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Sample records for linking maternal reminiscing

  1. Does pedagogical documentation support maternal reminiscing conversations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Fleck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When parents talk with their children about lessons learned in school, they are participating in reminiscing of an unshared event. This study sought to understand if pedagogical documentation, from the Reggio Approach to early childhood education, would support and enhance the conversation. Mother–child dyads reminisced two separate times about preschool lessons, one time with documentation available to them and one time without. Transcripts were coded extracting variables indicative of high and low maternal reminiscing styles. Results indicate that mother and child conversation characteristics were more highly elaborative when documentation was present than when it was not. In addition, children added more information to the conversation supporting the notion that such conversations enhanced memory for lessons. Documentation could be used as a support tool for conversations and children’s memory about lessons learned in school.

  2. Does Pedagogical Documentation Support Maternal Reminiscing Conversations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Bethany; Richmond, Aaron S.; Sanderson, Jordace; Yacovetta, Sara

    2015-01-01

    When parents talk with their children about lessons learned in school, they are participating in reminiscing of an unshared event. This study sought to understand if pedagogical documentation, from the Reggio Approach to early childhood education, would support and enhance the conversation. Mother-child dyads reminisced two separate times about…

  3. Mother-child reminiscing at risk: Maternal attachment, elaboration, and child autobiographical memory specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Christina G; Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; Nuttall, Amy K

    2016-03-01

    Mother-child reminiscing, the process by which mothers and their children discuss past events and emotional experiences, has been robustly linked with child outcomes, including autobiographical memory. To advance previous work linking elaborative maternal reminiscing with child autobiographical memory specificity, the ability to generate and retrieve specific memories from one's past, it is essential to make distinctions among aspects of elaboration and to consider how maternal risk factors may influence the reminiscing context. The current study evaluated (a) an interaction between emotional and structural elaboration predicting child autobiographical memory specificity and (b) the potential moderating role of maternal adult attachment. Participants consisted of 95 preschool-aged children and their mothers. The sample was predominantly low income and racially diverse. Dyads completed a reminiscing task that was coded for emotional and structural elaboration. Mothers completed the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR-R) to assess attachment-related avoidance and anxiety, and children completed the Autobiographical Memory Test-Preschool Version (AMT-PV) to assess memory specificity. Results indicated that the association between structural reminiscing and child memory specificity was moderated by emotional elements of reminiscing. At high levels of emotional elaboration, mothers with high levels of structural elaboration had children with more specific memory than mothers with low levels of structural elaboration. Moreover, emotional elaboration (a) predicted less specific child memory without high structural support and (b) negatively predicted child specificity at high levels of maternal attachment avoidance and anxiety, a profile associated with fearful avoidance. Future directions and implications are discussed.

  4. Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing Mediates the Effect of Child Maltreatment on Behavioral and Physiological Functioning

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    Valentino, Kristin; Hibel, Leah C; Cummings, E. Mark; Nuttall, Amy K.; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggest that the way in which parents discuss everyday emotional experiences with their young children (i.e., elaborative reminiscing) has significant implications for child cognitive and socio-emotional functioning, and that maltreating parents have a particularly difficult time in engaging in this type of dialogue. This dyadic interactional exchange, therefore, has the potential to be an important process variable linking child maltreatment to developmental outcomes at multiple levels of analysis. The current investigation evaluated the role of maternal elaborative reminiscing in associations between maltreatment and child cognitive, emotional, and physiological functioning. Participants included 43 maltreated and 49 nonmaltreated children (aged 3–6) and their mothers. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about four past emotional events, and children participated in assessments of receptive language and emotion knowledge. Child salivary cortisol was also collected from children three times a day (waking, midday, and bedtime) on two consecutive days to assess daily levels and diurnal decline. Results indicated that maltreating mothers engaged in significantly less elaborative reminiscing than nonmaltreating mothers. Maternal elaborative reminiscing mediated associations between child maltreatment and child receptive language and child emotion knowledge. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between child maltreatment and child cortisol diurnal decline through maternal elaborative reminiscing. Directions for future research are discussed and potential clinical implications are addressed. PMID:26535941

  5. Elaboration and Autonomy Support in Low-Income Mothers' Reminiscing: Links to Children's Autobiographical Narratives

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    Leyva, Diana; Reese, Elaine; Grolnick, Wendy; Price, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    Maternal elaboration and autonomy support during reminiscing facilitate middle-class children's autobiographical narrative skills. In this study, low-income Hispanic, White, and Black mothers' elaboration and autonomy support in reminiscing were examined in relation to children's joint and independent autobiographical narratives and engagement.…

  6. A Review of Reminiscing in Early Childhood Settings and Links to Sustained Shared Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Dave; Pino-Pasternak, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The importance of parent-child reminiscing for young children's social and cognitive development has been well established, but despite the increasing numbers of children attending formal early childhood settings such as nurseries and preschools, there has been surprisingly little research exploring educator-child reminiscing in these contexts.…

  7. The Link between Preschoolers' Phonological Awareness and Mothers' Book-Reading and Reminiscing Practices in Low-Income Families

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    Leyva, Diana; Sparks, Alison; Reese, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The relation between preschoolers' phonological awareness and the frequency and quality of parents' book-reading and reminiscing practices were examined in 54 low-income and ethnically diverse families. Children's phonological awareness was assessed at the beginning and end of preschool. Mothers reported the frequency with which they read books…

  8. The Link between Preschoolers' Phonological Awareness and Mothers' Book-Reading and Reminiscing Practices in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Diana; Sparks, Alison; Reese, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The relation between preschoolers' phonological awareness and the frequency and quality of parents' book-reading and reminiscing practices were examined in 54 low-income and ethnically diverse families. Children's phonological awareness was assessed at the beginning and end of preschool. Mothers reported the frequency with which they read books…

  9. [Reminiscence on the municipal out-of-hospital maternity unit and the motherhood home in Novi Sad].

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    Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Breberina, Milan; Vujosević, Bozica; Pećanac, Marija; Zakula, Nenad; Trajković, Velicko

    2013-01-01

    In the mid-twentieth century, the health care of women and children was inadequate in the post-war Yugoslavia, including the city of Novi Sad, due to the severe post-war reality: poverty in the devastated country, shortage of all commodities and services and especially of medical supplies, equipment and educated staff. OUT-OF-HOSPITAL MATERNITY UNIT: One of the serious problems was parturition at home and morbidity and mortality of the newborns and women. Soon after the World War II the action programme of improving the women's health was realized on the state level by establishing out-of-hospital maternity units but under the expert supervision. The Maternity unit at 30 Ljudevita Gaja Street in Novi Sad played a great role in providing skilled birth attendance at mainly normal deliveries. With a minimal number of medical staff and modest medical equipment, about 2000 healthy babies were born in this house. After 5 years of functioning in that way, this unit was transformed into the Motherhood Home and became a social and medical institution for pregnant women and new mothers. Regardless of the redefined organization concept the curative and preventive health care as well as women and children social protection programmes were provided successfully for the next 12 years. Although the Motherhood Home was moved into the Women Health Centre of Novi Sad and later into the former Maternity Hospital in Sremski Karlovci, its great importance for women and children's health care remained unchanged. In 1979 the overall social situation and mostly economic issues led to its closing. The house in Gajeva Street is now used as the municipality office. However, this house with its story recommends itself to become a house for a special social function, such as a museum of medical history of Novi Sad. A small investment could make it possible to collect, preserve and display the valuable records of our past, which is something we do owe to the generations to come.

  10. Mediating Links between Maternal Childhood Trauma and Preadolescent Behavioral Adjustment

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    Min, Meeyoung O.; Singer, Lynn T.; Minnes, Sonia; Kim, Hyunsoo; Short, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously examine maternal psychological distress and social support as mediators linking maternal childhood trauma (MCT) to both maternal and child-reported behavior at 9 years of age in 231 birth mother-child dyads, who were primarily poor, urban, and African American. One half of the mothers…

  11. Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.

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    Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Brain Oxytocin Correlates with Maternal Aggression: Link to Anxiety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bosch, Oliver J; Meddle, Simone L; Beiderbeck, Daniela I; Douglas, Alison J; Neumann, Inga D

    2005-01-01

    .... Because aggression has been linked to anxiety, we investigated the maternal aggression and the role of brain oxytocin in lactating Wistar rats selectively bred for high anxiety-related behavior (HAB...

  13. The familial technique for linking maternal death with poverty.

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    Graham, Wendy J; Fitzmaurice, Ann E; Bell, Jacqueline S; Cairns, John A

    2004-01-03

    Recognition of the synergy between health and poverty is now apparent in the development strategies of many low-income countries, and markers are needed to monitor progress towards poverty-relevant goals. Maternal mortality has been proposed as a possible candidate but evidence is lacking on the link with poverty at the level of individuals. We introduce a new approach to exploring the relation--the familial technique. We used data from 11 household surveys in ten developing countries to create percentage distributions of women according to their poverty-related characteristics and survival status (alive, non-maternal death, maternal death). These women were identified as the sisters of the adult female respondents in the surveys, and were assigned the same poverty status as their respondent sibling. The analysis showed significant associations, across a diverse set of countries, between women's poverty status (proxied by educational level, source of water, and type of toilet and floor) and survival. These associations indicated a gradient within and across the survival categories. With increasing poverty, the proportion of women dying of non-maternal causes generally increased, and the proportion dying of maternal causes increased consistently. Further analysis reported here for one of the countries--Indonesia, revealed that about 32-34% of the maternal deaths occurred among women from the poorest quintile of the population. The risk of maternal death in this country was around 3-4 times greater in the poorest than the richest group. This new method makes efficient use of existing survey data to explore the relation between maternal mortality and poverty, and has wider potential for examining the poor-rich gap.

  14. Reminiscences of Stanley Mandelstam

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    Schwarz, John H.

    2017-01-01

    I reminisce about my interactions with Stanley Mandelstam during my years as a graduate student at UC Berkeley (1962-66) and afterwards. His contributions to S-matrix theory, quantum field theory, and string theory are also discussed.

  15. The Structure of Simple Reminiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Sharan B.

    1989-01-01

    Attempted to better delineate nature of simple reminiscence (recall of past experiences). Used constant comparative method to analyze transcripts of older adults' reminiscences and found that the process consists of four elements: selection, immersion, withdrawal, and closure. (Author/NB)

  16. Consequences from use of reminiscence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudex, Claire; Horsted, Charlotte; Jensen, Anders Møller

    2010-01-01

    Background: Reminiscence is the systematic use of memories and recollections to strengthen self-identity and self-worth. The study aim was to investigate the consequences for nursing home residents and staff of integrating reminiscence into daily nursing care. Methods: In this randomised study, ten...... nursing homes were matched into two groups on the basis of location, type and size. In the period August 2006 - August 2007, staff in the Intervention Group were trained and supported in the use of reminiscence, involving individual and group sessions with residents as well as reminiscence boxes, posters...... differences in outcome between the intervention and control groups. Results: Project drop-out rates were 32% for residents and 38% for nursing staff. Most staff in the Intervention Group considered reminiscence a useful tool that improved their communication with residents, and that they would recommend...

  17. Links between maternal postpartum depressive symptoms, maternal distress, infant gender and sensitivity in a high-risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eickhorst Andreas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal postpartum depression has an impact on mother-infant interaction. Mothers with depression display less positive affect and sensitivity in interaction with their infants compared to non-depressed mothers. Depressed women also show more signs of distress and difficulties adjusting to their role as mothers than non-depressed women. In addition, depressive mothers are reported to be affectively more negative with their sons than with daughters. Methods A non-clinical sample of 106 mother-infant dyads at psychosocial risk (poverty, alcohol or drug abuse, lack of social support, teenage mothers and maternal psychic disorder was investigated with EPDS (maternal postpartum depressive symptoms, the CARE-Index (maternal sensitivity in a dyadic context and PSI-SF (maternal distress. The baseline data were collected when the babies had reached 19 weeks of age. Results A hierarchical regression analysis yielded a highly significant relation between the PSI-SF subscale "parental distress" and the EPDS total score, accounting for 55% of the variance in the EPDS. The other variables did not significantly predict the severity of depressive symptoms. A two-way ANOVA with "infant gender" and "maternal postpartum depressive symptoms" showed no interaction effect on maternal sensitivity. Conclusions Depressive symptoms and maternal sensitivity were not linked. It is likely that we could not find any relation between both variables due to different measuring methods (self-reporting and observation. Maternal distress was strongly related to maternal depressive symptoms, probably due to the generally increased burden in the sample, and contributed to 55% of the variance of postpartum depressive symptoms.

  18. Maternal condition but not corticosterone is linked to offspring sex ratio in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J Henderson

    Full Text Available There is evidence of offspring sex ratio adjustment in a range of species, but the potential mechanisms remain largely unknown. Elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT is associated with factors that can favour brood sex ratio adjustment, such as reduced maternal condition, food availability and partner attractiveness. Therefore, the steroid hormone has been suggested to play a key role in sex ratio manipulation. However, despite correlative and causal evidence CORT is linked to sex ratio manipulation in some avian species, the timing of adjustment varies between studies. Consequently, whether CORT is consistently involved in sex-ratio adjustment, and how the hormone acts as a mechanism for this adjustment remains unclear. Here we measured maternal baseline CORT and body condition in free-living blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus over three years and related these factors to brood sex ratio and nestling quality. In addition, a non-invasive technique was employed to experimentally elevate maternal CORT during egg laying, and its effects upon sex ratio and nestling quality were measured. We found that maternal CORT was not correlated with brood sex ratio, but mothers with elevated CORT fledged lighter offspring. Also, experimental elevation of maternal CORT did not influence brood sex ratio or nestling quality. In one year, mothers in superior body condition produced male biased broods, and maternal condition was positively correlated with both nestling mass and growth rate in all years. Unlike previous studies maternal condition was not correlated with maternal CORT. This study provides evidence that maternal condition is linked to brood sex ratio manipulation in blue tits. However, maternal baseline CORT may not be the mechanistic link between the maternal condition and sex ratio adjustment. Overall, this study serves to highlight the complexity of sex ratio adjustment in birds and the difficulties associated with identifying sex biasing mechanisms.

  19. Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

  20. Links between Maternal and Child Psychopathology Symptoms: Mediation through Child Emotion Regulation and Moderation through Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology symptoms with 7-12 year-old children (N = 97; 44 boys, 53 girls, M age = 9.14, SD = 1.38) and their mothers (M age = 38.46, SD = 6.86). Child emotion regulation mediated the links between maternal psychopathology and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms. In turn,…

  1. Socioeconomic Risk Moderates the Link between Household Chaos and Maternal Executive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling f...

  2. Infant sleep development from 3 to 6 months postpartum: links with maternal sleep and paternal involvement.

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    Tikotzky, Liat; Sadeh, Avi; Volkovich, Ella; Manber, Rachel; Meiri, Gal; Shahar, Golan

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine (a) development of infant sleep and maternal sleep from 3 to 6 months postpartum; (b) concomitant and prospective links between maternal sleep and infant sleep; and (c) triadic links between paternal involvement in infant caregiving and maternal and infant sleep. The study included 57 families that were recruited during pregnancy. Maternal and infant sleep was assessed using actigraphy and sleep diaries for 5 nights. Both fathers and mothers completed a questionnaire assessing the involvement of fathers relative to mothers in infant caregiving. The results demonstrated moderate improvement in infant and maternal sleep percent between 3 and 6 months. Maternal sleep percent at 3 months significantly predicted infant sleep percent at 6 months. Greater paternal involvement in infant daytime and nighttime caregiving at 3 months significantly predicted more consolidated maternal and infant sleep at 6 months. These findings suggest that maternal sleep is an important predictor of infant sleep and that increased involvement of fathers in infant caregiving responsibilities may contribute to improvements in both maternal and infant sleep during the first 6 months postpartum.

  3. Maternal education and child nutritional status in Bolivia: finding the links.

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    Frost, Michelle Bellessa; Forste, Renata; Haas, David W

    2005-01-01

    This study models various pathways linking maternal education and child nutritional status in Bolivia, using a national sample of children. Pathways examined include socioeconomic status, health knowledge, modern attitudes towards health care, female autonomy, and reproductive behavior. The data come from the 1998 Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic regression results suggest that socioeconomic factors are the most important pathways linking maternal education and child nutritional status, and that modern attitudes about health care also explain the impact of education. Health care knowledge accounts for less of the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status, with autonomy being the weakest pathway. Other pathways, such as reproductive behaviors, appear to influence nutritional status independent of maternal education. Overall, the pathways examined accounted for 60 percent of the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status.

  4. Reactive and proactive aggression: Differential links with emotion regulation difficulties, maternal criticism in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripkauskaite, Simona; Hawk, Skyler T; Branje, Susan J T; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim

    2015-05-01

    Proactive and reactive functions of aggression are thought to manifest through different familial and emotional processes, even though they often co-occur. We investigated direct and indirect pathways through which maternal criticism and emotion regulation (ER) difficulties relate to reactive and proactive aggression in adolescence. Further, we examined how maternal criticism and emotion dysregulation interrelate, both concurrently and over time. Participants were 482 Dutch adolescents (M = 15.03, SD = 0.45, 57% boys) who self-reported on their ER difficulties, perceived maternal criticism, and reactive/proactive aggression. Cross-lagged panel modeling across four annual measurements revealed direct bidirectional links over time between maternal criticism and emotion dysregulation. Positive links over time from maternal criticism to proactive (but not reactive) aggression were also present. Emotion dysregulation and proactive aggression were linked only indirectly via maternal criticism. Gender did not significantly moderate these links. By revealing differential developmental pathways involving adolescents' ER and maternal criticism, the present study offers support for the dual function model of aggression. Aggr. Behav. 41:214-226, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Linking maternal warmth and responsiveness to children's self-regulation

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The present study demonstrated that a more differentiated view of positive parenting practices is necessary in the study of children?s acquisition of self-regulation. Here, the unique contributions of maternal warmth and responsiveness to distress to children?s self-regulation were tested in a sample of 102 German mothers and their kindergarten children (51 girls and 51 boys). Behavior regulation and internalization of rules of conduct were examined as specific components ...

  6. Linking maternal warmth and responsiveness to children's self-regulation

    OpenAIRE

    von Suchodoletz, Antje; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Heikamp, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The present study demonstrated that a more differentiated view of positive parenting practices is necessary in the study of children's acquisition of self-regulation. Here, the unique contributions of maternal warmth and responsiveness to distress to children's self-regulation were tested in a sample of 102 German mothers and their kindergarten children (51 girls and 51 boys). Behavior regulation and internalization of rules of conduct were examined as specific compone...

  7. Socioeconomic Risk Moderates the Link between Household Chaos and Maternal Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling for other measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., verbal ability), and 2) this link would be strongest in the most socioeconomically distressed or lowest-socioeconomic status households. The diverse sample included 153 mothers from urban and rural areas who completed a questionnaire and a battery of cognitive executive function tasks and a verbal ability task in the laboratory. Results were mixed for hypothesis 1, and consistent with hypothesis 2. Two-thirds of the variance overlapped between household chaos and maternal executive function, but only in families with high levels of socioeconomic risk. This pattern was not found for chaos and maternal verbal ability, suggesting that the potentially deleterious effects of household chaos may be specific to maternal executive function. The findings implicate household chaos as a powerful statistical predictor of maternal executive function in socioeconomically distressed contexts. PMID:22563703

  8. Maternal Oxytocin Is Linked to Close Mother-Infant Proximity in Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Robinson

    Full Text Available Maternal behaviour is a crucial component of reproduction in all mammals; however the quality of care that mothers give to infants can vary greatly. It is vital to document variation in maternal behaviour caused by the physiological processes controlling its expression. This underlying physiology should be conserved throughout reproductive events and should be replicated across all individuals of a species; therefore, any correlates to maternal care quality may be present across many individuals or contexts. Oxytocin modulates the initiation and expression of maternal behaviour in mammals; therefore we tested whether maternal plasma oxytocin concentrations correlated to key maternal behaviours in wild grey seals (Halichoerus grypus. Plasma oxytocin concentrations in non-breeding individuals (4.3 ± 0.5 pg/ml were significantly lower than those in mothers with dependent pups in both early (8.2 ± 0.8 pg/ml and late (6.9 ± 0.7 pg/ml lactation. Maternal plasma oxytocin concentrations were not correlated to the amount of nursing prior to sampling, or a mother's nursing intensity throughout the dependent period. Mothers with high plasma oxytocin concentrations stayed closer to their pups, reducing the likelihood of mother-pup separation during lactation which is credited with causing starvation, the largest cause of pup mortality in grey seals. This is the first study to link endogenous oxytocin concentrations in wild mammalian mothers with any type of maternal behaviour. Oxytocin's structure and function is widely conserved across mammalian mothers, including humans. Defining the impact the oxytocin system has on maternal behaviour highlights relationships that may occur across many individuals or species, and such behaviours heavily influence infant development and an individual's lifetime reproductive success.

  9. Maternal Oxytocin Is Linked to Close Mother-Infant Proximity in Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly J; Twiss, Sean D; Hazon, Neil; Pomeroy, Patrick P

    2015-01-01

    Maternal behaviour is a crucial component of reproduction in all mammals; however the quality of care that mothers give to infants can vary greatly. It is vital to document variation in maternal behaviour caused by the physiological processes controlling its expression. This underlying physiology should be conserved throughout reproductive events and should be replicated across all individuals of a species; therefore, any correlates to maternal care quality may be present across many individuals or contexts. Oxytocin modulates the initiation and expression of maternal behaviour in mammals; therefore we tested whether maternal plasma oxytocin concentrations correlated to key maternal behaviours in wild grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). Plasma oxytocin concentrations in non-breeding individuals (4.3 ± 0.5 pg/ml) were significantly lower than those in mothers with dependent pups in both early (8.2 ± 0.8 pg/ml) and late (6.9 ± 0.7 pg/ml) lactation. Maternal plasma oxytocin concentrations were not correlated to the amount of nursing prior to sampling, or a mother's nursing intensity throughout the dependent period. Mothers with high plasma oxytocin concentrations stayed closer to their pups, reducing the likelihood of mother-pup separation during lactation which is credited with causing starvation, the largest cause of pup mortality in grey seals. This is the first study to link endogenous oxytocin concentrations in wild mammalian mothers with any type of maternal behaviour. Oxytocin's structure and function is widely conserved across mammalian mothers, including humans. Defining the impact the oxytocin system has on maternal behaviour highlights relationships that may occur across many individuals or species, and such behaviours heavily influence infant development and an individual's lifetime reproductive success.

  10. Linking Employment Status, Maternal Psychological Well-Being, Parenting, and Children's Attributions about Poverty in Families Receiving Government Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Brown, Anita; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    Using an ecological risk-protection perspective, explores functional changes in single African American mothers (N=96) receiving government assistance. Examines links among maternal employment, mothers' physical and psychological health, and children's attributions about causes of poverty. Maternal psychological distress was linked with children's…

  11. Maternal abuse history, postpartum depression, and parenting: links with preschoolers' internalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Sheri; Wade, Mark; Plamondon, Andre; Jenkins, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined a temporal cascade linking mothers' history of abuse with their children's internalizing difficulties through proximal processes such as maternal postnatal depressive symptoms and responsive parenting. Participants consisted of 490 mother-child dyads assessed at three time points when children were, on average, 2 months old at Time 1 (T1), 18 months at Time 2 (T2), and 36 months at Time 3 (T3). Maternal abuse history and depressive symptoms were assessed via questionnaires at T1. Observations of responsive parenting were collected at T2 and were coded using a validated coding scheme. Children's internalizing difficulties were assessed in the preschool period using averaged parental reports. Path analysis revealed that maternal physical abuse was associated with depressive symptoms postnatally, which were in turn associated with children's internalizing behavior at 36 months of age. We also found that the association between physical abuse history and responsive parenting operated indirectly through maternal depressive symptoms. These findings remained after controlling for covariates including socioeconomic status, child gender, and age. After accounting for physical abuse history, sexual abuse history was not associated with child internalizing problems either directly or indirectly through maternal depressive symptoms and/or parenting behavior. Thus, mothers' physical abuse history is a risk factor for relatively poor mental health, which is itself predictive of both later parenting behavior and children's internalizing problems. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  12. Profiles of Maternal Parenting Practices: Exploring the Link With Maternal Delinquency, Offending, Mental Health, and Children's Physical Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumakis, Stacy; Lussier, Patrick; Corrado, Raymond R

    2015-11-01

    Studies have often linked parenting to children's subsequent antisocial behavior; however, the circumstances under which this might occur are less clear. The current study explores patterns in mothers' parenting practices, and associated correlates including maternal delinquency and offending, mental health, and children's physical aggression. This study is based on the first wave of the ongoing Vancouver Longitudinal Study; the objective of this prospective study is to identify the early risk and protective factors for aggression and violence from the earliest developmental periods. Parenting practices of 287 mothers with preschoolers are examined using a series of latent class analyses. Three different patterns of parenting emerged: Positive, Negative, and Intermittent. Patterns identified are associated with several key criminogenic, socio-demographic, historical, and developmental factors including current maternal adult offending, mothers' mental health, ethnicity, and frequency of children's physical aggression. Importantly, mothers who show parenting in line with the more negative classes also rely on a number of positive practices. Implications of the study suggest that parenting is influenced by mothers' immediate situations and contexts (e.g., current offending rather that past delinquency), which can be targeted for intervention.

  13. A Household Study of Self-Regulation in Children - Intergenerational Links and Maternal Antecedents

    OpenAIRE

    Drobetz, Reinhard; Maercker, Andreas; Spieß, C. Katharina; Wagner, Gert G.; Forstmeier, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Delay of gratification (DoG) and delay discounting (DD) are behavioral measures of self-regulation and impulsivity. Whereas DoG refers to the postponement of gratification, DD involves the devaluation of a reward over time. Previous studies have demonstrated associations between paternal self-control, paternal personality traits, parenting styles, maternal intelligence, and children’s self-regulation. The present study explored intergenerational links between mothers’ and child’s self-regulat...

  14. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

  15. Don't Fret, Be Supportive! Maternal Characteristics Linking Child Shyness to Psychosocial and School Adjustment in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Robert J.; Arbeau, Kimberley A.; Armer, Mandana

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the moderating role of maternal personality and parenting characteristics in the links between shyness and adjustment in kindergarten. Participants were 197 children enrolled in kindergarten programs (and their mothers and teachers). Multisource assessment was employed, including maternal ratings, behavioral…

  16. Recalling Memories Through Reminiscence Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Gürgens Gjærum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study how a reminiscence theatre production develops dramaturgically, and to discuss what impact it has on the participants who take part in the project “The aged as a resource”. The theatre performance Number Our Days is visually and verbally presented and interpreted in this article. The reader also gets an opportunity to look at film extracts from the performance in electronic form. The theoretical framing is based on a performative mindset, Ryum’s dramaturgic model, Ranciere’s view on the emancipated spectator, Turner and Behrndt’s devising theatre universe, Saldana’s ethnodrama method and Ricoeur’s perspective of the capable and relational human being who builds their own narrative identity through communication.

  17. Historical perspective on induced abortion through the ages and its links with maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drife, James Owen

    2010-08-01

    Abortion is mentioned in ancient medical texts but the effectiveness of the methods described is doubtful. Attitudes varied from apparent disapproval by Hippocrates to open approval in Ancient Rome. In mediaeval times abortion was practised by women in secret and this continued during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Despite being illegal in England induced abortion became more common in Victorian times as the population grew. At the same time the link between criminal abortion and maternal mortality became increasingly clear, and if a woman died after a procedure the abortionist (sometimes a midwife) could be sentenced to death. The law was more tolerant of abortions performed by registered doctors. In the 20th century pressure grew for its legalisation. At the time of the 1967 Abortion Act, abortion was the leading cause of maternal death in the UK but within fifteen years death from illegal abortion had been abolished.

  18. Does intelligence account for the link between maternal literacy and child survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, P; Cassel, J; Sanchez, G; Coldham, C

    1997-10-01

    The strong and consistent correlation between maternal education and child health is now well known, and numerous studies have shown that wealth and income cannot explain the link. Policy-makers have therefore assumed that the relationship is causal and explicitly advocate schooling as a child health intervention. However, there are other factors which could account for the apparent effect of maternal education on child morbidity and mortality, one of which is intelligence. This paper examines the effect of maternal intelligence on child health and looks at the degree to which it can explain the literacy associations with child survival and risk of malnutrition. The data are from a retrospective cohort study of 1294 mothers and their 7475 offspring, of whom 454 were women who had learned to read and write as adults in Nicaragua's literacy programme, 457 were illiterate, and 383 had become literate as young girls attending school. The women's intelligence was tested using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. Acquisition of literacy was strongly related to intelligence. Statistically significant associations with maternal literacy were found for under five mortality, infant mortality, and the risk of low mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) for age, before and after controlling for a wide range of socio-economic factors. Under five, child (one to four years), infant and post-neonatal mortality plus the risk of low height for age were significantly correlated with intelligence, but only with infant and under mortality rates did the association remain significant after controlling for socio-economic factors. A significant interaction between intelligence and literacy for under five mortality was due to literacy having a strong effect in the women of low intelligence, and a negligible effect among those of high intelligence. This study provides evidence that intelligence is an important determinant of child health among the illiterate, and that education may have the

  19. Reminiscence in dementia: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Laura; Murphy, Kathy; Cooney, Adeline; Casey, Dympna; O'Shea, Eamon; Devane, Declan; Jordan, Fionnuala; Hunter, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of reminiscence in dementia and highlights its uses as a therapeutic intervention used on individuals with dementia. No single definition of reminiscence exists in healthcare literature; however, definitions offered have similar components. The term life review is commonly used when discussing reminiscence; however, both terms are quite different in their goals, theory base and content. This concept analysis identified reminiscence as a process which occurs in stages, involving the recalling of early life events and interaction between individuals. The antecedents of reminiscence are age, life transitions, attention span, ability to recall, ability to vocalise and stressful situations. Reminiscence can lead to positive mental health, enhanced self esteem and improved communication skills. It also facilitates preparation for death, increases interaction between people, prepares for the future and evaluates a past life. Reminiscence therapy is used extensively in dementia care and evidence shows when used effectively it helps individuals retain a sense of self worth, identity and individuality.

  20. Infant cortisol and behavioral habituation to weekly maternal separations: Links with maternal prenatal cortisol and psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Beijers, R.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to examine infants' behavioral and physiological stress responses to three weekly maternal separations, in relation to maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and cortisol. The hypothesis was that more prenatal stress and higher cortisol concentrations would predict smaller d

  1. Infant cortisol and behavioral habituation to weekly maternal separations: Links with maternal prenatal cortisol and psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Beijers, R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to examine infants' behavioral and physiological stress responses to three weekly maternal separations, in relation to maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and cortisol. The hypothesis was that more prenatal stress and higher cortisol concentrations would predict smaller de

  2. Predicting the Quality of Mother-Child Reminiscing Surrounding Negative Emotional Events at 42 and 48 Months Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have speculated that a number of factors likely predict the quality of reminiscing between preschool children and their mothers. This study was designed to investigate three such factors, including child temperament, maternal personality, and maternal caregiving representations. Seventy mothers and their preschool children were…

  3. Improving Information on Maternal Medication Use by Linking Prescription Data to Congenital Anomaly Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jonge, Linda; Garne, Ester; Gini, Rosa;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Research on associations between medication use during pregnancy and congenital anomalies is significative for assessing the safe use of a medicine in pregnancy. Congenital anomaly (CA) registries do not have optimal information on medicine exposure, in contrast to prescription...... databases. Linkage of prescription databases to the CA registries is a potentially effective method of obtaining accurate information on medicine use in pregnancies and the risk of congenital anomalies. METHODS: We linked data from primary care and prescription databases to five European Surveillance....... CONCLUSION: Linkage of primary care or prescription databases to CA registries improved the quality of information on maternal use of medicines in pregnancy, especially for medicine groups that are less fully registered in CA registries....

  4. Risk Factors Linking Maternal Depressed Mood to Growth in Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Rebecca C.; Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal depression has been implicated in the development of adolescent substance use. Conceptualizing depression as a continuum, the aims of this study are to (a) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and risk factors associated with adolescent substance use; (b) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood…

  5. Embryonic death is linked to maternal identity in the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R Rafferty

    Full Text Available Leatherback turtles have an average global hatching success rate of ~50%, lower than other marine turtle species. Embryonic death has been linked to environmental factors such as precipitation and temperature, although, there is still a lot of variability that remains to be explained. We examined how nesting season, the time of nesting each season, the relative position of each clutch laid by each female each season, maternal identity and associated factors such as reproductive experience of the female (new nester versus remigrant and period of egg retention between clutches (interclutch interval affected hatching success and stage of embryonic death in failed eggs of leatherback turtles nesting at Playa Grande, Costa Rica. Data were collected during five nesting seasons from 2004/05 to 2008/09. Mean hatching success was 50.4%. Nesting season significantly influenced hatching success in addition to early and late stage embryonic death. Neither clutch position nor nesting time during the season had a significant affect on hatching success or the stage of embryonic death. Some leatherback females consistently produced nests with higher hatching success rates than others. Remigrant females arrived earlier to nest, produced more clutches and had higher rates of hatching success than new nesters. Reproductive experience did not affect stage of death or the duration of the interclutch interval. The length of interclutch interval had a significant affect on the proportion of eggs that failed in each clutch and the developmental stage they died at. Intrinsic factors such as maternal identity are playing a role in affecting embryonic death in the leatherback turtle.

  6. Asher Brown Durand: "An Old Man's Reminiscences."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Ted

    1988-01-01

    Uses Durand's "An Old Man's Reminiscences" to introduce students in grades 4-6 to the effective use of nostalgia and memories in artwork. Presents lesson objectives, instructional strategies, evaluation criteria, and background information about the artist and the painting. (GEA)

  7. Linking Child Health, Maternal Labour Force Participation and Household Asset Endowments in Cameroon: What the People Say

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbu Daniel TAMBI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is entitled “Linking Child Health, Maternal Labour Force Participation and Household Asset Endowments in Cameroon: what the people say”. The objectives are: (i document the determinants of child health as informed by focus group discussion, (ii analyze what the people say concerning the relationship between child health and maternal labour force participation, (iii explore the perception of the people on the effects of child health on asset accumulation and (iv suggest public policies on the basis of the findings. We used seven focus groups derived from different backgrounds in our framework. We observed that, parents make used of the extra time accrue to them due to better health for their children and family to do extra work that fetched them more money. Based on this, we recommend that decision makers should promote child health outcomes as it’s a tool to promote maternal labour and wealth accumulation in Cameroon

  8. Unintentional role models : links between maternal eating psychopathology and the modelling of eating behaviours\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between maternal modelling of eating behaviours with reported symptoms of maternal eating psychopathology, anxiety and depression. Mothers (N = 264) with a child aged 1.5 to 8 years completed three self-report measures designed to assess modelling of eating behaviours, eating psychopathology and levels of anxiety and depression. The study found that higher levels of maternal eating psychopathology were positively associated with eating behaviours that wer...

  9. Medial prefrontal cortex: genes linked to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have altered expression in the highly social maternal phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, Brian E; Driessen, Terri M; Zhao, Changjiu; Gammie, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    The transition to motherhood involves CNS changes that modify sociability and affective state. However, these changes also put females at risk for post-partum depression and psychosis, which impairs parenting abilities and adversely affects children. Thus, changes in expression and interactions in a core subset of genes may be critical for emergence of a healthy maternal phenotype, but inappropriate changes of the same genes could put women at risk for post-partum disorders. This study evaluated microarray gene expression changes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region implicated in both maternal behavior and psychiatric disorders. Post-partum mice were compared to virgin controls housed with females and isolated for identical durations. Using the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET), we found that the genetic landscape of maternal mPFC bears statistical similarity to gene databases associated with schizophrenia (5 of 5 sets) and bipolar disorder (BPD, 3 of 3 sets). In contrast to previous studies of maternal lateral septum (LS) and medial preoptic area (MPOA), enrichment of autism and depression-linked genes was not significant (2 of 9 sets, 0 of 4 sets). Among genes linked to multiple disorders were fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7), glutamate metabotropic receptor 3 (Grm3), platelet derived growth factor, beta polypeptide (Pdgfrb), and nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Nr1d1). RT-qPCR confirmed these gene changes as well as FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1) and proenkephalin (Penk). Systems-level methods revealed involvement of developmental gene networks in establishing the maternal phenotype and indirectly suggested a role for numerous microRNAs and transcription factors in mediating expression changes. Together, this study suggests that a subset of genes involved in shaping the healthy maternal brain may also be dysregulated in mental health disorders and put females at risk for post-partum psychosis with aspects of schizophrenia

  10. Medial prefrontal cortex: genes linked to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have altered expression in the highly social maternal phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Eisinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition to motherhood involves CNS changes that modify sociability and affective state. However, these changes also put females at risk for postpartum depression and psychosis, which impairs parenting abilities and adversely affects children. Thus, changes in expression and interactions in a core subset of genes may be critical for emergence of a healthy maternal phenotype, but inappropriate changes of the same genes could put women at risk for postpartum disorders. This study evaluated microarray gene expression changes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, a region implicated in both maternal behavior and psychiatric disorders. Postpartum mice were compared to virgin controls housed with females and isolated for identical durations. Using the Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET, we found that the genetic landscape of maternal mPFC bears statistical similarity to gene databases associated with schizophrenia (5 of 5 sets and bipolar disorder (BPD, 3 of 3 sets. In contrast to previous studies of maternal lateral septum and medial preoptic area, enrichment of autism and depression-linked genes was not significant (2 of 9 sets, 0 of 4 sets. Among genes linked to multiple disorders were fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7, glutamate metabotropic receptor 3 (Grm3, platelet derived growth factor, beta polypeptide (Pdgfrb, and nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (Nr1d1. RT-qPCR confirmed these gene changes as well as FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1 and proenkephalin (Penk. Systems-level methods revealed involvement of developmental gene networks in establishing the maternal phenotype and indirectly suggested a role for numerous microRNAs and transcription factors in mediating expression changes. Together, this study suggests that a subset of genes involved in shaping the healthy maternal brain may also be dysregulated in mental health disorders and put females at risk for postpartum psychosis with aspects of schizophrenia and BPD.

  11. Thoroughbred racehorse mitochondrial DNA demonstrates closer than expected links between maternal genetic history and pedigree records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, M A; Whitten, M; Nisbet, R E R; Spencer, M; Dominy, K M; Murphy, A M; Cassidy, R; Barrett, E; Hill, E W; Binns, M

    2013-06-01

    The potential future earnings and therefore value of Thoroughbred foals untested in the racing arena are calculated based on the performance of their forebears. Thus, lineage is of key importance. However, previous research indicates that maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) does not correspond to maternal lineage according to recorded pedigree, casting doubt on the voracity of historic pedigrees. We analysed mtDNA of 296 Thoroughbred horses from 33 maternal lineages and identified an interesting trend. Subsequent to the founding of the Thoroughbred breed in the 16th century, well-populated maternal lineages were divided into sub-lineages. Only six in 10 of the Thoroughbreds sampled shared mitochondrial haplotype with other members of their maternal lineage, despite having a common maternal ancestor according to pedigree records. However, nine in 10 Thoroughbreds from the 103 sub-lineages sampled shared mtDNA with horses of their maternal pedigree sub-lineage. Thus, Thoroughbred maternal sub-lineage pedigree represents a more accurate breeding record than previously thought. Errors in pedigrees must have occurred largely, though, not exclusively, at sub-lineage foundation events, probably due to incomplete understanding of modes of inheritance in the past, where maternal sub-lineages were founded from individuals, related, but not by female descent. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. PMID:25328265

  13. [Contribution of genotyping for fetal sex determination in maternal serum for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of X-linked diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, G; Costa, J M; Frydman, N; Ray, P; Le Dû, A; Kerbrat, V; Ernault, P; Frydman, R

    2003-12-01

    Couples with a risk of transmitting X-linked diseases included in a preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) center need early and rapid fetal sex determination during pregnancy in two situations. The first situation corresponds to control of embryo sexing after PGD, the second one being that of couples in PGD program having a spontaneous pregnancy. Determination of fetal sex can be achieved by karyotyping using invasive procedures such as chorionic villus sampling (CVS), amniocentesis or cordocentesis and by non-invasive procedures such as ultrasound (US) examination. CVS is the earliest invasive procedure for fetal sex determination and molecular analysis of X-linked genetic disorders during the first trimester but it is associated with a risk of fetal loss. US allows reliable fetal sex determination only during the second trimester. Recently, reliable non-invasive fetal sex determination was realized by using SRY gene amplification in maternal serum. We report the prospective use of fetal sex determination in maternal serum in our PGD center. Management of pregnancies was performed using this non-invasive procedure in four cases of embryo sexing control and nine cases of spontaneous pregnancies in couples included in PGD program for X-linked diseases. Fetal sex results using SRY gene amplification on maternal serum were in complete concordance with fetal sex observed by cytogenetic analysis or US examination, as well as at birth. This new strategy allowed rapid sex determination during the first trimester and permitted to avoid performing invasive procedures in nine pregnancies.

  14. Recent advances in understanding the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Rubin, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The reminiscence bump is the increased proportion of autobiographical memories from youth and early adulthood observed in adults over 40. It is one of the most robust findings in autobiographical-memory research. Although described as a single period from which there are more memories, a recent...... the bump obtained when important memories are requested. The bump obtained in response to odor cues is even earlier. This variation in the size and temporal location of the reminiscence bump argues for theories based primarily on retrieval rather than encoding and retention, which most current theories...... stress. Furthermore, it points to the need to develop theories of autobiographical memory that account for this flexibility in the memories retrieved....

  15. Recent advances in understanding the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Rubin, David C.

    2016-01-01

    the bump obtained when important memories are requested. The bump obtained in response to odor cues is even earlier. This variation in the size and temporal location of the reminiscence bump argues for theories based primarily on retrieval rather than encoding and retention, which most current theories...... stress. Furthermore, it points to the need to develop theories of autobiographical memory that account for this flexibility in the memories retrieved....

  16. Reminiscence of the Glory of Pioneering Spirits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张菁华

    2013-01-01

      At the end of pioneering age, the women pioneers were substituted by lost ladies from whom the innovation, self-reli⁃ance, tolerance and endurance yielded to nihilism, reliant affinity, mammonism and hedonism. To reminisce the glory of pioneering splendors in the integration with the waste west land spiritually and alienation to the materialized modern society, Cather regressed to the memorable bygones in“The Best Years”, The Professor's House and elegized the spiritual pioneering by means of infusing Christianity into the uncultivated indigenous inhabitants in Death Comes for the Archbishop.

  17. Psychoneuroimmunology in Pregnancy: Immune Pathways Linking Stress with Maternal Health, Adverse Birth Outcomes, and Fetal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    It is well-established that psychological stress promotes immune dysregulation in nonpregnant humans and animals. Stress promotes inflammation, impairs antibody responses to vaccination, slows wound healing, and suppresses cell-mediated immune function. Importantly, the immune system changes substantially to support healthy pregnancy, with attenuation of inflammatory responses and impairment of cell-mediated immunity. This adaptation is postulated to protect the fetus from rejection by the maternal immune system. Thus, stress-induced immune dysregulation during pregnancy has unique implications for both maternal and fetal health, particularly preterm birth. However, very limited research has examined stress-immune relationships in pregnancy. The application of psychoneuroimmunology research models to the perinatal period holds great promise for elucidating biological pathways by which stress may affect adverse pregnancy outcomes, maternal health, and fetal development. PMID:21787802

  18. Psychoneuroimmunology in pregnancy: immune pathways linking stress with maternal health, adverse birth outcomes, and fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    It is well-established that psychological stress promotes immune dysregulation in nonpregnant humans and animals. Stress promotes inflammation, impairs antibody responses to vaccination, slows wound healing, and suppresses cell-mediated immune function. Importantly, the immune system changes substantially to support healthy pregnancy, with attenuation of inflammatory responses and impairment of cell-mediated immunity. This adaptation is postulated to protect the fetus from rejection by the maternal immune system. Thus, stress-induced immune dysregulation during pregnancy has unique implications for both maternal and fetal health, particularly preterm birth. However, very limited research has examined stress-immune relationships in pregnancy. The application of psychoneuroimmunology research models to the perinatal period holds great promise for elucidating biological pathways by which stress may affect adverse pregnancy outcomes, maternal health, and fetal development.

  19. Cascading reminiscence bumps in popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, Carol Lynne; Zupnick, Justin Adam

    2013-10-01

    Autobiographical memories are disproportionately recalled for events in late adolescence and early adulthood, a phenomenon called the reminiscence bump. Previous studies on music have found autobiographical memories and life-long preferences for music from this period. In the present study, we probed young adults' personal memories associated with top hits over 5-and-a-half decades, as well as the context of their memories and their recognition of, preference for, quality judgments of, and emotional reactions to that music. All these measures showed the typical increase for music released during the two decades of their lives. Unexpectedly, we found that the same measures peaked for the music of participants' parents' generation. This finding points to the impact of music in childhood and suggests that these results reflect the prevalence of music in the home environment. An earlier peak occurred for 1960s music, which may be explained by its quality or by its transmission through two generations. We refer to this pattern of musical cultural transmission over generations as cascading reminiscence bumps.

  20. Depressive symptoms in adolescence : Longitudinal links with maternal empathy and psychological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Lente L. A. A.; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, Susan J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psycho

  1. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, L.A.A.; van der Graaff, J.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Branje, S.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/ S15327965PLI1104_01, 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms, through mothers’ psych

  2. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions: Longitudinal links to adolescent disclosure and maternal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Giessen, D.; Branje, S.; Keijsers, L.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relations of emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions in early adolescence with adolescent disclosure and maternal control in early and late adolescence. Data were used from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (M age T1 = 13.05; 65.20% boys) th

  3. Epigenetic changes in the hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin gene: a mechanism linking maternal undernutrition to obesity in the offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Adam; Begum, Ghazala; White, Anne

    2011-06-11

    Maternal undernutrition is associated with programming of obesity in offspring. While previous evidence has linked programming to the hypothalamic, pituitary, and adrenal (HPA) axis it could also affect the hypothalamic neuropeptides which regulate food intake and energy balance. Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH), a key regulator of these neuronal pathways, is derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) which is therefore a prime target for the programming of obesity. Several models of maternal undernutrition have identified changes in POMC in hypothalami from foetuses or offspring at various ages. These models have also shown that the offspring go on to develop obesity and/or glucose intolerance. It is our hypothesis that programming leads to epigenetic changes in hypothalamic neuropeptide genes. Therefore when there is subsequent increased food availability, the epigenetic changes could cause dysfunctional transcriptional regulation of energy balance. We present evidence of epigenetic changes in the POMC gene promoter in foetal hypothalami after peri-conceptional undernutrition. In this model there are also epigenetic changes in the hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptor with consequent up-regulation of the receptor which could lead to alterations in the regulation of POMC and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus. Thus maternal undernutrition could cause epigenetic changes in the POMC and glucocorticoid receptor genes, in the foetal hypothalamus, which may predispose the offspring to altered regulation of food intake, energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis, later in life. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Functions of reminiscence and the psychological well-being of young-old and older adults over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Norm; Cappeliez, Philippe; Claxton, Amy

    2011-03-01

    Existing cross-sectional research demonstrates an association between reminiscence functions and well-being in later life. The results of this study replicate and extend previous findings in separate participant samples above and below 70 years of age. Findings suggest a link between reminiscence functions and psychological well-being, and indirectly between reminiscence and well-being 16 months thereafter. Invariance analyses reveal few differences in association between reminiscence and well-being when young-old (n = 196) and older adults (n = 215) are compared. These findings suggest a direct positive association between self-positive reminiscence functions (identity, death preparation, and problem-solving) and a direct negative association between self-negative functions (boredom reduction, bitterness revival, and intimacy maintenance) and psychological well-being (life satisfaction, depressive, and anxiety symptoms). In contrast, prosocial reminiscence functions (conversation, teach/inform others) appear to have an indirect association with well-being (i.e., via self-positive and self-negative functions). These findings are discussed relative to evolving theory and research linking cognition and health.

  5. Outbreak of staphylococcal bullous impetigo in a maternity ward linked to an asymptomatic healthcare worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, P; Blanie, M; Sanchez, R; Vigier, D; Dauwalder, O; Darwiche, A; Provenzano, B; Dumartin, C; Parneix, P; Venier, A G

    2007-11-01

    An outbreak of staphylococcal bullous impetigo occurred over a period of five months in a maternity ward involving seven infected and two colonised neonates. The skin lesions were due to epidermolytic toxin A-producing Staphylococcus aureus. Infection control measures were implemented and a retrospective case-control study performed. Contact with an auxiliary nurse was the only risk factor for cases of bullous impetigo (Pimpetigo and the auxiliary nurse was reassigned to an adult ward.

  6. The placental problem: Linking abnormal cytotrophoblast differentiation to the maternal symptoms of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Susan J

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The placenta is a remarkable organ. In normal pregnancy its specialized cells (termed cytotrophoblasts differentiate into various specialized subpopulations that play pivotal roles in governing fetal growth and development. One cytotrophoblast subset acquires tumor-like properties that allow the cells to invade the decidua and myometrium, a process that attaches the placenta to the uterus. The same subset also adopts a vascular phenotype that allows these fetal cells to breach and subsequently line uterine blood vessels, a process that channels maternal blood to the rest of the placenta. In the pregnancy complication preeclampsia, which is characterized by the sudden onset of maternal hypertension, proteinuria and edema, cytotrophoblast invasion is shallow and vascular transformation incomplete. These findings, together with very recent evidence from animal models, suggest that preeclampsia is associated with abnormal placental production of vasculogenic/angiogenic substances that reach the maternal circulation with the potential to produce at least a subset of the clinical signs of this syndrome. The current challenge is to build on this knowledge to design clinically useful tests for predicting, diagnosing and treating this dangerous disorder.

  7. Anamnesis of the radioimmunoassay: A historical reminiscence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallee, E.

    1984-01-27

    Anamnesis of the Radioimmunoassay - A Historical Reminiscence: Several requirements have to be met before the first radioimmunoassay of a proteohormone (i.e., insulin) could be developed. One of these requirements was that iodination ought not substantially impair the immunologic properties of the insulin molecule. Since the reversibility of antigen adsorption to antibodies is the most important basis of all immunoassays, the adsorptive behavior of proteins first had to be studied at extremely low protein concentrations. Only after these requirements had been investigated was direct electrophoretic detection of a nonprecipitating anti-hormone antibody possible by desorption of insulin on filter paper. Later, the inaccuracy of the species specificity of insulin-binding antibodies proved to be particularly useful for the determination of insulin in human sera.

  8. Interrelations of Maternal Expressed Emotion, Maltreatment, and Separation/Divorce and Links to Family Conflict and Children’s Externalizing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2015-01-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children’s externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltre...

  9. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Lente L A A; der Graaff, Jolien Van; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T

    2016-08-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 , 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents' need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in turn predict adolescents' depressive symptoms. Moreover, according to interpersonal theory of depression (Coyne in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186-193. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.85.2.186 , 1976), adolescents' depressive symptoms may elicit rejecting responses, such as mothers' psychological control. For six waves, 497 adolescents (57 % boys, M age T1 = 13.03) annually completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control, while mothers reported on their empathy. Cross-lagged path analyses showed that throughout adolescence, both mothers' affective and cognitive empathy indirectly predicted boys' and girls' depressive symptoms, through psychological control. Additionally, depressive symptoms predicted psychological control for boys, and early adolescent girls. These results highlight the importance of (1) mothers' affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (2) taking gender into account when examining adolescent-effects.

  10. Interrelations of maternal expressed emotion, maltreatment, and separation/divorce and links to family conflict and children's externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-02-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children's externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children's externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2 % males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children's externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children's externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. Key Words: expressed emotion, EE-Crit, Five-Minute Speech Sample; maltreatment, divorce

  11. Is fetal brain monoamine oxidase inhibition the missing link between maternal smoking and conduct disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baler, Ruben D; Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S; Benveniste, Helene

    2008-05-01

    Smoking is the leading cause of preventable illness in the world today. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is a particularly insidious form because so many of its associated health effects befall the unborn child and produce behavioural outcomes that manifest themselves only years later. Among these are the associations between PCSE and conduct disorders, which have been mostly ascribed to the deleterious effects of nicotine on the fetal brain. Here we hypothesize that inhibition of brain monoamine oxidase (MAO) during fetal brain development, secondary to maternal cigarette smoking and in addition to nicotine, is a likely contributor to this association. MAOs play a central role in monoaminergic balance in the brain, and their inhibition during fetal development - but not during adult life - is known to result in an aggressive phenotype in laboratory animals. This paper provides theoretical and experimental support for the notion that cigarette smoke-induced inhibition of MAO in the fetal brain, particularly when it occurs in combination with polymorphisms in the MAOA gene that lead to lower enzyme concentration in the brain, may result in brain morphologic and functional changes that enhance the risk of irritability, poor self-control and aggression in the offspring. It also encourages research to evaluate whether the interaction of smoking exposure during fetal development and MAOA genotype increases the risk for conduct disorder over that incurred by mere fetal exposure to tobacco smoke.

  12. Maternal and paternal perceptions of coparenting as a link between marital quality and the parent-toddler relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Ashley S; McElwain, Nancy L

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine coparenting perceptions of support and trust as a link between marital quality and parent-child relationship quality. Mothers and fathers with 33-month-old children (n = 122, 61 girls) independently reported on coparenting support and trust, marital quality, and attachment-relevant aspects of the parent-child relationship. Additionally, child-mother attachment security was assessed observationally. Marital quality was related to higher quality mother-son relationships (self-reported and observed) via more positive maternal coparenting perceptions, and marital quality was related to greater father-son and father-daughter relationship quality via more positive paternal coparenting perceptions. For partner effects, marital quality was related to higher mother-son relationship quality via fathers' perceptions of coparenting. Results highlight perceptions of coparenting of both mothers and fathers as a link between marital quality and mother-child relationship quality for families with toddler-aged boys. Further, findings suggest that marital quality fosters more positive paternal coparenting trust and support, which in turn has positive implications for father-son and father-daughter relationships during toddlerhood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Maternal and paternal parenting styles: unique and combined links to adolescent and early adult delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H; Smeenk, Wilma

    2011-10-01

    The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and mothers were linked to delinquency. A significant parenting style by sex interaction was found: neglectful parenting was related to higher levels of delinquency in males and permissive parenting was linked to delinquency in females. A long term relationship was found between fathers' neglectful parenting style and delinquency in males. Furthermore, results revealed that levels of delinquency were the lowest in families with at least one authoritative parent and highest in families with two neglectful parents, indicating that the level of delinquency was dependent on the combination of mother's and father's parenting styles. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of a reminiscence program among institutionalized elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-Moral, Juan Carlos; Charco-Ruiz, Laura; Mayordomo-Rodríguez, Teresa; Sales-Galán, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Institutionalization during old age requires tremendous adaptability. Among the main consequences of the difficulty of adapting to the institutional context are prevalent depressive symptoms and low well-being. Reminiscence therapy has proven to be among the most effective at minimizing these outcomes. This study purpose was to investigate the usefulness of reminiscence intervention in an elderly, institutionalized sample. Following a group format, the intervention lasted eight sessions and compared a treatment group and a control group, using pre-post measures and a single-blind design. We predicted that reminiscence intervention would have a positive impact on depressive symptoms, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being. Significant results were obtained, including a drop in depressive symptoms and improved self-esteem, satisfaction, and psychological well-being. We conclude that reminiscence intervention yielded positive effects in institutionalized, elderly participants.

  15. Public and private maternal health service capacity and patient flows in Southern Tanzania: using a geographic information system to link hospital and national census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, Patrik; Henke, Stefanie; Sušac, Katharina; Kisanga, Oberlin M E; Baumgarten, Inge; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Ramroth, Heribert; Marx, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to improve maternal health in low-income countries are increasingly embracing partnership approaches between public and private stakeholders in health. In Tanzania, such partnerships are a declared policy goal. However, implementation remains challenging as unfamiliarity between partners and insufficient recognition of private health providers prevail. This hinders cooperation and reflects the need to improve the evidence base of private sector contribution. To map and analyse the capacities of public and private hospitals to provide maternal health care in southern Tanzania and the population reached with these services. A hospital questionnaire was applied in all 16 hospitals (public n=10; private faith-based n=6) in 12 districts of southern Tanzania. Areas of inquiry included selected maternal health service indicators (human resources, maternity/delivery beds), provider-fees for obstetric services and patient turnover (antenatal care, births). Spatial information was linked to the 2002 Population Census dataset and a geographic information system to map patient flows and socio-geographic characteristics of service recipients. The contribution of faith-based organizations (FBOs) to hospital maternal health services is substantial. FBO hospitals are primarily located in rural areas and their patient composition places a higher emphasis on rural populations. Also, maternal health service capacity was more favourable in FBO hospitals. We approximated that 19.9% of deliveries in the study area were performed in hospitals and that the proportion of c-sections was 2.7%. Mapping of patient flows demonstrated that women often travelled far to seek hospital care and where catchment areas of public and FBO hospitals overlap. We conclude that the important contribution of FBOs to maternal health services and capacity as well as their emphasis on serving rural populations makes them promising partners in health programming. Inclusive partnerships could increase

  16. Public and private maternal health service capacity and patient flows in southern Tanzania: using a geographic information system to link hospital and national census data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Tabatabai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strategies to improve maternal health in low-income countries are increasingly embracing partnership approaches between public and private stakeholders in health. In Tanzania, such partnerships are a declared policy goal. However, implementation remains challenging as unfamiliarity between partners and insufficient recognition of private health providers prevail. This hinders cooperation and reflects the need to improve the evidence base of private sector contribution. Objective: To map and analyse the capacities of public and private hospitals to provide maternal health care in southern Tanzania and the population reached with these services. Design: A hospital questionnaire was applied in all 16 hospitals (public n=10; private faith-based n=6 in 12 districts of southern Tanzania. Areas of inquiry included selected maternal health service indicators (human resources, maternity/delivery beds, provider-fees for obstetric services and patient turnover (antenatal care, births. Spatial information was linked to the 2002 Population Census dataset and a geographic information system to map patient flows and socio-geographic characteristics of service recipients. Results: The contribution of faith-based organizations (FBOs to hospital maternal health services is substantial. FBO hospitals are primarily located in rural areas and their patient composition places a higher emphasis on rural populations. Also, maternal health service capacity was more favourable in FBO hospitals. We approximated that 19.9% of deliveries in the study area were performed in hospitals and that the proportion of c-sections was 2.7%. Mapping of patient flows demonstrated that women often travelled far to seek hospital care and where catchment areas of public and FBO hospitals overlap. Conclusions: We conclude that the important contribution of FBOs to maternal health services and capacity as well as their emphasis on serving rural populations makes them promising

  17. Public and private maternal health service capacity and patient flows in southern Tanzania: using a geographic information system to link hospital and national census data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, Patrik; Henke, Stefanie; Sušac, Katharina; Kisanga, Oberlin M. E.; Baumgarten, Inge; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Ramroth, Heribert; Marx, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Strategies to improve maternal health in low-income countries are increasingly embracing partnership approaches between public and private stakeholders in health. In Tanzania, such partnerships are a declared policy goal. However, implementation remains challenging as unfamiliarity between partners and insufficient recognition of private health providers prevail. This hinders cooperation and reflects the need to improve the evidence base of private sector contribution. Objective To map and analyse the capacities of public and private hospitals to provide maternal health care in southern Tanzania and the population reached with these services. Design A hospital questionnaire was applied in all 16 hospitals (public n=10; private faith-based n=6) in 12 districts of southern Tanzania. Areas of inquiry included selected maternal health service indicators (human resources, maternity/delivery beds), provider-fees for obstetric services and patient turnover (antenatal care, births). Spatial information was linked to the 2002 Population Census dataset and a geographic information system to map patient flows and socio-geographic characteristics of service recipients. Results The contribution of faith-based organizations (FBOs) to hospital maternal health services is substantial. FBO hospitals are primarily located in rural areas and their patient composition places a higher emphasis on rural populations. Also, maternal health service capacity was more favourable in FBO hospitals. We approximated that 19.9% of deliveries in the study area were performed in hospitals and that the proportion of c-sections was 2.7%. Mapping of patient flows demonstrated that women often travelled far to seek hospital care and where catchment areas of public and FBO hospitals overlap. Conclusions We conclude that the important contribution of FBOs to maternal health services and capacity as well as their emphasis on serving rural populations makes them promising partners in health

  18. In-utero exposure to maternal smoking is not linked to tobacco use in adulthood after controlling for genetic and family influences: a Swedish sibling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Mina; Granath, Fredrik; Cnattingius, Sven; Magnusson, Cecilia; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have linked maternal smoking during pregnancy with regular tobacco use in offspring, but findings are not consistent and confounding from genetic and environmental factors have not fully been taken into account. A comparison between siblings discordant for prenatal smoking exposure adjusts for confounding by shared familial (i.e., genetic and environmental) factors. We investigated the association between prenatal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of regular smoking or snus (Swedish moist smokeless tobacco) use in young adult offspring, using a population based matched cohort study. The cohort consisted of 1,538 randomly sampled same-sex sibling pairs, discordant for maternal smoking during pregnancy, 19-27 years old, participating in a survey conducted in Sweden 2010-2011. Lifetime and current history of tobacco use was self-reported in the survey, and information about maternal smoking during pregnancy was retrieved from the Medical Birth Register. Conditional logistic regression and stratified Cox proportional hazards regression were used to calculate odds ratios, hazard ratios, and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Analyses of exposure-discordant siblings did not reveal significant associations between prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and lifetime or current daily tobacco use, intensity of use, or time to onset of daily tobacco use. These findings suggest that the previously reported higher risks of tobacco use in offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy, compared with offspring of non-smoking mothers, were likely due to confounding from genetic or environmental factors.

  19. What can child silhouette data tell us? Exploring links to parenting, food and activity behaviors, and maternal concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: A study of resiliency to overweight explored how child silhouettes (maternal perception of child’s body size) related to child BMI, maternal concerns, parenting styles and practices. Methods: In a diverse, multi-state sample, 175 low-income mother-child (ages 3-11) dyads were assessed for...

  20. A Method for Producing Reminiscence Videos by Using Photo Annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Noriaki; Kuwabara, Kazuhiro; Abe, Shinji; Susami, Kenji; Yasuda, Kiyoshi

    Providing good home-based care to people with dementia is becoming an important issue as the size of the elderly population increases. One of the main problems in providing such care is that it must be constantly provided without interruption, and this puts a great burden on caregivers, who are often family members. Networked Interaction Therapy is the name we call our methods designed to relieve the stress of people suffering from dementia as well as that of their family members. This therapy aims to provide a system that interacts with people with dementia by utilizing various engaging stimuli. One such stimulus is a reminiscence video created from old photo albums, which is a promising way to hold a dementia sufferer's attention for a long time. In this paper, we present an authoring tool to assist in the production of a reminiscence video by using photo annotations. We conducted interviews with several video creators on how they used photo annotations such as date, title and subject of photos when they produced the reminiscence videos. According to the creators' comments, we have defined an ontology for representing the creators' knowledge of how to add visual effects to a reminiscence video. Subsequently, we developed an authoring tool that automatically produces a reminiscence video from the annotated photos. Subjective evaluation of the quality of reminiscence videos produced with our tool indicates that they give impressions similar to those produced by creators using conventional video editing software. The effectiveness of presenting such a video to people with dementia is also discussed.

  1. Assessing Maternal Capabilities in the SHINE Trial: Highlighting a Hidden Link in the Causal Pathway to Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matare, Cynthia R; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Pelto, Gretel; Dickin, Katherine L; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    A potential bottleneck for increasing the adoption of child health interventions has been limited attention to designing actions that are built on the essential role that caregivers play in determining their effectiveness. In the Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial, we utilize the concept of maternal capabilities to examine participants' skills and attributes that affect their ability to provide appropriate care for their young child, fully engage with trial interventions, and influence the response to these interventions at the household level. We hypothesize that the impact of SHINE interventions on child stunting and anemia will be modified by these maternal capabilities. Drawing upon multiple theories, we identify and define critical maternal capabilities domains, and describe how they are measured in the trial. Description of maternal capabilities and their role as potential modifiers on impact will increase understanding of the impact of SHINE interventions, and the generalizability of our findings.

  2. Jacob L. Moreno and "Sociometry": A Mid-Century Reminiscence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgatta, Edgar F.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he first met Jacob L. Moreno, the founder of "Social Psychology Quarterly," through the intervention of Professor Wellman J. Warner, then the chairman of New York University's Department of Sociology. He then reminisces about his experience of working with Moreno on the journal "Sociometry."

  3. In search of meaning: A reminiscence program for older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, G.J.; Bohlmeijer, E.T.; Valenkamp, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot evaluation is reported of a reminiscence program aimed at increasing personal meaning. Fifty-seven older persons completed both a sentence completion questionnaire measuring personal meaning and a depression scale administered before and after the program. In comparison to a group from a rep

  4. EVANGELICAL REMINISCENCES IN ANTON CHEKHOV'S SHORT STORY "THE BLACK MONK"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilina N. P.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of evangelical reminiscences in the artistic structure of this Chekhov's story allows us to reveal the philosophic concept, the system of values that causes death of all the main characters in the story, and whose immediate exponent is the black monk.

  5. Linking maternal and somatic 5S rRNA types with different sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locati, Mauro D; Pagano, Johanna F B; Ensink, Wim A; van Olst, Marina; van Leeuwen, Selina; Nehrdich, Ulrike; Zhu, Kongju; Spaink, Herman P; Girard, Geneviève; Rauwerda, Han; Jonker, Martijs J; Dekker, Rob J; Breit, Timo M

    2017-04-01

    5S rRNA is a ribosomal core component, transcribed from many gene copies organized in genomic repeats. Some eukaryotic species have two 5S rRNA types defined by their predominant expression in oogenesis or adult tissue. Our next-generation sequencing study on zebrafish egg, embryo, and adult tissue identified maternal-type 5S rRNA that is exclusively accumulated during oogenesis, replaced throughout the embryogenesis by a somatic-type, and thus virtually absent in adult somatic tissue. The maternal-type 5S rDNA contains several thousands of gene copies on chromosome 4 in tandem repeats with small intergenic regions, whereas the somatic-type is present in only 12 gene copies on chromosome 18 with large intergenic regions. The nine-nucleotide variation between the two 5S rRNA types likely affects TFIII binding and riboprotein L5 binding, probably leading to storage of maternal-type rRNA. Remarkably, these sequence differences are located exactly at the sequence-specific target site for genome integration by the 5S rRNA-specific Mutsu retrotransposon family. Thus, we could define maternal- and somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies. Furthermore, we identified four additional maternal-type and two new somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies, each with their own target sequence. This target-site specificity, frequently intact maternal-type retrotransposon elements, plus specific presence of Mutsu retrotransposon RNA and piRNA in egg and adult tissue, suggest an involvement of retrotransposons in achieving the differential copy number of the two types of 5S rDNA loci. © 2017 Locati et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. Linking maternal and somatic 5S rRNA types with different sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Johanna F.B.; Ensink, Wim A.; van Olst, Marina; van Leeuwen, Selina; Nehrdich, Ulrike; Zhu, Kongju; Spaink, Herman P.; Girard, Geneviève; Rauwerda, Han; Jonker, Martijs J.; Dekker, Rob J.

    2017-01-01

    5S rRNA is a ribosomal core component, transcribed from many gene copies organized in genomic repeats. Some eukaryotic species have two 5S rRNA types defined by their predominant expression in oogenesis or adult tissue. Our next-generation sequencing study on zebrafish egg, embryo, and adult tissue identified maternal-type 5S rRNA that is exclusively accumulated during oogenesis, replaced throughout the embryogenesis by a somatic-type, and thus virtually absent in adult somatic tissue. The maternal-type 5S rDNA contains several thousands of gene copies on chromosome 4 in tandem repeats with small intergenic regions, whereas the somatic-type is present in only 12 gene copies on chromosome 18 with large intergenic regions. The nine-nucleotide variation between the two 5S rRNA types likely affects TFIII binding and riboprotein L5 binding, probably leading to storage of maternal-type rRNA. Remarkably, these sequence differences are located exactly at the sequence-specific target site for genome integration by the 5S rRNA-specific Mutsu retrotransposon family. Thus, we could define maternal- and somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies. Furthermore, we identified four additional maternal-type and two new somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies, each with their own target sequence. This target-site specificity, frequently intact maternal-type retrotransposon elements, plus specific presence of Mutsu retrotransposon RNA and piRNA in egg and adult tissue, suggest an involvement of retrotransposons in achieving the differential copy number of the two types of 5S rDNA loci. PMID:28003516

  7. The Socialization of Children's Memory: Linking Maternal Conversational Style to the Development of Children's Autobiographical and Deliberate Memory Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Hillary A.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a large-scale, longitudinal research study with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample were utilized to explore linkages between maternal elaborative conversational style and the development of children's autobiographical and deliberate memory. Assessments were made when the children were aged 3, 5, and 6 years old, and the…

  8. The Socialization of Children's Memory: Linking Maternal Conversational Style to the Development of Children's Autobiographical and Deliberate Memory Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Hillary A.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a large-scale, longitudinal research study with an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample were utilized to explore linkages between maternal elaborative conversational style and the development of children's autobiographical and deliberate memory. Assessments were made when the children were aged 3, 5, and 6 years old, and the…

  9. Links between Family Social Status and Preschoolers' Persistence: The Role of Maternal Values and Quality of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrova, Irina L.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Children who develop persistence in the preschool years are likely to function more effectively during the transition into school. In this study of 231 3-year-old children and their mothers, we examined the relations among family social status, maternal values of self-direction, quality of parenting, and children's persistence in challenging…

  10. The Effect of Group Reminiscence Therapy on Depression of Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Nemati Dehkordi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & objective: Global investigations show that the elderly population is increasing because of the health care developments. However, this group is continuously experiencing health problems for example, depression is one of their major problems. The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of group reminiscence therapy on depression of elderly resident of Shahrekord, Iran. Methods and Materials: This is a clinical trial study. The sample was consisted of 64 elderly referring to retirement centre in Shahrekord in 1385 that were selected by convenience sampling, and then divided randomly into two groups: an experimental and a control group. Group reminiscence meetings for experimental group and group meetings for control group were formed each 8 session for one hour and a half. Depression level of investigated subjects’ pre and post intervention were assessed with the use of Geriatric Depression Scale. Descriptive and conceptual statistics were used for data analysis (Chi-square Test, mean - standard deviation- Paired t-test. Results: Findings of this study showed a significant difference between pre and post intervention, where the elderly depression mean score in experimental group changed from 17.95 to 12.99 (p=0.04 but no significant difference were observed in the control group. Conclusion: Considering the result of this study, it can be suggested that group reminiscence therapy is effective on the reduction of elderly depression level. Therefore, we can use this forgotten, easy and practicable and cheap technique in all nursing-homes and even at home.

  11. Tolerance of whitefish embryos to Pseudomonas fluorescens linked to genetic and maternal effects, and reduced by previous exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Siebenthal, Beat A; Jacob, Alain; Wedekind, Claus

    2009-03-01

    Juvenile or adult fish can alter their behaviour and rely on an innate and adaptive immune system to avoid/counteract pathogens, while fish embryos have to depend on egg characteristics and may be partly protected by their developing immune system that is building up from a certain age on. We developed an infection protocol that allows testing the reaction of individual whitefish embryos (Coregonus palaea) to repeated exposures to Pseudomonas fluorescens, an opportunistic bacterial fish pathogen. We used a full-factorial in vitro breeding design to separately test the effects of paternal and maternal contributions to the embryos' susceptibility to different kinds of pathogen exposure. We found that a first non-lethal exposure had immunosuppressive effects: pre-exposed embryos were more susceptible to future challenges with the same pathogen. At intermediate and high levels of pathogen intensity, maternal effects turned out to be crucial for the embryos' tolerance to infection. Paternal (i.e. genetic) effects played a significant role at the strongest level of infection, i.e. the embryos' own genetics already explained some of the variation in embryo susceptibility. Our findings suggest that whitefish embryos are largely protected by maternally transmitted substances, but build up some own innate immunocompetence several days before hatching.

  12. Programming social behavior by the maternal fragile X protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, B; Sharma, A; Frazier, A; Klein, S; Toth, M

    2016-07-01

    The developing fetus and neonate are highly sensitive to maternal environment. Besides the well-documented effects of maternal stress, nutrition and infections, maternal mutations, by altering the fetal, perinatal and/or early postnatal environment, can impact the behavior of genetically normal offspring. Mutation/premutation in the X-linked FMR1 (encoding the translational regulator FMRP) in females, although primarily responsible for causing fragile X syndrome (FXS) in their children, may also elicit such maternal effects. We showed that a deficit in maternal FMRP in mice results in hyperactivity in the genetically normal offspring. To test if maternal FMRP has a broader intergenerational effect, we measured social behavior, a core dimension of neurodevelopmental disorders, in offspring of FMRP-deficient dams. We found that male offspring of Fmr1(+/-) mothers, independent of their own Fmr1 genotype, exhibit increased approach and reduced avoidance toward conspecific strangers, reminiscent of 'indiscriminate friendliness' or the lack of stranger anxiety, diagnosed in neglected children and in patients with Asperger's and Williams syndrome. Furthermore, social interaction failed to activate mesolimbic/amygdala regions, encoding social aversion, in these mice, providing a neurobiological basis for the behavioral abnormality. This work identifies a novel role for FMRP that extends its function beyond the well-established genetic function into intergenerational non-genetic inheritance/programming of social behavior and the corresponding neuronal circuit. As FXS premutation and some psychiatric conditions that can be associated with reduced FMRP expression are more prevalent in mothers than full FMR1 mutation, our findings potentially broaden the significance of FMRP-dependent programming of social behavior beyond the FXS population.

  13. Using an associational trends framework to understand the meaning of obsessive reminiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, William J

    2008-07-01

    When the psychodynamics of simple reminiscence, the kind of reminiscence used to manage anxiety, are disrupted, individuals can become stuck on certain memories and begin to obsess or ruminate about them. Generally, obsessive reminiscence is identified as nonpurposive and dysfunctional. However, interpreting the content of obsessive reminiscence within an associational trends framework demonstrates that useful diagnostic information can be gleaned from obsessive reminiscence. This information can be incorporated into the treatment plan to enhance the quality of care delivered to clients, as well as clients'interpersonal relationships.

  14. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  15. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  16. LINKING CHILD HEALTH, MATERNAL LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND HOUSEHOLD ASSET ENDOWMENTS IN CAMEROON: WHAT THE PEOPLE SAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbu Daniel Tambi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is targeted objectives: to document the determinants of child health as informed by focus group discussion, to analyze what the people say concerning the relationship between child health and maternal labour force participation, to explore the perception of the people on the effects of child health on asset accumulation and to suggest public policies on the basis of the findings. We used seven focus groups to explore what the people say based on different health domains: access to public goods; inputs to health; benefits from better health; better child health and complementary activities; benefits of maternity leave and better child health, decision making concerning family health. Each focus group was made of eight participants: housewife, traders, farmers, drivers, teachers, technicians, medical personnel and military drawn from different religious groups: catholic, protestant mainline, protestant non-mainline, other protestant, Muslim, systemic and traditional belief. We observed that, parents make used of the extra time accrue to them due to better health for their children and family to do extra work that fetched them money. The increased family income is use to send their children to better schools, carter for their wellbeing as well as to promote asset growth and redistribution, thus, improving economic well-being and reducing poverty. In case of retirement or sudden retrenchment from the labour market, parents make use of the accumulated assets to increase their family income and maintain well-being, hence, reducing the psychological trauma on parents due to poverty. Based on these findings, we recommend that decision makers and actors concern with child health issues should considered, ease and promote child health outcomes. This is a key to narrowing the poverty and inequality gap between the poor and non-poor, rural and urban household residence, married and unmarried, employed and the unemployed, promote maternal labour

  17. CHRISTIAN REMINISCENCES IN THE WORKS BY A. KANTEMIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glariantova E. V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of Christian reminiscences in A. D. Kantemir's works. Such works of Kantemir’s psalm poetry as the Symphony of the Book of Psalms, paraphrases Metaphrasis Ps. 36, Metaphrasis Ps. 72, Song I Against the Godless, Song II Hope for God are used for this purpose. Images, motives and certain verses of psalms are presented in many Kantemir's works written in different years beginning with his early Symphony to the late translation of The Existence of God by Fenelon. A. D. Kantemir combined verses from the Book of Psalms with similar motives from antique authors' works.

  18. The link between perceived maternal and paternal autonomy support and adolescent well-being across three major educational transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duineveld, Jasper J; Parker, Philip D; Ryan, Richard M; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2017-10-01

    To what extent does maternal and paternal autonomy support enhance well-being across the major transitions of high school? We tested the degree to which perceived autonomy supportive parenting facilitated positive changes in self-esteem and life satisfaction and buffered against negative changes in depressive symptoms and school related burnout in 3 Finnish longitudinal studies, each with a measurement point before and after a major transition (middle school, N1 = 760, 55.7% girls; high school, N2 = 214, 51.9% girls; post high school, N3 = 858, 47.8% girls). Results showed that perceived parental autonomy support was negatively related to depressive symptoms and positively related to self-esteem. The findings for the effects on depressive symptoms were replicated across all 3 transitions, while effects on self-esteem were only found for the high school and post high school transitions. Moreover, evidence of coregulation was found for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms before the transition were found to decrease autonomy support after the transition for both the high school and post high school transitions. Maternal and paternal autonomy support was of equal importance. Importantly, the effects on depressive symptoms increased as children developed, suggesting the continual importance of parents throughout high school and into emerging adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Fetal hypoxia secondary to severe maternal anemia as a causative link between blueberry muffin baby and erythroblastosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carolis, Maria Pia; Salvi, Silvia; Bersani, Iliana; Lacerenza, Serafina; Romagnoli, Costantino; De Carolis, Sara

    2016-06-13

    Neonatal blueberry muffin lesions are rare cutaneous eruptions, presenting as transient, non-blanching, red-violaceous papules, mostly localized in the trunk, head and neck, attributable to a marked dermal hematopoietic activity. Congenital infections of the TORCH complex (toxoplasmosis, other, rubella, cytomegalovirus and herpes) and hematological disorders have been classically associated with this neonatal dermatological manifestation. We report for the first time an unusual presentation of blueberry muffin lesions in a neonate born from a mother affected by severe anemia during pregnancy. A male, white Caucasian, neonate showed a cutaneous rash at birth, suggestive of "blueberry muffin"-like lesions. These cutaneous lesions were associated with marked elevation of the circulating nucleated red blood cells, and with ultrasound findings of peculiar brain ischemic porencephalic lesions. The clinical features of spontaneous disappearance and the association with marked erythroblastosis strongly suggest that these dermatological findings may be the consequence of an extramedullary hematopoiesis unexpectedly evoked by the intrauterine chronic exposure to hypoxia caused by severe maternal anemia. In conclusion, fetal hypoxia secondary to severe maternal anemia may play a causative and unreported role in the development of neonatal blueberry muffin lesions.

  20. Interrelations of Maternal Expressed Emotion, Maltreatment, and Separation/Divorce and Links to Family Conflict and Children’s Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children’s externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children’s externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2% males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children’s externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children’s externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. PMID:25037461

  1. Impact on offspring methylation patterns of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and intrauterine growth restraint suggest common genes and pathways linked to subsequent type 2 diabetes risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilter, Claire R; Cooper, Wendy N; Cliffe, Kerry M; Skinner, Benjamin M; Prentice, Philippa M; Nelson, LaTasha; Bauer, Julien; Ong, Ken K; Constância, Miguel; Lowe, William L; Affara, Nabeel A; Dunger, David B

    2014-11-01

    Size at birth, postnatal weight gain, and adult risk for type 2 diabetes may reflect environmental exposures during developmental plasticity and may be mediated by epigenetics. Both low birth weight (BW), as a marker of fetal growth restraint, and high birth weight (BW), especially after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), have been linked to increased risk of adult type 2 diabetes. We assessed DNA methylation patterns using a bead chip in cord blood samples from infants of mothers with GDM (group 1) and infants with prenatal growth restraint indicated by rapid postnatal catch-up growth (group 2), compared with infants with normal postnatal growth (group 3). Seventy-five CpG loci were differentially methylated in groups 1 and 2 compared with the controls (group 3), representing 72 genes, many relevant to growth and diabetes. In replication studies using similar methodology, many of these differentially methylated regions were associated with levels of maternal glucose exposure below that defined by GDM [the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study] or were identified as changes observed after randomized periconceptional nutritional supplementation in a Gambian cohort characterized by maternal deprivation. These studies provide support for the concept that similar epigenetic modifications may underpin different prenatal exposures and potentially increase long-term risk for diseases such as type 2 diabetes.

  2. [Individual reminiscence therapy improves self-esteem for Japanese community-dwelling older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Nobutake

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the effects of individual reminiscence therapy in Japanese community-dwelling older adults without dementia. Participants (twenty three men and fifty seven women, mean age = 82.6 yrs) were recruited from a community day-care center. They were randomly assigned to a reminiscence therapy group or a control group. Participants in the reminiscence group completed five or six weekly sessions (30-60 minutes) of individual reminiscence therapy. Participant's depression, life satisfaction, and self-esteem were assessed before and after the sessions. The results showed that the reminiscence group had a significant improvement in self-esteem. Thus individual reminiscence therapy can be a tool to maintain or improve self-esteem for Japanese older adults without dementia.

  3. Preparation of reminiscent aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkohara, Kaori; Fuji, Maiko; Nakao, Akito; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2016-01-01

    To prepare an aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce by fewest components, the aroma concentrate of good sensory attributes was prepared by polyethylene membrane extraction, which could extract only the volatiles with diethyl ether. GC-MS-Olfactometry was done with the aroma concentrate, and 28 odor-active compounds were detected. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to the separated fraction revealed high flavor dilution factors with respect to acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-2(or5)-ethyl-5(or2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional). A model aroma mixture containing above four odorants showed a good similarity with the aroma of the soy sauce itself. Consequently, the reminiscent aroma mixture of soy sauce was prepared in water. The ratio of acetic acid, HEMF, isoamyl alcohol, and methional was 2500:300:100:1.

  4. The reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory and for public events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    for autobiographical memories. For most important memories, we found a bump from ages 20 to 29 in autobiographical memory, but little discernible age pattern for public events. Rather, specific public events (e.g., the Fall of the Berlin Wall) dominated recall, producing a chronological distribution characterised......The reminiscence bump has been found for both autobiographical memories and memories of public events. However, there have been few comparisons of the bump across each type of event. In the current study, therefore, we compared the bump for autobiographical memories versus the bump for memories...... of public events. We did so between-subjects, through two cueing methods administered within-subjects, the cue word method and the important memories method. For word-cued memories, we found a similar bump from ages 5 to 19 for both types of memories. However, the bump was more pronounced...

  5. The reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory and for public events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    The reminiscence bump has been found for both autobiographical memories and memories of public events. However, there have been few comparisons of the bump across each type of event. In the current study, therefore, we compared the bump for autobiographical memories versus the bump for memories...... of public events. We did so between-subjects, through two cueing methods administered within-subjects, the cue word method and the important memories method. For word-cued memories, we found a similar bump from ages 5 to 19 for both types of memories. However, the bump was more pronounced...... for autobiographical memories. For most important memories, we found a bump from ages 20 to 29 in autobiographical memory, but little discernible age pattern for public events. Rather, specific public events (e.g., the Fall of the Berlin Wall) dominated recall, producing a chronological distribution characterised...

  6. Nanoscience and Reminiscences of a Woman in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Mildred

    My entry into carbon science and nanoscience at an early stage in my career occurred in part because I was a woman in physics. In these reminiscences I will relate why working on carbon science started because I was a woman interested in working on a topic that interested me greatly, but was unpopular at the time; carbon science and thermoelectricity are two examples. I will elaborate on how our research system allows safe study of unpopular topics so that both the researcher and research sponsor are satisfied with outcomes. I also learned a lot from my family and acknowledge their contributions as well as those of sponsors who supported high-risk projects.

  7. Life story chapters, specific memories and the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Pillemer, David B.; Ivcevic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory posit that extended time periods (here termed chapters) and memories are organised hierarchically. If chapters organise memories and guide their recall, then chapters and memories should show similar temporal distributions over the life course. Previous research...... demonstrates that positive but not negative memories show a reminiscence bump and that memories cluster at the beginning of extended time periods. The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) ages marking the beginning of positive but not negative chapters produce a bump, and that (2) specific memories...... are over-represented at the beginning of chapters. Potential connections between chapters and the cultural life script are also examined. Adult participants first divided their life story into chapters and identified their most positive and most negative chapter. They then recalled a specific memory from...

  8. Maternal Reminiscing, Elaborative Talk, and Children's Theory of Mind: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Reese, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of training mothers to talk elaboratively about the past on children's understanding of mind. The researchers randomly assigned 102 mothers of 19-month-old children to a training or no-training group. Mothers in the experimental group received training in an elaborative style of talking about the past when children…

  9. Two Is the Beginning of the End: "Peter Pan" and the Doctrine of Reminiscence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Glenda A.

    2006-01-01

    This article considers J.M. Barrie's satirical treatment of the Platonic doctrine of reminiscence in "Peter Pan," and how Barrie's work both honors and undercuts it. It will first analyze the Platonic notion of the doctrine of reminiscence in Wordsworth's "Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood" (1807). It will then…

  10. Reminiscence and adaptation to critical life events in older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, Jojanneke; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Westerhof, Gerben J.; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The role of reminiscence as a way of adapting to critical life events and chronic medical conditions was investigated in older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Reminiscence is the (non)volitional act or process of recollecting memories of one's self in the past. Method:

  11. Two Is the Beginning of the End: "Peter Pan" and the Doctrine of Reminiscence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Glenda A.

    2006-01-01

    This article considers J.M. Barrie's satirical treatment of the Platonic doctrine of reminiscence in "Peter Pan," and how Barrie's work both honors and undercuts it. It will first analyze the Platonic notion of the doctrine of reminiscence in Wordsworth's "Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood" (1807). It will then…

  12. Scenario-Based Design of a Digital Reminiscing System for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    Reminiscing--"the act or process of recalling the past (Butler, 1963, p. 66)"--is a core activity for any society. Research shows that the desire and tradition for reminiscing can be traced back to early civilizations where the elders of the community were responsible to know and share the history of their community (Butler, 1995;…

  13. The effects of integrative reminiscence on meaning in life: results of a quasi-experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Emmerik-de Jong, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Finding meaning in life is often cited as an important outcome of reminiscence, but this theoretical claim has not been empirically tested until now. A new intervention combining integrative reminiscence and elements of narrative therapy was developed and the effects on meaning in life

  14. The effects of integrative reminiscence on meaning in life : Results of a quasi-experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohlmeijer, E.T.; Westerhof, G.J.; Emmerik-de Jong, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Finding meaning in life is often cited as an important outcome of reminiscence, but this theoretical claim has not been empirically tested until now. A new intervention combining integrative reminiscence and elements of narrative therapy was developed and the effects on meaning in life

  15. Becoming a Teller of Tales: Associations between Children's Fictional Narratives and Parent-Child Reminiscence Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Jennifer A.; Burch, Melissa M.; Lynch, Julie S.; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has revealed a connection between the contributions parents make while reminiscing and their children's narratives for personally experienced events. The current research expands the literature by focusing on the connection between parental reminiscing and children's production of fictional narratives. After 4- to 9-year-olds and…

  16. SenseCam reminiscence and action recall in memory-unimpaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, John G; Moskowitz, Tacie N; Swan, Ashley E; Zhong, Boyuan; Golembeski, Amy; Liong, Christopher; Narzikul, Alexa C; Sosan, Olumide A

    2014-01-01

    Case studies of memory-impaired individuals consistently show that reminiscing with SenseCam images enhances event recall. This exploratory study examined whether a similar benefit would occur for the consolidation of memories in memory-unimpaired people. We tested delayed recall for atypical actions observed on a lengthy walk. Participants used SenseCam, a diary, or no external memory aid while walking, followed by reminiscence with SenseCam images, diary entries, or no aid, either alone (self-reminiscence) or with the experimenter (social reminiscence). One week later, when tested without SenseCam images or diary entries, prior social reminiscence produced greater recall than self-reminiscence, but there were no differences between memory aid conditions for action free recall or action order recall. When methodological variables were controlled, there was no recall advantage for SenseCam reminiscence with memory-unimpaired participants. The case studies and present study differ in multiple ways, making direct comparisons problematic. SenseCam is a valuable aid to the memory impaired, but its mnemonic value for non-clinical populations remains to be determined.

  17. Ukrainian nutrition behavior through the prism of childhood reminiscences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepurko, Tetiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This exploratory research has been conducted in order to find out what reminiscences young Ukrainians preserve about their childhood nutrition. METHODS: 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with respondents aged 17 - 34 yy. RESULTS: According to respondents’ answers, the parents tried to supply their children with a varied diet. There exists the cult of "traditional Ukrainian cuisine". Food is considered to be healthy if it is home-made. Such dishes have always been and are still considered to be the most popular: borsch, dumplings, stuffed cabbage rolls, potatoes, cereals, meat, and lard. Earlier and nowadays, parents maintain the principle of regular, non-separate nutrition. This implies that children should eat three to five times a day. Parents truly believe that children’s diet should consist of all kinds of food. The majority of respondents told that one of their parents’ greatest responsibilities was to serve at least one soup and one hot dish a day.DISCUSSION: Such popular traditional dishes like soup or cutlets are usually considered to be healthy and useful food, despite being rich in fat and salt. Moreover, the desire to feed children as much as might be a manifestation of the self-preservation instinct, because our society has experienced famine caused by wars, disasters, and the Holodomor tragedy.CONCLUSIONS: The research revealed that the traditional concept what healthy nutrition is, passes from one generation to another. Nevertheless, there is the tendency to reconsideration of "healthy food" in adulthood in favor of separate nutrition. These preliminary results of the exploratory research should be deepen to clarify what proper nutrition means for older and younger Ukrainian generations regarding regional, socio-demographic, and economic factors, which, in turn, will contribute to adapting the program of healthy eating promotion to the needs of Ukrainian people.

  18. Lexical and Acoustic Features of Maternal Utterances Addressing Preverbal Infants in Picture Book Reading Link to 5-Year-Old Children's Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: I examined the long-term association between the lexical and acoustic features of maternal utterances during book reading and the language skills of infants and children. Maternal utterances were collected from 22 mother-child dyads in picture book-reading episodes when children were ages 6-12 months and 5 years. Two aspects of…

  19. A Potential Psychological Mechanism Linking Disaster-Related Prenatal Maternal Stress with Child Cognitive and Motor Development at 16 Months: The QF2011 Queensland Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Katrina M.; Simcock, Gabrielle; Cobham, Vanessa; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P.; King, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Fetal exposure to prenatal maternal stress can have lifelong consequences, with different types of maternal stress associated with different areas of child development. Fewer studies have focused on motor skills, even though they are strongly predictive of later development across a range of domains. Research on mechanisms of transmission has…

  20. Effects of group reminiscence on elderly depression: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Song

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Group reminiscence was associated with short-term depression relief among elderly patients with depression and effectively improved self-esteem and life satisfaction. Higher-quality large-scale randomised controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  1. Reminiscence functions over time: consistency of self functions and variation of prosocial functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Norm; King, David B; Cappeliez, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    The current study examines the temporal stability of the tripartite model of reminiscence functions in which eight separate reminiscence functions map onto three second-order factors which contribute significantly to measurement of an overarching reminiscence latent construct. We collected online responses from 411 adults 50+ years of age. Confirmatory factor analytic models were computed at three points of data collection over 16 months. Invariance analyses were next undertaken to simultaneously compare the measurement properties to assess within-person stability of reminiscence functions over time. The tripartite structure of reminiscence functions was replicated at each point of data collection. As hypothesised, self-positive and self-negative functions are consistent across points of data collection, whereas prosocial functions vary over time. The temporal stability of the self functions may be attributed to enduring characteristics of the individual such as personality traits and life attitudes, as well as their solitary nature. Previous research indicates that consistency of self-positive reminiscence functions has ensuing benefits for physical health and psychological well-being; the opposite is true for self-negative functions. The temporal variation of prosocial functions may be due to the varying availability of others to share memories and their responsiveness to the emotional context.

  2. Individual Reminiscence Therapy can Decrease Depression Level on Elderly at Social Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laily Nur Hidayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in oldest old. The psychosocial development of the elderly to enhance self-integration. Reminiscence therapy is one of psychosocial treatment for elderly using memory recall of one’s life event in the past. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of individual reminiscence therapy on depression among elderly in the social homes. Method: The study design was used Quasy-Eksperiment Pre-Post Test with Control Group. A total of 60 elderly people were recruited in this study and assigned into two groups,  31 participants in the intervention group and 29 participants in the control group. Independent variable was reminiscence therapy five sessions, which given to the intervention group. While, dependent variable was the level of depression on elderly. Data were collected by using GDS, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney statistical test with level of significance α≤0.05. Result: After providing individual reminiscence therapy, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in depression as compared to those in the control group was found (p=0.008. Discussion: The individual reminiscence therapy is useful to overcome depression among elderly. The nurse can know the personality of each elderly so as to improve the quality of nursing care for elderly Keywords: individual reminiscence therapy, depression, elderly

  3. Maternal immunisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Marcel; Lambach, Philipp; Ortiz, Justin R.; Reis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    There has been increased interest in the potential of maternal immunisation to protect maternal, fetal, and infant health. Maternal tetanus vaccination is part of routine antenatal care and immunisation campaigns in many countries, and it has played an important part in the reduction of maternal and

  4. Association and haplotype analysis of candidate genes in five genomic regions linked to sow maternal infanticide in a white Duroc × Erhualian resource population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Nengshui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal infanticide is an extreme and failed maternal behavior, which is defined as an active attack on piglets using the jaws, resulting in serious or fatal bite wounds. It brings big economic loss to the pig industry and severe problems to piglets' welfare. But little is known about the genetic background of this behavior. Quantitative trait loci (QTL for maternal infanticide were identified in a White Duroc × Erhualian intercross by a non-parametric linkage analysis (NPL in our previous study. In this study, associations of 194 microsatellite markers used in NPL analysis with maternal infanticide behavior were further analyzed by transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT. On this basis, seven genes (ESR2, EAAT2, BDNF, OXTR, 5-HTR2C, DRD1 and GABRA6 at five genomic regions were selected and further analyzed. Associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and haplotypes in each gene with maternal infanticide behavior were evaluated. Results Microsatellite markers on pig chromosome (SSC 2, 13, 15, and X displayed significance at P ESR2 SNPs had nominal evidence for association (P A at EAAT2 g. 233G > A and allele T at DRD1 g.1013C > G > T also showed evidence of overtransmission to infanticidal sows. In the overall tests of association of haplotypes, candidate genes of ESR2, EAAT2 and DRD1 achieved overall significance level (P ESR2, EAAT2 and DRD1 showed higher frequencies to infanticidal sows (P Conclusions From association tests of SNPs and haplotypes, ESR2, EAAT2 and DRD1 showed significant associations with maternal infanticide. This result supported the existence of QTL for maternal infanticide behavior on SSC1, SSC2 and SSC16.

  5. Emergency obstetrical complications in a rural African setting (Kayes, Mali): the link between travel time and in-hospital maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkle, Catherine McLean; Fournier, Pierre; Tourigny, Caroline; Sangaré, Karim; Haddad, Slim

    2011-10-01

    The West African country of Mali implemented referral systems to increase spatial access to emergency obstetrical care and lower maternal mortality. We test the hypothesis that spatial access- proxied by travel time during the rainy and dry seasons- is associated with in-hospital maternal mortality. Effect modification by caesarean section is explored. All women treated for emergency obstetrical complications at the referral hospital in Kayes, Mali were considered eligible for study. First, we conducted descriptive analyses of all emergency obstetrical complications treated at the referral hospital between 2005 and 2007. We calculated case fatality rates by obstetric diagnosis and travel time. Key informant interviews provided travel times. Medical registers provided clinical and demographic data. Second, a matched case-control study assessed the independent effect of travel time on maternal mortality. Stratification was used to explore effect modification by caesarean section. Case fatality rates increased with increasing travel time to the hospital. After controlling for age, diagnosis, and date of arrival, a travel time of four or more hours was significantly associated with in-hospital maternal mortality (OR: 3.83; CI: 1.31-11.27). Travel times between 2 and 4 h were associated with increased odds of maternal mortality (OR 1.88), but the relationship was not significant. The effect of travel time on maternal mortality appears to be modified by caesarean section. Poor spatial access contributes to maternal mortality even in women who reach a health facility. Improving spatial access will help women arrive at the hospital in time to be treated effectively.

  6. Consequences from use of reminiscence--a randomised intervention study in ten Danish nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudex, Claire; Horsted, Charlotte; Jensen, Anders Møller; Kjer, Marianne; Sørensen, Jan

    2010-06-06

    Reminiscence is the systematic use of memories and recollections to strengthen self-identity and self-worth. The study aim was to investigate the consequences for nursing home residents and staff of integrating reminiscence into daily nursing care. In this randomised study, ten nursing homes were matched into two groups on the basis of location, type and size. In the period August 2006--August 2007, staff in the Intervention Group were trained and supported in the use of reminiscence, involving individual and group sessions with residents as well as reminiscence boxes, posters and exhibitions. At baseline and again 6 and 12 months after the intervention start, data were collected on residents' cognitive level, agitated behaviour, general functioning and proxy-assessed quality of life, as well as on staff well-being and job satisfaction. Mixed linear modelling was used to analyse differences in outcome between the intervention and control groups. Project drop-out rates were 32% for residents and 38% for nursing staff. Most staff in the Intervention Group considered reminiscence a useful tool that improved their communication with residents, and that they would recommend to other nursing homes. There were no significant differences between residents in the Intervention and the Control Group in cognitive level, agitated behaviour or general functioning. Residents in the Intervention Group showed significant higher score at 6 months in quality of life subscale 'Response to surroundings', but there was no significant difference at 12 months. Positive effects of reminiscence were observed for all staff outcome measures, the only exception being SF-12 self-rated physical health. At 6 months after start of reminiscence, staff in the Intervention Group had significantly better scores than those in the Control Group for Personal accomplishment, Emotional exhaustion, Depersonalisation, 'Attitude towards individual contact with residents' and SF-12 self-rated mental health. At

  7. Consequences from use of reminiscence - a randomised intervention study in ten Danish nursing homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Reminiscence is the systematic use of memories and recollections to strengthen self-identity and self-worth. The study aim was to investigate the consequences for nursing home residents and staff of integrating reminiscence into daily nursing care. Methods In this randomised study, ten nursing homes were matched into two groups on the basis of location, type and size. In the period August 2006 - August 2007, staff in the Intervention Group were trained and supported in the use of reminiscence, involving individual and group sessions with residents as well as reminiscence boxes, posters and exhibitions. At baseline and again 6 and 12 months after the intervention start, data were collected on residents' cognitive level, agitated behaviour, general functioning and proxy-assessed quality of life, as well as on staff well-being and job satisfaction. Mixed linear modelling was used to analyse differences in outcome between the intervention and control groups. Results Project drop-out rates were 32% for residents and 38% for nursing staff. Most staff in the Intervention Group considered reminiscence a useful tool that improved their communication with residents, and that they would recommend to other nursing homes. There were no significant differences between residents in the Intervention and the Control Group in cognitive level, agitated behaviour or general functioning. Residents in the Intervention Group showed significant higher score at 6 months in quality of life subscale 'Response to surroundings', but there was no significant difference at 12 months. Positive effects of reminiscence were observed for all staff outcome measures, the only exception being SF-12 self-rated physical health. At 6 months after start of reminiscence, staff in the Intervention Group had significantly better scores than those in the Control Group for Personal accomplishment, Emotional exhaustion, Depersonalisation, 'Attitude towards individual contact with residents' and SF-12

  8. Consequences from use of reminiscence - a randomised intervention study in ten Danish nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen Jan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reminiscence is the systematic use of memories and recollections to strengthen self-identity and self-worth. The study aim was to investigate the consequences for nursing home residents and staff of integrating reminiscence into daily nursing care. Methods In this randomised study, ten nursing homes were matched into two groups on the basis of location, type and size. In the period August 2006 - August 2007, staff in the Intervention Group were trained and supported in the use of reminiscence, involving individual and group sessions with residents as well as reminiscence boxes, posters and exhibitions. At baseline and again 6 and 12 months after the intervention start, data were collected on residents' cognitive level, agitated behaviour, general functioning and proxy-assessed quality of life, as well as on staff well-being and job satisfaction. Mixed linear modelling was used to analyse differences in outcome between the intervention and control groups. Results Project drop-out rates were 32% for residents and 38% for nursing staff. Most staff in the Intervention Group considered reminiscence a useful tool that improved their communication with residents, and that they would recommend to other nursing homes. There were no significant differences between residents in the Intervention and the Control Group in cognitive level, agitated behaviour or general functioning. Residents in the Intervention Group showed significant higher score at 6 months in quality of life subscale 'Response to surroundings', but there was no significant difference at 12 months. Positive effects of reminiscence were observed for all staff outcome measures, the only exception being SF-12 self-rated physical health. At 6 months after start of reminiscence, staff in the Intervention Group had significantly better scores than those in the Control Group for Personal accomplishment, Emotional exhaustion, Depersonalisation, 'Attitude towards individual

  9. The Effect of Group Reminiscence Therapy on Depression in Women With Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of psychological disorders and symptoms. Objectives This research investigated the effect of group reminiscence therapy on depression among women with type II diabetes. Patients and Methods The present study was a clinical trial study. Twenty-four patients referring to the diabetic clinic of Golestan hospital in Ahvaz, Iran were selected through simple random sampling and were divided in two groups. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. Group reminiscence therapy was held over eight biweekly sessions, each lasting 90 minutes. Finally, data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney, Friedman, and Chi-Square tests, using SPSS version 20. Results A significant difference was observed between the two groups after the intervention (P = 0.001. The rating for depression decreased significantly in the experimental group. Before the group reminiscence therapy, the highest rating for depression obtained by the experimental group was “need for consultation” (50%, whereas after the intervention, the highest rating was “no depression” (50%. One month after the intervention, the highest rating obtained for depression was “low” (50%. Conclusions Reminiscence therapy decreased depression among diabetic female patients after the intervention and one month after the intervention. It can be said that, through the reminiscence therapy, patients’ past memories were reviewed and emphasis on the positive aspects thereof in the group setting was followed by an increased sense of self-worth and a decrease in depression.

  10. La toxicomanía en adolescentes, un intento fallido de retorno al vínculo materno. The addiction in adolescents, a failed attempt to return to the maternal link.

    OpenAIRE

    Ortegón Machado, David Stevens

    2012-01-01

    The addiction in adolescents, a failed attempt to return to the maternal link. Resumen El articulo presenta resultados de investigación donde se buscó explorar la significación de la figura materna y su posible relación con la dependencia a sustancias psicoactivas en adolescentes institucionalizados en un centro de tratamiento para las adicciones. El estudio asumió una perspectiva psicoanalítica de corte cualitativo, su población fue conformada por tres adolescentes y el método utilizado ...

  11. La toxicomanía en adolescentes, un intento fallido de retorno al vínculo materno. The addiction in adolescents, a failed attempt to return to the maternal link.

    OpenAIRE

    Ortegón Machado, David Stevens

    2012-01-01

    The addiction in adolescents, a failed attempt to return to the maternal link. Resumen El articulo presenta resultados de investigación donde se buscó explorar la significación de la figura materna y su posible relación con la dependencia a sustancias psicoactivas en adolescentes institucionalizados en un centro de tratamiento para las adicciones. El estudio asumió una perspectiva psicoanalítica de corte cualitativo, su población fue conformada por tres adolescentes y el método utilizado ...

  12. A multistate population-based analysis of linked maternal and neonatal discharge records to identify risk factors for neonatal brachial plexus injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael D; Goodyear, Shaun M; Leith, Wendy M

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the interaction and contribution of maternal and fetal risk factors associated with neonatal brachial plexus injury (BPI). In a case-control study, matched maternal and neonatal discharge records were accessed from US State Inpatient Databases for New Jersey (2010-2012), Michigan (2010-2011), and Hawaii (2010-2011). Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to evaluate associations between risk factors and BPI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to build predictive models, including two stratified models evaluating deliveries among obese and diabetic cohorts. Among 376 325 deliveries, BPI was diagnosed in 274 (0.1%). Significant BPI risk factors included maternal obesity (odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-4.4), maternal diabetes (OR 4.6, 95% CI 3.0-7.0), use of forceps (OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.3-9.0), and vacuum assistance (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.7-3.3). After adjusting for shoulder dystocia and other predictive factors, cesarean reduced the risk of BPI by 88% (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.07-0.2). When stratified by obesity and diabetes, the ORs for BPI increased significantly for macrosomia, forceps, and vacuum assistance. The analysis confirms and quantifies more precisely the impact of risk factors for neonatal BPI, and provides a reliable basis for evidence-based clinical decision-making models. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  13. Reminiscence groups for people with dementia and their family carers: pragmatic eight-centre randomised trial of joint reminiscence and maintenance versus usual treatment: a protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orrell Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing number of people with dementia, and the increasing cost of care, provides a major incentive to develop and test methods of supporting them in the community for longer. Most attention has been given to pharmacological interventions, but there is increasing recognition that psychosocial interventions may be equally effective, even preferable where medication has negative side-effects. Reminiscence groups, run by professionals and volunteers, which use photographs, recordings and other objects to trigger personal memories are probably the most popular therapeutic approach to working with people with dementia, but there is little evidence for their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. The recent inclusion of family carers in groups with people with dementia, notably in our own pilot studies, has generated informal evidence that this joint approach improves relationships between people with dementia and their carers, and benefits both. Design and methods This multi-centre, pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of joint reminiscence groups for people with dementia and their family care-givers has two parallel arms – an intervention group and a control group who receive care as usual. The intervention consists of joint reminiscence groups held weekly for twelve consecutive weeks, followed by monthly maintenance sessions for a further seven months. The primary outcome measures are the quality of life of people with dementia, as assessed by QoL-AD, and their care-givers' mental health as assessed by the GHQ-28. Secondary outcomes include: the autobiographical memories of people with dementia; the quality of the relationship between them and their care-givers; and the levels of depression and anxiety felt by them and their care-giver. Using a 5% significance level, comparison of 200 pairs attending joint reminiscence groups with 200 pairs receiving usual treatment

  14. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  15. The peaks of life: The differential temporal locations of the reminiscence bump across disparate cueing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    The reminiscence bump has generally been assessed through either (1) the cue word method, or (2) several related methods which we refer to under the umbrella of the important memories method. Here we provide a review of the literature demonstrating that the temporal location of the bump varies sy...

  16. A study of group reminiscence therapy and emotional intelligence among elderly members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Bazooband

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of group reminiscence therapy on elderly’s emotional intelligence. A quasi-experimental research with a pre-test-post-test control group was conducted in July 2015, with a sample of 40 elderly members referring to an (anonymous Community Center in the city of Shiraz, Iran. A predesigned instrument, i.e., the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire developed by Schering, was applied to collect data. SPSS Statistics v. 22.0 (Released 2013; IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA was used to analyze data, with a 95% confidence level and a measurement error of α=0.05. Hypothesis tests were mainly conducted to examine whether group reminiscence therapy correlates with emotional intelligence among the respondents. Findings revealed that the applied intervention i.e., group reminiscence therapy significantly associates with various dimensions of emotional intelligence including self-awareness, self-control, self-motivation, empathy and social skills in the older adults within the experiment group; i.e., the mean scores of the variables for the post-test administered on the experimental group were significantly higher than those on the control group. Group reminiscence therapy has the potential to enhance emotional intelligence in the elderly by helping them control their thoughts and emotions and learn problem-solving skills.

  17. Psychometric Properties of the "Reminiscence Functions Scale" for the Portuguese Population: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Daniela C.; Guedes, Joana Martins; Fonseca, Antonio M.; Martin, Inacio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of a version in Portuguese of the "Reminiscence Functions Scale." Total sample was composed of 628 participants aged between 18 and 92 years, divided into three groups according to their age (18-24 years, "n" = 249; 26-54 years, "n" = 174; 55 and…

  18. Reminiscence, Psychological Well-Being, and Ego Integrity in Portuguese Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Rosa Maria; Bueno, Belen; Loureiro, Manuel Joachim; Pereira, Henrique

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of a reminiscence program on the psychological well-being and ego integrity of elderly people with depressive symptomatology. Ninety people aged 65 and over participated in a quasi-experimental design with pretest and posttest evaluations. They were assigned to one of three groups: (a) experimental group…

  19. The Effects of Intermittent Reminiscence Therapy on Nursing Home Residents' Depression Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Patricia

    Depression is regarded as the most prevalent mental health disorder in the elderly. Reminiscence, a normative and universal process which can facilitate the resolution, integration, and reorganization of past conflicts can have positive or negative effects on depression. One environment where the elderly are particularly at risk for the negative…

  20. Collage as a Therapeutic Modality for Reminiscence in Patients with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhiser Stallings, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Traditional therapy, with its emphasis on verbal communication between therapist and client, may not be appropriate for patients with dementia due to impaired cognitive and verbal abilities. This brief report presents a qualitative study on the use of collage in art therapy to aid in the process of reminiscence in individuals with dementia. Data…

  1. First trimester bleeding and maternal cardiovascular morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2012-01-01

    First trimester bleeding without miscarriage is a risk factor for complications later in the pregnancy, such as preterm delivery. Also, first trimester miscarriage has been linked to subsequent maternal ischemic heart disease. We investigated the link between maternal cardiovascular disease prior...... to and subsequent to first trimester bleeding without miscarriage....

  2. Self-Criticism as a Mechanism Linking Childhood Maltreatment and Maternal Efficacy Beliefs in Low-Income Mothers With and Without Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michl, Louisa C; Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-11-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to examine self-criticism as a potential mechanism mediating the relation between mothers' own childhood maltreatment history and changes in subsequent maternal efficacy beliefs in a diverse sample of low-income mothers with and without major depressive disorder. Longitudinal data were drawn from a larger randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression among low-income mothers and their 12-month-old infant. Results indicated that higher levels of maltreatment in childhood led mothers to hold more self-critical judgments in adulthood. Additionally, mothers who had experienced more extensive childhood maltreatment histories perceived themselves as less efficacious in their role as mother. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-criticism mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and mothers' decreased perceived competency in her maternal role from when her child was an infant to the more demanding toddler years. Finally, this relationship held over and above the influence of mothers' depressive diagnostic status. Directions for future research and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Preschoolers' influence on and help with beverage selection at the grocery store is linked to maternal responsiveness and child beverage intake: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Karina R; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Guzman, Melissa; Wakefield, Dorothy; Sisson, Susan B; Mayeux, Lara

    2016-12-01

    Children's involvement in beverage selection or purchase has seldom been investigated. The responsiveness dimension of parental feeding styles has been related to healthy maternal feeding practices. Assessing mothers' reports of responsiveness and demandingness in grocery stores may shed light on influences on purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fruit juice (FJ). Study objectives were to explore whether (1) maternal responsiveness and demandingness were associated with preschoolers' a) help with selection of and b) influence on SSB and FJ purchases during grocery shopping and whether (2) preschoolers' a) help with selection of and b) influence on SSB and FJ purchases were associated with child intake of these beverages. Mothers of 3-to-5-year-old children (n=185) who co-shopped with the child completed the Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire, reported frequency of child help with selection and influence on beverage purchase via questionnaire, and provided a one-day weekend food recall for the child. In adjusted logistic regressions, responsiveness was associated with child help selecting FJ (OR=6.50, 95% CI[1.04, 40.75], pparenting behaviors associated with grocery shopping should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Outbreak of bullous impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains of phage type 3C/71 in a maternity ward linked to nasal carriage of a healthcare worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechowicz, Lidia; Garbacz, Katarzyna; Budzyńska, Anna; Dąbrowska-Szponar, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of bullous impetigo (BI) that occurred in a maternity unit and show phenotypic and genotypic properties and relatedness of isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains. Clinical material was obtained from 11 affected neonates. Additionally, nasal swabs from 67 healthy care workers (HCWs) as well as 107 environmental swabs were investigated. All isolates were screened for exfoliative toxin genes (eta, etb), antibiotic susceptibility and phage typed. Chromosomal DNA was genotyped by MLVF method and PCR/RFLP of coagulase gene were tested. Affected neonates were infected by two clusters of eta-positive S. aureus of phage type 3C/71: (1) MLVF type A isolates resistant only to penicillin, and (2) MLVF type B isolates resistant to penicillin and erythromycin/clindamycin. All isolates were susceptible to methicillin. We found 19 of 67 HCWs to be S. aureus nasal carriers. Two nasal isolates from HCWs were related to the outbreak on the basis of phage typing, PCR detection of eta/etb genes, antibiotyping and genotyping. Additionally, environmental swabs from the maternity unit revealed a 3C/71 S. aureus in the mattress of a baby bed. This is the first documented case of an outbreak of BI caused by phage type 3C/71 eta-positive strain of S. aureus.

  5. Self-Criticism as a Mechanism Linking Childhood Maltreatment and Maternal Efficacy Beliefs in Low Income Mothers with and without Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michl, Louisa C.; Handley, Elizabeth D.; Rogosch, Fred; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to examine self-criticism as a potential mechanism mediating the relation between mothers' own childhood maltreatment history and changes in subsequent maternal efficacy beliefs in a diverse sample of low-income mothers with and without Major depressive disorder (MDD). Longitudinal data were drawn from a larger randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression among low-income mothers and their 12-month old infant (see Toth, Rogosch, Oshri, Gravener-Davis, Sturm, & Morgan-Lopez; 2013). Results indicated that higher levels of maltreatment in childhood led mothers to hold more self-critical judgments in adulthood. Additionally, mothers who had experienced more extensive childhood maltreatment histories perceived themselves as less efficacious in their role as mother. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-criticism mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and mothers' decreased perceived competency in her maternal role from when her child was an infant to the more demanding toddler years. Finally, this relationship held over and above the influence of mothers' depressive diagnostic status. Directions for future research and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26318693

  6. Apical regional wall motion abnormalities reminiscent to Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy following consumption of psychoactive fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nef, Holger M; Möllmann, Helge; Hilpert, Pirmin; Krause, Nicola; Troidl, Christian; Weber, Michael; Rolf, Andreas; Dill, Thorsten; Hamm, Christian; Elsässer, A

    2009-05-01

    Consumption of natural hallucinogenic substances continues to be a problem. In this case we report from a young male patient presenting with an acute coronary syndrome with significant ST-elevation after the abuse of psychoactive fungi, commonly referred to as "magic mushrooms". Coronary angiography excludes relevant coronary artery disease. In ventriculography contractile dysfunction with hypokinesia in the apical segments could be documented reminiscent to wall motion abnormalities in Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging showed no pathological signal activity in the late-enhancement sequences ruling out myocardial infarction or inflammatory processes. Ventricular function normalized within several days. The active metabolite of psychoactive fungi psilocybin is known to interact with several different dopaminergic, adrenergic and serotonergic receptors. Thus, the pathomechanisms leading to contractile dysfunction after consumption of psychoactive fungi are reminiscent to those documented in TTC.

  7. Data cleaning and management protocols for linked perinatal research data: a good practice example from the Smoking MUMS (Maternal Use of Medications and Safety) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duong Thuy; Havard, Alys; Jorm, Louisa R

    2017-07-11

    Data cleaning is an important quality assurance in data linkage research studies. This paper presents the data cleaning and preparation process for a large-scale cross-jurisdictional Australian study (the Smoking MUMS Study) to evaluate the utilisation and safety of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies during pregnancy. Perinatal records for all deliveries (2003-2012) in the States of New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia were linked to State-based data collections including hospital separation, emergency department and death data (mothers and babies) and congenital defect notifications (babies in NSW) by State-based data linkage units. A national data linkage unit linked pharmaceutical dispensing data for the mothers. All linkages were probabilistic. Twenty two steps assessed the uniqueness of records and consistency of items within and across data sources, resolved discrepancies in the linkages between units, and identified women having records in both States. State-based linkages yielded a cohort of 783,471 mothers and 1,232,440 babies. Likely false positive links relating to 3703 mothers were identified. Corrections of baby's date of birth and age, and parity were made for 43,578 records while 1996 records were flagged as duplicates. Checks for the uniqueness of the matches between State and national linkages detected 3404 ID clusters, suggestive of missed links in the State linkages, and identified 1986 women who had records in both States. Analysis of content data can identify inaccurate links that cannot be detected by data linkage units that have access to personal identifiers only. Perinatal researchers are encouraged to adopt the methods presented to ensure quality and consistency among studies using linked administrative data.

  8. Reminiscences on science at IHES A problem on homoclinic theory and a brief review

    CERN Document Server

    Gallavotti, G

    1998-01-01

    On the occasion of the 40-th anniversary of IHES I present a few scientific reminiscences: most of my scientific life has been marked by my visits and I run through them concluding with the analysis of a problem that originated during my last visit. The problem is to develop a convergent perturbative algorithm for the construction of the ``Eliasson's potential'' for the stable and unstable manifolds of an invariant torus: and to study its properties. A brief review follows.

  9. Combining music and reminiscence therapy interventions for wellbeing in elderly populations: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istvandity, Lauren

    2017-08-01

    Both music therapy and reminiscence therapy are currently being used to increase aspects of wellbeing in older people, including those with memory diseases such as dementia, as alternatives to pharmacological treatments. There is growing evidence that combining these therapies in a focused way would provide unique wellbeing outcomes for this population. This review aims to report on the existing intervention studies that utilize both music and reminiscence activities in equal measure in elderly adult populations. A systematic review of intervention-based studies published between 1996 and 2016 was carried out: five studies were included in this review. Included studies were predominantly carried out in aged care facilities with aged populations affected by a range of conditions; all studies assessed aspects of mental well-being. The review found music reminiscence therapy to have positive effects for participants in four out of five studies. Further research incorporating qualitative methods and mapping of intervention procedures would complement existing findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  11. Maternal drug abuse versus maternal depression: Vulnerability and resilience among school-age and adolescent offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Luthar, Suniya S.; Sexton, Chris C.

    2007-01-01

    In this study of 360 low-income mother-child dyads, our primary goal was to disentangle risks linked with commonly co-occurring maternal diagnoses: substance abuse and affective/anxiety disorders. Variable- and person-based analyses suggest that, at least through children’s early adolescence, maternal drug use is no more inimical for them than is maternal depression. A second goal was to illuminate vulnerability and protective processes linked with mothers’ everyday functioning, and results s...

  12. Genetic Screen Reveals Link between the Maternal Effect Sterile Gene mes-1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced Neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiuli; Cao, Xiou; Yan, Dong; Wang, Dayong; Aballay, Alejandro

    2015-12-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that immune responses to microbial infections may contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we show that Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of Caenorhabditis elegans causes a number of neural changes that are hallmarks of neurodegeneration. Using an unbiased genetic screen to identify genes involved in the control of P. aeruginosa-induced neurodegeneration, we identified mes-1, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase-like protein that is required for unequal cell divisions in the early embryonic germ line. We showed that sterile but not fertile mes-1 animals were resistant to neurodegeneration induced by P. aeruginosa infection. Similar results were observed using animals carrying a mutation in the maternal effect gene pgl-1, which is required for postembryonic germ line development, and the germ line-deficient strains glp-1 and glp-4. Additional studies indicated that the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 is required for resistance to P. aeruginosa-induced neurodegeneration in germ line-deficient strains. Thus, our results demonstrate that P. aeruginosa infection results in neurodegeneration phenotypes in C. elegans that are controlled by the germ line in a cell-nonautonomous manner.

  13. Maternal Guilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rotkirch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent emphasis on humans as cooperative breeders invites new research on human family dynamics. In this paper we look at maternal guilt as a consequence of conditional maternal investment. Solicited texts written by Finnish mothers with under school-aged children in 2007 (n = 63 described maternal emotions perceived as difficult and forbidden. Content analysis of guilt-inducing situations showed that guilt arose from diverging interest and negotiations between the mother and child (i.e., classic parent-offspring conflict. Also cultural expectations of extensive and perpetual high-quality maternal investment or the “motherhood myth” induced guilt in mothers. We argue that guilt plays an important role in maternal-investment regulation. Maternal guilt is predicted to vary with social and cultural context but also to show universal characteristics due to parent-offspring conflict and allomaternal manipulation. Results are preliminary and intended to stimulate research into the mechanisms, gender differences and cultural variations of guilt and other social emotions in human parenting.

  14. Environmentally relevant bouts of cooling stimulate corticosterone secretion in free-living eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) nestlings: potential links between maternal behavior and corticosterone exposure in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sharon E; Kern, Michael D

    2014-01-15

    In vertebrates, exposure to stressful stimuli or to elevated glucocorticoids early in development can contribute to phenotypic variation that may have significant fitness consequences. In species with altricial young, offspring may be partially buffered from elevations in glucocorticoids by a period of low glucocorticoid responsiveness to stressors coupled with high levels of parental care. Because altricial young depend heavily on their parents for warmth, parental brooding behavior could buffer offspring from glucocorticoid exposure associated with cooling. We studied eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) with two goals: (1) to determine whether an experimental drop in body temperature such as that which might occur when a brooding female is off the nest was sufficient to stimulate glucocorticoid secretion in young chicks, and (2) to examine the extent to which chicks experienced such bouts of cooling in the field. We subjected chicks to treatments simulating nest temperatures while females were brooding or absent from the nest. We also recorded chick surface temperatures and ambient temperatures at nests during the first week of the brood period. Reductions of surface temperature of less than 10°C significantly elevated corticosterone secretion in chicks as young as 5days old, and thermal and hormonal responses of chicks to cooling increased in an age-dependent manner. One quarter of broods experienced repeated, natural bouts of cooling of this magnitude or greater in the nest. Our data suggest that natural variations in maternal brooding patterns can result in differential exposure of offspring to glucocorticoids, and this may have important phenotypic consequences later in life.

  15. Maternal Emotional Availability and Its Association with Maternal Psychopathology, Attachment Style Insecurity and Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Träuble, Birgit; Sodian, Beate; Reck, Corinna

    High maternal emotional availability (EA) positively affects various domains of child development. However, the question of which factors promote or hinder maternal EA has not been investigated systematically. The present study investigated several maternal characteristics, namely maternal psychopathology, maternal attachment style insecurity, and theory of mind (ToM) as possible factors that influence maternal EA. The sample was comprised of 56 mothers and their preschool-aged children. Half of the mothers were diagnosed with postpartum depression and or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and the other half were healthy controls. The results showed that both low maternal attachment style insecurity and high ToM skills significantly predicted maternal EA sensitivity, independently from maternal postpartum and concurrent psychopathology and education. Moreover, maternal attachment style insecurity fully mediated the link between maternal postpartum psychopathology and sensitivity. The findings suggest that maternal attachment style security can buffer negative effects of maternal psychopathology on maternal sensitivity in the mother-child interaction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The Challenge of Prenatal Diagnostic Work-Up of Maternally Inherited X-Linked Opitz G/BBB: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Marialuigia; Sica, Carmine; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Novelli, Antonio; Di Meglio, Letizia; Martinelli, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Background. Prenatal diagnosis of Optiz G/BBB syndrome (OS) is challenging because the characteristic clinical features, such as facial and genitourinary anomalies, may be subtle at sonography and rather unspecific. Furthermore, molecular testing of the disease gene is not routinely performed, unless a specific diagnosis is suggested. Method. Both familial and ultrasound data were used to achieve the diagnosis of X-linked OS (XLOS), which was confirmed by molecular testing of MID1 gene (Xp22.3) at birth. Results. Sequencing of MID1 gene disclosed the nucleotide change c.1285 +1 G>T, previously associated with XLOS. Conclusions. This case illustrates current challenges of the prenatal diagnostic work-up of XLOS and exemplifies how clinical investigation, including family history, and accurate US foetal investigations can lead to the correct diagnosis.

  17. The Challenge of Prenatal Diagnostic Work-Up of Maternally Inherited X-Linked Opitz G/BBB: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialuigia Spinelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prenatal diagnosis of Optiz G/BBB syndrome (OS is challenging because the characteristic clinical features, such as facial and genitourinary anomalies, may be subtle at sonography and rather unspecific. Furthermore, molecular testing of the disease gene is not routinely performed, unless a specific diagnosis is suggested. Method. Both familial and ultrasound data were used to achieve the diagnosis of X-linked OS (XLOS, which was confirmed by molecular testing of MID1 gene (Xp22.3 at birth. Results. Sequencing of MID1 gene disclosed the nucleotide change c.1285 +1 G>T, previously associated with XLOS. Conclusions. This case illustrates current challenges of the prenatal diagnostic work-up of XLOS and exemplifies how clinical investigation, including family history, and accurate US foetal investigations can lead to the correct diagnosis.

  18. The reminiscence bump reconsidered: Children's prospective life stories show a bump in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The reminiscence bump—the reporting of more memories from young adulthood than from other stages of life—is considered a hallmark of autobiographical memory research. The most prevalent explanations for this effect assume that events in young adulthood are favored because of the way...... showed a clear bump in young adulthood. In Study 2, children were prompted by word cues to write down events from their future lives. The events generated consisted mostly of non-life-script events, and those events did not show a bump in young adulthood. Our findings challenge prevailing explanations...

  19. The peaks of life: The differential temporal locations of the reminiscence bump across disparate cueing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    The reminiscence bump has generally been assessed through either (1) the cue word method, or (2) several related methods which we refer to under the umbrella of the important memories method. Here we provide a review of the literature demonstrating that the temporal location of the bump varies...... systematically according to cueing method, with the mean range of the bump located from 8.7 to 22.5 years of age for word-cued memories, versus 15.1 to 27.9 for important memories. This finding has hitherto been under-acknowledged, as existing theoretical accounts of the bump generally hold its location...

  20. Max Graf's "Reminiscences of Professor Sigmund Freud" revisited: new evidence from the Freud archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2007-01-01

    Recently derestricted Freud Archive interviews with Max and Herbert Graf and Herbert's wife shed new light on Max Graf's article, "Reminiscences of Professor Sigmund Freud," published in The Psychoanalytic Quarterly in 1942. To explain discrepancies between the interviews and the earlier article, the author postulates that, in the article, Max Graf purposely distorted or omitted certain details in order not to reveal Herbert's identity as "Little Hans" (Freud 1909). The interviews place incidents reported in the article in a new and more complex light, and also underscore the intensely personal nature of the intellectual development of the psychoanalytic movement.

  1. Effectiveness of a structured education reminiscence-based programme for staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units: A study protocol for a cluster randomised trial

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Eamon

    2011-02-14

    Abstract Background Current projections indicate that there will be a significant increase in the number of people with dementia in Ireland, from approximately 40,000 at present to 100,000 by 2036. Psychosocial interventions, such as reminiscence, have the potential to improve the quality of life of people with dementia. However, while reminiscence is used widely in dementia care, its impact on the quality of life of people with dementia remains largely undocumented and there is a need for a robust and fair assessment of its overall effectiveness. The DementiA education programme incorporating REminiscence for Staff study will evaluate the effectiveness of a structured reminiscence-based education programme for care staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units. Methods\\/Design The study is a two-group, single-blind cluster randomised trial conducted in public and private long-stay residential settings in Ireland. Randomisation to control and intervention is at the level of the long-stay residential unit. Sample size calculations suggest that 18 residential units each containing 17 people with dementia are required for randomisation to control and intervention groups to achieve power of at least 80% with alpha levels of 0.05. Each resident in the intervention group is linked with a nurse and care assistant who have taken the structured reminiscence-based education programme. Participants in the control group will receive usual care. The primary outcome is quality of life of residents as measured by the Quality of Life-AD instrument. Secondary outcomes include agitation, depression and carer burden. Blinded outcome assessment is undertaken at baseline and at 18-22 weeks post-randomisation. Discussion Trials on reminiscence-based interventions for people with dementia have been scarce and the quality of the information arising from those that have been done has been undermined by methodological problems, particularly in relation to scale

  2. Effectiveness of a structured education reminiscence-based programme for staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units: A study protocol for a cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Fionnuala

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current projections indicate that there will be a significant increase in the number of people with dementia in Ireland, from approximately 40,000 at present to 100,000 by 2036. Psychosocial interventions, such as reminiscence, have the potential to improve the quality of life of people with dementia. However, while reminiscence is used widely in dementia care, its impact on the quality of life of people with dementia remains largely undocumented and there is a need for a robust and fair assessment of its overall effectiveness. The DementiA education programme incorporating REminiscence for Staff study will evaluate the effectiveness of a structured reminiscence-based education programme for care staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units. Methods/Design The study is a two-group, single-blind cluster randomised trial conducted in public and private long-stay residential settings in Ireland. Randomisation to control and intervention is at the level of the long-stay residential unit. Sample size calculations suggest that 18 residential units each containing 17 people with dementia are required for randomisation to control and intervention groups to achieve power of at least 80% with alpha levels of 0.05. Each resident in the intervention group is linked with a nurse and care assistant who have taken the structured reminiscence-based education programme. Participants in the control group will receive usual care. The primary outcome is quality of life of residents as measured by the Quality of Life-AD instrument. Secondary outcomes include agitation, depression and carer burden. Blinded outcome assessment is undertaken at baseline and at 18-22 weeks post-randomisation. Discussion Trials on reminiscence-based interventions for people with dementia have been scarce and the quality of the information arising from those that have been done has been undermined by methodological problems, particularly in

  3. Group integrative reminiscence therapy on self-esteem, life satisfaction and depressive symptoms in institutionalised older veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Fen

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use group integrative reminiscence as a nursing intervention to evaluate the immediate effects on self-esteem, life satisfaction and depressive symptoms for a special group named 'institutionalised older veterans' after a 12-week intervention. The study group comprised institutionalised older veterans with combat experience, including being wounded in war and who were twice forced to relocate. The group participants had lower life satisfaction, and greater use for mental health services and greater non-specific health complaints were reported from this group. Reminiscence therapy has been considered an effective nursing intervention, but the effects on institutionalised older veterans have not been studied. A quasi-experimental design and purposive sampling were conducted. A total of 74 participants were studied with pre- and post-tests to measure the effect of group integrative reminiscence therapy. The activity was held once weekly for 12 weeks. The Life Satisfaction Index A, self-esteem scale and Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form were used as research tools, and the t-test, Fisher's exact test and generalised estimating equation were used for data analysis. All participants were male, with an average age of 81·34 years old, 91·9% unmarried and were in bad health. After 12 weeks of intervention, the reminiscence groups significantly improved their self-esteem and life satisfaction and decreased depressive symptoms compared with control groups. Group integrative reminiscence revealed immediate effects on improving the self-esteem and life satisfaction of institutionalised older veterans, and depressive symptoms were also decreased. Moreover, a sense of positive self-value and belonging to the institution was produced. Group integrative reminiscence is an applicable nursing intervention for vulnerable persons such as institutionalised older veterans. A structured protocol based on the characteristics of the residents and the

  4. The effects of group reminiscence therapy on depression, self esteem, and life satisfaction of elderly nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Hsing-Yuan; Wu, Chiu-Yen; Jin, Suh-Fen; Chu, Tsung-Lan; Huang, Tzu-Shin; Clark, Mary Jo

    2006-03-01

    The need to provide quality mental health care for elders in nursing home settings has been a critical issue, as the aging population grows rapidly and institutional care becomes a necessity for some elders. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to describe the effect of participation in reminiscence group therapy on older nursing home residents' depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants who met the study criteria. Residents of one ward were assigned to the reminiscence therapy group intervention, while residents of the other ward served as controls. Nine weekly one-hour sessions were designed to elicit reminiscence as group therapy for 12 elders in the experimental group. Another 12 elders were recruited for a control group matched to experimental subjects on relevant criteria. Depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction were measured one week before and after the therapy. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, Version 10.0) was used to analyze data. Results indicated that group reminiscence therapy significantly improved self-esteem, although effects on depression and life satisfaction were not significant. Reminiscence groups could enhance elders' social interaction with one another in nursing home settings and become support groups for participants. The model we created here can serve as a reference for future application in institutional care.

  5. Day of mourning and time of reminiscence: Death, funeral and reminiscence of political famous persons in Serbia in socialist era and afterwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The most impressive event of death in the Yugoslav region in the last 50 years was definitely associated with death and funeral of Josip Broz Tito, in May 1980. The departure of one of the last European pharaohs has marked the beginning of an end of an era, with still hard to measure ideological and political consequences. In a symbolic sense, the departure represented a final breakdown of the proclaimed rational and secular walls of communist ideology, whose foundations contained complex religious symbolic and rhetoric. Tito came to be remembered while he was still alive. He was the only living hero portrayed in monuments, whose name was displayed in street appellations and public institutions. Media concept of his death and funeral represented a confirmation and continuation of this reminiscence; in addition, the deeper meaning of this reminiscence revealed an essential negation of the fact that the mighty ruler is actually dead. Tito's position of a supreme deity, acquired during his lifetime, was even more firmly established by his death. In this way, it could be argued that death has contributed to Broz' deification, thus extending his cult furthermore. The question remains whether the faith in his divine soul would persevere the temptations of history if he had lived for a few years more? It appears that the same question could be posed in regards to the deification of assassinated prime minister, Dr Zoran Djindjic, whose death, funeral and post mortem glory represent almost the only comparable event from the recent Serbian history, to those of the complex death related rhetoric of Broz? The post mortem image of Dr Djindjic was created based on Christian model of martyr and sufferer, but also on the model of exemplar death, that is, heroic and martyr's death in the name of nation, an important element of a special religious system, i.e., religion of nation. In 2006, during the annual commemoration dedicated to Zoran Djindjic, media

  6. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  7. Effectiveness of group reminiscence for improving wellbeing of institutionalized elderly adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Scaratti, Chiara; Morganti, Luca; Stramba-Badiale, Marco; Agostoni, Monica; Spatola, Chiara A M; Molinari, Enrico; Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-10-25

    Group reminiscence therapy is a brief and structured intervention in which participants share personal past events with peers. This approach has been shown to be promising for improving wellbeing and reducing depressive symptoms among institutionalized older adults. However, despite the considerable interest in reminiscence group therapy, controlled studies to determine its specific benefits as compared to generic social interactions with peers (group conversations about everyday subjects) are still lacking. We have designed a randomized controlled trial aimed at comparing the effects of group reminiscence therapy with those of group recreational activity on the psychological wellbeing of an institutionalized sample of older adults. The study includes two groups of 20 hospitalized elderly participants: the experimental group and the control group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive six sessions of group reminiscence therapy, while the control group will participate in a recreational group discussion. A repeated-measures design will be used post-intervention and three months post-intervention to evaluate changes in self-reported outcome measures of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and quality of life from baseline. The protocol of a study aimed at examining the specific effects of group reminiscence therapy on psychological wellbeing, depression, and quality of life among institutionalized elderly people is described. It is expected that the outcomes of this trial will contribute to our knowledge about the process of group reminiscence, evaluate its effectiveness in improving psychological wellbeing of institutionalized individuals, and identify the best conditions for optimizing this approach. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (registration number: NCT02077153) on 31 January 2014.

  8. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  9. REMINISCENCES, QUOTATIONS AND MOTIFS OF THE PSALTER IN THE WORKS OF I. A. BUNIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Anatolyevna Berdnikova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the reminiscences, quotations and motifs borrowed from the Book of Psalms by I.A. Bunin in his poetry and prose. Discovering such reminiscences and quotations helps to clarify some debatable issues of the writer's personal position and outlook. The Book of Psalms acts as a major text of precedence in Bunin's works. Some of his poems are poetic variations of psalms (The Psalter, 1916; To Russia, 1922. Day and night as dominant images of Bunin's poetry are viewed as constants of being due to their creation by God. Night as an especially important and most frequent image in the whole heritage of I.A. Bunin becomes for him the time of self-knowledge and discovery of God, which is quite consistent with the poetic world of the Psalmist. In Bunin's prose, reading from the Book of Psalms often appears after a character dies. Death is thus viewed as a solemn and majestic event, and eternity becomes the main motif of such stories as The Pine Trees (1901, The Exodus (1918, Transfiguration (1923. It is from the psalmodic tradition that the title of one of Bunin's most conceptually important stories comes – Many waters (1911-1926. In this story, the author views the eternal through the lens of revolutionary perturbations in the 1917 Russia. The whole host of symbols associated in the Book of Psalms with 'many waters' finds a new life in Bunin's story. The author shows facing God as a profoundly Christian feeling. His protagonist feels not only fear, but primarily “the love and joy of being”. Cosmological, historical and providential 'plots' and images borrowed from the psalms prove that the Orthodox tradition was very important for Bunin's creative consciousness.

  10. The Effect of Reminiscence Therapy on Cognition, Depression, and Activities of Daily Living for Patients With Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru Aşiret, Güler; Kapucu, Sevgisun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was, conducted with experimental design, to investigate the effect of reminiscence therapy on cognition, depression, activities of daily living of institutionalized mild and moderate Alzheimer patients. The study was conducted with a total of 62 patients (31 intervention group and 31 control group) in four home care in Ankara, Turkey. Study was done between the July 1, 2013 and December 20, 2014. Reminiscence therapy sessions were held with groups consists of 4-5 patients, once a week with 30-35 minute duration for 12 weeks. Standardized Mini Mental Test was used in sample selection. Patients were listed through their mini mental test scores, and randomized as odd numbers to control group and even numbers to intervention group. Data were collected with forms developed by researcher 'Data Sheet' and 'Activities of Daily Living Follow-up Form' as well as scales 'Standardized Mini Mental Test' and 'Geriatric Depression Scale'. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U test, variance analyses in repeated measures and Bonferroni tests were used for analysis. The increase in mean Standardized Mini Mental Test score and the decrease in mean Geriatric Depression Scale score of the individuals in the intervention group compared to the control group at the end of the reminiscence therapy was statistically significant (P < 0.05). At the end of reminiscence therapy sessions, increase in cognition and decrease in depression were found statistically significant in intervention group.

  11. On the Eicosanoid Trail with John Vane and Jack McGiff: 1974-1976. A personal reminiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, R J

    2015-07-01

    In this brief personal reminiscence I comment upon the friendship and mutual understanding that arose between two great scientists and co-travellers, John Vane and Jack McGiff. I relate the events that led up to their meeting and focus on the brief period of time when they worked together on eicosanoid pharmacology in the UK.

  12. A quasi-experimental study of a reminiscence program focused on autobiographical memory in institutionalized older adults with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Teresa Silveira; Afonso, Rosa Marina Lopes Brás Martins; Ribeiro, Óscar Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Working with past memories through reminiscence interventions has been practiced for several decades with successful outcomes on mental health in older adults. Few studies however have focused on autobiographical memory recall in older individuals with cognitive impairment. This study aims to analyze the impact of an individual reminiscence program in a group of older persons with cognitive decline living in nursing homes on the dimensions of cognition, autobiographical memory, mood, behavior and anxiety. A two-group pre-test and post-test design with single blinded assessment was conducted. Forty-one participants were randomized to an experimental group (n=20) and a control group (n=21). The first group attended five weekly individual reminiscence sessions. Changes in the outcome measures were examined for cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment; Autobiographical Memory Test), behavior (Alzheimer Disease Assessment Subscale Non-Cog) and emotional status (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia; Geriatric Depression Scale, and Geriatric Anxiety Inventory). Participants attending reminiscence sessions exhibited better outcomes compared to the control group in cognition, anxiety and depression (pcognitive function, decrease anxiety and manage depressive symptoms and altered behavior, but further investigation is needed to clarify long-term effects.

  13. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  14. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  15. Cognitive-reminiscence therapy and usual care for depression in young adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallford, David J; Mellor, David

    2013-10-21

    Depression is a common affliction for young adults, and is associated with a range of adverse outcomes. Cognitive-reminiscence therapy is a brief, structured intervention that has been shown to be highly effective for reducing depressive symptoms, yet to date has not been evaluated in young adult populations. Given its basis in theory-guided reminiscence-based therapy, and incorporation of effective therapeutic techniques drawn from cognitive therapy and problem-solving frameworks, it is hypothesized to be effective in treating depression in this age group. This article presents the design of a randomized controlled trial implemented in a community-based youth mental health service to compare cognitive-reminiscence therapy with usual care for the treatment of depressive symptoms in young adults. Participants in the cognitive-reminiscence group will receive six sessions of weekly, individual psychotherapy, whilst participants in the usual-care group will receive support from the youth mental health service according to usual procedures. A between-within repeated-measures design will be used to evaluate changes in self-reported outcome measures of depressive symptoms, psychological wellbeing and anxiety across baseline, three weeks into the intervention, post-intervention, one month post-intervention and three months post-intervention. Interviews will also be conducted with participants from the cognitive-reminiscence group to collect information about their experience receiving the intervention, and the process underlying any changes that occur. This study will determine whether a therapeutic approach to depression that has been shown to be effective in older adult populations is also effective for young adults. The expected outcome of this study is the validation of a brief, evidence-based, manualized treatment for young adults with depressive symptoms. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000084785.

  16. Meaning in life and mastery mediate the relationship of negative reminiscence with psychological distress among older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, J.; Cappeliez, Philippe; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Westerhof, Gerben Johan

    2012-01-01

    To understand the adaptive value of reminiscence, a mediational model of reminiscence was tested in a sample of older adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Using structural equation modeling, we investigated if psychological resources (mastery and meaning in life) mediate the relation

  17. Does recall of a past music event invoke a reminiscence bump in young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-08-01

    Many studies of the reminiscence bump (RB) in music invoke memories from different autobiographical times by using stimulus specific prompts (SSPs). This study investigated the utility of a non-SSP paradigm to determine whether the RB would emerge when participants were asked to recall a single memorable musical event from "a time long ago". The presence of a RB in response to music has not been obtained in such a manner for younger participants. Eighty-eight 20-22 year olds reported music episodes that peaked when their autobiographical age was 13-14 years. Self-selected stimuli included a range of musical styles, including classical and non-Western pop forms, such as J-pop and K-pop, as well as generational pop music, such as the Beatles. However, most participants reported pop/rock music that was contemporaneous with encoding age, providing support for the utility of published SSP paradigms using pop music. Implications for and limitations of SSP paradigms are discussed. Participants were also asked to relate the selected musical piece to current musical tastes. Most participants liked the music that they selected, with many continuing to like the music, but most also reported a general broadening of their taste, consistent with developmental literature on open-earedness.

  18. Eukaryotic GPN-loop GTPases paralogs use a dimeric assembly reminiscent of archeal GPN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Béatrice; Beraud, Carole; Meguellati, Sarra; Chen, Shu W; Pellequer, Jean Luc; Armengaud, Jean; Godon, Christian

    2013-02-01

    GTPases are molecular switches that regulate a wide-range of cellular processes. The GPN-loop GTPase (GPN) is a sub-family of P-loop NTPase that evolved from a single gene copy in archaea to triplicate paralog genes in eukaryotes, each having a non-redundant essential function in cell. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yGPN1 and yGPN2 are involved in sister chromatid cohesion mechanism, whereas nothing is known regarding yGPN3 function. Previous high-throughput experiments suggested that GPN paralogs interaction may occur. In this work, GPN|GPN contact was analyzed in details using TAP-Tag approach, yeast two-hybrid assay, in silico energy computation and site-directed mutagenesis of a conserved Glu residue located at the center of the interaction interface. It is demonstrated that this residue is essential for cell viability. A chromatid cohesion assay revealed that, like yGPN1 and yGPN2, yGPN3 also plays a role in sister chromatid cohesion. These results suggest that all three GPN proteins act at the molecular level in sister chromatid cohesion mechanism as a GPN|GPN complex reminiscent of the homodimeric structure of PAB0955, an archaeal member of GPN-loop GTPase.

  19. The reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory and for public events: A comparison across different cueing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    The reminiscence bump has been found for both autobiographical memories and memories of public events. However, there have been few comparisons of the bump across each type of event. In the current study, therefore, we compared the bump for autobiographical memories versus the bump for memories of public events. We did so between-subjects, through two cueing methods administered within-subjects, the cue word method and the important memories method. For word-cued memories, we found a similar bump from ages 5 to 19 for both types of memories. However, the bump was more pronounced for autobiographical memories. For most important memories, we found a bump from ages 20 to 29 in autobiographical memory, but little discernible age pattern for public events. Rather, specific public events (e.g., the Fall of the Berlin Wall) dominated recall, producing a chronological distribution characterised by spikes in citations according to the years these events occurred. Follow-up analyses suggested that the bump in most important autobiographical memories was a function of the cultural life script. Our findings did not yield support for any of the dominant existing accounts of the bump as underlying the bump in word-cued memories.

  20. Personalized reminiscence therapy M-health application for patients living with dementia: Innovating using open source code repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Roger C M

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is known to be an illness which brings forth marked disability amongst the elderly individuals. At times, patients living with dementia do also experience non-cognitive symptoms, and these symptoms include that of hallucinations, delusional beliefs as well as emotional liability, sexualized behaviours and aggression. According to the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines, non-pharmacological techniques are typically the first-line option prior to the consideration of adjuvant pharmacological options. Reminiscence and music therapy are thus viable options. Lazar et al. [3] previously performed a systematic review with regards to the utilization of technology to delivery reminiscence based therapy to individuals who are living with dementia and has highlighted that technology does have benefits in the delivery of reminiscence therapy. However, to date, there has been a paucity of M-health innovations in this area. In addition, most of the current innovations are not personalized for each of the person living with Dementia. Prior research has highlighted the utility for open source repository in bioinformatics study. The authors hoped to explain how they managed to tap upon and make use of open source repository in the development of a personalized M-health reminiscence therapy innovation for patients living with dementia. The availability of open source code repository has changed the way healthcare professionals and developers develop smartphone applications today. Conventionally, a long iterative process is needed in the development of native application, mainly because of the need for native programming and coding, especially so if the application needs to have interactive features or features that could be personalized. Such repository enables the rapid and cost effective development of application. Moreover, developers are also able to further innovate, as less time is spend in the iterative process.

  1. Maternal drug abuse versus maternal depression: vulnerability and resilience among school-age and adolescent offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthar, Suniya S; Sexton, Chris C

    2007-01-01

    In this study of 360 low-income mother-child dyads, our primary goal was to disentangle risks linked with commonly co-occurring maternal diagnoses: substance abuse and affective/anxiety disorders. Variable- and person-based analyses suggest that, at least through children's early adolescence, maternal drug use is no more inimical for them than is maternal depression. A second goal was to illuminate vulnerability and protective processes linked with mothers' everyday functioning, and results showed that negative parenting behaviors were linked with multiple adverse child outcomes. Conversely, the other parenting dimensions showed more domain specificity; parenting stress was linked with children's lifetime diagnoses, and limit setting and closeness with children's externalizing problems and everyday competence, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of implications for resilience theory, interventions, and social policy.

  2. Maternal trait anxiety, emotional distress, and salivary cortisol in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Pluess, M; Bolten, M. *; Pirke, K. M.; Hellhammer, D. (Dirk)

    2010-01-01

    Animal models suggest that stress-induced hormonal changes in the mother during pregnancy lead to enduring changes in the fetus and empirical links between prenatal maternal stress and negative child development have been discerned repeatedly in human studies. But the role of heritable personality traits has received little attention in the latter work. The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between maternal personality, psychological measures of maternal distress a...

  3. Women, poverty and adverse maternal outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Izugbara Chimaraoke O; Ngilangwa David P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The link between poverty and adverse maternal outcomes has been studied largely by means of quantitative data. We explore poor urban Kenyan women's views and lived experiences of the relationship between economic disadvantage and unpleasant maternal outcomes. Method Secondary analysis of focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews data with women in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. Results Urban poor women in Nairobi associate poverty with adverse maternal outco...

  4. Non-swarming grasshoppers exhibit density-dependent phenotypic plasticity reminiscent of swarming locusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotham, Steven; Song, Hojun

    2013-11-01

    Locusts are well known for exhibiting an extreme form of density-dependent phenotypic plasticity known as locust phase polyphenism. At low density, locust nymphs are cryptically colored and shy, but at high density they transform into conspicuously colored and gregarious individuals. Most of what we know about locust phase polyphenism come from the study of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål), which is a devastating pest species affecting many countries in North Africa and the Middle East. The desert locust belongs to the grasshopper genus Schistocerca Stål, which includes mostly non-swarming, sedentary species. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest that the desert locust is the earliest branching lineage within Schistocerca, which raises a possibility that the presence of density-dependent phenotypic plasticity may be a plesiomorphic trait for the whole genus. In order to test this idea, we have quantified the effect of rearing density in terms of the resulting behavior, color, and morphology in two non-swarming Schistocerca species native to Florida. When reared in both isolated and crowded conditions, the two non-swarming species, Schistocerca americana (Drury) and Schistocerca serialis cubense (Saussure) clearly exhibited plastic reaction norms in all traits measured, which were reminiscent of the desert locust. Specifically, we found that both species were more active and more attracted to each other when reared in a crowded condition than in isolation. They were mainly bright green in color when isolated, but developed strong black patterns and conspicuous background colors when crowded. We found a strong effect of rearing density in terms of size. There were also more mechanoreceptor hairs on the outer face of the hind femora in the crowded nymphs in both species. Although both species responded similarly, there were some clear species-specific differences in terms of color and behavior. Furthermore, we compare and contrast our findings with

  5. Culture of reminiscing and the media narratives of the conflicts in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vasiljević

    2016-03-01

    in it. They are displayed and analyzed with the idea of pointing to the correlation between the cultures of reminiscing, process of narration and conceptualizing the cognitive patterns for presenting (war reality.

  6. Infants' Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Composition Reflects Both Maternal and Post-Natal Infection with Plasmodium falciparum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nouatin, Odilon; Gbédandé, Komi; Ibitokou, Samad; Vianou, Bertin; Houngbegnon, Parfait; Ezinmegnon, Sem; Borgella, Sophie; Akplogan, Carine; Cottrell, Gilles; Varani, Stefania; Massougbodji, Achille; Moutairou, Kabirou; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Deloron, Philippe; Luty, Adrian J F; Fievet, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Maternal parasitoses modulate fetal immune development, manifesting as altered cellular immunological activity in cord blood that may be linked to enhanced susceptibility to infections in early life...

  7. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  8. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  9. Healthy Maternal Ambivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael-Leff, Joan

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically reviews the psychoanalytic omission in theorizing maternal subjectivity and the subsequent idealisation of the early mother-baby bond that excludes negative maternal feelings. It suggests that painful maternal experiences of resentment, persecution and hatred remain under-explored. Perhaps, even more alarming, this exclusion compels mothers to hide conflictual and shameful feelings from professionals – and from themselves. The paper suggests that healthy maternal ambival...

  10. Maternal obesity and prenatal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshenawy, Summer; Simmons, Rebecca

    2016-11-05

    Obesity is a significant and increasing public health concern in the United States and worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological evidence clearly shows that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the increased susceptibility of humans to obesity and its associated comorbidities; the interplay of these factors is explained by the concept of epigenetics. The impact of maternal obesity goes beyond the newborn period; fetal programming during the critical window of pregnancy, can have long term detrimental effects on the offspring as well as future generations. Emerging evidence is uncovering a link between the clinical and molecular findings in the offspring with epigenetic changes in the setting of maternal obesity. Research targeted towards reducing the transgenerational propagation and developmental programming of obesity is vital in reducing the increasing rates of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal Diesel Inhalation Increases Airway Hyperreactivity in Ozone Exposed Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollutant exposure is linked with childhood asthma incidence and exacerbations, and maternal exposure to airborne pollutants during pregnancy increases airway hyperreactivity (ARR) in offspring. To determine if exposure to diesel exhaust during pregnancy worsened postnatal oz...

  12. Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

  13. Early Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity among Economically Disadvantaged Families in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates a link between maternal employment and children's risk of obesity, but little prior work has addressed maternal employment during children's infancy. This study examined the timing and intensity of early maternal employment and associations with children's later overweight and obesity in a sample of low-income families in…

  14. What is Maternal Labour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Sandford

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available What happens when we attempt to draw together the concepts of 'the maternal' and of 'labour' in the category of 'maternal labour'? What is the specificity of maternal labour as 'labour' and what is its specificity as 'maternal'? This paper argues that there is a peculiar difficulty in the category of 'maternal labour', even a fundamental contradiction, but that this is not a reason to reject it. Beginning with a brief discussion of Marx's comments, in the Introduction to the 'Grundrisse', on the category of labour, the paper then considers some classic Marxist feminist literature from the 1970s and 1980s on the relation between Marxism and feminism and on the domestic labour debates in order to try to explain the nature of the contradiction in the category of 'maternal labour' and its significance for thinking the possibility of a non-capitalist maternal subject.

  15. Not all semantics: similarities and differences in reminiscing function and content between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Emma; Van Bergen, Penny

    2015-01-01

    This study explored why and how Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians remember the past. Indigenous Australians traditionally share a strong oral tradition in which customs, personal and cultural histories, and other narratives are passed across groups and between generations by word of mouth. Drawing on this tradition, in which inherent value is placed on sharing knowledge and maintaining connectedness with others, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would be more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to report reminiscing to fulfil social functions (but not self or directive functions). Furthermore, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australians would recall personal past experiences more elaborately than would non-Indigenous Australians. In Study 1, 33 Indigenous Australians and 76 non-Indigenous Australians completed Webster's Reminiscence Functions Scale. As predicted, Indigenous participants reported higher scores on subscales related to social functions than did non-Indigenous Australians: particularly "Teach/Inform" and "Intimacy Maintenance". They also scored higher on the "Identity" subscale. In Study 2, 15 Indigenous and 14 non-Indigenous Australians shared three memories from the distant and recent past. While Indigenous and non-Indigenous narratives did not differ in either emotion or elaboration, Indigenous Australians provided more memory context and detail by including a greater proportion of semantic memory content. Taken together, these findings suggest differences in both why and how Australians remember.

  16. Enhanced surveillance of maternal mortality in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Larissa J; Lloyd, Linda E; Selwyn, Beatrice J

    2012-12-01

    Maternal mortality is often used to measure health and well-being for women. Improved surveillance efforts can improve maternal mortality estimates and inform the development of strategies to address the needs of maternal and child health populations. The purpose of this study was to provide better estimates of maternal mortality in Texas by using enhanced surveillance methods. Results from our analyses of fetal death and live birth records in Texas from 2000 through 2006 were then linked to pregnancy-related death records and death records of women of childbearing age (15-44 years) in Texas from 2001 through 2006. Enhanced surveillance identified almost 3.5 times as many deaths that might be associated with pregnancy than do current methods and confirmed a persistent race/ethnicity trend in maternal mortality. The leading cause of these 2001-2006 pregnancy-associated deaths was accidents. Enhanced surveillance allows the identification of additional deaths possibly associated with pregnancy and provides a stable foundation to investigate trends further and to review maternal mortality cases systematically.

  17. [Maternal breastfeeding: health factor. Historical memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriuso, L; de Miguel, M; Sánchez, M

    2007-01-01

    Maternal breastfeeding is a habit that has been closely linked to the survival of the human species since time immemorial. Following a stage when it was massively abandoned in the mid-XX century, we are now witnessing a recovery of this habit, especially in the so-called "developed" world, promoted by the health institutions in light of the scientific evidence. The superiority of maternal breastfeeding over artificial feeding is beyond dispute as the scientific evidence makes clear. Maternal breastfeeding is a positive factor for the health of the mother and for the child. Hence the promotion and recovery of this habit is more than just a fashion or tendency: it is an incontrovertible factor in maternal-child health. Through the Foral Order of January 28th 2004, the government of Navarre has brought together the numerous administrative initiatives that are emerging in our province for the promotion of maternal breastfeeding by promoting a Technical Advisory Commission for the Promotion of Maternal Breastfeeding in Navarre.

  18. HIV and maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Eva; Jamieson, Denise J; Danel, Isabella

    2014-11-01

    The majority of the 17 million women globally that are estimated to be infected with HIV live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, HIV-related causes contributed to 19 000-56 000 maternal deaths in 2011 (6%-20% of maternal deaths). HIV-infected pregnant women have two to 10 times the risk of dying during pregnancy and the postpartum period compared with uninfected pregnant women. Many of these deaths can be prevented with the implementation of high-quality obstetric care, prevention and treatment of common co-infections, and treatment of HIV with ART. The paper summarizes what is known about HIV disease progression in pregnancy, specific causes of HIV-related maternal deaths, and the potential impact of treatment with antiretroviral therapy on maternal mortality. Recommendations are proposed for improving maternal health and decreasing maternal mortality among HIV-infected women based on existing evidence.

  19. Scandinavian links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    centres, one joins more thinly populated regions, and the last one links peripheral areas. Two of them (The Great Belt Link and the Oresund Link) have been constructed and are in full operation. The third (the Fehmarnbelt Link) has been decided 2008 on bilateral government level. The three links...

  20. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity surveillance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Victoria M; Campbell, Melanie; Carson, George; Fraser, William; Liston, Robert M; Walker, Mark; Barrett, Jon

    2010-12-01

    The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System has provided a comprehensive review of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada, and has identified several important limitations to existing national maternal data collection systems, including variability in the detail and quality of mortality data. The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System report recommended the establishment of an ongoing national review and reporting system, as well as consistency in definitions and classifications of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity, in order to enhance surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity. Using review articles and studies that examined maternal mortality in general as opposed to maternal mortality associated with particular management strategies or conditions, maternal mortality and severe morbidity classifications, terminology, and comparative statistics were reviewed and employed to evaluate deficiencies in past and current methods of data collection and to seek solutions to address the need for enhanced and consistent national surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada.

  1. The link in Linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jane C; Chiale, Pablo A; Gonzalez, Mario D; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    We present 2 cases of the slow-fast form of AVNRT with initially narrow QRS complexes followed by sudden unexpected transition to persistently wide QRS complexes due to aberrant intraventricular conduction. Introduction of a properly timed extrastimulus in one case and critical oscillations in cycle length due to short-long coupling in the second case set the stage for the initial bundle branch block. However, persistence of the aberrancy pattern once the initial event abated was maintained by the "linking" phenomenon. Delayed, retrograde concealed activation from the contralateral bundle branch perpetuated the initial bundle branch block. PMID:23840106

  2. Matrilineal inheritance of a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Pick, Joel L; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2016-09-14

    Sex-linkage is predicted to evolve in response to sex-specific or sexually antagonistic selection. In line with this prediction, most sex-linked genes are associated with reproduction in the respective sex. In addition to traits directly involved in fertility and fecundity, mediators of maternal effects may be predisposed to evolve sex-linkage, because they indirectly affect female fitness through their effect on offspring phenotype. Here, we test for sex-linked inheritance of a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects in oviparous species, the transfer of maternally derived testosterone to the eggs. Consistent with maternal inheritance, we found that in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) granddaughters resemble their maternal (but not their paternal) grandmother in yolk testosterone deposition. This pattern of resemblance was not due to non-genetic priming effects of testosterone exposure during prenatal development, as an experimental manipulation of yolk testosterone levels did not affect the females' testosterone transfer to their own eggs later in life. Instead, W chromosome and/or mitochondrial variation may underlie the observed matrilineal inheritance pattern. Ultimately, the inheritance of mediators of maternal effects along the maternal line will allow for a fast and direct response to female-specific selection, thereby affecting the dynamics of evolutionary processes mediated by maternal effects.

  3. 'Seeing me through my memories': a grounded theory study on using reminiscence with people with dementia living in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline; Hunter, Andrew; Murphy, Kathy; Casey, Dympna; Devane, Declan; Smyth, Siobhan; Dempsey, Laura; Murphy, Edel; Jordan, Fionnuala; O'Shea, Eamon

    2014-12-01

    To understand people with dementia, staff and relatives perspectives on reminiscence, its impact on their lives and experience of care and care giving. The quality of life of people with dementia living in long-term care is an important question for providers and policymakers. Reminiscence is thought to have potential for increasing resident-staff interaction, thereby contributing to enhanced personhood for people with dementia. Relatively little is known about the effects of reminiscence on people with dementia or staff. This is a grounded theory study. This design was chosen because of its focus on understanding people's behaviour, interaction and response to events. In-depth interviews were conducted with residents with dementia (n = 11), relatives (n = 5), healthcare assistants (n = 10), nurses (n = 9) and nurse managers (n = 3). Reminiscence enabled staff to see and know the person beneath the dementia. It acted as … a key revealing the person to staff, enabling them to engage with the person with dementia in a different way. Knowing the person enabled staff to understand (through the lens of the person's past) and sometimes to accommodate the person's current behaviour. The theory of 'seeing me (through my memories)' was generated from the data. This theory explains that through reminiscing and engaging with the person with dementia, staff begin to see the person (their personhood) through the mirror of their memories. This study found that reminiscence enhanced the experience of living in long-term care for residents with dementia and working in long-term care settings for staff. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Parental Co-Construction of 5- to 13-Year-Olds' Global Self-Esteem Through Reminiscing About Past Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michelle A; Donnellan, M B; Guo, Jen; McAdams, Dan P; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Trzesniewski, Kali H

    2017-09-11

    The current study explored parental processes associated with children's global self-esteem development. Eighty 5- to 13-year-olds and one of their parents provided qualitative and quantitative data through questionnaires, open-ended questions, and a laboratory-based reminiscing task. Parents who included more explanations of emotions when writing about the lowest points in their lives were more likely to discuss explanations of emotions experienced in negative past events with their child, which was associated with child attachment security. Attachment was associated with concurrent self-esteem, which predicted relative increases in self-esteem 16 months later, on average. Finally, parent support also predicted residual increases in self-esteem. Findings extend prior research by including younger ages and uncovering a process by which two theoretically relevant parenting behaviors impact self-esteem development. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  5. Infants' Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Composition Reflects Both Maternal and Post-Natal Infection with Plasmodium falciparum: e0139606

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Odilon Nouatin; Komi Gbédandé; Samad Ibitokou; Bertin Vianou; Parfait Houngbegnon; Sem Ezinmegnon; Sophie Borgella; Carine Akplogan; Gilles Cottrell; Stefania Varani; Achille Massougbodji; Kabirou Moutairou; Marita Troye-Blomberg; Philippe Deloron; Adrian J F Luty

    2015-01-01

      Maternal parasitoses modulate fetal immune development, manifesting as altered cellular immunological activity in cord blood that may be linked to enhanced susceptibility to infections in early life...

  6. The reminiscence bump without memories: The distribution of imagined word-cued and important autobiographical memories in a hypothetical 70-year-old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    The reminiscence bump is the disproportionate number of autobiographical memories dating from adolescence and early adulthood. It has often been ascribed to a consolidation of the mature self in the period covered by the bump. Here we stripped away factors relating to the characteristics of autob......The reminiscence bump is the disproportionate number of autobiographical memories dating from adolescence and early adulthood. It has often been ascribed to a consolidation of the mature self in the period covered by the bump. Here we stripped away factors relating to the characteristics...

  7. Lower Maternal Folate Status in Early Pregnancy Is Associated with Childhood Hyperactivity and Peer Problems in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlotz, Wolff; Jones, Alexander; Phillips, David I. W.; Gale, Catharine R.; Robinson, Sian M.; Godfrey, Keith M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy has been linked with fetal brain development and psychopathology in the offspring. We examined for associations of maternal folate status and dietary intake during pregnancy with brain growth and childhood behavioural difficulties in the offspring. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, maternal red…

  8. Maternal diets trigger sex-specific divergent trajectories of gene expression and epigenetic systems in mouse placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gabory

    Full Text Available Males and females responses to gestational overnutrition set the stage for subsequent sex-specific differences in adult onset non communicable diseases. Placenta, as a widely recognized programming agent, contibutes to the underlying processes. According to our previous findings, a high-fat diet during gestation triggers sex-specific epigenetic alterations within CpG and throughout the genome, together with the deregulation of clusters of imprinted genes. We further investigated the impact of diet and sex on placental histology, transcriptomic and epigenetic signatures in mice. Both basal gene expression and response to maternal high-fat diet were sexually dimorphic in whole placentas. Numerous genes showed sexually dimorphic expression, but only 11 genes regardless of the diet. In line with the key role of genes belonging to the sex chromosomes, 3 of these genes were Y-specific and 3 were X-specific. Amongst all the genes that were differentially expressed under a high-fat diet, only 16 genes were consistently affected in both males and females. The differences were not only quantitative but remarkably qualitative. The biological functions and networks of genes dysregulated differed markedly between the sexes. Seven genes of the epigenetic machinery were dysregulated, due to effects of diet, sex or both, including the Y- and X-linked histone demethylase paralogues Kdm5c and Kdm5d, which could mark differently male and female epigenomes. The DNA methyltransferase cofactor Dnmt3l gene expression was affected, reminiscent of our previous observation of changes in global DNA methylation. Overall, this striking sexual dimorphism of programming trajectories impose a considerable revision of the current dietary interventions protocols.

  9. Narrative Structure and Emotional References in Parent-Child Reminiscing: Associations with Child Gender, Temperament, and the Quality of Parent-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Kelly K.; Choi, Eunsil; Wong, Maria S.

    2010-01-01

    The present research examined child gender, temperament, and the quality of parent-child interactions as predictors of narrative style and references to emotion during mother-child and father-child reminiscing. Although models predicting parents' narrative styles were non-significant, results revealed significant interactions between parental…

  10. Maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Dildy, Gary A

    2012-02-01

    Hemorrhage remains as one of the top 3 obstetrics related causes of maternal mortality, with most deaths occurring within 24-48 hours of delivery. Although hemorrhage related maternal mortality has declined globally, it continues to be a vexing problem. More specifically, the developing world continue to shoulder a disproportionate share of hemorrhage related deaths (99%) compared with industrialized nations (1%). Given the often preventable nature of death from hemorrhage, the cornerstone of effective mortality reduction involves risk factor identification, quick diagnosis, and timely management. In this monograph we will review the epidemiology, etiology, and preventative measures related to maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

  11. Reminiscence process: a means of intergenerational interaction; an alternative way of health promotion O processo de reminiscências: um meio de integrar gerações; uma alternativa de promover saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Maria de Souza

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is now witnessing a rapid ageing of the population process at the same time that the proportion of young people in the population is still high. These age groups are usually considered unproductive and consumers of resources. However, both, young and elderly people can give an enormous contribution to society through intergenerational activities, still little explored in the country. In 1998 an intergenerational project was initiated in Ceilândia, situated in the Federal District of Brasília, as an extension of a pilot programme previously initiated in the city of in the same region. The project aimed to promote the well being of elders, children and adolescents, using reminiscence processes as a means of interaction. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the project according to the participants’ point of view and to enhance the contribution they could give for the individual and the community well-being From November 1999 to April 2000 a qualitative research project using focus groups technique was conducted. Following a discussion guide, 13 groups of students, ranging in age from 8 to 13 years old, 3 groups of elders of 60 years old or over, and one group of teachers were interviewed so as to collect data related to the intergenerational interaction programme developed in Ceilandia, Federal District, Brazil. The main findings suggested a change in attitude of students and teachers toward old age and elderly people. Participating elders reported improvement in their health condition. For all participants the findings suggested a better understanding between generations. It seems that the reminiscence intergenerational activities contribute to building mutual trust and solidarity between generations. These results seem to indicate that this is an alternative way to invest in health and in the well-being of young and elderly people. However, further work is needed to support these findings. O Brasil está evidenciando um r

  12. The Reminiscent Narrative in Wei Yun's Fiction%论韦晕小说的回忆叙述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏晖; 蔡晓玲

    2012-01-01

    Wei Yun is one of the three important realistic writers in Malaysian Chinese hterary world. He often uses reminiscent narrative in his fiction to describe his characters who live in memories. His fiction shows us a special conception of time and narrative skills. There are many hazy images such as "wind" and "smoke" in his fiction that overlap the multiple dimensions of time, which expands the possibility of fictional narrative. Many characters in his fiction have a memorable past. They often change the present to the past, trying to escape the present by attaching to the past. Some characters also attempt to change the past to the present, bringing illusory memories into the present space and time. Wei Yun' s fiction faithfully reproduces the suffeting courses of Chinese people immigrating overseas, profoundly reflects the emotional conflicts of the Chinese immigrants when they go away far from their parent cultures, and provides us with an unique approach to the meaning of life through reminiscent narrative.%韦晕是"马华现实主义文坛三剑客"之一,他在小说创作中大量采用回忆叙述,反复书写生活在回忆中的人物,展现独特的时间意识及其叙述技巧。其小说常常以"风"和"烟"等朦胧意象,把时间的多重维度重叠起来,拓展了小说叙述的可能性;小说中的人物都有着刻骨铭心的过去,他们常常把现在过去化,企图通过留恋过去而逃避现在;有些人物也会将过去现在化,把虚幻的回忆带进现在这个时空。韦晕的小说真实地再现了华人移民海外的苦难历程,深刻地反映出华人移民在脱离了自身母体文化之后的情感矛盾,并为我们提供了一种通过回忆叙述叩问生命意义的独特方式。

  13. Art therapy and music reminiscence activity in the prevention of cognitive decline: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Rathi; Rawtaer, Iris; Fam, Johnson; Wong, Jonathan; Kumar, Alan Prem; Gandhi, Mihir; Jing, Kenny Xu; Feng, Lei; Kua, Ee Heok

    2017-07-12

    Attention has shifted to the use of non-pharmacological interventions to prevent cognitive decline as a preventive strategy, as well as for those at risk and those with mild cognitive impairment. Early introduction of psycho-social interventions can address cognitive decline and significantly impact quality of life and the wellbeing of elderly individuals. This pilot study explores the feasibility of using art therapy and music reminiscence activity to improve the cognition of community living elderly with mild cognitive impairment. This open-label, interventional study involves a parallel randomized controlled trial design with three arms (two intervention arms and a control group) over a nine-month period. Participants will be community-living elderly individuals aged 60-85 years, both genders, who meet predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. In the initial three months, interventions will be provided weekly and for the remaining six months fortnightly. A sample size of 90 participants is targeted based on expected neuropsychological test performance, a primary outcome measure, and drop-out rates. The randomization procedure will be carried out via a web-based randomization system. Interventions will be provided by trained staff with a control group not receiving any intervention but continuing life as usual. Assessments will be done at baseline, three months, and nine months, and include neuroimaging to measure cerebral changes and neuropsychological tests to measure for changes in cognition. Secondary outcome measures will include mood changes in anxiety and depression and telomere lengths. Statistical analysis will be undertaken by statisticians; all efficacy analysis will be carried out on an intention-to-treat basis. Primary and secondary outcomes will be modeled using the linear mixed model for repeated measurements and further analysis may be undertaken to adjust for potential confounders. This will be the first study to compare the effectiveness of

  14. REMINISCING THE BLANK SPACES OF SOJOURN: SUBLIMATING EMOTIONAL FLIGHTS IN TABAN LO LIYONG’S WORDS THAT MELT A MOUNTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi AKINGBE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Taban Lo Liyong’s profundity as a prominent writer from East Africa is often showcased by his wilful eccentricity and dogged iconoclasm, which exuberantly dot the lines of his poetry collections. For much of his writing career, Liyong has sustained a cultivated equanimity towards the paradox of being widely accepted by the budding African literary critics, while being deliberately neglected by the Western critics. His maverick disposition to literary craftsmanship is stridently exhibited in the thematic strands of Words That Melt a Mountain : an unabashed treatment of controversial subject matters; an intrusive and digressive narrative technique; a confident assertive ego; an effervescent erudition in his writing and a disturbing frankness in the treatment of sex. This paper examines how the poetics of Words That Melt a Mountain are grounded in the experiences of Liyong’s sojourn in Japan. It highlights the way in which these reminiscences ferment the interplay of themes which oscillate between an audacious narrative of erotic explorations and a penetrating introspection into African mythopoesis.

  15. A holographic model of reminiscence in the poetry of Czesław Miłosz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Rydz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For a model of nostalgic memory in the poetry of Czesław Miłosz, based on the psychological phenomenon of reminiscence, an allegoric counterpart can be identified in the hologram metaphor (Douwe Draaisma. The question: “Who am I” – reappears in Miłosz’s late lyrical poetry when he ponders over both his biography and the biographies of others. The response is provided, for instance, in the concept of human dialectic biography (of subject and object, formulated by Paul Ricoeur in his philosophical analyses. Human memory remains equally dialectic, placed in the antinomy between memory and oblivion. Still, retrieving a detail which has been remembered evokes all experience along with its rich context. That is the holographic effect, described in literature as the “ghost image”. Also in poetry, the effacing of memory trace does not make a barrier for the restitution of recollection. “The Sun of Memory” beams through the lyric of the author of the collection of poems “This”.

  16. Rural maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in

  17. Effects of postpartum anxiety disorders and depression on maternal self-confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Corinna; Noe, Daniela; Gerstenlauer, Jakob; Stehle, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Low maternal self-confidence may damage the early mother-infant relationship and negatively influence infant development. The goal of this study was to test whether a current and previous history of DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders is associated with maternal self-confidence two weeks after delivery. Postpartum anxiety disorder and depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria in a community sample of 798 women. The data showed a significant link between current postpartum anxiety and depressive disorders and maternal self-confidence. Furthermore, women with a depression or anxiety disorder in their previous psychiatric history scored lower in maternal self-confidence. There is a need for appropriate preventive programmes to promote maternal self-confidence. With such programmes it is possible to prevent infant developmental disorders which might result from reduced feelings of maternal self-confidence and associated maternal interaction behaviour.

  18. Maternal and neonatal tetanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, C Louise; Beeching, Nicholas J; Newton, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal tetanus is still a substantial but preventable cause of mortality in many developing countries. Case fatality from these diseases remains high and treatment is limited by scarcity of resources and effective drug treatments. The Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative, launched by WHO and its partners, has made substantial progress in eliminating maternal and neonatal tetanus. Sustained emphasis on improvement of vaccination coverage, birth hygiene, and surveillance, with specific approaches in high-risk areas, has meant that the incidence of the disease continues to fall. Despite this progress, an estimated 58 000 neonates and an unknown number of mothers die every year from tetanus. As of June, 2014, 24 countries are still to eliminate the disease. Maintenance of elimination needs ongoing vaccination programmes and improved public health infrastructure. PMID:25149223

  19. Reminiscing on School Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Charles C.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper examines how former and current school health programs differ (e.g., school nurses moved from simply treating minor injuries and communicable diseases to working cooperatively with physicians and school staff to develop policies and procedures, and health education moved from simple anatomy and physiology to broader personal and…

  20. Reminiscing Eudora Welty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McHaney, Pearl Amelia

    2006-01-01

    After several years of reading Welty and after the thrill of meeting her in the Old Capitol in Jackson upon the occasion of her 75th birthday, I chatted with her as with an old friend in my dreams one night...

  1. Reminiscing Eudora Welty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl Amelia McHaney

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available After several years of reading Welty and after the thrill of meeting her in the Old Capitol in Jackson upon the occasion of her 75th birthday, I chatted with her as with an old friend in my dreams one night. The setting seemed at first fantastical, fairylike. She came out of a rustic cabin and joined my mother, sister, and me at a picnic table under the tall pines and maples of the Catskill Mountains. It was after this dream that I had the courage to write to Welty to ask her the questions I ...

  2. Reminiscences, collaborations and reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, T

    1994-02-01

    This is a personal account by a semi old-timer who completed his official term as a professor of plant biochemistry at Nagoya University in Japan in 1992. My university student life began soon after the World War II (1948). I shared the hardships of many in my age group, in that life was difficult during my college years. I was fortunate to have the opportunity of studying in the USA on a Fulbright scholarship first at Purdue University (1955-1956), and then at the University of California, Berkeley (1956-1957). My graduate study and postdoctoral training in the new world were vitally refreshing and stimulating, which gave me the impetus for becoming a natural scientist associated with academic institutions. Consciously and subconsciously I was impressed by the friendly and liberal atmosphere surrounding young students as well as senior scholars in the United States. But more importantly, I was inspired by the critical and competitive minds prevailing among these people.The appointment as a biochemist at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines (1962-1964) was the real start of my professional career. The work was continued upon my return to Nagoya to become a staff member of the Research Institute for Biochemical Regulation (1964-1992). Throughout the years, my major research interest has covered photosynthesis as a whole, involving photosynthetic CO2-fixation (RuBisCO), carbohydrate metabolism, e.g. starch biosynthesis and breakdown (α-amylase), and metabolic regulation, which are interrelated in the basic metabolism of plant cells.I shall briefly describe in this article highlights from my studies and discoveries made and I shall also discuss their possible significance in plant metabolism, with the hope that it does not contradict my sense of humility: They are (a) discovery of ADPG in plants and its role in starch biosynthesis; (b) structure-function relationship of RuBisCO proteins, in particular on heterologous recombination of their subunits of plant-type enzyme molecules derived from the prokaryotic photosynthetic bacteria; (c) molecular evolution of RuBisCO genes; (d) mode of actions (formation, intracellular transport and secretion) of rice seed α-amylase and its structural characteristics (distinctive glycosylation), and (e) DNA methylation and regulatory mechanism of photosynthesis gene expression in plastids (amyloplasts). In each step of my research, I shared joy, excitement, disappointment, and agony with my colleagues, an experience that may be common to all researchers. Although it is now becoming well recognized among the scientific community in Japan, I want to point out that interaction of multinational scientific minds in the laboratory produces a vital and creative atmosphere for performance of successful research. I experienced and realized this important fact in my earlier days in the USA and the Philippines. Inasmuch as I believe that this is the most crucial element for any research laboratory to possess, I fondly remember the friendships gained with numerous overseas visitors and collaborators who have contributed immensely to our work.

  3. Maternal Competition in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne

    2017-03-01

    We examined maternal competition, an unexplored form of competition between women. Given women's high investment in offspring and mothers' key role in shaping their reproductive, social, and cultural success as adults, we might expect to see maternal competition between women as well as mate competition. Predictions about the effect of maternal characteristics (age, relationship status, educational background, number of children, investment in the mothering role) and child variables (age, sex) were drawn from evolutionary theory and sociological research. Mothers of primary school children (in two samples: N = 210 and 169) completed a series of questionnaires. A novel nine-item measure of maternal competitive behavior (MCQ) and two subscales assessing Covert (MCQ-C) and Face-to-Face (MCQ-FF) forms of competition were developed using confirmatory factor analysis. Competitiveness (MCQ score) was predicted by maternal investment, single motherhood, fewer children, and (marginally) child's older age. The effect of single motherhood (but not other predictors) was partially mediated by greater maternal investment. In response to a scenario of their child underperforming relative to their peers, a mother's competitive distress was a positive function of the importance she ascribed to their success and her estimation of her child's ability. Her competitive distress was highly correlated with the distress she attributed to a female friend, hinting at bidirectional dyadic effects. Qualitative responses indicated that nonspecific bragging and boasting about academic achievements were the most common irritants. Although 40% of women were angered or annoyed by such comments, less than 5% endorsed a direct hostile response. Instead, competitive mothers were conversationally shunned and rejected as friends. We suggest that the interdependence of mothers based on reciprocal childcare has supported a culture of egalitarianism that is violated by explicit competitiveness.

  4. Communication Links

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This interactive tutorial helps learners to: Identify key upward, lateral, downward, and informal communication links in their organizations. , Reflect on the benefits, control, satisfaction, information filters, and feedback mechanism of various communication links in the organizations. OCL1000 Communicating Change in Complex Organizations

  5. Operative links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2010-01-01

    as networks: second, a semantic perspective on discourses and concepts of health, and, third, a health pedagogical perspective on participation, intervention, and roles. This paper argues for the importance of 'operative links' between different levels in health strategies. It is proposed that such links...

  6. A systematic review of maternal smoking during pregnancy and fetal measurements with meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, M. (Miriam); Alramadhan, S. (Salem); A. Iñiguez (Andrés); L. Duijts (Liesbeth); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Dekker, H.T.D. (Herman T. Den); Crozier, S. (Sarah); N. Godfrey; Hindmarsh, P. (Peter); Vik, T. (Torstein); Jacobsen, G.W. (Geir W.); W. Hanke (Wojciech); Sobala, W. (Wojciech); M.P. Devereux (Michael ); S. Turner (Steve)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground Maternal smoking during pregnancy is linked to reduced birth weight but the gestation at onset of this relationship is not certain. We present a systematic review of the literature describing associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ultrasound measurements of

  7. Association between Maternal Obesity and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Min; Ou, Jian-Jun; Liu, Li; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Jing-Ping; Tang, Si-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    As the link between maternal obesity and risk of autism among offspring is unclear, the present study assessed this association. A systematic search of an electronic database was performed to identify observational studies that examined the association between maternal obesity and autism. The outcome measures were odds ratios comparing offspring…

  8. Implications of Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms for Early Cognitive and Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.

    2006-01-01

    Statistically, women, particularly pregnant women and new mothers, are at heightened risk for depression. The present review describes the current state of the research linking maternal depressed mood and children's cognitive and language development. Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, whether during the prenatal period, postpartum period,…

  9. Are Maternal Genitourinary Infection and Pre-Eclampsia Associated with ADHD in School-Aged Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that maternal genitourinary infection (GU) infection is associated with increased risk of ADHD. Method: The authors obtained linked Medicaid billing data for pregnant women and their children in South Carolina, with births from 1996 through 2002 and follow-up data through 2008. Maternal GU infections and…

  10. Maternal Sensitivity and Behaviour Problems in Young Children with Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccols, Alison; Feldman, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Children with developmental delay are at increased risk for behaviour problems, but little is known about risk and resilience factors. Previous research has established links between maternal sensitivity and behaviour problems in typically developing children, but no studies have examined maternal sensitivity in the development of behaviour…

  11. Resolution of the Diagnosis and Maternal Sensitivity among Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feniger-Schaal, Rinat; Oppenheim, David

    2013-01-01

    We examined mothers' resolution of their children's diagnosis of Intellectual Disability (ID) and its link to maternal sensitivity, and we hypnotized that mothers' who are "resolved" will show more sensitivity during their interactions with their children than "unresolved" mothers. We assessed maternal resolution using the Reaction to Diagnosis…

  12. Maternal Mind-Mindedness and Children's School Readiness: A Longitudinal Study of Developmental Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Annie; McMahon, Catherine A.; Perrier, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to test a 5-wave sequential mediation model linking maternal mind-mindedness during infancy to children's school readiness in kindergarten through a serial mediation involving child language and effortful control in toddlerhood and the preschool years. Among a sample of 204 mother-child dyads, we assessed maternal mind-mindedness…

  13. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: AFP Maternal; Maternal Serum AFP; MSAFP; msAFP; Triple Screen; Triple Test; Quad Screen; ... Free Fetal DNA Were you looking instead for AFP tumor markers , used to help diagnose and monitor ...

  14. Ancient origin and maternal inheritance of blue cuckoo eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossøy, Frode; Sorenson, Michael D; Liang, Wei; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Moksnes, Arne; Møller, Anders P; Rutila, Jarkko; Røskaft, Eivin; Takasu, Fugo; Yang, Canchao; Stokke, Bård G

    2016-01-12

    Maternal inheritance via the female-specific W chromosome was long ago proposed as a potential solution to the evolutionary enigma of co-existing host-specific races (or 'gentes') in avian brood parasites. Here we report the first unambiguous evidence for maternal inheritance of egg colouration in the brood-parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus. Females laying blue eggs belong to an ancient (∼2.6 Myr) maternal lineage, as evidenced by both mitochondrial and W-linked DNA, but are indistinguishable at nuclear DNA from other common cuckoos. Hence, cuckoo host races with blue eggs are distinguished only by maternally inherited components of the genome, which maintain host-specific adaptation despite interbreeding among males and females reared by different hosts. A mitochondrial phylogeny suggests that blue eggs originated in Asia and then expanded westwards as female cuckoos laying blue eggs interbred with the existing European population, introducing an adaptive trait that expanded the range of potential hosts.

  15. Neuroendocrine control of maternal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Caughey, Sarah Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Maternal behaviour during the peri-partum period, albeit in differing forms, can be observed in all mammals, thus it must serve an important evolutionary purpose in enabling the successful raising of offspring. Maternal behaviour is comprised of a large suite of behaviours; in rodents these are generally defined as lactation, pup retrieval, maternal aggression and pup grooming. The maternal behaviour circuitry involves many brain regions including the hypothalamus and the limbi...

  16. Maternal and child health project in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chinyelu B

    2003-12-01

    Maternal deaths in developing countries are rooted in womens powerlessness and their unequal access to employment, finance, education, basic health care, and other resources. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country, and it is an oil producing country, but Nigeria has one of the worst maternal mortality rates in Africa. These deaths were linked to deficiencies in access to health care including poor quality of health services, socio-cultural factors, and access issues related to the poor status of women. To address these problems, a participatory approach was used to bring Christian women from various denominations in Eastern Nigeria together. With technical assistance from a research unit in a university in Eastern Nigeria, the women were able to implement a Safe Motherhood project starting from needs assessment to program evaluation. Lessons learned from this program approach are discussed.

  17. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  18. maternal mortality in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi; however there has been a lack of effective imple- mentation. ... the SWAp Programme of Work. 3”. Methods ... the current maternal mortality strategy may be implement- ... point of delivery. ... include the cost of a new chitenje (sarong) necessary for child- ..... nomic status and access to care for TB in urban Lilongwe.

  19. Maternal temperature during labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, F. D.; Wolf, H.; Smjt, B. J.; Bekedam, D. J.; de Vos, R.; Wahlen, I.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the variation of normal maternal temperature during labour. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Two hospitals in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Population All women with a live singleton pregnancy and a gestational age of 36 weeks or more admitted

  20. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  1. Link Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, Steve

    Link analysis is a collection of techniques that operate on data that can be represented as nodes and links. This chapter surveys a variety of techniques including subgraph matching, finding cliques and K-plexes, maximizing spread of influence, visualization, finding hubs and authorities, and combining with traditional techniques (classification, clustering, etc). It also surveys applications including social network analysis, viral marketing, Internet search, fraud detection, and crime prevention.

  2. Matrilineal inheritance of a key mediator of prenatal maternal effects

    OpenAIRE

    Tschirren, Barbara; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Pick, Joel L.; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Sex-linkage is predicted to evolve in response to sex-specific or sexually antagonistic selection. In line with this prediction, most sex-linked genes are associated with reproduction in the respective sex. In addition to traits directly involved in fertility and fecundity, mediators of maternal effects may be predisposed to evolve sex-linkage, because they indirectly affect female fitness through their effect on offspring phenotype. Here, we test for sex-linked inheritance of a key mediator ...

  3. Physiological adaption to maternal malaria and other adverse exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L; Kapur, Anil; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2011-01-01

    The concept of developmental origins of health and disease and the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries has increased the focus on low birth weight (LBW). Most studies linking LBW to future risk of metabolic diseases have focused on maternal nutrition and anemi...

  4. Maternal Parenting and Children's Conscience: Early Security as Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Aksan, Nazan; Knaack, Amy; Rhines, Heather M.

    2004-01-01

    Socialization research is shifting from direct links between parenting and children's outcomes toward models that consider parenting in the context of other factors. This study proposed that the effects of maternal responsive, gentle parenting on child conscience are moderated by the quality of their relationship, specifically, early security. A…

  5. Maternal Executive Function, Harsh Parenting, and Child Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those…

  6. Maternal Executive Function, Harsh Parenting, and Child Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those…

  7. [Social inequalities in maternal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azria, E; Stewart, Z; Gonthier, C; Estellat, C; Deneux-Tharaux, C

    2015-10-01

    Although medical literature on social inequalities in perinatal health is qualitatively heterogeneous, it is quantitatively important and reveals the existence of a social gradient in terms of perinatal risk. However, published data regarding maternal health, if also qualitatively heterogeneous, are relatively less numerous. Nevertheless, it appears that social inequalities also exist concerning severe maternal morbidity as well as maternal mortality. Analyses are still insufficient to understand the mechanisms involved and explain how the various dimensions of the women social condition interact with maternal health indicators. Inadequate prenatal care and suboptimal obstetric care may be intermediary factors, as they are related to both social status and maternal outcomes, in terms of maternal morbidity, its worsening or progression, and maternal mortality.

  8. Effectiveness of a structured education reminiscence-based programme for staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units: a study protocol for a cluster randomised trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Eamon

    2011-02-01

    Current projections indicate that there will be a significant increase in the number of people with dementia in Ireland, from approximately 40,000 at present to 100,000 by 2036. Psychosocial interventions, such as reminiscence, have the potential to improve the quality of life of people with dementia. However, while reminiscence is used widely in dementia care, its impact on the quality of life of people with dementia remains largely undocumented and there is a need for a robust and fair assessment of its overall effectiveness. The DementiA education programme incorporating REminiscence for Staff study will evaluate the effectiveness of a structured reminiscence-based education programme for care staff on the quality of life of residents with dementia in long-stay units.

  9. Exploring the social determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in prenatal care utilization and maternal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadson, Alexis; Akpovi, Eloho; Mehta, Pooja K

    2017-08-01

    Rates of maternal morbidity and mortality are rising in the United States. Non-Hispanic Black women are at highest risk for these outcomes compared to those of other race/ethnicities. Black women are also more likely to be late to prenatal care or be inadequate users of prenatal care. Prenatal care can engage those at risk and potentially influence perinatal outcomes but further research on the link between prenatal care and maternal outcomes is needed. The objective of this article is to review literature illuminating the relationship between prenatal care utilization, social determinants of health, and racial disparities in maternal outcome. We present a theoretical framework connecting the complex factors that may link race, social context, prenatal care utilization, and maternal morbidity/mortality. Prenatal care innovations showing potential to engage with the social determinants of maternal health and address disparities and priorities for future research are reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Life of Metis: Cunning Maternal Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper charts the different and co-existent uses of the Greek myth and concept of Metis for feminist philosophy. I show how the move from using the myth of Metis to an engagement with the marginalised ancient Greek concept of cunning intelligence (metis is significant in addressing problems of agency and political action in contemporary feminist debates. The paper addresses the concept of metis cunning intelligence in relation to the maternal and argues for a theory of metis charcterised by a double action, and finally links this approach to recent ideas in Deleuzian feminist theory.

  11. Maternal near miss: an indicator for maternal health and maternal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Pragti

    2014-07-01

    Maternal mortality is one of the important indicators used for the measurement of maternal health. Although maternal mortality ratio remains high, maternal deaths in absolute numbers are rare in a community. To overcome this challenge, maternal near miss has been suggested as a compliment to maternal death. It is defined as pregnant or recently delivered woman who survived a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or 42 days after termination of pregnancy. So far various nomenclature and criteria have been used to identify maternal near-miss cases and there is lack of uniform criteria for identification of near miss. The World Health Organization recently published criteria based on markers of management and organ dysfunction, which would enable systematic data collection on near miss and development of summary estimates. The prevalence of near miss is higher in developing countries and causes are similar to those of maternal mortality namely hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis and obstructed labor. Reviewing near miss cases provide significant information about the three delays in health seeking so that appropriate action is taken. It is useful in identifying health system failures and assessment of quality of maternal health-care. Certain maternal near miss indicators have been suggested to evaluate the quality of care. The near miss approach will be an important tool in evaluation and assessment of the newer strategies for improving maternal health.

  12. Maternal near miss: An indicator for maternal health and maternal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragti Chhabra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality is one of the important indicators used for the measurement of maternal health. Although maternal mortality ratio remains high, maternal deaths in absolute numbers are rare in a community. To overcome this challenge, maternal near miss has been suggested as a compliment to maternal death. It is defined as pregnant or recently delivered woman who survived a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or 42 days after termination of pregnancy. So far various nomenclature and criteria have been used to identify maternal near-miss cases and there is lack of uniform criteria for identification of near miss. The World Health Organization recently published criteria based on markers of management and organ dysfunction, which would enable systematic data collection on near miss and development of summary estimates. The prevalence of near miss is higher in developing countries and causes are similar to those of maternal mortality namely hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis and obstructed labor. Reviewing near miss cases provide significant information about the three delays in health seeking so that appropriate action is taken. It is useful in identifying health system failures and assessment of quality of maternal health-care. Certain maternal near miss indicators have been suggested to evaluate the quality of care. The near miss approach will be an important tool in evaluation and assessment of the newer strategies for improving maternal health.

  13. Reconfiguring Maternity Care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Nis

    were not obstacles which the proposed changes should overcome, but are on the contrary necessary, as it is the alliances between the particular interests and the proposed changes that motor the initiatives. The interests were not invented through the initiatives but are formed through history. Although...... at a hospital and a group of researchers which included me. Both initiatives involved numerous seemingly different interests that were held together and related to reconfiguring maternity care. None of the initiatives can unequivocally be labelled a success, as neither managed to change maternity care, at least...... not in the intended manner. It was, however, an achievement to relate the different interests for a period. In this dissertation I will elucidate the proposed changes in the initiatives as well as expound on the manner in which they were proposed. It is argued that the different interests involved in the initiatives...

  14. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  15. Maternal obesity and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S R; Kolberg, B H; Varner, M W; Railsback, L D

    1987-05-01

    We examined the risk of maternal obesity in 588 pregnant women weighing at least 113.6 kilograms (250 pounds) during pregnancy. Compared with a control group matched for age and parity, we found a significantly increased risk in the obese patient for gestational diabetes, hypertension, therapeutic induction, prolonged second stage of labor, oxytocin stimulation of labor, shoulder dystocia, infants weighing more than 4,000 grams and delivery after 42 weeks gestation. Certain operative complications were also more common in obese women undergoing cesarean section including estimated blood loss of more than 1,000 milliliters, operating time of more than two hours and wound infection postoperatively. These differences remained significant after controlling for appropriate confounding variables. We conclude that maternal obesity should be considered a high risk factor.

  16. Maternal obesity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devlieger, Roland; Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Paralleling the global epidemic of obesity figures in the general population, the incidence of maternal obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2 at the start of pregnancy) has been rising over the last world. While most European countries do not systematically report obesity figures in their pregnant population......, the prevalence of maternal obesity varies from 7 to 25% and seems strongly related to social and educational inequalities. Obesity during pregnancy represents an important preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and is associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers...... and offspring. These effects are often aggravated by the high incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance and excessive gestational weight gain found in this group. The main controversies around the management of the obese pregnant women are related to (1) the value of repeated weighing during pregnancy, (2...

  17. Maternal Hartnup disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, B E; Levy, H L

    1986-07-01

    We describe childbearing in two unrelated women with Hartnup disorder, an inborn error of neutral amino acid transport. Two living, unaffected offspring born after untreated and uneventful pregnancies, one from each woman, have had normal growth and development. The older one had an IQ of 92 at 4 years while the younger one at 4 months had a Development Quotient of 107 on the Mental Scale and 102 on the Motor Scale. A third offspring had a neural tube defect complicated by hydrocephalus and died at 3 months. This mother had a family history of major congenital anomalies. We think that this experience supports the view that Hartnup disorder in the mother, unlike phenylketonuria, does not have an adverse effect on the fetus. The presence of normal ratios of the amino acid concentrations between maternal and umbilical veins in one mother also suggests that placental transport of free amino acids, unlike renal transport, may not be reduced in maternal Hartnup disorder.

  18. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  19. Levels of maternal serum corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) at midpregnancy in relation to maternal characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yumin; Holzman, Claudia; Chung, Hwan; Senagore, Patricia; Talge, Nicole M; Siler-Khodr, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in maternal blood originates primarily from gestational tissues and elevated levels in midpregnancy have been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Investigators have hypothesized that high levels of maternal stress might lead to elevated CRH levels in pregnancy. Yet a few studies have measured maternal CRH levels among subgroups of women who experience disproportionate socioeconomic disadvantage, such as African-American and Hispanic women, and found that these groups have lower CRH levels in pregnancy. Our goal was to identify maternal characteristics related to CRH levels in midpregnancy and examine which if any of these factors help to explain race differences in CRH levels. METHODS The Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) Study prospectively enrolled women at 15–27 weeks’ gestation from 52 clinics in five Michigan communities (1998–2004). Data from the POUCH Study were used to examine maternal demographics, anthropometrics, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors (independent variables) in relation to midpregnancy blood CRH levels modeled as log CRH pg/ml (dependent variable). Analyses were conducted within a subcohort from the POUCH Study (671 non-Hispanic Whites, 545 African Americans) and repeated in the subcohort subset with uncomplicated pregnancies (n=746). Blood levels of CRH and independent variables were ascertained at the time of enrollment. All regression models included week of enrollment as a covariate. In addition, final multivariable regression models alternately incorporated different psychosocial measures along with maternal demographics and weight. Psychosocial variables included measures of current depressive symptoms, perceived stress, coping style, hostility, mastery, anomie, and a chronic stressor (history of abuse as a child and adult). RESULTS In subcohort models, the adjusted mean CRH level was significantly lower in African Americans vs. non-Hispanic whites

  20. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction....

  1. The Maternal Heroine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Messer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a Chinese curse quoted in glib desk calendars that have a phrase for each day: ‘May you live in interesting times’. In fiction, maternity has not often been seen as terribly interesting, and in the real world having babies often stops a mother from writing, off and on and even for years. The story of mothers and babies seems elusive, not fit for the imagination, for where’s the story? The ‘maternal heroine’, a protagonist and main character whose actions and identity are closely bound up with her work and experience of herself as a mother of young and dependent children, is rare. How could she not be? She’s busy giving off strong whiffs of routine. Where’s the drama in that? And what are babies? They’re not thinking, arguing agents for change—hardly protagonists—even if antagonistic at the cocktail hour. At least, that is one way of opening up the question of the maternal heroine.

  2. Selenoproteins and maternal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, A C; Zoidis, E; Surai, P F; Zervas, G

    2008-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of fundamental importance to health due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties attributed to its presence within at least 25 selenoproteins (Sel). Sel include but not limited to glutathione peroxidases (GPx1-GPx6), thioredoxin reductases (TrxR1-TrxR3), iodothyronine deiodinases (ID1-ID3), selenophosphate synthetase 2 (SPS2), 15-kDa Sel (Sel15), SelH, SelI, SelK, SelM, SelN, SelO, SelP, SelR, SelS, SelT, SelV, SelW, as well as the 15-kDa Sel (Fep15), SelJ and SelU found in fish. In this review, we describe some of the recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms of Sel synthesis. The impact of maternal Se intake on offspring is also discussed. The key regulatory point of Sel synthesis is Se itself, which acts predominantly at post-transcriptional levels, although recent findings indicate transcriptional and redox regulation. Maternal nutrition affects the performance and health of the progeny. Both maternal and offspring Se supplementations are essential for the antioxidant protection of the offspring. Prenatal Se supplementation provides an effective antioxidant system that is already in place at the time of birth while, postnatal Se supplementation becomes the main determinant of progeny Se status after the first few days of progeny life.

  3. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  4. Maternal mortality in Bijapur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya A. Thobbi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study is to evaluate the incidence of maternal deaths, causes responsible for maternal mortality, direct and indirect factors, and various preventable methods to reduce maternal mortality rate. Background: 95% of maternal deaths occur in Asia and Africa. The need for undertaking this study is to know the maternal mortality rate, analyze the causes and preventable factors of death occurring in the district of Bijapur, Karnataka, India. Methodology: It is a study of 2years from the Records of District Health Office and Institutions on maternal mortality from June 2011 to May 2013 in Bijapur. Results: In two years there were fifty eight maternal deaths and seventy nine thousand five hundred and sixty six live births, hence maternal mortality ratio was seventy three per lakh live births. Eighty two percent of maternal deaths occurred in families who belonged to Below Poverty Line. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy was 79.3%. Severe anemia (Hemoglobin <7g% seen in 5.1% was the most common indirect cause of death. Forty three percent of the deaths occurred at private setups. Hemorrhage, Septicemia and Preeclampsia & Eclampsia were responsible for 44.82%, 15.51% and 6.89% respectively. Conclusion: Majority of the maternal deaths are preventable if these four delays are avoided: a Delay in identifying the problem. b Delay in seeking care. c Delay in reaching the referral institute. d Delay in getting treatment on reaching the referral institute.

  5. Maternal prenatal stress is associated with the infant intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlmans, Maartje A C; Korpela, Katri; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Vos, Willem M; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-03-01

    Maternal prenatal stress has been often associated with infant physical development and health, as well as psychological functioning and behavior. However, the mechanisms underlying these relations remain elusive. The goal of the present study was to prospectively investigate the development of the intestinal microbiota as a potential pathway linking maternal prenatal stress and infant health. The development of the infant intestinal microbiota was followed over the first 110 days after birth in a healthy cohort of 56 vaginally born Dutch infants. Additionally, the relation between infant intestinal microbiota and gastrointestinal and allergic symptoms was examined. Results showed that maternal prenatal stress, i.e., either reported stress or elevated basal maternal salivary cortisol concentrations or both, was strongly and persistently associated with the infants' microbiota composition as determined by a phylogenetic microarray. Infants of mothers with high cumulative stress (i.e., high reported stress and high cortisol concentrations) during pregnancy had significantly higher relative abundances of Proteobacterial groups known to contain pathogens (related to Escherichia, Serratia, and Enterobacter), and lower relative abundances of lactic acid bacteria (i.e., Lactobacillus, Lactoccus, Aerococcus) and Bifidobacteria, altogether characteristics of a potentially increased level of inflammation. Furthermore, this aberrant colonization pattern was related to more maternally reported infant gastrointestinal symptoms and allergic reactions. In conclusion, clear links were found between maternal prenatal stress and the infant intestinal microbiota and health. Although causality cannot be concluded, the results suggest a possible mechanism by which maternal prenatal stress influences the offspring development. These results suggest a potential for bacterial interventions to enhance offspring health and development in pregnant women with stress.

  6. Maternally acquired runt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A E; Billingham, R E

    1973-01-19

    Without altering the structural integrity of the placenta by irradiation or drugs, we have shown that it is possible to immunize females both adoptively and actively against the paternally inherited transplantation antigens of their fetuses. Such immunization causes a high incidence of runt disease among the litters. Although the putative chimeric status of the affected offspring has yet to be confirmed, the results of our experiments support the thesis that runt disease is caused by the activities of "unwanted" immigrant lymphocytes from the maternal circulation. Our results suggest that immunologically activated cells are more likely to cross the placenta than normal cells and that this greater mobility may not be related to the immunologic specificity of the activated cells. Two factors may have contributed to the apparent failure of numerous previous attempts to demonstrate the capacity of transplantation immunity to affect the well-being of a fetus or, more correctly, its placenta, in the way that might be expected of a homograft. (i) Investigators were preoccupied with obtaining a classic type of rejection, in utero, analogous to the rejection of an orthotopic skin homograft. The birth of consistently healthy-looking litters, interpreted as a failure of the experiment, convinced the investigators of the efficacy of nature's solution of the homograft problem and there was no reason for them to suspect its possible limitations. Observation of the litters for several weeks might have uncovered the phenomenon of maternally induced runt disease. (ii) Most investigators resorted to hyperimmunization of the mothers. This would have facilitated the synthesis of protective isoantibodies capable of interfering with the expression of the potentially harmful cellular immune response (6). Ever since the abnormalities of runt disease were first described they have repeatedly been compared to those observed in patients with certain lymphomas (17). Various theories have been

  7. The reminiscence bump without memories: The distribution of imagined word-cued and important autobiographical memories in a hypothetical 70-year-old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    of autobiographical memories per se, most notably factors that aid in their encoding or retention, by asking students to generate imagined word-cued and imagined ‘most important’ autobiographical memories of a hypothetical, prototypical 70-year-old of their own culture and gender. We compared the distribution...... of these fictional memories with the distributions of actual word-cued and most important autobiographical memories in a sample of 61–70-year-olds. We found a striking similarity between the temporal distributions of the imagined memories and the actual memories. These results suggest that the reminiscence bump...

  8. Maternal mortality due to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Vivian Carolina; Pearlman, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Maternal mortality is an important indicator of adequacy of health care in our society. Improvements in the obstetric care system as well as advances in technology have contributed to reduction in maternal mortality rates. Trauma complicates up to 7% of all pregnancies and has emerged as the leading cause of maternal mortality, becoming a significant concern for the public health system. Maternal mortality secondary to trauma can often be prevented by coordinated medical care, but it is essential that caregivers recognize the unique situation of providing simultaneous care to 2 patients who have a complex physiologic relationship. Optimal management of the pregnant trauma victim requires a multidisciplinary team, where the obstetrician plays a central role. This review focuses on the incidence of maternal mortality due to trauma, the mechanisms involved in traumatic injury, the important anatomic and physiologic changes that may predispose to mortality due to trauma, and finally, preventive strategies that may decrease the incidence of traumatic maternal death.

  9. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  10. [Maternal cannabis use and intra-uterine growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitian, C; Uzan, M; Tigaizin, A; Ducarme, G; Dauphin, H; Poncelet, C

    2006-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug, especially among young women in Western societies. The effects of cannabis use during pregnancy have been studied for many years. The vast majority of studies have shown a link between maternal consumption of cannabis and foetal development. Foetal growth restriction seems to be the major complication of cannabis exposure. Nevertheless, all these studies have suffered from several methodological biases. The maternal marijuana use should be first and foremost detected in pregnant women for a specific addiction management and pregnancy follow-up.

  11. Beyond animals and plants: dynamic maternal effects in the fungus Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, K C K; Levitis, D A; Pringle, A

    2016-07-01

    Maternal effects are widely documented in animals and plants, but not in fungi or other eukaryotes. A principal cause of maternal effects is asymmetrical parental investment in a zygote, creating greater maternal vs. paternal influence on offspring phenotypes. Asymmetrical investments are not limited to animals and plants, but are also prevalent in fungi and groups including apicomplexans, dinoflagellates and red algae. Evidence suggesting maternal effects among fungi is sparse and anecdotal. In an experiment designed to test for maternal effects across sexual reproduction in the model fungus Neurospora crassa, we measured offspring phenotypes from crosses of all possible pairs of 22 individuals. Crosses encompassed reciprocals of 11 mating-type 'A' and 11 mating-type 'a' wild strains. After controlling for the genetic and geographic distances between strains in any individual cross, we found strong evidence for maternal control of perithecia (sporocarp) production, as well as maternal effects on spore numbers and spore germination. However, both parents exert equal influence on the percentage of spores that are pigmented and size of pigmented spores. We propose a model linking the stage-specific presence or absence of maternal effects to cellular developmental processes: effects appear to be mediated primarily through the maternal cytoplasm, and, after spore cell walls form, maternal influence on spore development is limited. Maternal effects in fungi, thus far largely ignored, are likely to shape species' evolution and ecologies. Moreover, the association of anisogamy and maternal effects in a fungus suggests maternal effects may also influence the biology of other anisogamous eukaryotes. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Investigating Environmental Links between Parent Depression and Child Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms Using an Assisted Conception Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Links between maternal and offspring depression symptoms could arise from inherited factors, direct environmental exposure, or shared adversity. A novel genetically sensitive design was used to test the extent of environmental links between maternal depression symptoms and child depression/anxiety symptoms, accounting for inherited…

  13. [Epidemiology and maternal thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jean-Luc

    2003-01-01

    The monthly incidence of deep vein thrombosis during pregnancy varies from 0.1 to 0.8 per 1000 pregnancies, depending on the study. These figures are undoubtedly an underestimation because they were determined from clinical events with no estimation of asymptomatic forms which, in general, increase the prevalence about 3-fold. Although the absolute figures are reliable, the consequences in terms of maternal mortality and post-phlebitis sequelae warrant the careful attention paid to this condition. Moreover, it should be recalled that the prevalence of superficial venous thrombosis is similar and may be associated with a risk of pulmonary embolism.

  14. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal…

  15. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal…

  16. Maternal restraint and external eating behaviour are associated with formula use or shorter breastfeeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A

    2014-05-01

    Maternal eating behaviour (e.g. restraint, disinhibition) has been associated with maternal child-feeding style (e.g. pressure to eat, restricting intake, monitoring) for children over the age of two years. In particular, mothers high in restraint are significantly more likely to restrict and monitor their child's intake of food. Research has not however examined the impact of maternal eating behaviour upon earlier infant feeding. A controlling maternal child-feeding style has been linked with shorter breastfeeding duration and earlier introduction of solid foods but the relationship between infant milk feeding and maternal eating behaviour has not been explored despite links between maternal weight, body image and breastfeeding duration. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between maternal restraint, emotional and external eating and breastfeeding initiation and duration. Seven hundred and fifty-six mothers with an infant aged 6-12months completed a copy of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire and reported breastfeeding duration and formula use up to six months postpartum. Mothers high in restraint and external eating were significantly more likely to formula feed from birth, to breastfeed for a shorter duration and to introduce formula milk sooner than those lower in these behaviours. Moreover these behaviours were associated with reporting greater control during milk feeding by feeding to a mother-led rather than baby-led routine. Maternal eating behaviour may therefore affect breastfeeding initiation and continuation and is an important element for discussion for those working to support new mothers.

  17. The efficacy of treatment reminders of life with emphasis on integrative reminiscence on self-esteem and anxiety in widowed old men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Pishvaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Loss of wife besides the phenomenon of aging could cause some psychological disorders and may shorten the duration of this stage of life. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of treatment reminders of life with emphasis on integrative reminiscence on self-esteem and anxiety in widowed old men.This was a clinical trial with pre-test and post-test design with a control group. The study population included All 60 to 80 year old men living in Meshginshahr; among whom, 34 participants were selected using convenience sampling method. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups (experimental and control. The experimental group participated in therapy sessions and the control group did not receive any intervention. The research instruments were Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Anxiety Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multivariable covariance analysis in SSPS-19. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.MANCOVA results showed that the treatment positively affected the variables of self-esteem and anxiety in old widowed men (p<0.001.The reminders of life therapy with emphasis on integrative reminiscence may enhance self-esteem and reduce anxiety in widowed old men. This treatment gives better results compared to the traditional treatments and it is recommended to be implemented in nursing homes.

  18. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

  19. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

  20. Maternal Exposure to Occupational Asthmagens during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Study to Explore Early Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alison B.; Windham, Gayle C.; Croen, Lisa A.; Daniels, Julie L.; Lee, Brian K.; Qian, Yinge; Schendel, Diana E.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Burstyn, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Maternal immune activity has been linked to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined maternal occupational exposure to asthma-causing agents during pregnancy in relation to ASD risk. Our sample included 463 ASD cases and 710 general population controls from the Study to Explore Early Development whose mothers reported at least one…

  1. Maternal Talk About Disappearance Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Beverly A.

    1995-01-01

    Examined maternal talk about events regarding hidden, missing, or absent persons or objects, and the relationship of maternal language to children's acquisition of words for disappearance, among 12 mother-infant pairs. Results found that infants who had acquired "gone" and similar terms experienced more disappearance events than children…

  2. Evolution of maternal effect senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-01-12

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton's evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton's age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species.

  3. National level maternal health decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal deaths and morbidity still pose an enormous challenge for health authorities in Ghana, a lower middle income country. Despite massive investments in maternal and neonatal health and special attention through Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4 a

  4. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…

  5. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…

  6. Do women with higher autonomy seek more maternal health care? Evidence from Eritrea and Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemicael, Gebremariam

    2010-07-01

    Using data from the 2002 Eritrea and 2005 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), this study was carried out to investigate the link between women's autonomy and maternal health care utilization in relation to socioeconomic factors. Although some dimensions of women's autonomy are significantly linked to an increased likelihood of receiving health care, they do not emerge to be mediators of the link between socioeconomic factors and use of health services for antenatal care and delivery care. In order to derive a complete understanding of the determinants of maternal health care utilization, both women's autonomy and socioeconomic indicators should be analyzed.

  7. Maternal Emotion Regulation and Adolescent Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Family Functioning and Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, AliceAnn; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Day, Randal D; Riley, Anne W

    2016-11-01

    Prior research links poor maternal emotion regulation to maladaptive parenting and child behaviors, but little research is available on these relationships during the adolescent period. We use structural equation modeling to assess the influence of poor maternal emotion regulation, measured as emotional reactivity and distancing, on adolescent behaviors (measured as aggression and prosocial behaviors) among 478 adolescents (53 % female; baseline age 10-13 years) and their mothers over a 5 year period. We also tested the possible mediating roles of family functioning and parenting behaviors between maternal emotion regulation and adolescent behaviors. Results indicated that higher baseline maternal emotional distancing and reactivity were not directly predictive of adolescents' behaviors, but they were indirectly related through family functioning and parenting. Specifically, indulgent parenting mediated the relationship between maternal emotional reactivity and adolescent aggression. Maternal-reported family functioning significantly mediated the relationship between maternal emotional distancing and adolescent aggression. Family functioning also mediated the relationship between emotional distancing and regulation parenting. The results imply that poor maternal emotion regulation during their child's early adolescence leads to more maladaptive parenting and problematic behaviors during the later adolescent period. However, healthy family processes may ameliorate the negative impact of low maternal emotion regulation on parenting and adolescent behavioral outcomes. The implications for future research and interventions to improve parenting and adolescent outcomes are discussed.

  8. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália P. Castro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM% was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin (p = 0.001 and pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001; adj. R2 = 0.19 were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  9. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Natália P; Euclydes, Verônica V; Simões, Fernanda A; Vaz-de-Lima, Lourdes R A; De Brito, Cyro A; Luzia, Liania A; Devakumar, Delan; Rondó, Patrícia H C

    2017-02-23

    Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM%) was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin (p = 0.001) and pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001; adj. R² = 0.19) were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  10. Towards elimination of maternal deaths: maternal deaths surveillance and response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hounton Sennen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR ≤ 30 per 100,000 by 2030.

  11. Severe maternal morbidity and the mode of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallasmaa, Nanneli; Ekblad, Ulla; Gissler, Mika

    2008-01-01

    To define the rate of severe maternal morbidity in different modes of delivery and to find out if the rate of severe morbidity has changed over a 5-year time span. Retrospective register-based study. Finnish Medical Birth Registry and Hospital Discharge Registry. All singleton deliveries in Finland in 1997 and 2002 (n=110,717). Diagnoses and operative interventions recorded in the Hospital Discharge Registry indicating a severe maternal complication were linked with Birth Register data and compared by mode of delivery: spontaneous vaginal delivery (VD), instrumental VD, elective cesarean section and non-elective cesarean section. Main outcome measures were severe maternal morbidity: deep venous thromboembolism and amniotic fluid embolism, major puerperal infection, severe hemorrhage, events requiring operative intervention after delivery, uterine rupture and inversion, and intestinal obstruction. Severe maternal morbidity was more frequent in cesarean than vaginal deliveries (p<0.001), and more frequent in non-elective than in elective operations (p<0.001). The rate of severe maternal morbidity increased considerably from 1997 to 2002; from 5.9 to 7.6 per 1,000 in all deliveries (p<0.001), from 4.0 per 1,000 to 5.2 per 1,000 in spontaneous vaginal deliveries (p=0.005), from 9.9 per 1,000 to 12.1 per 1,000 in elective cesarean sections (CSs) (p=0.164), and from 19.6 per 1,000 to 27.2 per 1,000 in non-elective CSs (p=0.090), respectively. Severe maternal morbidity has increased both in cesarean and vaginal deliveries from 1997 to 2002. Cesarean delivery, even an elective one, carries a significantly higher risk of life-threatening maternal complications than VD.

  12. Psychosocial stress moderates the relationships between oxytocin, perinatal depression, and maternal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Gold, Ian; Feeley, Nancy; Hayton, Barbara; Carter, C Sue; Tulandi, Togas; Abenhaim, Haim A; Levin, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    The hormone oxytocin (OT) is of particular interest in the study of childbearing women, as it has a role in the onset and course of labor and breastfeeding. Recent research has linked OT to maternal caregiving behavior towards her infant, and to postpartum depressive symptomatology. There is also evidence that psychosocial adversity affects the oxytocin system. The present study investigated the relationship of endogenous OT in women during pregnancy and at 8weeks postpartum to psychosocial stress, maternal symptoms of depression, and maternal sensitive behavior. It was hypothesized that OT would mediate the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on maternal interactive behavior. We also tested the hypothesis that psychosocial stress would moderate the relationship between OT and maternal depressive symptoms and sensitive behavior. A community sample of 287 women was assessed at 12-14weeks of gestation, 32-34weeks of gestation, and 7-9weeks postpartum. We measured plasma OT, maternal symptoms of depression and psychosocial stress. At the postpartum home visit, maternal behavior in interaction with the infant was videotaped, and then coded to assess sensitivity. In the sample as a whole, OT was not related to maternal depressive symptoms or to sensitive maternal behavior. However, among women who reported high levels of psychosocial stress, higher levels of plasma OT were associated with fewer depressive symptoms and more sensitive maternal behavior. These results suggest that endogenous OT may act as a buffer against the deleterious effects of stress, thereby protecting high risk women from developing depressive symptoms and promoting more sensitive maternal interactive behavior.

  13. Transatlantic link

    Science.gov (United States)

    (left) European Geophysical Society (EGS) President Rolf Meissner at AGU Headquarters with (center) Executive Director Fred Spilhaus and (right) Foreign Secretary Juan Roederer. Meissner attended the meeting of AGU's Committee on International Participation (CIP) on February 26, 1988. At that meeting, specific ways of fostering close links between AGU and EGS were discussed.A few weeks later, Roederer and AGU staff, working with EGS Secretary-General Arne Richter at the EGS meeting in Bologna, Italy, March 21-25, planned details of the establishment of an AGU office in Europe. The Copernicus Gesellschaft, a new entity located on the premises of the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy in Lindau, Federal Republic of Germany, will provide the administrative staff and handle logistics.

  14. Investigating financial incentives for maternal health: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-12-01

    feedback on recommendations which the teams included in their final papers appearing in this Supplement. Papers in this Supplement review the evidence for a specific financial incentive mechanism (e.g. pay for performance, conditional cash transfer) to improve the use and quality of maternal healthcare and makes recommendations for programmes and future research. While data on programmes using financial incentives for improved use and indications of the quality of maternal health services support specific conclusions and recommendations, including those for future research, data linking the use of financial incentives with improved health outcomes are minimal.

  15. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: evidence from maternity leave mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy, focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. We also look for impacts of the reform on self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data. For most indicators we find no effect.

  16. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age.

  17. Fortification of maternal milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Di Natale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  18. Maternal personality and reproductive ambition in women is associated with salivary testosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deady, D K; Smith, M J Law; Sharp, M A; Al-Dujaili, E A S

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has linked testosterone levels with sex-specific personality traits within women. The present study investigates the relation between salivary testosterone levels and specifically maternal personality traits in healthy adult women. Twenty-seven young women completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Additional questions were asked about maternal personality (importance of having children, self-rated maternal/broodiness), reproductive ambition (ideal number of children, ideal own age at first child) and career orientation (importance of having career). Higher circulating testosterone levels were associated with lower scores on measures of maternal personality and reproductive ambition. There was no relation of career orientation with testosterone. A median split on BSRI masculinity revealed high scorers had higher testosterone levels than low scorers. There was no relation of BSRI femininity with testosterone. Results suggest maternal tendencies may be partly androgen driven.

  19. Improving maternal healthcare utilisation in sub-Saharan Africa through micro-finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abekah-Nkrumah, Gordon; Abor, Patience Aseweh; Abor, Joshua; Adjasi, Charles K D

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to examine links between women's access to micro-finance and how they use maternal healthcare services in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The authors use theoretical and empirical literature to propose a framework to sustain and improve women's access to maternal healthcare services through micro-financing. It is found that improved access to micro-finance by women, combined with education may enhance maternal health service uptake. The paper does not consider empirical data in the analysis. The authors advocate empirically testing the framework proposed in other SSA countries. It is important to empower women by facilitating their access to education and micro-finance. This has implications for improving maternal healthcare utilization in SSA. The paper moves beyond poor access to maternal health services in SSA and proposes a framework for providing sustainable solutions.

  20. The effect of women's decision-making power on maternal health services uptake: evidence from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaohui; Ma, Ning

    2013-03-01

    A large body of research has explored the links between women's decision making and their uptake of maternal health services, but the evidence so far is inconclusive. This study uses the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey to examine the influence of household decision making on women's uptake of maternal health services. We find that women's decision-making power has a significant positive correlation with maternal health services uptake and that influential males' decision-making power has the opposite effect, after controlling for socio-economic indicators and supply-side conditions. Our findings suggest that empowering women and increasing their ability to make decisions may increase their uptake of maternal health services. They also suggest that policies directed toward improving women's utilization of maternal health services in Pakistan must target men as well as women.

  1. Genetic variation in offspring indirectly influences the quality of maternal behaviour in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, David George; Gini, Beatrice; Hager, Reinmar

    2015-12-23

    Conflict over parental investment between parent and offspring is predicted to lead to selection on genes expressed in offspring for traits influencing maternal investment, and on parentally expressed genes affecting offspring behaviour. However, the specific genetic variants that indirectly modify maternal or offspring behaviour remain largely unknown. Using a cross-fostered population of mice, we map maternal behaviour in genetically uniform mothers as a function of genetic variation in offspring and identify loci on offspring chromosomes 5 and 7 that modify maternal behaviour. Conversely, we found that genetic variation among mothers influences offspring development, independent of offspring genotype. Offspring solicitation and maternal behaviour show signs of coadaptation as they are negatively correlated between mothers and their biological offspring, which may be linked to costs of increased solicitation on growth found in our study. Overall, our results show levels of parental provisioning and offspring solicitation are unique to specific genotypes.

  2. Behavioural deficits associated with maternal immune activation in the rat model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Amy R; Cheyne, Kirsten R; Bilkey, David K

    2011-11-20

    Schizophrenia is associated with changes in memory and contextual processing. As maternal infection is a risk factor in schizophrenia we tested for these impairments in a maternal immune activation (MIA) animal model. MIA rats displayed impaired object recognition memory, despite intact object discrimination, and a reduced reinstatement of rearing in response to a contextual manipulation. These results link MIA to contextual impairments in schizophrenia, possibly through changes in hippocampal function.

  3. Pathways from maternal depressive symptoms to adolescent depressive symptoms:the unique contribution of irritability symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Y.M.; Leibenluft, E.; Stringaris, A; Edward D Barker

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors tested three possible pathways linking prenatal maternal depressive symptoms to adolescent depressive symptoms. These pathways went through childhood Irritability Symptoms, Anxiety/Depressive Symptoms or Conduct Problems.METHOD: Data were collected from 3,963 mother-child pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Measures include maternal depressive symptoms (pre- and postnatal); toddler temperament (2 years); childhood (7-13 years) ir...

  4. Dancing links

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, Donald E

    2009-01-01

    The author presents two tricks to accelerate depth-first search algorithms for a class of combinatorial puzzle problems, such as tiling a tray by a fixed set of polyominoes. The first trick is to implement each assumption of the search with reversible local operations on doubly linked lists. By this trick, every step of the search affects the data incrementally. The second trick is to add a ghost square that represents the identity of each polyomino. Thus puts the rule that each polyomino be used once on the same footing as the rule that each square be covered once. The coding simplifies to a more abstract form which is equivalent to 0-1 integer programming. More significantly for the total computation time, the search can naturally switch between placing a fixed polyomino or covering a fixed square at different stages, according to a combined heuristic. Finally the author reports excellent performance for his algorithm for some familiar puzzles. These include tiling a hexagon by 19 hexiamonds and the N queen...

  5. Maternity leave in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Dean

    2011-08-01

    To assist maternity care providers in recognizing and discussing health- and illness-related issues in pregnancy and their relationship to maternity benefits. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., maternity benefits) and key words (e.g., maternity, benefits, pregnancy). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the web sites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.

  6. Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003407.htm Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution To use the sharing features ... unborn baby is leaking into the mother's blood circulation. The more of the baby's cells there are, ...

  7. Maternal Mortality Trend in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    it generally indicates the urgent need of improving the quality of maternal health services; scaling up evidence based interventions ... inadequate care, inefficient management of delivery, and ... There are many factors that affect the outcome of.

  8. Maternal age and trajectories of cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genna, Natacha M; Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L

    2015-11-01

    Becoming a mother is a developmental transition that has been linked to desistance from substance use. However, timing of motherhood may be a key determinant of cannabis use in women, based on preliminary evidence from teenage mothers. The goal of this study was to identify trajectories of maternal cannabis use, and to determine if maternal age was associated with different trajectories of use. This prospective study examined 456 pregnant women recruited at a prenatal clinic, ranging in age from 13 to 42 years. The women were interviewed about their cannabis use 1 year prior to pregnancy and during each trimester of pregnancy, and at 6, 10, 14, and 16 years post-partum. A growth mixture model of cannabis use reported at each time point clearly delineated four groups: non/unlikely to use, decreasing likelihood of use, late desistance, and increasing likelihood/chronic use (Lo-Mendell-Rubin adjusted LRT test statistic=35.7, pcannabis across 17 years, including later desistance post-partum and increasing/chronic use. Other substance use and chronic depressive symptoms were also associated with more frequent use. These findings have implications for both prevention and treatment of cannabis use in mothers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternally inherited npm2 mRNA is crucial for egg developmental competence in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouleau, Aurélien; Desvignes, Thomas; Traverso, Juan Martin; Nguyen, Thaovi; Chesnel, Franck; Fauvel, Christian; Bobe, Julien

    2014-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying and determining egg developmental competence remain poorly understood in vertebrates. Nucleoplasmin (Npm2) is one of the few known maternal effect genes in mammals, but this maternal effect has never been demonstrated in nonmammalian species. A link between developmental competence and the abundance of npm2 maternal mRNA in the egg was previously established using a teleost fish model for egg quality. The importance of maternal npm2 mRNA for egg developmental competence remains unknown in any vertebrate species. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the contribution of npm2 maternal mRNA to early developmental success in zebrafish using a knockdown strategy. We report here the oocyte-specific expression of npm2 and maternal inheritance of npm2 mRNA in zebrafish eggs. The knockdown of the protein translated from this maternal mRNA results in developmental arrest before the onset of epiboly and subsequent embryonic death, a phenotype also observed in embryos lacking zygotic transcription. Npm2 knockdown also results in impaired transcription of the first-wave zygotic genes. Our results show that npm2 is also a maternal effect gene in a nonmammalian vertebrate species and that maternally inherited npm2 mRNA is crucial for egg developmental competence. We also show that de novo protein synthesis from npm2 maternal mRNA is critical for developmental success beyond the blastula stage and required for zygotic genome activation. Finally, our results suggest that npm2 maternal mRNA is an important molecular factor of egg quality in fish and possibly in all vertebrates.

  10. A longitudinal investigation of maternal influences on the development of child hostile attributions and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Sarah J; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Hughes, Claire; Halligan, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Aggression in children is associated with an enhanced tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others. However, limited information is available regarding the factors that contribute to the development of such hostile attribution tendencies. We examined factors that contribute to individual differences in child hostile attributions and aggression, focusing on potential pathways from maternal hostile attributions via negative parenting behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 98 mothers and children (47 male, 51 female), recruited from groups experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity. Maternal hostile attributions, observed parenting, and child behaviour were assessed at 18 months and 5 years child age, and child hostile attributions were also examined at 5 years. Independent assessments of maternal and child processes were utilized where possible. Analyses provided support for a direct influence of maternal hostile attributions on the development of child hostile attributions and aggressive behaviour. Maternal hostile attributions were also associated with negative parenting behaviour, which in turn influenced child adjustment. Even taking account of possible parenting influences and preexisting child difficulties, hostile attributions in the mother showed a direct link with child aggression at 5 years. Maternal hostile attributions were themselves related to psychosocial adversity. We conclude that maternal hostile attributions are prevalent in high-risk samples and are related to less optimal parenting behaviour, child hostile attributions, and child aggression. Targeting hostile maternal cognitions may be a useful adjunct to parenting programs.

  11. Maternal leptin and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Leptin is produced mainly by adipocytes. Levels are increased in women with obesity and during pregnancy. Increased levels are also associated with pregnancy complications such as, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: We studied what component of body composition correlated best with maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy and, whether maternal leptin correlated better with visceral fat rather than fat distributed elsewhere. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Women were recruited in the first trimester. Maternal adiposity was measured using body mass index and advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maternal leptin was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. RESULTS: Of the 100 subjects studied, the mean leptin concentration was 37.7 ng\\/ml (range: 2.1-132.8). Leptin levels did not correlate with gestational age in the first trimester, maternal age, parity or birth weight. Serum leptin correlated positively with maternal weight and body mass index, and with the different parameters of body composition. On multiple regression analysis, serum leptin correlated with visceral fat but not fat distributed elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Visceral fat is the main determinant of circulating maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy. This raises the possibility that maternal leptin in early pregnancy may be a marker for the development of metabolic syndrome, including diabetes mellitus.

  12. Effects of Antenatal Maternal Depression and Anxiety on Children's Early Cognitive Development: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Ibanez

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that depression or anxiety occur in 10-20% of pregnant women. These disorders are often undertreated and may affect mothers and children's health. This study investigates the relation between antenatal maternal depression, anxiety and children's early cognitive development among 1380 two-year-old children and 1227 three-year-old children.In the French EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study, language ability was assessed with the Communicative Development Inventory at 2 years of age and overall development with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 3 years of age. Multiple regressions and structural equation modeling were used to examine links between depression, anxiety during pregnancy and child cognitive development.We found strong significant associations between maternal antenatal anxiety and poorer children's cognitive development at 2 and 3 years. Antenatal maternal depression was not associated with child development, except when antenatal maternal anxiety was also present. Both postnatal maternal depression and parental stimulation appeared to play mediating roles in the relation between antenatal maternal anxiety and children's cognitive development. At 3 years, parental stimulation mediated 13.2% of the effect of antenatal maternal anxiety while postnatal maternal depression mediated 26.5%.The partial nature of these effects suggests that other mediators may play a role. Implications for theory and research on child development are discussed.

  13. DRD2 and SLC6A3 moderate impact of maternal depressive symptoms on infant cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludmer, Jaclyn A; Levitan, Robert; Gonzalez, Andrea; Kennedy, James; Villani, Vanessa; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo S; Atkinson, Leslie

    2015-12-01

    Both maternal depressive symptoms and infants' dopamine-related genetic characteristics have been linked to infants' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning. This study investigated the interactive influence of maternal depressive symptoms and infant DRD2 and SLC6A3 genotypes on infant cortisol reactivity; whether this interaction reflects diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility; and whether this interaction influences the flexibility of the infant cortisol response across challenges known to exert differential effects on infant cortisol reactivity. A community sample of 314 mother-infant dyads participated in toy frustration (age 16 months) and maternal separation (age 17 months) challenges, and salivary cortisol was collected at baseline, +20, and +40min. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory-II at infant age 16 months. Infant buccal cells were collected at both time points for genotyping. DRD2 and SLC6A3 genotypes moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptomatology and infant cortisol reactivity in a diathesis-stress manner in the context of toy frustration, and in a differential susceptibility manner in the context of maternal separation. Higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms predicted reduced cortisol flexibility across challenges for infants with at least one A1 allele of DRD2 and infants with the 10/10 genotype of SLC6A3. Results suggest that maternal depressive symptomatology is related to infants' cortisol reactivity and to the flexibility of that reactivity across psychosocial challenges, but this relation is dependent on the infant's genetic characteristics.

  14. The question of autonomy in maternal health in Africa: a rights-based consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzat, Jimoh

    2015-06-01

    Maternal mortality is still very high in Africa, despite progress in control efforts at the global level. One elemental link is the question of autonomy in maternal health, especially at the household level where intrinsic human rights are undermined. A rights-based consideration in bioethics is an approach that holds the centrality of the human person, with a compelling reference to the fundamental human rights of every person. A philosophical and sociological engagement of gender and the notion of autonomy within the household reveals some fundamental rights-based perplexities for bioethical considerations in maternal health. The right to self-determination is undermined, and therefore women's dignity, freedom and autonomy, capacities, and choices are easily defiled. This study applies a rights-based approach to maternal health and demonstrates how rights concerns are associated with negative outcomes in maternal health in Africa. The discussion is situated at the household level, which is the starting point in health care. The paper submits that beyond legal and political rights within the context of the state, rights-based issues manifest at the household level. Many of those rights issues, especially relating to women's autonomy, are detrimental to maternal health in Africa. Therefore, a rights-based approach in the social construction of maternal health realities will contribute to alleviating the burden of maternal mortality in Africa.

  15. Maternal Childhood Maltreatment History and Child Mental Health: Mechanisms in Intergenerational Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron

    2016-04-12

    The objectives of this study were to examine whether a maternal history of maltreatment in childhood has a detrimental impact on young children's mental health and to test theoretically and empirically informed pathways by which maternal history may influence child mental health. Mother-child dyads (N = 187) were evaluated between birth and 64 months of age via home and laboratory observations, medical and child protection record reviews, and maternal interviews to assess maternal history of childhood maltreatment and microsystem and exosystem measures of the caregiving context, including child maltreatment, maternal caregiving quality, stress exposures, and social support. When the children were 7 years of age, mothers and teachers reported on child emotional and behavioral problems. Analyses examined whether the caregiving context variables linked maternal maltreatment history with child emotional and behavioral problems, controlling for child sex (54% male), race/ethnicity (63% White), and family sociodemographic risk at birth. Maltreated mothers experienced greater stress and diminished social support, and their children were more likely to be maltreated across early childhood. By age 7, children of maltreated mothers were at increased risk for clinically significant emotional and behavioral problems. A path analysis model showed mediation of the effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child symptoms, with specific effects significant for child maltreatment. Interventions that reduce child maltreatment risk and stress exposures and increase family social support may prevent deleterious effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child mental health.

  16. Maternal obesity and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Aghamohammadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a modern day epidemic. The incidence appears to be rapidly increasing in bothdeveloped and developing countries and has become much more obvious in the last decade.Aim& Objective: The present research was done with the aim of studying the effects of obesity definedas a first trimester maternal body mass index >30 on the preeclampsia.Methods: This study was a descriptive-comparative study two hundred fifty singleton pregnancies ofwomen with first trimester BMI >30 who delivered at Emam Hospital, Sari Iran during 2008–2009 werestudied A control group with two hundred fifty nine women of normal body mass index matched for ageand parity were selected and incidence of preeclampsia were compared between groups. χ2 and Oddsratioand 95% confidence were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05.Results: There was a significant relation between obesity and preeclampsia (20.8 vs. 5.8%, P<0.0001compared to non-obese women.Conclusion: Obesity in pregnant women appears to be a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes.

  17. Maternal race and intergenerational preterm birth recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Lee, Jong Hyung; Grant, Jacqueline H; Miles, Gandarvaka; Stoddard, Gregory J; Chapman, Derek A; Manuck, Tracy A

    2017-10-01

    Preterm birth is a complex disorder with a heritable genetic component. Studies of primarily White women born preterm show that they have an increased risk of subsequently delivering preterm. This risk of intergenerational preterm birth is poorly defined among Black women. Our objective was to evaluate and compare intergenerational preterm birth risk among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study, using the Virginia Intergenerational Linked Birth File. All non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers born in Virginia 1960 through 1996 who delivered their first live-born, nonanomalous, singleton infant ≥20 weeks from 2005 through 2009 were included. We assessed the overall gestational age distribution between non-Hispanic Black and White mothers born term and preterm (preterm (preterm birth, 34-36 weeks; and early preterm birth, preterm birth among all eligible births; and (2) suspected spontaneous preterm birth among births to women with medical complications (eg, diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia and thus higher risk for a medically indicated preterm birth). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of preterm birth and spontaneous preterm birth by maternal race and maternal gestational age after adjusting for confounders including maternal education, maternal age, smoking, drug/alcohol use, and infant gender. Of 173,822 deliveries captured in the intergenerational birth cohort, 71,676 (41.2%) women met inclusion criteria for this study. Of the entire cohort, 30.0% (n = 21,467) were non-Hispanic Black and 70.0% were non-Hispanic White mothers. Compared to non-Hispanic White mothers, non-Hispanic Black mothers were more likely to have been born late preterm (6.8% vs 3.7%) or early preterm (2.8 vs 1.0%), P preterm were not at an increased risk of early or late preterm delivery compared to non-Hispanic White mothers born term. The risk of early preterm birth was most

  18. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  19. Maternal Floor Infarction/Massive Perivillous Fibrin Deposition Associated with Hypercoiling of a Single-Artery Umbilical Cord: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taweevisit, Mana; Thorner, Paul Scott

    2016-01-01

    Maternal floor infarction is a rare and idiopathic placental disorder associated with adverse obstetric outcomes and a high rate of recurrence in subsequent pregnancies. The pathogenesis of maternal floor infarction is unclear but has been linked to diverse underlying maternal conditions, including gestational hypertension/preeclampsia, immune-mediated diseases, and thrombophilia. Few reports link maternal floor infarction to fetoplacental conditions. We report a 34-week, macerated, growth-restricted male fetus for which the placenta showed maternal floor infarction. The umbilical cord showed excessive coiling and a single umbilical artery. These cord changes are postulated to have resulted in increased placental villous resistance and decreased fetal blood flow, creating a hydrostatic pressure gradient between the villous stroma and the intervillous space. The pressure changes could then lead to trophoblast damage and fibrinoid deposition, contributing to the maternal floor infarction in this case.

  20. Positive parenting and child psychosocial adjustment in inner-city single-parent African American families. The role of maternal optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J; Forehand, Rex; Brody, Gene H; Armistead, Lisa

    2002-09-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to examine whether maternal optimism is related to positive parenting and child adjustment and whether it contributes beyond maternal depressive symptoms to our understanding. The participants were 141 African American single mothers and one of their children. Findings revealed that maternal optimism was associated with positive parenting and this association was only partially mediated by maternal depressive symptoms. Maternal optimism was not associated with child psychosocial adjustment, but positive parenting was associated with lower levels of both internalizing and externalizing difficulties. The utility of understanding the link between maternal optimism and parenting for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at enhancing quality of life and subsequent child adjustment is discussed, as well as directions for future research on maternal optimism.

  1. Severe maternal outcome: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Grover

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality ratio (MMR is considered an indicator of obstetric care available in a society and reduction in MMR has been one of the important millennium development goals defined by World Health Organization (WHO but it has always been recognized that maternal mortality is just the tip of iceberg. WHO has now defined maternal near-miss cases thus broadening the focus on life threatening conditions encountered by pregnant women. A study was started at our obstetric unit based on near-miss maternal mortality concept in March 2015 and is currently underway. We analyzed the initial data of the first few months and recognized four of such special cases which find mention in this review. We decided to review the literature with special reference to these cases as every such case is a lesson in itself for the health care provider, highlighting the acts of omission or interventions that may make the difference between a high risk pregnancy terminating without complication or ending as a near-miss or mortality. We reviewed the literature about various causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. In addition to the sincere efforts done by the doctors from different specialities, a good blood bank facility, ICU care as well as government provided transport facility played important roles in these cases. A long term analysis of this data can certainly guide the policy makers about the areas that need more stress and financial support. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 596-602

  2. Materno-infantilism, feminism and maternal health policy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Simone

    2012-06-01

    In the last days of 2011, President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff issued a provisional measure (or draft law) entitled "National Surveillance and Monitoring Registration System for the Prevention of Maternal Mortality" (MP 557), as part of a new maternal health programme. It was supposed to address the pressing issue of maternal morbidity and mortality in Brazil, but instead it caused an explosive controversy because it used terms such as nascituro (unborn child) and proposed the compulsory registration of every pregnancy. After intense protests by feminist and human rights groups that this law was unconstitutional, violated women's right to privacy and threatened our already limited reproductive rights, the measure was revised in January 2012, omitting "the unborn child" but not the mandatory registration of pregnancy. Unfortunately, neither version of the draft law addresses the two main problems with maternal health in Brazil: the over-medicalisation of childbirth and its adverse effects, and the need for safe, legal abortion. The content of this measure itself reflects the conflictive nature of public policies on reproductive health in Brazil and how they are shaped by close links between different levels of government and political parties, and religious and professional sectors. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal Parity and Blood Oxidative Stress in Mother and Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golalizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Parturition has been associated with free radicals, itself linked with poor pregnancy outcome. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers levels of maternal and cord blood samples at the second stage of labor with the maternal parity number. Materials and Methods In this analytical cross-sectional study, subjects were selected from Fatemieh teaching hospital, Hamadan, Iran, and allocated into the two groups according to their number of parity: the primiparous group (n = 33, and multiparous group (n = 35. Maternal and umbilical cord blood samples were taken from all subjects and then assessed for catalas activity (CAT, total thiol molecules (TTM and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Results Total antioxidant capacity levels were significantly higher in newborns of primiparous women compared to multiparous women (P = 0.006. The CAT levels were significantly lower (P = 0.04 and TAC levels significantly higher (P = 0.03 in maternal plasma of primiparous women compared to those of multiparous women. Conclusions Increment in the number of parity can lead to decrease antioxidant defense mechanisms in multiparous women and their newborns. So, control of oxidative stress is considered to be beneficial in multiparous women.

  4. Is Placental Mitochondrial Function a Regulator that Matches Fetal and Placental Growth to Maternal Nutrient Intake in the Mouse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R Chiaratti

    Full Text Available Effective fetal growth requires adequate maternal nutrition coupled to active transport of nutrients across the placenta, which, in turn requires ATP. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has shown that impaired maternal nutrition in utero results in an adverse postnatal phenotype for the offspring. Placental mitochondrial function might link maternal food intake to fetal growth since impaired placental ATP production, in response to poor maternal nutrition, could be a pathway linking maternal food intake to reduced fetal growth.We assessed the effects of maternal diet on placental water content, ATP levels and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in mice at embryonic (E day 18 (E18. Females maintained on either low- (LPD or normal- (NPD protein diets were mated with NPD males.To investigate the possibility of an underlying mitochondrial stress response, we studied cultured human trophoblast cells (BeWos. High throughput imaging showed that amino acid starvation induces changes in mitochondrial morphology that suggest stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion. This is a defensive response, believed to increase mitochondrial efficiency, that could underlie the increase in ATP observed in placenta.These findings reinforce the pathophysiological links between maternal diet and conceptus mitochondria, potentially contributing to metabolic programming. The quiet embryo hypothesis proposes that pre-implantation embryo survival is best served by a relatively low level of metabolism. This may extend to post-implantation trophoblast responses to nutrition.

  5. [Maternal malnutrition. The nursing task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotestán Liverpool, G; Grant, W A; Ibáñez Peña, E

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective study of 577 patients from urban and periurban areas of Las Tunas municipality is made. These patients were delivered in "Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna" Hospital between January and April 1986, both inclusive; their characteristics included being single pregnancies and not having suffered maternal diseases that influenced fetal growth. The following variables were studied: state of maternal nutrition at implantation, initial weight and weight gain, newborn weight, as well as maternal age and place of residence; these variables were interrelated with the view to know their influence or lack of influence on fetal weight. A survey of 89 of these women is made; they had been classified as malnourished and the purpose of the survey is to analyze their knowledge and views on malnutrition, as well as the instructions received during pregnancy and after delivery. Conclusions are derived and nursing recommendations are made.

  6. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively...... for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time......-invariant heterogeneity between mothers, I compare outcomes of mothers' consecutive children. Mothers who work during the first pregnancy trimester have a lower risk of preterm birth. I fi nd no eff ect on the probability of having a baby of small size for gestational age (SGA). To rule out the possibility that health...

  7. Classification differences and maternal mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanave, B; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Varnoux, N

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the ways maternal deaths are classified in national statistical offices in Europe and to evaluate the ways classification affects published rates. METHODS: Data on pregnancy-associated deaths were collected in 13 European countries. Cases were classified by a European panel....... This change was substantial in three countries (P deaths to obstetric causes. In the other countries, no differences were detected. According to official published data, the aggregated maternal mortality rate for participating countries was 7.7 per...... 100,000 live births, but it increased to 8.7 after classification by the European panel (P deaths differs between European countries. These differences in coding contribute to variations in the reported numbers of maternal deaths...

  8. [Epidemiology of maternal mortality by infectious cause in France, 2007-2009, using data from confidential maternal mortality report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghesquière, L; Deruelle, P; Charbonneau, P; Puech, F

    2015-01-01

    Although deaths caused by infection during pregnancy and the postpartum period are rare in France, mortality rates have increased in several countries of the European community. In France, the rate of maternal mortality by infectious cause has decreased over the last 12 years. Infectious causes are currently in fifth place of maternal deaths. Over the period 2007-2009, 18 deaths occurred, eight by direct infectious causes and 10 by indirect infectious causes. Among the 18 deaths, 17 were examined by the National Expert Committee on Maternal Mortality (CNEMM) with the objectives to determine the direct or indirect link with pregnancy, the adequacy of care and the preventability of death. Among 8 deaths from direct infectious causes, four deaths were deemed "preventable" or "possibly preventable" because of inadequate care. Among nine deaths from indirect infectious causes, preventability could not be established in two deaths, five were non-preventable and two were preventable due to non-optimal care. These cases of puerperal septicemia show that when sepsis is clinically manifest, infection is already well established and widespread deterioration is therefore often irreversible. Maternal mortality is preventable in most cases if several points are observed: early diagnosis, probabilistic antibiotics targeting most frequently involved bacteria including Escherichia coli and Streptococcus A, early transfer to ICU, control septic portal entry, simple preventive measures, influenza vaccination. A "microbiological clinical diagnosis" approach must be initiated at the first clinical signs.

  9. Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler obesity? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers.

  10. Depression, Sensation Seeking, and Maternal Smoking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy van de Venne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine maternal and adolescent depression, maternal and teen sensation seeking, and maternal smoking, and their associations with adolescent smoking. Data were collected from a sample of 47 male and 66 female adolescents (ages 11—18 years and their mothers from three different health clinics. The findings indicated that maternal sensation seeking was linked indirectly with adolescent smoking through teen sensation seeking, both of which were significantly associated with teen smoking (β = 0.29, p < 0.001 and β = 0.32, p < 0.001, respectively. Teen depression was associated positively with teen smoking (β = 0.24, p < 0.01 when controlling for sensation seeking behaviors. Maternal smoking was also directly linked to adolescent smoking (β = 0.20, p < 0.05. These findings underscore a potentially important role of sensation seeking in the origins of adolescent smoking, and clarify pathways of influence with regard to maternal attitudes and behaviors in subsequent teenage nicotine use.

  11. The mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between harsh parental practices and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in Hispanic American, African American, and European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Elif Dede; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L

    2015-07-01

    Using data from the add-on 5-year cohort of In-Home Longitudinal Study of preschool aged Children of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS), we examined the mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between positive and harsh maternal practices and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. The sample consisted of 1,922 low-income Hispanic American, African American, and European American families. For European Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression and hostility and children's externalizing behaviors were direct. Similarly, for Hispanic Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression, physical assault, and hostility and externalizing behaviors were direct, as was the link between maternal physical assault and internalizing behaviors. For African Americans, maternal warmth partially mediated the links between maternal hostility and physical assault and externalizing behaviors. However, the associations between psychological aggression and externalizing and internalizing behaviors were direct. The data are discussed with respect to similarities in cultural pathways of influence between harsh maternal treatment and children's behavioral difficulties across ethnic groups.

  12. Maternal age and child morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Malene Meisner; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mean age at delivery has increased over the latest half of a century. Women of advanced maternal age have increased obstetrical risks and increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities and some other specified diagnoses in the offspring. The aim of this study was to assess the asso......INTRODUCTION: The mean age at delivery has increased over the latest half of a century. Women of advanced maternal age have increased obstetrical risks and increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities and some other specified diagnoses in the offspring. The aim of this study was to assess...

  13. Linked alternating forms and linked symplectic Grassmannians

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by applications to higher-rank Brill-Noether theory and the Bertram-Feinberg-Mukai conjecture, we introduce the concepts of linked alternating and linked symplectic forms on a chain of vector bundles, and show that the linked symplectic Grassmannians parametrizing chains of subbundles isotropic for a given linked symplectic form has good dimensional behavior analogous to that of the classical symplectic Grassmannian.

  14. Snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy and 10-minutes activation in long term care residents with dementia (WISDE: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with dementia are often inapproachable due to symptoms of their illness. Therefore nurses should establish relationships with dementia patients via their remaining resources and facilitate communication. In order to achieve this, different targeted non-pharmacological interventions are recommended and practiced. However there is no sufficient evidence about the efficacy of most of these interventions. A number of publications highlight the urgent need for methodological sound studies so that more robust conclusions may be drawn. Methods/Design The trial is designed as a cluster randomized controlled trial with 20 nursing homes in Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt (Germany as the units of randomization. Nursing homes will be randomly allocated into 4 study groups consisting of 5 clusters and 90 residents: snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy, 10-minutes activation or unstructured verbal communication (control group. The purpose is to determine whether the interventions are effective to reduce apathy in long-term care residents with dementia (N = 360 as the main outcome measure. Assessments will be done at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months after beginning of the interventions. Discussion This trial will particularly contribute to the evidence on efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions in dementia care. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00653731

  15. Reminiscing the Blank Spaces of Sojourn: Sublimating Emotional Flights in Taban Lo Liyong’s “Words That Melt A Mountain”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Akingbe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Taban Lo Liyong's profoundity as a foremost writer from East Africa is often showcased by his wilful eccentricity and dogged iconoclasm, which exuberantly dot the lines of his poetry collections. For much of his writing career, Liyong has sustained a cultivated equanimity towards the paradox of being widely accepted by the budding African literary critics, and being deliberately neglected by the established critics. His maverick disposition to literary craftsmanship is stridently exhibited in the thematics of Words That Melt A Mountain: an unabashed treatment of controversial subject matters; intrusive and digressive narrative technique; confident assertive ego; an effervescent erudition in his writing and a disturbing frankness in the treatment of sex. This paper is preoccupied with the examination of how the Poetics of Words That Melt A Mountain are grounded in the boons and mementoes garnered from the experiences borne out of Liyong's sojourn in Japan. It will further look into how the reminiscence of Liyong's sojourn in Japan ferments an interplay of themes which oscillate between audacious narrative of erotic explorations and a penetrating introspection into the African mythopoesis.

  16. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    nutritional status on, maternal measles antibodies of mother-infant pairs at birth ... The (mean ± SD) MMA of mother-infant pairs at birth were. 134.66 ± 93.31 (95% CI, ..... be of public health benefit because policy makers can use this work as a.

  17. MATERNAL MORTALITY IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Maternal Mortality in A Tertiary Care Centre. OBJECTIVE: To study maternal mortality and the complications leading to maternal death. METHODS: A retrospective study of hospital record to study maternal mortality and its causes over 3 years from January 2010 to December 2012. RESULTS: There were a total of 58 maternal deaths out of 2823 live births giving a maternal mortality ratio of 2054.55 per one lakh live births. Unbooked and late referrals account for 77.58% of maternal deaths. The majority of deaths around 75.86% were in 20-30 years age group. Haemorrhage was the commonest causes of death (24.12% followed by sepsis (18.96% and pregnancy induced hypertension 15.51% Anemia contributed to the most common indirect cause of maternal morality. CONCLUSION: Haemorrhage, sepsis and pregnancy induced hypertension including eclampsia were the direct major causes of death. Anaemia and cardiac diseases were other indirect causes of death.

  18. Pregnancy outcomes according to increasing maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jin Koo

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Increasing maternal age is an independent and substantial risk factor for adverse perinatal and obstetric outcomes. These adverse outcomes become more common as increasing maternal age without a clear cutoff age.

  19. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja G;

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  20. Maternal Immune Activation and Autism Spectrum Disorder: From Rodents to Nonhuman and Human Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careaga, Milo; Murai, Takeshi; Bauman, Melissa D

    2017-03-01

    A subset of women who are exposed to infection during pregnancy have an increased risk of giving birth to a child who will later be diagnosed with a neurodevelopmental or neuropsychiatric disorder. Although epidemiology studies have primarily focused on the association between maternal infection and an increased risk of offspring schizophrenia, mounting evidence indicates that maternal infection may also increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder. A number of factors, including genetic susceptibility, the intensity and timing of the infection, and exposure to additional aversive postnatal events, may influence the extent to which maternal infection alters fetal brain development and which disease phenotype (autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, other neurodevelopmental disorders) is expressed. Preclinical animal models provide a test bed to systematically evaluate the effects of maternal infection on fetal brain development, determine the relevance to human central nervous system disorders, and to evaluate novel preventive and therapeutic strategies. Maternal immune activation models in mice, rats, and nonhuman primates suggest that the maternal immune response is the critical link between exposure to infection during pregnancy and subsequent changes in brain and behavioral development of offspring. However, differences in the type, severity, and timing of prenatal immune challenge paired with inconsistencies in behavioral phenotyping approaches have hindered the translation of preclinical results to human studies. Here we highlight the promises and limitations of the maternal immune activation model as a preclinical tool to study prenatal risk factors for autism spectrum disorder, and suggest specific changes to improve reproducibility and maximize translational potential.

  1. Association between maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and offspring cognitive function during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thajna, Kotrangada P; Hegde, Bhavya G; Gale, Catharine R; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2017-05-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated poor cognitive outcomes in offspring in relation to maternal vitamin D deficiency before and/or during pregnancy. Human studies linking maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy with offspring cognitive function are limited. We aimed to test the hypothesis that lower maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy is associated with poor offspring cognitive ability in an Indian population. Cognitive function was assessed in children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort during childhood (age 9-10 years; n=468) and adolescence (age 13-14 years; n=472) using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring learning, long-term retrieval/ storage, short-term memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, visuo-spatial ability, and attention and concentration. Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was measured at 30±2 weeks of gestation. During pregnancy 320 (68%) women had 'vitamin D deficiency' (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration range) was unrelated to offspring cognitive function at both ages, either unadjusted or after adjustment for the child's current age, sex, maternal age, parity, season at the time of blood sampling, gestational age, the child's birth and current size, socio-economic status, parents' education, maternal intelligence and home environment. In this population, despite a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, there was no evidence of an association between maternal vitamin D status and offspring cognitive function.

  2. Financial incentives and maternal health: where do we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lindsay; Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Balster, Robert L; Bellows, Ben W; Brandes, Neal; Comfort, Alison B; Eichler, Rena; Glassman, Amanda; Hatt, Laurel E; Conlon, Claudia M; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-12-01

    Health financing strategies that incorporate financial incentives are being applied in many low- and middle-income countries, and improving maternal and neonatal health is often a central goal. As yet, there have been few reviews of such programmes and their impact on maternal health. The US Government Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives was convened on 24-25 April 2012 to address this gap. This article, the final in a series assessing the effects of financial incentives--performance-based incentives (PBIs), insurance, user fee exemption programmes, conditional cash transfers, and vouchers--summarizes the evidence and discusses issues of context, programme design and implementation, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability. We suggest key areas to consider when designing and implementing financial incentive programmes for enhancing maternal health and highlight gaps in evidence that could benefit from additional research. Although the methodological rigor of studies varies, the evidence, overall, suggests that financial incentives can enhance demand for and improve the supply of maternal health services. Definitive evidence demonstrating a link between incentives and improved health outcomes is lacking; however, the evidence suggests that financial incentives can increase the quantity and quality of maternal health services and address health systems and financial barriers that prevent women from accessing and providers from delivering quality, lifesaving maternal healthcare.

  3. Influence of maternal vitamin B12 and folate on growth and insulin resistance in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Urmila; Katre, Prachi; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S

    2013-01-01

    The burden of chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease is shifting rapidly to low- and middle-income countries. It calls for a review of the classic 'dogma' of genetic predisposition, precipitated by adult lifestyle. The paradigm of early life origins of chronic disease has focused attention on maternal health and nutrition as major determinants of the health of the offspring. India has high burden of maternal ill health and also of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, offering unique opportunities to study the links between the two. Pune studies showed that the Indian babies were thin but fat (more adipose) compared to European babies, and that maternal micronutrient status during pregnancy was a determinant of offspring size and body composition. Two thirds of the mothers had low vitamin B12 concentrations, while folate deficiency was rare. Higher circulating concentrations of homocysteine predicted smaller baby size. Follow-up studies revealed that higher maternal folate in pregnancy predicted higher adiposity and insulin resistance in the child at 6 years of age, and that low maternal vitamin B12 exaggerated the risk of insulin resistance. Low maternal vitamin B12 status is also associated with increased risk of neural tube defects and poor offspring cognitive functions. Our results suggest an important role for maternal one-carbon metabolism in offspring growth and programming of NCD risk. These ideas are supported by animal studies. Improvement of adolescent nutrition could effect intergenerational prevention of chronic diseases.

  4. Postpartum bonding: the impact of maternal depression and adult attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnenmacher, N; Noe, D; Ehrenthal, J C; Reck, C

    2016-10-01

    Maternal depression poses a risk for the developing mother-infant relationship. Similarly, maternal insecure attachment styles may limit the ability to adequately connect with the newborn during the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal depression and insecure attachment (insecure and dual/disorganized) on maternal bonding in a sample of n = 34 women with depression according to DSM-IV and n = 59 healthy women. Maternal depression was assessed 3 to 4 months postpartum with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), bonding with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire, and maternal attachment style with the Attachment Style Interview. Women with current and lifetime depression as well as women with dual/disorganized attachment style reported lower bonding. Explorative analysis revealed that depression partially mediated the link between dual/disorganized attachment style and bonding with a medium-sized mediation effect. The combination of maternal depression and dual/disorganized attachment style may pose a special risk constellation for the developing mother-infant bond that should be addressed in prevention and early intervention programs.

  5. Practitioner review: maternal mood in pregnancy and child development--implications for child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Monk, Catherine; Fitelson, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    The empirical base suggesting a link between prenatal maternal anxiety, stress or depression and cognitive, behavioral, and biological outcomes in the infant and child has increased dramatically in the past 10 years. In this review, we consider the relevance of prenatal maternal mood for child mental health practitioners; the empirical base for a likely causal impact of the link between prenatal anxiety, depression, or stress and child outcomes; the degree to which the available evidence is sufficient for informing or altering clinical practice; and the possible role of prenatal interventions for promoting child health and development. A selective review of PubMed, Cochrane Library and other sources was undertaken. Clinically significant links between maternal prenatal distress and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes have been reported; predictions to stress physiology, immunology, and neurodevelopment have been reported but the effect sizes and clinical significance is less clear. Several candidate mechanisms have been proposed, with some supporting evidence. Many behavioral treatments for prenatal maternal distress exist, but their application to promoting child health is largely unknown. Research on maternal prenatal distress is a good example of translational research and offers a strong paradigm for promoting interdisciplinary clinical research on child health and development. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Assessment of global DNA methylation in the first trimester fetal tissues exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fa, Svetlana; Larsen, Trine Vilsbøll; Bilde, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of negative health consequences for the exposed child. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a likely link between the prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the increased risk in later life for diverse pathologies...... to exposures with an epigenetic impact. We have assessed the influence of maternal cigarette smoking during the first trimester for fetal global DNA methylation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the human fetal intestines and livers as well as the placentas from the first trimester pregnancies. Global DNA...... changes in exposure responses to the first trimester maternal cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging that only examining subsets of global DNA methylation markers and fetal sample availability represents possible limitations for the analyses, our presented results indicate that the first trimester...

  7. Maternal Retinoids Increase PDGFRα+ Progenitor Population and Beige Adipogenesis in Progeny by Stimulating Vascular Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal vitamin A intake varies but its impact on offspring metabolic health is unknown. Here we found that maternal vitamin A or retinoic acid (RA administration expanded PDGFRα+ adipose progenitor population in progeny, accompanied by increased blood vessel density and enhanced brown-like (beige phenotype in adipose tissue, protecting offspring from obesity. Blockage of retinoic acid signaling by either BMS493 or negative RA receptor (RARαDN over-expression abolished the increase in blood vessel density, adipose progenitor population, and beige adipogenesis stimulated by RA. Furthermore, RA-induced beige adipogenesis was blocked following vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR 2 knock out in PDGFRα+ cells, suggesting its mediatory role. Our data reveal an intrinsic link between maternal retinoid level and offspring health via promoting beige adipogenesis. Thus, enhancing maternal retinoids is an amiable therapeutic strategy to prevent obesity in offspring, especially for those born to obese mothers which account for one third of all pregnancies.

  8. Epigenetic programming of reward function in offspring: a role for maternal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Nicola; Bowman, Nicole; Reyes, Teresa M

    2014-02-01

    Early life development, through gestation and lactation, represents a timeframe of extreme vulnerability for the developing fetus in general, and for the central nervous system in particular. An adverse perinatal environment can have a lasting negative impact on brain development, increasing the risk for developmental disorders and broader psychopathologies. A major determinant of the fetal developmental environment is maternal diet. The present review summarizes the current literature regarding the effect of poor maternal perinatal nutrition on offspring brain development, with an emphasis on reward-related neural systems and behaviors. Epigenetic mechanisms represent a likely link between maternal diet and persistent changes in offspring brain development, and these mechanisms are presented and discussed within the context of perinatal maternal nutrition.

  9. Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Maternal Language: Implications for Infant Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryski, Katie R.; Mash, Eric J.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Semple, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and maternal language was examined in a community sample of 50 mothers of infants age 3-12 months. It was hypothesized that higher maternal symptoms of ADHD would be related to lower quality of maternal language use. Recordings of mothers' speech were coded for complexity and elaboration of speech…

  10. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Ruth R.; Schutte, Joke M.; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Zwart, Joost J.; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess maternal death and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) in the Netherlands. Study design: A retrospective study of all cases of maternal mortality in the Netherlands between 1983 and 2006 and all cases of severe maternal morbidity in the Netherlan

  11. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Ruth R.; Schutte, Joke M.; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Zwart, Joost J.; van Roosmalen, Jos

    Objective: To assess maternal death and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) in the Netherlands. Study design: A retrospective study of all cases of maternal mortality in the Netherlands between 1983 and 2006 and all cases of severe maternal morbidity in the

  12. [Maternal and perinatal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    After a year-long diagnosis of Chile's health situation, the Ministry of Health in 1991 formulated a new maternal-child health program designed to assure that all pregnancies would be desired and would occur under optimal conditions. Orientation for responsible parenthood will be an important part of the process. Other objectives include reducing the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and of sexually transmitted diseases. The pregnancy rate for young women 15-19 changed very little in Chile between 1952-82, because of the lack of sex education and family planning services. Family planning programs designed especially for adolescents would help to combat unwanted pregnancies and could offer the methods most suitable for young women. The well-known longitudinal study in Czechoslovakia which followed the development of children whose mothers were denied legal abortions in the 1960s showed the children to be at increased risk of unsatisfactory social adjustment in later life and suggested some consequences of unwanted pregnancy. A study of unwanted pregnancy in Chile was initiated in 4 prenatal care centers in a working class area of Santiago in 1984. 2485 women in the 6th or 7th month of pregnancy were classified according to their existing family sizes. Only 33.1% of the women desired the pregnancy at that time and 38.4% desired it but at a later time. 28.5% did not desire it at all. Women who did not desire the pregnancy waited significantly longer to obtain prenatal care than women who desired it. Age, economic problems, being single, family conflicts, already having the desired number of children, and short intervals since the most recent birth were associated with not desiring the current pregnancy. Of the 1663 women who did not desire the pregnancy, only 13.1% of those single, 35.8% of those in union, and 44.0% of those married used a contraceptive method. 2133 of the mothers were interviewed 6 months and 1977 12 months after delivery. Birth weights did not vary

  13. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  14. Maternal inflammation during pregnancy and childhood adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl); Perng, W. (Wei); E. Oken (Emily); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with offspring obesity. Underlying mechanisms may involve a maternal obesity-mediated proinflammatory state during pregnancy. Maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level during pregnancy is a biomarker of low-grade systemic inflammation

  15. Maternal inflammation during pregnancy and childhood adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl); W. Perng (Wei); E. Oken (Emily); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with offspring obesity. Underlying mechanisms may involve a maternal obesity-mediated proinflammatory state during pregnancy. Maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level during pregnancy is a biomarker of low-grade systemic

  16. Rise in maternal mortality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Schutte; E.A.P. Steegers; N.W.E. Schuitemaker; J.G. Santema; K. de Boer; M. Pel; G. Vermeulen; W. Visser; J. van Roosmalen

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess causes, trends and substandard care factors in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential enquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Setting Nationwide in the Netherlands. Population 2,557,208 live births. Methods Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the pe

  17. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  18. Maternal antibodies: clinical significance, mechanism of interference with immune responses, and possible vaccination strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eNiewiesk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonates have an immature immune system which cannot adequately protect against infectious diseases. Early in life, immune protection is accomplished by maternal antibodies transferred from mother to offspring. However, decaying maternal antibodies inhibit vaccination as is examplified by the inhibition of seroconversion after measles vaccination. This phenomenon has been described in both human and veterinary medicine and is independent of the type of vaccine being used. This review will discuss the use of animal models for vaccine research. I will review clinical solutions for inhibition of vaccination by maternal antibodies, and the testing and development of potentially effective vaccines. These are based on new mechanistic insight about the inhibitory mechanism of maternal antibodies. Maternal antibodies inhibit the generation of antibodies whereas the T cell response is usually unaffected. B cell inhibition is mediated through a cross-link between B-cell receptor (BCR with the Fcg receptor IIB (FcgRIIB by a vaccine-antibody complex. In animal experiments, this inhibition can be partially overcome by injection of a vaccine-specific monoclonal IgM antibody. IgM stimulates the B-cell directly through cross-linking the BCR via complement protein C3d and antigen to the complement receptor 2 (CR2 signaling complex. In addition, it was shown that interferon alpha binds to the CD21 chain of CR2 as well as the interferon receptor and that this dual receptor usage drives B cell responses in the presence of maternal antibodies. In lieu of immunizing the infant the concept of maternal immunization as a strategy to protect neonates has been proposed. This approach would still not solve the question of how to immunize in the presence of maternal antibodies but would defer the time of infection to an age where infection might not have such a detrimental outcome as in neonates. I will review successful examples and potential challenges of implementing

  19. Eggshell spottiness reflects maternally transferred antibodies in blue tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jeanne Holveck

    Full Text Available Blue-green and brown-spotted eggshells in birds have been proposed as sexual signals of female physiological condition and egg quality, reflecting maternal investment in the egg. Testing this hypothesis requires linking eggshell coloration to egg content, which is lacking for brown protoporphyrin-based pigmentation. As protoporphyrins can induce oxidative stress, and a large amount in eggshells should indicate either high female and egg quality if it reflects the female's high oxidative tolerance, or conversely poor quality if it reflects female physiological stress. Different studies supported either predictions but are difficult to compare given the methodological differences in eggshell-spottiness measurements. Using the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus as a model species, we aimed at disentangling both predictions in testing if brown-spotted eggshell could reflect the quality of maternal investment in antibodies and carotenoids in the egg, and at improving between-study comparisons in correlating several common measurements of eggshell coloration (spectral and digital measures, spotted surface, pigmentation indices. We found that these color variables were weakly correlated highlighting the need for comparable quantitative measurements between studies and for multivariate regressions incorporating several eggshell-color characteristics. When evaluating the potential signaling function of brown-spotted eggshells, we thus searched for the brown eggshell-color variables that best predicted the maternal transfer of antibodies and carotenoids to egg yolks. We also tested the effects of several parental traits and breeding parameters potentially affecting this transfer. While eggshell coloration did not relate to yolk carotenoids, the eggs with larger and less evenly-distributed spots had higher antibody concentrations, suggesting that both the quantity and distribution of brown pigments reflected the transfer of maternal immune compounds in egg yolks

  20. A cartography of maternity, subjectivity and art-encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula McCloskey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This text introduces a research project in motion. The area is maternity, subjectivity and art encounters. The text gives a sense of this research, presenting both the process of thinking within and about the work, showing it to be a living inquiry. The research itself is located in my disrupted maternal-self and an encounter with the oeuvre of Louise Bourgeois; an encounter that had a transformative impact on me by creating a space to contemplate my experiences and beyond to explore maternity, subjectivity and art encounters. This text gives a sense of the origins of this work before starting to consider how the research developed to transcend the bounds of my experience. It shows how the concepts of 'maternity, experience, subjectivity, encounter' and 'art 'have been put to work in interaction with objects (and makes the links from this activity to the work of Mieke Bal. The objects are separated into both 'existing' and 'generated objects', including written texts (writing my story or reflective writing, and existent texts/literature, art objects, my note/sketch books, interview transcripts and filmed interviews. The concepts and objects are used to develop a 'dialogue' – with each other, the reader, the viewer and me, in order to create the space or the conditions where thinking and ideas about these objects and concepts can emerge. This text considers how the research uses different practices and tools to facilitate the interaction between concepts and objects, plus continuous analysis and reflexivity, with the aim of producing new ideas and understandings of maternity, subjectivity and art encounters.

  1. Maternal and Child Health Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics Programs & Initiatives Funding Opportunities Data, Research & Epidemiology About MCHB Maternal and Child Health Bureau  News & Announcements HHS Awards more than $742,000 to Health Centers in American Samoa and the Virgin Islands to Fight Zika (6/23/16) Approved on June 6, 2016 -- ...

  2. Multigenerational effects of maternal undernutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine exposure to reduced nutrient availability can have major effects in determining susceptibility to chronic disease later in life. Martínez et al. (2014) demonstrate multigenerational effects of poor maternal nutrition and evidence of germ-line transmission through alterations in DNA methylation. PMID:24896533

  3. Oxytocin and Maternal Brain Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohye; Strathearn, Lane

    2016-01-01

    Although dramatic postnatal changes in maternal behavior have long been noted, we are only now beginning to understand the neurobiological mechanisms that support this transition. The present paper synthesizes growing insights from both animal and human research to provide an overview of the plasticity of the mother's brain, with a particular…

  4. Differential effects of cigarette smoking on birth weight by maternal body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz-Partington, Sean; Condous, George; Mongelli, Max

    2016-07-01

    Links between low birth weight and tobacco exposure in utero are well established, as are associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) and birth weight. This study further develops those relationships. In particular, this article analyses whether high maternal weight acts to dampen the previously established link between tobacco exposure and low birth weight. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken, reviewing the birth weights of 13,473 live singleton pregnancies born at a Sydney regional hospital between 1998 and 2003. Results demonstrated a statistically significant decline in reduced birth weight as BMI increased. That is, as body weight increases, tobacco use has a smaller effect on reducing birth weight. Inversely, the effect on reducing birth weight for each cigarette smoked by leaner women was greater. In effect, the adverse influence of tobacco use on birth weight appears to be modulated by increasing maternal BMI.

  5. Effect of maternal age on maternal and neonatal outcomes after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennberg, Anna Lena; Opdahl, Signe; Bergh, Christina

    2016-01-01

    -linked with national medical birth registries. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 300,085 singleton deliveries: 39,919 after ART and 260,166 after SC. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP), placenta previa, cesarean delivery, preterm birth (PTB; ... weeks), low birth weight (LBW; placenta previa (AOR 4.11-6.05), cesarean delivery (AOR 1.......18-1.50), PTB (AOR 1.23-2.19), and LBW (AOR 1.44-2.35) was significantly higher in ART than in SC pregnancies for most maternal ages. In both ART and SC pregnancies, the risk of HDP, placenta previa, cesarean delivery, PTB, LBW, and SGA changed significantly with age. The AORs for adverse neonatal outcomes...

  6. Association between maternal nutritional status in pregnancy and offspring cognitive function during childhood and adolescence; a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R; Gale, Catharine R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Kehoe, Sarah H; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2016-08-12

    The mother is the only source of nutrition for fetal growth including brain development. Maternal nutritional status (anthropometry, macro- and micro-nutrients) before and/or during pregnancy is therefore a potential predictor of offspring cognitive function. The relationship of maternal nutrition to offspring cognitive function is unclear. This review aims to assess existing evidence linking maternal nutritional status with offspring cognitive function. Exposures considered were maternal BMI, height and weight, micronutrient status (vitamins D, B12, folate and iron) and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat). The outcome was any measure of cognitive function in children aged nutritional status during pregnancy as defined by BMI, single micronutrient studies, or macronutrient intakes influences offspring cognitive function is inconclusive. There is a need for more trials especially in populations with high rates of maternal undernutrition. Registered in PROSPERO CRD42013005702 .

  7. Maternal 'near miss' at Royal Darwin Hospital: An analysis of severe maternal morbidity at an Australian regional tertiary maternity unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratnam, Skandarupan; Burton, Alice; Connan, Kirsten Fiona; de Costa, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Assessment of severe maternal morbidity using World Health Organization (WHO) 'near-miss' criteria is gaining in importance as a valuable tool in the assessment of maternity care of women. Identification of cases allows an understanding of aetiology of severe morbidity and factors contributing to poor maternal outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of maternal 'near miss' at Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) and the utility of the WHO near-miss criteria as a tool for data collection in a regional Australian context. Cases of maternal 'near miss' and deaths were prospectively identified over a period of 12 months using the WHO criteria. During the audit period, there were 2080 live births at Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH): 10 women presented with a 'near miss' and there was one maternal death. The maternal mortality ratio for the hospital was 48/100 000 live births, the maternal 'near-miss' index ratio was 4.8/1000 live births, and the combination of maternal deaths and near misses gave a severe maternal outcome (SMO) ratio of 5.3/1000 live births. The main cause of obstetric 'near miss' was obstetric haemorrhage. Indigenous women and women from remote areas comprised a significant portion of 'near-miss' cases. The rates of maternal 'near miss' at RDH are consistent with other studies in the developed world. The WHO maternal 'near-miss' audit tool helps health professionals understand and anticipate severe maternal morbidities, with the aim of improving maternal and perinatal outcomes. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Longitudinal pathways from early maternal depression to children's dysregulated representations: a moderated mediation analysis of harsh parenting and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoccio, Tiffany L; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Maupin, Angela N; Robinson, Joann L

    2016-01-01

    There is some evidence linking maternal depression, harsh parenting, and children's internal representations of attachment, yet, longitudinal examinations of these relationships and differences in the developmental pathways between boys and girls are lacking. Moderated mediation growth curves were employed to examine harsh parenting as a mechanism underlying the link between maternal depression and children's dysregulated representations using a nationally-representative, economically-vulnerable sample of mothers and their children (n = 575; 49% boys, 51% girls). Dysregulation representations were measured using the MacArthur Story Stem Battery at five years of age (M = 5.14, SD = 0.29). Harsh parenting mediated the association between early maternal depression and dysregulated representations for girls. Though initial harsh parenting was a significant mediator for boys, a stronger direct effect of maternal depression to dysregulated representations emerged over time. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for intervention efforts aimed at promoting early supportive parenting.

  9. Elevated Ratio of Maternal Plasma ApoCIII to ApoCII in Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    reported in the literature,10,11 we incubated maternal plasma with enzymes catalyzing hydrolysis of O-linked glyco- sylation sites (Figure 4A...and gestational hypertensive individuals (P < .05) as determined by mass spectrometry and competitive enzyme -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays...apolipoprotein C, preeclampsia, triglyceride , glycosylation Introduction Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder affecting approximately 5% to 7% of

  10. "We never ate like that, not fast food, or junk foods": accounts of changing maternal diet in a tourist community in rural Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Allison; Peña, Jenny; Himmelgreen, David

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examines maternal diet in rural Costa Rica in the context of recent political economic changes. Results show that increased availability of non-local food items, (i.e., pizza and processed foods) has influenced maternal dietary choices. Information pathways, which have traditionally provided women with knowledge about maternal diet from family members, are also shifting. Younger women turn to the local clinic and the media for information about maternal diet, and traditional practices, such as cuarentena (40-day postpartum period), are no longer being observed. Changing practices may be linked with shifting information pathways, as well as self-reported weight gain among women.

  11. BDNF Methylation and Maternal Brain Activity in a Violence-Related Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik A Moser

    Full Text Available It is known that increased circulating glucocorticoids in the wake of excessive, chronic, repetitive stress increases anxiety and impairs Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF signaling. Recent studies of BDNF gene methylation in relation to maternal care have linked high BDNF methylation levels in the blood of adults to lower quality of received maternal care measured via self-report. Yet the specific mechanisms by which these phenomena occur remain to be established. The present study examines the link between methylation of the BDNF gene promoter region and patterns of neural activity that are associated with maternal response to stressful versus non-stressful child stimuli within a sample that includes mothers with interpersonal violence-related PTSD (IPV-PTSD. 46 mothers underwent fMRI. The contrast of neural activity when watching children-including their own-was then correlated to BDNF methylation. Consistent with the existing literature, the present study found that maternal BDNF methylation was associated with higher levels of maternal anxiety and greater childhood exposure to domestic violence. fMRI results showed a positive correlation of BDNF methylation with maternal brain activity in the anterior cingulate (ACC, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, regions generally credited with a regulatory function toward brain areas that are generating emotions. Furthermore we found a negative correlation of BDNF methylation with the activity of the right hippocampus. Since our stimuli focus on stressful parenting conditions, these data suggest that the correlation between vmPFC/ACC activity and BDNF methylation may be linked to mothers who are at a disadvantage with respect to emotion regulation when facing stressful parenting situations. Overall, this study provides evidence that epigenetic signatures of stress-related genes can be linked to functional brain regions regulating parenting stress, thus advancing our understanding of

  12. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhago George M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequity in access to and use of child and maternal health interventions is impeding progress towards the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals. This study explores the potential health gains and equity impact if a set of priority interventions for mothers and under fives were scaled up to reach national universal coverage targets for MDGs in Tanzania. Methods We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST to estimate potential reductions in maternal and child mortality and the number of lives saved across wealth quintiles and between rural and urban settings. High impact maternal and child health interventions were modelled for a five-year scale up, by linking intervention coverage, effectiveness and cause of mortality using data from Tanzania. Concentration curves were drawn and the concentration index estimated to measure the equity impact of the scale up. Results In the poorest population quintiles in Tanzania, the lives of more than twice as many mothers and under-fives were likely to be saved, compared to the richest quintile. Scaling up coverage to equal levels across quintiles would reduce inequality in maternal and child mortality from a pro rich concentration index of −0.11 (maternal and −0.12 (children to a more equitable concentration index of −0,03 and −0.03 respectively. In rural areas, there would likely be an eight times greater reduction in maternal deaths than in urban areas and a five times greater reduction in child deaths than in urban areas. Conclusions Scaling up priority maternal and child health interventions to equal levels would potentially save far more lives in the poorest populations, and would accelerate equitable progress towards maternal and child health MDGs.

  13. Loss of maternal measles antibody in black South African infants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... African infants in the first year of life implications for age of ... Data on measles IgG antibody levels measured by enzyme- linked immunosorbent .... measles antibody of maternal origin seems to wane earlier. The predicted ...

  14. Maternal Employment and Development of the Father-Infant Relationship in the First Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grych, John H.; Clark, Roseanne

    1999-01-01

    Investigated links between maternal employment, marital satisfaction, and fathers' parenting during their child's infancy. Found that fathers whose wives worked part time or less were more sensitive and responsive when more involved in caregiving; men whose wives worked full time showed more negative affect and behavior when more involved in child…

  15. Increases in Maternal Education and Low-Income Children's Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jessica F.

    2015-01-01

    Although the strong link between maternal education and children's outcomes is one of the most well-established findings in developmental psychology (Reardon, 2011; Sirin, 2005), less is known about how young, low-income children are influenced by their mothers completing additional education. In this research, longitudinal data from the Head…

  16. Does Maternal Employment Following Childbirth Support or Inhibit Low-Income Children's Long-Term Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed whether previous findings linking early maternal employment to lower cognitive and behavioral skills among middle-class and White children generalized to other groups. Using a representative sample of urban, low-income, predominantly African American and Hispanic families ("n" = 444), ordinary least squares regression…

  17. Economic Stress, Social Support, and Maternal Depression: Is Social Support Deterioration Occurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.; Anderson, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal depression in low-income women is a significant problem because of its negative consequences for both mothers and their children. Economic stress increases risk for depression; however, mechanisms linking economic stress and depression are not well understood. The social support deterioration model suggests that chronic stressors can…

  18. Adolescent Daughters' Romantic Competence: The Role of Divorce, Quality of Parenting, and Maternal Romantic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; Zlotnik, Aynat; Shachar-Shapira, Lital; Connolly, Jennifer; Bohr, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the links between parental divorce, quality of maternal parenting, spousal relationships and middle adolescent romantic competence in 80 mother-adolescent daughter pairs (40 divorced). Mothers were asked to describe their attitudes and behaviors with regard to their daughters' romantic behavior. In addition, mothers were…

  19. Perceived Quality of Maternal Care in Childhood and Structure and Function of Mothers' Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Newman, Michal-Ann; Feldman, Ruth; Swain, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies indicate that early maternal care has long-term effects on brain areas related to social attachment and parenting, whereas neglectful mothering is linked with heightened stress reactivity in the hippocampus across the lifespan. The present study explores the possibility, using magnetic resonance imaging, that perceived quality of…

  20. Increases in Maternal Education and Low-Income Children's Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jessica F.

    2015-01-01

    Although the strong link between maternal education and children's outcomes is one of the most well-established findings in developmental psychology (Reardon, 2011; Sirin, 2005), less is known about how young, low-income children are influenced by their mothers completing additional education. In this research, longitudinal data from the Head…

  1. Impact of maternal cholesterol metabolism on ovarian follicle development and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Plösch, Torsten; Hoek, Annemieke; Tietge, Uwe J F

    2014-01-01

    The relationship among maternal lipid metabolism, fetal development, and adult disease of the offspring represents an emerging topic of high epidemiological relevance. The present review highlights the very early aspects of this process. Recent data suggest a link between lipid metabolism and reprod

  2. What is new in maternal-fetal medicine?: best articles from the past year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Catherine Y

    2012-01-01

    This month, we focus on current research in maternal-fetal medicine. Dr. Spong discusses six recent publications, and each is concluded with a "bottom line" that is the take-home message. The complete reference for each can be found in Box 1 on this page, along with direct links to the abstracts.

  3. Multilevel Mediation: Cumulative Contextual Risk, Maternal Differential Treatment, and Children's Behavior within Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jean Christophe; Boyle, Michael; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that links between contextual risk and children's outcomes are partially explained by differential parenting. Using multi-informant measurement and including up to four children per family (M[subscript age] = 3.51, SD = 2.38) in a sample of 397 families, indirect effects (through maternal differential…

  4. Maternal responsiveness and maternal selectivity in domestic sheep and goats: the two facets of maternal attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindron, Pascal; Lévy, Frédéric; Keller, Matthieu

    2007-01-01

    Sheep and goats rapidly establish an exclusive relationship with their neonate following contact with it during a sensitive period of maternal responsiveness induced by the physiological events occurring at parturition. The data concerning the sensory, physiological, and neurobiological factors involved in the activation of both maternal responsiveness and the establishment of selective nursing indicates that these processes are activated simultaneously by the combined action of two main factors, the prepartum rise in circulating estrogen and the vaginocervical stimulation (VCS) caused by fetus expulsion. On the one hand, these two factors act on a neural network including the main olfactory system (MOB), the medial preoptic area (MPOA), and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) to induce maternal responsiveness towards any neonate. The intracerebral release of oxytocin (OT) from the PVN, and the triggering of olfactory attraction for amniotic fluid (AF) are key elements in this process. On the other hand, VCS at birth also sets the MOB ready to memorize the individual odor of the neonate, through the release of peptides and neurotransmitters (noradrenaline and acetylcholine). In addition to the MOB, the network involved in recognition mainly includes the medial and cortical amygdala. Across consolidation processes, reorganization occurs in the network engaged in lamb recognition. Whether this memorization may be potentiated by other sensory cues is not known. The identification of the chemosensory compounds involved in the attraction for AF and in the recognition of the neonate is important for understanding the mechanisms of maternal attachment.

  5. Nevill Mott reminiscences and appreciations

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, E A

    1998-01-01

    Sir Nevill Mott was Britain''s last Winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics. This is a tribute to the life and work of Nobel Laureate Nevill Mott, a hugely admired and appreciated man, and one of this countries greatest ever scientists. It includes contributions from over 80 of his friends, family and colleagues, full of anecdotes and appreciations for this collossus of modern physics.

  6. John Swales: Some Personal Reminiscences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Vijay

    1998-01-01

    The first doctoral student of linguist John Swales comments on three aspects of their advisor/advisee relationship: the relaxed atmosphere in which work was done; the collegial style of interaction; and the advisor's active participation with the student in the research process. (MSE)

  7. Manuel Cardona memories and reminiscences

    CERN Document Server

    Viña, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This book pays tribute to an extraordinary researcher and personality, Manuel Cardona. He had significant influence in the development of science and inside the scientific community. The book consists of contributions by former collaborators and students of Prof. Manuel Cardona. The short contributions deal with personal encounters with Manuel Cardona describing his extraordinary personality. This includes descriptions of scientific discussions, Manuel Cardona's involvement in social justice and his enormous knowledge about human culture, languages and history.

  8. Maternal phobic anxiety and child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A; Layne, Ann E; Egan, Elizabeth A; Nelson, Lara P

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between maternal anxiety symptoms and child anxiety symptoms and evaluated whether a reporting bias is associated with maternal anxiety. Fifty-seven mother-child pairs participated. All children had features or diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Measures of maternal symptomatology and child anxiety were administered. Higher levels of maternal phobic anxiety on the Brief Symptom Inventory were significantly associated with higher levels of separation anxiety in children. After controlling for clinician rating of SAD severity, maternal phobic anxiety emerged as a significant predictor of maternal ratings of child separation anxiety, accounting for 19% of the variance. Phobic mothers endorsed levels of separation anxiety in their children that exceeded levels endorsed by clinicians, suggesting maternal overreporting.

  9. Prenatal maternal anxiety and early childhood temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Megan M; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2011-11-01

    The consequences of exposure to prenatal maternal anxiety for the development of child temperament were examined in a sample of 120 healthy, 2-year-old children. Prenatal maternal state and pregnancy-specific anxiety (PSA) were measured five times during pregnancy, and maternal state anxiety was measured again at 2 years post partum. Child temperament was measured at 2 years using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The relationship between the trajectory of maternal anxiety across gestation and negative affectivity was evaluated using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Higher maternal PSA between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation was associated with increased negative temperament in the children. This association could not be explained by postnatal maternal anxiety, demographic, or obstetric factors. Prenatal maternal state anxiety was not associated with child temperament. These findings demonstrate that PSA early in gestation has a distinctive influence on the developing fetus.

  10. Distinctive effects between cognitive stimulation and reminiscence therapy on cognitive function and quality of life for different types of behavioural problems in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Ching; Yang, Ya-Ping; Cheng, Wen-Yun; Wang, Jing-Jy

    2017-09-07

    Among the various complementary therapies for patients with dementia (PwD), cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) and reminiscence therapy (RT) are frequently used to improve cognitive function and quality of life. However, no studies have examined the use of complementary therapies applied to different types of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia in PwD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinctive effects of CST and RT on cognitive function and quality of life for PwD with three types of behavioural problems - the dispute, return and dissociate types. A quasi-experimental design was employed. A total of PwD residing in 10 long-term care institutions participated in the study and were divided into three groups. The CST and RT groups received 50-minute sessions of intervention therapy once a week for 10 continuous weeks, and the control group participated in regular activities. The pretest (week 1), post-test (week 12) and follow-up (week 24) data were collected using the Mini-Mental State Examination and Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease. Two-way analysis of variance was used for data analysis. The results of our study revealed CST and RT interventions had positive effects on cognition and quality of life of PwD. For short-term effects on cognitive function, CST was the most positive intervention for the dispute type. With regard to short-term effects on quality of life, CST was greater than RT for PwD. For follow-up effects, CST and RT may have potentially sustained effects. This study suggests that CST and RT could be applied to improve the cognitive function and quality of life for PwD, as well as contribute to the effectiveness of nonpharmacological approaches to PwD with certain types of behavioural problems. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  11. Loss of Tropomodulin4 in the zebrafish mutant träge causes cytoplasmic rod formation and muscle weakness reminiscent of nemaline myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Berger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nemaline myopathy is an inherited muscle disease that is mainly diagnosed by the presence of nemaline rods in muscle biopsies. Of the nine genes associated with the disease, five encode components of striated muscle sarcomeres. In a genetic zebrafish screen, the mutant träge (trg was isolated based on its reduction in muscle birefringence, indicating muscle damage. Myofibres in trg appeared disorganised and showed inhomogeneous cytoplasmic eosin staining alongside malformed nuclei. Linkage analysis of trg combined with sequencing identified a nonsense mutation in tropomodulin4 (tmod4, a regulator of thin filament length and stability. Accordingly, although actin monomers polymerize to form thin filaments in the skeletal muscle of tmod4trg mutants, thin filaments often appeared to be dispersed throughout myofibres. Organised myofibrils with the typical striation rarely assemble, leading to severe muscle weakness, impaired locomotion and early death. Myofibrils of tmod4trg mutants often featured thin filaments of various lengths, widened Z-disks, undefined H-zones and electron-dense aggregations of various shapes and sizes. Importantly, Gomori trichrome staining and the lattice pattern of the detected cytoplasmic rods, together with the reactivity of rods with phalloidin and an antibody against actinin, is reminiscent of nemaline rods found in nemaline myopathy, suggesting that misregulation of thin filament length causes cytoplasmic rod formation in tmod4trg mutants. Although Tropomodulin4 has not been associated with myopathy, the results presented here implicateTMOD4 as a novel candidate for unresolved nemaline myopathies and suggest that the tmod4trg mutant will be a valuable tool to study human muscle disorders.

  12. Loss of Tropomodulin4 in the zebrafish mutant träge causes cytoplasmic rod formation and muscle weakness reminiscent of nemaline myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joachim; Tarakci, Hakan; Berger, Silke; Li, Mei; Hall, Thomas E; Arner, Anders; Currie, Peter D

    2014-12-01

    Nemaline myopathy is an inherited muscle disease that is mainly diagnosed by the presence of nemaline rods in muscle biopsies. Of the nine genes associated with the disease, five encode components of striated muscle sarcomeres. In a genetic zebrafish screen, the mutant träge (trg) was isolated based on its reduction in muscle birefringence, indicating muscle damage. Myofibres in trg appeared disorganised and showed inhomogeneous cytoplasmic eosin staining alongside malformed nuclei. Linkage analysis of trg combined with sequencing identified a nonsense mutation in tropomodulin4 (tmod4), a regulator of thin filament length and stability. Accordingly, although actin monomers polymerize to form thin filaments in the skeletal muscle of tmod4(trg) mutants, thin filaments often appeared to be dispersed throughout myofibres. Organised myofibrils with the typical striation rarely assemble, leading to severe muscle weakness, impaired locomotion and early death. Myofibrils of tmod4(trg) mutants often featured thin filaments of various lengths, widened Z-disks, undefined H-zones and electron-dense aggregations of various shapes and sizes. Importantly, Gomori trichrome staining and the lattice pattern of the detected cytoplasmic rods, together with the reactivity of rods with phalloidin and an antibody against actinin, is reminiscent of nemaline rods found in nemaline myopathy, suggesting that misregulation of thin filament length causes cytoplasmic rod formation in tmod4(trg) mutants. Although Tropomodulin4 has not been associated with myopathy, the results presented here implicateTMOD4 as a novel candidate for unresolved nemaline myopathies and suggest that the tmod4(trg) mutant will be a valuable tool to study human muscle disorders. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Ghosts in the nursery: a case study of the maternal representations of a woman who killed her baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gous

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The maternal representations as described by Stern (1995:171-190 are used in an extreme case to illustrate the link between depression and pathogenic maternal representations. Opsomming Die moedervoorstellings soos dit deur Stern (1995:171-190 beskryf word, word in ‘n ekstreme geval gebruik om die verband tussen depressie en patogene moedervoorstellings aan te toon. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  14. Emergency Referral Transport for Maternal Complication: Lessons from the Community Based Maternal Death Audits in Unnao District, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Saksena Raj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background An effective emergency referral transport system is the link between the home of the pregnant woman and a health facility providing basic or comprehensive emergency obstetric care. This study attempts to explore the role of emergency transport associated with maternal deaths in Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh (UP. Methods A descriptive study was carried out to assess the causes of and factors leading to maternal deaths in Unnao district, UP, through community based Maternal Death Review (MDR using verbal autopsy, in a sample of 57 maternal deaths conducted between June 1, 2009, and May 31, 2010. A facility review was also conducted in 15 of the 16 block level and district health facilities to collect information on preparedness of the facilities for treating obstetric complications including referral transportation. A descriptive analysis was carried out using ratios and percentages to analyze the availability of basic facilities which may lead to maternal deaths. Results It was found that there were only 10 ambulances available at 15 facilities against 19 required as per Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS. About 47% of the deaths took place in a facility, 30% enroute to a health facility and 23% at home. Twenty five percent of women were taken to one facility, 32% were taken to two facilities, and 25% were taken to three facilities while 19% were not taken to any facility before their death. Sixteen percent of the pregnant women could not arrange transportation to reach any facility. The mean time to make arrangements for travel from home to facility-1 and facility-2 to facility-3 was 3.1 hours; whereas from facility-1 to facility-2 was 9.9 hours. The mean travel time from home to facility-1 was 1 hour, from facility-1 to facility-2 was 1.4 hours and facility-2 to facility-3 was 1.6 hours. Conclusion The public health facility review and MDR, clearly indicates that the inter-facility transfers appropriateness and timeliness of

  15. A role for fetal hemoglobin and maternal immune IgG in infant resistance to Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanaki Amaratunga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Africa, infant susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria increases substantially as fetal hemoglobin (HbF and maternal immune IgG disappear from circulation. During the first few months of life, however, resistance to malaria is evidenced by extremely low parasitemias, the absence of fever, and the almost complete lack of severe disease. This resistance has previously been attributed in part to poor parasite growth in HbF-containing red blood cells (RBCs. A specific role for maternal immune IgG in infant resistance to malaria has been hypothesized but not yet identified. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We found that P. falciparum parasites invade and develop normally in fetal (cord blood, CB RBCs, which contain up to 95% HbF. However, these parasitized CB RBCs are impaired in their binding to human microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs, monocytes, and nonparasitized RBCs--cytoadherence interactions that have been implicated in the development of high parasite densities and the symptoms of malaria. Abnormal display of the parasite's cytoadherence antigen P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1 on CB RBCs accounts for these findings and is reminiscent of that on HbC and HbS RBCs. IgG purified from the plasma of immune Malian adults almost completely abolishes the adherence of parasitized CB RBCs to MVECs. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a model of malaria protection in which HbF and maternal IgG act cooperatively to impair the cytoadherence of parasitized RBCs in the first few months of life. In highly malarious areas of Africa, an infant's contemporaneous expression of HbC or HbS and development of an immune IgG repertoire may effectively reconstitute the waning protective effects of HbF and maternal immune IgG, thereby extending the malaria resistance of infancy into early childhood.

  16. The Group Reminiscence Approach Can Increase Self-Awareness of Memory Deficits and Evoke a Life Review in People With Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Kurihara Project Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kei; Kasai, Mari; Nakai, Megumi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Meguro, Kenichi

    2016-06-01

    The group reminiscence approach (GRA) and reality orientation (RO) are common psychosocial interventions for patients with dementia. As a qualitative evaluation of the reminiscence approach in patients with dementia, the Patient Report Outcome (PRO) is useful. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of GRA-RO for participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using the PRO. A cluster randomized controlled trial. Community-based study. Ninety-four patients with MCI (39 GRA-RO, 23 physical activity, and 32 cognitive training) described their impressions. Based on the database of the Kurihara Project, we retrospectively analyzed the participants' descriptions of their impressions as a PRO in the nonpharmacological interventions: GRA-RO, physical activity, and cognitive training. We categorized the descriptions according to the following 2 types: impression with content and reminiscence with life review. We assessed what they wrote regarding memory loss. The content on their life reviews was also a particular focus for the GRA-RO group. PRO. Compared with the physical activity and the clinical training groups, the GRA-RO patients described their reminiscence with life review and their own memory problems. There was no confusion of the order of events of their autobiographical memories. There was a significant time effect between the 2 family involvement groups in quality-of-life (QOL) scores, and the postintervention QOL scores were significantly better than preintervention. This study suggests that the GRA-RO in participants with MCI not only stimulates life review but also increases self-awareness of memory deficits without confusion of the order of events. Thus, the GRA-RO may improve self-esteem and develop self-awareness. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijper, Bram; Johnstone, Rufus A; Townley, Stuart

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M) in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  18. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Kuijper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  19. Current Concepts of Maternal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowensohn, Richard I.; Stadler, Diane D.; Naze, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Background A nutrient-rich maternal diet before and during pregnancy is associated with improved fetal health, more appropriate birth weight, and increased rates of maternal and infant survival. Physicians need a better understanding of the role of diet in shaping fetal outcomes. Given this background, we reviewed and summarized articles on maternal nutrition found in MEDLINE since 1981, written in English, and limited to human subjects. For the Offspring Maternal diets high in sugar and fat lead to an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in life. Folic acid should be supplemented prior to conception and continued through at least the first 28 days of fetal life to prevent neural tube defects, and vitamin C should be given to women who smoke to lower the incidence of asthma and wheezing in the children. Iodine deficiency is increasing, and iodine should be included in prenatal supplements. If the maternal hemoglobin is 7 g/dL or more, there is no evidence that iron supplementation is needed. Fish intake during pregnancy is protective against atopic outcomes, whereas high-meat diets contribute to elevated adult blood pressure and hypersecretion of cortisol. For the Mother Calcium supplementation lowers the risk of preeclampsia and hypertensive disease in pregnancy. Conclusions Given the limits of our current knowledge, a diet rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and selected fish is desirable for the best outcomes. Diets high in sugar and fat lead to higher rates of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Folic acid, iodine, and calcium in all pregnant women and vitamin C in smokers are the only supplements so far shown to be of value for routine use. The physician treating a pregnant woman should be ready to advise a healthy diet for the benefit of the fetus. Target Audience Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians Learning Objectives After participating in this activity, the

  20. Linked data management

    CERN Document Server

    Hose, Katja; Schenkel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Desp...

  1. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-06

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.  Created: 11/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/7/2012.

  2. The measurement of maternal adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, C

    2012-02-01

    The issue of maternal obesity has become a major public health problem. Internationally, the diagnosis of obesity is based on body mass index (BMI) that is, weight in kg\\/height in m2. While epidemiological associations have been shown between different BMI categories and adverse clinical outcomes, there is also a growing realisation that BMI has significant limitations. In this review, we assess current methods to measure body fat and, in particular, their application in pregnant women.

  3. Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmon F Grant

    Full Text Available To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR, we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

  4. The long-run effect of maternity leave benefits on mental health: evidence from European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendano, Mauricio; Berkman, Lisa F; Brugiavini, Agar; Pasini, Giacomo

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines whether maternity leave policies have an effect on women's mental health in older age. We link data for women aged 50 years and above from countries in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) to data on maternity leave legislation from 1960 onwards. We use a difference-in-differences approach that exploits changes over time within countries in the duration and compensation of maternity leave benefits, linked to the year women were giving birth to their first child at age 16 to 25. We compare late-life depressive symptom scores (measured with a 12-item version of the Euro-D scale) of mothers who were in employment in the period around the birth of their first child to depression scores of mothers who were not in employment in the period surrounding the birth of a first child, and therefore did not benefit directly from maternity leave benefits. Our findings suggest that a more generous maternity leave during the birth of a first child is associated with a reduced score of 0.38 points in the Euro-D depressive symptom scale in old age. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pre-pregnancy obesity and maternal circadian cortisol regulation: Moderation by gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Bublitz, Margaret H; Stroud, Laura R

    2014-10-01

    We investigated main and interactive effects of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain on circadian cortisol from the second to third trimester. A diverse sample of 215 pregnant women was enrolled. Maternal height and most recent pre-pregnancy weight were collected at study initiation (22% obese). Weight and circadian salivary cortisol samples were measured during second (24±4) and third (35±1 weeks) trimesters. During the third trimester, women who were obese prior to conception showed elevated evening cortisol versus normal weight women. This pattern was moderated by weight gain in excess of Institute of Medicine guidelines, such that women who were obese prior to conception and gained greater than 7.94kg by the 35±1 week visit displayed greatest elevations in evening cortisol. Given links between excessive prenatal glucocorticoid exposure and both poor maternal and offspring health outcomes, elevated maternal cortisol may be one mechanism underlying links between maternal obesity and adverse perinatal outcomes.

  6. Multiple mediators of the relationships among maternal childhood abuse, intimate partner violence, and offspring psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jenniffer K; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether maternal depression, mothers' and fathers' parenting, child physical punishment and negative life events (NLE) mediate the effect of maternal childhood abuse (CA), intimate partner violence (IPV) and cumulative violence (both CA and IPV) on Spanish children's and adolescents' psychopathology. Furthermore, multiple mediator models examine whether IPV mediates the effect of CA on the contextual and family factors mentioned above. Three hundred and eighteen Spanish outpatients aged 7 to 18 and their parents were assessed using a structured interview and other instruments for measuring the study variables. Structural equation models (SEMs) showed multiple pathways explaining psychopathological problems among offspring of mothers who suffered CA, IPV and both of these violent experiences. In particular, mothers' depression mediated the link between maternal CA, IPV, cumulative violence and children's externalizing, and total behavior problems. Child NLE was an important pathway between maternal CA and total behavior problems, as well as between cumulative violence and both externalizing and total problems. IPV contributed to explaining the link between maternal CA and contextual and family factors, such as child physical punishment and NLE, which were in turn, associated with children's behavior problems. Findings show the complex interconnections between different types of violence and their harmful effects on the mental health of women and their offspring, as well as the need to extend our knowledge on this subject.

  7. Aflatoxin Exposure During Pregnancy, Maternal Anemia, and Adverse Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura E; Prendergast, Andrew J; Turner, Paul C; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2017-04-01

    AbstractPregnant women and their developing fetuses are vulnerable to multiple environmental insults, including exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin that may contaminate as much as 25% of the world food supply. We reviewed and integrated findings from studies of aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy and evaluated potential links to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We identified 27 studies (10 human cross-sectional studies and 17 animal studies) assessing the relationship between aflatoxin exposure and adverse birth outcomes or anemia. Findings suggest that aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy may impair fetal growth. Only one human study investigated aflatoxin exposure and prematurity, and no studies investigated its relationship with pregnancy loss, but animal studies suggest aflatoxin exposure may increase risk for prematurity and pregnancy loss. The fetus could be affected by maternal aflatoxin exposure through direct toxicity as well as indirect toxicity, via maternal systemic inflammation, impaired placental growth, or elevation of placental cytokines. The cytotoxic and systemic effects of aflatoxin could plausibly mediate maternal anemia, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal loss, and preterm birth. Given the widespread exposure to this toxin in developing countries, longitudinal studies in pregnant women are needed to provide stronger evidence for the role of aflatoxin in adverse pregnancy outcomes, and to explore biological mechanisms. Potential pathways for intervention to reduce aflatoxin exposure are urgently needed, and this might reduce the global burden of stillbirth, preterm birth, and low birthweight.

  8. Maternal Fructose Intake Affects Transcriptome Changes and Programmed Hypertension in Offspring in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension originates from early-life insults by so-called “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD. Studies performed in the previous few decades indicate that fructose consumption is associated with an increase in hypertension rate. It is emerging field that tends to unfold the nutrient–gene interactions of maternal high-fructose (HF intake on the offspring which links renal programming to programmed hypertension. Reprogramming interventions counteract disturbed nutrient–gene interactions induced by maternal HF intake and exert protective effects against developmentally programmed hypertension. Here, we review the key themes on the effect of maternal HF consumption on renal transcriptome changes and programmed hypertension. We have particularly focused on the following areas: metabolic effects of fructose on hypertension and kidney disease; effects of maternal HF consumption on hypertension development in adult offspring; effects of maternal HF consumption on renal transcriptome changes; and application of reprogramming interventions to prevent maternal HF consumption-induced programmed hypertension in animal models. Provision of personalized nutrition is still a faraway goal. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand early-life nutrient–gene interactions and to develop effective reprogramming strategies for treating hypertension and other HF consumption-related diseases.

  9. A Role for the Placenta in Programming Maternal Mood and Childhood Behavioural Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, A B; Kertes, D A; McNamara, G I; Braithwaite, E C; Creeth, H D J; Glover, V I; John, R M

    2016-08-01

    Substantial data demonstrate that the early-life environment, including in utero, plays a key role in later life disease. In particular, maternal stress during pregnancy has been linked to adverse behavioural and emotional outcomes in children. Data from human cohort studies and experimental animal models suggest that modulation of the developing epigenome in the foetus by maternal stress may contribute to the foetal programming of disease. Here, we summarise insights gained from recent studies that may advance our understanding of the role of the placenta in mediating the association between maternal mood disorders and offspring outcomes. First, the placenta provides a record of exposures during pregnancy, as indicated by changes in the placental trancriptome and epigenome. Second, prenatal maternal mood may alter placental function to adversely impact foetal and child development. Finally, we discuss the less well established but interesting possibility that altered placental function, more specifically changes in placental hormones, may adversely affect maternal mood and later maternal behaviour, which can also have consequence for offspring well-being.

  10. Severe Maternal Morbidity Among Hispanic Women in New York City: Investigation of Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Egorova, Natalia N; Janevic, Teresa; Balbierz, Amy; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Hebert, Paul L

    2017-02-01

    To investigate differences in severe maternal morbidity between Hispanic mothers and three major Hispanic subgroups compared with non-Hispanic white mothers and the extent to which differences in delivery hospitals may contribute to excess morbidity among Hispanic mothers. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study using linked 2011-2013 New York City discharge and birth certificate data sets (n=353,773). Rates of severe maternal morbidity were calculated using a published algorithm based on diagnosis and procedure codes. Mixed-effects logistic regression with a random hospital-specific intercept was used to generate risk-standardized severe maternal morbidity rates for each hospital taking into consideration patient sociodemographic characteristics and comorbidities. Differences in the distribution of Hispanic and non-Hispanic white deliveries were assessed among these hospitals in relation to their risk-adjusted morbidity. Sensitivity analyses were conducted after excluding isolated blood transfusion from the morbidity composite. Severe maternal morbidity occurred in 4,541 deliveries and was higher among Hispanic than non-Hispanic white women (2.7% compared with 1.5%, PNew York City hospitals. Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic white mothers are more likely to deliver at hospitals with higher risk-adjusted severe maternal morbidity rates and these differences in site of delivery may contribute to excess morbidity among Hispanic mothers. Our results suggest improving quality at the lowest performing hospitals could benefit both non-Hispanic white and Hispanic women and reduce ethnic disparities in severe maternal morbidity rates.

  11. Fecundity of paternal and maternal non-parental female relatives of homosexual and heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Pellizzari, Elena

    2012-01-01

    A variety of social, developmental, biological and genetic factors influence sexual orientation in males. Thus, several hypotheses have attempted to explain the sustenance of genetic factors that influence male homosexuality, despite decreased fecundity within the homosexuals. Kin selection, the existence of maternal effects and two forms of balancing selection, sexually antagonistic selection and overdominance, have been proposed as compensatory mechanisms for reduced homosexual fecundity. Here, we suggest that the empirical support for kin selection and maternal effects cannot account for the low universal frequency and stability of the distribution of homosexuals. To identify the responsible compensatory mechanism, we analyzed fecundity in 2,100 European female relatives, i.e., aunts and grandmothers, of either homosexual or heterosexual probands who were matched in terms of age, culture and sampling strategy. Female relatives were chosen to avoid the sampling bias of the fraternal birth order effect, which occurs when indirectly sampling mothers though their homosexual sons. We observed that the maternal aunts and grandmothers of homosexual probands were significantly more fecund compared with the maternal aunts and maternal grandmothers of the heterosexual probands. No difference in fecundity was observed in the paternal female lines (grandmothers or aunts) from either of the two proband groups. Moreover, due to the selective increase in maternal female fecundity, the total female fecundity was significantly higher in homosexual than heterosexual probands, thus compensating for the reduced fecundity of homosexuals. Altogether, these data support an X-linked multi-locus sexually antagonistic hypothesis rather than an autosomal multi-locus overdominance hypothesis.

  12. Family Structure, Maternal Dating, and Sexual Debut: Extending the Conceptualization of Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Rena Cornell; De Coster, Stacy

    2016-05-01

    Family structure influences the risk of early onset of sexual intercourse. This study proposes that the family structures associated with risk-single-mother, step-parent, and cohabiting-influence early sexual debut due to family instability, including shifts in family structure and maternal dating, which can undermine parental control and transmit messages about the acceptability of nonmarital sex. Previous research has not considered maternal dating as a component of family instability, assuming single mothers who date and those who do not date experience comparable levels of family disruption and transmit similar messages about the acceptability of nonmarital sex. Hypotheses are assessed using logistic regression models predicting the odds of early onset of sexual intercourse among 9959 respondents (53 % female, 47 % male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Respondents were ages 12-17 at the first wave of data collection and 18-26 at the third wave, when respondents reported the age at which they first had sexual intercourse. Results show that maternal dating is a source of family instability with repercussions for early sexual debut. Parental control and permissive attitudes towards teenage sex and pregnancy link at-risk family structures and maternal dating to early sexual initiation among females, though these variables do not fully explain family structure and maternal dating effects. Among males, the influence of maternal dating on early sexual debut is fully explained by the learning of permissive sexual attitudes.

  13. [Maternal mortality among black women in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alaerte Leandro

    2006-11-01

    Every minute a woman dies in the world due to labor or complications of pregnancy. Maternal mortality is a public health problem in Brazil and affects the country's various regions unequally. Researchers agree that maternal death occurs mainly in women with lower income and less schooling. The racial issue emerges in the midst of socioeconomic issues. The analysis is hampered by the difficulty in understanding Brazil's official classification of race/color, which often impedes recording this information. Various Maternal Mortality Committees are applying the color item and reviewing their data. The current article analyzes various Maternal Mortality Committee reports, showing that the risk of maternal mortality is greater among black women (which encompasses two census categories, negra, or black, and parda, or brown), thus representing a major expression of social inequality. The article concludes with a review of political and technical recommendations to decrease maternal mortality.

  14. [Maternal and foetal prognostic during severe toxemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdi, Radhouane; Kaabi, Mehdi; Zayene, Houssine; Basly, Mohamed; Messaoudi, Fathi; Messaoudi, Lotfi; Chibani, Mounir

    2005-02-01

    Severe gravidic toxemia gives heavy maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. The purpose of our study is to loosen the factors of bad maternal and foetal prognostic. It's a retrospective study about 100 cases of severe and complicated gravidic toxemia repertorieted in the maternity of Military Hospital of Tunis. Maternal morbidity is dominated by the complications of hypertension and a blood disorders. We raised 4 cases of eclampsia, 9 cases of retro placental hematome and 5 cases of HELLP syndrome. We don't deplore any maternal death. Perinatal mortality is 28.8%. The rate of delay intra-uterine growth was 43.8% and the prematurity 65.9%. More toxemia appears early during pregnancy more maternal and foetal prognostic is compromised.

  15. Maternal Expectations for Toddlers' Reactions to Novelty: Relations of Maternal Internalizing Symptoms and Parenting Dimensions to Expectations and Accuracy of Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A

    2010-07-03

    OBJECTIVE: Although maternal internalizing symptoms and parenting dimensions have been linked to reports and perceptions of children's behavior, it remains relatively unknown whether these characteristics relate to expectations or the accuracy of expectations for toddlers' responses to novel situations. DESIGN: A community sample of 117 mother-toddler dyads participated in a laboratory visit and questionnaire completion. At the laboratory, mothers were interviewed about their expectations for their toddlers' behaviors in a variety of novel tasks; toddlers then participated in these activities, and trained coders scored their behaviors. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing demographics, depressive and worry symptoms, and parenting dimensions. RESULTS: Mothers who reported more worry expected their toddlers to display more fearful behavior during the laboratory tasks, but worry did not moderate how accurately maternal expectations predicted toddlers' observed behavior. When also reporting a low level of authoritative-responsive parenting, maternal depressive symptoms moderated the association between maternal expectations and observed toddler behavior, such that, as depressive symptoms increased, maternal expectations related less strongly to toddler behavior. CONCLUSIONS: When mothers were asked about their expectations for their toddlers' behavior in the same novel situations from which experimenters observe this behavior, symptoms and parenting had minimal effect on the accuracy of mothers' expectations. When in the context of low authoritative-responsive parenting, however, depressive symptoms related to less accurate predictions of their toddlers' fearful behavior.

  16. Maternal diet, prenatal exposure to dioxins and other persistent organic pollutants and anogenital distance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Vafeiadi, Marina; Agramunt, Silvia; Mathianaki, Kleopatra; Karakosta, Polyxeni; Spanaki, Ariana; Besselink, Harrie; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; KaterinaSarri; Koutis, Antonis; Chatzi, Leda; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the potential endocrine disruptive effect of prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through maternal diet, by measuring anogenital distance in newborns and young children. We included 231 mothers and their newborns measured at birth from the Rhea study in Crete, Greece and the Hmar study in Barcelona, Spain and 476 mothers and their children measured between 1 and 2 years from the Rhea study. We used food frequency questionnaires to assess maternal diet and estimated plasma dioxin-like activity by the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR-CALUX®) and other POPs in maternal samples. We defined a "high-fat diet" score, as a prenatal exposure estimate, that incorporated intakes of red meat, processed meat, fatty fish, seafood, eggs and high-fat dairy products during pregnancy. Increasing maternal "high-fat diet" score was related to increasing dioxin-like activity and serum concentrations of lipophilic persistent organic pollutants in maternal blood. An inverse dose-response association was found between "high-fat diet" score and anoscrotal distance in newborn males. The highest tertile of the maternal score was associated with -4.2 mm (95% CI -6.6 to -1.8) reduction in anoscrotal distance of newborn males, compared to the lowest tertile. A weak positive association was found between the "high-fat diet" score and anofourchetal distance in newborn females. In young children we found no association between maternal "high-fat diet" score and anogenital distances. In conclusion, maternal high-fat diet may be linked to high prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptive effects, resulting to phenotypic alterations of the reproductive system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Agenda setting for maternal survival: the power of global health networks and norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie L; Rodriguez, Mariela A

    2016-04-01

    Nearly 300,000 women--almost all poor women in low-income countries--died from pregnancy-related complications in 2010. This represents a decline since the 1980s, when an estimated half million women died each year, but is still far higher than the aims set in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) at the turn of the century. The 1970s, 1980s and 1990 s witnessed a shift from near complete neglect of the issue to emergence of a network of individuals and organizations with a shared concern for reducing maternal deaths and growth in the number of organizations and governments with maternal health strategies and programmes. Maternal health experienced a marked change in agenda status in the 2000s, attracting significantly higher level attention (e.g. from world leaders) and greater resource commitments (e.g. as one issue addressed by US$40 billion in pledges to the 2010 Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health) than ever before. Several differences between network and actor features, issue characteristics and the policy environment pre- and post-2000 help to explain the change in agenda status for global maternal mortality reduction. Significantly, a strong poverty reduction norm emerged at the turn of the century; represented by the United Nations MDGs framework, the norm set unusually strong expectations for international development actors to advance included issues. As the norm grew, it drew policy attention to the maternal health goal (MDG 5). Seeking to advance the goals agenda, world leaders launched initiatives addressing maternal and child health. New network governance and framing strategies that closely linked maternal, newborn and child health shaped the initiatives. Diverse network composition--expanding beyond a relatively narrowly focused and technically oriented group to encompass allies and leaders that brought additional resources to bear on the problem--was crucial to maternal health's rise on the agenda in the 2000s.

  18. Community perspectives on the determinants of maternal health in rural southern Mozambique: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Tabassum; Vidler, Marianne; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Boene, Helena; Chiaú, Rogério; Sevene, Esperança; Magee, Laura A; von Dadelszen, Peter; Munguambe, Khátia

    2016-09-30

    -cultural and environmental factors. These determinants were closely linked with one another and highlight the importance of including the local history, context, culture and geography in the design of maternal health programs.

  19. Public health approach to address maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sanjay K; Anand, K; Misra, Puneet; Kant, Shashi; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY) that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women's health.

  20. Public health approach to address maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Rai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women′s health.

  1. Maternal maya ancestry and birth weight in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcorra, Hugo; Vázquez-Vázquez, Adriana; Mendez, Nina; Carlos Salazar, Juan; Datta-Banik, Sudip

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between maternal Maya ancestry and the birth weight of infants born in Yucatan, Mexico, during 2013. A total of 30,435 singletons born at term (≥37 weeks) in Yucatan during 2013 were analyzed. Birth weights, gestational ages, and maternal socioeconomic data were provided by the Ministry of Health of Yucatan. Maternal Maya ancestry was defined by the presence of Maya surnames in: (1) non-Maya surnames (NM-NM), (2) one Maya surname (NM-M), and (3) two Maya surnames (M-M). Biological and socioeconomic parameters were compared between the categories of ancestry through one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a multiple regression model was used to analyze the association between ancestry and infants' birth weight controlling for influence of covariates. Mean birth weight was 3,114 g (SD = 406) (NM-NM: 3,150 g [SD = 404], NM-M: 3,106 g [SD = 402], M-M: 3,088 g [SD = 408]). With the biological and socioeconomic variables statistically adjusted for, the presence of one and two maternal Maya surnames was associated with decreases in birth weight of 42 g and 63 g, respectively. None of the interactions between ancestry and other predictors was statistically significant. The lower mean birth weights of Maya infants are consistent with studies reporting poor growth and nutritional status of Maya children from Yucatan. Historically adverse socioeconomic conditions experienced by the Maya population are probably linked to the relatively lower birth weights of their infants. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:436-439, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Age at first febrile seizure correlates with perinatal maternal emotional symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault-Dagher, Fanny; Herba, Catherine M; Séguin, Jean R; Muckle, Gina; Lupien, Sonia J; Carmant, Lionel; Simard, Marie-Noëlle; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Fraser, William D; Lippé, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal exposure to stress and fever are factors lowering seizure threshold in animal models. The fever effect on seizure threshold is well documented in human infants, however the associations between maternal perinatal stress and infants' susceptibility to seizures is unknown. This is the first study in humans to investigate longitudinally, whether in humans, the effect of maternal perinatal emotional symptoms such as stress, anxiety and depression that may trigger a biological stress response on age at first seizure occurrence. The study sample is a subgroup drawn from a longitudinal follow up cohort (3D cohort study: Design, Develop, Discover, N=2366 mother-infant dyads). Twenty-nine otherwise healthy infants who had a febrile seizure (FS) episode before the last follow-up visit (around 24 months of age) were studied. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding their emotional health at each pregnancy trimester and at three months postpartum. The link between maternal emotional symptoms and infant age at first FS was assessed through correlations and multiple regressions. We found that maternal anxiety symptoms during the second trimester of pregnancy are linked to the age at first FS (r(23)=-0.459, p=0.021) and explain 21.1% of its variance. Postnatal maternal depression symptoms at 3 months postpartum were also associated with the age at first FS (r(23)=-0.587, p=0.002) and explained an additional 17.6% of variance. Together, the variables explained 38.7% of the variance in age at first FS. Maternal perceived stress symptoms at 3 months postpartum were also linked to the age at first FS (r(23)=-0.418, p=0.038), however, stress did not significantly contribute to the variance of age at first FS.. Our results suggest a link between increased perinatal maternal emotional symptoms and the age at first FS. An earlier age at first FS may be the manifestation of a lower seizure threshold. Early first seizure occurrence is a risk factor for compromised neurological

  3. Maternal control of Pol IV-dependent siRNAs in Arabidopsis endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Rebecca A

    2010-04-01

    Small RNAs recently emerged as ubiquitous regulators of gene expression. However, the most abundant class of small RNAs in flowering plants is poorly understood. Known as Pol IV-dependent (p4-)siRNAs, these small RNAs are associated with transcriptional gene silencing, transposable elements and heterochromatin formation. Recent research demonstrates that they are initially expressed in the maternal gametophyte and uniparentally expressed from maternal chromosomes in developing endosperm. This unique expression pattern links p4-siRNAs to double fertilization, parental genome interactions and imprinted gene expression.

  4. Infant Gut Microbiota Development Is Driven by Transition to Family Foods Independent of Maternal Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Andersen, Louise B. B.; Michaelsen, Kim F.;

    2016-01-01

    The first years of life are paramount in establishing our endogenous gut microbiota, which is strongly affected by diet and has repeatedly been linked with obesity. However, very few studies have addressed the influence of maternal obesity on infant gut microbiota, which may occur either through...... either of a random sample of healthy mothers (n = 114), or of obese mothers (n = 113), were profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Gut microbiota data were compared to breastfeeding patterns and detailed individual dietary recordings to assess effects of the complementary diet. We found that maternal...

  5. STUDI PROSPEKTIF KEMATIAN MATERNAL DI SUKABUMI

    OpenAIRE

    L. Ratna Budiarso

    2012-01-01

    A sample survey to assess maternal mortality was conducted in two subdistricts of Sukabumi regency, West Jawa comprising 65.000 people in 15 villages. Data were collected from 1 September 1982 throught 31 agustus 1983. In one year period 2407 deliveries were recorded, with 9 deaths during deliveries and 2 deaths during pregnancies. The maternal mortality ratio was 468.1 per 100,000 live births (LB). Age specific maternal mortality ratio increased at the age of 30 years and over. The maternal ...

  6. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  7. The perinatal and maternal outcome in pregnancy with advanced maternal age 35 years and >35 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi S. Kalewad

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Pregnancies in women of advanced maternal age are considered high risk for Perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. A proper preconception consultation and intensive antenatal care assessment can individualize and potentially reduce the risks for women with advanced maternal age. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1929-1935

  8. Maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes in adolescent and adult pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Tendais, Iva; Dias, Cláudia C

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes differences between adolescent and adult pregnant women and the contribution of maternal age to maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes during pregnancy. A sample of 398 Portuguese pregnant women (111 younger than 19 years) was recruited in a Portuguese Maternity Hospital and completed the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Questionnaire between the 24(th) and 36(th) weeks of gestation. Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Questionnaire(1) RESULTS: Adolescent pregnant women show lower maternal adjustment (poorer body image and worse marital relationship) and poorer maternal attitudes (more negative attitudes to sex) than adult pregnant women. When controlling for socio-demographics, age at pregnancy predicts poorer body image and more negative attitudes to sex, but not a worse marital relationship, more somatic symptoms or negative attitudes to pregnancy and the baby. A worse marital relationship was better predicted by living without the partner, and more somatic symptoms and negative attitudes to pregnancy and the baby was predicted by higher education. Adolescent pregnant women show lower maternal adjustment and poorer maternal attitudes than adult pregnant women according to socio-demographics and unfavorable developmental circumstances. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  10. Weierstrass polynomials for links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1997-01-01

    There is a natural way of identifying links in3-space with polynomial covering spaces over thecircle. Thereby any link in 3-space can be definedby a Weierstrass polynomial over the circle. Theequivalence relation for covering spaces over thecircle is, however, completely different from...... that for links in 3-space. This paper initiates a study of the connections between polynomial covering spaces over the circle and links in 3-space....

  11. Maternally derived egg hormones, antibodies and antimicrobial proteins: common and different pathways of maternal effects in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuliarova, Monika; Kankova, Zuzana; Bertin, Aline; Leterrier, Christine; Mostl, Erich; Zeman, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of maternally-derived substances that can influence the development and performance of offspring. The levels of these egg compounds vary in relation to environmental and genetic factors, but little is known about whether there are correlative links between maternal substances in the egg underlying common and different pathways of maternal effects. In the present study, we investigated genetically determined variability and mutually adjusted deposition of sex hormones (testosterone-T, androstenedione-A4 and progesterone-P4), antibodies (IgY) and antimicrobial proteins (lysozyme) in eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We used different genetic lines that were independently selected for yolk T concentrations, duration of tonic immobility and social reinstatement behaviour, since both selections for behavioural traits (fearfulness and social motivation, respectively) produced considerable correlative responses in yolk androgen levels. A higher selection potential was found for increased rather than decreased yolk T concentrations, suggesting that there is a physiological minimum in egg T levels. Line differences in yolk IgY concentrations were manifested within each selection experiment, but no consistent inter-line pattern between yolk IgY and T was revealed. On the other hand, a consistent inverse inter-line pattern was recorded between yolk IgY and P4 in both selections for behavioural traits. In addition, selections for contrasting fearfulness and social motivation were associated with changes in albumen lysozyme concentrations and an inverse inter-line pattern between the deposition of yolk IgY and albumen lysozyme was found in lines selected for the level of social motivation. Thus, our results demonstrate genetically-driven changes in deposition of yolk T, P4, antibodies and albumen lysozyme in the egg. This genetic variability can partially explain mutually adjusted maternal deposition of sex hormones and immune

  12. The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Andreas; Zeki, Semir

    2004-03-01

    Romantic and maternal love are highly rewarding experiences. Both are linked to the perpetuation of the species and therefore have a closely linked biological function of crucial evolutionary importance. Yet almost nothing is known about their neural correlates in the human. We therefore used fMRI to measure brain activity in mothers while they viewed pictures of their own and of acquainted children, and of their best friend and of acquainted adults as additional controls. The activity specific to maternal attachment was compared to that associated to romantic love described in our earlier study and to the distribution of attachment-mediating neurohormones established by other studies. Both types of attachment activated regions specific to each, as well as overlapping regions in the brain's reward system that coincide with areas rich in oxytocin and vasopressin receptors. Both deactivated a common set of regions associated with negative emotions, social judgment and 'mentalizing', that is, the assessment of other people's intentions and emotions. We conclude that human attachment employs a push-pull mechanism that overcomes social distance by deactivating networks used for critical social assessment and negative emotions, while it bonds individuals through the involvement of the reward circuitry, explaining the power of love to motivate and exhilarate.

  13. Cesarean section by maternal request

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAPHAEL CÂMARA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cesarean section by maternal request is the one performed on a pregnant woman without medical indication and without contraindication to vaginal delivery. There is great controversy over requested cesarean section. Potential risks include complications in subsequent pregnancies, such as uterine rupture, placenta previa and accreta. Potential benefits of requested cesareans include a lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage in the first cesarean and fewer surgical complications compared with vaginal delivery. Cesarean section by request should never be performed before 39 weeks.

  14. Educación maternal

    OpenAIRE

    Carnicer Fuentes, Inmaculada Concepción

    2010-01-01

    Definir y/o describir los objetivos, metodología y contenidos de la educación maternal como componente del proceso asistencial integrado de atención al “Embarazo, Parto y Puerperio” de la Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía. Definir y/o describir los aspectos básicos del crecimiento y desarrollo ovular Definir y/o describir los aspectos básicos de la educación sanitaria durante el embarazo, incluyendo aspectos como nutrición, fármacos, vacunas, atención prenatal y prevención ...

  15. Cytoplasmic factors do not contribute to a maternal effect on ethanol teratogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, C; Gilliam, D

    1999-01-01

    Both maternal and fetal genetic factors influence variations in response to prenatal ethanol exposure. To assess the effect of maternal genotype on the incidence of ethanol teratogenesis, a reciprocal cross study was conducted in an animal mode using the relatively susceptible C57BL/6J (B6) and the relatively resistant DBA/2J (D2) inbred mice. This mating pattern produced four embryonic genotypes: true-bred B6B6 and D2D2 litters and hybrid B6D2 and D2B6 litters. To examine the role of maternal egg cytoplasm as the source of variation that could account for a maternal effect, B6D2 and D2B6 F1 females were mated back to B6 males, which produced two additional embryonic genotypes: B6D2.B6 and D2B6.B6. Dams were intubated with either 5.8 g/kg of ethanol or an isocaloric amount of maltose-dextrin on day 9 of pregnancy. On day 18 of pregnancy, dams were sacrificed, fetuses were removed, weighed, sexed, and examined for gross morphological malformations. Every other fetus within a litter was prepared for either skeletal or soft tissue analysis. Results showed a higher rate of teratogenesis in the B6D2 group compared to the genetically similar D2B6 group, which indicates an influence of maternal genotype on susceptibility to ethanol teratogenesis. The percentage of affected male and female fetuses did not differ, which suggests that sex-linked factors are not responsible for the maternal effect. The backcross B6D2.B6 and D2B6.B6 litters did not differ significantly for any measure of teratogenesis, suggesting that differences in maternally transmitted cytoplasmic material are not the cause of the maternal effect. Factors that could account for the maternal effect are differences in the maternal uterine environment and genomic imprinting. Separating maternal from fetal-mediated mechanisms responsible for susceptibility to ethanol teratogenesis is needed for identifying mothers and infants at risk.

  16. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-10-13

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARα signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity.

  17. [Maternal mortality: levels, trends, and differentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, A; Lozano, R; Hernandez, B

    1993-01-01

    Maternal mortality in Mexico has declined significantly over the past half century. The maternal mortality rate was 53/10,000 live births in 1940 and 5.1 in 1990. The greatest and most rapid decline occurred in the 1940s. The maternal mortality rate is still too high, and in addition the differential between Mexican rates and those of the developed countries has increased. The average age at maternal death is 29 years, a full 40 years less than potential life expectancy. The risk of death from causes related to reproduction varies substantially by educational level. Of all maternal deaths between 1986 and 1991, 26% were in illiterate women, 33% in women with incomplete primary, and 24% in those with complete primary. In 1990, the average female school attainment was complete primary. The maternal mortality rate was eight times higher among illiterate women and five times higher in those not completing primary than in those finishing preparatory. Geographically, states with low maternal mortality rates of under 3.1 are mainly located in the north and those with high maternal mortality of over 6.0 are in the south. The central zone is an intermediate area. The 1991 maternal mortality rates of Oaxaca, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, and the state of Mexico are similar to those of Nuevo Leon 30 years ago or Aguascalientes, Sonora, and Baja California 20 years ago. 72% of maternal deaths in the 1980s occurred in rural areas. The rates were 6.5/10,000 in rural areas and 4.1/10,000 in urban areas. The maternal mortality rate also increases with marginalization. An index of marginalization constructed with census data using multivariate techniques showed that fertile aged women in very marginalized municipios had maternal mortality rates of 11.5/10,000, or a risk of death three times greater than women in municipios scoring low for marginalization. Maternal mortality continues to be a priority public health problem in Mexico. Because so many maternal deaths are preventable

  18. Nature, nurture or nutrition? Impact of maternal nutrition on maternal care, offspring development and reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, K L; Vickers, M H; Beltrand, J; Meaney, M J; Sloboda, D M

    2012-05-01

    We have previously reported that offspring of mothers fed a high fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and are hyperleptinaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and obese as adults. Poor maternal care and bonding can also impact offspring development and disease risk.We therefore hypothesized that prenatal nutrition would affect maternal care and that an interaction may exist between a maternal HF diet and maternal care, subsequently impacting on offspring phenotype.Wistar rats were mated and randomized to control dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF). Maternal care was assessed by observing maternal licking and grooming of pups between postnatal day (P)3 and P8. Postweaning (P22), offspring were fed a control (–con) or HF (–hf) diet. From P27, pubertal onset was assessed. At ∼P105 oestrous cyclicity was investigated. Maternal HF diet reduced maternal care; HF-fed mothers licked and groomed pups less than CON dams.Maternal fat:lean ratio was higher in HF dams at weaning and was associated with higher maternal plasma leptin and insulin concentrations, but there was no effect of maternal care on fat:lean ratio or maternal hormone levels. Both female and male offspring of HF dams were lighter from birth to P11 than offspring of CON dams, but by P19, HF offspring were heavier than controls. Prepubertal retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in pups from HF-fed dams compared to CON and was associated with elevated circulating leptin concentrations in females only, but there was neither an effect of maternal care, nor an interaction between maternal diet and care on prepubertal fat mass. Pups from HF-fed dams went into puberty early and this effect was exacerbated by a postweaning HF diet.Maternal and postweaning HF diets independently altered oestrous cyclicity in females: female offspring of HF-fed mothers were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus, whilst female offspring fed

  19. Effects of group reminiscence on geriatric depression:a Meta analysis%团体怀旧治疗对老年抑郁患者干预效果的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚静; 吴灵君

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effectiveness of group reminiscence on geriatric depression patients. Methods:Published and unpublished RCT and quasi-RCT that assessed the effects of group reminiscence for geriatric depression patients were systematically reviewed using multiple electronic databases. Relative risks for dichotomous data and a weighted mean difference for continuous data were calculated with 95%conifdence intervals. Results:A total of ten trials were included. The results of Meta-analysis showed:Compared with the control group, the intervention of group reminiscence could signiifcantly relive the symptoms of depression at the end of the invention and three months after the invention (P<0.01), but the advantage disappeared six months after the invention (P=0.14). The intervention of group reminiscence could signiifcantly improve self-esteem and life satisfaction (P<0.01). Conclusion:Group reminiscence is associated with short-term effects of depression relief among geriatric depression patients and the intervention of group reminiscence is more effective in improving self-esteem and life satisfaction. However, large-scale randomized controlled trials of higher quality are needed to conifrm this.%目的:评价团体怀旧治疗对老年抑郁的疗效。方法:采用Meta分析的办法,检索多个中英文数据库,搜集相关临床随机对照试验和半随机对照试验,进行文献质量评价后,采用RevMan 5.0软件进行数据分析。结果:共纳入10篇文献,团体怀旧干预组在干预结束时及结束后3个月的抑郁程度显著低于对照组(P<0.01),但在治疗结束6个月时,患者的抑郁程度与对照组相比无统计学差异(P=0.14);与对照组相比,团体怀旧治疗能明显提高老年抑郁患者的自尊和生活满意度(P<0.01)。结论:团体怀旧治疗对老年抑郁患者抑郁症状改善的近期疗效显著,但其远期疗效欠佳。另外团体怀旧治疗在提高

  20. Toxic effects of maternal zearalenone exposure on uterine capacity and fetal development in gestation rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Jia, Zhiqiang; Yin, Shutong; Shan, Anshan; Gao, Rui; Qu, Zhe; Liu, Min; Nie, Shaoping

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of high-dose and early gestational exposure to zearalenone (ZEN) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, to correlate the maternal uterus with the fetus, and to explore the development and malformation of fetuses. Pregnant female SD rats were fed diets containing 0.3, 48.5, 97.6, or 146.0 mg/kg ZEN on gestational days (GDs) 0 through 7. All the females survived until GD 20, at which point a cesarean section was performed to harvest the organs, blood, and fetuses. The results indicated that exposure to ZEN during early gestation can impact the maternal reproductive capability. Delayed fetal development was directly linked to maternal toxicity. The toxic effects of ZEN caused early deaths more frequently than late deaths, and the deleterious effects lasted through the end of pregnancy.

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Montgomery College Center for the Advancement of Distance Education University of Southern California, Maternal Child & Adolescent Program University of Illinois Chicago, Center of Excellence ...

  2. Cryptorchidism and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen H;

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys.......Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys....

  3. Trisomy 21 mosaicism and maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joan K

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the maternal age-specific risk for trisomy 21 mosaicism. Data were obtained on 322 trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism and 27,943 simple trisomy 21 diagnoses recorded in the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register from 1989 to 2009 in England and Wales. Trisomy 21 cases with mosaicism have a mean maternal age of 33.1 years compared to 35.0 years for free trisomy 21 cases. Sixty-seven percent of trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism are maternal age dependent, with a risk 0.8% that of the corresponding maternal age specific risk for simple trisomy 21. However 33% (0.8 per 100,000 births) are not maternal age dependent, indicating that maternal age is not the only risk factor for mosaicism. Trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism are more likely to be female than free trisomy 21 diagnoses, however there was no association of fetal sex with maternal age which indicates that there is another factor involved in the presence of mosaicism not associated with maternal age, but associated with fetal sex.

  4. Maternal Inattention and Impulsivity and Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mandy; Johnston, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    This study extends previous research by examining whether maternal inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are associated with different parenting behaviors. Ninety-six mother-son dyads participated in the study, and the boys ranged between 4 and 8 years of age. Maternal inattention was uniquely and positively associated with mothers' use of…

  5. Regional differences in Dutch maternal mortality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, J. de; Schutte, J.; Poeran, J.; Roosmalen, J. van; Bonsel, G.; Steegers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: de Graaf J, Schutte J, Poeran J, van Roosmalen J, Bonsel G, Steegers E. Regional differences in Dutch maternal mortality. BJOG 2012;119:582-588. Objective To study regional differences in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential inquiry into the causes of

  6. Maternal Depression and Developmental Disability: Research Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Golden, Robert N.; Roberts, Jane; Ford, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Maternal depression in families having a child with a disability has been the subject of considerable research over the past 25 years. This review was designed to describe the literature on maternal depression, critique its research methodology, identify consensus findings across studies, and make recommendations for future research. A particular…

  7. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  8. STUDI PROSPEKTIF KEMATIAN MATERNAL DI SUKABUMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ratna Budiarso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A sample survey to assess maternal mortality was conducted in two subdistricts of Sukabumi regency, West Jawa comprising 65.000 people in 15 villages. Data were collected from 1 September 1982 throught 31 agustus 1983. In one year period 2407 deliveries were recorded, with 9 deaths during deliveries and 2 deaths during pregnancies. The maternal mortality ratio was 468.1 per 100,000 live births (LB. Age specific maternal mortality ratio increased at the age of 30 years and over. The maternal mortality rate was 73.7 per 100,000 women aged 15-49 years. Specific maternal mor­tality rate was high among women aged 30—39 years, which was partly associated with the high fertility rate among the group besides the increasing risk of maternal deaths. Direct obstetric causes were reported in 383.0 maternal deaths per 100,000 LB, which were frequently due to hemorrhage and obstructed labour. Indirect obstetric causes were reported in 85.1 maternal deaths per 100,000 LB.

  9. Developing a successful alternative maternity unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C

    1987-07-01

    The users of maternity services are becoming increasingly interested in alternative delivery options, as a result hospitals are developing customer oriented, competitive maternity services. In this article, the author describes one hospital's efforts at developing a customer oriented family birthing center: the rationale, the benefits, the marketing and the satisfying results.

  10. Putting the "M" back in the Maternal and Child Health Bureau: reducing maternal mortality and morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Michael C; Highsmith, Keisher; de la Cruz, David; Atrash, Hani K

    2015-07-01

    Maternal mortality and severe morbidity are on the rise in the United States. A significant proportion of these events are preventable. The Maternal Health Initiative (MHI), coordinated by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau at the Health Resources and Services Administration, is intensifying efforts to reduce maternal mortality and severe morbidity in the U.S. Through a public-private partnership, MHI is taking a comprehensive approach to improving maternal health focusing on five priority areas: improving women's health before, during and beyond pregnancy; improving the quality and safety of maternity care; improving systems of maternity care including both clinical and public health systems; improving public awareness and education; and improving surveillance and research.

  11. Predictors of maternal mortality in institutional deliveries in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    7. Hospital Services Management Board, Katsina, Nigeria. 8. Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, ... Key words: maternal mortality; maternal death; predictors .... instrumental delivery, symphysiotomy, or assisted ..... For this reason,.

  12. Partner Abuse of Mothers Compromises Children's Behavioral Functioning Through Maternal Mental Health Dysfunction: Analysis of 300 Mother-Child Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddoux, John A; Liu, Fuqin; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith; Paulson, Rene; Binder, Brenda K; Fredland, Nina; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Partner violence is associated with numerous negative consequences for victims, especially poor mental health. Children who are exposed to partner violence are more likely to have behavior problems. Nevertheless, research on the relationship between severity of abuse, maternal mental health functioning following partner violence, and child behavior problems is limited. We explored the direct and indirect effects on the child's behavioral functioning of severity of maternal abuse and maternal mental health functioning following abuse. A sample of 300 mothers was recruited when they sought assistance for abuse for the first time at shelters for abused women or at the district attorney's office. Severity of abuse, mothers' mental health functioning, and child behavioral functioning were measured by maternal self-report at entry into the study and 4 months later. In SEM analysis, at both entry and 4 months, severity of abuse had a direct effect on maternal mental health functioning, which in turn had a direct effect on child behavioral functioning. The path from severity of abuse to child behavioral functioning also was significant but became non- significant once maternal mental health functioning was added to the equation, indicating that the path from severity of abuse to child behavioral functioning was indirect and occurred as a result of the mother's mental health functioning, which remained directly linked to child behavioral problems. Intergenerational interventions are needed to address both maternal mental health and child behavioral functioning when a mother reports partner violence and is experiencing mental health problems.

  13. Maternal methyl donors supplementation during lactation prevents the hyperhomocysteinemia induced by a high-fat-sucrose intake by dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Paul; Milagro, Fermin I; Campion, Javier; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2013-12-16

    Maternal perinatal nutrition may program offspring metabolic features. Epigenetic regulation is one of the candidate mechanisms that may be affected by maternal dietary methyl donors intake as potential controllers of plasma homocysteine levels. Thirty-two Wistar pregnant rats were randomly assigned into four dietary groups during lactation: control, control supplemented with methyl donors, high-fat-sucrose and high-fat-sucrose supplemented with methyl donors. Physiological outcomes in the offspring were measured, including hepatic mRNA expression and global DNA methylation after weaning. The newborns whose mothers were fed the obesogenic diet were heavier longer and with a higher adiposity and intrahepatic fat content. Interestingly, increased levels of plasma homocysteine induced by the maternal high-fat-sucrose dietary intake were prevented in both sexes by maternal methyl donors supplementation. Total hepatic DNA methylation decreased in females due to maternal methyl donors administration, while Dnmt3a hepatic mRNA levels decreased accompanying the high-fat-sucrose consumption. Furthermore, a negative association between Dnmt3a liver mRNA levels and plasma homocysteine concentrations was found. Maternal high-fat-sucrose diet during lactation could program offspring obesity features, while methyl donors supplementation prevented the onset of high hyperhomocysteinemia. Maternal dietary intake also affected hepatic DNA methylation metabolism, which could be linked with the regulation of the methionine-homocysteine cycle.

  14. Pathways and processes of risk in associations among maternal antisocial personality symptoms, interparental aggression, and preschooler's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G; Vonhold, Sara E

    2012-08-01

    Two studies examined the nature and processes underlying the joint role of interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as predictors of children's disruptive behavior problems. Participants for both studies included a high-risk sample of 201 mothers and their 2-year-old children in a longitudinal, multimethod design. Addressing the form of the interplay between interparental aggression and maternal antisocial personality as risk factors for concurrent and prospective levels of child disruptive problems, the Study 1 findings indicated that maternal antisocial personality was a predictor of the initial levels of preschooler's disruptive problems independent of the effects of interparental violence, comorbid forms of maternal psychopathology, and socioeconomic factors. In attesting to the salience of interparental aggression in the lives of young children, latent difference score analyses further revealed that interparental aggression mediated the link between maternal antisocial personality and subsequent changes in child disruptive problems over a 1-year period. To identify the family mechanisms that account for the two forms of intergenerational transmission of disruptive problems identified in Study 1, Study 2 explored the role of children's difficult temperament, emotional reactivity to interparental conflict, adrenocortical reactivity in a challenging parent-child task, and experiences with maternal parenting as mediating processes. Analyses identified child emotional reactivity to conflict and maternal unresponsiveness as mediators in pathways between interparental aggression and preschooler's disruptive problems. The findings further supported the role of blunted adrenocortical reactivity as an allostatic mediator of the associations between parental unresponsiveness and child disruptive problems.

  15. Maternal Methyl Donors Supplementation during Lactation Prevents the Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced by a High-Fat-Sucrose Intake by Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cordero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal perinatal nutrition may program offspring metabolic features. Epigenetic regulation is one of the candidate mechanisms that may be affected by maternal dietary methyl donors intake as potential controllers of plasma homocysteine levels. Thirty-two Wistar pregnant rats were randomly assigned into four dietary groups during lactation: control, control supplemented with methyl donors, high-fat-sucrose and high-fat-sucrose supplemented with methyl donors. Physiological outcomes in the offspring were measured, including hepatic mRNA expression and global DNA methylation after weaning. The newborns whose mothers were fed the obesogenic diet were heavier longer and with a higher adiposity and intrahepatic fat content. Interestingly, increased levels of plasma homocysteine induced by the maternal high-fat-sucrose dietary intake were prevented in both sexes by maternal methyl donors supplementation. Total hepatic DNA methylation decreased in females due to maternal methyl donors administration, while Dnmt3a hepatic mRNA levels decreased accompanying the high-fat-sucrose consumption. Furthermore, a negative association between Dnmt3a liver mRNA levels and plasma homocysteine concentrations was found. Maternal high-fat-sucrose diet during lactation could program offspring obesity features, while methyl donors supplementation prevented the onset of high hyperhomocysteinemia. Maternal dietary intake also affected hepatic DNA methylation metabolism, which could be linked with the regulation of the methionine-homocysteine cycle.

  16. [Beneficial effect of maternity leave on delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Séguin, Louise; Goulet, Lise

    2002-01-01

    To identify the contribution of the duration of the prenatal maternity leave on term delivery. Characteristics of the prenatal maternity leave and delivery among 363 working women who had delivered a full-term infant at 1 of 4 hospitals in Montreal during 1996 were studied. The presence of an intervention or complication during delivery was observed in 68.9% of the participants. The average duration of the prenatal maternity leave was about 8 weeks (SD = 7). The adjusted risk of a difficult delivery decreased significantly with the duration of the prenatal maternity leave (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). The duration of the maternity leave before delivery is associated with an easier term delivery for working women.

  17. Determinants of Maternal Mortality in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Abbasi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality refers to the death of a woman who dies during pregnancy or within six weeks after delivery. A number of factors contribute to the high maternal mortality ratio around the globe, particularly, in underdeveloped countries. Pakistan has the highest mortality ratio (260 per 100,000 live births in the region and is one of the developing countries which have committed to decrease maternal mortality by 2015, according to the millennium developing goals (MDG 5. However, there are number of factors which made Pakistan unable to achieve the MDG 5 by 2015. In Pakistan there are many factors such as biological, socio-economic, cultural and poor quality of Reproductive Health Services (RHS, which contribute to the alarming figure of Maternal Mortality.. This paper aimed to do an in-depth analysis of the determinants of maternal mortality in Pakistan.

  18. Striving for Respectful Maternity Care Everywhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rose L; Patel, Suha J; Scott, Jennifer; Schantz-Dunn, Julianna; Nour, Nawal M

    2016-09-01

    Purpose The mistreatment of women during childbirth in health facilities is a growing area of research and public attention. Description In many countries, disrespect and abuse from maternal health providers discourage women from seeking childbirth with a skilled birth attendant, which can lead to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. This commentary highlights examples from three countries-Kenya, Mexico and the United States-and presents different forms of mistreatment during childbirth, which range from physical abuse to non-consented care to discriminatory practices. Assessment Building on the momentum from the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, and the Global and Maternal Neonatal Health Conference, the global community has placed respectful maternity care at the forefront of the maternal and neonatal health agenda. Conclusion Research efforts must focus on context-specific patient satisfaction during childbirth to identify areas for quality improvement.

  19. Maternal deaths in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangen, Siri; Bødker, Birgit; Ellingsen, Liv

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite the seriousness of the event, maternal deaths are substantially underreported. There is often a missed opportunity to learn from such tragedies. The aim of the study was to identify maternal deaths in the five Nordic countries, to classify causes of death based...... on internationally acknowledged criteria, and to identify areas that would benefit from further teaching, training or research to possibly reduce the number of maternal deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present data for the years 2005-2013. National audit groups collected data by linkage of registers and direct...... reporting from hospitals. Each case was then assessed to determine the cause of death, and level of care provided. Potential improvements to care were evaluated. RESULTS: We registered 168 maternal deaths, 90 direct and 78 indirect cases. The maternal mortality ratio was 7.2/100 000 live births ranging from...

  20. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress has...... been made. There is not a simple and straight-forward intervention, which by itself will bring maternal mortality significantly down; and it is commonly agreed on that the high maternal mortality can only be addressed if the health system is strengthened. There is a common consensus about...... the importance of skilled attendance at delivery to address the high, maternal mortality. This consensus is also reflected in the MDG 5, where the proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel is considered a key indicator. But even if countries invest massive efforts to increase skilled care...

  1. THE MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Berghella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Maternal-Fetal Medicine is contributing to an improvement of maternal well-being and of neonatal health, introducing a number of new and useful technologies. Advances in genomics in the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis allowed the discovery of fragments of cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation and the use of chromosomal microarrays, which can test for microdeletions and microduplications in addition to aneuploidies. Color Doppler applications during pregnancy are expanding exponentially and Doppler flow velocity waveforms indices have provided important information from maternal, placental and fetal circulation with clinical implications. Ultrasound monitoring of fetal growth represents a fundamental tool to evaluate fetal wellbeing and several methods have been developed to improve fetal weight estimation accuracy. The combination of new biophysical and biochemical markers is enriching Maternal-Fetal Medicine and more research will allow to improve pregnancy outcome.

  2. Maternal coping styles and adjustment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, J G; Rickel, A U

    1988-06-01

    A comprehensive examination of children's social-emotional adjustment as related to maternal coping styles was performed. Subjects were 186 black mothers from lower-income families, and their children who were enrolled in the Detroit Public Schools Area F, Title I Preschool Program. Maternal nurturant and restrictive child rearing practices, life stress, locus of control and marital status were evaluated with respect to each of the child variables of school adjustment, self-concept and social problem solving skills. Maternal life stress was significantly related to children's lower self-concept, higher aggression, use of finagling and nondirective problem-solving strategies. Significant negative relationships were found between maternal nurturance and child moodiness and learning problems in school, further validating the Modified Child Rearing Practices Report. These findings provide support for expanding the current child developmental focus of preventive parenting programs to include maternal coping strategies such as improved communication and assertiveness training.

  3. Infant sleep, parental sleep and parenting stress in families of mothers on maternity leave and in families of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Dana; Tikotzky, Liat

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the links between infants' sleep and their parents' sleep and to assess the links between infant/parent sleep and parenting stress. Furthermore, we explored whether the links between sleep and parenting stress are moderated by maternal leave status. Participants were 50 families with an infant between the ages of 4-5 months. Half of the mothers were on maternity leave while the others returned to work. Parents completed daily sleep logs about infants' and their own sleep for 4 consecutive nights. Each parent also completed the Parenting Stress Index. Infant sleep was associated with sleep of both mothers and fathers, but the correlations with maternal sleep were stronger. Parental perceptions of their infant's sleep as problematic were associated with higher parenting stress. Poorer infant and maternal sleep patterns were associated with parenting stress only in families with mothers on maternity leave, probably because these mothers need to provide intensive caregiving "around the clock" without sufficient opportunities to rest.

  4. Maternal history of depression is associated with enhanced theory of mind in depressed and nondepressed adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Kate Leslie; Washburn, Dustin; Theriault, Jordan Eugene; Lee, Lisa; Sabbagh, Mark Alan

    2011-08-30

    Theory of mind forms the basis of social cognition and develops on a stereotyped ontogenetic timetable. Yet, there are individual differences in theory of mind that may be transmitted through genetic and/or environmental mechanisms. In the current study we examined the relation of maternal history of depression to individual differences in theory of mind in a sample of adult women. Sixty-one depressed women (23% with a positive maternal history of depression) and 30 non-depressed women (33% with a positive maternal history of depression) completed the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes task', a test of theory of mind decoding. Women with a maternal history of depression performed better on the Eyes task than those without. Further, the younger the mother's onset of depression, the better the current probands' Eyes task performance. These results are consistent with a broader literature linking hypersensitive social cognition and depression risk. We discuss the potential clinical implications of our results.

  5. Maternal obesity is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome in toddlers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D Galley

    Full Text Available Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for obesity, but the mechanisms behind this association are not fully delineated. A novel possible pathway linking maternal and child weight is the transmission of obesogenic microbes from mother to child. The current study examined whether maternal obesity was associated with differences in the composition of the gut microbiome in children in early life. Fecal samples from children 18-27 months of age (n = 77 were analyzed by pyro-tag 16S sequencing. Significant effects of maternal obesity on the composition of the gut microbiome of offspring were observed among dyads of higher socioeconomic status (SES. In the higher SES group (n = 47, children of obese (BMI≥30 versus non-obese mothers clustered on a principle coordinate analysis (PCoA and exhibited greater homogeneity in the composition of their gut microbiomes as well as greater alpha diversity as indicated by the Shannon Diversity Index, and measures of richness and evenness. Also in the higher SES group, children born to obese versus non-obese mothers had differences in abundances of Faecalibacterium spp., Eubacterium spp., Oscillibacter spp., and Blautia spp. Prior studies have linked some of these bacterial groups to differences in weight and diet. This study provides novel evidence that maternal obesity is associated with differences in the gut microbiome in children in early life, particularly among those of higher SES. Among obese adults, the relative contribution of genetic versus behavioral factors may differ based on SES. Consequently, the extent to which maternal obesity confers measureable changes to the gut microbiome of offspring may differ based on the etiology of maternal obesity. Continued research is needed to examine this question as well as the relevance of the observed differences in gut microbiome composition for weight trajectory over the life course.

  6. Maternal Obesity Is Associated with Alterations in the Gut Microbiome in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galley, Jeffrey D.; Bailey, Michael; Kamp Dush, Claire; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah; Christian, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for obesity, but the mechanisms behind this association are not fully delineated. A novel possible pathway linking maternal and child weight is the transmission of obesogenic microbes from mother to child. The current study examined whether maternal obesity was associated with differences in the composition of the gut microbiome in children in early life. Fecal samples from children 18–27 months of age (n = 77) were analyzed by pyro-tag 16S sequencing. Significant effects of maternal obesity on the composition of the gut microbiome of offspring were observed among dyads of higher socioeconomic status (SES). In the higher SES group (n = 47), children of obese (BMI≥30) versus non-obese mothers clustered on a principle coordinate analysis (PCoA) and exhibited greater homogeneity in the composition of their gut microbiomes as well as greater alpha diversity as indicated by the Shannon Diversity Index, and measures of richness and evenness. Also in the higher SES group, children born to obese versus non-obese mothers had differences in abundances of Faecalibacterium spp., Eubacterium spp., Oscillibacter spp., and Blautia spp. Prior studies have linked some of these bacterial groups to differences in weight and diet. This study provides novel evidence that maternal obesity is associated with differences in the gut microbiome in children in early life, particularly among those of higher SES. Among obese adults, the relative contribution of genetic versus behavioral factors may differ based on SES. Consequently, the extent to which maternal obesity confers measureable changes to the gut microbiome of offspring may differ based on the etiology of maternal obesity. Continued research is needed to examine this question as well as the relevance of the observed differences in gut microbiome composition for weight trajectory over the life course. PMID:25409177

  7. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fernanda R; Buccini, Gabriela Dos S; Venâncio, Sônia I; da Costa, Teresa H M

    To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among working women. This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. A reminiscence program intervention to improve the quality of life of long-term care residents with Alzheimer's disease: a randomized controlled trial Intervenção com um programa de reminiscência para melhorar qualidade de vida de residentes com Alzheimer com cuidados prolongados: ensaio controlado randomizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jorge Luis Serrani Azcurra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A single-blinded, parallel-groups (intervention, active and passive control groups randomized controlled trial (RCT was chosen to investigate whether a specific reminiscence program is associated with higher levels of quality of life in nursing home residents with dementia. METHODS: The intervention used a life-story approach, while the control groups participated in casual discussions. The Social Engagement Scale (SES and Self Reported Quality of Life Scale (SRQoL were used as the outcome measures, which were examined at baseline (T0, 12 weeks (T1, and six months (T2 after the intervention. The final sample had 135 subjects (active control group = 45; passive control group = 45; intervention group = 45. RESULTS: The Wilcoxon test showed significant differences in the intervention group between T2 and T0, and between T1 and T0 in the SES, and there were significant differences between T0 and T1 (intervention effect size = 0.267 and T1 and T2 (intervention effect size = 0.450 in the SRQoL. The univariate logistic regression scores showed that predictors of change in the SRQoL were associated with fewer baseline anxiety symptoms and lower depression scores. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention led to significant differences between the three groups over time, showing a significant improvement in the quality of life and engagement of the residents in the intervention group.OBJETIVO: Elegeu-se um ensaio randomizado controlado simples cego, com grupos paralelos (intervenção, comparação e controle para pesquisar se um programa específico de reminiscência associa-se com maiores níveis de qualidade de vida em residentes com demência com cuidados prolongados. MÉTODO: No grupo de intervenção usou-se o enfoque da história de vida, enquanto o grupo controle recebeu conversas amistosas. A Escala de Compromisso Social (SES e a escala auto-referida de qualidade de vida (SRQoL foram as medidas de resultados, examinados na linha de base, doze

  9. Distance matters: a population based study examining access to maternity services for rural women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelsen Jude

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past fifteen years there has been a wave of closures of small maternity services in Canada and other developed nations which results in the need for rural parturient women to travel to access care. The purpose of our study is to systematically document newborn and maternal outcomes as they relate to distance to travel to access the nearest maternity services with Cesarean section capabililty. Methods Study population is all women carrying a singleton pregnancy beyond 20 weeks and delivering between April 1, 2000 and March 31, 2004 and residing outside of the core urban areas of British Columbia. Maternal and newborn data was linked to specific geographic catchments by the B.C. Perinatal Health Program. Catchments were stratified by distance to nearest maternity service with Cesarean section capabililty if greater than 1 hour travel time or level of local service. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to test predictors of adverse newborn and maternal outcomes. Results 49,402 cases of women and newborns resident in rural catchments were included. Adjusted odds ratios for perinatal mortality for newborns from catchments greater than 4 hours from services was 3.17 (95% CI 1.45-6.95. Newborns from catchments 2 to 4 hours, and 1 to 2 hours from services generated rates of 179 and 100 NICU 3 days per thousand births respectively compared to 42 days for newborns from catchments served by specialists. Conclusions Distance matters: rural parturient women who have to travel to access maternity services have increased rates of adverse perinatal outcomes.

  10. Maternal and neonatal copeptin levels at cesarean section and vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ashraf A; Abdel Aal, Ibrahim A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the study was to measure the copeptin levels in maternal serum and umbilical cord serum at cesarean section and vaginal delivery in normotensive pregnancy and pre-eclamptic women. This was a prospective study at Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt. Ninety cases were included. They were divided into six groups: (1) normal pregnancy near term, as a control group, (2) primiparas who had vaginal delivery, (3) primiparas who had vaginal delivery and mild preeclampsia, (4) elective repeat cesarean section, (5) intrapartum cesarean section for indications other than fetal distress, and (6) intrapartum cesarean section for fetal distress. Serum copeptin concentrations were quantified with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mean, standard deviation, and paired t-test were used to test for significant change in quantitative data. The vaginal delivery groups had higher levels of maternal serum copeptin than the elective cesarean section group (P<0.01). Higher maternal serum copeptin levels were found in cases with pre-eclampsia as compared with the normotensive cases. The maternal copeptin levels during intrapartum cesarean section were higher than that during elective repeat cesarean section. There was a significant correlation between maternal copeptin levels and the duration of the first stage. In the presence of fetal distress, umbilical cord serum copeptin levels were significantly higher than other groups. Vaginal delivery can be very painful and stressful, and is accompanied by a marked increase of maternal serum copeptin. Increased maternal levels of serum copeptin were found in cases with pre-eclampsia as compared with the normotensive cases, and it may be helpful in assessing the disease. Intrauterine fetal distress is a strong stimulus to the release of copeptin into the fetal circulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of Maternal Periodontitis in Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongyu; Du, Minquan

    2017-01-01

    In the last two decades, many studies have focused on whether periodontitis is a risk factor for preterm birth (PTB). However, both epidemiological investigation and intervention trials have reached contradictory results from different studies. What explains the different findings, and how should future studies be conducted to better assess this risk factor? This article reviews recent epidemiological, animal, and in vitro studies as well as intervention trials that evaluate the link between periodontitis and PTB. Periodontitis may act as a distant reservoir of microbes and inflammatory mediators and contribute to the induction of PTB. Animal studies revealed that maternal infections with periodontal pathogens increase levels of circulating IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, and TNF-α and induce PTB. In vitro models showed that periodontal pathogens/byproducts induce COX-2, IL-8, IFN-γ, and TNF-α secretion and/or apoptosis in placental tissues/cells. The effectiveness of periodontal treatment to prevent PTB is influenced by the diagnostic criteria of periodontitis, microbial community composition, severity of periodontitis, treatment strategy, treatment efficiency, and the period of treatment during pregnancy. Although intervention trials reported contradictory results, oral health maintenance is an important part of preventive care that is both effective and safe throughout pregnancy and should be supported before and during pregnancy. As contradictory epidemiological and intervention studies continue to be published, two new ideas are proposed here: (1) severe and/or generalized periodontitis promotes PTB and (2) periodontitis only promotes PTB for pregnant women who are young or HIV-infected or have preeclampsia, pre-pregnancy obesity, or susceptible genotypes. PMID:28243243

  12. Maternal factors associated with child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lynne A; Rayens, Mary Kay; Peden, Ann R

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the relative contributions of risk factors in predicting young children's behavior problems may provide insights for the development of preventive interventions. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify maternal predictors of children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a volunteer sample of 205 low-income, single mothers with children between 2 and 6 years of age. Data were collected on chronic stressors, self-esteem, negative thinking, depressive symptoms, and child behavior during in-home interviews with the mothers. Mothers' reports of internalizing and externalizing behaviors did not differ by sex or race of the child. Chronic stressors and depressive symptoms, in addition to control variables, explained 27% of the variability in internalizing behavior while these two variables accounted for 21% of the variability in externalizing behavior. For both internalizing and externalizing behavior, chronic stressors exerted the largest total effects. The effects of self-esteem and negative thinking were indirect, with the latter playing a stronger role. The indirect effect of negative thinking on child behavior was exerted through depressive symptoms, while self-esteem was linked with child behavior through both negative thinking and depressive symptoms. Decreasing mothers' negative thinking, a variable amenable to intervention, may not only decrease a mother's depressive symptoms but also improve her perception of the child's behavior. Decreasing mothers' negative thinking may provide a way to reduce their depressive symptoms and result in fewer behavior problems among their young children. Nurses working in primary care and community-based settings are in key positions to address this problem and improve the mental health of low-income mothers and positively affect the behavior of their children.

  13. Unresolved Maternal Attachment Representations, Disrupted Maternal Behavior and Disorganized Attachment in Infancy: Links to Toddler Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Sheri; Moran, Greg; Schuengel, Carlo; Pederson, David R.; Otten, Roy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Attachment theory's original formulation was substantially driven by Bowlby's (1969/1982) quest for a meaningful model of the development of psychopathology. Bowlby posited that aberrant experiences of parenting increase the child's risk of psychopathological outcomes, and that these risks are mediated by the quality of the attachment…

  14. Maternal obesity: implications for pregnancy outcome and long-term risks-a link to maternal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Amir; Hod, Moshe; Yogev, Yariv

    2011-11-01

    As obesity becomes a worldwide epidemic, its prevalence during reproductive age is also increased. Alarming reports state that two-thirds of adults in the USA are overweight or obese, with half of them in the latter category, and the rate of obese pregnant women is estimated at 18-38%. These women are of major concern to women's health providers because they encounter numerous pregnancy-related complications. Obesity-related reproductive health complications range from infertility to a wide spectrum of diseases such as hypertensive disorders, coagulopathies, gestational diabetes mellitus, respiratory complications, and fetal complications such as large-for-gestational-age infants, congenital malformations, stillbirth, and shoulder dystocia. Recent reports suggest that obesity during pregnancy can be a risk factor for developing obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases in the newborn later in life. This review will address the implication of obesity on pregnancy and child health, and explore recent literature on obesity during pregnancy.

  15. Maternal Intimate Partner Violence: Relationships with Language and Neurological Development of Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Ifeyinwa E; Sharps, Phyllis; Bronner, Yvonne; Hossain, Mian B

    2016-07-01

    Objectives This longitudinal study examined the influence of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) experience of pregnant women participating in the Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program on the language and neurological development of infants and toddlers. Methods A total of 210 infants and toddlers born to women reporting low, moderate, and high levels of IPV were included in the analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the bivariate association between maternal IPV and risk of language and neurological delay of infants and toddlers and between covariates and language and neurological delay. Generalized estimating equation models with logit link was used to predict the risk of language and neurological delay of infants and toddlers as a result of maternal IPV. Results Infants and toddlers born to women exposed to moderate levels of IPV had increased odds of language delay compared to infants and toddlers of women who experienced low levels of violence (OR 5.31, 95 % CI 2.94, 9.50, p Maternal IPV is associated with increased risk of language and neurological delay of infants and toddlers. These findings have implications for health care for women and infants exposed to IPV. Clinicians including pediatricians working with pregnant women should screen for IPV throughout pregnancy to identify women and children at risk. Interventions to reduce maternal IPV and early intervention services for infants and toddlers exposed to IPV are necessary for optimal maternal and child health.

  16. Health literacy of primiparae in the first six months of maternity: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Olecká

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to find out how the health literacy of primiparae in the first six months of motherhood is examined. The following research questions were raised: What methods are used to examine maternal health literacy? What aspects of maternal health literacy are investigated? Do the results prove any link between maternal health literacy and child health? Design: Review. Methods: The search for primary research studies was based on a combination of the following keywords: health literacy, mother*, maternity*, information, and knowledge in the Scopus and Web of Science databases. Exclusion criteria: not a primary study, does not concern research on primiparae of children under six months, unrelated to health literacy research or obtaining of information and acquiring of knowledge, not available in full-text, or clear research methodology description not available. The data were processed using thematic analysis based on the sorting method. Results: 31 studies were found, 17 of which were analysed. The majority of studies used quantitative methods of research with standardized tools. The key categories of health literacy related to obtaining, understanding and use of health information. No direct correlation was clearly demonstrated between level of maternal health literacy and child health. Conclusion: The trend in terms of the focus and goals of professional studies, regardless of cultural or national context, is a shift away from examining the way information is acquired to how it is understood by mothers.

  17. Disturbance in Maternal Environment Leads to Abnormal Synaptic Instability during Neuronal Circuitry Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yusuke; Kabuta, Tomohiro; Wada, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    Adverse maternal environment during gestation and lactation can have negative effects on the developing brain that persist into adulthood and result in behavioral impairment. Recent studies of human and animal models suggest epidemiological and experimental association between disturbances in maternal environments during brain development and the occurrence of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the effects of maternal metabolic and hormonal abnormalities on the developing brain by focusing on the dynamics of dendritic spine, an excitatory postsynaptic structure. We discuss the abnormal instability of dendritic spines that is common to developmental disorders and neurological diseases. We also introduce our recent studies that demonstrate how maternal obesity and hyperandrogenism leads to abnormal development of neuronal circuitry and persistent synaptic instability, which results in the loss of synapses. The aim of this review is to highlight the links between abnormal maternal environment, behavioral impairment in offspring, and the dendiric spine pathology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  18. Nonstandard Maternal Work Schedules: Implications for African American Children's Early Language Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Erika C; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Crouter, Ann C

    2013-01-01

    In this study, observed maternal positive engagement and perception of work-family spillover were examined as mediators of the association between maternal nonstandard work schedules and children's expressive language outcomes in 231 African American families living in rural households. Mothers reported their work schedules when their child was 24 months of age and children's expressive language development was assessed during a picture book task at 24 months and with a standardized assessment at 36 months. After controlling for family demographics, child, and maternal characteristics, maternal employment in nonstandard schedules at the 24 month timepoint was associated with lower expressive language ability among African American children concurrently and at 36 months of age. Importantly, the negative association between nonstandard schedules and children's expressive language ability at 24 months of age was mediated by maternal positive engagement and negative work-family spillover, while at 36 months of age, the association was mediated only by negative work-family spillover. These findings suggest complex links between mothers' work environments and African American children's developmental outcomes.

  19. Infant attachment, adult attachment, and maternal sensitivity: revisiting the intergenerational transmission gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches.

  20. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  1. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual.

  2. Maternal Preeclampsia and Neonatal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl H. Backes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a multiorgan, heterogeneous disorder of pregnancy associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal strategies in the care of the women with preeclampsia have not been fully elucidated, leaving physicians with incomplete data to guide their clinical decision making. Because preeclampsia is a progressive disorder, in some circumstances, delivery is needed to halt the progression to the benefit of the mother and fetus. However, the need for premature delivery has adverse effects on important neonatal outcomes not limited to the most premature infants. Late-preterm infants account for approximately two thirds of all preterm deliveries and are at significant risk for morbidity and mortality. Reviewed is the current literature in the diagnosis and obstetrical management of preeclampsia, the outcomes of late-preterm infants, and potential strategies to optimize fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia.

  3. Controversial issues of maternity substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Pușcă

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Substitute maternity consists in a woman carrying a pregnancy (the implant of an embryo, at therequest of a sterile couple, most of the times in exchange of a sum of money, with her commitment tounconditionally give away the newborn after birth to the couple she concluded the agreement with. Manycontroversies emerged in what concerns the contract between the sterile couple and the carrying mother,especially when this contract is by onerous title, which happens in most of the cases. In that a civil contract? Is ita sales contract for the child? Is it a contract to provide services? Is it body marketing? Between total prohibitionand excessive liberalism, the middle way, which is the regulation according to ethical religious, cultural andsocial norms of each community, represents a realistic solution.

  4. Genetic Regulation of Maternal Oxytocin Response and Its Influences on Maternal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We interrogated the genetic modulation of maternal oxytocin response and its association with maternal behavior using genetic risk scores within the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene. We identified a novel SNP, rs968389, to be significantly associated with maternal oxytocin response after a challenging mother-infant interaction task (Still Face Paradigm and maternal separation anxiety from the infant. Performing a multiallelic analysis across OXTR by calculating a cumulative genetic risk score revealed a significant gene-by-environment (G×E interaction, with OXTR genetic risk score interacting with adult separation anxiety to modulate levels of maternal sensitivity. Mothers with higher OXTR genetic risk score and adult separation anxiety showed significantly reduced levels of maternal sensitivity during free play with the infant. The same G×E interaction was also observed for the extended OXTR cumulative genetic risk score that included rs968389. Moreover, the extended cumulative OXTR genetic risk score itself was found to be significantly associated with maternal separation anxiety as it specifically relates to the infant. Our results suggest a complex montage of individual and synergistic genetic mediators of maternal behavior. These findings add to specific knowledge about genetic regulation of maternal oxytocin response in relation to maternal adjustment and infant bonding through the first few months of life.

  5. Severe maternal morbidity for 2004-2005 in the three Dublin maternity hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Cliona M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and causes of severe maternal morbidity in Dublin over a two year period from 2004 to 2005. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study from January 2004 to December 2005 was undertaken in the three large maternity hospitals in Dublin, which serve a population of 1.5 million people. All are tertiary referral centres for obstetrics and neonatology and have an annual combined delivery rate of circa 23,000 births. Cases of severe maternal morbidity were identified. A systems based classification was used. The primary cause of maternal morbidity and the number of events experienced per patient was recorded. RESULTS: We identified 158 women who fulfilled the definition for severe maternal morbidity, giving a rate of 3.2 per 1000 maternities. There were two maternal deaths during the time period giving mortality to morbidity ratio of 1:79. The commonest cause of severe morbidity was vascular dysfunction related to obstetric haemorrhage. Eclampsia comprised 15.4% of cases. Intensive care or coronary care admission occurred in 12% of cases. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of severe maternal morbidity in this population is 3.2\\/1000 maternities. Obstetric haemorrhage was the main cause of severe maternal morbidity.

  6. Genetic Regulation of Maternal Oxytocin Response and Its Influences on Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Valsamma; Kohlhoff, Jane; Mendoza Diaz, Antonio; Barnett, Bryanne; Silove, Derrick; Dadds, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    We interrogated the genetic modulation of maternal oxytocin response and its association with maternal behavior using genetic risk scores within the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene. We identified a novel SNP, rs968389, to be significantly associated with maternal oxytocin response after a challenging mother-infant interaction task (Still Face Paradigm) and maternal separation anxiety from the infant. Performing a multiallelic analysis across OXTR by calculating a cumulative genetic risk score revealed a significant gene-by-environment (G × E) interaction, with OXTR genetic risk score interacting with adult separation anxiety to modulate levels of maternal sensitivity. Mothers with higher OXTR genetic risk score and adult separation anxiety showed significantly reduced levels of maternal sensitivity during free play with the infant. The same G × E interaction was also observed for the extended OXTR cumulative genetic risk score that included rs968389. Moreover, the extended cumulative OXTR genetic risk score itself was found to be significantly associated with maternal separation anxiety as it specifically relates to the infant. Our results suggest a complex montage of individual and synergistic genetic mediators of maternal behavior. These findings add to specific knowledge about genetic regulation of maternal oxytocin response in relation to maternal adjustment and infant bonding through the first few months of life. PMID:27872764

  7. The maternal health outcomes of paid maternity leave: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Zoe; Garrett, Cameryn C; Hewitt, Belinda; Keogh, Louise; Hocking, Jane S; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2015-04-01

    Paid maternity leave has become a standard benefit in many countries throughout the world. Although maternal health has been central to the rationale for paid maternity leave, no review has specifically examined the effect of paid maternity leave on maternal health. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of studies that examine the association between paid maternity leave and maternal health. We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts) and Google Scholar. We searched websites of relevant organisations, reference lists of key papers and journals, and citation indices for additional studies including those not in refereed journals. There were no language restrictions. Studies were included if they compared paid maternity leave versus no paid maternity leave, or different lengths of paid leave. Data were extracted and an assessment of bias was performed independently by authors. Seven studies were identified, with participants from Australia, Sweden, Norway, USA, Canada, and Lebanon. All studies used quantitative methodologies, including cohort, cross-sectional, and repeated cross-sectional designs. Outcomes included mental health and wellbeing, general health, physical wellbeing, and intimate partner violence. The four studies that examined leave at an individual level showed evidence of maternal health benefits, whereas the three studies conducting policy-level comparisons reported either no association or evidence of a negative association. The synthesis of the results suggested that paid maternity leave provided maternal health benefits, although this varied depending on the length of leave. This has important implications for public health and social policy. However, all studies were subject to confounding bias and many to reverse causation. Given the small number of studies and the methodological limitations of the evidence, longitudinal studies are

  8. The impact of maternal characteristics, infant temperament and contextual factors on maternal responsiveness to infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester-Jones, Michelle; O'Mahen, Heather; Watkins, Edward; Karl, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms are consistently associated with impairments in maternal attunement (i.e., maternal responsiveness and bonding). There is a growing body of literature examining the impact of maternal cognitive factors (e.g., rumination) on maternal attunement and mood. However, little research has examined the role of infant temperament and maternal social support in this relationship. This study investigated the hypothesis that rumination would mediate (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and attunement and (2) the relationship between social support and attunement. We further predicted that infant temperament would moderate these relationships, such that rumination would demonstrate mediating effects on attunement when infant difficult temperament was high, but not low. Two hundred and three mothers completed measures on rumination, depressive symptoms, attunement, perceived social support and infant temperament. Rumination mediated the effect of postnatal maternal depressive mood on maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant when infants were low, but not high, in negative temperament. When infants had higher negative temperament, there were direct relationships between maternal depressive symptoms, social support and maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant. This study is limited by its cross-sectional and correlational nature and the use of self-report measures to assess a mother's awareness of her infant needs and behaviours, rather than observational measures of maternal sensitivity. These findings suggest potentially different pathways to poor maternal responsiveness than those expected and provide new evidence about the contexts in which maternal cognitive factors, such as rumination, may impact on the mother-infant relationship.

  9. Elevated maternal cortisol leads to relative maternal hyperglycemia and increased stillbirth in ovine pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E.; Richards, Elaine; Anthony, Russell V.; Dahl, Geoffrey E.; Tao, Sha

    2014-01-01

    In normal pregnancy, cortisol increases; however, further pathological increases in cortisol are associated with maternal and fetal morbidities. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that increased maternal cortisol would increase maternal glucose concentrations, suppress fetal growth, and impair neonatal glucose homeostasis. Ewes were infused with cortisol (1 mg·kg−1·day−1) from day 115 of gestation to term; maternal glucose, insulin, ovine placental lactogen, estrone, progesterone, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and electrolytes were measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal glucose concentration and slowed the glucose disappearance after injection of glucose; maternal infusion of cortisol also increased the incidence of fetal death at or near parturition. The design of the study was altered to terminate the study prior to delivery, and post hoc analysis of the data was performed to test the hypothesis that maternal metabolic factors predict the fetal outcome. In cortisol-infused ewes that had stillborn lambs, plasma insulin was increased relative to control ewes or cortisol-infused ewes with live lambs. Maternal cortisol infusion did not alter maternal food intake or plasma NEFA, BHB, estrone, progesterone or placental lactogen concentrations, and it did not alter fetal body weight, ponderal index, or fetal organ weights. Our study suggests that the adverse effect of elevated maternal cortisol on pregnancy outcome may be related to the effects of cortisol on maternal glucose homeostasis, and that chronic maternal stress or adrenal hypersecretion of cortisol may create fetal pathophysiology paralleling some aspects of maternal gestational diabetes. PMID:24920731

  10. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  11. Placenta previa and maternal hemorrhagic morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbins, Karen J; Einerson, Brett D; Varner, Michael W; Silver, Robert M

    2017-02-21

    Placenta previa is associated with maternal hemorrhage, but most literature focuses on morbidity in the setting of placenta accreta. We aim to characterize maternal morbidity associated with previa and to define risk factors for hemorrhage. This is a secondary cohort analysis of the NICHD Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Cesarean Section Registry. This analysis included all women undergoing primary Cesarean delivery without placenta accreta. About 496 women with previa were compared with 24,201 women without previa. Primary outcome was composite maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Non-hemorrhagic morbidities and risk factors for hemorrhage were also evaluated. Maternal hemorrhagic morbidity was more common in women with previa (19 versus 7%, aRR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.5). Atony requiring uterotonics (aRR 3.1, 95% CI 2.0-4.9), red blood cell transfusion (aRR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5-5.7), and hysterectomy (aRR 5.1, 95% CI 1.5-17.3) were also more common with previa. For women with previa, factors associated with maternal hemorrhage were pre-delivery anemia, thrombocytopenia, diabetes, magnesium use, and general anesthesia. Placenta previa is an independent risk factor for maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Some risk factors are modifiable, but many are intrinsic to the clinical scenario.

  12. KEMATIAN MATERNAL DI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was carried out in villages around health centers, which were distributed over 10 regencies in Timor island of East Nusa Tenggara province. All deaths occurring in 1986 were recorded and reported to the health centers. Each case was investigated by the health center doctor to identify the multiple causes of death as well as its related factors. Pregnancy and delivery histories of maternal deaths were analysed. In the study area, the maternal mortality ratio was found to be 1346 per 100,000 live births, and the maternal mortality rate was 101 per 100,000 women aged 15-49 years. The maternal mortality ratio, among women under 20 years of age, was 3390 per 100,000 live births; and 4545 per 100,000 live births among women aged 40 years and over. The predominant factor as a risk of maternal deaths was attributable to delivery assistance by non medical personnel, which was 71%. Maternal deaths attributable to the first parities was 40%, and to pregnancies without antenatal care was 20.1%}. The most prevalent disease causing maternal deaths were haemorrhage 46.2%}, postpartum infections 30.8% and retained placenta 30.8%. To reduce maternal mortality, the most important intervention is to provide qualified delivery assistants especially for the first parities, and the provision of accessible delivery centers for emergency cases in addition to provision of appropriate antenatal care for early detection of high risk pregnancies. Family planning programs will have to be more specified towards high risk groups, i.e women aged under 20 years or 35 years and over, as well as women of high parity. A similar study is recommended to be conducted throughout the other parts of East Nusa Tenggara islands in order to evaluate the general maternal health status of the province.

  13. KEMATIAN MATERNAL DI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was carried out in villages around health centers, which were distributed over 10 regencies in Timor island of East Nusa Tenggara province. All deaths occurring in 1986 were recorded and reported to the health centers. Each case was investigated by the health center doctor to identify the multiple causes of death as well as its related factors. Pregnancy and delivery histories of maternal deaths were analysed. In the study area, the maternal mortality ratio was found to be 1346 per 100,000 live births, and the maternal mortality rate was 101 per 100,000 women aged 15-49 years. The maternal mortality ratio, among women under 20 years of age, was 3390 per 100,000 live births; and 4545 per 100,000 live births among women aged 40 years and over. The predominant factor as a risk of maternal deaths was attributable to delivery assistance by non medical personnel, which was 71%. Maternal deaths attributable to the first parities was 40%, and to pregnancies without antenatal care was 20.1%}. The most prevalent disease causing maternal deaths were haemorrhage 46.2%}, postpartum infections 30.8% and retained placenta 30.8%. To reduce maternal mortality, the most important intervention is to provide qualified delivery assistants especially for the first parities, and the provision of accessible delivery centers for emergency cases in addition to provision of appropriate antenatal care for early detection of high risk pregnancies. Family planning programs will have to be more specified towards high risk groups, i.e women aged under 20 years or 35 years and over, as well as women of high parity. A similar study is recommended to be conducted throughout the other parts of East Nusa Tenggara islands in order to evaluate the general maternal health status of the province.

  14. Parental Attributions and Perceived Intervention Benefits and Obstacles as Predictors of Maternal Engagement in a Preventive Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Alicia H.; Dumas, Jean E.; Gitter, Alexandra H.

    2008-01-01

    This study integrates and applies theoretical models linking parent cognitions to maternal engagement in a parenting program to prevent child aggression and conduct problems. African American and European American mothers of preschoolers (N = 347) reported on their child's behavior, family demographics, and parental cognitions (i.e., parenting…

  15. Behaviour Problems, Maternal Internalising Symptoms and Family Relations in Families of Adolescents and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. K.; Seltzer, M. M.; Greenberg, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have linked the behaviour problems of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) to maternal well-being, but less is known about how behaviour problems relate to important family factors such as marital satisfaction and family cohesion. Methods: Married mothers of 115 adolescents and adults with FXS completed questionnaires and…

  16. Epigenetic Regulation of Placental "NR3C1": Mechanism Underlying Prenatal Programming of Infant Neurobehavior by Maternal Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George D.; Salisbury, Amy L.; Phipps, Maureen G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Niaura, Raymond; Padbury, James F.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of the placental glucocorticoid receptor gene ("NR3C1") was investigated as a mechanism underlying links between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and infant neurobehavior in 45 mother-infant pairs (49% MSDP-exposed; 52% minorities; ages 18-35). The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Network Neurobehavioral…

  17. Epigenetic Regulation of Placental "NR3C1": Mechanism Underlying Prenatal Programming of Infant Neurobehavior by Maternal Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George D.; Salisbury, Amy L.; Phipps, Maureen G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Niaura, Raymond; Padbury, James F.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of the placental glucocorticoid receptor gene ("NR3C1") was investigated as a mechanism underlying links between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and infant neurobehavior in 45 mother-infant pairs (49% MSDP-exposed; 52% minorities; ages 18-35). The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Network Neurobehavioral…

  18. First-Year Maternal Employment and Child Development in the First Seven Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the first 2 phases of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, we examine the links between maternal employment in the first 12 months of life and cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes for children at age 3, age 4½, and first grade. Drawing on theory and prior research from developmental psychology as well as economics and sociology, we address three main questions. First, what associations exist between first-year maternal employment and cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes for children over the first seven years of life? Second, to what extent do any such associations vary by the child’s gender and temperament, or the mother’s occupation? Third, to what extent do mother’s earnings, the home environment (maternal depressive symptoms, sensitivity, and HOME scores), and the type and quality of child care mediate or offset any associations between first-year employment and child outcomes, and what is the net effect of first-year maternal employment once these factors are taken into account? We compare families in which mothers worked full time (55%), part time (23%), or did not work (22%) in the first year for non-Hispanic white children (N=900) and for African-American children (N=113). Comparisons are also made taking into account the timing of mothers’ employment within the first year. A rich set of control variables are included. OLS and SEM analyses are constructed. With regard to cognitive outcomes, first, we find that full-time maternal employment in the first 12 months of life (but not part-time employment) is associated with significantly lower scores on some, but not all, measures of cognitive development at age 3, 4 ½, and first grade for non-Hispanic white children, but with no significant associations for the small sample of African-American children Part-time employment in the first year is associated with higher scores than full-time employment for some measures. Employment in the second and third year of life is not

  19. First-Year Maternal Employment and Child Development in the First Seven Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-08-01

    Using data from the first 2 phases of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care, we examine the links between maternal employment in the first 12 months of life and cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes for children at age 3, age 4½, and first grade. Drawing on theory and prior research from developmental psychology as well as economics and sociology, we address three main questions. First, what associations exist between first-year maternal employment and cognitive, social, and emotional outcomes for children over the first seven years of life? Second, to what extent do any such associations vary by the child's gender and temperament, or the mother's occupation? Third, to what extent do mother's earnings, the home environment (maternal depressive symptoms, sensitivity, and HOME scores), and the type and quality of child care mediate or offset any associations between first-year employment and child outcomes, and what is the net effect of first-year maternal employment once these factors are taken into account? We compare families in which mothers worked full time (55%), part time (23%), or did not work (22%) in the first year for non-Hispanic white children (N=900) and for African-American children (N=113). Comparisons are also made taking into account the timing of mothers' employment within the first year. A rich set of control variables are included. OLS and SEM analyses are constructed. With regard to cognitive outcomes, first, we find that full-time maternal employment in the first 12 months of life (but not part-time employment) is associated with significantly lower scores on some, but not all, measures of cognitive development at age 3, 4 ½, and first grade for non-Hispanic white children, but with no significant associations for the small sample of African-American children Part-time employment in the first year is associated with higher scores than full-time employment for some measures. Employment in the second and third year of life is not associated

  20. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueret, Christophe; de Boer, Victor; Schlobach, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. A closer look at linked data technologies, however, proves that their design and deployment exclude the majority of the world’s population. It will take small