprised 28 mothers with an anxiety disorder (according to DSM-IV criteria) and 41 controls, each with their 2.5- to 8-month-old infant (41 females and 28 males). Infant behaviors were recorded during the Face-to-Face Still-Face paradigm. Maternal bonding was assessed by the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. Conditional process analyses revealed that lower maternal bonding partially mediated between maternal anxiety disorders and increased self-comforting behaviors but only in older female infants (over 5.5 months of age). However, considering maternal anxiety disorders without the influence of bonding, older female infants (over 5.5 months of age) showed decreased rates of self-comforting behaviors, while younger male infants (under 3 months of age) showed increased rates in the case of maternal anxiety disorder. The results suggest that older female infants (over 5.5 months of age) are more sensitive to lower maternal bonding in the context of maternal anxiety disorders. Furthermore, results suggest a different use of self-directed regulation strategies for male and female infants of mothers with anxiety disorders and low bonding, depending on infant age. The results are discussed in the light of gender-specific developmental trajectories. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Kinship support and maternal and adolescent well-being in economically disadvantaged African-American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R D; Roberts, D

    1995-12-01

    This study tested a conceptual model developed to explain the link between kinship support and the psychological well-being of economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents. The relation of kinship support with maternal and adolescent well-being and mothers' child-rearing practices was assessed in 51 African-American families whose incomes placed them at or below the poverty threshold. Findings revealed that kinship social support to mothers/female guardians was positively associated with adolescent psychological well-being, maternal well-being, and more adequate maternal parenting practices (acceptance, firm control and monitoring of behavior, autonomy granting). Maternal well-being and more adequate maternal parenting practices were positively related to adolescent well-being. Evidence of the mediational role of maternal well-being and parenting practices was revealed. When the effects of maternal well-being and maternal parenting practices were controlled, significant relations between kinship support and adolescent well-being were no longer apparent.

  9. Art therapy and music reminiscence activity in the prevention of cognitive decline: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Rathi; Rawtaer, Iris; Fam, Johnson; Wong, Jonathan; Kumar, Alan Prem; Gandhi, Mihir; Jing, Kenny Xu; Feng, Lei; Kua, Ee Heok

    2017-07-12

    Attention has shifted to the use of non-pharmacological interventions to prevent cognitive decline as a preventive strategy, as well as for those at risk and those with mild cognitive impairment. Early introduction of psycho-social interventions can address cognitive decline and significantly impact quality of life and the wellbeing of elderly individuals. This pilot study explores the feasibility of using art therapy and music reminiscence activity to improve the cognition of community living elderly with mild cognitive impairment. This open-label, interventional study involves a parallel randomized controlled trial design with three arms (two intervention arms and a control group) over a nine-month period. Participants will be community-living elderly individuals aged 60-85 years, both genders, who meet predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. In the initial three months, interventions will be provided weekly and for the remaining six months fortnightly. A sample size of 90 participants is targeted based on expected neuropsychological test performance, a primary outcome measure, and drop-out rates. The randomization procedure will be carried out via a web-based randomization system. Interventions will be provided by trained staff with a control group not receiving any intervention but continuing life as usual. Assessments will be done at baseline, three months, and nine months, and include neuroimaging to measure cerebral changes and neuropsychological tests to measure for changes in cognition. Secondary outcome measures will include mood changes in anxiety and depression and telomere lengths. Statistical analysis will be undertaken by statisticians; all efficacy analysis will be carried out on an intention-to-treat basis. Primary and secondary outcomes will be modeled using the linear mixed model for repeated measurements and further analysis may be undertaken to adjust for potential confounders. This will be the first study to compare the effectiveness of

  10. Maternal obesity and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Andrea G.

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from both human epidemiologic and animal studies that prenatal and lactational exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. These disorders include cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. This review synthesizes human and animal data linking maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption to abnormal fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric morbidity in offspring. In addition, it highlights key mechanisms by which maternal obesity and maternal diet might impact fetal and offspring neurodevelopment, including neuroinflammation; increased oxidative stress, dysregulated insulin, glucose, and leptin signaling; dysregulated serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling; and perturbations in synaptic plasticity. Finally, the review summarizes available evidence regarding investigational therapeutic approaches to mitigate the harmful effects of maternal obesity on fetal and offspring neurodevelopment. PMID:27684946

  11. Reducing Maternal Mortality by Strengthening Community Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    translated from Hausa to English language. Using a pre-determined coding framework, coding and thematic analyses were carried out on the qualitative data collected from the baseline. LGA. Community. Estimated. Community. Population. Community maternal support systems established. Community savings. Emergency.

  12. Maternal depression and co-occurring antisocial behaviour: testing maternal hostility and warmth as mediators of risk for offspring psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Ruth; Harold, Gordon T; Elam, Kit; Rhoades, Kimberly A; Potter, Robert; Mars, Becky; Craddock, Nick; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Disruption in the parent-child relationship is a commonly hypothesized risk factor through which maternal depression may increase risk for offspring psychopathology. However, maternal depression is commonly accompanied by other psychopathology, including antisocial behaviour. Few studies have examined the role of co-occurring psychopathology in depressed mothers. Using a longitudinal study of offspring of mothers with recurrent depression, we aimed to test whether maternal warmth/hostility mediated links between maternal depression severity and child outcomes, and how far direct and indirect pathways were robust to controls for co-occurring maternal antisocial behaviour. Mothers with a history of recurrent major depressive disorder and their adolescent offspring (9-17 years at baseline) were assessed three times between 2007 and 2010. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their own depression severity and antisocial behaviour at Time 1 (T1). The parent-child relationship was assessed using parent-rated questionnaire and interviewer-rated 5-min speech sample at Time 2 (T2). Offspring symptoms of depression and disruptive behaviours were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment at Time 3 (T3). Maternal hostility and warmth, respectively, mediated the association between maternal depression severity and risk for offspring psychopathology. However, the effects were attenuated when maternal antisocial behaviour was included in the analysis. In tests of the full theoretical model, maternal antisocial behaviour predicted both maternal hostility and low warmth, maternal hostility predicted offspring disruptive behaviour disorder symptoms, but not depression, and maternal warmth was not associated with either child outcome. Parenting interventions aimed at reducing hostility may be beneficial for preventing or reducing adolescent disruptive behaviours in offspring of depressed mothers, especially when depressed mothers report co

  13. An exploration of reminiscence and post-war European immigrants living in a multicultural aged-care setting in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Cherie; Schmidt, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores the experiences and perceptions of the telling of life stories of four post-war immigrants living in a multicultural residential aged-care setting in Australia. This study aims to shed light on what participants feel about life stories, and the prospect of involvement in the documentation of their life story in order to provide insight and understanding for optimum programme facilitation and better resident care.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the four participants. Data were audiotaped and transcribed. Phenomenological methods were used to explicate data.Three main themes emerged: diminution of guilt, social sharing - common bonds and, the urge to 'feel' the past to 'fill' the present. It is apparent that aged survivors of war, and displacement to a new country, feel residual guilt regarding the leaving of their homeland. The prospect of documenting their life stories offers an opportunity to provide an explanation for their decision.Immersion in life stories allows the re-experiencing and sharing of past emotions and sensations. Engagement in occupational reminiscence enhances understanding a person's lived life experience, which adds meaning to one's life. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A holographic model of reminiscence in the poetry of Czesław Miłosz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Rydz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For a model of nostalgic memory in the poetry of Czesław Miłosz, based on the psychological phenomenon of reminiscence, an allegoric counterpart can be identified in the hologram metaphor (Douwe Draaisma. The question: “Who am I” – reappears in Miłosz’s late lyrical poetry when he ponders over both his biography and the biographies of others. The response is provided, for instance, in the concept of human dialectic biography (of subject and object, formulated by Paul Ricoeur in his philosophical analyses. Human memory remains equally dialectic, placed in the antinomy between memory and oblivion. Still, retrieving a detail which has been remembered evokes all experience along with its rich context. That is the holographic effect, described in literature as the “ghost image”. Also in poetry, the effacing of memory trace does not make a barrier for the restitution of recollection. “The Sun of Memory” beams through the lyric of the author of the collection of poems “This”.

  15. Peer support for family carers of people with dementia, alone or in combination with group reminiscence in a factorial design: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenborn Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peer support interventions can improve carer wellbeing and interventions that engage both the carer and person with dementia can have significant mutual benefits. Existing research has been criticised for inadequate rigour of design or reporting. This paper describes the protocol for a complex trial that evaluates one-to-one peer support and a group reminiscence programme, both separately and together, in a factorial design. Design A 2 × 2 factorial multi-site randomised controlled trial of individual peer support and group reminiscence interventions for family carers and people with dementia in community settings in England, addressing both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Discussion The methods described in this protocol have implications for research into psychosocial interventions, particularly complex interventions seeking to test both individual and group approaches. Trial Registration ISRCTN37956201

  16. O estilo de reminiscência nas interações mãe-criança e pai-criança

    OpenAIRE

    Rebelo, Ana; Maia, Joana; Gatinho, Ana; Coelho, Leandra; Torres, Nuno; Veríssimo, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Nas últimas décadas, a investigação na área da reminiscência adulto-criança tem-se debruçado, essencial - mente, sobre a forma como as mães conversam sobre eventos passados com os seus filhos. Contudo, mais recentemente, os investigadores têm procurado compreender a importância do pai no desenvolvi - mento da comunicação infantil. O presente estudo explora as diferenças do estilo de reminiscência nas díades mãe-criança e pai-criança, em função do sexo desta. Participaram 79 crianç...

  17. [Maternal death: unequal risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defossez, A C; Fassin, D

    1989-01-01

    Nearly 99% of maternal deaths in the world each year occur in developing countries. New efforts have recently been undertaken to combat maternal mortality through research and action. The medical causes of such deaths are coming to be better understood, but the social mechanisms remain poorly grasped. Maternal mortality rates in developing countries are difficult to interpret because they tend to exclude all deaths not occurring in health care facilities. The countries of Europe and North America have an average maternal mortality rate of 30/100,000 live births, representing about 6000 deaths each year. The developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America have rates of 270-640/100,000, representing some 492,000 deaths annually. For a true comparison of the risks of maternal mortality in different countries, the risk itself and the average number of children per woman must both be considered. A Nigerian woman has 375 times greater risk of maternal death than a Swedish woman, but since she has about 4 times more children, her lifetime risk of maternal death is over 1500 times greater than that of the Swedish woman. The principal medical causes of maternal death are known: hemorrhages due to placenta previa or retroplacental hematoma, mechanical dystocias responsible for uterine rupture, toxemia with eclampsia, septicemia, and malaria. The exact weight of abortion in maternal mortality is not known but is probably large. The possible measures for improving such rates are of 3 types: control of fertility to avoid early, late, or closely spaced pregnancies; effective medical surveillance of the pregnancy to reduce the risk of malaria, toxemia, and hemorrhage, and delivery in an obstetrical facility, especially for high-risk pregnancies. Differential access to high quality health care explains much of the difference between mortality rates in urban and rural, wealthy and impoverished areas of the same country. The social determinants of high maternal mortality

  18. The clinical efficacy of reminiscence therapy in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease: Study protocol for a randomized parallel-design controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Lyu, Ji-Hui; Zhang, Yi; Gao, Mao-Long; Li, Wen-Jie; Ma, Xin

    2017-12-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is one of the most common diseases among the older adults. Currently, various nonpharmacological interventions are used for the treatment of AD. Such as reminiscence therapy is being widely used in Western countries. However, it is often used as an empirical application in China; the evidence-based efficacy of reminiscence therapy in AD patients remains to be determined. Therefore, the aim of this research is to assess the effectives of reminiscence therapy for Chinese elderly. This is a randomized parallel-design controlled trial. Mild and moderate AD patients who are in the Beijing Geriatric Hospital, China will be randomized into control and intervention groups (n = 45 for each group). For the intervention group, along with conventional drug therapy, participants will be exposed to a reminiscence therapy of 35 to 45 minutes, 2 times/wk for 12 consecutive weeks. Patients in the control group will undergo conventional drug therapy only. The primary outcome measure will be the differences in Alzheimer disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Section Score. The secondary outcome measures will be the differences in the Cornell scale for depression in dementia, Neuropsychiatric Inventory score, and Barthel Index scores at baseline, at 4 and 12 weeks of treatment, and 12 weeks after treatment. The protocols have been approved by the ethics committee of Beijing Geriatric Hospital of China (approval no. 2015-010). Findings will be disseminated through presentation at scientific conferences and in academic journals. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry identifier ChiCTR-INR-16009505. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rural maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in

  20. Support for maternal manipulation of developmental nutrition in a facultatively eusocial bee, Megalopta genalis (Halictidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kapheim, Karen M.; Bernal, Sandra P.; Smith, Adam R.; Nonacs, Peter; Wcislo, William T.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental maternal effects are a potentially important source of phenotypic variation, but they can be difficult to distinguish from other environmental factors. This is an important distinction within the context of social evolution, because if variation in offspring helping behavior is due to maternal manipulation, social selection may act on maternal phenotypes, as well as those of offspring. Factors correlated with social castes have been linked to variation in developmental nutrition...

  1. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...... links' that indicate cooperative levels which facilitate a creative and innovative effort in disease prevention and health promotion targeted at children and adolescents - across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  2. Effectiveness of a structured education reminiscence-based programme for staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units: a study protocol for a cluster randomised trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Eamon

    2011-02-01

    Current projections indicate that there will be a significant increase in the number of people with dementia in Ireland, from approximately 40,000 at present to 100,000 by 2036. Psychosocial interventions, such as reminiscence, have the potential to improve the quality of life of people with dementia. However, while reminiscence is used widely in dementia care, its impact on the quality of life of people with dementia remains largely undocumented and there is a need for a robust and fair assessment of its overall effectiveness. The DementiA education programme incorporating REminiscence for Staff study will evaluate the effectiveness of a structured reminiscence-based education programme for care staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units.

  3. Some reminiscences, some reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy is considered to be one of the safest therapeutic procedures. Treatment of thyroid cancer is a multidisciplinary problem, where a surgeon, pathologist, nuclear medicine specialist, a health physicist and imaging experts come together to solve common clinical problems

  4. Reminiscences, collaborations and reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, T

    1994-02-01

    This is a personal account by a semi old-timer who completed his official term as a professor of plant biochemistry at Nagoya University in Japan in 1992. My university student life began soon after the World War II (1948). I shared the hardships of many in my age group, in that life was difficult during my college years. I was fortunate to have the opportunity of studying in the USA on a Fulbright scholarship first at Purdue University (1955-1956), and then at the University of California, Berkeley (1956-1957). My graduate study and postdoctoral training in the new world were vitally refreshing and stimulating, which gave me the impetus for becoming a natural scientist associated with academic institutions. Consciously and subconsciously I was impressed by the friendly and liberal atmosphere surrounding young students as well as senior scholars in the United States. But more importantly, I was inspired by the critical and competitive minds prevailing among these people.The appointment as a biochemist at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines (1962-1964) was the real start of my professional career. The work was continued upon my return to Nagoya to become a staff member of the Research Institute for Biochemical Regulation (1964-1992). Throughout the years, my major research interest has covered photosynthesis as a whole, involving photosynthetic CO2-fixation (RuBisCO), carbohydrate metabolism, e.g. starch biosynthesis and breakdown (α-amylase), and metabolic regulation, which are interrelated in the basic metabolism of plant cells.I shall briefly describe in this article highlights from my studies and discoveries made and I shall also discuss their possible significance in plant metabolism, with the hope that it does not contradict my sense of humility: They are (a) discovery of ADPG in plants and its role in starch biosynthesis; (b) structure-function relationship of RuBisCO proteins, in particular on heterologous recombination of their subunits of plant-type enzyme molecules derived from the prokaryotic photosynthetic bacteria; (c) molecular evolution of RuBisCO genes; (d) mode of actions (formation, intracellular transport and secretion) of rice seed α-amylase and its structural characteristics (distinctive glycosylation), and (e) DNA methylation and regulatory mechanism of photosynthesis gene expression in plastids (amyloplasts). In each step of my research, I shared joy, excitement, disappointment, and agony with my colleagues, an experience that may be common to all researchers. Although it is now becoming well recognized among the scientific community in Japan, I want to point out that interaction of multinational scientific minds in the laboratory produces a vital and creative atmosphere for performance of successful research. I experienced and realized this important fact in my earlier days in the USA and the Philippines. Inasmuch as I believe that this is the most crucial element for any research laboratory to possess, I fondly remember the friendships gained with numerous overseas visitors and collaborators who have contributed immensely to our work.

  5. Reminiscing on School Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Charles C.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper examines how former and current school health programs differ (e.g., school nurses moved from simply treating minor injuries and communicable diseases to working cooperatively with physicians and school staff to develop policies and procedures, and health education moved from simple anatomy and physiology to broader personal and…

  6. Factors Influencing Maternal Behavioral Adaptability: Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Alexandra C; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    In early childhood, parents play an important role in children's socioemotional development. As such, parent training is a central component of many psychological interventions for young children (Reyno & McGrath, 2006). Maternal depressive symptoms have consistently been linked to maladaptive parenting behaviors (e.g., disengagement, intrusiveness), as well as to lower parent training efficacy in the context of child psychological intervention, suggesting that mothers with higher symptomatology may be less able to be adapt their behavior according to situational demands. The goal of the current study was to examine both maternal and child factors that may influence maternal behavioral adaptability. Ninety-one mothers and their toddlers ( M = 23.93 months, 59% male) participated in a laboratory visit during which children engaged in a variety of novelty episodes designed to elicit individual differences in fear/withdrawal behaviors. Mothers also completed a questionnaire battery. Maternal behavioral adaptability was operationalized as the difference in scores for maternal involvement, comforting, and protective behavior between episodes in which mothers were instructed to refrain from interaction and those in which they were instructed to act naturally. Results indicated that when children displayed high levels of negative affect in the restricted episodes, mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms were less able to adapt their involved behavior because they exhibited low rates of involvement across episodes regardless of instruction given. The current study serves as an intermediary step in understanding how maternal depressive symptoms may influence daily interactions with their children as well as treatment implementation and outcomes, and provides initial evidence that maternal internalizing symptoms may contribute to lower behavioral adaptability in the context of certain child behaviors due to consistent low involvement.

  7. REMCARE: Pragmatic Multi-Centre Randomised Trial of Reminiscence Groups for People with Dementia and their Family Carers: Effectiveness and Economic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Woods

    Full Text Available Joint reminiscence groups, involving people with dementia and family carers together, are popular, but the evidence-base is limited. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of joint reminiscence groups as compared to usual care.This multi-centre, pragmatic randomised controlled trial had two parallel arms: intervention group and usual-care control group. A restricted dynamic method of randomisation was used, with an overall allocation ratio of 1:1, restricted to ensure viable sized intervention groups. Assessments, blind to treatment allocation, were carried out at baseline, three months and ten months (primary end-point, usually in the person's home. Participants were recruited in eight centres, mainly through NHS Memory Clinics and NHS community mental health teams. Included participants were community resident people with mild to moderate dementia (DSM-IV, who had a relative or other care-giver in regular contact, to act as informant and willing and able to participate in intervention. 71% carers were spouses. 488 people with dementia (mean age 77.5were randomised: 268 intervention, 220 control; 350 dyads completed the study (206 intervention, 144 control. The intervention evaluated was joint reminiscence groups (with up to 12 dyads weekly for twelve weeks; monthly maintenance sessions for further seven months. Sessions followed a published treatment manual and were held in a variety of community settings. Two trained facilitators in each centre were supported by volunteers. Primary outcome measures were self-reported quality of life for the person with dementia (QoL-AD, psychological distress for the carer (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-28. Secondary outcome measures included: autobiographical memory and activities of daily living for the person with dementia; carer stress for the carer; mood, relationship quality and service use and costs for both.The intention to treat analysis (ANCOVA identified no

  8. Scandinavian links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    are impressive mega structures spanning international waterways. These waterways between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea have played major roles in history. The length of each of the crossings are around 20 km. The fixed links closes gaps between the Scandinavian and European motorway and rail networks...

  9. Maternal morbidity and risk of death at delivery hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Katherine H; Savitz, David; Werner, Erika F; Pettker, Christian M; Goffman, Dena; Chazotte, Cynthia; Lipkind, Heather S

    2013-09-01

    To examine the effect of underlying maternal morbidities on the odds of maternal death during delivery hospitalization. We used data that linked birth certificates to hospital discharge diagnoses from singleton live births at 22 weeks of gestation or later during 1995-2003 in New York City. Maternal morbidities examined included prepregnancy weight more than 114 kilograms (250 pounds), chronic hypertension, pregestational or gestational diabetes mellitus, chronic cardiovascular disease, pulmonary hypertension, chronic lung disease, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and preeclampsia or eclampsia. Associations with maternal mortality were estimated using multivariate logistic regression. During the specified time period, 1,084,862 live singleton births and 132 maternal deaths occurred. Patients with increasing maternal age, non-Hispanic black ethnicity, self-pay or Medicaid, primary cesarean delivery, and premature delivery had higher rates of maternal mortality during delivery hospitalization. From the entire study population, 4.1% had preeclampsia or eclampsia (n=44,004), 1.8% had chronic hypertension (n=19,647), 1.1% of patients were classified as obese (n=11,936), 0.7% had pregestational diabetes (n=7,474), 0.4% had HIV (n=4,665), and 0.01% had pulmonary hypertension (n=166). Preeclampsia or eclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.5-12.1), chronic hypertension (adjusted OR, 7.7; 95% CI 4.7-12.5), underlying maternal obesity (adjusted OR, 2.9; 95% CI 1.1-8.1), pregestational diabetes (adjusted OR, 3.3; 95% CI 1.3-8.1), HIV (adjusted OR, 7.7; 95% CI 3.4-17.8), and pulmonary hypertension (adjusted OR, 65.1; 95% CI 15.8-269.3) were associated with an increased risk of death during the delivery hospitalization. The presence of maternal disease significantly increases the odds of maternal mortality at the time of delivery hospitalization. II.

  10. Association between Maternal Obesity and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Min; Ou, Jian-Jun; Liu, Li; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Jing-Ping; Tang, Si-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    As the link between maternal obesity and risk of autism among offspring is unclear, the present study assessed this association. A systematic search of an electronic database was performed to identify observational studies that examined the association between maternal obesity and autism. The outcome measures were odds ratios comparing offspring…

  11. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2012-01-01

    While maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children’s future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal physical and mental health outcomes. We hypothesize that poor child health may also increase the risk of poor maternal health outcomes through an interact...

  12. Maternal Mortality in a Nigerian Maternity Hospital | Olopade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite recent focus on maternal mortality in Nigeria, its rates remain unacceptably high in Nigeria. A retrospective case-control study was carried out at Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Ibadan between January 2003 and December 2004. This was to determine the maternal mortality ratio in a secondary health facility, to identify ...

  13. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal measles antibodies (MMA) are actively transferred through the placenta from mother to foetus. A relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of ...

  14. Maternal abuse history and self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delker, Brianna C; Noll, Laura K; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2014-12-01

    Although poor parenting is known to be closely linked to self-regulation difficulties in early childhood, comparatively little is understood about the role of other risk factors in the early caregiving environment (such as a parent's own experiences of childhood abuse) in developmental pathways of self-regulation into adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, this study aimed to examine how a mother's history of abuse in childhood relates to her offspring's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence. Maternal controlling parenting and exposure to intimate partner aggression in the child's first 24-36 months were examined as important early social and environmental influences that may explain the proposed connection between maternal abuse history and preadolescent self-regulation. An ethnically diverse sample of mothers (N=488) who were identified as at-risk for child maltreatment was recruited at the time of their children's birth. Mothers and their children were assessed annually from the child's birth through 36 months, and at age 9-11 years. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap tests of indirect effects were conducted to address the study aims. Findings indicated that maternal abuse history indirectly predicted their children's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence mainly through maternal controlling parenting in early childhood, but not through maternal exposure to aggression by an intimate partner. Maternal history of childhood abuse and maternal controlling parenting in her child's early life may have long-term developmental implications for child self-regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, M Ashley; Boggess, Kim A; Moss, Kevin L; Beck, James D; Offenbacher, Steven

    2011-03-01

    We sought to determine if maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress as measured by serum 8-isoprostane. A secondary analysis was conducted using prospective data from the Oral Conditions and Pregnancy Study. Healthy women enrolled at periodontal disease status was categorized as healthy, mild, or moderate to severe by clinical criteria. Maternal serum was analyzed for 8-isoprostane using ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Elevated 8-isoprostane level was defined as ≥ 75th percentile. Maternal factors associated with elevated 8-isoprostane were determined using chi-square or T test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess association between elevated 8-isoprostane and maternal factors. Seven hundred ninety-one women had complete data. Median (interquartile) 8-isoprostane serum level was 1806 (16 to 81,870) pg/dL. Using bivariate analysis, maternal age, race, marital status, utilization of public assistance, and mild or moderate to severe periodontal disease were associated with elevated serum 8-isoprostane. Using logistic regression, moderate to severe periodontal disease (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 5.0) remained significantly associated with an elevated serum 8-isoprostane level. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy. Further study is needed to determine the role of maternal oxidative stress in periodontal disease-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  16. Ancient origin and maternal inheritance of blue cuckoo eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossøy, Frode; Sorenson, Michael D; Liang, Wei; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Moksnes, Arne; Møller, Anders P; Rutila, Jarkko; Røskaft, Eivin; Takasu, Fugo; Yang, Canchao; Stokke, Bård G

    2016-01-12

    Maternal inheritance via the female-specific W chromosome was long ago proposed as a potential solution to the evolutionary enigma of co-existing host-specific races (or 'gentes') in avian brood parasites. Here we report the first unambiguous evidence for maternal inheritance of egg colouration in the brood-parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus. Females laying blue eggs belong to an ancient (∼2.6 Myr) maternal lineage, as evidenced by both mitochondrial and W-linked DNA, but are indistinguishable at nuclear DNA from other common cuckoos. Hence, cuckoo host races with blue eggs are distinguished only by maternally inherited components of the genome, which maintain host-specific adaptation despite interbreeding among males and females reared by different hosts. A mitochondrial phylogeny suggests that blue eggs originated in Asia and then expanded westwards as female cuckoos laying blue eggs interbred with the existing European population, introducing an adaptive trait that expanded the range of potential hosts.

  17. Article Commentary: Prenatal Substance Use: Exploring Assumptions of Maternal Unfitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishka Terplan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the growing knowledge and understanding of addiction as a chronic relapsing medical condition, individuals with substance use disorders (SUD continue to experience stigmatization. Pregnant women who use substances suffer additional stigma as their use has the potential to cause fetal harm, calling into question their maternal fitness and often leading to punitive responses. Punishing pregnant women denies the integral interconnectedness of the maternal-fetal dyad. Linking substance use with maternal unfitness is not supported by the balance of the scientific evidence regarding the actual harms associated with substance use during pregnancy. Such linkage adversely impacts maternal, child, and family health by deterring pregnant women from seeking both obstetrical care and SUD treatment. Pregnant women who use substances deserve compassion and care, not pariah-status and punishment.

  18. Maternal and child health project in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chinyelu B

    2003-12-01

    Maternal deaths in developing countries are rooted in womens powerlessness and their unequal access to employment, finance, education, basic health care, and other resources. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country, and it is an oil producing country, but Nigeria has one of the worst maternal mortality rates in Africa. These deaths were linked to deficiencies in access to health care including poor quality of health services, socio-cultural factors, and access issues related to the poor status of women. To address these problems, a participatory approach was used to bring Christian women from various denominations in Eastern Nigeria together. With technical assistance from a research unit in a university in Eastern Nigeria, the women were able to implement a Safe Motherhood project starting from needs assessment to program evaluation. Lessons learned from this program approach are discussed.

  19. Social competence of elementary-school children: relationships to maternal authoritativeness, supportive maternal responses and children's coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S M

    2011-07-01

    Although the influences of parenting on children's development of social competence have been well established, research on the underlying mechanisms of this link is relatively limited. The present study examined children's coping strategies as a mediator of the effects of maternal authoritativeness and maternal inductive responses on their social competence. The mothers of 183 Hong Kong Chinese children aged 6 to 8 years (89 girls and 94 boys) reported on their adoption of authoritative parenting and their responses to their children's expressions of emotion, and rated their children's adoption of constructive coping strategies. The children's teachers reported on the children's prosocial behaviour, and rated their level of peer acceptance at school. A model of maternal authoritativeness and supportive maternal responses affecting children's social competence is presented. The study results show that the effects of authoritative parenting on children's adoption of constructive coping strategies were mediated by supportive maternal responses to children's expression of emotion, and that the effects of maternal authoritativeness and maternal responses on children's social competence were mediated by children's coping strategies. These results suggest that school personnel should organize training programmes on emotion-coping strategies for both parents and children. The findings imply that positive parenting facilitates children's acquisition of constructive emotion-coping strategies. Programmes on emotion-coping strategies should be introduced for both parents and school children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism. Abraham Haileamlak, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health. Maternal health is a major health priority for international agencies and the Ethiopian. Government. Many low income countries including. Ethiopia, made substantial improvements in maternal health achieving ...

  1. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  2. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  3. Anemia and pregnancy: a link to maternal chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Raja; Karoshi, Mahantesh; Keith, Louis

    2011-11-01

    Anemia is a global public health problem. It has serious short- and long-term consequences during pregnancy and beyond. The anemic condition is often worsened by the presence of other chronic diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, and diabetes. Untreated anemia also leads to increased morbidity and mortality from these chronic conditions as well. It is surprising that despite these chronic conditions (such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV) often being preventable, they still pose a real threat to public health. This article aims to review the current understanding of the pathophysiology, risks, prevention, and treatment of anemia in the light of these chronic conditions. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Maternal Employment and Children's School Readiness in Contemporary Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed whether previous findings linking early maternal employment to lower cognitive and behavioral skills among children generalized to modern families. Using a representative sample of children born in the United States in 2001 (N = 10,100), ordinary least squares regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links…

  5. West and Central African Partnership for Maternal, Newborn, Child ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    High rates of maternal death and teen pregnancy persist in West and Central Africa. Research and programming efforts are not sustainably reducing these rates. The challenge is how to link the evidence on useful health interventions with evidence on how to deliver the interventions effectively. This project aims to build the ...

  6. Maternal Executive Function, Harsh Parenting, and Child Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those…

  7. Infant feeding-related maternity care practices and maternal report of breastfeeding outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer M; Perrine, Cria G; Freedman, David S; Williams, Letitia; Morrow, Brian; Smith, Ruben A; Dee, Deborah L

    2018-02-07

    Evidence-based maternity practices and policies can improve breastfeeding duration and exclusivity. Maternity facilities report practices through the Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) survey, but individual outcomes, such as breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, are not collected. mPINC data on maternity care practices for 2009 were linked to data from the 2009 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), which collects information on mothers' behaviors and experiences around pregnancy. We calculated total mPINC scores (range 0-100). PRAMS data on any and exclusive breastfeeding at 8 weeks were examined by total mPINC score quartile. Of 15 715 women in our sample, 53.7% were breastfeeding any at 8 weeks, and 29.3% were breastfeeding exclusively. They gave birth at 1016 facilities that had a mean total mPINC score of 65/100 (range 19-99). Care dimension subscores ranged from 41 for facility discharge care to 81 for breastfeeding assistance. In multivariable analysis adjusting for covariates, a positive relationship was found between total mPINC score quartile and both any breastfeeding (quartile 2: odds ratio [OR] 1.40 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.08-1.83], quartile 3: OR 1.50 [95% CI 1.15-1.96], quartile 4: OR 2.12 [95% CI 1.61-2.78] vs quartile 1) and exclusive breastfeeding (quartile 3: OR 1.41 [95% CI 1.04-1.90], quartile 4: OR 1.89 [95% CI 1.41-2.55] vs quartile 1) at 8 weeks. These data demonstrate that evidence-based maternity care practices and policies are associated with better breastfeeding outcomes. Maternity facilities may evaluate their practices and policies to ensure they are helping mothers achieve their breastfeeding goals. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Early maternal depressive symptom trajectories: Associations with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E; Wang, Yan; Black, Maureen M

    2017-06-01

    This study examines potential mechanisms linking maternal depressive symptoms over 2 years postpartum with child behavior problems at school-age in a sample of adolescent mothers and their first-born child. Potential mechanisms include: mother-reported caregiving engagement at 6 months; observed parental nurturance and control, and child competence and affect at 24 months; and mother-reported resilience at 7 years based on achievement of adult developmental tasks. One hundred eighteen low-income African American adolescent mothers were recruited at delivery and followed through child age 7 years. Maternal depressive symptom trajectories over 24 months were estimated (low, medium, and high) based on mother-reported depressive symptoms. Direct and indirect associations between depressive symptom trajectories with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems were examined. The high maternal depressive symptom trajectory was associated with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms (b = 5.52, SE = 1.65, p child internalizing problems (b = 7.60, SE = 3.12, p = .02) and externalizing problems (b = 6.23, SE = 3.22, p = .05). Caregiving engagement among high depressive symptom trajectory mothers was significantly associated with observed child affect (b = -0.21, SE = 0.11, p = 0.05). Parental nurturance in toddlerhood mediated the association between high maternal depressive symptom trajectory and child internalizing problems at 7 years (indirect effect b = 2.33, 95% CI: 0.32-5.88). Findings suggest that family based interventions to promote parenting and adolescent resiliency strengthening may be beneficial in this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Maternal nutrition and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Fraser, Drora

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the authors summarize current knowledge on maternal nutritional requirements during pregnancy, with a focus on the nutrients that have been most commonly investigated in association with birth outcomes. Data sourcing and extraction included searches of the primary resources establishing maternal nutrient requirements during pregnancy (e.g., Dietary Reference Intakes), and searches of Medline for "maternal nutrition"/[specific nutrient of interest] and "birth/pregnancy outcomes," focusing mainly on the less extensively reviewed evidence from observational studies of maternal dietary intake and birth outcomes. The authors used a conceptual framework which took both primary and secondary factors (e.g., baseline maternal nutritional status, socioeconomic status of the study populations, timing and methods of assessing maternal nutritional variables) into account when interpreting study findings. The authors conclude that maternal nutrition is a modifiable risk factor of public health importance that can be integrated into efforts to prevent adverse birth outcomes, particularly among economically developing/low-income populations.

  10. Exploring the social determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in prenatal care utilization and maternal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadson, Alexis; Akpovi, Eloho; Mehta, Pooja K

    2017-08-01

    Rates of maternal morbidity and mortality are rising in the United States. Non-Hispanic Black women are at highest risk for these outcomes compared to those of other race/ethnicities. Black women are also more likely to be late to prenatal care or be inadequate users of prenatal care. Prenatal care can engage those at risk and potentially influence perinatal outcomes but further research on the link between prenatal care and maternal outcomes is needed. The objective of this article is to review literature illuminating the relationship between prenatal care utilization, social determinants of health, and racial disparities in maternal outcome. We present a theoretical framework connecting the complex factors that may link race, social context, prenatal care utilization, and maternal morbidity/mortality. Prenatal care innovations showing potential to engage with the social determinants of maternal health and address disparities and priorities for future research are reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Life of Metis: Cunning Maternal Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper charts the different and co-existent uses of the Greek myth and concept of Metis for feminist philosophy. I show how the move from using the myth of Metis to an engagement with the marginalised ancient Greek concept of cunning intelligence (metis is significant in addressing problems of agency and political action in contemporary feminist debates. The paper addresses the concept of metis cunning intelligence in relation to the maternal and argues for a theory of metis charcterised by a double action, and finally links this approach to recent ideas in Deleuzian feminist theory.

  12. Investigating Environmental Links between Parent Depression and Child Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms Using an Assisted Conception Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Links between maternal and offspring depression symptoms could arise from inherited factors, direct environmental exposure, or shared adversity. A novel genetically sensitive design was used to test the extent of environmental links between maternal depression symptoms and child depression/anxiety symptoms, accounting for inherited…

  13. Syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with neural tube defects (I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as acrocallosal syndrome, autosomal dominant brachydactyly-clinodactyly syndrome, Manouvrier syndrome, short rib-polydactyly syndrome, Disorganization ( Ds )-like human malformations, isolated hemihyperplasia, X-linked NTDs, meroanencephaly, schisis association, diprosopus, fetal valproate syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, folic acid antagonists, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors may be different from those of non-syndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  14. Different implications of paternal and maternal atopy for perinatal IgE production and asthma development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Chiang; Chen, Rong-Fu; Kuo, Ho-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a hereditary disease associated with IgE-mediated reaction. Whether maternal atopy and paternal atopy have different impacts on perinatal IgE production and asthma development remains unclear. This paper reviews and summarizes the effects of maternal and paternal atopy on the developmental aspects of IgE production and asthma. Maternal atopy affects both pre- and postnatal IgE production, whereas paternal atopy mainly affects the latter. Maternally transmitted genes GSTP1 and FceRI-beta are associated with lung function and allergic sensitization, respectively. In IgE production and asthma development, the maternal influence on gene-environment interaction is greater than paternal influence. Maternal, paternal, and/or postnatal environmental modulation of allergic responses have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms, which may be good targets for early prevention of asthma.

  15. Different Implications of Paternal and Maternal Atopy for Perinatal IgE Production and Asthma Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chiang Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a hereditary disease associated with IgE-mediated reaction. Whether maternal atopy and paternal atopy have different impacts on perinatal IgE production and asthma development remains unclear. This paper reviews and summarizes the effects of maternal and paternal atopy on the developmental aspects of IgE production and asthma. Maternal atopy affects both pre- and postnatal IgE production, whereas paternal atopy mainly affects the latter. Maternally transmitted genes GSTP1 and FceRI-beta are associated with lung function and allergic sensitization, respectively. In IgE production and asthma development, the maternal influence on gene-environment interaction is greater than paternal influence. Maternal, paternal, and/or postnatal environmental modulation of allergic responses have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms, which may be good targets for early prevention of asthma.

  16. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  17. The reminiscence bump without memories: The distribution of imagined word-cued and important autobiographical memories in a hypothetical 70-year-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-08-01

    The reminiscence bump is the disproportionate number of autobiographical memories dating from adolescence and early adulthood. It has often been ascribed to a consolidation of the mature self in the period covered by the bump. Here we stripped away factors relating to the characteristics of autobiographical memories per se, most notably factors that aid in their encoding or retention, by asking students to generate imagined word-cued and imagined 'most important' autobiographical memories of a hypothetical, prototypical 70-year-old of their own culture and gender. We compared the distribution of these fictional memories with the distributions of actual word-cued and most important autobiographical memories in a sample of 61-70-year-olds. We found a striking similarity between the temporal distributions of the imagined memories and the actual memories. These results suggest that the reminiscence bump is largely driven by constructive, schematic factors at retrieval, thereby challenging most existing theoretical accounts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Using multimedia information and communication technology (ICT) to provide added value to reminiscence therapy for people with dementia : Lessons learned from three field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Alexander; Gündogdu, Ramazan; Butz, Katherina; Müller, Nadine; Kunze, Christophe; König, Peter

    2018-01-01

    In the care of people with dementia (PwD), occupational therapies and activities aiming at maintaining the quality of life of PwD, such as reminiscence therapy (RT), are taking on a more and more important role. Information and communication technology (ICT) has the potential to improve and to facilitate RT by facilitating access to and selection of biographical information and related contents or by providing novel multimodal interaction forms to trigger memories; however, interactive multimedia technology is barely used in practice. This article presents three exploratory field studies that evaluated different aspects of RT technology use for PwD in care homes, including the utilization of online movie databases, interactive surface touch computers as well as natural user interfaces allowing gestures and haptic interaction. In these studies, the usage of prototype systems was observed in occupational sessions by 5, 12 and 16 PwD. The results indicate positive effects of technology use, e. g. in the form of verbally elicited reminiscence statements, expressed joy and playful interaction. Lessons learned for the design of technology-based RT interventions are presented and discussed.

  19. HOW GOOD ARE FUTURE LAWYERS IN JUDGING THE ACCURACY OF REMINISCENT DETAILS? THE ESTIMATION-OBSERVATION GAP IN REAL EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Oeberst

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown a discrepancy between estimated and actually observed accuracy of reminiscent details in eyewitness accounts. This estimation-observation gap is of particular relevance with regard to the evaluation of eyewitnesses’ accounts in the legal context. To date it has only been demonstrated in non-naturalistic settings, however. In addition, it is not known whether this gap extends to other tasks routinely employed in real-world trials, for instance person-identification tasks. In this study, law students witnessed a staged event and were asked to either recall the event and perform a person identification task or estimate the accuracy of the others’ performance. Additionally, external estimations were obtained from students who had not witnessed the event, but received a written summary instead. The estimation-observation gap was replicated for reminiscent details under naturalistic encoding conditions. This gap was more pronounced when compared to forgotten details, but not significantly so when compared to consistent details. In contrast, accuracy on the person-identification task was not consistently underestimated. The results are discussed in light of their implications for real-world trials and future research.

  20. Personal reminiscences of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, Berlin, 1937/38 and of the nuclear project in Canada, 1944/56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    Part 1 of this talk deals with reminiscences from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin during the period 1937-1938. Topics include the course of experimental events and the continuing search for interpretations that would stand up, the guiding influence of the work of Irene Curie and Pvale Savic on the experimental work of Hahn and Strassmann, the influence and effects of Nazi political pressures within the Institute, the shadows of war, and how uranium fission finally got itself discovered. Part 2 gives reminiscences from the Nuclear Project in Canada from 1944 to 1956 as an extension of the pre-war work in Paris - both in concept and in personnel - created by British effort, the powerful changing US influences, the shift to British direction and a goal, the world's first high power heavy water moderated reactor for the production of massive quantities of synthetic radioactive materials, extraction processes including those for plutonium, the shift to Canadian direction and goals, a heavy water moderated electricity production system, and a postscript

  1. The efficacy of treatment reminders of life with emphasis on integrative reminiscence on self-esteem and anxiety in widowed old men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Pishvaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Loss of wife besides the phenomenon of aging could cause some psychological disorders and may shorten the duration of this stage of life. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of treatment reminders of life with emphasis on integrative reminiscence on self-esteem and anxiety in widowed old men.This was a clinical trial with pre-test and post-test design with a control group. The study population included All 60 to 80 year old men living in Meshginshahr; among whom, 34 participants were selected using convenience sampling method. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups (experimental and control. The experimental group participated in therapy sessions and the control group did not receive any intervention. The research instruments were Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Anxiety Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multivariable covariance analysis in SSPS-19. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.MANCOVA results showed that the treatment positively affected the variables of self-esteem and anxiety in old widowed men (p<0.001.The reminders of life therapy with emphasis on integrative reminiscence may enhance self-esteem and reduce anxiety in widowed old men. This treatment gives better results compared to the traditional treatments and it is recommended to be implemented in nursing homes.

  2. Maternal obesity and infant mortality: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Sean; Beck, Charles R; Mair-Jenkins, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Puleston, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Despite numerous studies reporting an elevated risk of infant mortality among women who are obese, the magnitude of the association is unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to assess the association between maternal overweight or obesity and infant mortality. Four health care databases and gray literature sources were searched and screened against the protocol eligibility criteria. Observational studies reporting on the relationship between maternal overweight and obesity and infant mortality were included. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were performed. Twenty-four records were included from 783 screened. Obese mothers (BMI ≥30) had greater odds of having an infant death (odds ratio 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.63; P obese (BMI >35) (odds ratio 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.61-2.56; P obese mothers and that this risk may increase with greater maternal BMI or weight; however, residual confounding may explain these findings. Given the rising prevalence of maternal obesity, additional high-quality epidemiologic studies to elucidate the actual influence of elevated maternal mass or weight on infant mortality are needed. If a causal link is determined and the biological basis explained, public health strategies to address the issue of maternal obesity will be needed. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Maternal nutrition knowledge and child nutritional outcomes in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debela, Bethelhem Legesse; Demmler, Kathrin M; Rischke, Ramona; Qaim, Matin

    2017-09-01

    We examine the link between maternal nutrition knowledge and nutritional outcomes of children and adolescents (5-18 years) measured in terms of height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ). One particular focus is on the role of different types of nutrition knowledge. The analysis builds on household-level and individual-level data collected in urban Kenya in 2012 and 2015. Various regression models are developed and estimated. Results show that maternal nutrition knowledge - measured through an aggregate knowledge score - is positively associated with child HAZ, even after controlling for other influencing factors such as household living standard and general maternal education. However, disaggregation by type of knowledge reveals important differences. Maternal knowledge about food ingredients only has a weak positive association with child HAZ. For maternal knowledge about specific dietary recommendations, no significant association is detected. The strongest positive association with child HAZ is found for maternal knowledge about the health consequences of not following recommended dietary practices. These findings have direct relevance for nutrition and health policies, especially for designing the contents of educational campaigns and training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Decreased maternal plasma apelin concentrations in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoff, Katherine D; Qiu, Chunfang; Runyon, Scott; Williams, Michelle A; Maitra, Rangan

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder that complicates 3-7% of pregnancies. The development of preeclampsia has not been completely elucidated and current therapies are not broadly efficacious. The apelinergic system appears to be involved in hypertensive disorders and experimental studies indicate a role of this system in preeclampsia. Thus, an epidemiological evaluation of apelin protein concentration in plasma was conducted in case-control study of pregnant women. Data and maternal plasma samples were collected from pregnant women with confirmed preeclampsia (n = 76) or normotensive controls (n = 79). Concentrations of apelin peptides were blindly measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Plasma apelin concentrations, measured at delivery, were lower in preeclampsia cases compared with controls (mean ± standard deviation: 0.66 ± 0.29 vs. 0.78 ± 0.31 ng/mL, p = 0.02). After controlling for confounding by maternal age, smoking status, and pre-pregnancy body mass index, odds of preeclampsia were 48% lower for women with high versus low plasma apelin (≥0.73 vs. preclampsia and other hypertensive maternal disorders.

  5. UNDERSTANDING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN ATTACHMENT TRAUMA AND MATERNAL SELF-EFFICACY IN DEPRESSED MOTHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau, Natalie; Reisz, Samantha; Jacobvitz, Deborah; George, Carol

    2018-01-01

    Maternal self-efficacy predicts sensitive and responsive caregiving. Low maternal self-efficacy is associated with a higher incidence of postpartum depression. Maternal self-efficacy and postpartum depression can both be buffered by social support. Maternal self-efficacy and postpartum depression have both been linked independently, albeit in separate studies, to the experience of violent trauma, childhood maltreatment, and spousal abuse. This study proposed a model in which postpartum depression mediates the relation between attachment trauma and maternal self-efficacy, with emotional support as a moderator. Participants were 278 first-time mothers of infants under 14 months. Cross-sectional data were collected online. Mothers completed questionnaires on attachment trauma, maternal self-efficacy, postpartum depression, and emotional support. A moderated mediation model was tested in a structural equation modeling framework using Mplus' estimate of indirect effects. Postpartum depression fully mediated the relation between trauma and maternal self-efficacy. Emotional support moderated only the pathway between postpartum depression and maternal self-efficacy. Attachment trauma's implications for maternal self-efficacy should be understood in the context of overall mental health. Mothers at the greatest risk for low maternal self-efficacy related to attachment trauma also are those suffering from postpartum depression. Emotional support buffered mothers from postpartum depression, though, which has implications for intervention and future research. © 2017 The Authors. Infant Mental Health Journal published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  6. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  7. Maternally acquired runt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A E; Billingham, R E

    1973-01-19

    Without altering the structural integrity of the placenta by irradiation or drugs, we have shown that it is possible to immunize females both adoptively and actively against the paternally inherited transplantation antigens of their fetuses. Such immunization causes a high incidence of runt disease among the litters. Although the putative chimeric status of the affected offspring has yet to be confirmed, the results of our experiments support the thesis that runt disease is caused by the activities of "unwanted" immigrant lymphocytes from the maternal circulation. Our results suggest that immunologically activated cells are more likely to cross the placenta than normal cells and that this greater mobility may not be related to the immunologic specificity of the activated cells. Two factors may have contributed to the apparent failure of numerous previous attempts to demonstrate the capacity of transplantation immunity to affect the well-being of a fetus or, more correctly, its placenta, in the way that might be expected of a homograft. (i) Investigators were preoccupied with obtaining a classic type of rejection, in utero, analogous to the rejection of an orthotopic skin homograft. The birth of consistently healthy-looking litters, interpreted as a failure of the experiment, convinced the investigators of the efficacy of nature's solution of the homograft problem and there was no reason for them to suspect its possible limitations. Observation of the litters for several weeks might have uncovered the phenomenon of maternally induced runt disease. (ii) Most investigators resorted to hyperimmunization of the mothers. This would have facilitated the synthesis of protective isoantibodies capable of interfering with the expression of the potentially harmful cellular immune response (6). Ever since the abnormalities of runt disease were first described they have repeatedly been compared to those observed in patients with certain lymphomas (17). Various theories have been

  8. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  9. Maternal cardiac metabolism in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Laura X.; Arany, Zolt

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy causes dramatic physiological changes in the expectant mother. The placenta, mostly foetal in origin, invades maternal uterine tissue early in pregnancy and unleashes a barrage of hormones and other factors. This foetal ‘invasion’ profoundly reprogrammes maternal physiology, affecting nearly every organ, including the heart and its metabolism. We briefly review here maternal systemic metabolic changes during pregnancy and cardiac metabolism in general. We then discuss changes in cardiac haemodynamic during pregnancy and review what is known about maternal cardiac metabolism during pregnancy. Lastly, we discuss cardiac diseases during pregnancy, including peripartum cardiomyopathy, and the potential contribution of aberrant cardiac metabolism to disease aetiology. PMID:24448314

  10. The role of maternal care in borderline personality disorder and dependent life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball Cooper, Ericka; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla

    2018-01-01

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) affects 0.9%-3.2% of adolescents, and more than 20% of inpatient adolescents. Life stress has been linked to BPD across the lifespan, and previous research in adults has linked BPD to dependent stress (i.e., stress induced by the individual). However, prior research has not examined dependent stress alongside BPD in adolescents. Additionally, the potential protective effect of maternal care has not been considered in this relation. This study tested a moderation model expecting that (1) BPD would be positively associated with dependent life stress, (2) maternal care would be negatively associated with BPD, and (3) maternal care would moderate the relation between BPD and dependent life stress. The sample consisted of 184 adolescents recruited from an inpatient psychiatric facility serving a diverse population in the Southwestern United States. Dependent life stress, BPD, and maternal care were measured using the UCLA Life Stress Interview, DSM-IV Childhood Interview for BPD, and Kerns Security Scale, respectively. Results supported the first two hypotheses; BPD diagnosis was significantly, positively associated with dependent life stress, and negatively associated with maternal availability and dependability. Contrary to the third hypothesis, no significant evidence that maternal care acts as a buffer in the relation between BPD and dependent life stress was found. Although maternal care was not found to moderate the association between BPD and dependent life stress, results supported previously found relations between BPD, dependent life stress, and maternal care, and did so within a diverse inpatient adolescent sample.

  11. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms dire...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction.......Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...

  12. Maternal obesity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devlieger, Roland; Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    and offspring. These effects are often aggravated by the high incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance and excessive gestational weight gain found in this group. The main controversies around the management of the obese pregnant women are related to (1) the value of repeated weighing during pregnancy, (2......, the prevalence of maternal obesity varies from 7 to 25% and seems strongly related to social and educational inequalities. Obesity during pregnancy represents an important preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and is associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers...

  13. Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek-Janusek, L.

    1986-01-01

    Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat

  14. Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

  15. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of mother-infant pairs at birth. Methods: One hundred and fifty three mother-infant pairs were enrolled in this study using the ...

  16. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…

  17. Congenital toxoplasmosis presenting with fetal atrial flutter after maternal ingestion of infected moose meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosimo, Sarah M; Montoya, Jose G; Westley, Benjamin P; Jacob, Jack; Isada, Nelson B

    2013-09-01

    Consumption of undercooked game meat during pregnancy is considered a risk factor for congenital toxoplasmosis, but cases definitively linking ingestion of infected meat to clinical disease are lacking. We report a confirmed case of congenital toxoplasmosis identified because of atrial flutter in the fetus and linked to maternal consumption of Toxoplasma gondii PCR-positive moose meat.

  18. Using an Adoption–Biological Family Design to Examine Associations Between Maternal Trauma, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and Child Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, Aleksandria Perez; Khurana, Atika; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Harold, Gordon T.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal trauma is a complex risk factor that has been linked to adverse child outcomes, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This study, which included adoptive and biological families, examined the heritable and environmental mechanisms by which maternal trauma and associated depressive symptoms are linked to child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Path analyses were used to analyze data from 541 adoptive mother–adopted child (AM–AC) dyads and 126 biological mother–biological child (BM–BC) dyads; the two family types were linked through the same biological mother. Rearing mother’s trauma was associated with child internalizing and externalizing behaviors in AM–AC and BM–BC dyads, and this association was mediated by rearing mothers’ depressive symptoms, with the exception of biological child externalizing behavior, for which biological mother trauma had a direct influence only. Significant associations between maternal trauma and child behavior in dyads that share only environment (i.e., AM–AC dyads) suggest an environmental mechanism of influence for maternal trauma. Significant associations were also observed between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing behavior in dyads that were only genetically related, with no shared environment (i.e., BM–AC dyads), suggesting a heritable pathway of influence via maternal depressive symptoms. PMID:29162177

  19. Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Outcomes in the First Three Years of Life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Examined data on 900 European American children from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care to explore links between maternal employment during the child's first year and child cognitive outcomes. Found that maternal employment by the child's ninth month related to lower school readiness scores at 36 months, with more pronounced effects for certain…

  20. Maternal Depression and Mother-Child Interaction Patterns: Association with Toddler Problems and Continuity of Effects to Late Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckman-Westin, Emily; Cohen, Patricia R.; Stueve, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Increased behavior problems have been reported in offspring of mothers with depression. In-home observations link maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) and mother-child interaction patterns with toddler behavior problems and examine their persistence into late childhood. Method: Maternal characteristics (N = 153) and behaviors of…

  1. Mother- versus Infant-Centered Correlates of Maternal Mind-Mindedness in the First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; Arnott, Bronia; Turner, Michelle; Leekam, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether maternal mind-mindedness in infant-mother interaction related to aspects of obstetric history and infant temperament. Study 1, conducted with a socially diverse sample of 206 eight-month-old infants and their mothers, focused on links between maternal mind-mindedness and (i) planned conception, (ii) perception of pregnancy,…

  2. Maternal Concern for Child Undereating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Callie L; Pesch, Megan H; Perrin, Eliana M; Appugliese, Danielle P; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C

    To describe features of maternal concern for her child undereating; examine maternal and child correlates of maternal concern for undereating; and determine whether maternal concern for undereating is associated with feeding practices. This was a cross-sectional analysis of an observational study with 286 mother-child dyads (mean child age, 71 months). Maternal concern for undereating was assessed using a semistructured interview. Mothers completed questionnaires to assess picky eating, food neophobia, and feeding practices. Feeding practices were further assessed using videotaped mealtime observations. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of maternal and child characteristics with maternal concern for undereating. Regression was used to assess the association of maternal concern for undereating with feeding practices, controlling for covariates. Over a third of mothers (36.5%) expressed concern that their child does not eat enough. Correlates of concern for undereating included child body mass index z-score (BMIz; odds ratio [OR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.77) and picky eating (OR = 2.41; 95% CI, 1.26-4.59). Maternal concern for undereating was associated with greater reported pressure to eat (relative risk [RR] = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.55-2.50), greater observed bribery (OR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.50-4.60), and higher observed pressure (OR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.08-3.36) during mealtimes. Mothers of children who are picky eaters and have a lower BMIz are more likely to be concerned that their children do not eat enough, and maternal concern for undereating is associated with pressuring and bribing children to eat. Pediatricians might address maternal concern for undereating by advising feeding practices that do not involve pressure and bribery, particularly among healthy weight children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal employment and childhood obesity--a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Eiben, Gabriele; M Fernandéz-Alvira, Juan; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kovács, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin

    2013-07-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal DHA levels and toddler free-play attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannass, Kathleen N; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels at birth and toddler free-play attention in the second year. Toddler free-play attention was assessed at 12 and 18 months, and maternal erythrocyte (red-blood cell; RBC) phospholipid DHA (percentage of total fatty acids) was measured from mothers at delivery. Overall, higher maternal DHA status at birth was associated with enhanced attentional functioning during the second year. Toddlers whose mothers had high DHA at birth exhibited more total looking and fewer episodes of inattention during free-play than did toddlers whose mothers had low DHA at birth. Analyses also provided further information on changes in attention during toddlerhood. These findings are consistent with evidence suggesting a link between DHA and cognitive development in infancy and early childhood.

  5. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  6. Maternal Emotion Regulation and Adolescent Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Family Functioning and Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, AliceAnn; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Day, Randal D; Riley, Anne W

    2016-11-01

    Prior research links poor maternal emotion regulation to maladaptive parenting and child behaviors, but little research is available on these relationships during the adolescent period. We use structural equation modeling to assess the influence of poor maternal emotion regulation, measured as emotional reactivity and distancing, on adolescent behaviors (measured as aggression and prosocial behaviors) among 478 adolescents (53 % female; baseline age 10-13 years) and their mothers over a 5 year period. We also tested the possible mediating roles of family functioning and parenting behaviors between maternal emotion regulation and adolescent behaviors. Results indicated that higher baseline maternal emotional distancing and reactivity were not directly predictive of adolescents' behaviors, but they were indirectly related through family functioning and parenting. Specifically, indulgent parenting mediated the relationship between maternal emotional reactivity and adolescent aggression. Maternal-reported family functioning significantly mediated the relationship between maternal emotional distancing and adolescent aggression. Family functioning also mediated the relationship between emotional distancing and regulation parenting. The results imply that poor maternal emotion regulation during their child's early adolescence leads to more maladaptive parenting and problematic behaviors during the later adolescent period. However, healthy family processes may ameliorate the negative impact of low maternal emotion regulation on parenting and adolescent behavioral outcomes. The implications for future research and interventions to improve parenting and adolescent outcomes are discussed.

  7. Disentangling Genetic and Prenatal Maternal Effects on Offspring Size and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Joel L; Ebneter, Christina; Hutter, Pascale; Tschirren, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Organizational processes during prenatal development can have long-term effects on an individual's phenotype. Because these early developmental stages are sensitive to environmental influences, mothers are in a unique position to alter their offspring's phenotype by differentially allocating resources to their developing young. However, such prenatal maternal effects are difficult to disentangle from other forms of parental care, additive genetic effects, and/or other forms of maternal inheritance, hampering our understanding of their evolutionary consequences. Here we used divergent selection lines for high and low prenatal maternal investment and their reciprocal line crosses in a precocial bird-the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)-to quantify the relative importance of genes and prenatal maternal effects in shaping offspring phenotype. Maternal but not paternal origin strongly affected offspring body size and survival throughout development. Although the effects of maternal egg investment faded over time, they were large at key life stages. Additionally, there was evidence for other forms of maternal inheritance affecting offspring phenotype at later stages of development. Our study is among the first to successfully disentangle prenatal maternal effects from all other sources of confounding variation and highlights the important role of prenatal maternal provisioning in shaping offspring traits closely linked to fitness.

  8. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália P. Castro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM% was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin (p = 0.001 and pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001; adj. R2 = 0.19 were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  9. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Natália P; Euclydes, Verônica V; Simões, Fernanda A; Vaz-de-Lima, Lourdes R A; De Brito, Cyro A; Luzia, Liania A; Devakumar, Delan; Rondó, Patrícia H C

    2017-02-23

    Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM%) was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin ( p = 0.001) and pre-pregnancy BMI ( p < 0.001; adj. R ² = 0.19) were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  10. National level maternal health decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal deaths and morbidity still pose an enormous challenge for health authorities in Ghana, a lower middle income country. Despite massive investments in maternal and neonatal health and special attention through Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4

  11. Maternal Involvement and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Linda C.; Holmes, William M.

    The potential impact of several maternal involvement behaviors on teachers' ratings of children's academic skills was examined through statistical analyses. Data, based on mothers' responses to selected questions concerning maternal involvement and on teachers' ratings on the Classroom Behavior Inventory, were obtained for 115 kindergarten…

  12. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Raymond; Clayton, Mark D.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between maternal employment and adolescent development is enormously complex, and no simple generalizations are possible. Many intervening variables alter the impact that maternal employment has on adolescent development. There is an urgent need to discover what impact this arrangement has on adolescent development. (CJ)

  13. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and risk for inattention and negative emotionality in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alina

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to replicate and extend previous work showing an association between maternal pre-pregnancy adiposity and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children. A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy-offspring cohort was followed up when children were 5 years old (N = 1,714). Mothers and kindergarten teachers rated children's ADHD symptoms, presence and duration of problems, and emotionality. Dichotomized outcomes examined difficulties of clinical relevance (top 15% of the distribution). Analyses adjusted for pregnancy (maternal smoking, depressive symptoms, life events, education, age, family structure), birth outcomes (birth weight, gestational age, infant sex) and concurrent variables (family structure, maternal depressive symptoms, parental ADHD symptoms, and child overweight) in an attempt to rule out confounding. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity predicted high inattention symptom scores and obesity was associated with a two-fold increase in risk of difficulties with emotion intensity and emotion regulation according to teacher reports. Means of maternal ratings were unrelated to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Presence and duration of problems were associated with both maternal over and underweight according to teachers. Despite discrepancies between maternal and teacher reports, these results provide further evidence that maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are associated with child inattention symptoms and extend previous work by establishing a link between obesity and emotional difficulties. Maternal adiposity at the time of conception may be instrumental in programming child mental health, as prenatal brain development depends on maternal energy supply. Possible mechanisms include disturbed maternal metabolic function. If maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is a causal risk factor, the potential for prevention is great.

  14. Maternal and obstetrical predictors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Isabel; Dahdouh, Elias M; Kugler, Perlyne; Mimran, Gracia; Balayla, Jacques

    2017-10-01

    Public Health initiatives, such as the "Safe to Sleep" campaign, have traditionally targeted infants' risk factors for the prevention of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). However, controversy remains regarding maternal and obstetrical risk factors for SIDS. In our study, we sought out to determine both modifiable and non-modifiable obstetrical and maternal risk factors associated with SIDS. We conducted a population-based cohort study using the CDC's Linked Birth-Infant Death data from the United States for the year 2010. The impact of several obstetrical and maternal risk factors on the risk of overall infant mortality and SIDS was estimated using unconditional regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Our cohort consisted of 4,007,105 deliveries and 24,174 infant deaths during the first year of life, of which 1991 (8.2%) were due to SIDS. Prominent risk factors for SIDS included (OR [95% CI]): black race, 1.89 [1.68-2.13]; maternal smoking, 3.56 [3.18-3.99]; maternal chronic hypertension, 1.73 [1.21-2.48]; gestational hypertension, 1.51 [1.23-1.87]; premature birth <37 weeks, 2.16 [1.82-2.55]; IUGR, 2.46 [2.14-2.82]; and being a twin, 1.81 [1.43-2.29], p < 0.0001. Relative to a cohort of infants who died of other causes, risk factors with a predilection for SIDS were maternal smoking, 2.48 [2.16-2.83] and being a twin, 1.52 [1.21-1.91], p < 0.0001. Conclusions for practice: While certain socio-demographic and gestational characteristics are important risk factors, maternal smoking remains the strongest prenatal modifiable risk factor for SIDS. We recommend the continuation of Public Health initiatives that promote safe infant sleeping practices and smoking cessation during and after pregnancy.

  15. Maternal depression as a risk factor for family homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2014-09-01

    We estimated the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum year, which is often an unexpected event, on subsequent homelessness and risk of homelessness in a national sample of urban, mostly low-income mothers. We used logistic regression models to estimate associations between maternal depression during the postpartum year and both homelessness and risk of homelessness 2 to 3 years later, controlling for maternal and family history of depression, prenatal housing problems, and other covariates. Risk factors for homelessness included experiencing evictions or frequent moves and moving in with family or friends and not paying rent. We found robust associations between maternal depression during the postpartum year and subsequent homelessness and risk of homelessness, even among mothers who had no history of mental illness, whose own mothers did not have a history of depressive symptoms, and who had no previous housing problems. This study provides robust evidence that maternal mental illness places families with young children at risk for homelessness, contributes to the scant literature elucidating directional and causal links between mental illness and homelessness, and contributes to a stagnant but important literature on family homelessness.

  16. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age.

  17. Investigating financial incentives for maternal health: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-12-01

    feedback on recommendations which the teams included in their final papers appearing in this Supplement. Papers in this Supplement review the evidence for a specific financial incentive mechanism (e.g. pay for performance, conditional cash transfer) to improve the use and quality of maternal healthcare and makes recommendations for programmes and future research. While data on programmes using financial incentives for improved use and indications of the quality of maternal health services support specific conclusions and recommendations, including those for future research, data linking the use of financial incentives with improved health outcomes are minimal.

  18. The effect of women's decision-making power on maternal health services uptake: evidence from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaohui; Ma, Ning

    2013-03-01

    A large body of research has explored the links between women's decision making and their uptake of maternal health services, but the evidence so far is inconclusive. This study uses the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey to examine the influence of household decision making on women's uptake of maternal health services. We find that women's decision-making power has a significant positive correlation with maternal health services uptake and that influential males' decision-making power has the opposite effect, after controlling for socio-economic indicators and supply-side conditions. Our findings suggest that empowering women and increasing their ability to make decisions may increase their uptake of maternal health services. They also suggest that policies directed toward improving women's utilization of maternal health services in Pakistan must target men as well as women.

  19. Increased placental nutrient transport in a novel mouse model of maternal obesity with fetal overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Fredrick J; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    To identify possible mechanisms linking obesity in pregnancy to increased fetal adiposity and growth, a unique mouse model of maternal obesity associated with fetal overgrowth was developed, and the hypothesis that maternal obesity causes up-regulation of placental nutrient transporter expression and activity was tested. C57BL/6J female mice were fed a control (C) or a high-fat/high-sugar (HF/HS) pelleted diet supplemented by ad libitum access to sucrose (20%) solution, mated, and studied at embryonic day 18.5. HF/HS diet increased maternal fat mass by 2.2-fold (P Maternal circulating insulin, leptin, and cholesterol were increased (P maternal obesity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  20. Improving maternal healthcare utilisation in sub-Saharan Africa through micro-finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abekah-Nkrumah, Gordon; Abor, Patience Aseweh; Abor, Joshua; Adjasi, Charles K D

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to examine links between women's access to micro-finance and how they use maternal healthcare services in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The authors use theoretical and empirical literature to propose a framework to sustain and improve women's access to maternal healthcare services through micro-financing. It is found that improved access to micro-finance by women, combined with education may enhance maternal health service uptake. The paper does not consider empirical data in the analysis. The authors advocate empirically testing the framework proposed in other SSA countries. It is important to empower women by facilitating their access to education and micro-finance. This has implications for improving maternal healthcare utilization in SSA. The paper moves beyond poor access to maternal health services in SSA and proposes a framework for providing sustainable solutions.

  1. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: evidence from maternity leave mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy, focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. We also look for impacts of the reform on self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data. For most indicators we find no effect.

  2. Radionuclides and maternal lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The increase in the number of nuclear medicine centers, both official and private in the country, as well as the increase in the number of patients, due to the effectiveness of their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, brings out new situations that must be studied from the point of view of radioprotection. This work makes a revision in the medical literature about procedures with radioisotopes during the maternal nursing period. In general, it is recommended to stop nursing for 24 hours for 99mtc test, and to resume it after the draining of the milky content. This can be done in spite of the sensitivity of the target organ of the baby, because the dosage will be below permissible limits accepted by international agencies with respect to diagnostic test and I-131 treatment, and if continuing nursing is desired, it is recommended to use other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures before discontinuing the most important nutritional resource at this age

  3. Fortification of maternal milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Di Natale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  4. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of maternal behavior in mammals is regulated by the developmental and experiential events over a female’s lifetime. In this review the relationships between the endocrine and neural systems that play key roles in these developmental and experiential that affect both the establishment and maintenance of maternal care are presented. The involvement of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and lactogens are discussed in the context of ligand, receptor, and gene activity in rodents and to a lesser extent in higher mammals. The roles of neuroendocrine factors, including oxytocin, vasopressin, classical neurotransmitters, and other neural gene products that regulate aspects of maternal care are set forth, and the interactions of hormones with central nervous system mediators of maternal behavior are discussed. The impact of prior developmental factors, including epigenetic events, and maternal experience on subsequent maternal care are assessed over the course of the female’s lifespan. It is proposed that common neuroendocrine mechanisms underlie the regulation of maternal care in mammals. PMID:25500107

  5. Maternal employment and childhood obesity : a European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Posa, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A.; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Henauw, Stefaan de; Eiben, Gabriele; Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Kovacs, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measure...

  6. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Toddler Emotion Regulation, and Subsequent Emotion Socialization

    OpenAIRE

    Premo, Julie E.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between...

  7. 'The Kingfisher Comes; the Kingfisher Comes Not': The Maternal Impasse in Woolf's Orlando and A Room of One's Own

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Kitsi-Mitakou

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the ambiguities and contradictions that surround Virginia Woolf's use of the maternal in two of her seminal works written simultaneously at the peak of her career, 'Orlando 'and 'A Room of One's Own', both directed at unearthing our literary mothers from obscurity, and reserving a space for the woman writer in the history as well as in the future of literary production. Woolf's reaction to the nineteenth-century model of the woman as an eternal procreator, as well as to psychoanalytic definitions of the mother as both literally and metaphorically castrated, result in her associating biological mothering with textual stillbirth in her feminist agenda. And, while 'Orlando' is involved in a dialectic relationship with the dominant psychoanalytic discourse of the early twentieth century, employing even the techniques of jokes (as recorded by Freud in order to cancel some of the dominant theses around maternity, the biographer/narrator fails to imagine Orlando as a biological mother. Pregnancy and labour are appropriated in these two texts for the purpose of assigning a viable identity to the female creator, while Woolf’s twentieth-century version of the maternal is, surprisingly, both reminiscent of the eighteenth-century notion of motherhood as an antagonistic relationship between mother and child, but also resonant of the male-centred and ancient-old idea that children of the brain are far more significant than children of the body.

  8. PPO.02 Severe maternal morbidity in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manning, E.; Lutomski, J.E.; O'Connor, L.; Corcoran, P.; Greene, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and examine associated factors in Ireland. METHODS: In 2011, 67,806 maternities were reported from 19 maternity units, representing 93% of maternities in Ireland. SMM was classified as the presence of one or more of 15 categories

  9. Regional differences in Dutch maternal mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, J.P.; Schutte, J.M.; Poeran, J.J.; van Roosmalen, J.; Bonsel, G.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study regional differences in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential inquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Setting Nationwide. Population A total of 3 108 235 live births and 337 maternal deaths. Methods Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the period

  10. Rise in maternal mortality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, J. M.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Schuitemaker, N. W. E.; Santema, J. G.; de Boer, K.; Pel, M.; Vermeulen, G.; Visser, W.; van Roosmalen, J.

    2010-01-01

    To assess causes, trends and substandard care factors in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential enquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Nationwide in the Netherlands. 2,557,208 live births. Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the period 1993-2005. Maternal mortality.

  11. Maternal age and trajectories of cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genna, Natacha M; Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L

    2015-11-01

    Becoming a mother is a developmental transition that has been linked to desistance from substance use. However, timing of motherhood may be a key determinant of cannabis use in women, based on preliminary evidence from teenage mothers. The goal of this study was to identify trajectories of maternal cannabis use, and to determine if maternal age was associated with different trajectories of use. This prospective study examined 456 pregnant women recruited at a prenatal clinic, ranging in age from 13 to 42 years. The women were interviewed about their cannabis use 1 year prior to pregnancy and during each trimester of pregnancy, and at 6, 10, 14, and 16 years post-partum. A growth mixture model of cannabis use reported at each time point clearly delineated four groups: non/unlikely to use, decreasing likelihood of use, late desistance, and increasing likelihood/chronic use (Lo-Mendell-Rubin adjusted LRT test statistic=35.7, pdepressive symptoms were also associated with more frequent use. These findings have implications for both prevention and treatment of cannabis use in mothers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of maternal history of depression and early life maltreatment on children's health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Katja; Fuchs, Anna; Bermpohl, Felix; Meyer, Justus; Führer, Daniel; Reichl, Corinna; Reck, Corinna; Kluczniok, Dorothea; Kaess, Michael; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Möhler, Eva; Bierbaum, Anna-Lena; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Jaite, Charlotte; Winter, Sibylle Maria; Herpertz, Sabine C; Brunner, Romuald; Bödeker, Katja; Resch, Franz

    2018-01-01

    There is a well-established link between maternal depression and child mental health. Similar effects have been found for maternal history of early life maltreatment (ELM). However, studies investigating the relationship of children's quality of life and maternal depression are scarce and none have been conducted for the association with maternal ELM. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal history of ELM and depression on children's health-related quality of life and to identify mediating factors accounting for these effects. Our study involved 194 mothers with and without history of depression and/or ELM and their children between five and 12 years. Children's health-related quality of life was assessed by maternal proxy- and child self-ratings using the KIDSCREEN. We considered maternal sensitivity and maternal parenting stress as potential mediators. We found an effect of maternal history of depression but not of maternal history of ELM on health-related quality of life. Maternal stress and sensitivity mediated the effects of maternal depression on child global health-related quality of life, as well as on the dimensions Autonomy & Parent Relation, School Environment (maternal and child rating), and Physical Wellbeing (child rating). Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, causal interpretations must be made with caution. Some scales yielded low internal consistency. Maternal impairments in areas of parenting which possibly developed during acute depression persist even after remission of acute affective symptoms. Interventions should target parenting stress and sensitivity in parents with prior depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.

  14. Maternity leave in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Dean

    2011-08-01

    To assist maternity care providers in recognizing and discussing health- and illness-related issues in pregnancy and their relationship to maternity benefits. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., maternity benefits) and key words (e.g., maternity, benefits, pregnancy). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the web sites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.

  15. Identifying maternity services in public hospitals in rural and remote Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Jo; Pilcher, Jennifer M; Donoghue, Deborah A; Rolfe, Margaret; Kildea, Sue V; Kruske, Sue; Oats, Jeremy J N; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Barclay, Lesley M

    2014-06-01

    This paper articulates the importance of accurately identifying maternity services. It describes the process and challenges of identifying the number, level and networks of rural and remote maternity services in public hospitals serving communities of between 1000 and 25000 people across Australia, and presents the findings of this process. Health departments and the national government's websites, along with lists of public hospitals, were used to identify all rural and remote Australian public hospitals offering maternity services in small towns. State perinatal reports were reviewed to establish numbers of births by hospital. The level of maternity services and networks of hospitals within which services functioned were determined via discussion with senior jurisdictional representatives. In all, 198 rural and remote public hospitals offering maternity services were identified. There were challenges in sourcing information on maternity services to generate an accurate national picture. The nature of information about maternity services held centrally by jurisdictions varied, and different frameworks were used to describe minimum requirements for service levels. Service networks appeared to be based on a combination of individual links, geography and transport infrastructure. The lack of readily available centralised and comparable information on rural and remote maternity services has implications for policy review and development, equity, safety and quality, network development and planning. Accountability for services and capacity to identify problems is also compromised.

  16. Pediatric Food Allergies and Psychosocial Functioning: Examining the Potential Moderating Roles of Maternal Distress and Overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Candice; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2015-01-01

    Identify factors associated with maternal perceptions of health-related quality of life (QoL) among youth with food allergies (FA), and identify maternal factors that may moderate relationships between FA-related challenges and child QoL. In all, 533 mothers of children with FA completed measures assessing characteristics of their child's FA, maternal perceptions of child QoL, maternal psychological distress, and maternal overprotection. FA severity, maternal psychological distress, and overprotection were significantly associated with maternal reports of poorer child functioning and/or poorer QoL among youth with FA. Hierarchical linear regression analyses showed an FA severity by maternal distress interaction in the prediction of child FA-related anxiety; children of higher stress mothers showed a stronger link between auto-injector use and anxiety than children of lower stress mothers. When identifying youth with FA who are at risk for low QoL, it is important to assess history of FA-related challenges, parental psychological distress, and overprotection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Maternal leptin and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Leptin is produced mainly by adipocytes. Levels are increased in women with obesity and during pregnancy. Increased levels are also associated with pregnancy complications such as, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: We studied what component of body composition correlated best with maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy and, whether maternal leptin correlated better with visceral fat rather than fat distributed elsewhere. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Women were recruited in the first trimester. Maternal adiposity was measured using body mass index and advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maternal leptin was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. RESULTS: Of the 100 subjects studied, the mean leptin concentration was 37.7 ng\\/ml (range: 2.1-132.8). Leptin levels did not correlate with gestational age in the first trimester, maternal age, parity or birth weight. Serum leptin correlated positively with maternal weight and body mass index, and with the different parameters of body composition. On multiple regression analysis, serum leptin correlated with visceral fat but not fat distributed elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Visceral fat is the main determinant of circulating maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy. This raises the possibility that maternal leptin in early pregnancy may be a marker for the development of metabolic syndrome, including diabetes mellitus.

  18. Pathways of disadvantage: Explaining the relationship between maternal depression and children's problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2012-11-01

    A large body of literature documents that children of depressed mothers have impaired cognitive, behavioral, and health outcomes throughout the life course, though much less is known about the mechanisms linking maternal depression to children's outcomes. In this paper, I use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to estimate and explain the consequences of maternal depression for 5-year-old children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Ordinary least squared (OLS) regression models and propensity score models show that children exposed to both chronic and intermittent maternal depression have more problem behaviors than their counterparts with never depressed mothers. Results also show that economic resources and maternal parenting behaviors mediate much of the association between maternal depression and children's problem behaviors, but that relationships with romantic partners and social support do little to explain this association. This research extends past literature by illuminating some mechanisms through which maternal depression matters for children; by utilizing longitudinal measures of depression; by employing rigorous statistical techniques to lend confidence to the findings; and by using a large, diverse, and non-clinical sample of children most susceptible to maternal depression. Given that early childhood problem behaviors lay a crucial foundation for short- and long-term life trajectories, the social consequences of maternal depression may be far-reaching. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal Childhood Maltreatment History and Child Mental Health: Mechanisms in Intergenerational Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron

    2016-04-12

    The objectives of this study were to examine whether a maternal history of maltreatment in childhood has a detrimental impact on young children's mental health and to test theoretically and empirically informed pathways by which maternal history may influence child mental health. Mother-child dyads (N = 187) were evaluated between birth and 64 months of age via home and laboratory observations, medical and child protection record reviews, and maternal interviews to assess maternal history of childhood maltreatment and microsystem and exosystem measures of the caregiving context, including child maltreatment, maternal caregiving quality, stress exposures, and social support. When the children were 7 years of age, mothers and teachers reported on child emotional and behavioral problems. Analyses examined whether the caregiving context variables linked maternal maltreatment history with child emotional and behavioral problems, controlling for child sex (54% male), race/ethnicity (63% White), and family sociodemographic risk at birth. Maltreated mothers experienced greater stress and diminished social support, and their children were more likely to be maltreated across early childhood. By age 7, children of maltreated mothers were at increased risk for clinically significant emotional and behavioral problems. A path analysis model showed mediation of the effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child symptoms, with specific effects significant for child maltreatment. Interventions that reduce child maltreatment risk and stress exposures and increase family social support may prevent deleterious effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child mental health.

  20. The question of autonomy in maternal health in Africa: a rights-based consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzat, Jimoh

    2015-06-01

    Maternal mortality is still very high in Africa, despite progress in control efforts at the global level. One elemental link is the question of autonomy in maternal health, especially at the household level where intrinsic human rights are undermined. A rights-based consideration in bioethics is an approach that holds the centrality of the human person, with a compelling reference to the fundamental human rights of every person. A philosophical and sociological engagement of gender and the notion of autonomy within the household reveals some fundamental rights-based perplexities for bioethical considerations in maternal health. The right to self-determination is undermined, and therefore women's dignity, freedom and autonomy, capacities, and choices are easily defiled. This study applies a rights-based approach to maternal health and demonstrates how rights concerns are associated with negative outcomes in maternal health in Africa. The discussion is situated at the household level, which is the starting point in health care. The paper submits that beyond legal and political rights within the context of the state, rights-based issues manifest at the household level. Many of those rights issues, especially relating to women's autonomy, are detrimental to maternal health in Africa. Therefore, a rights-based approach in the social construction of maternal health realities will contribute to alleviating the burden of maternal mortality in Africa.

  1. Paradoxes of maternal mourning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, C W

    1991-02-01

    It has been customary to conceptualize mourning as a phasic or stage phenomenon (Lindemann 1944; Parkes 1972; Bowlby 1980; Knapp 1986). Such a conceptualization has proved to be of tremendous didactic value, especially in terms of succinctly organizing and communicating the major affects, behaviors, and reactions of mourning. It is, however, my belief, based upon clinical experience with many forms of bereavement, that the phenomenon of mourning is not comprised of clearly delineated stages and phases. I have come to conceptualize the phenomenon of mourning the death of a loved person as involving the bereaved's struggle with a series of more or less unresolvable paradoxes rather than as a progression through stages that possess relatively distinct and predictable beginning and ending points. The specific paradoxes encountered by a bereaved person differ, of course, in accordance with the relationship that was lost (mother, father, spouse, child, or sibling), the developmental stage of the bereaved (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, or maturity), the type of death (sudden or prolonged), and the cause of death (illness, murder, suicide, or accident). In this paper, I will address those paradoxes that seem specific to maternal mourning - that is, to mothers who are mourning the death of a child.

  2. Reminiscing the Blank Spaces of Sojourn: Sublimating Emotional Flights in Taban Lo Liyong’s “Words That Melt A Mountain”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Akingbe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Taban Lo Liyong's profoundity as a foremost writer from East Africa is often showcased by his wilful eccentricity and dogged iconoclasm, which exuberantly dot the lines of his poetry collections. For much of his writing career, Liyong has sustained a cultivated equanimity towards the paradox of being widely accepted by the budding African literary critics, and being deliberately neglected by the established critics. His maverick disposition to literary craftsmanship is stridently exhibited in the thematics of Words That Melt A Mountain: an unabashed treatment of controversial subject matters; intrusive and digressive narrative technique; confident assertive ego; an effervescent erudition in his writing and a disturbing frankness in the treatment of sex. This paper is preoccupied with the examination of how the Poetics of Words That Melt A Mountain are grounded in the boons and mementoes garnered from the experiences borne out of Liyong's sojourn in Japan. It will further look into how the reminiscence of Liyong's sojourn in Japan ferments an interplay of themes which oscillate between audacious narrative of erotic explorations and a penetrating introspection into the African mythopoesis.

  3. The efficacy of treatment reminders of life with emphasis on integrative reminiscence on self-esteem and anxiety in widowed old men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishvaei, Malihe; Ataie Moghanloo, Roghayeh; Ataie Moghanloo, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Loss of wife besides the phenomenon of aging could cause some psychological disorders and may shorten the duration of this stage of life. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of treatment reminders of life with emphasis on integrative reminiscence on self-esteem and anxiety in widowed old men. This was a clinical trial with pre-test and post-test design with a control group. The study population included All 60 to 80 year old men living in Meshginshahr; among whom, 34 participants were selected using convenience sampling method. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups (experimental and control). The experimental group participated in therapy sessions and the control group did not receive any intervention. The research instruments were Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Anxiety Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multivariable covariance analysis in SSPS-19. Statistical significance was set at Pself-esteem and anxiety in old widowed men (pself-esteem and reduce anxiety in widowed old men. This treatment gives better results compared to the traditional treatments and it is recommended to be implemented in nursing homes.

  4. Re-membering the Bard : David Greig’s and Liz Lochhead’sRe-visionary Reminiscences of “The Tempest”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Capitani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tempest (1611 is one of those Shakespearean texts which have been adopted and adapted most frequently. This article explores two early Nineties appropriations of the Bard’s romance, that is David Greig’s unpublished monologue A Savage Reminiscence or (How to Snare the Nimble Marmoset, first performed in 1991, and Liz Lochhead’s The Magic Island, a rewriting of The Tempest for seven- to eleven-year-olds, first staged in 1993. Even if they differ from a variety of points of view, both Scottish Tempests retell the Shakespearean narrative through the lens of memory. In Greig’s appropriation, after being left alone on the island, a guilty Caliban recollects some past events – in particular his rape of Miranda – from his own marginalised perspective. Similarly, Lochhead’s The Magic Island, which adapts Shakespeare’s play to the needs and taste of a young audience by focusing on the theme of friendship, reconstructs the story retrospectively through the eyes of Prospero’s daughter. Through a web of intertextual references interwoven with contemporary echoes, Greig and Lochhead re-member and dismember their source problematizing any unimaginative subscription to the Shakespearean canon.

  5. Snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy and 10-minutes activation in long term care residents with dementia (WISDE: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with dementia are often inapproachable due to symptoms of their illness. Therefore nurses should establish relationships with dementia patients via their remaining resources and facilitate communication. In order to achieve this, different targeted non-pharmacological interventions are recommended and practiced. However there is no sufficient evidence about the efficacy of most of these interventions. A number of publications highlight the urgent need for methodological sound studies so that more robust conclusions may be drawn. Methods/Design The trial is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial with 20 nursing homes in Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt (Germany as the units of randomization. Nursing homes will be randomly allocated into 4 study groups consisting of 5 clusters and 90 residents: snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy, 10-minutes activation or unstructured verbal communication (control group. The purpose is to determine whether the interventions are effective to reduce apathy in long-term care residents with dementia (N = 360 as the main outcome measure. Assessments will be done at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months after beginning of the interventions. Discussion This trial will particularly contribute to the evidence on efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions in dementia care. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00653731

  6. Linked data management

    CERN Document Server

    Hose, Katja; Schenkel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Desp...

  7. Maternal Parity and Blood Oxidative Stress in Mother and Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golalizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Parturition has been associated with free radicals, itself linked with poor pregnancy outcome. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers levels of maternal and cord blood samples at the second stage of labor with the maternal parity number. Materials and Methods In this analytical cross-sectional study, subjects were selected from Fatemieh teaching hospital, Hamadan, Iran, and allocated into the two groups according to their number of parity: the primiparous group (n = 33, and multiparous group (n = 35. Maternal and umbilical cord blood samples were taken from all subjects and then assessed for catalas activity (CAT, total thiol molecules (TTM and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Results Total antioxidant capacity levels were significantly higher in newborns of primiparous women compared to multiparous women (P = 0.006. The CAT levels were significantly lower (P = 0.04 and TAC levels significantly higher (P = 0.03 in maternal plasma of primiparous women compared to those of multiparous women. Conclusions Increment in the number of parity can lead to decrease antioxidant defense mechanisms in multiparous women and their newborns. So, control of oxidative stress is considered to be beneficial in multiparous women.

  8. Materno-infantilism, feminism and maternal health policy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Simone

    2012-06-01

    In the last days of 2011, President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff issued a provisional measure (or draft law) entitled "National Surveillance and Monitoring Registration System for the Prevention of Maternal Mortality" (MP 557), as part of a new maternal health programme. It was supposed to address the pressing issue of maternal morbidity and mortality in Brazil, but instead it caused an explosive controversy because it used terms such as nascituro (unborn child) and proposed the compulsory registration of every pregnancy. After intense protests by feminist and human rights groups that this law was unconstitutional, violated women's right to privacy and threatened our already limited reproductive rights, the measure was revised in January 2012, omitting "the unborn child" but not the mandatory registration of pregnancy. Unfortunately, neither version of the draft law addresses the two main problems with maternal health in Brazil: the over-medicalisation of childbirth and its adverse effects, and the need for safe, legal abortion. The content of this measure itself reflects the conflictive nature of public policies on reproductive health in Brazil and how they are shaped by close links between different levels of government and political parties, and religious and professional sectors. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prehospital maternity care in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenberg, Signe; Puntervoll, Stein Atle; Øian, Pål

    2011-11-29

    Out-of-hospital maternity care in Norway is randomly organised and not properly formalized. We wished to examine the extent, organisation and quality of this service. We obtained information from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry on all unplanned out-of-hospital births in 2008. A questionnaire was sent to all maternity institutions, municipalities and emergency dispatch centres, with questions regarding the practical and formal organisation of the service using figures from 2008. 430 children, all above 22 weeks gestation, were born unplanned outside of hospitals in Norway in 2008. Of these, 194 were born unplanned at home, 189 while being transported and 47 in other locations (doctor's offices, infirmaries, unknown). Five out of 53 maternity institutions (9 %) confirmed they had a formal midwife service agreement for out-of-hospital births. 247 municipalities (79 %) claimed to have no such assistance. Of these, 33 are located at least 90 minutes away from the nearest maternity ward. Half of the emergency dispatch centres had no registration identifying formal agreements on assistance by midwives for out-of-hospital births. There is an urgent need to put in place formal agreements between the regional health authorities and the municipalities on out-of-hospital midwife services. A distance of 90 minutes' journey time to a maternity ward to fulfil the right to qualified assistance is not well-founded.

  10. Depression, Sensation Seeking, and Maternal Smoking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy van de Venne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine maternal and adolescent depression, maternal and teen sensation seeking, and maternal smoking, and their associations with adolescent smoking. Data were collected from a sample of 47 male and 66 female adolescents (ages 11—18 years and their mothers from three different health clinics. The findings indicated that maternal sensation seeking was linked indirectly with adolescent smoking through teen sensation seeking, both of which were significantly associated with teen smoking (β = 0.29, p < 0.001 and β = 0.32, p < 0.001, respectively. Teen depression was associated positively with teen smoking (β = 0.24, p < 0.01 when controlling for sensation seeking behaviors. Maternal smoking was also directly linked to adolescent smoking (β = 0.20, p < 0.05. These findings underscore a potentially important role of sensation seeking in the origins of adolescent smoking, and clarify pathways of influence with regard to maternal attitudes and behaviors in subsequent teenage nicotine use.

  11. Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler obesity? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kristy R.; Powell, Theresa L.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and pregnancies in obese mothers have increased risk for complications including gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, preterm birth and caesarian section. Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk of obesity and metabolic disease and are susceptible to develop neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders. Changes in placental function not only play a critical role in the development of pregnancy complications but may also be involved in linking maternal obesity to long-term health risks in the infant. Maternal adipokines i.e., interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), leptin and adiponectin link maternal nutritional status and adipose tissue metabolism to placental function. Adipokines and metabolic hormones have direct impact on placental function by modulating placental nutrient transport. Nutrient delivery to the fetus is regulated by a complex interaction between insulin signaling, cytokine profile and insulin responsiveness, which is modulated by adiponectin and IL-1β. In addition, obese pregnant women are at risk for hypertension and preeclampsia with reduced placental vascularity and blood flow, which would restrict placental nutrient delivery to the developing fetus. These sometimes opposing signals regulating placental function may contribute to the diversity of short and long-term outcomes observed in pregnant obese women. This review focuses on the changes in adipokines and obesity-related metabolic hormones, how these factors influence placental function and fetal development to contribute to long-term metabolic and behavioral consequences of children born to obese mothers. PMID:27864335

  13. Maternal exposure to the holocaust and health complaints in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Janine D; Bierer, Linda M; Yehuda, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Although the link between chronic stress and the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases of adulthood has been known for some time, there is growing recognition that early environmental influences may result in developmental programming via epigenetic mechanisms, thereby affecting the developmental trajectory of disease progression. Previous studies support the idea that offspring of Holocaust survivors may have been subjected to early developmental programming. We evaluated the relationship between parental exposure to the Holocaust and self-reported health ratings and disorders made by their adult offspring (i.e., second generation Holocaust survivors). A total of 137 subjects were evaluated. Regression analyses demonstrated that maternal but not paternal exposure to the Holocaust was related to poorer subjective impressions of emotional and physical health. This relationship was diminished when the offspring's own level of trait anxiety was considered. Offspring with maternal, but not paternal, Holocaust exposure also reported greater use of psychotropic and other medications, including medications for the treatment of hypertension and lipid disorders. The mechanism linking these health outcomes and maternal exposure deserves further investigation, including the possibility that fetal or early developmental programming is involved.

  14. Maternal immune activation results in complex microglial transcriptome signature in the adult offspring that is reversed by minocycline treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattei, D.; Ivanov, A.; Ferrai, C.; Jordan, P.; Guneykaya, D.; Buonfiglioli, A.; Schaafsma, W.; Przanowski, P.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Brust, P.; Hesse, S.; Patt, M.; Sabri, O.; Ross, T. L.; Eggen, B. J. L.; Boddeke, E. W. G. M.; Kaminska, B.; Beule, D.; Pombo, A.; Kettenmann, H.; Wolf, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of developing psychiatric pathologies in later life. This link may be bridged by a defective microglial phenotype in the offspring induced by MIA, as microglia have key roles in the development and maintenance of

  15. Maternal Sensitivity and Effortful Control in Early Childhood as Predictors of Adolescents' Adjustment: The Mediating Roles of Peer Group Affiliation and Social Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah; Carlo, Gustavo; Davis, Alexandra N.; Karahuta, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal links between early childhood temperament, maternal sensitivity, and adolescents' adjustment have been proposed and found in several longitudinal studies, but the mechanisms of influence have not been explored. The authors examined the paths from maternal sensitivity and temperament in early childhood to adolescents' prosocial,…

  16. Site of delivery contribution to black-white severe maternal morbidity disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Egorova, Natalia N; Balbierz, Amy; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Hebert, Paul L

    2016-08-01

    The black-white maternal mortality disparity is the largest disparity among all conventional population perinatal health measures, and the mortality gap between black and white women in New York City has nearly doubled in recent years. For every maternal death, 100 women experience severe maternal morbidity, a life-threatening diagnosis, or undergo a life-saving procedure during their delivery hospitalization. Like maternal mortality, severe maternal morbidity is more common among black than white women. A significant portion of maternal morbidity and mortality is preventable, making quality of care in hospitals a critical lever for improving outcomes. Hospital variation in risk-adjusted severe maternal morbidity rates exists. The extent to which variation in hospital performance on severe maternal morbidity rates contributes to black-white disparities in New York City hospitals has not been studied. We examined the extent to which black-white differences in severe maternal morbidity rates in New York City hospitals can be explained by differences in the hospitals in which black and white women deliver. We conducted a population-based study using linked 2011-2013 New York City discharge and birth certificate datasets (n = 353,773 deliveries) to examine black-white differences in severe maternal morbidity rates in New York City hospitals. A mixed-effects logistic regression with a random hospital-specific intercept was used to generate risk-standardized severe maternal morbidity rates for each hospital (n = 40). We then assessed differences in the distributions of black and white deliveries among these hospitals. Severe maternal morbidity occurred in 8882 deliveries (2.5%) and was higher among black than white women (4.2% vs 1.5%, P rates among New York City hospitals ranged from 0.8 to 5.7 per 100 deliveries. White deliveries were more likely to be delivered in low-morbidity hospitals: 65% of white vs 23% of black deliveries occurred in hospitals in the lowest

  17. The Group Reminiscence Approach Can Increase Self-Awareness of Memory Deficits and Evoke a Life Review in People With Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Kurihara Project Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kei; Kasai, Mari; Nakai, Megumi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Meguro, Kenichi

    2016-06-01

    The group reminiscence approach (GRA) and reality orientation (RO) are common psychosocial interventions for patients with dementia. As a qualitative evaluation of the reminiscence approach in patients with dementia, the Patient Report Outcome (PRO) is useful. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of GRA-RO for participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using the PRO. A cluster randomized controlled trial. Community-based study. Ninety-four patients with MCI (39 GRA-RO, 23 physical activity, and 32 cognitive training) described their impressions. Based on the database of the Kurihara Project, we retrospectively analyzed the participants' descriptions of their impressions as a PRO in the nonpharmacological interventions: GRA-RO, physical activity, and cognitive training. We categorized the descriptions according to the following 2 types: impression with content and reminiscence with life review. We assessed what they wrote regarding memory loss. The content on their life reviews was also a particular focus for the GRA-RO group. PRO. Compared with the physical activity and the clinical training groups, the GRA-RO patients described their reminiscence with life review and their own memory problems. There was no confusion of the order of events of their autobiographical memories. There was a significant time effect between the 2 family involvement groups in quality-of-life (QOL) scores, and the postintervention QOL scores were significantly better than preintervention. This study suggests that the GRA-RO in participants with MCI not only stimulates life review but also increases self-awareness of memory deficits without confusion of the order of events. Thus, the GRA-RO may improve self-esteem and develop self-awareness. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reverse innovation in maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Tabassum; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Nathan, Hannah L; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura A

    2017-09-01

    Reverse innovation, defined as the flow of ideas from low- to high-income settings, is gaining traction in healthcare. With an increasing focus on value, investing in low-cost but effective and innovative solutions can be of mutual benefit to both high- and low-income countries. Reverse innovation has a role in addressing maternal health challenges in high-income countries by harnessing these innovative solutions for vulnerable populations especially in rural and remote regions. In this paper, we present three examples of 'reverse innovation' for maternal health: a low-cost, easy-to-use blood pressure device (CRADLE), a diagnostic algorithm (mini PIERS) and accompanying mobile app (PIERS on the Move), and a novel method for mapping maternal outcomes (MOM).

  19. Classification differences and maternal mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanave, B; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Varnoux, N

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the ways maternal deaths are classified in national statistical offices in Europe and to evaluate the ways classification affects published rates. METHODS: Data on pregnancy-associated deaths were collected in 13 European countries. Cases were classified by a European panel....... This change was substantial in three countries (P statistical offices appeared to attribute fewer deaths to obstetric causes. In the other countries, no differences were detected. According to official published data, the aggregated maternal mortality rate for participating countries was 7.7 per...... of experts into obstetric or non-obstetric causes. An ICD-9 code (International Classification of Diseases) was attributed to each case. These were compared to the codes given in each country. Correction indices were calculated, giving new estimates of maternal mortality rates. SUBJECTS: There were...

  20. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    selection of mothers between pregnancies drives the results, I focus on mothers whose change in employment status is likely not to be driven by underlying health (unemployed mothers and students). Given generous welfare bene ts and strict workplace regulations in Denmark, my findings support a residual......I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively...... for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time...

  1. Practitioner review: maternal mood in pregnancy and child development--implications for child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Monk, Catherine; Fitelson, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    The empirical base suggesting a link between prenatal maternal anxiety, stress or depression and cognitive, behavioral, and biological outcomes in the infant and child has increased dramatically in the past 10 years. In this review, we consider the relevance of prenatal maternal mood for child mental health practitioners; the empirical base for a likely causal impact of the link between prenatal anxiety, depression, or stress and child outcomes; the degree to which the available evidence is sufficient for informing or altering clinical practice; and the possible role of prenatal interventions for promoting child health and development. A selective review of PubMed, Cochrane Library and other sources was undertaken. Clinically significant links between maternal prenatal distress and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes have been reported; predictions to stress physiology, immunology, and neurodevelopment have been reported but the effect sizes and clinical significance is less clear. Several candidate mechanisms have been proposed, with some supporting evidence. Many behavioral treatments for prenatal maternal distress exist, but their application to promoting child health is largely unknown. Research on maternal prenatal distress is a good example of translational research and offers a strong paradigm for promoting interdisciplinary clinical research on child health and development. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Influences of maternal postpartum depression on fathers and on father-infant interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Janice H

    2008-11-01

    Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) has been shown to negatively influence mother-infant interaction; however, little research has explored how fathers and father-infant interaction are affected when a mother is depressed. This study examined the influence of maternal PPD on fathers and identified maternal and paternal factors associated with father-infant interaction in families with depressed as compared with nondepressed mothers. A convenience sample of 128 mother-father-infant triads, approximately half of which included women with significant symptoms of PPD at screening, were recruited from a screening sample of 790 postpartum women. Mothers and fathers completed measures of depression, marital satisfaction, and parenting stress at 2 to 3 months' postpartum and were each videotaped interacting with their infants. Results indicate that maternal PPD is associated with increased paternal depression and higher paternal parenting stress. Partners of depressed women demonstrated less optimal interaction with their infants, indicating that fathers do not compensate for the negative effects of maternal depression on the child. Although mother-infant interaction did not influence father-infant interaction, how the mother felt about her relationship with the infant did, even more so than maternal depression. The links between maternal PPD, fathers, and father-infant interaction indicate a need for further understanding of the reciprocal influences between mothers, fathers, and infants. Copyright © 2008 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  3. Maternal Household Decision-Making Autonomy and Adolescent Education in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, C Emily; Marteleto, Leticia

    2017-06-01

    Maternal decision-making autonomy has been linked to positive outcomes for children's health and well-being early in life in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world. However, there is a dearth of research examining if and how maternal autonomy continues to influence children's outcomes into adolescence and whether it impacts other domains of children's lives beyond health, such as their education. The goal of this study was to determine whether high maternal decision-making was associated with school enrollment for secondary school-aged youth in Honduras. Further, we aimed to assess whether the relationships between maternal autonomy and school enrollment varied by adolescents' environmental contexts and individual characteristics such as gender. Our analytical sample included 6,579 adolescents ages 12-16 living with their mothers from the Honduran Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2011-12. We used stepwise logistic regression models to investigate the association between maternal household decision-making autonomy and adolescents' school enrollment. Our findings suggest that adolescents, especially girls, benefit from their mothers' high decision-making autonomy. Findings suggest that maternal decision-making autonomy promotes adolescents' school enrollment above and beyond other maternal, household, and regional influences.

  4. Assessment of global DNA methylation in the first trimester fetal tissues exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fa, Svetlana; Larsen, Trine Vilsbøll; Bilde, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    to exposures with an epigenetic impact. We have assessed the influence of maternal cigarette smoking during the first trimester for fetal global DNA methylation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the human fetal intestines and livers as well as the placentas from the first trimester pregnancies. Global DNA......AIMS: Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of negative health consequences for the exposed child. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a likely link between the prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the increased risk in later life for diverse pathologies....... Maternal smoking induces gene-specific DNA methylation alterations as well as global DNA hypermethylation in the term placentas and hypomethylation in the cord blood. Early pregnancy represents a developmental time where the fetal epigenome is remodeled and accordingly can be expected to be highly prone...

  5. Preventing infant and child morbidity and mortality due to maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkan, Pamela J; Patel, Shivani A; Rahman, Atif

    2016-10-01

    This review provides an overview of perinatal depression and its impacts on the health of mothers, their newborns, and young children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We define and describe the urgency and scope of the problem of perinatal depression for mothers, while highlighting some specific issues such as suicidal ideation and decreased likelihood to seek health care. Pathways through which stress may link maternal depression to childhood growth and development (e.g., the hypo-pituitary axis) are discussed, followed by a summary of the adverse effects of depression on birth outcomes, parenting practices, and child growth and development. Although preliminary studies on the association between maternal depressive symptoms and maternal and child mortality exist, more research on these topics is needed. We describe the available interventions and suggest strategies to reduce maternal depressive symptoms in LMICs, including integration of services with existing primary health-care systems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Maternal cultural values and parenting practices: longitudinal associations with Chinese adolescents' aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Michael M; Li, Yan; Shi, Junqi

    2012-04-01

    Interrelations among cultural values, parenting practices, and adolescent aggression were examined using longitudinal data collected from Chinese adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents' overt and relational aggression were assessed using peer nominations at Time 1 (7th grade) and Time 2 (9th grade). Mothers reported endorsement of cultural values (collectivism and social harmony) and parenting practices (psychological control and inductive reasoning) at Time 1. While controlling for Time 1 adolescent aggression, maternal collectivism and social harmony indirectly and longitudinally linked to adolescent aggression through maternal parenting practices. Specifically, maternal collectivism was positively related to inductive reasoning, which, in turn, negatively related to adolescent overt aggression at Time 2. Similarly, maternal social harmony negatively related to psychological control that positively predicted later adolescent relational aggression. Results of the present study shed light on mechanisms through which culture may indirectly influence adolescent aggression. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal Depression and Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Symptomatology: Severity and Chronicity of Past Maternal Depression and Current Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Erin E.; Langer, David A.; Tompson, Martha C.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal depression is a well-documented risk factor for youth depression, and taking into account its severity and chronicity may provide important insight into the degree of risk conferred. This study explored the degree to which the severity/chronicity of maternal depression history explained variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms above and beyond current maternal depressive symptoms among 171 youth (58% male) ages 8 to 12 over a span of three years. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression and current maternal depressive symptoms were examined as predictors of parent-reported youth internalizing and externalizing symptomatology, as well as youth self-reported depressive symptoms. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression did not account for additional variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at Time 1 beyond what was accounted for by maternal depressive symptoms at Time 1. Longitudinal growth curve modeling indicated that prior severity/chronicity of maternal depression predicted levels of youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at each time point when controlling for current maternal depressive symptoms at each time point. Chronicity of maternal depression, apart from severity, also predicted rate of change in youth externalizing symptoms over time. These findings highlight the importance of screening and assessing for current maternal depressive symptoms, as well as the nature of past depressive episodes. Possible mechanisms underlying the association between severity/chronicity of maternal depression and youth outcomes, such as residual effects from depressive history on mother–child interactions, are discussed. PMID:27401880

  8. Maternal Mortality – A Challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital G. Sonone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The current maternal mortality rate (MMR in Maharashtra is 104/100000 live births, ranking 3rd in India. There is scope for reducing it as majority of the causes of MMR are preventable and curable. Aims and Objectives: To study the sociodemographic profile and causes of maternal deaths at Dr. V. M. Govt. Medical College, Solapur. Material and Methods: The study population included all deliveries i.e. women admitted in the hospital during pregnancy, child-birth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated due to pregnancy during the period of 2 years from 1st August 2009 to 31st July 2011. IPD case records and autopsy reports of all maternal deaths were taken and various variables were studied. The present study is prospective study of maternal mortality conducted in Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dr. V. M. Medical College Solapur. Cases were distributed ac-cording to their age, literacy rate, residence,socioeconomic status, ante-natal care, gestational age, gravida/parity, place of referral, pregnancy outcome, and place of delivery, perinatal outcome and etiological factors. This study also suggests the measures to reduce maternal mortality. Results: The total number of live births during the study period were 13,188 and total number of maternal deaths were 63 and MMR was 477 per 1, 00,000 live births. In the maternal deaths studied, 1/3rd of the women were illiterate, half of the women belonged to urban slum areas and of lower socioeconomic class.1/3rd of the deaths occurred in primigravida,within 24 hrs from admission, 58.73% of the patients were referred from outside. Out of that 86.49% of women were sent from private hospital and died in post partum period, having poor perinatal outcome. Haemorrhage (28.57% and hypertension (12.69% are two direct causes and severe anemia (33.33% is most common in direct cause of maternal death in our study.

  9. Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services KidsHealth / For Parents / Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services What's in this article? Giving Birth at ...

  10. Maternal death and near miss measurement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    2008-05-26

    May 26, 2008 ... Maternal health services need to be accountable more than ever ... of maternal death and near miss audit, surveillance and review is ..... (d) A fundamental principle of these ..... quality assurance in obstetrics in Nigeria - a.

  11. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  12. Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal Health Services ... the state of maternal health in the country reflects poorly on public health priorities. ... A number of international agencies and civil society organizations are ...

  13. Maternity waiting homes: A panacea for maternal/neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women to inadequately equipped delivery settings 4,5. Eritrea has made some ... Maternity waiting homes were introduced in Eritrea in 2007 as a strategy to mitigate .... 24(4):472-8. 5. Chandramohan D, Cutts F, Millard P The effect of stay in.

  14. A role for fetal hemoglobin and maternal immune IgG in infant resistance to Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanaki Amaratunga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, infant susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria increases substantially as fetal hemoglobin (HbF and maternal immune IgG disappear from circulation. During the first few months of life, however, resistance to malaria is evidenced by extremely low parasitemias, the absence of fever, and the almost complete lack of severe disease. This resistance has previously been attributed in part to poor parasite growth in HbF-containing red blood cells (RBCs. A specific role for maternal immune IgG in infant resistance to malaria has been hypothesized but not yet identified.We found that P. falciparum parasites invade and develop normally in fetal (cord blood, CB RBCs, which contain up to 95% HbF. However, these parasitized CB RBCs are impaired in their binding to human microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs, monocytes, and nonparasitized RBCs--cytoadherence interactions that have been implicated in the development of high parasite densities and the symptoms of malaria. Abnormal display of the parasite's cytoadherence antigen P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1 on CB RBCs accounts for these findings and is reminiscent of that on HbC and HbS RBCs. IgG purified from the plasma of immune Malian adults almost completely abolishes the adherence of parasitized CB RBCs to MVECs.Our data suggest a model of malaria protection in which HbF and maternal IgG act cooperatively to impair the cytoadherence of parasitized RBCs in the first few months of life. In highly malarious areas of Africa, an infant's contemporaneous expression of HbC or HbS and development of an immune IgG repertoire may effectively reconstitute the waning protective effects of HbF and maternal immune IgG, thereby extending the malaria resistance of infancy into early childhood.

  15. Reminiscence therapy using odor in alcohol-dependent patients--psychophysiological evaluation and psychological evaluation; power spectral analysis of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizono, H; Morita, N; Iizuka, S; Satoh, S; Nakatani, Y

    2000-12-01

    This research was based on the hypothesis that when alcohol-dependent patients describe themselves, awakening of emotion by affirmative odor stimulation may facilitate memory reframing focusing on more affirmative emotion and memories. To prove the hypothesis, physiological changes accompanied by emotional awakening were evaluated by measuring the autonomic activity. In addition, subjective evaluation by a self-report manner was examined to investigate the effectiveness of Reminiscence Therapy (RT) using odor in alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-four patients who met the DSM-IV criteria of alcohol-related disorders and were hospitalized in a ward specialized to alcohol dependence therapy. Each patient underwent a one-to-one interview twice. For counterbalance, one interview was performed with odor stimulation using an odor with a relaxing effect that recall pleasant emotion, and the other was without odor stimulation. As the evaluation indices of physiological changes accompanied by emotional awakening, index of autonomic function (HRV; Heart rate variability) for objective evaluation and psychological indices (STAI; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory VAS; Visual Analog Scale) for subjective evaluation were measured. 1) Objective evaluation: Regarding the evaluation index of the autonomic function, the sympathetic nervous system activity (LF/HF; low frequency component/high frequency component ratio) was significantly inhibited by odor stimulation (p Subjective evaluation: Compared to the state prior to interview, state anxiety judged by STAI was significantly decreased after interview (p subjective evaluation, but the objective evaluation suggested that the odor inhibited the sympathetic nervous system. Thus, it was suggested that odor can be used in RT, that is, emotional changes due to stimulation of odor may be applicable in RT.

  16. Gastritis promotes an activated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell with a phenotype reminiscent of a cancer-promoting cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Jessica M; Engevik, Amy C; Engevik, Melinda; Schumacher, Michael A; Xiao, Chang; Yang, Li; Worrell, Roger T; Zavros, Yana

    2014-03-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) promote gastric cancer in response to gastritis. In culture, BM-MSCs are prone to mutation with continued passage but it is unknown whether a similar process occurs in vivo in response to gastritis. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of chronic gastritis in the transformation of BM-MSCs leading to an activated cancer-promoting phenotype. Age matched C57BL/6 (BL/6) and gastrin deficient (GKO) mice were used for isolation of stomach, serum and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) at 3 and 6 months of age. MSC activation was assessed by growth curve analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and xenograft assays. To allow for the isolation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells and assay in response to chronic gastritis, IRG/Vav-1(Cre) mice that expressed both enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing hematopoietic cells and red fluorescent protein-expressing stromal cells were generated. In a parabiosis experiment, IRG/Vav-1(Cre) mice were paired to either an uninfected Vav-1(Cre) littermate or a BL/6 mouse inoculated with Helicobacter pylori. GKO mice displayed severe atrophic gastritis accompanied by elevated gastric tissue and circulating transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) by 3 months of age. Compared to BM-MSCs isolated from uninflamed BL/6 mice, BM-MSCs isolated from GKO mice displayed an increased proliferative rate and elevated phosphorylated-Smad3 suggesting active TGFβ signaling. In xenograft assays, mice injected with BM-MSCs from 6-month-old GKO animals displayed tumor growth. RFP+ stromal cells were rapidly recruited to the gastric mucosa of H. pylori parabionts and exhibited changes in gene expression. Gastritis promotes the in vivo activation of BM-MSCs to a phenotype reminiscent of a cancer-promoting cell.

  17. Structural Features Reminiscent of ATP-Driven Protein Translocases Are Essential for the Function of a Type III Secretion-Associated ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Junya; Lefebre, Matthew; Galán, Jorge E

    2015-09-01

    Many bacterial pathogens and symbionts utilize type III secretion systems to interact with their hosts. These machines have evolved to deliver bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic target cells to modulate a variety of cellular functions. One of the most conserved components of these systems is an ATPase, which plays an essential role in the recognition and unfolding of proteins destined for secretion by the type III pathway. Here we show that structural features reminiscent of other ATP-driven protein translocases are essential for the function of InvC, the ATPase associated with a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium type III secretion system. Mutational and functional analyses showed that a two-helix-finger motif and a conserved loop located at the entrance of and within the predicted pore formed by the hexameric ATPase are essential for InvC function. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the function of this highly conserved component of type III secretion machines. Type III secretion machines are essential for the virulence or symbiotic relationships of many bacteria. These machines have evolved to deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells to modulate cellular functions, thus facilitating bacterial colonization and replication. An essential component of these machines is a highly conserved ATPase, which is necessary for the recognition and secretion of proteins destined to be delivered by the type III secretion pathway. Using modeling and structure and function analyses, we have identified structural features of one of these ATPases from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium that help to explain important aspects of its function. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Effects of maternal confidence and competence on maternal parenting stress in newborn care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Chi; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Yeh, Yen-Po; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of maternal confidence and maternal competence to maternal parenting stress during newborn care. Maternal role development is a cognitive and social process influenced by cultural and family contexts and mother and child characteristics. Most knowledge about maternal role development comes from western society. However, perceptions of the maternal role in contemporary Taiwanese society may be affected by contextual and environmental factors. A prospective correlational design was used to recruit 372 postpartum Taiwanese women and their infants from well-child clinics at 16 health centres in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria for mothers were gestational age >37 weeks, ≥18 years old, and healthy, with infants maternal confidence, maternal competence and self-perceived maternal parenting stress. After controlling for maternal parity and infant temperament, high maternal confidence and competence were associated with low maternal parenting stress. Maternal confidence influenced maternal parenting stress both directly and indirectly via maternal competence. To assist postpartum women in infant care programmes achieve positive outcomes, nurses should evaluate and bolster mothers' belief in their own abilities. Likewise, nurses should not only consider mothers' infant care skills, but also mothers' parity and infant temperament. Finally, it is crucial for nurses and researchers to recognize that infant care programmes should be tailored to mothers' specific maternal characteristics. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Ruth R.; Schutte, Joke M.; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Zwart, Joost J.; van Roosmalen, Jos

    Objective: To assess maternal death and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) in the Netherlands. Study design: A retrospective study of all cases of maternal mortality in the Netherlands between 1983 and 2006 and all cases of severe maternal morbidity in the

  20. Problems of contemporary maternity: psychological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Puz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of modern motherhood and studies the phenomenon of deviant maternal behavior. Based on the literature, present study analyzes such forms of violation of maternal behavior as mother's refusal from a baby; mother's cruel treatment of a baby; frequent abortions; maternity in the early reproductive age; conscious maternity postponement for a later reproductive age. Also the factors that contribute to various manifestations of deviant motherhood are described.

  1. [Maternal and perinatal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    After a year-long diagnosis of Chile's health situation, the Ministry of Health in 1991 formulated a new maternal-child health program designed to assure that all pregnancies would be desired and would occur under optimal conditions. Orientation for responsible parenthood will be an important part of the process. Other objectives include reducing the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and of sexually transmitted diseases. The pregnancy rate for young women 15-19 changed very little in Chile between 1952-82, because of the lack of sex education and family planning services. Family planning programs designed especially for adolescents would help to combat unwanted pregnancies and could offer the methods most suitable for young women. The well-known longitudinal study in Czechoslovakia which followed the development of children whose mothers were denied legal abortions in the 1960s showed the children to be at increased risk of unsatisfactory social adjustment in later life and suggested some consequences of unwanted pregnancy. A study of unwanted pregnancy in Chile was initiated in 4 prenatal care centers in a working class area of Santiago in 1984. 2485 women in the 6th or 7th month of pregnancy were classified according to their existing family sizes. Only 33.1% of the women desired the pregnancy at that time and 38.4% desired it but at a later time. 28.5% did not desire it at all. Women who did not desire the pregnancy waited significantly longer to obtain prenatal care than women who desired it. Age, economic problems, being single, family conflicts, already having the desired number of children, and short intervals since the most recent birth were associated with not desiring the current pregnancy. Of the 1663 women who did not desire the pregnancy, only 13.1% of those single, 35.8% of those in union, and 44.0% of those married used a contraceptive method. 2133 of the mothers were interviewed 6 months and 1977 12 months after delivery. Birth weights did not vary

  2. Moderating effects of maternal emotional availability on language and cognitive development in toddlers of mothers exposed to a natural disaster in pregnancy: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Marie-Paule; Christl, Bettina; McMahon, Cathy; Kildea, Sue; Reilly, Nicole; Yin, Carolyn; Simcock, Gabrielle; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    Prenatal maternal stress exposure has been linked to sub-optimal developmental outcomes in toddlers, while maternal emotional availability is associated with better cognitive and language abilities. It is less clear whether early care-giving relationships can moderate the impact of prenatal stress on child development. The current study investigates the impact of stress during pregnancy resulting from the Queensland Floods in 2011 on toddlers' cognitive and language development, and examines how maternal emotional availability is associated with these outcomes. Data were available from 131 families. Measures of prenatal stress (objective hardship, cognitive appraisal, and three measures of maternal subjective stress) were collected within one year of the 2011 Queensland floods. Maternal emotional availability was rated from video-taped mother-child play sessions at 16 months: sensitivity (e.g., affective connection, responsiveness to signals) and structuring (e.g., scaffolding, guidance, limit-setting). The toddlers' cognitive and language development was assessed at 30 months. Interactions were tested to determine whether maternal emotional availability moderated the relationship between prenatal maternal stress and toddler cognitive and language functioning. Prenatal stress was not correlated with toddlers' cognitive and language development at 30 months. Overall, the higher the maternal structuring and sensitivity, the better the toddlers' cognitive outcomes. However, significant interactions showed that the effects of maternal structuring on toddler language abilities depended on the degree of prenatal maternal subjective stress: when maternal subjective stress was above fairly low levels, the greater the maternal structuring, the higher the child vocabulary level. The current study highlights the importance of maternal emotional availability, especially structuring, for cognitive and language development in young children. Findings suggest that toddlers

  3. Eggshell spottiness reflects maternally transferred antibodies in blue tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available Blue-green and brown-spotted eggshells in birds have been proposed as sexual signals of female physiological condition and egg quality, reflecting maternal investment in the egg. Testing this hypothesis requires linking eggshell coloration to egg content, which is lacking for brown protoporphyrin-based pigmentation. As protoporphyrins can induce oxidative stress, and a large amount in eggshells should indicate either high female and egg quality if it reflects the female's high oxidative tolerance, or conversely poor quality if it reflects female physiological stress. Different studies supported either predictions but are difficult to compare given the methodological differences in eggshell-spottiness measurements. Using the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus as a model species, we aimed at disentangling both predictions in testing if brown-spotted eggshell could reflect the quality of maternal investment in antibodies and carotenoids in the egg, and at improving between-study comparisons in correlating several common measurements of eggshell coloration (spectral and digital measures, spotted surface, pigmentation indices. We found that these color variables were weakly correlated highlighting the need for comparable quantitative measurements between studies and for multivariate regressions incorporating several eggshell-color characteristics. When evaluating the potential signaling function of brown-spotted eggshells, we thus searched for the brown eggshell-color variables that best predicted the maternal transfer of antibodies and carotenoids to egg yolks. We also tested the effects of several parental traits and breeding parameters potentially affecting this transfer. While eggshell coloration did not relate to yolk carotenoids, the eggs with larger and less evenly-distributed spots had higher antibody concentrations, suggesting that both the quantity and distribution of brown pigments reflected the transfer of maternal immune compounds in egg yolks

  4. Maternal inflammation during pregnancy and childhood adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl); W. Perng (Wei); E. Oken (Emily); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with offspring obesity. Underlying mechanisms may involve a maternal obesity-mediated proinflammatory state during pregnancy. Maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level during pregnancy is a biomarker of low-grade systemic

  5. Epidemiology of Maternal Mortality in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    live births. Causes and determinants of maternal mortal- ity. Global causes of maternal mortality. Across the globe the causes of maternal deaths are strik- ..... at home”. Findings from Thyolo, Mangochi and Chik- wawa were similar". Perceived qua/ity of care. Like anywhere in the world, the perceived quality of care in ...

  6. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  7. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Harron

    Full Text Available Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England.Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013.Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42% linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56% records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district or that include missing values (delivery variables. The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%. The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England.Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common.

  8. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; van der Meulen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. Design and Setting Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013. Results Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42%) linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56%) records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district) or that include missing values (delivery variables). The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%). The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England. Conclusion Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common. PMID:27764135

  9. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harron, Katie; Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; van der Meulen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013. Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42%) linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56%) records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district) or that include missing values (delivery variables). The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%). The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England. Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common.

  10. Association between maternal nutritional status in pregnancy and offspring cognitive function during childhood and adolescence; a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R; Gale, Catharine R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Kehoe, Sarah H; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2016-08-12

    The mother is the only source of nutrition for fetal growth including brain development. Maternal nutritional status (anthropometry, macro- and micro-nutrients) before and/or during pregnancy is therefore a potential predictor of offspring cognitive function. The relationship of maternal nutrition to offspring cognitive function is unclear. This review aims to assess existing evidence linking maternal nutritional status with offspring cognitive function. Exposures considered were maternal BMI, height and weight, micronutrient status (vitamins D, B12, folate and iron) and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat). The outcome was any measure of cognitive function in children aged nutritional status during pregnancy as defined by BMI, single micronutrient studies, or macronutrient intakes influences offspring cognitive function is inconclusive. There is a need for more trials especially in populations with high rates of maternal undernutrition. Registered in PROSPERO CRD42013005702 .

  11. Plotting Maternity in Three Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Amber E.

    2012-01-01

    This performance text examines complexities of personal and maternal identity in family life. Speaking in first, second, and third person voices, the author offers autoethnographic accounts of the tensions between separateness and connectedness, normative and subjective motherhood, and novice and seasoned perspectives. The piece functions as a…

  12. Intergenerational Attitudes toward Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Catherine P.; McCluskey-Fawcett, Kathleen

    Intergenerational attitudes toward child care were examined among college-age students and their parents through the use of questionnaires, the Beliefs About the Consequences of Maternal Employment Scale (BACMEC), and the Bias in Attitudes toward Women Scale (BIAS). Findings indicated that traditional attitudes were more prevalent in males of both…

  13. Multigenerational effects of maternal undernutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine exposure to reduced nutrient availability can have major effects in determining susceptibility to chronic disease later in life. Martínez et al. (2014) demonstrate multigenerational effects of poor maternal nutrition and evidence of germ-line transmission through alterations in DNA methylation. PMID:24896533

  14. Longitudinal pathways from early maternal depression to children's dysregulated representations: a moderated mediation analysis of harsh parenting and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoccio, Tiffany L; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Maupin, Angela N; Robinson, Joann L

    2016-01-01

    There is some evidence linking maternal depression, harsh parenting, and children's internal representations of attachment, yet, longitudinal examinations of these relationships and differences in the developmental pathways between boys and girls are lacking. Moderated mediation growth curves were employed to examine harsh parenting as a mechanism underlying the link between maternal depression and children's dysregulated representations using a nationally-representative, economically-vulnerable sample of mothers and their children (n = 575; 49% boys, 51% girls). Dysregulation representations were measured using the MacArthur Story Stem Battery at five years of age (M = 5.14, SD = 0.29). Harsh parenting mediated the association between early maternal depression and dysregulated representations for girls. Though initial harsh parenting was a significant mediator for boys, a stronger direct effect of maternal depression to dysregulated representations emerged over time. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for intervention efforts aimed at promoting early supportive parenting.

  15. Towards A Theoretical Biology: Reminiscences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    engaged in since the start of my career at the University of Chicago. Theoretical biology was ... research on theoretical problems in biology. Waddington, an ... aimed at stimulating the development of such a theoretical biology. The role the ...

  16. Manuel Cardona memories and reminiscences

    CERN Document Server

    Viña, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This book pays tribute to an extraordinary researcher and personality, Manuel Cardona. He had significant influence in the development of science and inside the scientific community. The book consists of contributions by former collaborators and students of Prof. Manuel Cardona. The short contributions deal with personal encounters with Manuel Cardona describing his extraordinary personality. This includes descriptions of scientific discussions, Manuel Cardona's involvement in social justice and his enormous knowledge about human culture, languages and history.

  17. History repeats: a personal reminiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.T. [AECL Board of Directors, R and D Advisory Panel (Canada); Carleton Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    The decision of the federal government to split Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. into a privately owned CANDU technology company and a publicly owned Nuclear Laboratory has resulted in the purchase by SNC-Lavalin of the AECL's Sheridan Park operations, now called Candu Energy, and the reorganization of Chalk River operations as a national Nuclear Laboratory. This is the third time in my experience in the nuclear field in Canada that a successful nuclear organization with which I have been associated has been significantly disrupted by forces or circumstances outside its control. The other two experiences are briefly described in the article. (author)

  18. Nevill Mott reminiscences and appreciations

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, E A

    1998-01-01

    Sir Nevill Mott was Britain''s last Winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics. This is a tribute to the life and work of Nobel Laureate Nevill Mott, a hugely admired and appreciated man, and one of this countries greatest ever scientists. It includes contributions from over 80 of his friends, family and colleagues, full of anecdotes and appreciations for this collossus of modern physics.

  19. BDNF Methylation and Maternal Brain Activity in a Violence-Related Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik A Moser

    Full Text Available It is known that increased circulating glucocorticoids in the wake of excessive, chronic, repetitive stress increases anxiety and impairs Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF signaling. Recent studies of BDNF gene methylation in relation to maternal care have linked high BDNF methylation levels in the blood of adults to lower quality of received maternal care measured via self-report. Yet the specific mechanisms by which these phenomena occur remain to be established. The present study examines the link between methylation of the BDNF gene promoter region and patterns of neural activity that are associated with maternal response to stressful versus non-stressful child stimuli within a sample that includes mothers with interpersonal violence-related PTSD (IPV-PTSD. 46 mothers underwent fMRI. The contrast of neural activity when watching children-including their own-was then correlated to BDNF methylation. Consistent with the existing literature, the present study found that maternal BDNF methylation was associated with higher levels of maternal anxiety and greater childhood exposure to domestic violence. fMRI results showed a positive correlation of BDNF methylation with maternal brain activity in the anterior cingulate (ACC, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, regions generally credited with a regulatory function toward brain areas that are generating emotions. Furthermore we found a negative correlation of BDNF methylation with the activity of the right hippocampus. Since our stimuli focus on stressful parenting conditions, these data suggest that the correlation between vmPFC/ACC activity and BDNF methylation may be linked to mothers who are at a disadvantage with respect to emotion regulation when facing stressful parenting situations. Overall, this study provides evidence that epigenetic signatures of stress-related genes can be linked to functional brain regions regulating parenting stress, thus advancing our understanding of

  20. Inhibitory Control in Siblings Discordant for Exposure to Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micalizzi, Lauren; Marceau, Kristine; Brick, Leslie A.; Palmer, Rohan H.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Heath, Andrew C.; Evans, Allison; Knopik, Valerie S.

    2018-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) has been linked to poorer offspring executive function across development, but SDP does not occur independent of other familial risk factors. As such, poor and inconsistent control for potential confounds, notably shared familial (i.e., genetic and environmental) confounds, preclude concluding causal effects…

  1. The Role of Pregnancy, Perinatal Factors, and Hormones in Maternal Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troisi, Rebecca; Bjørge, Tone; Gissler, Mika

    2018-01-01

    differ by malignancy. Linking health-registries and pooling of data in the Nordic countries have provided opportunities to conduct epidemiologic research of pregnancy exposures and subsequent cancer. We review the maternal risk of several malignancies, including those with a well-known hormonal etiology...

  2. Does Maternal Employment Following Childbirth Support or Inhibit Low-Income Children's Long-Term Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed whether previous findings linking early maternal employment to lower cognitive and behavioral skills among middle-class and White children generalized to other groups. Using a representative sample of urban, low-income, predominantly African American and Hispanic families ("n" = 444), ordinary least squares regression…

  3. First-Year Maternal Employment and Child Development in the First 7 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the first 2 phases of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, the authors examine the links between maternal employment in the first 12 months of life and cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes for children at age 3, at age 4.5, and in first grade. Drawing on theory and prior research from developmental psychology as well as…

  4. Perceived Quality of Maternal Care in Childhood and Structure and Function of Mothers' Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Newman, Michal-Ann; Feldman, Ruth; Swain, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies indicate that early maternal care has long-term effects on brain areas related to social attachment and parenting, whereas neglectful mothering is linked with heightened stress reactivity in the hippocampus across the lifespan. The present study explores the possibility, using magnetic resonance imaging, that perceived quality of…

  5. Economic Stress, Social Support, and Maternal Depression: Is Social Support Deterioration Occurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.; Anderson, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal depression in low-income women is a significant problem because of its negative consequences for both mothers and their children. Economic stress increases risk for depression; however, mechanisms linking economic stress and depression are not well understood. The social support deterioration model suggests that chronic stressors can…

  6. Time and nature of the signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.

    1989-01-01

    A vital link in a complex of physiological processes occurring during early pregnancy is the so-called maternal recognition of pregnancy: the prolongation of ovarian luteal function for continuation of progesterone secretion by an anti-luteolytic action of the developing embryos.

  7. Adolescent Daughters' Romantic Competence: The Role of Divorce, Quality of Parenting, and Maternal Romantic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; Zlotnik, Aynat; Shachar-Shapira, Lital; Connolly, Jennifer; Bohr, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the links between parental divorce, quality of maternal parenting, spousal relationships and middle adolescent romantic competence in 80 mother-adolescent daughter pairs (40 divorced). Mothers were asked to describe their attitudes and behaviors with regard to their daughters' romantic behavior. In addition, mothers were…

  8. Multilevel Mediation: Cumulative Contextual Risk, Maternal Differential Treatment, and Children's Behavior within Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jean Christophe; Boyle, Michael; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that links between contextual risk and children's outcomes are partially explained by differential parenting. Using multi-informant measurement and including up to four children per family (M[subscript age] = 3.51, SD = 2.38) in a sample of 397 families, indirect effects (through maternal differential…

  9. "We never ate like that, not fast food, or junk foods": accounts of changing maternal diet in a tourist community in rural Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Allison; Peña, Jenny; Himmelgreen, David

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examines maternal diet in rural Costa Rica in the context of recent political economic changes. Results show that increased availability of non-local food items, (i.e., pizza and processed foods) has influenced maternal dietary choices. Information pathways, which have traditionally provided women with knowledge about maternal diet from family members, are also shifting. Younger women turn to the local clinic and the media for information about maternal diet, and traditional practices, such as cuarentena (40-day postpartum period), are no longer being observed. Changing practices may be linked with shifting information pathways, as well as self-reported weight gain among women.

  10. [Maternal deaths related to social vulnerabilities. Results from the French confidential enquiry into maternal deaths, 2010-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, V; Leroux, S; Guseva-Canu, I

    2017-12-01

    The theme of deprivation is new for the ENCMM. In view of the perceived increase in the number of maternal deaths that may be related to a deprivation situation, we sought to understand the main dimensions that could contribute to maternal death in this context, in order to propose a definition. The selection of cases made a posteriori is mainly based on a qualitative judgment. Between 2010 and 2012, among the deaths evaluated by the CNEMM, one or more elements related to social vulnerability were identified in 8.6% of the cases (18 deaths). The direct criteria used were the concepts of "deprivation" or "social difficulties", difficulties of housing, language barriers and isolation. The absence of prenatal care was retained as an indirect marker. We excluded cases where psychiatric pathology and/or addiction were predominant. Of the 18 cases identified with deprivation factors, death was considered "unavoidable" in 2 cases (11%), "certainly avoidable" or "possibly avoidable" in 13 cases (72%). In 3 cases (17%), avoidability could not be determined. Avoidability was related to the content and adequacy of care in 11 cases out of 13 (85%) and the patient's interaction with the health care system in 10 of 18 cases (56%). The analysis of maternal deaths among women in precarious situations points out that the link between socio-economic deprivation and poor maternal health outcomes potentially includes a specific risk of maternal death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The global maternal sepsis study and awareness campaign (GLOSS): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Mercedes; Souza, Joao Paulo; Abalos, Edgardo; Fawole, Bukola; Knight, Marian; Kouanda, Seni; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Nabhan, Ashraf; Nadisauskiene, Ruta; Brizuela, Vanessa; Metin Gülmezoglu, A

    2018-01-30

    will provide data on the frequency of maternal sepsis and uptake of effective diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in obstetrics in different hospitals and countries. We will also be able to explore links between interventions and maternal and perinatal outcomes and identify priority areas for action.

  12. Maternal Prenatal Stress and Other Developmental Risk Factors for Adolescent Depression: Spotlight on Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Seth D; Fineberg, Anna M; Drabick, Deborah A; Murphy, Shannon K; Ellman, Lauren M

    2018-02-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has been linked to premorbid abnormalities associated with depression (e.g., difficult temperament, cognitive deficits) in offspring. However, few studies have looked across developmental periods to examine maternal stress during pregnancy and offspring depression during adolescence and whether these associations differ by sex. The current study used data from 1711 mother-offspring dyads (offspring sex: 49.8% male) in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Maternal narratives collected during pregnancy were qualitatively coded for stress-related themes by independent raters. Latent class analysis (LCA) identified distinct subgroups of offspring based on exposure to maternal prenatal stress and other developmental factors from the prenatal, childhood, and adolescent periods that have been associated with depression and/or maternal prenatal stress. LCA identified subgroups that were compared to determine whether and to what extent they differed on adolescent depressive symptoms. LCA revealed a subgroup of "high-risk" individuals, characterized by maternal factors during pregnancy (higher ambivalence/negativity and lower positivity towards the pregnancy, higher levels of hassles, lower maternal education and higher maternal age at birth, higher pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring developmental factors (decreased cognitive functioning during childhood and adolescence, lower perceived parental support during adolescence, and higher levels of maternal depression during adolescence). High-risk females exhibited elevated conduct symptoms and higher birth order, while high-risk males exhibited decreased internalizing symptoms and lower birth order. Both high-risk males and females reported elevated depressive symptoms during adolescence relative to their "low-risk" counterparts.

  13. Long-lasting effects of maternal condition in free-ranging cervids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Freeman

    Full Text Available Causes of phenotypic variation are fundamental to evolutionary ecology because they influence the traits acted upon by natural selection. One such cause of phenotypic variation is a maternal effect, which is the influence of the environment experienced by a female (and her corresponding phenotype on the phenotype of her offspring (independent of the offspring's genotype. While maternal effects are well documented, the longevity and fitness impact of these effects remains unclear because it is difficult to follow free-living individuals through their reproductive lifetimes. For long-lived species, it has been suggested that maternal effects are masked by environmental variables acting on offspring in years following the period of dependence. Our objective was to use indirect measures of maternal condition to determine if maternal effects have long-lasting influences on male offspring in two species of cervid. Because antlers are sexually selected, we used measures of antler size at time of death, 1.5-21.5 years after gestation to investigate maternal effects. We quantified antler size of 11,000 male elk and mule deer born throughout the intermountain western US (6 states over nearly 30 years. Maternal condition during development was estimated indirectly using a suite of abiotic variables known to influence condition of cervids (i.e., winter severity, spring and summer temperature, and spring and summer precipitation. Antler size of male cervids was significantly associated with our indirect measure of maternal condition during gestation and lactation. Assuming the correctness of our indirect measure, our findings demonstrate that antler size is a sexually selected trait that is influenced-into adulthood-by maternal condition. This link emphasizes the importance of considering inherited environmental effects when interpreting population dynamics or examining reproductive success of long-lived organisms.

  14. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhago, George M; Ngalesoni, Frida N; Norheim, Ole F

    2012-12-27

    Inequity in access to and use of child and maternal health interventions is impeding progress towards the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the potential health gains and equity impact if a set of priority interventions for mothers and under fives were scaled up to reach national universal coverage targets for MDGs in Tanzania. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate potential reductions in maternal and child mortality and the number of lives saved across wealth quintiles and between rural and urban settings. High impact maternal and child health interventions were modelled for a five-year scale up, by linking intervention coverage, effectiveness and cause of mortality using data from Tanzania. Concentration curves were drawn and the concentration index estimated to measure the equity impact of the scale up. In the poorest population quintiles in Tanzania, the lives of more than twice as many mothers and under-fives were likely to be saved, compared to the richest quintile. Scaling up coverage to equal levels across quintiles would reduce inequality in maternal and child mortality from a pro rich concentration index of -0.11 (maternal) and -0.12 (children) to a more equitable concentration index of -0,03 and -0.03 respectively. In rural areas, there would likely be an eight times greater reduction in maternal deaths than in urban areas and a five times greater reduction in child deaths than in urban areas. Scaling up priority maternal and child health interventions to equal levels would potentially save far more lives in the poorest populations, and would accelerate equitable progress towards maternal and child health MDGs.

  15. Factors affecting utilization of skilled maternal care in Northwest Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Abebaw Gebeyehu; Yalew, Alemayehu Worku; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun

    2013-04-15

    The evaluation of all potential sources of low skilled maternal care utilization is crucial for Ethiopia. Previous studies have largely disregarded the contribution of different levels. This study was planned to assess the effect of individual, communal, and health facility characteristics in the utilization of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care by a skilled provider. A linked facility and population-based survey was conducted over three months (January - March 2012) in twelve "kebeles" of North Gondar Zone, Amhara Region. A total of 1668 women who had births in the year preceding the survey were selected for analysis. Using a multilevel modelling, we examined the effect of cluster variation and a number of individual, communal (kebele), and facility-related variables for skilled maternal care utilization. About 32.3%, 13.8% and 6.3% of the women had the chance to get skilled providers for their antenatal, delivery and postnatal care, respectively. A significant heterogeneity was observed among clusters for each indicator of skilled maternal care utilization. At the individual level, variables related to awareness and perceptions were found to be much more relevant for skilled maternal service utilization. Preference for skilled providers and previous experience of antenatal care were consistently strong predictors of all indicators of skilled maternal health care utilizations. Birth order, maternal education, and awareness about health facilities to get skilled professionals were consistently strong predictors of skilled antenatal and delivery care use. Communal factors were relevant for both delivery and postnatal care, whereas the characteristics of a health facility were more relevant for use of skilled delivery care than other maternity services. Factors operating at individual and "kebele" levels play a significant role in determining utilization of skilled maternal health services. Interventions to create better community awareness and perception about

  16. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhago George M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequity in access to and use of child and maternal health interventions is impeding progress towards the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the potential health gains and equity impact if a set of priority interventions for mothers and under fives were scaled up to reach national universal coverage targets for MDGs in Tanzania. Methods We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST to estimate potential reductions in maternal and child mortality and the number of lives saved across wealth quintiles and between rural and urban settings. High impact maternal and child health interventions were modelled for a five-year scale up, by linking intervention coverage, effectiveness and cause of mortality using data from Tanzania. Concentration curves were drawn and the concentration index estimated to measure the equity impact of the scale up. Results In the poorest population quintiles in Tanzania, the lives of more than twice as many mothers and under-fives were likely to be saved, compared to the richest quintile. Scaling up coverage to equal levels across quintiles would reduce inequality in maternal and child mortality from a pro rich concentration index of −0.11 (maternal and −0.12 (children to a more equitable concentration index of −0,03 and −0.03 respectively. In rural areas, there would likely be an eight times greater reduction in maternal deaths than in urban areas and a five times greater reduction in child deaths than in urban areas. Conclusions Scaling up priority maternal and child health interventions to equal levels would potentially save far more lives in the poorest populations, and would accelerate equitable progress towards maternal and child health MDGs.

  17. Dynamic link: user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hiroo; Asai, Kiyoshi; Kihara, Kazuhisa.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of dynamic link facility is to link a load module dynamically only when it is used in execution time. The facility is very useful for development, execution and maintenance of a large scale computer program which is too big to be saved as one load module in main memory, or it is poor economy to save it due to many unused subroutines depending on an input. It is also useful for standardization and common utilization of programs. Standard usage of dynamic link facility of FACOM M-200 computer system, a software tool which analyzes the effect of dynamic link facility and application of dynamic link to nuclear codes are described. (author)

  18. Ghosts in the nursery: a case study of the maternal representations of a woman who killed her baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gous

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The maternal representations as described by Stern (1995:171-190 are used in an extreme case to illustrate the link between depression and pathogenic maternal representations. Opsomming Die moedervoorstellings soos dit deur Stern (1995:171-190 beskryf word, word in ‘n ekstreme geval gebruik om die verband tussen depressie en patogene moedervoorstellings aan te toon. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  19. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls’ Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

  20. Maternal symptoms of depression are related to observations of controlling feeding practices in mothers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Farrow, Claire; Blissett, Jackie

    2013-02-01

    Maternal depression can impair parenting practices and has been linked with less sensitive feeding interactions with children, but existing research is based on self-reports of feeding practices. This study examined relationships between maternal self-reported symptoms of depression with observations of mothers' child feeding practices during a mealtime. Fifty-eight mothers of 3- and 4-year-old children were video recorded eating a standardized lunch. The recording was then coded for instances of maternal controlling feeding practices and maternal vocalizations using the Family Mealtime Coding System. Mothers also provided information on current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Mothers who reported greater symptoms of depression were observed to use more verbal and physical pressure for their child to eat and to offer more incentives or conditions in exchange for their child eating. Mothers also used more vocalizations with their child about food during the observed mealtime when they had greater symptoms of depression. There was no link between symptoms of depression and observations of maternal use of restriction. Symptoms of depression are linked with observations of mothers implementing a more controlling, less sensitive feeding style with their child. Health professionals working with families in which mothers have symptoms of depression may benefit from receiving training about the possible impact of maternal depression on child-feeding practices, and mothers with symptoms of depression may benefit from guidance regarding its potential impact on their child-feeding interactions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Kuijper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  2. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijper, Bram; Johnstone, Rufus A; Townley, Stuart

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M) in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  3. Estimating the Hospital Delivery Costs Associated With Severe Maternal Morbidity in New York City, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Renata E; Angley, Meghan; Won, Sang Hee; Wilcox, Wendy; Searing, Hannah; Tsao, Tsu-Yu

    2018-02-01

    To quantify the average and total hospital delivery costs associated with severe maternal morbidity in excess of nonsevere maternal morbidity deliveries over a 5-year period in New York City adjusting for other sociodemographic and clinical factors. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study using linked birth certificates and hospital discharge data for New York City deliveries from 2008 to 2012. Severe maternal morbidity was defined using a published algorithm of International Classification of Diseases, 9 Revision, Clinical Modification disease and procedure codes. Hospital costs were estimated by converting hospital charges using factors specific to each year and hospital and to each diagnosis. These estimates approximate what it costs the hospital to provide services (excluding professional fees) and were used in all subsequent analyses. To estimate adjusted mean costs associated with severe maternal morbidity, we used multivariable regression models with a log link, gamma distribution, robust standard errors, and hospital fixed effects, controlling for age, race and ethnicity, neighborhood poverty, primary payer, number of deliveries, method of delivery, comorbidities, and year. We used the adjusted mean cost to determine the average and total hospital delivery costs associated with severe maternal morbidity in excess of nonsevere maternal morbidity deliveries from 2008 to 2012. Approximately 2.3% (n=13,502) of all New York City delivery hospitalizations were complicated by severe maternal morbidity. Compared with nonsevere maternal morbidity deliveries, these hospitalizations were clinically complicated, required more and intensive clinical services, and had a longer stay in the hospital. The average cost of delivery with severe maternal morbidity was $14,442 (95% CI $14,128-14,756), compared with $7,289 (95% CI $7,276-7,302) among deliveries without severe maternal morbidity. After adjusting for other factors, the difference between deliveries

  4. The long-run effect of maternity leave benefits on mental health: Evidence from European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendano, Mauricio; Berkman, Lisa F.; Brugiavini, Agar; Pasini, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines whether maternity leave policies have an effect on women's mental health in older age. We link data for women aged 50 years and above from countries in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) to data on maternity leave legislation from 1960 onwards. We use a difference-in-differences approach that exploits changes over time within countries in the duration and compensation of maternity leave benefits, linked to the year women were giving birth to their first child at age 16 to 25. We compare late-life depressive symptom scores (measured with a 12-item version of the Euro-D scale) of mothers who were in employment in the period around the birth of their first child to depression scores of mothers who were not in employment in the period surrounding the birth of a first child, and therefore did not benefit directly from maternity leave benefits. Our findings suggest that a more generous maternity leave during the birth of a first child is associated with a reduced score of 0.38 points in the Euro-D depressive symptom scale in old age. PMID:25792339

  5. Multiple mediators of the relationships among maternal childhood abuse, intimate partner violence, and offspring psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jenniffer K; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether maternal depression, mothers' and fathers' parenting, child physical punishment and negative life events (NLE) mediate the effect of maternal childhood abuse (CA), intimate partner violence (IPV) and cumulative violence (both CA and IPV) on Spanish children's and adolescents' psychopathology. Furthermore, multiple mediator models examine whether IPV mediates the effect of CA on the contextual and family factors mentioned above. Three hundred and eighteen Spanish outpatients aged 7 to 18 and their parents were assessed using a structured interview and other instruments for measuring the study variables. Structural equation models (SEMs) showed multiple pathways explaining psychopathological problems among offspring of mothers who suffered CA, IPV and both of these violent experiences. In particular, mothers' depression mediated the link between maternal CA, IPV, cumulative violence and children's externalizing, and total behavior problems. Child NLE was an important pathway between maternal CA and total behavior problems, as well as between cumulative violence and both externalizing and total problems. IPV contributed to explaining the link between maternal CA and contextual and family factors, such as child physical punishment and NLE, which were in turn, associated with children's behavior problems. Findings show the complex interconnections between different types of violence and their harmful effects on the mental health of women and their offspring, as well as the need to extend our knowledge on this subject.

  6. The long-run effect of maternity leave benefits on mental health: evidence from European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendano, Mauricio; Berkman, Lisa F; Brugiavini, Agar; Pasini, Giacomo

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines whether maternity leave policies have an effect on women's mental health in older age. We link data for women aged 50 years and above from countries in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) to data on maternity leave legislation from 1960 onwards. We use a difference-in-differences approach that exploits changes over time within countries in the duration and compensation of maternity leave benefits, linked to the year women were giving birth to their first child at age 16 to 25. We compare late-life depressive symptom scores (measured with a 12-item version of the Euro-D scale) of mothers who were in employment in the period around the birth of their first child to depression scores of mothers who were not in employment in the period surrounding the birth of a first child, and therefore did not benefit directly from maternity leave benefits. Our findings suggest that a more generous maternity leave during the birth of a first child is associated with a reduced score of 0.38 points in the Euro-D depressive symptom scale in old age. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmon F Grant

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR, we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

  8. Effects of Antenatal Maternal Depression and Anxiety on Children’s Early Cognitive Development: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Gladys; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Rondet, Claire; Peyre, Hugo; Forhan, Anne; Kaminski, Monique; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies have shown that depression or anxiety occur in 10–20% of pregnant women. These disorders are often undertreated and may affect mothers and children’s health. This study investigates the relation between antenatal maternal depression, anxiety and children’s early cognitive development among 1380 two-year-old children and 1227 three-year-old children. Methods In the French EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study, language ability was assessed with the Communicative Development Inventory at 2 years of age and overall development with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 3 years of age. Multiple regressions and structural equation modeling were used to examine links between depression, anxiety during pregnancy and child cognitive development. Results We found strong significant associations between maternal antenatal anxiety and poorer children’s cognitive development at 2 and 3 years. Antenatal maternal depression was not associated with child development, except when antenatal maternal anxiety was also present. Both postnatal maternal depression and parental stimulation appeared to play mediating roles in the relation between antenatal maternal anxiety and children’s cognitive development. At 3 years, parental stimulation mediated 13.2% of the effect of antenatal maternal anxiety while postnatal maternal depression mediated 26.5%. Discussion The partial nature of these effects suggests that other mediators may play a role. Implications for theory and research on child development are discussed. PMID:26317609

  9. Visualisierung von typisierten Links in Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neubauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Themengebiet der Arbeit behandelt Visualisierungen von typisierten Links in Linked Data. Die wissenschaftlichen Gebiete, die im Allgemeinen den Inhalt des Beitrags abgrenzen, sind das Semantic Web, das Web of Data und Informationsvisualisierung. Das Semantic Web, das von Tim Berners Lee 2001 erfunden wurde, stellt eine Erweiterung zum World Wide Web (Web 2.0 dar. Aktuelle Forschungen beziehen sich auf die Verknüpfbarkeit von Informationen im World Wide Web. Um es zu ermöglichen, solche Verbindungen wahrnehmen und verarbeiten zu können sind Visualisierungen die wichtigsten Anforderungen als Hauptteil der Datenverarbeitung. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Sematic Web werden Repräsentationen von zuhammenhängenden Informationen anhand von Graphen gehandhabt. Der Grund des Entstehens dieser Arbeit ist in erster Linie die Beschreibung der Gestaltung von Linked Data-Visualisierungskonzepten, deren Prinzipien im Rahmen einer theoretischen Annäherung eingeführt werden. Anhand des Kontexts führt eine schrittweise Erweiterung der Informationen mit dem Ziel, praktische Richtlinien anzubieten, zur Vernetzung dieser ausgearbeiteten Gestaltungsrichtlinien. Indem die Entwürfe zweier alternativer Visualisierungen einer standardisierten Webapplikation beschrieben werden, die Linked Data als Netzwerk visualisiert, konnte ein Test durchgeführt werden, der deren Kompatibilität zum Inhalt hatte. Der praktische Teil behandelt daher die Designphase, die Resultate, und zukünftige Anforderungen des Projektes, die durch die Testung ausgearbeitet wurden.

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Montgomery College Center for the Advancement of Distance Education University of Southern California, Maternal Child & Adolescent Program University of Illinois Chicago, Center of Excellence in ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Legislators (NFWL) Educational Institutions: Florida International University Montgomery College Center for the Advancement of Distance Education University of Southern California, Maternal Child & Adolescent Program ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Montgomery College Center for the Advancement of Distance Education University of Southern California, Maternal Child & Adolescent Program University of Illinois Chicago, Center of ...

  13. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  14. Maternal mortality following caesarean sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, K; Kundu, S; Mandal, G S

    1979-08-01

    A study of 26 maternal deaths following 3647 caesarean sections was conducted in Eden Hospital from 1974-1977. During the time period there were 35,544 births and 308 total maternal deaths (8.74/1000). Indications for Caesarean sections included: 1) abnormal presentation; 2) cephalopelvic disproportion; 3) toxemia; 4) prolonged labor; 5) fetal distress; and 6) post-caesarean pregnancies. Highest mortality rates were among cephalopelvic disproportion, toxemia, and prolonged labor patients. 38.4% of the patients died due to septicaemia and peritonitis, but other deaths were due to preclampsia, shock, and hemorrhage. Proper antenatal care may have prevented anemia and preclampsia and treated other pre-existing or superimposed diseases.

  15. Maternal age and child morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Malene Meisner; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud

    2017-01-01

    the association between maternal age and overall child morbidity according to main diagnosis groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a national cohort study including 352 027 live firstborn singleton children. The children were born between Jan 1994 and Dec 2009 and followed to Dec 2012. Children were divided...... into groups according to maternal age: 15-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35+ years. Poisson regression analyses calculated adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of child morbidities according to main diagnoses groups A-Q of the International Classification of Disease 10 with adjustment for year of birth, body mass...... index, smoking, and mother's level of education. RESULTS: Average follow-up time was 11 years. Compared to children born to women 25-29 years, firstborn children to mothers aged 35+ had higher child morbidity in 8 of 19 main diagnosis groups and firstborn children to mothers 15-24 years had higher child...

  16. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-06

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.  Created: 11/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/7/2012.

  17. The measurement of maternal adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, C

    2012-02-01

    The issue of maternal obesity has become a major public health problem. Internationally, the diagnosis of obesity is based on body mass index (BMI) that is, weight in kg\\/height in m2. While epidemiological associations have been shown between different BMI categories and adverse clinical outcomes, there is also a growing realisation that BMI has significant limitations. In this review, we assess current methods to measure body fat and, in particular, their application in pregnant women.

  18. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Neural Tube Defects (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs maybe associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as acrocallosal syndrome, autosomal dominant brachydactyly-clinodactyly syndrome, Manouvrier syndrome, short rib-polydactyly syndrome, Disorganization (Ds-like human malformations, isolated hemihyper-plasia, X-linked NTDs, meroanencephaly, schisis association, diprosopus, fetal valproate syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, folic acid antagonists, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors may be different from those of non-syndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  19. Family Structure, Maternal Dating, and Sexual Debut: Extending the Conceptualization of Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Rena Cornell; De Coster, Stacy

    2016-05-01

    Family structure influences the risk of early onset of sexual intercourse. This study proposes that the family structures associated with risk-single-mother, step-parent, and cohabiting-influence early sexual debut due to family instability, including shifts in family structure and maternal dating, which can undermine parental control and transmit messages about the acceptability of nonmarital sex. Previous research has not considered maternal dating as a component of family instability, assuming single mothers who date and those who do not date experience comparable levels of family disruption and transmit similar messages about the acceptability of nonmarital sex. Hypotheses are assessed using logistic regression models predicting the odds of early onset of sexual intercourse among 9959 respondents (53 % female, 47 % male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Respondents were ages 12-17 at the first wave of data collection and 18-26 at the third wave, when respondents reported the age at which they first had sexual intercourse. Results show that maternal dating is a source of family instability with repercussions for early sexual debut. Parental control and permissive attitudes towards teenage sex and pregnancy link at-risk family structures and maternal dating to early sexual initiation among females, though these variables do not fully explain family structure and maternal dating effects. Among males, the influence of maternal dating on early sexual debut is fully explained by the learning of permissive sexual attitudes.

  20. A longitudinal analysis of maternal depressive symptoms and children's food consumption and weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W; Dagher, Rada K

    2014-12-01

    Maternal depressive symptoms negatively impact mothers' parenting practices and children's development, but the evidence linking these symptoms to children's obesity is mixed. We use a large sample to examine contemporaneous and lagged associations between maternal depressive symptoms and children's BMI, obesity and food consumption, controlling for background characteristics. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a longitudinal study of children from infancy through kindergarten in the USA, were collected at four waves from 2001 to 2007, when children were 9 months, 2 years, 4 years and 5½years of age, through surveys, child assessments and observations. A sub-sample of children from the ECLS-B is used (n 6500). Between 17 % and 19 % of mothers reported experiencing depressive symptoms; 17 % to 20 % of children were obese. Maternal depressive symptoms were associated with a small decrease in the likelihood her child was obese (0·8 percentage points) and with lower consumption of healthy foods. The duration of maternal depressive symptoms was associated with higher BMI (0·02 sd) among children whose parents lacked college degrees. Results indicate that mothers' depressive symptoms have small associations with children's food consumption and obesity. Among children whose parents lack college degrees, persistent maternal depressive symptoms are associated with slightly higher child BMI. Findings highlight the need to control for depression in analyses of children's weight. Interventions that consider maternal depression early may be useful in promoting healthy weight outcomes and eating habits among children.

  1. An evaluation of the impact of maternity care coordination on Medicaid birth outcomes in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buescher, P A; Roth, M S; Williams, D; Goforth, C M

    1991-12-01

    Care coordination is an important component of the enhanced prenatal care services provided under the recent expansions of the Medicaid program. The effect of maternity care coordination services on birth outcomes in North Carolina was assessed by comparing women on Medicaid who did and did not receive these services. Health program data files, including Medicaid claims paid for maternity care coordination, were linked to 1988 and 1989 live birth certificates. Simple comparisons of percentages and rates were supplemented by a logistic regression analysis. Among women on Medicaid who did not receive maternity care coordination services, the low birth weight rate was 21% higher, the very low birth weight rate was 62% higher, and the infant mortality rate was 23% higher than among women on Medicaid who did receive such services. It was estimated that, for each $1.00 spent on maternity care coordination, Medicaid saved $2.02 in medical costs for newborns up to 60 days of age. Among the women who did receive maternity care coordination, those receiving it for 3 or more months had better outcomes than those receiving it for less than 3 months. These results suggest that maternity care coordination can be effective in reducing low birth weight, infant mortality, and newborn medical care costs among babies born to women in poverty.

  2. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  3. Maternal distress and parenting in the context of cumulative disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditti, Joyce; Burton, Linda; Neeves-Botelho, Sara

    2010-06-01

    This article presents an emergent conceptual model of the features and links between cumulative disadvantage, maternal distress, and parenting practices in low-income families in which parental incarceration has occurred. The model emerged from the integration of extant conceptual and empirical research with grounded theory analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data from Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study. Fourteen exemplar family cases were used in the analysis. Results indicated that mothers in these families experienced life in the context of cumulative disadvantage, reporting a cascade of difficulties characterized by neighborhood worries, provider concerns, bureaucratic difficulties, violent intimate relationships, and the inability to meet children's needs. Mothers, however, also had an intense desire to protect their children, and to make up for past mistakes. Although, in response to high levels of maternal distress and disadvantage, most mothers exhibited harsh discipline of their children, some mothers transformed their distress by advocating for their children under difficult circumstances. Women's use of harsh discipline and advocacy was not necessarily an "either/or" phenomenon as half of the mothers included in our analysis exhibited both harsh discipline and care/advocacy behaviors. Maternal distress characterized by substance use, while connected to harsh disciplinary behavior, did not preclude mothers engaging in positive parenting behaviors.

  4. Trajectories of parenting behavior and maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azak, Schale; Raeder, Sabine

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated trajectories of maternal parenting behavior across the infants' first 18 months of life in relation to maternal depression. Furthermore, predictors of the quality of the mother-infant relationship at 18 months were examined. Participants consisted of three types of mother-infant dyads: mothers with comorbid depression and anxiety (n=19), mothers with depression (n=7) and nondepressed mothers (n=24). Maternal behaviors and the quality of relationship were rated on a global scale (NICHD) from video-taped mother-infant interactions. Maternal behaviors rated at six, 12 and 18 months were collapsed into a composite variable maternal style. The quality of the relationship captured as dyadic mutuality was rated at 18 months. Comorbid and depressed mothers showed lower quality in maternal style compared with the nondepressed mothers at six months. Over the follow-up the comorbid mothers were lower in maternal style compared to the nondepressed mothers, but the comorbid mothers increased significantly in maternal style despite elevated depression symptoms. Mean maternal style and infant cognitive skills predicted the quality in relationship at 18 months suggesting that the mother-toddler relationship depends on contributions from the mother and the child. Higher growth in maternal style despite of depression symptoms among comorbid mothers was interpreted against the background that the majority of the comorbid mother-infant dyads received several treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How does maternal oxytocin influence children's mental health problem and maternal mental health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wai S; Siu, Angela F Y; Wong, Tracy K Y

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to explore the interrelationship among maternal oxytocin (OT) responsiveness, maternal mental health, maternal parenting behavior, and mental health of children under a free-play interaction. 61 mother-child dyads were recruited for the study. Maternal mental health problem and parenting self-efficacy were measured using self-reported questionnaires. The mental health problems of children were also evaluated using a mother-reported questionnaire. Furthermore, salivary OT was collected before and after a standardized 10min free-play interaction. Parenting behaviors, including eye gaze and touch, were measured during the free-play interaction. Maternal OT responsiveness was significantly associated with less maternal mental health problem, touch frequency, and mental health problem of children but not with parenting self-efficacy. In the multivariate linear regression analysis that considers maternal OT responsiveness and maternal and children's mental health problems, maternal OT responsiveness was not associated with the mental health problems of children. This result suggested that maternal mental health problem played a mediational role between maternal OT responsiveness and the mental health problem of children. Results supported the assertion that maternal OT responsiveness contributed to the increased risk of maternal mental health problems and, subsequently, the risk of mental health problems of their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal Expectations for Toddlers' Reactions to Novelty: Relations of Maternal Internalizing Symptoms and Parenting Dimensions to Expectations and Accuracy of Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A

    2010-07-03

    OBJECTIVE: Although maternal internalizing symptoms and parenting dimensions have been linked to reports and perceptions of children's behavior, it remains relatively unknown whether these characteristics relate to expectations or the accuracy of expectations for toddlers' responses to novel situations. DESIGN: A community sample of 117 mother-toddler dyads participated in a laboratory visit and questionnaire completion. At the laboratory, mothers were interviewed about their expectations for their toddlers' behaviors in a variety of novel tasks; toddlers then participated in these activities, and trained coders scored their behaviors. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing demographics, depressive and worry symptoms, and parenting dimensions. RESULTS: Mothers who reported more worry expected their toddlers to display more fearful behavior during the laboratory tasks, but worry did not moderate how accurately maternal expectations predicted toddlers' observed behavior. When also reporting a low level of authoritative-responsive parenting, maternal depressive symptoms moderated the association between maternal expectations and observed toddler behavior, such that, as depressive symptoms increased, maternal expectations related less strongly to toddler behavior. CONCLUSIONS: When mothers were asked about their expectations for their toddlers' behavior in the same novel situations from which experimenters observe this behavior, symptoms and parenting had minimal effect on the accuracy of mothers' expectations. When in the context of low authoritative-responsive parenting, however, depressive symptoms related to less accurate predictions of their toddlers' fearful behavior.

  7. Maternal Expectations for Toddlers’ Reactions to Novelty: Relations of Maternal Internalizing Symptoms and Parenting Dimensions to Expectations and Accuracy of Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Although maternal internalizing symptoms and parenting dimensions have been linked to reports and perceptions of children’s behavior, it remains relatively unknown whether these characteristics relate to expectations or the accuracy of expectations for toddlers’ responses to novel situations. Design A community sample of 117 mother-toddler dyads participated in a laboratory visit and questionnaire completion. At the laboratory, mothers were interviewed about their expectations for their toddlers’ behaviors in a variety of novel tasks; toddlers then participated in these activities, and trained coders scored their behaviors. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing demographics, depressive and worry symptoms, and parenting dimensions. Results Mothers who reported more worry expected their toddlers to display more fearful behavior during the laboratory tasks, but worry did not moderate how accurately maternal expectations predicted toddlers’ observed behavior. When also reporting a low level of authoritative-responsive parenting, maternal depressive symptoms moderated the association between maternal expectations and observed toddler behavior, such that, as depressive symptoms increased, maternal expectations related less strongly to toddler behavior. Conclusions When mothers were asked about their expectations for their toddlers’ behavior in the same novel situations from which experimenters observe this behavior, symptoms and parenting had minimal effect on the accuracy of mothers’ expectations. When in the context of low authoritative-responsive parenting, however, depressive symptoms related to less accurate predictions of their toddlers’ fearful behavior. PMID:21037974

  8. Addressing maternal deaths due to violence: the Illinois experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Abigail R; Geller, Stacie E

    2017-11-01

    Homicide, suicide, and substance abuse accounted for nearly one fourth of all pregnancy-associated deaths in Illinois from 2002 through 2013. Maternal mortality review in Illinois has been primarily focused on obstetric and medical causes and little is known about the circumstances surrounding deaths due to homicide, suicide, and substance abuse, if they are pregnancy related, and if the deaths are potentially preventable. To address this issue, we implemented a process to form a second statewide maternal mortality review committee for deaths due to violence in late 2014. We convened a stakeholder group to accomplish 3 tasks: (1) identify appropriate committee members; (2) identify potential types and sources of information that would be required for a meaningful review of violent maternal deaths; and (3) revise the Maternal Mortality Review Form. Because homicide, suicide, and substance abuse are closely linked to the social determinants of health, the review committee needed to have a broad membership with expertise in areas not required for obstetric maternal mortality review, including social service and community organizations. Identifying additional sources of information is critical; the state Violent Death Reporting System, case management data, and police and autopsy reports provide contextual information that cannot be found in medical records. The stakeholder group revised the Maternal Mortality Review Form to collect information relevant to violent maternal deaths, including screening history and psychosocial history. The form guides the maternal mortality review committee for deaths due to violence to identify potentially preventable factors relating to the woman, her family, systems of care, the community, the legal system, and the institutional environment. The committee has identified potential opportunities to decrease preventable death requiring cooperation with social service agencies and the criminal justice system in addition to the physical

  9. Adolescent Adrenocortical Activity and Adiposity: Differences by Sex and Exposure to Early Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttle, Paula L.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Slattery, Marcia J.; Kalin, Ned H.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Prior research has linked either basal cortisol levels or stress-induced cortisol responses to adiposity; however, it remains to be determined whether these distinct cortisol measures exert joint or independent effects. Further, it is unclear how they interact with individual and environmental characteristics to predict adiposity. The present study aims to address whether morning cortisol levels and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor independently and/or interactively influence body mass index (BMI) in 218 adolescents (117 female) participating in a longitudinal community study, and whether associations are moderated by sex and exposure to early maternal depression. Reports of maternal depressive symptoms were obtained in infancy and preschool. Salivary cortisol measures included a longitudinal morning cortisol measure comprising sampling points across ages 11, 13, 15, and 18 and measures of stress-induced cortisol responses assessed via the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at age 18. Lower morning cortisol and higher TSST cortisol reactivity independently predicted higher age 18 BMI. Morning cortisol also interacted with sex and exposure to early maternal depression to predict BMI. Specifically, girls exposed to lower levels of early maternal depression displayed a strong negative morning cortisol-BMI association, and girls exposed to higher levels of maternal depression demonstrated a weaker negative association. Among boys, those exposed to lower levels of maternal depression displayed no association, while those exposed to higher levels of maternal depression displayed a negative morning cortisol-BMI association. Results point to the independent, additive effects of morning and reactive cortisol in the prediction of BMI and suggest that exposure to early maternal depression may exert sexually dimorphic effects on normative cortisol-BMI associations. PMID:25001956

  10. Severe maternal morbidity: A population-based study of an expanded measure and associated factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lazariu

    Full Text Available Severe maternal morbidity conditions such as sepsis, embolism and cardiac arrest during the delivery hospitalization period can lead to extended length of hospital stays, life-long maternal health problems, and high medical costs. Most importantly, these conditions also contribute to the risk of maternal death. This population-based observational study proposed and evaluated the impact of expanding the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC measure of severe maternal morbidity by including additional comorbidities and intensive care admissions during delivery hospitalizations and examined associated factors. A New York State linked hospitalization and birth record database was used. Study participants included all New York State female residents, ages 10 to 55 years, who delivered a live infant in a New York acute care hospital between 2008 and 2013, inclusive. Incidence trends for both severe maternal morbidity measures were evaluated longitudinally. Associations between covariates and the two severe maternal morbidity measures were examined with logistic regression models, solved using generalized estimating equations and stratified by method of delivery. The New York expanded severe maternal morbidity measure identified 34,478 cases among 1,352,600 hospital deliveries (estimated incidence 2.55% representing a 3% increase in the number of cases compared to the CDC measure. Both estimates increased over the study period (p 1.5 included most measured comorbidities (e.g., pregnancy-induced hypertension, placentation disorder, multiple births, preterm birth, no prenatal care, hospitalization prior to delivery, higher levels of perinatal care birthing facilities and race/ethnicity. Expanding the measure for severe maternal morbidity during delivery to capture intensive care admissions provides a more sensitive estimate of disease burden. Perinatal regionalization in New York appears effective in routing high risk pregnancies to higher

  11. Prenatal exposure to very severe maternal obesity is associated with adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, T H; Lahti, M; Drake, A J; Räikkönen, K; Minnis, H; Denison, F C; Norman, J E; Reynolds, R M

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal maternal obesity has been linked to adverse childhood neuropsychiatric outcomes, including increased symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalizing and externalizing problems, affective disorders and neurodevelopmental problems but few studies have studied neuropsychiatric outcomes among offspring born to very severely obese women or assessed potential familial confounding by maternal psychological distress. We evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms in 112 children aged 3-5 years whose mothers had participated in a longitudinal study of obesity in pregnancy (50 very severe obesity, BMI ⩾40 kg/m2, obese class III and 62 lean, BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2). The mothers completed the Conners' Hyperactivity Scale, Early Symptomatic Syndrome Eliciting Neurodevelopmental Clinical Examination Questionnaire (ESSENCE-Q), Child's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess child neuropsychiatric symptoms. Covariates included child's sex, age, birthweight, gestational age, socioeconomic deprivation levels, maternal age, parity, smoking status during pregnancy, gestational diabetes and maternal concurrent symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed using State Anxiety of Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), respectively. Children exposed to prenatal maternal very severe obesity had significantly higher scores in the Conners' Hyperactivity Scale; ESSENCE-Q; total sleep problems in CSHQ; hyperactivity, conduct problems and total difficulties scales of the SDQ; higher externalizing and total problems, anxious/depressed, aggressive behaviour and other problem syndrome scores and higher DSM-oriented affective, anxiety and ADHD problems in CBCL. Prenatal maternal very severe obesity remained a significant predictor of child neuropsychiatric problems across multiple scales independent of demographic factors, prenatal factors and

  12. Maternal childhood trauma, postpartum depression, and infant outcomes: Avoidant affective processing as a potential mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Karmel W; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Vythilingum, Bavi; Geerts, Lut; Faure, Sheila C; Watt, Melissa H; Roos, Annerine; Stein, Dan J

    2017-03-15

    Women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at risk for postpartum depression, increasing the likelihood of negative outcomes among their children. Predictive pathways from maternal childhood trauma to child outcomes, as mediated by postpartum depression, require investigation. A longitudinal sample of South African women (N=150) was followed through pregnancy and postpartum. Measures included maternal trauma history reported during pregnancy; postpartum depression through six months; and maternal-infant bonding, infant development, and infant physical growth at one year. Structural equation models tested postpartum depression as a mediator between maternal experiences of childhood trauma and children's outcomes. A subset of women (N=33) also participated in a lab-based emotional Stroop paradigm, and their responses to fearful stimuli at six weeks were explored as a potential mechanism linking maternal childhood trauma, postpartum depression, and child outcomes. Women with childhood trauma experienced greater depressive symptoms through six months postpartum, which then predicted negative child outcomes at one year. Mediating effects of postpartum depression were significant, and persisted for maternal-infant bonding and infant growth after controlling for covariates and antenatal distress. Maternal avoidance of fearful stimuli emerged as a potential affective mechanism. Limitations included modest sample size, self-report measures, and unmeasured potential confounders. Findings suggest a mediating role of postpartum depression in the intergenerational transmission of negative outcomes. Perinatal interventions that address maternal trauma histories and depression, as well as underlying affective mechanisms, may help interrupt cycles of disadvantage, particularly in high-trauma settings such as South Africa. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Telomere length is associated with oppositional defiant behavior and maternal clinical depression in Latino preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, J M; Heyman, M B; Elwan, D; Shiboski, S; Lin, J; Blackburn, E; Epel, E

    2015-06-16

    Exposure to psychological stress and depression are associated with shorter white blood cell telomere length (TL) in adults, possibly via associated lifelong oxidative stressors. Exposure to maternal depression increases risk for future depression and behavior problems in children, and Latino youth are at high risk. Few studies have evaluated the role of exposure to maternal depression or child behavior in relation to TL in children. We assessed early-childhood exposures to maternal depression from birth to the age of 5 years and child behavior from ages 3-5 years in a cohort of Latino children in relation to child leukocyte TL at ages 4 and 5 years. Children who had oppositional defiant behavior at 3, 4 or 5 years had shorter TL than those without by ~450 base pairs (P maternal clinical depression at 3 years of age (β = -363.99, 95% CI -651.24 to 764.74; P = 0.01), shorter maternal TL (β = 502.92, 95% CI 189.21-816.63) and younger paternal age at the child's birth (β = 24.63, 95% CI 1.14-48.12). Thus, exposure to maternal clinical depression (versus depressive symptoms) in early childhood was associated with deleterious consequences on child cellular health as indicated by shorter TL at 4 and 5 years of age. Similarly, children with oppositional defiant behavior also had shorter TL, possibly related to early exposures to maternal clinical depression. Our study is the first to link maternal clinical depression and oppositional defiant behavior with shorter TL in the preschool years in a relatively homogenous population of low-income Latino children.

  14. Interaction of maternal atopy, CTLA-4 gene polymorphism and gender on antenatal immunoglobulin E production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, K D; Ou, C-Y; Hsu, T-Y; Chang, J-C; Chuang, H; Liu, C-A; Liang, H-M; Kuo, H-C; Chen, R-F; Huang, E-Y

    2007-05-01

    Genetic heritability and maternal atopy have been correlated to antenatal IgE production, but very few studies have studied gene-maternal atopy interaction on antenatal IgE production. This study investigated the interaction of CTLA-4 polymorphism with prenatal factors on the elevation of cord blood IgE (CBIgE). Pregnant women were antenatally recruited for collection of prenatal environmental factors by a questionnaire. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected for CBIgE detection by fluorescence-linked enzyme assay and CTLA-4 polymorphism measurement by restriction fragment length polymorphism. A total of 1104 pregnant women initially participated in this cohort study, and 898 of them completed cord blood collection. 21.4% of the newborns had elevation of CBIgE (>or=0.5 kU/L). The CTLA-4+49A allele (P=0.021), maternal atopy (Ppaternal atopy, were significantly correlated with the CBIgE elevation in multivariate analysis. A dichotomous analysis of gene-maternal atopy interactions identified maternal atopy and CTLA-4+49A allele had an additive effect on the CBIgE elevation, especially prominent in male newborns; and in the absence of maternal atopy, CTLA-4+49GG genotype had a protective effect on CBIgE elevation in female newborns. Maternal but not paternal atopy has significant impacts on CBIgE elevation depending on gender and CTLA-4+49A/G polymorphism of newborns. Control of maternal atopy and modulation of CTLA-4 expression in the prenatal stage may be a target for the early prevention of perinatal allergy sensitization.

  15. Maternal androgen excess and obesity induce sexually dimorphic anxiety-like behavior in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, Maria; Fornes, Romina; Qi, Xiaojuan; Folmerz, Elin; Lindén Hirschberg, Angelica; de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2018-03-22

    Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition associated with hyperandrogenism, is suggested to increase anxiety-like behavior in the offspring. Because PCOS is closely linked to obesity, we investigated the impact of an adverse hormonal or metabolic maternal environment and offspring obesity on anxiety in the offspring. The obese PCOS phenotype was induced by chronic high-fat-high-sucrose (HFHS) consumption together with prenatal dihydrotestosterone exposure in mouse dams. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in adult offspring with the elevated-plus maze and open-field tests. The influence of maternal androgens and maternal and offspring diet on genes implicated in anxiety were analyzed in the amygdala and hypothalamus with real-time PCR ( n = 47). Independent of diet, female offspring exposed to maternal androgens were more anxious and displayed up-regulation of adrenoceptor α 1B in the amygdala and up-regulation of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone ( Crh). By contrast, male offspring exposed to a HFHS maternal diet had increased anxiety-like behavior and showed up-regulation of epigenetic markers in the amygdala and up-regulation of hypothalamic Crh. Overall, there were substantial sex differences in gene expression in the brain. These findings provide novel insight into how maternal androgens and obesity exert sex-specific effects on behavior and gene expression in the offspring of a PCOS mouse model.-Manti, M., Fornes, R., Qi, X., Folmerz, E., Lindén Hirschberg, A., de Castro Barbosa, T., Maliqueo, M., Benrick, A., Stener-Victorin, E. Maternal androgen excess and obesity induce sexually dimorphic anxiety-like behavior in the offspring.

  16. Community perspectives on the determinants of maternal health in rural southern Mozambique: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Tabassum; Vidler, Marianne; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Boene, Helena; Chiaú, Rogério; Sevene, Esperança; Magee, Laura A; von Dadelszen, Peter; Munguambe, Khátia

    2016-09-30

    -cultural and environmental factors. These determinants were closely linked with one another and highlight the importance of including the local history, context, culture and geography in the design of maternal health programs.

  17. The Relation between Maternal Work Hours and Primary School Students’ Affect in China: The Role of the Frequency of Mother–Child Communication (FMCC) and Maternal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Lv, Bo; Guo, Xiaolin; Liu, Chunhui; Qi, Bing; Hu, Weiping; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although substantial evidence suggests that maternal work hours may have a negative effect on children’s cognitive development, the link between maternal work hours and children’s affect remains unclear. Some studies have observed that non-daytime maternal work hours are associated with more emotional problems among children. However, few studies have focused on the effects of maternal work hours on workdays and non-workdays. Therefore, this study separately investigated the relation between maternal work hours on workdays and on non-workdays and explored the mediating role of the frequency of mother-child communication (FMCC) and the moderating role of maternal education. Method: Using cluster sampling, this study selected 879 students in grades 4–6 at two primary schools in the Hebei and Shandong provinces in China and their mothers as the study subjects. A multi-group structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the relations between maternal work hours, FMCC and children’s affect and the moderating effect of maternal education. Results: (1) Non-college-educated mothers’ work hours on workdays negatively predicted FMCC, but there was no such effect for college-educated mothers; (2) non-workday work hours of all employed mothers negatively predicted FMCC; (3) the FMCC of all employed mothers positively predicted children’s positive affect; (4) the FMCC of college-educated mothers negatively predicted children’s negative affect although there was no such relation for non-college-educated mothers; (5) there was a significant mediating effect of FMCC on the relation between maternal work hours and children’s affect only for non-college-educated mothers; and (6) the workday work hours of non-college-educated mothers positively predicted children’s negative affect, but this correlation was negative for college-educated mothers. Conclusion: Maternal work hours have a marginally significant negative effect on children’s affect through

  18. The Relation between Maternal Work Hours and Primary School Students' Affect in China: The Role of the Frequency of Mother-Child Communication (FMCC) and Maternal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Lv, Bo; Guo, Xiaolin; Liu, Chunhui; Qi, Bing; Hu, Weiping; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although substantial evidence suggests that maternal work hours may have a negative effect on children's cognitive development, the link between maternal work hours and children's affect remains unclear. Some studies have observed that non-daytime maternal work hours are associated with more emotional problems among children. However, few studies have focused on the effects of maternal work hours on workdays and non-workdays. Therefore, this study separately investigated the relation between maternal work hours on workdays and on non-workdays and explored the mediating role of the frequency of mother-child communication (FMCC) and the moderating role of maternal education. Method: Using cluster sampling, this study selected 879 students in grades 4-6 at two primary schools in the Hebei and Shandong provinces in China and their mothers as the study subjects. A multi-group structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the relations between maternal work hours, FMCC and children's affect and the moderating effect of maternal education. Results: (1) Non-college-educated mothers' work hours on workdays negatively predicted FMCC, but there was no such effect for college-educated mothers; (2) non-workday work hours of all employed mothers negatively predicted FMCC; (3) the FMCC of all employed mothers positively predicted children's positive affect; (4) the FMCC of college-educated mothers negatively predicted children's negative affect although there was no such relation for non-college-educated mothers; (5) there was a significant mediating effect of FMCC on the relation between maternal work hours and children's affect only for non-college-educated mothers; and (6) the workday work hours of non-college-educated mothers positively predicted children's negative affect, but this correlation was negative for college-educated mothers. Conclusion: Maternal work hours have a marginally significant negative effect on children's affect through FMCC only for non

  19. The Relation between Maternal Work Hours and Primary School Students’ Affect in China: The Role of the Frequency of Mother–Child Communication (FMCC and Maternal Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although substantial evidence suggests that maternal work hours may have a negative effect on children’s cognitive development, the link between maternal work hours and children’s affect remains unclear. Some studies have observed that non-daytime maternal work hours are associated with more emotional problems among children. However, few studies have focused on the effects of maternal work hours on workdays and non-workdays. Therefore, this study separately investigated the relation between maternal work hours on workdays and on non-workdays and explored the mediating role of the frequency of mother-child communication (FMCC and the moderating role of maternal education.Method: Using cluster sampling, this study selected 879 students in grades 4–6 at two primary schools in the Hebei and Shandong provinces in China and their mothers as the study subjects. A multi-group structural equation model (SEM was used to test the relations between maternal work hours, FMCC and children’s affect and the moderating effect of maternal education.Results: (1 Non-college-educated mothers’ work hours on workdays negatively predicted FMCC, but there was no such effect for college-educated mothers; (2 non-workday work hours of all employed mothers negatively predicted FMCC; (3 the FMCC of all employed mothers positively predicted children’s positive affect; (4 the FMCC of college-educated mothers negatively predicted children’s negative affect although there was no such relation for non-college-educated mothers; (5 there was a significant mediating effect of FMCC on the relation between maternal work hours and children’s affect only for non-college-educated mothers; and (6 the workday work hours of non-college-educated mothers positively predicted children’s negative affect, but this correlation was negative for college-educated mothers.Conclusion: Maternal work hours have a marginally significant negative effect on children

  20. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueret, C.D.M.; de Boer, V.; Schlobach, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. The linked data community proudly emphasizes the economic and societal impact such technology shows. But a closer look proves that the design and deployment of

  1. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueret, Christophe; de Boer, Victor; Schlobach, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. A closer look at linked data technologies, however, proves that their design and deployment exclude the majority of the world’s population. It will take small

  2. Weierstrass polynomials for links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1997-01-01

    There is a natural way of identifying links in3-space with polynomial covering spaces over thecircle. Thereby any link in 3-space can be definedby a Weierstrass polynomial over the circle. Theequivalence relation for covering spaces over thecircle is, however, completely different from...

  3. Maternal Burnout Syndrome: Contextual and Psychological Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Lebert-Charron

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Becoming a parent is one of the most significant experiences in a woman’s life. Including substantial and long-lasting mental, social, and physical charge, the parenting experience may also be a potentially stressful and overwhelming task. Since the eighties, the notion of parental burnout syndrome has gained increasing attention, but its contextual and psychological factors need to be better identified.Aims: To investigate a large array of contextual and psychological factors associated with maternal burnout syndrome in a French community-based population in order to contribute to better operationalize the notion of parental burnout and to explore its determinants.Method: A total of 304 French-speaking mothers (mean age = 34.8 years, SD = 6.72 completed a set of questionnaires including a sociodemographic form (in order to gather general information about the mothers, their spouses, and children living at home. The Perceived Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory adapted to parents (MBI-parental, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Parental Stress Index-Short Form and the Ways of Coping Checklist were used in this study.Results: Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that scores on the MBI-parental version were strongly and positively associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as with perceived stress related to parenthood and parenting stress levels. Moreover, using the task-oriented coping style in parenthood was strongly and positively associated with personal accomplishment. Conversely, some sociodemographic characteristics were found to be negatively associated with maternal burnout: being employed, working full time and being a mother living without a coparent.Conclusion: The construct of maternal burnout syndrome seems to be linked to a conjunction of psychological and contextual factors associated with maternal exhaustion. The implication of the results for prevention and

  4. Maternal Obesity: Risks for Developmental Delays in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffany, Kathleen O'Connor; McVeigh, Katharine H; Kershaw, Trace S; Lipkind, Heather S; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-02-01

    To assess the risk for neurodevelopmental delays for children of mothers who were obese (≥200 pounds) prior to pregnancy, and to characterize delays associated with maternal obesity among children referred to and found eligible to receive Early Intervention Program services. We conducted a retrospective cohort study (N = 541,816) using a population-based New York City data warehouse with linked birth and Early Intervention data. Risks for children suspected of a delay and 'significantly delayed', with two moderate or one severe delay, were calculated. Among the group of children eligible by delay for Early Intervention, analyses assessed risk for being identified with a moderate-to-severe delay across each of five functional domains as well as risks for multiple delays. Children of mothers who were obese were more likely to be suspected of a delay (adjusted RR 1.19 [CI 1.15-1.22]) and borderline association for 'significantly delayed' (adjusted RR 1.01 [CI 1.00-1.02). Among children eligible by delay, children of mothers who were obese evidenced an increased risk for moderate-to-severe cognitive (adjusted RR 1.04 [CI 1.02-1.07]) and physical (adjusted RR 1.04 [CI 1.01-1.08]) delays and for global developmental delay (adjusted RR 1.05 [CI 1.01-1.08]). Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developmental delay in offspring. Among children with moderate or severe delays, maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of cognitive and physical delays as well as with increased risk for global developmental delay. While causation remains uncertain, this adds to the growing body of research reporting an association between maternal obesity and neurodevelopmental delays in offspring.

  5. Maternal Burnout Syndrome: Contextual and Psychological Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebert-Charron, Astrid; Dorard, Géraldine; Boujut, Emilie; Wendland, Jaqueline

    2018-01-01

    Background: Becoming a parent is one of the most significant experiences in a woman’s life. Including substantial and long-lasting mental, social, and physical charge, the parenting experience may also be a potentially stressful and overwhelming task. Since the eighties, the notion of parental burnout syndrome has gained increasing attention, but its contextual and psychological factors need to be better identified. Aims: To investigate a large array of contextual and psychological factors associated with maternal burnout syndrome in a French community-based population in order to contribute to better operationalize the notion of parental burnout and to explore its determinants. Method: A total of 304 French-speaking mothers (mean age = 34.8 years, SD = 6.72) completed a set of questionnaires including a sociodemographic form (in order to gather general information about the mothers, their spouses, and children living at home). The Perceived Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory adapted to parents (MBI-parental), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Parental Stress Index-Short Form and the Ways of Coping Checklist were used in this study. Results: Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that scores on the MBI-parental version were strongly and positively associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as with perceived stress related to parenthood and parenting stress levels. Moreover, using the task-oriented coping style in parenthood was strongly and positively associated with personal accomplishment. Conversely, some sociodemographic characteristics were found to be negatively associated with maternal burnout: being employed, working full time and being a mother living without a coparent. Conclusion: The construct of maternal burnout syndrome seems to be linked to a conjunction of psychological and contextual factors associated with maternal exhaustion. The implication of the results for prevention and intervention strategies

  6. Maternal Depression and Parent Management Training Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jack; McQuillin, Samuel; Butler, Ashley M; Axelrad, Marni E

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the impact of maternal depression on reductions in children's behavior problems severity following implementation of the Brief Behavioral Intervention-a brief, manualized parent management training treatment. The parents of 87 children aged 2-6 years of age received parent management training at a metropolitan hospital. Parents of participants completed measures of externalizing behavior and maternal depression. The association between pre-post treatment change in externalizing behavior and maternal depression was examined using an autoregressive cross-lagged model. Results showed that self-reported maternal depressive symptoms at pre-treatment negatively influenced the overall magnitude of reduction of reported externalizing behaviors in children following treatment. Results indicate that aspects of family functioning not specifically targeted by parent management training, such as maternal depression, significantly affect treatment outcomes. Clinicians providing parent management training may benefit from assessing for maternal depression and modifying treatment as indicated.

  7. Maternal burn-out: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séjourné, N; Sanchez-Rodriguez, R; Leboullenger, A; Callahan, S

    2018-02-21

    Maternal burn-out is a psychological, emotional and physiological condition resulting from the accumulation of various stressors characterised by a moderate but also a chronic and repetitive dimension. Little research has focused on this syndrome. The current study aims to assess maternal burn-out rate and to identify factors associated with this state of exhaustion. 263 French mothers aged between 20 and 49 years answered five scales quantifying maternal burn-out, perceived social support, parental stress, depression and anxiety symptoms and history of postnatal depression. About 20% of mothers were affected by maternal burn-out. The main factors related to maternal burn-out were having a child perceived as difficult, history of postnatal depression, anxiety, satisfaction of a balance between professional and personal life and parental stress. This research shows the need for further work on maternal burn-out to better understand and prevent this syndrome.

  8. The perinatal and maternal outcome in pregnancy with advanced maternal age 35 years and >35 years

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi S. Kalewad; Trupti Nadkarni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Purpose of this study is to evaluate maternal and perinatal outcome in advanced maternal age women. As numbers of pregnancies in advanced maternal age continue to grow, obstetric care provider would benefit from up to date outcome data to enhance their preconceptional and antenatal counseling. Methods: It is observational prospective analytic study, conducted in Nowrosjee Wadia maternity hospital, Parel, Mumbai. Total 100 patients were included in study, fulfilling inclusion cr...

  9. The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Andreas; Zeki, Semir

    2004-03-01

    Romantic and maternal love are highly rewarding experiences. Both are linked to the perpetuation of the species and therefore have a closely linked biological function of crucial evolutionary importance. Yet almost nothing is known about their neural correlates in the human. We therefore used fMRI to measure brain activity in mothers while they viewed pictures of their own and of acquainted children, and of their best friend and of acquainted adults as additional controls. The activity specific to maternal attachment was compared to that associated to romantic love described in our earlier study and to the distribution of attachment-mediating neurohormones established by other studies. Both types of attachment activated regions specific to each, as well as overlapping regions in the brain's reward system that coincide with areas rich in oxytocin and vasopressin receptors. Both deactivated a common set of regions associated with negative emotions, social judgment and 'mentalizing', that is, the assessment of other people's intentions and emotions. We conclude that human attachment employs a push-pull mechanism that overcomes social distance by deactivating networks used for critical social assessment and negative emotions, while it bonds individuals through the involvement of the reward circuitry, explaining the power of love to motivate and exhilarate.

  10. Maternal bereavement and cryptorchidism in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chunsen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cryptorchidism (undescended testis) is a common anomaly with largely unexplained etiology. Animal studies have suggested maternal emotional stress as a potential risk factor, but this has not been studied in humans. We aimed to investigate whether maternal bereavement due to the death...... interval = 0.92-1.14]). Results were similar when the diagnosis was verified with surgery. We adjusted for maternal and paternal age, birth year, and family history of cryptorchidism. CONCLUSION: We observed no association between maternal bereavement before and during pregnancy and the occurrence...

  11. Maternal mortality in Denmark, 1985-1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Betina Ristorp; Westergaard, Hanne Brix; Bødker, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    fortuitous causes. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the major cause of direct maternal deaths. The rate of maternal deaths constituted 9.8/100,000 maternities (i.e. the number of women delivering registrable live births at any gestation or stillbirths at 24 weeks of gestation or later). CONCLUSION......: This is the first systematic report on deaths in Denmark based on data from national registries. The maternal mortality rate in Denmark is comparable to the rates in other developed countries. Fortunately, statistics are low, but each case represents potential learning. Obstetric care has changed and classification...

  12. Evaluating Iowa Severe Maternal Morbidity Trends and Maternal Risk Factors: 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Brittni N; Lillehoj, Catherine J; Kane, Debra J; Goodman, Dave; Rankin, Kristin

    2017-09-01

    Objectives To describe statewide SMM trends in Iowa from 2009 to 2014 and identify maternal characteristics associated with SMM, overall and by age group. Methods We used 2009-2014 linked Iowa birth certificate and hospital discharge data to calculate SMM based on a 25-condition definition and 24-condition definition. The 24-condition definition parallels the 25-condition definition, but excludes blood transfusions. We calculated SMM rates for all delivery hospitalizations (N = 196,788) using ICD-9-CM diagnosis and procedure codes. We used log-binomial regression to assess the association of SMM with maternal characteristics, overall and stratified by age groupings. Results In contrast to national rates, Iowa's 25-condition SMM rate decreased from 2009 to 2014. Based on the 25-condition definition, SMM rates were significantly higher among women 34 years compared to women 25-34 years. Blood transfusion was the most prevalent indicator, with hysterectomy and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) among the top five conditions. Based on the 24-condition definition, younger women had the lowest SMM rates and older women had the highest SMM rates. SMM rates were also significantly higher among racial/ethnic minorities compared to non-Hispanic white women. Payer was the only risk factor differentially associated with SMM across age groups. First trimester prenatal care initiation was protective for SMM in all models. Conclusions High rates of blood transfusion, hysterectomy, and DIC indicate a need to focus on reducing hemorrhage in Iowa. Both younger and older women and racial/ethnic minorities are identified as high risk groups for SMM that may benefit from special consideration and focus.

  13. The Effect of Marital Violence on Maternal Parenting Style and Maternal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesman, Cindy S.

    A study examined the effect of extreme marital discord, involving abuse of the mother, on maternal parenting style and level of maternal stress. It was hypothesized that battered women experience a higher level of maternal stress and choose an authoritarian parenting style as a consequence of marital discord. Subjects were 30 mothers of children…

  14. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  15. Is there a link between cancer and cosmic rays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astbury, A.

    2000-06-01

    Conventional wisdom on the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation predicts that only a very small percentage of human deaths from cancer can be attributed to cosmic rays. The intensity of the hadronic component of terrestrial cosmic rays, in particular neutrons, is well measured as a function of vertical threshold rigidity (M, in GeV/c). The crude death rates from malignant neoplasms for countries of the world and states of the US reveal a correlation with M. A close examination of eight US states with M ≤ 1.5 GeV/c over the period 1947-1997 shows systematic time variations with periodicities reminiscent of sunspot cycles (∼11 years). A very simple model linking the death rate from cancer to the count rate in a cosmic ray neutron monitor reproduces the gross features of the data. The evidence suggests that conventional wisdom could well be challenged. The situation may only be resolved by a series of detailed measurements of the genetic impact of hadronic cosmic rays on cells. (author)

  16. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-10-13

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARα signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity.

  17. Maternal mortality: a global overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choolani, M; Ratnam, S S

    1995-02-01

    Reduction of maternal mortality in developing countries is possible through elimination of unsafe abortion, active management of labor, appropriate management of pregnancy complications, and availability of adequate facilities. Prevention and early recognition are key factors in preventing maternal deaths due to ruptured uteri. A well equipped hospital is the appropriate place for delivery of mothers with a history of previous cesarean sections, a grossly contracted pelvis, previous myomectomies, previous multiple births, and previous abnormal births or complications during delivery. Complicated procedures, use of oxytocins, and administration of anesthesia should be performed with experienced, trained medical personnel. Surveillance of and correction for anemia should occur during the course of the pregnancy. Infections can be controlled with tetanus toxoid immunization and use of chest X-rays. The health care system should be tiered with primary health care services located in suburbs and rural districts. Services should be situated to account for population distribution, extent of maternal mortality in the region, transportation facilities, and the nearest secondary hospital. Birthing homes with sanitary facilities are an option for rural districts. A two-way referral system should be established between the primary, secondary, and tertiary level hospitals. Audits should be conducted as a means of checking for needed improvements in the system. Planning that includes proper roads, transportation, and communication facilities is important. Funding can come in the form of money, materials, and manpower. Safe motherhood requires the commitment of local people and local governments. The first step in a safe motherhood program is creating awareness among the political and economic elite. Governments are encouraged to shift resources from the military to housing, transportation, communications, education, and health during peace-times. Local professional associations

  18. A reminiscence program intervention to improve the quality of life of long-term care residents with Alzheimer's disease: a randomized controlled trial Intervenção com um programa de reminiscência para melhorar qualidade de vida de residentes com Alzheimer com cuidados prolongados: ensaio controlado randomizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jorge Luis Serrani Azcurra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A single-blinded, parallel-groups (intervention, active and passive control groups randomized controlled trial (RCT was chosen to investigate whether a specific reminiscence program is associated with higher levels of quality of life in nursing home residents with dementia. METHODS: The intervention used a life-story approach, while the control groups participated in casual discussions. The Social Engagement Scale (SES and Self Reported Quality of Life Scale (SRQoL were used as the outcome measures, which were examined at baseline (T0, 12 weeks (T1, and six months (T2 after the intervention. The final sample had 135 subjects (active control group = 45; passive control group = 45; intervention group = 45. RESULTS: The Wilcoxon test showed significant differences in the intervention group between T2 and T0, and between T1 and T0 in the SES, and there were significant differences between T0 and T1 (intervention effect size = 0.267 and T1 and T2 (intervention effect size = 0.450 in the SRQoL. The univariate logistic regression scores showed that predictors of change in the SRQoL were associated with fewer baseline anxiety symptoms and lower depression scores. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention led to significant differences between the three groups over time, showing a significant improvement in the quality of life and engagement of the residents in the intervention group.OBJETIVO: Elegeu-se um ensaio randomizado controlado simples cego, com grupos paralelos (intervenção, comparação e controle para pesquisar se um programa específico de reminiscência associa-se com maiores níveis de qualidade de vida em residentes com demência com cuidados prolongados. MÉTODO: No grupo de intervenção usou-se o enfoque da história de vida, enquanto o grupo controle recebeu conversas amistosas. A Escala de Compromisso Social (SES e a escala auto-referida de qualidade de vida (SRQoL foram as medidas de resultados, examinados na linha de base, doze

  19. Educación maternal

    OpenAIRE

    Carnicer Fuentes, Inmaculada Concepción

    2010-01-01

    Definir y/o describir los objetivos, metodología y contenidos de la educación maternal como componente del proceso asistencial integrado de atención al “Embarazo, Parto y Puerperio” de la Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía. Definir y/o describir los aspectos básicos del crecimiento y desarrollo ovular Definir y/o describir los aspectos básicos de la educación sanitaria durante el embarazo, incluyendo aspectos como nutrición, fármacos, vacunas, atención prenatal y prevención ...

  20. Components of Maternal Healthcare Delivery System Contributing to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Components of Maternal Healthcare Delivery System Contributing to Maternal Deaths ... transcripts were analyzed using a directed approach to content analysis. Excerpts were categorized according to three main components of the maternal ...