WorldWideScience

Sample records for linking inquiry-based activities

  1. Characterising Extrinsic Challenges Linked to the Design and Implementation of Inquiry-Based Practical Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuma, Fru Vitalis; Callaghan, Ronel

    2017-11-01

    Inquiry-based science education has been incorporated in science curricula internationally. In this regard, however, many teachers encounter challenges. The challenges have been characterised into those linked to the personal characteristics of these teachers (intrinsic challenges) and others associated with contextual factors (extrinsic challenges). However, this level of characterisation is inadequate in terms of appreciating the complexity of the challenges, tracking of their development, and discovering knowledge within specific categories. Against this background, the purpose of the research presented here was to characterise extrinsic challenges linked to the design and implementation of inquiry-based practical work. In order to do so, we used a conceptual framework of teaching challenges based on Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory of human development. The data gathered using a multi-method case study of practical work in two South African high schools, was analysed by combining the data-driven inductive approach and the deductive a priori template of codes approach in thematic analysis. On this basis, the extrinsic challenges linked to the design and implementation of inquiry-based practical work that participants are confronted with, were found to consist of macrosystem challenges (such as a restrictive curriculum) and microsystem challenges. At the latter level, the challenges are material-related (e.g., lack of science education equipment and materials) or non-material-related (such as time constraints and the lack of access to interactive computer simulations). We have discussed the theory-, practice- and research-based implications of these results in relation to the design and implementation of inquiry-based practical work in South Africa and internationally.

  2. Discovering Biofilms: Inquiry-Based Activities for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelman, Carly V.; Marrs, Kathleen; Anderson, Gregory G.

    2012-01-01

    In nature, bacteria exist in and adapt to different environments by forming microbial communities called "biofilms." We propose simple, inquiry-based laboratory exercises utilizing a biofilm formation assay, which allows controlled biofilm growth. Students will be able to qualitatively assess biofilm growth via staining. Recently, we developed a…

  3. Inquiry-based Laboratory Activities on Drugs Analysis for High School Chemistry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, I.; Sholichin, H.; Arifin, M.

    2017-09-01

    Laboratory activity is an important part of chemistry learning, but cookbook instructions is still commonly used. However, the activity with that way do not improve students thinking skill, especially students creativity. This study aims to improve high school students creativity through inquiry-based laboratory on drugs analysis activity. Acid-base titration is used to be method for drugs analysis involving a color changing indicator. The following tools were used to assess the activity achievement: creative thinking test on acid base titration, creative attitude and action observation sheets, questionnaire of inquiry-based lab activities, and interviews. The results showed that the inquiry-based laboratory activity improving students creative thinking, creative attitude and creative action. The students reacted positively to this teaching strategy as demonstrated by results from questionnaire responses and interviews. This result is expected to help teachers to overcome the shortcomings in other laboratory learning.

  4. An Inquiry-Based Science Activity Centred on the Effects of Climate Change on Ocean Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Diana; Guilherme, Elsa; Faria, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    We propose an inquiry-based science activity centred on the effects of climate change on ocean ecosystems. This activity can be used to improve acquisition of knowledge on the effects of climate change and to promote inquiry skills, such as researching, reading and selecting relevant information, identifying a problem, focusing on a research…

  5. Repairing Student Misconceptions in Heat Transfer Using Inquiry-Based Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Michael; Vigeant, Margot; Nottis, Katharyn

    2016-01-01

    Eight inquiry-based activities, described here in sufficient detail for faculty to adopt in their own courses, were designed to teach students fundamental concepts in heat transfer. The concept areas chosen were (1) factors affecting the rate vs. amount of heat transfer, (2) temperature vs. perceptions of hot and cold, (3) temperature vs. energy…

  6. Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activities in Electrochemistry: High School Students' Achievements and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inquiry-based laboratory activities on high school students' understanding of electrochemistry and attitudes towards chemistry and laboratory work. The participants were 62 high school students (average age 17 years) in an urban public high school in Turkey. Students were assigned to experimental (N =…

  7. Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activity to Investigate Physical Growth Requirements of Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Furlong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Standard "cookbook" laboratory activities that are used to teach students the optimal physical growth conditions of microorganisms should be modified so that they more effectively foster student's higher order cognitive skills and attract student interest.  This paper describes a laboratory activity that engages students in an inquiry-based approach to studying the physical growth requirements of microorganisms.  In this activity, students design and implement an experiment to obtain pure cultures of specific microorganisms, with distinct growth properties, that are provided to them in a mixed culture.

  8. Inquiry-based laboratory and History of Science: a report about an activity using Oersted’s experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Ferreira Pinto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an example of how to explore an historical experiment as a problem to be investigated in an inquiry-based laboratory model. The elaborated and executed purpose is one of the possibilities to insert History of Science in Science classroom. The inquiry-based experimental activity, the texts with historical approach based on modern historiography of science and teacher’s pedagogical knowledge allowed the development of argumentative skills and the comprehension of electromagnetism concepts. This study was developed with 3rd grade high school students from a public school of State of Paraiba.

  9. Exploring Marine Ecosystems with Elementary School Portuguese Children: Inquiry-Based Project Activities Focused on "Real-Life" Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Elsa; Faria, Cláudia; Boaventura, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how young students engage in an inquiry-based project driven by real-life contexts. Elementary school children were engaged in a small inquiry project centred on marine biodiversity and species adaptations. All activities included the exploration of an out-of-school setting as a learning context. A total…

  10. An Inquiry-Based Vision Science Activity for Graduate Students and Postdoctoral Research Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, N. M.; Maness, H. L.; Rossi, E. A.; Hunter, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    The vision science activity was originally designed for the 2007 Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) Summer School. Participants were graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and professionals studying the basics of adaptive optics. The majority were working in fields outside vision science, mainly astronomy and engineering. The primary goal of the activity was to give participants first-hand experience with the use of a wavefront sensor designed for clinical measurement of the aberrations of the human eye and to demonstrate how the resulting wavefront data generated from these measurements can be used to assess optical quality. A secondary goal was to examine the role wavefront measurements play in the investigation of vision-related scientific questions. In 2008, the activity was expanded to include a new section emphasizing defocus and astigmatism and vision testing/correction in a broad sense. As many of the participants were future post-secondary educators, a final goal of the activity was to highlight the inquiry-based approach as a distinct and effective alternative to traditional laboratory exercises. Participants worked in groups throughout the activity and formative assessment by a facilitator (instructor) was used to ensure that participants made progress toward the content goals. At the close of the activity, participants gave short presentations about their work to the whole group, the major points of which were referenced in a facilitator-led synthesis lecture. We discuss highlights and limitations of the vision science activity in its current format (2008 and 2009 summer schools) and make recommendations for its improvement and adaptation to different audiences.

  11. Inquiry-Based Pre-Engineering Activities for K-4 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Michele

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses inquiry-based learning to introduce primary students to the concepts and terminology found in four introductory engineering courses: Differential Equations, Circuit Analysis, Thermodynamics, and Dynamics. Simple electronic sensors coupled with everyday objects, such as a troll doll, demonstrate and reinforce the physical principles…

  12. A review of the types of mobile activities in mobile inquiry-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, Angel; Specht, Marcus; Prinsen, Fleur; Kalz, Marco; Ternier, Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    Inquiry-based Learning is increasingly suggested as an efficient approach for fostering learners’ curiosity and motivation. It helps learners to develop their ability to work in complex and unpredictable environments making them more critical thinkers and agentic learners. Although mobile technology

  13. Mobile Inquiry Based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Specht, M. (2012, 8 November). Mobile Inquiry Based Learning. Presentation given at the Workshop "Mobile inquiry-based learning" at the Mobile Learning Day 2012 at the Fernuniversität Hagen, Hagen, Germany.

  14. Mini-Lab Activities: Inquiry-Based Lab Activities for Formative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branan, Daniel; Morgan, Matt

    2010-01-01

    Students everywhere love chemistry demonstrations, especially if they involve explosions. But have you ever wanted to move beyond the "wow" factor and find a way to incorporate active student learning into your demos? What if you could get them to think more deeply about what they're observing, and then find out if they really understand what…

  15. Characterizing Teaching Assistants' Knowledge and Beliefs Following Professional Development Activities within an Inquiry-Based General Chemistry Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Whitworth, Brooke A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore changes in undergraduate and graduate teaching assistants' (TAs') content knowledge and beliefs about teaching within the context of an inquiry-based laboratory course. TAs received professional development (PD), which was informed by the TA training literature base and was designed for TAs…

  16. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CTL MODEL GUIDED INQUIRI-BASED IN THE TOPIC OF CHEMICALS IN DAILY LIFE TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ LEARNING OUTCOMES AND ACTIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    N. R. Fitriani; A. Widiyatmoko; M. Khusniati

    2016-01-01

    Science learning in school can be applied by connecting the material in the learning with real life. However in fact science learning process in SMP Negeri 10 Magelang has not emphasized students’ activity to relate science to real life. Learning science using CTL guided inquiry-based model implement the learning in where teacher provides initial questions related issues or events in everyday life, then students do experiments to prove concepts of science guided by teacher.The purpose of this...

  17. Inquiry-Based Examination of Chemical Disruption of Bacterial Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelman, Carly V.; Hawkins, Misty A. W.; Drumwright, Franklin R.; Ransdell, Beverly; Marrs, Kathleen; Anderson, Gregory G.

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based instruction in the sciences has been demonstrated as a successful educational strategy to use for both high school and college science classrooms. As participants in the NSF Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12) Program, we were tasked with creating novel inquiry-based activities for high school classrooms. As a way to…

  18. Inquiry-based science education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino; Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Hagelskjær, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) er en internationalt afprøvet naturfagsdidaktisk metode der har til formål at øge elevernes interesse for og udbytte af naturfag. I artiklen redegøres der for metoden, der kan betegnes som en elevstyret problem- og undersøgelsesbaseret naturfagsundervisnings......Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) er en internationalt afprøvet naturfagsdidaktisk metode der har til formål at øge elevernes interesse for og udbytte af naturfag. I artiklen redegøres der for metoden, der kan betegnes som en elevstyret problem- og undersøgelsesbaseret...

  19. Development of inquiry-based learning activities integrated with the local learning resource to promote learning achievement and analytical thinking ability of Mathayomsuksa 3 student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukji, Paweena; Wichaidit, Pacharee Rompayom; Wichaidit, Sittichai

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) compare learning achievement and analytical thinking ability of Mathayomsuksa 3 students before and after learning through inquiry-based learning activities integrated with the local learning resource, and 2) compare average post-test score of learning achievement and analytical thinking ability to its cutting score. The target of this study was 23 Mathayomsuksa 3 students who were studying in the second semester of 2016 academic year from Banchatfang School, Chainat Province. Research instruments composed of: 1) 6 lesson plans of Environment and Natural Resources, 2) the learning achievement test, and 3) analytical thinking ability test. The results showed that 1) student' learning achievement and analytical thinking ability after learning were higher than that of before at the level of .05 statistical significance, and 2) average posttest score of student' learning achievement and analytical thinking ability were higher than its cutting score at the level of .05 statistical significance. The implication of this research is for science teachers and curriculum developers to design inquiry activities that relate to student's context.

  20. Collaborative Inquiry-based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, Angel

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of the conducted research and development of applications to support collaborative inquiry-based learning, with a special focus on leveraging learners’ agency. The reported results are structured into three parts: the theoretical foundations, the design and

  1. Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Development of Concept Questions and Inquiry-Based Activities in Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer: An Example for Equilibrium vs. Steady-State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeant, Margot; Prince, Michael; Nottis, Katharyn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of inquiry-based instruction to promote the understanding of critical concepts in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Significant research shows that students frequently enter our courses with tightly held misconceptions about the physical world that are not effectively addressed through traditional instruction. Students'…

  2. An Inquiry-Based Linear Algebra Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haohao; Posey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Linear algebra is a standard undergraduate mathematics course. This paper presents an overview of the design and implementation of an inquiry-based teaching material for the linear algebra course which emphasizes discovery learning, analytical thinking and individual creativity. The inquiry-based teaching material is designed to fit the needs of a…

  3. Inquiry-based Learning in Mathematics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyøe, Jonas; Larsen, Dorte Moeskær; Hjelmborg, Mette Dreier

    From a grading list of 28 of the highest ranked mathematics education journals, the six highest ranked journals were chosen, and a systematic search for inquiry-based mathematics education and related keywords was conducted. This led to five important theme/issues for inquiry-based learning...

  4. Demonstrating Inquiry-Based Teaching Competencies in the Life Sciences--Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This set of botany demonstrations is a continuation of the inquiry-based lecture activities that provide realistic connections to the history and nature of science and employ technology in data collection. The demonstrations also provide examples of inquiry-based teaching practices in the life sciences. (Contains 5 figures.) [For Part 1, see…

  5. Using Inquiry-Based Instruction for Teaching Science to Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Cihak, David F.; Graham, Shannon C.; Retinger, Larryn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of inquiry-based science instruction for five elementary students with learning disabilities (LD). Students participated in a series of inquiry-based activities targeting conceptual and application-based understanding of simple electric circuits, conductors and insulators, parallel circuits, and…

  6. Inquiry-Based Approach to Understanding Common Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Monica

    2010-01-01

    In this inquiry-based activity, students catalog external and internal characteristics of four different classes of animals during dissection exercises. On the basis of their accumulated data, students compare and contrast the animals, devise a phylogenetic tree, and provide reasonable characteristics for extinct transitional organisms. (Contains…

  7. Potentials in Udeskole: Inquiry-Based Teaching Outside the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Barfod

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Most research on outdoor education, including the Scandinavian concept udeskole (regular curriculum-based teaching outside the classroom, has focused on pupils' outcomes, whereas less has focused on teachers' practices. In this article, we described the occurrence of inquiry-based teaching in udeskole. To analyze practice, we extended the notion of inquiry-based education. Within science and mathematics education, a strong stepwise teaching approach formerly was established, called Inquiry Based Science and Mathematics Education (IBSME, emphasizing pupils' hypothesis testing, data validation and systematic experimentation. In this study, we broadened the IBSME-concept of inquiry in order to include a more holistic, non-linear teaching approach, but excluding teacher-instructed inquiry. Using this idea, we observed and documented by field notes how five experienced teachers practiced mathematics and science teaching in udeskole at primary level in Denmark. Twenty-eight outdoor days were observed. Each day was divided into separate teaching incidents with a distinct start and end. The level of teacher interference and possible choices in each teaching incidents formed the analytic background. We analyzed each of the 71 teaching incidents, and categorized each of them into one of five categories numbered 4–0. The categories designated numbers 4–2 contained the inquiry-based teaching incidents, and the categories designated 1 and 0 were categorized as “non-inquiry-based.” They contained teaching incidents where the teacher was instructing the pupils (category 1, and outdoor teaching activities with no sign of inquiry, called training activities (category 0. Our results showed that about half of the analyzed outdoor teaching practice seemed to be inquiry-based, emphasizing pupils' choice and presenting cognitive challenge. This indicates that the analyzed udeskole had the potential to support an explorative and multifaceted inquiry-based

  8. GeoMapApp Learning Activities: Grab-and-go inquiry-based geoscience activities that bring cutting-edge technology to the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.; Kluge, S.

    2011-12-01

    NSF-funded GeoMapApp Learning Activities (http://serc.carleton.edu/geomapapp) provide self-contained learning opportunities that are centred around the principles of guided inquiry. The activities allow students to interact with and analyse research-quality geoscience data to explore and enhance student understanding of underlying geoscience content and concepts. Each activity offers ready-to-use step-by-step student instructions and answer sheets that can be downloaded from the web page. Also provided are annotated teacher versions of the worksheets that include teaching tips, additional content and suggestions for further work. Downloadable pre- and post- quizzes tied to each activity help educators gauge the learning progression of their students. Short multimedia tutorials and details on content alignment with state and national teaching standards round out the package of material that comprises each "grab-and-go" activity. GeoMapApp Learning Activities expose students to content and concepts typically found at the community college, high school and introductory undergraduate levels. The activities are based upon GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), a free, easy-to-use map-based data exploration and visualisation tool that allows students to access a wide range of geoscience data sets in a virtual lab-like environment. Activities that have so far been created under this project include student exploration of seafloor spreading rates, a study of mass wasting as revealed through geomorphological evidence, and an analysis of plate motion and hotspot traces. The step-by-step instructions and guided inquiry approach lead students through each activity, thus reducing the need for teacher intervention whilst also boosting the time that students can spend on productive exploration and learning. The activities can be used, for example, in a classroom lab with the educator present and as self-paced assignments in an out-of-class setting. GeoMapApp Learning Activities

  9. A Multi-Faceted Approach to Inquiry-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudzinski, M. R.; Sikorski, J.

    2009-12-01

    In order to fully attain the benefits of inquiry-based learning, instructors who typically employ the traditional lecture format need to make several adjustments to their approach. This change in styles can be intimidating and logistically difficult to overcome. A stepwise approach to this transformation is likely to be more manageable for individual faculty or departments. In this session, we will describe several features that we are implementing in our introductory geology course with the ultimate goal of converting to an entirely inquiry-based approach. Our project is part of the Miami University initiative in the top 25 enrolled courses to move towards the “student as scholar” model for engaged learning. Some of the features we developed for our course include: student learning outcomes, student development outcomes, out-of-class content quizzes, in-class conceptests, pre-/post-course assessment, reflective knowledge surveys, and daily group activities.

  10. Inquiry based learning in physical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    2014-01-01

    The present project is a case study founded on the decreasing motivation and engagement in physical education. The project suggests inquiry based learning (IBL) as an educational methodology. This may help to turn the trend as IBL has shown to engage and motivate students at different educational...... levels and within different subjects. In this pilot research project performed at a physical education teacher education program, qualitative methods were chosen to investigate students’ motivation and engagement within an IBL-unit in physical education and to accentuate challenges, advantages...... and disadvantages within the IBL-methodology in relation to students’ motivation. Instructed in guided inquiry, 32 students of physical education in a teacher training college worked with inquiry based learning in physical education over a four week period. During the IBL-unit, qualitative data such as the students...

  11. Oh, What a Pane! An Inquiry Based on Activity with a Mathematical Approach to Investigation Windows on Earth...and in Space. Teacher Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Marshalyn; Mailhot, Michele; Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2010-01-01

    This is a teacher's guide to assist teachers in developing modules on windows for use in both earth and space and astronaut photographs. Activities incorporating mathematical exercises are suggested for grades five through ten.

  12. Conceptualising inquiry based education in mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten; Artigue, Michéle

    2013-01-01

    of inquiry as a pedagogical concept in the work of Dewey (e.g. 1916, 1938) to analyse and discuss its migration to science and mathematics education. For conceptualizing inquiry-based mathematics education (IBME) it is important to analyse how this concept resonates with already well-established theoretical...... frameworks in mathematics education. Six such frameworks are analysed from the perspective of inquiry: the problem-solving tradition, the Theory of Didactical Situations, the Realistic Mathematics Education programme, the mathematical modelling perspective, the Anthropological Theory of Didactics...

  13. Inquiry-Based Learning and Technology: Designing and Exploring WebQuests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Jan

    2007-01-01

    A WebQuest is an inquiry-based technology activity designed by Bernie Dodge and Tom March at San Diego State University in 1995. Dodge and March describe WebQuests as activities in which most, or all, of the information used by learners is drawn from the Web. WebQuests are a powerful instructional activity for teachers and students. Students will…

  14. Inquiry-based learning with weSPOT in secondary education: “Colony on Mars” project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Prinsen, Fleur; Janssen, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Presentation about the pilot 'Colony on Mars' within a secondary school context (Sint Jan college) with an inquiry based learning model and adapted assessment framework to integrate 21st century skills in learning activities of pupils.

  15. A Simple System for Observing Dynamic Phase Equilibrium via an Inquiry-Based Laboratory or Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloonan, Carrie A.; Andrew, Julie A.; Nichol, Carolyn A.; Hutchinson, John S.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an activity that can be used as an inquiry-based laboratory or demonstration for either high school or undergraduate chemistry students to provide a basis for understanding both vapor pressure and the concept of dynamic phase equilibrium. The activity includes a simple setup to create a closed system of only water liquid and…

  16. Collaborative CPD and inquiry-based science in the classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    on the teaching of science and on collaboration. Qualitative data obtained by following the same teacher teaching Science & Technology from 4th to 6th grade are used to discuss changes in her classroom practice; in particular concerning inquiry-based methods shown in earlier QUEST-research to be understood......Continuous Professional Development (CPD) is crucial for reforming science teaching, but more knowledge is needed about how to embed CPD in teachers’ daily work. The Danish QUEST-project is a long-term collaborative CPD-project designed informed by research and with activities changing rhythmically...... between seminars, individual trials in own classroom, and collaborative activities in the science-team at local schools. The QUEST research is aimed at understanding the relation between individual and social changes. In this study, quantitative data are used to compare the perceived effect from QUEST...

  17. VR Biology, an interdisciplinary and international student project towards an inquiry-based pedagogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, Teresa Dias Pedro; Goei, Sui Lin; Van Joolingen, Wouter; Cai, Yiyu

    2016-01-01

    Education in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is moving towards a more inquiry-based, and creativity stimulating pedagogy. Part of a curriculum based on such pedagogies should be challenging learning activities that engage students in investigation. At the same time, it is

  18. Engaging Students in the Pacific and beyond Using an Inquiry-Based Lesson in Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorospe, Kelvin D.; Fox, Bradley K.; Haverkort-Yeh, Roxanne D.; Tamaru, Clyde S.; Rivera, Malia Ana J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a hands-on, inquiry-based activity exploring how CO[subscript 2] input to seawater affects the skeletons of several species of reef-building corals and other marine organisms by testing for changes in pH and calcium ion concentrations. Originally developed to inspire and recruit high school students in the state of Hawai'i into the…

  19. The Effect of the Inquiry-Based Learning Approach on Student's Critical-Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Meltem; Dökme, Ilbilge

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of an activity set developed according to the inquiry-based learning (IBL) approach in the unit "Particulate Structure of Matter" on students' critical-thinking skills in science and technology courses. The study was conducted with 90 students from the 6th grade attending four, 6th…

  20. A Web-Based Learning Support System for Inquiry-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Won; Yao, Jingtao

    The emergence of the Internet and Web technology makes it possible to implement the ideals of inquiry-based learning, in which students seek truth, information, or knowledge by questioning. Web-based learning support systems can provide a good framework for inquiry-based learning. This article presents a study on a Web-based learning support system called Online Treasure Hunt. The Web-based learning support system mainly consists of a teaching support subsystem, a learning support subsystem, and a treasure hunt game. The teaching support subsystem allows instructors to design their own inquiry-based learning environments. The learning support subsystem supports students' inquiry activities. The treasure hunt game enables students to investigate new knowledge, develop ideas, and review their findings. Online Treasure Hunt complies with a treasure hunt model. The treasure hunt model formalizes a general treasure hunt game to contain the learning strategies of inquiry-based learning. This Web-based learning support system empowered with the online-learning game and founded on the sound learning strategies furnishes students with the interactive and collaborative student-centered learning environment.

  1. Teaching genetics using hands-on models, problem solving, and inquiry-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Stephanie Ann

    Teaching genetics can be challenging because of the difficulty of the content and misconceptions students might hold. This thesis focused on using hands-on model activities, problem solving, and inquiry-based teaching/learning methods in order to increase student understanding in an introductory biology class in the area of genetics. Various activities using these three methods were implemented into the classes to address any misconceptions and increase student learning of the difficult concepts. The activities that were implemented were shown to be successful based on pre-post assessment score comparison. The students were assessed on the subjects of inheritance patterns, meiosis, and protein synthesis and demonstrated growth in all of the areas. It was found that hands-on models, problem solving, and inquiry-based activities were more successful in learning concepts in genetics and the students were more engaged than tradition styles of lecture.

  2. Inquiry-Based Learning in China: Lesson Learned for School Science Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2014-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning is widely considered for science education in this era. This study aims to explore inquiry-based learning in teacher preparation program and the findings will help us to understanding what inquiry-based classroom is and how inquiry-based learning are. Data were collected by qualitative methods; classroom observation,…

  3. DEVELOPMENT SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY BASED TEACHING MATERIALS ON DYNAMIC FLUIDS TO IMPROVE STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeliana Veronika Sirait

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate whether the developed scientific inquiry-based teaching materials can improve the students’ response, the students’ activity and the students’ achievement. This study is development which based on Borg & Gall product development. Samples were selected randomly by raffling 4 classes into one class, applied teaching materials based scientific inquiry. The instruments which are used in this study consisted of three namely quetionnaires used for validation of teaching material by the expert of the material and the expert of design, the evaluation of physics teacher and students’ response toward teaching materials and observation sheet of students’ activity used in learning process and also test for students’ achievement in the form of multiple choice consisted of 10 quetions provided for end of the learning. The results of this study showed that the developed scientific inquiry-based teaching materials can improve the students’ response, the students’ activity and the students’ achievement in every session.

  4. Enhancing Teacher Beliefs through an Inquiry-Based Professional Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Tammy R; Abrams, Lisa M; Slattum, Patricia W; Kirk, Suzanne V

    2016-01-01

    Inquiry-based instructional approaches are an effective means to actively engage students with science content and skills. This article examines the effects of an ongoing professional development program on middle and high school teachers' efficacy beliefs, confidence to teach research concepts and skills, and science content knowledge. Professional development activities included participation in a week long summer academy, designing and implementing inquiry-based lessons within the classroom, examining and reflecting upon practices, and documenting ways in which instruction was modified. Teacher beliefs were assessed at three time points, pre- post- and six months following the summer academy. Results indicate significant gains in reported teaching efficacy, confidence, and content knowledge from pre- to post-test. These gains were maintained at the six month follow-up. Findings across the three different time points suggest that participation in the professional development program strongly influenced participants' fundamental beliefs about their capacity to provide effective instruction in ways that are closely connected to the features of inquiry-based instruction.

  5. An inquiry-based approach to the Franck-Hertz experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persano Adorno, Dominique; Pizzolato, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    The practice of scientists and engineers is today exerted within interdisciplinary contexts, placed at the intersections of different research fields, including nanoscale science. The development of the required competences is based on an effective science and engineering instruction, which should be able to drive the students towards a deeper understanding of quantum mechanics fundamental concepts and, at the same time, strengthen their reasoning skills and transversal abilities. In this study we report the results of an inquiry-driven learning path experienced by a sample of 12 electronic engineering undergraduates engaged to perform the Franck-Hertz experiment. Before being involved in this experimental activity, the students received a traditional lecture-based instruction on the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics, but their answers to an open-ended questionnaire, administered at the beginning of the inquiry activity, demonstrated that the acquired knowledge was characterized by a strictly theoretical vision of quantum science, basically in terms of an artificial mathematical framework having very poor connections with the real world. The Franck Hertz experiment was introduced to the students by starting from the problem of finding an experimental confirmation of the Bohr's postulates asserting that atoms can absorb energy only in quantum portions. The whole activity has been videotaped and this allowed us to deeply analyse the student perception's change about the main concepts of quantum mechanics. We have found that the active participation to this learning experience favored the building of cognitive links among student theoretical perceptions of quantum mechanics and their vision of quantum phenomena, within an everyday context of knowledge. Furthermore, our findings confirm the benefits of integrating traditional lecture-based instruction on quantum mechanics with learning experiences driven by inquiry-based teaching strategies.

  6. An inquiry-based approach to the Franck-Hertz experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persano Adorno, Dominique; Pizzolato, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The practice of scientists and engineers is today exerted within interdisciplinary contexts, placed at the intersections of different research fields, including nanoscale science. The development of the required competencies is based on an effective science and engineering instruction, which should be able to drive the students towards a deeper understanding of quantum mechanics fundamental concepts and, at the same time, strengthen their reasoning skills and transversal abilities. In this study we report the results of an inquiry-driven learning path experienced by a sample of 12 electronic engineering undergraduates engaged to perform the Franck-Hertz experiment. Before being involved in this experimental activity, the students received a traditional lecture-based instruction on the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics, but their answers to an open-ended questionnaire, administered at the beginning of the inquiry activity, demonstrated that the acquired knowledge was characterized by a strictly theoretical vision of quantum science, basically in terms of an artificial mathematical framework having very poor connections with the real world. The Franck Hertz experiment was introduced to the students by starting from the problem of finding an experimental confirmation of the Bohr’s postulates asserting that atoms can absorb energy only in quantum portions. The whole activity has been videotaped and this allowed us to deeply analyse the student perception’s change about the main concepts of quantum mechanics. We have found that the active participation to this learning experience favored the building of cognitive links among student theoretical perceptions of quantum mechanics and their vision of quantum phenomena, within an everyday context of knowledge. Furthermore, our findings confirm the benefits of integrating traditional lecture-based instruction on quantum mechanics with learning experiences driven by inquiry-based teaching strategies.

  7. The AIA Solar Learning Center: Taking Inquiry-based EPO Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills-Davey, Meredith; Attrill, G. D. R.; Engell, A.

    2009-05-01

    The observations of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO-AIA) are expected to be groundbreaking within the field of heliophysics. To properly promote and explain the data produced by AIA, it is important that an innovative EPO effort be put forth. This has led to the development of "The AIA Solar Learning Center” (SLC), an inquiry-based educational website geared towards teaching about AIA and the Sun in general. The goal of the SLC is to provide K-12 students, teachers, parents, and homeschoolers with information and education about the Sun, primarily through hands-on activity modules that explain different aspects of our nearest star and the methods of observing it. While each module ultimately aims to impart information about the Sun or some related physical process, the activities also range across a host of different disciplines, including geology, chemistry, history, music, and art. In order to make the content applicable and accessible, activities are tailored to multiple difficulty levels, catering to different age groups. There is also a strong push towards facilitating teachers; activities are designed to fulfill specific teaching standards, and a host of additional teaching material is provided, including lesson plans and powerpoint presentations. Ultimately, the SLC aims to make science and the Sun inviting and accessible. The "Meet the Scientists” page will provide pictures and personal bios of participating scientists. Students will have the opportunity to interactively ask solar-related questions. There is even a host of lighter fare, such as a solar music playlist and links to relevant Facebook pages.

  8. Development of guided inquiry-based laboratory worksheet on topic of heat of combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiani, D.; Nurhayati; Sunarya, Y.; Suryatna, A.

    2018-03-01

    Chemistry curriculum reform shows an explicit shift from traditional approach to scientific inquiry. This study aims to develop a guided inquiry-based laboratory worksheet on topic of heat of combustion. Implementation of this topic in high school laboratory is new because previously some teachers only focused the experiment on determining the heat of neutralization. The method used in this study was development research consisted of three stages: define, design, and develop. In the define stage, curriculum analysis and material analysis were performed. In the design stage, laboratory optimization and product preparation were conducted. In the development stage, the product was evaluated by the experts and tested to a total of 20 eleventh-grade students. The instruments used in this study were assessment sheet and students’ response questionnaire. The assessment results showed that the guided inquiry-based laboratory worksheet has very good quality based on the aspects of content, linguistic, and graphics. The students reacted positively to the use of this guided inquiry-based worksheet as demonstrated by the results from questionnaire. The implications of this study is the laboratory activity should be directed to development of scientific inquiry skills in order to enhance students’ competences as well as the quality of science education.

  9. The Effect of a Collaborative Mentoring Program on Beginning Science Teachers' Inquiry-based Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeonghee; Seung, Eulsun; Go, MunSuk

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated how a collaborative mentoring program influenced beginning science teachers' inquiry-based teaching and their reflection on practice. The one-year program consisted of five one-on-one mentoring meetings, weekly science education seminars, weekly mentoring group discussions, and self-evaluation activities. The participants were three beginning science teachers and three mentors at the middle school level (7-9th grades) in an urban area of South Korea. For each beginning teacher, five lessons were evaluated in terms of lesson design/implementation, procedural knowledge, and classroom culture by using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol. Five aspects of the beginning teachers' reflections were identified. This study showed that a collaborative mentoring program focusing on inquiry-based science teaching encouraged the beginning teachers to reflect on their own perceptions and teaching practice in terms of inquiry-based science teaching, which led to changes in their teaching practice. This study also highlighted the importance of collaborative interactions between the mentors and the beginning teachers during the mentoring process.

  10. A Simple Inquiry-Based Lab for Teaching Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John R.

    2014-01-01

    This simple inquiry-based lab was designed to teach the principle of osmosis while also providing an experience for students to use the skills and practices commonly found in science. Students first design their own experiment using very basic equipment and supplies, which generally results in mixed, but mostly poor, outcomes. Classroom "talk…

  11. An Inquiry-Based Laboratory Design for Microbial Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Jack T.; Penniman, Clayton A.

    2006-01-01

    There is a collective need to increase the use of inquiry-based instruction at the college level. This paper provides of an example of how inquiry was successfully used in the laboratory component of an undergraduate course in microbial ecology. Students were offered a collection of field and laboratory methods to choose from, and they developed a…

  12. Effect of the inquiry-based teaching approach on students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental group was treated with a teaching approach that integrated inquiry-based teaching into classroom discourse. Tests (pre- and post-), for assessing students' understanding of circle theorems and a questionnaire for measuring the students' perception of motivation to learn were given to the two groups ...

  13. Supporting Inquiry-based Learning with Google Glass (GPIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, Angel; Ternier, Stefaan; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Wearable technology is a new genre of technology that is appearing to enhance learning in context. This manuscript introduces a Google Glass application to support Inquiry-based Learning (IBL). Applying Google Glass to IBL, we aim to transform the learning process into a more seamless, personal and

  14. Inquiry based learning as didactic model in distant learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years many universities are involved in development of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Unfortunately an appropriate didactic model for cooperated network learning is lacking. In this paper we introduce inquiry based learning as didactic model. Students are assumed to ask themselves

  15. Sustainable inquiry based learning with ICT. Projectrapportage. SURFInnovatieregeling Duurzaamheid & ICT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firssova, Olga; Börner, Dirk; Rusman, Ellen; Kalz, Marco; Ternier, Stefaan; Pannekeet, Kees; Specht, Marcus; Van der Klink, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the project “Sustainable inquiry based learning with ICT / Duurzaam onderzoekend leren met ICT” funded by the SURFnet Innovation grant for sustainable ICT solutions. This project was conducted from May 2013 to November 2013 by researchers of CELSTEC, OU. This

  16. Assessing Student Openness to Inquiry-Based Learning in Precalculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Thomas; Bailey, Brad; Briggs, Karen; Holliday, John

    2017-01-01

    The authors have completed a 2-year quasi-experimental study on the use of inquiry-based learning (IBL) in precalculus. This study included six traditional lecture-style courses and seven modified Moore method courses taught by three instructors. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were used to investigate the attitudes and beliefs of the…

  17. Qualitative Assessment of Inquiry-Based Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michael; Long, George; Owens, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    A new approach to teaching method assessment using student focused qualitative studies and the theoretical framework of mental models is proposed. The methodology is considered specifically for the advantages it offers when applied to the assessment of inquiry-based teaching methods. The theoretical foundation of mental models is discussed, and…

  18. Effect of the inquiry-based teaching approach on students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofi.mereku

    mathematics as a vital tool for the understanding and application of science and .... In view of senior high school students' poor performance in circle theorems and their ..... taught using the inquiry-based approach on the other hand perceive their .... visualization and spatial reasoning to middle school mathematics students.

  19. Increasing Bellevue School District's elementary teachers' capacity for teaching inquiry-based science: Using ideas from contemporary learning theory to inform professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, Tracy Anne

    This Capstone project examined how leaders in the Bellevue School District can increase elementary teachers' capacity for teaching inquiry-based science through the use of professional learning activities that are grounded in ideas from human learning theory. A framework for professional development was constructed and from that framework, a set of professional learning activities were developed as a means to support teacher learning while project participants piloted new curriculum called the Isopod Habitat Challenge. Teachers in the project increased their understanding of the learning theory principles of preconceptions and metacognition. Teachers did not increase their understanding of the principle of learning with understanding, although they did articulate the significance of engaging children in student-led inquiry cycles. Data from the curriculum revision and professional development project coupled with ideas from learning theory, cognition and policy implementation, and learning community literatures suggest Bellevue's leaders can encourage peer-to-peer interaction, link professional development to teachers' daily practice, and capitalize on technology as ways to increase elementary teachers' capacity for teaching inquiry-based science. These lessons also have significance for supporting teacher learning and efficacy in other subject areas and at other levels in the system.

  20. Inquiry-Based Instruction and High Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothern, Rebecca L.

    Science education is a key to economic success for a country in terms of promoting advances in national industry and technology and maximizing competitive advantage in a global marketplace. The December 2010 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) ranked the United States 23rd of 65 countries in science. That dismal standing in science proficiency impedes the ability of American school graduates to compete in the global market place. Furthermore, the implementation of high stakes testing in science mandated by the 2007 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has created an additional need for educators to find effective science pedagogy. Research has shown that inquiry-based science instruction is one of the predominant science instructional methods. Inquiry-based instruction is a multifaceted teaching method with its theoretical foundation in constructivism. A correlational survey research design was used to determine the relationship between levels of inquiry-based science instruction and student performance on a standardized state science test. A self-report survey, using a Likert-type scale, was completed by 26 fifth grade teachers. Participants' responses were analyzed and grouped as high, medium, or low level inquiry instruction. The unit of analysis for the achievement variable was the student scale score average from the state science test. Spearman's Rho correlation data showed a positive relationship between the level of inquiry-based instruction and student achievement on the state assessment. The findings can assist teachers and administrators by providing additional research on the benefits of the inquiry-based instructional method. Implications for positive social change include increases in student proficiency and decision-making skills related to science policy issues which can help make them more competitive in the global marketplace.

  1. Self-Reported Student Confidence in Troubleshooting Ability Increases after Completion of an Inquiry-Based PCR Practical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Anthony L.; Snow, Elizabeth T.; Binns, Henrica; Cook, Peta S.

    2015-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning (IBL) activities are complementary to the processes of laboratory discovery, as both are focused on producing new findings through research and inquiry. Here, we describe the results of student surveys taken pre- and postpractical to an IBL undergraduate practical on PCR. Our analysis focuses primarily student perceptions of…

  2. Sherlock Holmes and the Case of the Raven and the Ambassador's Wife: An Inquiry-Based Murder Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Nathaniel; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2005-01-01

    An inquiry-based experiment on Sherlock Holmes adventure stories used to actively involve students in a series of laboratory experiments to prove the guilt of the accused murderer is presented. The result from such experiments showed that students were able to distinguish between sugar and possible poison.

  3. Abstract algebra an inquiry based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hodge, Jonathan K; Sundstrom, Ted

    2013-01-01

    ""This book arose from the authors' approach to teaching abstract algebra. They place an emphasis on active learning and on developing students' intuition through their investigation of examples. … The text is organized in such a way that it is possible to begin with either rings or groups.""-Florentina Chirtes, Zentralblatt MATH 1295

  4. Inquiry-Based Instruction in the Social Studies: Successes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' perceptions, understanding, and use of inquiry-based instruction in the social studies, to assess the impact of inquiry-based units on instruction, to detail implementation successes and challenges reported by teachers when implementing inquiry-based instruction, and to provide…

  5. Exercise in Inquiry: Critical Thinking in an Inquiry-Based Exercise Physiology Laboratory Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPasquale, Dana M.; Mason, Cheryl L.; Kolkhorst, Fred W.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an inquiry-based teaching method implemented in an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory course. Indicates students' strong, positive feelings about the inquiry-based teaching method and shows that inquiry-based learning results in a higher order of learning not typically observed in traditional style classes. This teaching method…

  6. Epistemic Purposes to Prompt Argumentation in inquiry-based classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Tadeu Ferraz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growth in interest on argumentation in research on science education, in this paper our goal is to propose an overview of actions taken by a teacher that made possible to establish and mediate production of arguments by the students in classroom. For this purpose, we analyze a physics lesson where discussions were about light duality, through a planned inquiry-based sequence teaching. We developed a set of codes called Epistemic Purposes for Promotion of Argumentation that allow understanding teacher's purposes as well his actions to promote argumentation among students during inquiry-based lessons. According to theoretical proposition and empirical analysis, it was revealed that the construction of arguments by students has a high dependence on how ideas are problematized by teacher. The construction of understanding  by students requires teacher actions that result in contributions of different kinds.

  7. Meta-Analysis of Inquiry-Based Instruction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanah, N.; Prasetyo, A. P. B.; Rudyatmi, E.

    2017-04-01

    Inquiry-based instruction in biology has been the focus of educational research conducted by Unnes biology department students in collaboration with their university supervisors. This study aimed to describe the methodological aspects, inquiry teaching methods critically, and to analyse the results claims, of the selected four student research reports, grounded in inquiry, based on the database of Unnes biology department 2014. Four experimental quantitative research of 16 were selected as research objects by purposive sampling technique. Data collected through documentation study was qualitatively analysed regarding methods used, quality of inquiry syntax, and finding claims. Findings showed that the student research was still the lack of relevant aspects of research methodology, namely in appropriate sampling procedures, limited validity tests of all research instruments, and the limited parametric statistic (t-test) not supported previously by data normality tests. Their consistent inquiry syntax supported the four mini-thesis claims that inquiry-based teaching influenced their dependent variables significantly. In other words, the findings indicated that positive claims of the research results were not fully supported by good research methods, and well-defined inquiry procedures implementation.

  8. The trend in inquiry-based learning (IBL) research from many perspectives: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Nor Syuhada Binti Saiful; Sani, Siti Shamsiah Binti; Ahmad, Che Nidzam Binti Che; Damanhuri, Muhd Ibrahim Bin Muhammad; Borhan, Mohamad Termizi Bin

    2017-05-01

    Inquiry-based learning (IBL) is one of the teaching approaches that has been suggested by the Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia (KPM). Although IBL has been in existence for many years, the effect of this approach in terms of teacher's verbal interaction during teaching has not been considered to any great extent. For this reason, a systematic review was conducted to observe the pattern of the existing IBL research. This systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies published between 2006 and 2016 was undertaken by using the following databases: Taylor & Francis Online (2012-2015), Wiley Online Library (2012-2015), ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, SAGE Journals, and EBSCOHOST. Research articles from trustworthy websites were also used. The main keywords used were teacher verbal interaction, inquiry-based learning (IBL), secondary school science and classroom interaction. Eleven studies were included in this review but only two out of the eleven selected papers discussed teacher verbal interaction. Hence, more research needs to be conducted in order to observe the effect of IBL towards teacher's verbal interaction during learning sessions.

  9. Do individual differences in children's curiosity relate to their inquiry-based learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schijndel, Tessa J. P.; Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates how individual differences in 7- to 9-year-olds' curiosity relate to the inquiry-learning process and outcomes in environments differing in structure. The focus on curiosity as individual differences variable was motivated by the importance of curiosity in science education, and uncertainty being central to both the definition of curiosity and the inquiry-learning environment. Curiosity was assessed with the Underwater Exploration game (Jirout, J., & Klahr, D. (2012). Children's scientific curiosity: In search of an operational definition of an elusive concept. Developmental Review, 32, 125-160. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2012.04.002), and inquiry-based learning with the newly developed Scientific Discovery task, which focuses on the principle of designing informative experiments. Structure of the inquiry-learning environment was manipulated by explaining this principle or not. As intelligence relates to learning and possibly curiosity, it was taken into account. Results showed that children's curiosity was positively related to their knowledge acquisition, but not to their quality of exploration. For low intelligent children, environment structure positively affected their quality of exploration, but not their knowledge acquisition. There was no interaction between curiosity and environment structure. These results support the existence of two distinct inquiry-based learning processes - the designing of experiments, on the one hand, and the reflection on performed experiments, on the other - and link children's curiosity to the latter process.

  10. Inquiry-based learning to improve student engagement in a large first year topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Smallhorn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the opportunity for students to be involved in inquiry-based activities can improve engagement with content and assist in the development of analysis and critical thinking skills. The science laboratory has traditionally been used as a platform to apply the content gained through the lecture series. These activities have exposed students to experiments which test the concepts taught but which often result in a predicted outcome. To improve the engagement and learning outcomes of our large first year biology cohort, the laboratories were redeveloped. Superlabs were run with 100 students attending weekly sessions increasing the amount of contact time from previous years. Laboratories were redeveloped into guided-inquiry and educators facilitated teams of students to design and carry out an experiment. To analyse the impact of the redevelopment on student satisfaction and learning outcomes, students were surveyed and multiple choice exam data was compared before and after the redevelopment. Results suggest high levels of student satisfaction and a significant improvement in student learning outcomes. All disciplines should consider including inquiry-based activities as a methodology to improve student engagement and learning outcome as it fosters the development of independent learners. 

  11. Teaching science as inquiry in US and in Japan: A cross-cultural comparison of science teachers' understanding of, and attitudes toward inquiry-based teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosa, Sachiko

    Since the publication of the National Science Education Standards in 1996, learning science through inquiry has been regarded as the heart of science education. However, the TIMSS 1999 Video Study showed that inquiry-based teaching has been taking place less in the United States than in Japan. This study examined similarities and differences in how Japanese and American middle-school science teachers think and feel about inquiry-based teaching. Teachers' attitudes toward the use of inquiry in science teaching were measured through a survey instrument (N=191). Teachers' understanding of inquiry-based teaching was examined through interviews and classroom observations in the United States (N=9) and Japan (N=15). The results show that in spite of the variations in teachers' definitions of inquiry-based teaching, teachers in both countries strongly agree with the idea of inquiry-based teaching. However, little inquiry-based teaching was observed in either of the countries for different reasons. The data indicate that Japanese teachers did not generally help students construct their own understanding of scientific concepts in spite of well-planned lesson structures and activity set-ups. On the other hand, the observational data indicate that American teachers often lacked meaningful science content in spite of their high level of pedagogical knowledge. The need for addressing the importance of scientific concepts in teacher preparation programs in higher education institutions in the US is advocated. To the Japanese science education community, the need for teachers' acquisition of instructional strategies for inquiry-based teaching is strongly addressed.

  12. Linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine N.; Mayer, Philipp

    Unitless chemical activity, expressing the energetic level of a compound relative to its energetic level in pure liquid [0-1], has proven useful to quantify the effective exposure to hydrophobic organic compounds through both aerial and aqueous media. Several studies have linked toxicity to chemi......Unitless chemical activity, expressing the energetic level of a compound relative to its energetic level in pure liquid [0-1], has proven useful to quantify the effective exposure to hydrophobic organic compounds through both aerial and aqueous media. Several studies have linked toxicity...... to chemical activity, as opposed to e.g. the total concentration. Baseline toxicity (narcosis) for neutral hydrophobic organic compounds has been shown to initiate in the narrow chemical activity range of 0.01 to 0.1. This presentation focuses on linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity......-polar liquids were applied to challenge the chemical activity range for baseline toxicity. For each compound, the effective activity (Ea50) was estimated as the ratio of the effective concentration (EC50) and water solubility. Of these ratios, 90% were within the expected chemical activity range of 0.01 to 0...

  13. Information fluency for undergraduate biology majors: applications of inquiry-based learning in a developmental biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Kathleen M; Eastman, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    Many initiatives for the improvement of undergraduate science education call for inquiry-based learning that emphasizes investigative projects and reading of the primary literature. These approaches give students an understanding of science as a process and help them integrate content presented in courses. At the same time, general initiatives to promote information fluency are being promoted on many college and university campuses. Information fluency refers to discipline-specific processing of information, and it involves integration of gathered information with specific ideas to form logical conclusions. We have implemented the use of inquiry-based learning to enhance and study discipline-specific information fluency skills in an upper-level undergraduate Developmental Biology course. In this study, an information literacy tutorial and a set of linked assignments using primary literature analysis were integrated with two inquiry-based laboratory research projects. Quantitative analysis of student responses suggests that the abilities of students to identify and apply valid sources of information were enhanced. Qualitative assessment revealed a set of patterns by which students gather and apply information. Self-assessment responses indicated that students recognized the impact of the assignments on their abilities to gather and apply information and that they were more confident about these abilities for future biology courses and beyond.

  14. Scientific evaluation of an intra-curricular educational kit to foster inquiry-based learning (IBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaes, Nathalie; Cords, Nina; Prasad, Amrita; Fischer, Robert; Euler, Manfred; Thienpont, Hugo

    2014-07-01

    Society becomes increasingly dependent on photonics technologies; however there is an alarming lack of technological awareness among secondary school students. They associate photonics with experiments and components in the class room that seem to bear little relevance to their daily life. The Rocard Report [5] highlights the need for fostering students' scientific skills and technological awareness and identifies inquiry based learning (IBL) as a means to achieve this. Students need to actively do science rather than be silent spectators. The `Photonics Explorer' kit was developed as an EU funded project to equip teachers, free-of-charge, with educational material designed to excite, engage and educate European secondary school students using guided inquiry based learning techniques. Students put together their own experiments using up-to-date versatile components, critically interpret results and relate the conclusions to relevant applications in their daily life. They work hands-on with the material, thus developing and honing their scientific and analytical skills that are otherwise latent in a typical class room situation. A qualitative and quantitative study of the impact of the kit in the classroom was undertaken with 50 kits tested in 7 EU countries with over 1500 students in the local language. This paper reports on the results of the EU wide field tests that show the positive impact of the kit in raising the self-efficacy, scientific skills and interest in science among students and the effectiveness of the kit in implementing IBL strategies in classrooms across EU.

  15. The Connection Between Forms of Guidance for Inquiry-Based Learning and the Communicative Approaches Applied—a Case Study in the Context of Pre-service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Antti; Lehesvuori, Sami; Viiri, Jouni

    2017-09-01

    Recent research has argued that inquiry-based science learning should be guided by providing the learners with support. The research on guidance for inquiry-based learning has concentrated on how providing guidance affects learning through inquiry. How guidance for inquiry-based learning could promote learning about inquiry (e.g. epistemic practices) is in need of exploration. A dialogic approach to classroom communication and pedagogical link-making offers possibilities for learners to acquire these practices. The focus of this paper is to analyse the role of different forms of guidance for inquiry-based learning on building the communicative approach applied in classrooms. The data for the study comes from an inquiry-based physics lesson implemented by a group of five pre-service primary science teachers to a class of sixth graders. The lesson was video recorded and the discussions were transcribed. The data was analysed by applying two existing frameworks—one for the forms of guidance provided and another for the communicative approaches applied. The findings illustrate that providing non-specific forms of guidance, such as prompts, caused the communicative approach to be dialogic. On the other hand, providing the learners with specific forms of guidance, such as explanations, shifted the communication to be more authoritative. These results imply that different forms of guidance provided by pre-service teachers can affect the communicative approach applied in inquiry-based science lessons, which affects the possibilities learners are given to connect their existing ideas to the scientific view. Future research should focus on validating these results by also analysing inservice teachers' lessons.

  16. Assessment for Learning in Inquiry Based Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornaguera, Cristina Carulla

    The study looks at assessment for learning and Inquiry Based Science Education —IBSE— as concepts established in a diversity of geographical areas, where the traditional summative assessment shapes what most individuals share as being experienced as assessment. Based on Leontiev and Radford...... the analytical process. The main contribution was the analysis and the results of researcher movement from a view of assessment considering learning as a psychological process in the mind, independent of the everyday life of individuals, towards one considering the inseparability of collective and individual...... as identifying and differentiating forms of researching assessment, changing the researcher’s perspective on research, and imagining a new theoretical approach to assessment for learning....

  17. Inquiry-based problem solving in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleci, Carolann

    What makes problem solving in physics difficult? How do students solve physics problems, and how does this compare to an expert physicist's strategy? Over the past twenty years, physics education research has revealed several differences between novice and expert problem solving. The work of Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser demonstrates that novices tend to categorize problems based on surface features, while experts categorize according to theory, principles, or concepts1. If there are differences between how problems are categorized, then are there differences between how physics problems are solved? Learning more about the problem solving process, including how students like to learn and what is most effective, requires both qualitative and quantitative analysis. In an effort to learn how novices and experts solve introductory electricity problems, a series of in-depth interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. One-way ANOVA tests were performed in order to learn if there are any significant problem solving differences between: (a) novices and experts, (b) genders, (c) students who like to answer questions in class and those who don't, (d) students who like to ask questions in class and those who don't, (e) students employing an interrogative approach to problem solving and those who don't, and (f) those who like physics and those who dislike it. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative methods reveal that inquiry-based problem solving is prevalent among novices and experts, and frequently leads to the correct physics. These findings serve as impetus for the third dimension of this work: the development of Choose Your Own Adventure Physics(c) (CYOAP), an innovative teaching tool in physics which encourages inquiry-based problem solving. 1Chi, M., P. Feltovich, R. Glaser, "Categorization and Representation of Physics Problems by Experts and Novices", Cognitive Science, 5, 121--152 (1981).

  18. An Inquiry-Based Biochemistry Laboratory Structure Emphasizing Competency in the Scientific Process: A Guided Approach with an Electronic Notebook Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mona L.; Vardar-Ulu, Didem

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory setting is an exciting and gratifying place to teach because you can actively engage the students in the learning process through hands-on activities; it is a dynamic environment amenable to collaborative work, critical thinking, problem-solving and discovery. The guided inquiry-based approach described here guides the students…

  19. "Kindergarten, can I have your eyes and ears?" politeness and teacher directive choices in inquiry-based science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom Wanderlei

    2009-12-01

    This study explores elementary teachers' social understandings and employment of directives and politeness while facilitating inquiry science lessons prior and subsequent to their participation in a summer institute in which they were introduced to the scholarly literature on regulative discourse (directives used by teachers to regulate student behavior). A grounded theory analysis of the institute professional development activities revealed that teachers developed an increased awareness of the authoritative functions served by impolite or direct directives (i.e., pragmatic awareness). Furthermore, a comparative microethnographic analysis of participants' inquiry-based classroom practices revealed that after the institute teachers demonstrated an increased ability to share authority with students by strategically making directive choices that were more polite, indirect, inclusive, involvement-focused and creative. Such ability led to a reduced emphasis on teacher regulation of student compliance with classroom behavioral norms and an increased focus on the discursive organization of the inquiry-based science learning/teaching process. Despite teachers' increased pragmatic awareness, teacher-student linguistic relationships did not become entirely symmetrical subsequent to their participation in the summer institute (i.e., teacher authority was not completely relinquished or lost). Based on such findings, it is argued that teachers need to develop higher levels of pragmatic awareness to become effectively prepared to engage in language-mediated teacher-student interaction in the context of inquiry-based science classroom discourse.

  20. Kuwaiti Science Teachers' Beliefs and Intentions Regarding the Use of Inquiry-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhendal, Dalal; Marshman, Margaret; Grootenboer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    To improve the quality of education, the Kuwaiti Ministry of Education has encouraged schools to implement inquiry-based instruction. This study identifies psychosocial factors that predict teachers' intention to use inquiry-based instruction in their science classrooms. An adapted model of Ajzen's (1985) theory of planned behaviour--the Science…

  1. Facilitating Elementary Science Teachers' Implementation of Inquiry-Based Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qablan, Ahmad M.; DeBaz, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    Preservice science teachers generally feel that the implementation of inquiry-based science teaching is very difficult to manage. This research project aimed at facilitating the implementation of inquiry-based science teaching through the use of several classroom strategies. The evaluation of 15 classroom strategies from 80 preservice elementary…

  2. Inquiry-based leadership : The influence of affective attitude, experienced social pressure and self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwijk-Luijk, L.; Krüger, M.; Zijlstra, B.; Volman, M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of psychological factors that influence inquiry-based leadership. This study investigates how affective attitude, experienced social pressure, and self-efficacy relate to aspects of inquiry-based school leadership. A school leader’s

  3. Students Learn How Nonprofits Utilize Volunteers through Inquiry-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Elizabeth B.; Brennan, M. A.; Terry, Bryan D.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights how undergraduate students implemented inquiry-based learning strategies to learn how nonprofit organizations utilize volunteers. In inquiry-based learning, students begin with a problem or question with some degree of focus or structure provided by the professor. The student inquiry showcased in this article was based on a…

  4. Engaging Nature of Science to Preservice Teachers through Inquiry-Based Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2013-01-01

    Inquiry-based classroom is widely distributed in the school science based on its useful and effective instruction. Science teachers are key elements allowing students to have scientific inquiry. If teachers understand and imply inquiry-based learning into science classroom, students will learn science as scientific inquiry and understand nature of…

  5. Chemistry Teachers' Perceived Benefits and Challenges of Inquiry-Based Instruction in Inclusive Chemistry Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumba, F.; Banda, A.; Chabalengula, V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on inquiry-based instruction in inclusive science teaching have mainly focused on elementary and middle school levels. Little is known about inquiry-based instruction in high school inclusive science classes. Yet, such classes have become the norm in high schools, fulfilling the instructional needs of students with mild disabilities. This…

  6. Inquiry-Based Leadership: The Influence of Affective Attitude, Experienced Social Pressure and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uiterwijk-Luijk, Lisette; Krüger, Meta; Zijlstra, Bonne; Volman, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of psychological factors that influence inquiry-based leadership. This study investigates how affective attitude, experienced social pressure, and self-efficacy relate to aspects of inquiry-based school leadership. A school leader's inquiry habit of mind, data literacy, and the…

  7. An Inquiry-Based Approach of Traditional "Step-by-Step" Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, L.; Tóth, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This is the start of a road map for the effective introduction of inquiry-based learning in chemistry. Advantages of inquiry-based approaches to the development of scientific literacy are widely discussed in the literature. However, unless chemistry educators take account of teachers' reservations and identified disadvantages such approaches will…

  8. Principles of an inquiry-based approach to the teaching of litterature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Illum; Gissel, Stig Toke; Kaspersen, Peter

    and to what extent is the teaching of literature in Denmark currently inquiry-based? • How could such an approach inform interventions in practice in Danish secondary education and principles of inquiry-based course designs? General reading comprehension strategies are not suitable for aesthetic texts...

  9. Npas4: Linking Neuronal Activity to Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochen; Lin, Yingxi

    2016-04-01

    Immediate-early genes (IEGs) are rapidly activated after sensory and behavioral experience and are believed to be crucial for converting experience into long-term memory. Neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4), a recently discovered IEG, has several characteristics that make it likely to be a particularly important molecular link between neuronal activity and memory: it is among the most rapidly induced IEGs, is expressed only in neurons, and is selectively induced by neuronal activity. By orchestrating distinct activity-dependent gene programs in different neuronal populations, Npas4 affects synaptic connections in excitatory and inhibitory neurons, neural circuit plasticity, and memory formation. It may also be involved in circuit homeostasis through negative feedback and psychiatric disorders. We summarize these findings and discuss their implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inquiry-based course in physics and chemistry for preservice K-8 teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Loverude

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe an inquiry-based course in physics and chemistry for preservice K-8 teachers developed at California State University Fullerton. The course is one of three developed primarily to enhance the science content understanding of prospective teachers. The course incorporates a number of innovative instructional strategies and is somewhat unusual for its interdisciplinary focus. We describe the course structure in detail, providing examples of course materials and assessment strategies. Finally, we provide research data illustrating both the need for the course and the effectiveness of the course in developing student understanding of selected topics. Student responses to various questions reflect a lack of understanding of many relatively simple physical science concepts, and a level of performance that is usually lower than that in comparable courses serving a general education audience. Additional data suggest that course activities improve student understanding of selected topics, often dramatically.

  11. Exciting middle and high school students about immunology: an easy, inquiry-based lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Kara

    2013-03-01

    High school students in the United States are apathetic about science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), and the workforce pipeline in these areas is collapsing. The lack of understanding of basic principles of biology means that students are unable to make educated decisions concerning their personal health. To address these issues, we have developed a simple, inquiry-based outreach lesson centered on a mouse dissection. Students learn key concepts in immunology and enhance their understanding of human organ systems. The experiment highlights aspects of the scientific method and authentic data collection and analysis. This hands-on activity stimulates interest in biology, personal health and careers in STEM fields. Here, we present all the information necessary to execute the lesson effectively with middle and high school students.

  12. Developing and Implementing Inquiry-Based, Water Quality Laboratory Experiments for High School Students to Explore Real Environmental Issues Using Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandler, Daphna; Blonder, Ron; Yayon, Malka; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the rationale and the implementation of five laboratory experiments; four of them, intended for high-school students, are inquiry-based activities that explore the quality of water. The context of water provides students with an opportunity to study the importance of analytical methods and how they influence our everyday…

  13. Influences of an Inquiry-based Ubiquitous Gaming Design on Students' Learning Achievements, Motivation, Behavioral Patterns, and Tendency towards Critical Thinking and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chen, Chih-Hung

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an inquiry-based ubiquitous gaming approach was proposed. The objective of the study was to enhance students' performances in in-field learning activities. To show the advantages of the approach, an experiment was carried out to assess the effects of it on students' learning achievement, motivation, critical thinking, and problem…

  14. The Utilization of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction in Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzuto, David M.

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of practitioners of inquiry-based instruction from 35 Connecticut school districts. The source of the participants, Connecticut State Science Assessment Advisory Committee members, and their involvement in science education acted to bound the research. Using a multiple case study design, data were gathered from 28 participants: teachers n = 21, curriculum leaders n = 4, professional development experts n = 2, and state education advisor/ teacher preparation expert n = 1 involved with Connecticut schools. Each participant was asked to complete an online demographic and inquiry utilization questionnaire. From the results of the questionnaires, a cadre of 11 participants was selected to participate in semi-structured interviews. A round of follow-up interviews of five key participants was conducted to further clarify the phenomenon. Two of the follow up interviewees were observed using the EQUIP rubric to assess inquiry implementation. Artifacts such as minutes, PowerPoint presentations, and a reflexive journal were collected throughout the study. An inductive approach to content analysis of data from the survey and interviews was used to explore constructs, themes, and patterns. After segmentation took place, the data were categorized to allow patterns and constructs to emerge. The data were reduced based on the emergent design and those reductions, or themes, were informed by ongoing data collection using constant comparison as different levels of codes emerge. Data collection further informed data analysis and future data collection. Initial coding of patterns was reduced until theoretical saturation occurred and the data allowed five thematic findings to emerge from the data. The five themes were: teach, process, impasse, develop, and support. The significance of each theme and its implication for practitioners and researchers were discussed and offered, respectively.

  15. weSPOT: Working Environment with Social and Personal Open Tools for inquiry based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Firssova, Olga; Prinsen, Fleur; Specht, Marcus; Ternier, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Presentation of the weSPOT model for Inquiry based learning developed by a EC-funded Research weSPOT project, held at a potential testbed - Sint-Jans College in Hoensbroek, Netherlands on May 20, 2014

  16. Inquiry-based science teasching competence of pre-service primary teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alake-Tuenter, E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, improving primary science education has received considerable attention. In particular, researchers and policymakers advocate the use of inquiry-based science teaching and learning, believing that pupils learn best through direct personal experience and by incorporating new

  17. PENERAPAN INQUIRY BASED LEARNING UNTUK MENGETAHUI RESPON BELAJAR SISWA PADA MATERI KONSEP DAN PENGELOLAAN KOPERASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Kusmaryono

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to know the students' learning responsestoward Inquiry Based Learning method on the materials of Cooperative Concept andManagement. It was a qualitative descriptive approach and the research subjects were32 students of class X IIS 1 at SMA 1 Bae Kudus. The data were collected byobservation, documentation and interview. The results showed that students gavepositive responses toward the application of Inquiry Based Learning method sincestudents’ responses were very high at 85.51%.

  18. Inquiry-based science: Preparing human capital for the 21 st century and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Yolanda F.

    High school students need to graduate with 21st century skills to be college and career ready and to be competitive in a global marketplace. A positive trend exists favoring inquiry-based instructional practices that purportedly not only increase science content knowledge, but also 21 st century skill development. A suburban school district, Areal Township (pseudonym), implemented an inquiry-based science program based on this trend; however, the degree to which the program has been meeting students' needs for science content knowledge and 21st century skills development has not been explored. If we were to understand the process by which an inquiry-based science program contributes to attainment of science content and 21st century skill development, then we might be able to improve the delivery of the program and provide a model to be adopted by other schools. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to engage with multiple stakeholders to formatively assess the successes and obstacles for helping students to achieve science content and 21st century skills through an inquiry-based curriculum. Using constructivist theory, this study aimed to address the following central research question: How does the implementation of an inquiry-based program within the Areal Township School District (ATSD) support the acquisition of science content knowledge and the development of 21st century skills? This study found that 21st century skill development is embedded in inquiry-based instructional practices. These practices engage students in meaningful learning that spirals in content and is measured using diverse assessments. Time to do inquiry-based science and adequate time for collegial collaboration were obstacles for educators in grades K-5. Other obstacles were turnkey professional development and a lack of ongoing program monitoring, as a result of imposed extrinsic factors from state and federal mandates. Lastly, it was discovered that not all parts of

  19. Inquiry based learning in science education and mathematics for developing bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya H. Pavlova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the problem of teaching bilingual children. A definition of “developing bilingual” is proposed. The article presents an example of the application of inquiry based learning through which students develop not only math skills but also lexical capabilities. This study offers levels of differentiation in different groups of students. The paper determines advantages and disadvantages of the use of Inquiry Based Learning in developing bilingual groups.

  20. EFFECTIVENESS IN USING INQUIRY-BASED TEXTBOOK OF PHYSICS FOR PHYSICS LEARNING IN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL.

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz Nour Rohmah; Indrawati; I Ketut Mahardika; Sutarto; Joko Waluyo; Nuriman.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to describe the effectiveness in using inquiry-based textbook of Physics for Physics Learning in Vocational High School. The effectiveness was reflected by student learning outcomes and responses after the implementation of inquiry-based textbook of Physics. The research method was quasi-experimental research with design of One Group Pre-test Post-test. The subjects of the research were students of X Multimedia odd semester, Vocational High School Al-Qodiri Jember. Data co...

  1. Inquiry-based leading and learning : Inquiry-based working by school boards, school leaders and teachers and students’ inquiry habit of mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, E.

    2017-01-01

    Inquiry-based working is assumed to contribute to improving educational quality and to stimulate professional learning. It involves having an inquiry habit of mind, being data literate and creating a culture of inquiry in schools (based on Earl & Katz, 2006). The general aim of this study was to

  2. Guided-inquiry based laboratory instruction: Investigation of critical thinking skills, problem solving skills, and implementing student roles in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tanya

    Recent initiatives in the laboratory curriculum have encouraged an inquiry-based approach to learning and teaching in the laboratory. It has been argued that laboratory instruction should not just be hands-on, but it should portray the essence of inquiry through the process of experiential learning and reflective engagement in collaboration with peers and in facilitation by the instructor. A student-centered active learning approach may be an effective way to enhance student understanding of concepts in the laboratory. The dissertation research work explores the impact of laboratory instruction and its relevance for college-level chemistry. Each chapter is different from the preceding chapter in terms of the purpose of the study and the research questions asked. However, the overarching idea is to address the importance of guided-inquiry based laboratory instruction in chemistry and its relevance in helping students to make connections with the chemistry content and in imparting skills to students. Such skills include problem solving, collaborative group work and critical thinking. The first research study (Chapter 2) concerns the impact of first year co-requisite general chemistry laboratory instruction on the problem-solving skills of students. The second research study (Chapter 3) examines the impact of implementing student roles also known as Student-Led Instructor Facilitated Guided-Inquiry based Laboratories, SLIFGIL) by modifying the Science Writing Heuristic approach of laboratory instruction. In the third research study (Chapter 4), critical thinking skills of first semester general chemistry laboratory students were compared to advanced (third or fourth year) chemistry laboratory students based on the analysis of their laboratory reports.

  3. The development of guided inquiry-based learning devices on photosynthesis and respiration matter to train science literacy skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choirunnisak; Ibrahim, M.; Yuliani

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a guided inquiry-based learning devices on photosynthesis and respiration matter that are feasible (valid, practical, and effective) to train students’ science literacy. This research used 4D development model and tested on 15 students of biology education 2016 the State University of Surabaya with using one group pretest-posttest design. Learning devices developed include (a) Semester Lesson Plan (b) Lecture Schedule, (c) Student Activity Sheet, (d) Student Textbook, and (e) testability of science literacy. Research data obtained through validation method, observation, test, and questionnaire. The results were analyzed descriptively quantitative and qualitative. The ability of science literacy was analyzed by n-gain. The results of this research showed that (a) learning devices that developed was categorically very valid, (b) learning activities performed very well, (c) student’s science literacy skills improved that was a category as moderate, and (d) students responses were very positively to the learning that already held. Based on the results of the analysis and discussion, it is concluded that the development of guided inquiry-based learning devices on photosynthesis and respiration matter was feasible to train students literacy science skills.

  4. CAREER Educational Outreach: Inquiry-based Atmospheric Science Lessons for K-12 students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courville, Z.; Carbaugh, S.; Defrancis, G.; Donegan, R.; Brown, C.; Perovich, D. K.; Richter-Menge, J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate Comics is a collaborative outreach effort between the Montshire Museum of Science, in Norwich, VT, the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) research staff, and freelance artist and recent graduate of the Center for Cartoon Studies in White River Junction, VT, Sam Carbaugh. The project involves the cartoonist, the education staff from the museum, and researchers from CRREL creating a series of comic books with polar science and research themes, including sea ice monitoring, sea ice albedo, ice cores, extreme microbial activity, and stories and the process of fieldwork. The aim of the comic series is to provide meaningful science information in a comic-format that is both informative and fun, while highlighting current polar research work done at the lab. The education staff at the Montshire Museum develops and provides a series of hands-on, inquiry-based activity descriptions to complement each comic book, and CRREL researchers provide science background information and reiterative feedback about the comic books as they are being developed. Here, we present the motivation for using the comic-book medium to present polar research topics, the process involved in creating the comics, some unique features of the series, and the finished comic books themselves. Cartoon illustrating ways snow pack can be used to determine past climate information.

  5. Empowering Rural Appalachian Youth Through Integrated Inquiry-based Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, T. J.; Hogsett, M.

    2009-05-01

    Science education must be relevant and inspiring to keep students engaged and receptive to learning. Reports suggest that science education reform can be advanced by involving students in active research (NSF 1996). Through a 2-year Geoscience Education award from the National Science Foundation, a program called IDGE (Integrated Design for Geoscience Education) has targeted low-income, under-represented, and minority high school students in rural Appalachia in inquiry-based projects, international collaboration, and an international environmental expedition incorporating the GLOBE program protocols. This program targeted Upward Bound students at Marshall University in Huntington, West Virginia. The Upward Bound is a federally-supported program targeting low-income, under-represented, and minority students for inclusion in a summer academic- enrichment program. IDGE builds on the mission of Upward Bound by encouraging underprivileged students to investigate science and scientific careers. This outreach has proven to be successful in enhancing positive attitudes and understanding about science and increasing the number of students considering science careers. IDGE has found that students must be challenged to observe the world around them and to consider how their decisions affect the future of our planet, thus making geoscience relevant and interesting to the students. By making the geoscience course inquiry-based and incorporating field research that is relevant to local environmental issues, it becomes possible for students to bridge the gap between science in theory and science in practice while remaining engaged. Participants were able to broaden environmental connections through an ecological expedition experience to Costa Rica, serving as an opportunity to broaden the vision of students as members of an international community of learners and scientists through their experiences with a diverse natural environment. This trip, in coordination with the inclusion

  6. The Effects of Inquiry-Based Integrated Information Literacy Instruction: Four-Year Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ching Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of four-year integrated information literacy instruction via a framework of inquiry-based learning on elementary students’ memory and comprehension. Moderating factors of students’ academic achievement was another focus of this study. The subjects were 72 students who have participated in this study since they entered an elementary school in Chiayi district. This elementary school adopted the integrated information literacy instruction, designed by the researchers and elementary school teachers, and integrated it into various subject matters via a framework of inquiry-based learning, such as Super 3 and Big6 models. A series of inquiry-based integrated information literacy instruction has been implemented since the second semester of the subjects’ first grade. A total of seven inquiry learning projects has been implemented from grade one through grade four. Fourteen instruments were used as pretests and posttests to assess students’ factual recall and conceptual understanding of subject contents in different projects. The results showed that inquiry-based integrated information literacy instruction couldhelp students memorize facts and comprehend concepts of subject contents. Regardless ofacademic achievements, if students would like to devote their efforts to inquiry processes, their memory and comprehension of subject contents improvedeffectively. However, students of low-academic achievement might need more time to be familiar with the inquiry-based learning strategy.

  7. The science experience: The relationship between an inquiry-based science program and student outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poderoso, Charie

    Science education reforms in U.S. schools emphasize the importance of students' construction of knowledge through inquiry. Organizations such as the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Research Council (NRC), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) have demonstrated a commitment to searching for solutions and renewed efforts to improve science education. One suggestion for science education reform in U.S. schools was a transition from traditional didactic, textbook-based to inquiry-based instructional programs. While inquiry has shown evidence for improved student learning in science, what is needed is empirical evidence of those inquiry-based practices that affect student outcomes in a local context. This study explores the relationship between instructional programs and curricular changes affecting student outcomes in the Santa Ana Unified District (SAUSD): It provides evidence related to achievement and attitudes. SAUSD employs two approaches to teaching in the middle school science classrooms: traditional and inquiry-based approaches. The Leadership and Assistance for Science Education Reform (LASER) program is an inquiry-based science program that utilizes resources for implementation of the University of California Berkeley's Lawrence Hall of Science Education for Public Understanding Program (SEPUP) to support inquiry-based teaching and learning. Findings in this study provide empirical support related to outcomes of seventh-grade students, N = 328, in the LASER and traditional science programs in SAUSD.

  8. Elementary Teachers' Comprehension of Flooding through Inquiry-based Professional Development and Use of Self-regulation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth B.; van der Hoeven Kraft, Katrien J.; Bueno Watts, Nievita; Baker, Dale R.; Wilson, Meredith J.; Lang, Michael

    2011-07-01

    This study focuses on elementary teachers' comprehension of flooding before and after inquiry-based professional development (PD). There was an improvement in teachers' understanding toward a normative view from pre- to post-test (n = 17, mean gain = 4.3, SD = 3.27). Several misunderstandings and a general lack of knowledge about flooding emerged from the geoscience content two-tier pre-test, some of which persisted throughout the PD seminar while other responses provided evidence of teachers' improved understanding. The concepts that teachers struggled with were also apparent upon examining teachers' reflections upon their learning and teaching practices throughout the seminar. Teachers were challenged as they attempted to add new academic language, such as storm surge and discharge, to their prior understandings. Flooding concepts that teachers showed the least improvement on included analyzing a topographic region, reading a map image, and hydrograph interpretation. Teachers' greatest areas of improved understanding occurred in understanding the probability and role of ground conditions in flooding events. Teachers demonstrated considerable growth in their understanding of some flooding concepts through scaffolded inquiry lessons modeled throughout the PD. Those teachers who had greater prior knowledge and demonstrated more use of self-regulated learning showed the most change toward a normative view of flooding. The explicit modeling and participation in inquiry-based science activities and written responses to self-regulatory learning prompts throughout the seminar supported teachers' learning.

  9. The Role of Content in Inquiry-Based Elementary Science Lessons: An Analysis of Teacher Beliefs and Enactment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtak, Erin Marie; Alonzo, Alicia C.

    2010-05-01

    The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Video Study explored instructional practices in the United States (US) in comparison with other countries that ranked higher on the 1999 TIMSS assessment, and revealed that 8th grade science teachers in the US emphasize activities over content during lessons (Roth et al. 2006). This study applies the content framework from the TIMSS Video Study to a sample of 28 3rd grade teachers enacting an inquiry-based unit on floating and sinking, and seeks a deeper understanding of teachers’ practices through analysis of interviews with those teachers. Transcripts of observed lessons were coded according to the TIMSS framework for types of content, and transcripts of teacher interviews were coded to capture the ways in which teachers described their role in and purposes for teaching science, particularly with respect to the floating and sinking unit. Results indicate that teachers focused more on canonical, procedural and experimental knowledge during lessons than on real-world connections and the nature of science; however, none of the types of content received major emphasis in a majority of the classrooms in the sample. During interviews, teachers described their practice in ways that prioritized helping students to like science over specific content outcomes. The study suggests that elementary school teachers’ emphasis on doing and feeling during inquiry-based lessons may interfere with teaching of content.

  10. An Investigation of Primary School Teachers’ PCK towards Science Subjects Using an Inquiry-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menşure ALKIŞ KÜÇÜKAYDIN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK of four experienced primary school teachers was investigated within the “Let’s Solve the Riddle of Our Body Unit”. The PCK investigation adopted a learning approach based on inquiry, content representation and pedagogical and professional-experience repertoires (PaP-eRs, and interview forms were used as data collection tools. During the course of the research, the findings obtained from observations made during a total of 18 course hours formed the basic data source of the study. According to the results of the study, in which descriptive and content analysis were used concurrently, primary school teachers lack subject matter knowledge, do not interrogate the pre-knowledge of students and some misconceptions exist regarding about blood moves and exercise with pulse. Additionally, some deficiencies were detected in the curriculum, i.e., it offers non-inquisitional knowledge. Furthermore, teachers employee assessment methods with traditional teaching methods and techniques. In the context of an inquiry-based learning approach, teachers appeared to believe that classroom activities were adversely affected by the physical conditions (class size, lack of laboratory etc., students’ cognitive levels and parent profiles. The result of this study revealed that PCK components affect one another. The PCK findings pertaining to primary school teachers as it concerns the unit are briefly discussed and some suggestions about the development of PCK are submitted.

  11. An Inquiry-Based Laboratory Module to Promote Understanding of the Scientific Method and Bacterial Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie B. Berkmen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Students are engaged and improve their critical thinking skills in laboratory courses when they have the opportunity to design and conduct inquiry-based experiments that generate novel results. A discovery-driven project for a microbiology, genetics, or multidisciplinary research laboratory course was developed to familiarize students with the scientific method. In this multi-lab module, students determine whether their chosen stress conditions induce conjugation and/or cell death of the model BSL-1 Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Through consultation of the primary literature, students identify conditions or chemicals that can elicit DNA damage, the SOS response, and/or cellular stress.  In groups, students discuss their selected conditions, develop their hypotheses and experimental plans, and formulate their positive and negative controls. Students then subject the B. subtilis donor cells to the stress conditions, mix donors with recipients to allow mating, and plate serial dilutions of the mixtures on selective plates to measure how the treatments affect conjugation frequency and donor cell viability.  Finally, students analyze and discuss their collective data in light of their controls. The goals of this module are to encourage students to be actively involved in the scientific process while contributing to our understanding of the conditions that stimulate horizontal gene transfer in bacteria.

  12. Exploring the Relations of Inquiry-Based Teaching to Science Achievement and Dispositions in 54 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Dean; Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2017-06-01

    This study, drawing on data from the third cycle of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing three-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) as an analytic strategy, examined the relations of inquiry-based science teaching to science achievement and dispositions toward science among 170,474 15-year-old students from 4780 schools in 54 countries across the globe. The results of the HLM analyses, after accounting for student-, school-, and country-level demographic characteristics and students' dispositions toward science, revealed that inquiry-based science teaching was significantly negatively related to science achievement. In contrast, inquiry-based science teaching was significantly positively associated with dispositions toward science, such as interest in and enjoyment of science learning, instrumental and future-oriented science motivation, and science self-concept and self-efficacy. Implications of the findings for policy and practice are discussed.

  13. The meaning making about inquiry based teaching in a science teacher preparation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ferreira de Sá

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present an analysis of the effort that a group of tutors and professors have made to share a meaning of the notions “inquiry based teaching” and “inquiry based learning”. For this, we made an analysis of the data produced from notes elaborated in several meetings of this group for two years and in interviews that we did with tutors. We draw on the Theory of the Enunciation of Bakhtin to identify the meanings put into circulation by the participants, considering the positions of the participants and the specific conditions of enunciation. The results of our analysis point to some tensions among point of views of these persons about inquiry based teaching and learning. And addition, it point out the existence of some parameters that can help us to define a way to understand these notions conceived by this group.

  14. Successful implementation of inquiry-based physiology laboratories in undergraduate major and nonmajor courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casotti, G; Rieser-Danner, L; Knabb, M T

    2008-12-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that inquiry-based physiology laboratories improve students' critical- and analytical-thinking skills. We implemented inquiry-based learning into three physiology courses: Comparative Vertebrate Physiology (majors), Human Physiology (majors), and Human Anatomy and Physiology (nonmajors). The aims of our curricular modifications were to improve the teaching of physiological concepts, teach students the scientific approach, and promote creative and critical thinking. We assessed our modifications using formative (laboratory exams, oral presentations, and laboratory reports) and summative evaluations (surveys, laboratory notebook, and an end of semester project). Students appreciated the freedom offered by the new curriculum and the opportunity to engage in the inquiry process. Results from both forms of evaluation showed a marked improvement due to the curricular revisions. Our analyses indicate an increased confidence in students' ability to formulate questions and hypotheses, design experiments, collect and analyze data, and make conclusions. Thus, we have successfully incorporated inquiry-based laboratories in both major and nonmajor courses.

  15. Neuroscience in middle schools: a professional development and resource program that models inquiry-based strategies and engages teachers in classroom implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNabb, Carrie; Schmitt, Lee; Michlin, Michael; Harris, Ilene; Thomas, Larry; Chittendon, David; Ebner, Timothy J; Dubinsky, Janet M

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Neuroscience at the University of Minnesota and the Science Museum of Minnesota have developed and implemented a successful program for middle school (grades 5-8) science teachers and their students, called Brain Science on the Move. The overall goals have been to bring neuroscience education to underserved schools, excite students about science, improve their understanding of neuroscience, and foster partnerships between scientists and educators. The program includes BrainU, a teacher professional development institute; Explain Your Brain Assembly and Exhibit Stations, multimedia large-group presentation and hands-on activities designed to stimulate student thinking about the brain; Class Activities, in-depth inquiry-based investigations; and Brain Trunks, materials and resources related to class activities. Formal evaluation of the program indicated that teacher neuroscience knowledge, self-confidence, and use of inquiry-based strategies and neuroscience in their classrooms have increased. Participating teachers increased the time spent teaching neuroscience and devoted more time to "inquiry-based" teaching versus "lecture-based teaching." Teachers appreciated in-depth discussions of pedagogy and science and opportunities for collegial interactions with world-class researchers. Student interest in the brain and in science increased. Since attending BrainU, participating teachers have reported increased enthusiasm about teaching and have become local neuroscience experts within their school communities.

  16. The meaning making about inquiry based teaching in a science teacher preparation program

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Ferreira de Sá; Maria Emília Caixeta de Castro Lima; Orlando Aguiar Jr.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present an analysis of the effort that a group of tutors and professors have made to share a meaning of the notions “inquiry based teaching” and “inquiry based learning”. For this, we made an analysis of the data produced from notes elaborated in several meetings of this group for two years and in interviews that we did with tutors. We draw on the Theory of the Enunciation of Bakhtin to identify the meanings put into circulation by the participants, considering the positions o...

  17. INQUIRY-BASED SCIENCE COMIC PHYSICS SERIES INTEGRATED WITH CHARACTER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Yulianti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test the level of readability and feasibility of science comic, to knowcharacter development through a small test in some schools. The research design was Research & Development, trials were using quasi-experimental pre-test-post-test experimental design. The instruments to measure attitudes were: a questionnaire and observation sheet, a test used to measure comprehension of the material. The results showed that learning science by inquiry-based science comic can improvecharacters and cognitive achievement of primary school students. Results in the form of inquiry-based science comic can be utilized in learning science as a companion teaching materials.

  18. Linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine N.; Mayer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    for baseline toxicity. First, the reported effective concentrations (EC50) were divided by the respective water solubilities (Swater), since the obtained EC50/Swater ratio essentially equals the effective chemical activity (Ea50). The majority of EC50/Swater ratios were within the expected chemical activity...

  19. Integrating Inquiry-Based Science and Education Methods Courses in a "Science Semester" for Future Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J.; Fifield, S.; Allen, D.; Brickhouse, N.; Dagher, Z.; Ford, D.; Shipman, H.

    2001-05-01

    In this NSF-funded project we will adapt problem-based learning (PBL) and other inquiry-based approaches to create an integrated science and education methods curriculum ("science semester") for elementary teacher education majors. Our goal is to foster integrated understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in their classrooms. This project responds to calls to improve science education for all students by making preservice teachers' experiences in undergraduate science courses more consistent with reforms at the K-12 level. The involved faculty teach three science courses (biology, earth science, physical science) and an elementary science education methods course that are degree requirements for elementary teacher education majors. Presently, students take the courses in variable sequences and at widely scattered times. Too many students fail to appreciate the value of science courses to their future careers as teachers, and when they reach the methods course in the junior year they often retain little of the science content studied earlier. These episodic encounters with science make it difficult for students to learn the content, and to translate their understandings of science into effective, inquiry-based teaching strategies. To encourage integrated understandings of science concepts and pedagogy we will coordinate the science and methods courses in a junior-year science semester. Traditional subject matter boundaries will be crossed to stress shared themes that teachers must understand to teach standards-based elementary science. We will adapt exemplary approaches that support both learning science and learning how to teach science. Students will work collaboratively on multidisciplinary PBL activities that place science concepts in authentic contexts and build learning skills. "Lecture" meetings will be large group active learning sessions that help students understand difficult

  20. Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology into inquiry-based science education: Three case studies in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Trinh-Ba; Ed van den Berg, Ed; Beishuizen, Jos; Ellermeijer, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Integration of technology (e.g. measuring with sensors, video measurement, and modeling) into secondary-school science teaching is a need globally recognized. A central issue of incorporating these technologies in teaching is how to turn manipulations of equipment and software into manipulations of ideas. Therefore, preparation for pre-service teachers to apply ICT tools should be combined with the issues of minds-on inquiring and meaning-making. From this perspective, we developed a course within the post-graduate teacher-education program in the Netherlands. During the course, pre-service teachers learnt not only to master ICT skills but also to design, teach, and evaluate an inquiry-based lesson in which the ICT tool was integrated. Besides three life sessions, teachers’ learning scenario also consisted of individual tasks which teachers could carry out mostly in the school or at home with support materials and online assistance. We taught three iterations of the course within a design-research framework in 2013, 2014 and collected data on the teacher learning processes and outcomes. The analyses of these data from observation, interviews, questionnaires, and documents were to evaluate implementation of the course, then suggest for revisions of the course set-up, which was executed and then assessed again in a subsequent case study. Main outcomes of the three case studies can be summarized as follows: within a limited time (3 life sessions spread over 2–3 months), the heterogeneous groups of pre-service teachers achieved a reasonable level of competence regarding the use of ICT tools in inquiry-based lessons. The blended set-up with support materials, especially the Coach activities and the lesson-plan form for an ICT-integrated inquiry-based lesson, contributed to this result under the condition that the course participants really spent considerable time outside the life sessions. There was a need for more time for hands-on, in-group activities in life

  1. Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology into inquiry-based science education: Three case studies in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trinh-Ba; van den Berg, Ed; Ellermeijer, Ton; Beishuizen, Jos

    2016-05-01

    Integration of technology ( e.g. measuring with sensors, video measurement, and modeling) into secondary-school science teaching is a need globally recognized. A central issue of incorporating these technologies in teaching is how to turn manipulations of equipment and software into manipulations of ideas. Therefore, preparation for pre-service teachers to apply ICT tools should be combined with the issues of minds-on inquiring and meaning-making. From this perspective, we developed a course within the post-graduate teacher-education program in the Netherlands. During the course, pre-service teachers learnt not only to master ICT skills but also to design, teach, and evaluate an inquiry-based lesson in which the ICT tool was integrated. Besides three life sessions, teachers' learning scenario also consisted of individual tasks which teachers could carry out mostly in the school or at home with support materials and online assistance. We taught three iterations of the course within a design-research framework in 2013, 2014 and collected data on the teacher learning processes and outcomes. The analyses of these data from observation, interviews, questionnaires, and documents were to evaluate implementation of the course, then suggest for revisions of the course set-up, which was executed and then assessed again in a subsequent case study. Main outcomes of the three case studies can be summarized as follows: within a limited time (3 life sessions spread over 2-3 months), the heterogeneous groups of pre-service teachers achieved a reasonable level of competence regarding the use of ICT tools in inquiry-based lessons. The blended set-up with support materials, especially the Coach activities and the lesson-plan form for an ICT-integrated inquiry-based lesson, contributed to this result under the condition that the course participants really spent considerable time outside the life sessions. There was a need for more time for hands-on, in-group activities in life

  2. Improving creative thinking skills and scientific attitude through inquiry-based learning in basic biology lecture toward student of biology education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Sandika

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inquiry-based learning is one of the learning methods which can provide an active and authentic scientific learning process in order students are able to improve the creative thinking skills and scientific attitude. This study aims at improving creative thinking skills and scientific attitude through inquiry-based learning in basic biology lecture toward students of biology education at the Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN Jember, Indonesia. This study is included in a descriptive quantitative research. The research focused on the topic of cell transport which was taught toward 25 students of Biology 2 class from 2017 academic year of Biology Education Department at the IAIN Jember. The learning process was conducted in two meetings in November 2017. The enhancement of students' creative thinking skills was determined by one group pre-test and post-test research design using test instrument meanwhile the scientific attitude focused on curiosity and objectivity were observed using the non-test instrument. Research result showed that students' creative thinking skills enhanced highly and students' scientific attitude improved excellently through inquiry-based learning in basic biology lecture.

  3. We Look More, Listen More, Notice More: Impact of Sustained Professional Development on Head Start Teachers' Inquiry-Based and Culturally-Relevant Science Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, Gillian H.; Dubosarsky, Mia; Mason, Annie; Carlson, Stephan; Murphy, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Despite many scholars' recommendations, science is often avoided during early childhood education. Among the reasons provided by early childhood teachers for the exclusion of science from their daily routines included science anxiety, low self-efficacy with respect to teaching science, lack of experience participating in science activities as students, or the notion that literacy and language are more important during the early years. In minority populations the problem is even greater due to identification of science with the `culture of. This article presents results from Ah Neen Dush, a sustained and transformative professional development program for Head Start teachers on an American Indian Reservation. The goal of the program is to support early childhood teachers in developing inquiry-based and culturally-relevant teaching practices. Through analysis of teachers' classroom practices, surveys and interviews, we explore changes in teachers' attitudes toward science and inquiry-based practices. Classroom observations were conducted using CLASS (Classroom assessment Scoring System), a tool used to evaluate the quality of classroom interactions. After 1 year of professional development teachers' attitudes were found to improve and after 2 years teachers classroom practices were more inquiry-based with statistically significant increases in CLASS observation scores.

  4. A well-started beginning elementary teacher's beliefs and practices in relation to reform recommendations about inquiry-based science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Given reform recommendations emphasizing scientific inquiry and empirical evidence pointing to the difficulties beginning teachers face in enacting inquiry-based science, this study explores a well-started beginning elementary teacher's (Sofia) beliefs about inquiry-based science and related

  5. Life-Cycle Thinking in Inquiry-Based Sustainability Education--Effects on Students' Attitudes towards Chemistry and Environmental Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, Marianne; Aksela, Maija

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to improve the quality of students' environmental literacy and sustainability education in chemistry teaching by combining the socio-scientific issue of life-cycle thinking with inquiry-based learning approaches. This case study presents results from an inquiry-based life-cycle thinking project: an interdisciplinary…

  6. Learning How to Design a Technology Supported Inquiry-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakverdi-Can, Meral; Sonmez, Duygu

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a study focusing on pre-service teachers' experience of learning how to design a technology supported inquiry-based learning environment using the Internet. As part of their elective course, pre-service science teachers were asked to develop a WebQuest environment targeting middle school students. A WebQuest is an…

  7. Investigating the Use of a Digital Library in an Inquiry-Based Undergraduate Geology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apedoe, Xornam S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a qualitative research study designed to investigate the opportunities and obstacles presented by a digital library for supporting teaching and learning in an inquiry-based undergraduate geology course. Data for this study included classroom observations and field-notes of classroom practices, questionnaires, and…

  8. An Analysis of Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Understanding of Inquiry-Based Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carole K.; Shea, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how pre-service elementary teachers (PSETs) view inquiry-based science learning and teaching, and how the science methods course builds their confidence to teach inquiry science. Most PSETs think that inquiry is asking students questions rather than a formal set of pedagogical tools. In the present study, three groups of PSETs…

  9. The Effect of Inquiry-Based Learning Method on Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of inquiry-based learning method on students' academic achievement in sciences lesson. A total of 40 fifth grade students from two different classes were involved in the study. They were selected through purposive sampling method. The group which was assigned as experimental group was…

  10. The Effectiveness of Guided Inquiry-based Learning Material on Students’ Science Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulia, E. V.; Poedjiastoeti, S.; Agustini, R.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the effectiveness of guided inquiry-based learning material to improve students’ science literacy skills on solubility and solubility product concepts. This study used Research and Development (R&D) design and was implemented to the 11th graders of Muhammadiyah 4 Senior High School Surabaya in 2016/2017 academic year with one group pre-test and post-test design. The data collection techniques used were validation, observation, test, and questionnaire. The results of this research showed that the students’ science literacy skills are different after implementation of guided inquiry-based learning material. The guided inquiry-based learning material is effective to improve students’ science literacy skills on solubility and solubility product concepts by getting N-gain score with medium and high category. This improvement caused by the developed learning material such as lesson plan, student worksheet, and science literacy skill tests were categorized as valid and very valid. In addition, each of the learning phases in lesson plan has been well implemented. Therefore, it can be concluded that the guided inquiry-based learning material are effective to improve students’ science literacy skills on solubility and solubility product concepts in senior high school.

  11. The 5E Instructional Model: A Learning Cycle Approach for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Lena Ballone; Duran, Emilio

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of inquiry-based teaching is a major theme in national science education reform documents such as "Project 2061: Science for All Americans" (Rutherford & Alhgren, 1990) and the "National Science Education Standards" (NRC, 1996). These reports argue that inquiry needs to be a central strategy of all…

  12. An Epistemological Analysis of the Application of an Online Inquiry-Based Program in Tourism Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Liwei

    2014-01-01

    This paper was designed to investigate the application of an online inquiry-based program to European tourism from an epistemological perspective. Fifty tourism students (n = 50) participated in this study and their epistemological beliefs were measured with the Epistemological Belief Scale. A set of pre-, post-, and delayed tests were utilised to…

  13. Inquiry-Based Learning in Teacher Education: A Primary Humanities Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Lou; Harvie, Kate; Wallace, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning features strongly in the new Australian Humanities and Social Sciences curriculum and increasingly in primary school practice. Yet, there is little research into, and few exemplars of, inquiry approaches in the primary humanities context. In this article, we outline and explain the implementation of a place-based simulation…

  14. Inquiry and Groups: Student Interactions in Cooperative Inquiry-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Wosnitza, Marold; Sturrock, Keryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Science education research has recommended cooperative inquiry based science in the primary science context for more than two decades but after more than 20 years, student achievement in science has not substantially improved. This study, through direct observation and analysis, investigated content-related student interactions in an authentic…

  15. Inquiry Based Teaching in Turkey: A Content Analysis of Research Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilaslan, Aydin; Sozbilir, Mustafa; Yasar, M. Diyaddin

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning [IBL] enhances students' critical thinking abilities and help students to act as a scientist through using scientific method while learning. Specifically, inquiry as a teaching approach has been defined in many ways, the most important one is referred to nature of constructing knowledge while the individuals possess a…

  16. Can Graduate Teaching Assistants Teach Inquiry-Based Geology Labs Effectively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryker, Katherine; McConnell, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the implementation of teaching strategies by graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in inquiry-based introductory geology labs at a large research university. We assess the degree of inquiry present in each Physical Geology lab and compare and contrast the instructional practices of new and experienced GTAs teaching these labs. We…

  17. Developing and Supporting Students' Autonomy to Plan, Perform, and Interpret Inquiry-Based Biochemistry Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thanuci; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory sessions are designed to develop the experimental skills and the acquaintance with instruments that may contribute to a successful career in Biochemistry and associated fields. This study is a report on improving a traditional Biochemistry course by devising the laboratory sessions as an inquiry-based environment to develop the…

  18. Inquiry-based Investigation in Biology Laboratories: Does Neem Provide Bioprotection against Bean Beetles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Amy R.; Sale, Amanda Lovelace; Srivatsan, Malathi; Beck, Christopher W.; Blumer, Lawrence S.; Grippo, Anne A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an inquiry-based biology laboratory exercise in which undergraduate students designed experiments addressing whether material from the neem tree ("Azadirachta indica") altered bean beetle ("Callosobruchus maculatus") movements and oviposition. Students were introduced to the bean beetle life cycle, experimental…

  19. Students Dig Deep in the Mystery Soil Lab: A Playful, Inquiry-Based Soil Laboratory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiet, Rachel K.

    2014-01-01

    The Mystery Soil Lab, a playful, inquiry-based laboratory project, is designed to develop students' skills of inquiry, soil analysis, and synthesis of foundational concepts in soil science and soil ecology. Student groups are given the charge to explore and identify a "Mystery Soil" collected from a unique landscape within a 10-mile…

  20. Enhanced Learning of Biotechnology Students by an Inquiry-Based Cellulase Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketpichainarong, Watcharee; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of an inquiry-based cellulase laboratory unit in promoting inquiry in undergraduate students in biotechnology. The following tools were used to assess the students' achievements and attitude: conceptual understanding test, concept mapping, students' documents, CLES questionnaire, students' self reflection, and…

  1. Working environment with social and personal open tools for inquiry based learning: Pedagogic and diagnostic frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Protopsaltis, Aristos; Seitlinger, Paul; Chaimala, Foteini; Firssova, Olga; Hetzner, Sonja; Kikis-Papadakis, Kitty; Boytchev, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The weSPOT project aims at propagating scientific inquiry as the approach for science learning and teaching in combination with today’s curricula and teaching practices The project focuses on inquiry-based learning with a theoretically sound and technology supported personal inquiry approach and it

  2. Using Inquiry-Based Strategies for Enhancing Students' STEM Education Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-San

    2018-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not the inquiry-based method is effective in improving students' learning in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) education. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A total of 73 college students studying Information Technology (IT) were chosen as…

  3. Phospholipids, Dietary Supplements, and Chicken Eggs: An Inquiry-Based Exercise Using Thin-Layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Sara E.; Belanger, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    This inquiry-based experiment is designed for organic or biochemistry undergraduate students to deduce the identity of phospholipids extracted from chicken eggs and dietary supplements. This is achieved using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) data, a series of guided questions of increasing complexity, and provided relative retention factor (Rf)…

  4. Authority in an Agency-Centered, Inquiry-Based University Calculus Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Hope; Bateman, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Authority roles among teachers and students have traditionally been hierarchal and centered with the expertise and power of the teacher limiting opportunities for students to act with autonomy to build and justify mathematics. In this paper we discuss authority roles for teachers and students that have been realized in an inquiry-based university,…

  5. The Use of Wikis in a Science Inquiry-Based Project in a Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wilfred W. F.; Lui, Vicky; Chu, Samuel K. W.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the use of wikis in a science inquiry-based project conducted with Primary 6 students (aged 11-12). It used an online wiki-based platform called PBworks and addressed the following research questions: (1) What are students' attitudes toward learning with wikis? (2) What are students' interactions in online group collaboration…

  6. Inquiry-based Science Education Competence of Primary School Teachers: A Delphi Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alake-Tuenter, E.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Tobi, H.; Mulder, M.

    2013-01-01

    Earlier, extracted inquiry-based science teaching competency elements and domains from the international literature were compared to the United States' National Science Teaching Standards. The present Delphi study aimed to validate the findings for the Netherlands, where such standards are lacking.

  7. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at…

  8. Student Perceptions of a Mathematics Major for Prospective Elementary Teachers with an Inquiry-Based Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Samuel A.; Borkovitz, Debra K.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present data from one-on-one interviews conducted with students who have taken intermediate and advanced inquiry-based mathematics courses in a program that prepares future preK-8 teachers. Many of these students entered college with a fear of math, but then gained confidence from a required introductory math course and chose to…

  9. Using Inquiry-Based Instructional Strategies to Increase Student Achievement in 3rd Grade Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae-Jones, Wanda Joycelyn

    2017-01-01

    21st Century skills such as critical-thinking and problem-solving skills are very important when it comes to Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics or STEM. But those same skills should be integrated in social studies. The impact of students' learning in social studies as a result of implementing inquiry-based instructional strategies was…

  10. Use of Genomic Databases for Inquiry-Based Learning about Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, Fred; Ndung'u, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The genome projects of the past decades have created extensive databases of biological information with applications in both research and education. We describe an inquiry-based exercise that uses one such database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information Influenza Virus Resource, to advance learning about influenza. This database…

  11. Collaborating to Improve Inquiry-Based Teaching in Elementary Science and Mathematics Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Paula A.; Flessner, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect of promoting inquiry-based teaching (IBT) through collaboration between a science methods course and mathematics methods course in an elementary teacher education program. During the collaboration, preservice elementary teacher (PST) candidates experienced 3 different types of inquiry as a way to foster increased…

  12. Barriers Inhibiting Inquiry-Based Science Teaching and Potential Solutions: Perceptions of Positively Inclined Early Adopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Michael; Danaia, Lena; McKinnon, David H.

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, calls for the adoption of inquiry-based pedagogies in the science classroom have formed a part of the recommendations for large-scale high school science reforms. However, these pedagogies have been problematic to implement at scale. This research explores the perceptions of 34 positively inclined early-adopter teachers in relation to their implementation of inquiry-based pedagogies. The teachers were part of a large-scale Australian high school intervention project based around astronomy. In a series of semi-structured interviews, the teachers identified a number of common barriers that prevented them from implementing inquiry-based approaches. The most important barriers identified include the extreme time restrictions on all scales, the poverty of their common professional development experiences, their lack of good models and definitions for what inquiry-based teaching actually is, and the lack of good resources enabling the capacity for change. Implications for expectations of teachers and their professional learning during educational reform and curriculum change are discussed.

  13. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials for Inquiry-Based Elementary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum materials are important resources with which teachers make pedagogical decisions about the design of science learning environments. To become well-started beginning elementary teachers capable of engaging their students in inquiry-based science, preservice elementary teachers need to learn to use science curriculum materials…

  14. Phases of inquiry-based learning: Definitions and the inquiry cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedaste, Margus; Mäeots, Mario; Siiman, Leo A.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; van Riesen, Siswa; Kamp, E.T.; Kamp, E.T.; Manoli, Constantinos C.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Tsourlidaki, Eleftheria

    2015-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning is gaining popularity in science curricula, international research and development projects as well as teaching. One of the underlying reasons is that its success can be significantly improved due to the recent technical developments that allow the inquiry process to be

  15. Effects of Inquiry-Based Agriscience Instruction on Student Scientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoron, Andrew C.; Myers, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inquiry-based agriscience instruction on student scientific reasoning. Scientific reasoning is defined as the use of the scientific method, inductive, and deductive reasoning to develop and test hypothesis. Developing scientific reasoning skills can provide learners with a connection to the…

  16. Improving Achievement for Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Learners through an Inquiry-Based Earth Systems Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Julie; Ariza, Eileen N. Whelan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes an inquiry-based Earth systems curriculum and strategies for teaching diverse students, which were embedded in the curriculum. The curriculum was implemented with 5th-grade students with varied linguistic, cultural, and socioeconomic backgrounds in five schools in a large, southeastern U.S., urban school district. At the end…

  17. Effectiveness of Inquiry-Based Learning in an Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybo, Lars; May, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of changing a laboratory physiology course for undergraduate students from a traditional step-by-step guided structure to an inquiry-based approach. With this aim in mind, quantitative and qualitative evaluations of learning outcomes (individual subject-specific tests and group interviews)…

  18. Wiki Laboratory Notebooks: Supporting Student Learning in Collaborative Inquiry-Based Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, Gwendolyn Angela; Grøndahl, Lisbeth; Boman, Simon; Andrews, Trish

    2016-01-01

    Recent examples of high-impact teaching practices in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory that include course-based undergraduate research experiences and inquiry-based experiments require new approaches to assessing individual student learning outcomes. Instructors require tools and strategies that can provide them with insight into individual…

  19. A school and inquiry based project with Nordic student teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Birgitte

    Álka is a framework involving teacher education institutions in the Nordic counties. This study describes the design of a module aiming at the establishment of a stronger nexus between research (theory) and teaching of science (practice) and to explore an issue relevant for the student teachers...... future professional life. The theme that was used for the research based project was: Nordic Children’s ideas about living things in the sea. Oral presentation at The 10th Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education (NFSUN), Linköbing, Sweden, June 2011....

  20. Inquiry-Based Instruction of Compound Microscopy Using Simulated Paleobiogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jay Y. S.; Mateer, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    The compound microscope is an important tool in biology, and mastering it requires repetition. Unfortunately, introductory activities for students can be formulaic, and consequently, students are often unengaged and fail to develop the required experience to become proficient in microscopy. To engage students, increase repetition, and develop…

  1. Inquiry-Based Learning of Transcendental Functions in Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Celil; Gard, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    In a series of group activities supplemented with independent explorations and assignments, calculus students investigate functions similar to their own derivatives. Graphical, numerical, and algebraic perspectives are suggested, leading students to develop deep intuition into elementary transcendental functions even as they lay the foundation for…

  2. Cellular Links between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Pavan K.; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function). Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (i.e., development and aging) and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation) which lea...

  3. The I-Cleen Project (Inquiring on CLimate & ENergy). Research Meets Education in AN Inquiry-Based Approach to Earth System Science in Italian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattadori, M.; Editorial Staff of the I-CLEN Project

    2011-12-01

    Italian citizens' perception of the seriousness of the issue of climate change is one of the lowest in Europe (Eurobarometer survey, 2008), running next to last among the 28 EU Nations. This has recently driven many national science institutions to take action in order to connect society with the complexities and consequences of climate change. These connection initiatives have encountered a certain deal of opposition in Italian schools. A fact most likely due both to a further weakening of the use of inquiry-based educational practices adopted by teachers and to their reluctance to cooperate on a professional level, which hinders the diffusion of educational practices. I-CLEEN (Inquiring on CLimate and Energy, www.icleen.museum) is a service that offers a new type of link between schools and the complexity of climate change. The project took off in 2008 thanks to the Trento Science Museum (former Tridentine Museum of Natural Science), one of the major Italian science museums that includes both research and science education and dissemination departments. The main aim is to create, using the tools of professional cooperation, a free repository of educational resources that can support teachers in preparing inquiry-based lessons on climate change and earth system science topics, making the task less of a burden. I-CLEEN is inspired by many models, which include: the ARISE (Andrill Research Immersion for Science Educators), the OER (Open Educational Resources) models and those of other projects that have developed similar information gateways such as LRE (Learning Resource Exchange) and DLESE (Digital Library on Earth Science Education). One of the strategies devised by I-CLEEN is to rely upon an editorial team made up of a highly selected group of teachers that interacts with the researchers of the museum and of other Earth system science research centres like the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV). Resource selection, production, revision and

  4. Measure, Then Show: Grasping Human Evolution Through an Inquiry-Based, Data-driven Hominin Skulls Lab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris N Bayer

    Full Text Available Incomprehension and denial of the theory of evolution among high school students has been observed to also occur when teachers are not equipped to deliver a compelling case also for human evolution based on fossil evidence. This paper assesses the outcomes of a novel inquiry-based paleoanthropology lab teaching human evolution to high-school students. The inquiry-based Be a Paleoanthropologist for a Day lab placed a dozen hominin skulls into the hands of high-school students. Upon measuring three variables of human evolution, students explain what they have observed and discuss findings. In the 2013/14 school year, 11 biology classes in 7 schools in the Greater New Orleans area participated in this lab. The interviewed teacher cohort unanimously agreed that the lab featuring hominin skull replicas and stimulating student inquiry was a pedagogically excellent method of delivering the subject of human evolution. First, the lab's learning path of transforming facts to data, information to knowledge, and knowledge to acceptance empowered students to themselves execute part of the science that underpins our understanding of deep time hominin evolution. Second, although challenging, the hands-on format of the lab was accessible to high-school students, most of whom were readily able to engage the lab's scientific process. Third, the lab's exciting and compelling pedagogy unlocked higher order thinking skills, effectively activating the cognitive, psychomotor and affected learning domains as defined in Bloom's taxonomy. Lastly, the lab afforded students a formative experience with a high degree of retention and epistemic depth. Further study is warranted to gauge the degree of these effects.

  5. Inquiry based Teacher Professional development from a multidisciplinary perspective: The NEOGEO Lake Erie Earth Science Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, J. D.; Munro-Stasiuk, M. J.; Hart, B. I.; Mokaren, D. M.; Arnold, B.; Chermansky, J. V.; Vlack, Y. A.

    2006-12-01

    State and national educational standards stress the need to incorporate inquiry-based approaches into the K- 12 science curriculum. However, many teachers either lack training in these pedagogical techniques or science content mastery. Both of these are needed to confidently approach science teaching in the less structured framework associated with a real world exploration of the natural environment. To overcome these barriers to implementation, we have developed an intensive, field-based professional development workshop which explores the connections between the bedrock geology, glacial geomorphology, ecology, and geography of the Lake Erie Islands and the shore of its western basin. This workshop is part of a series of three workshops that form the professional development activities of our NSF funded Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12) project, the Northeast Ohio Geoscience Education Outreach (NEOGEO) Program which seeks to improve the quality of Earth Science education at the middle and high school levels in Northeast Ohio. During the workshop students explored the ecology and geomorphology of a series of coastal wetlands, collecting instrumental data and field observations to evaluate water quality and the forces that created these surface features. Exceptional exposure of glacial scours and striations at Kelleys Island and along the Marblehead Peninsula allowed the participants to reconstruct evolving ice flow paths to see how recent geological history shaped the landscape. Finally, stratigraphic observations in a local quarry enabled the students to understand why the observed glacial features varied as a function of bedrock type. Response to the workshop was overwhelming positive with participants commenting positively on quality and quantity of the material presented and the manner in which inquiry based teaching was modeled. End of term projects which included the conceptualization of a teaching plan to incorporate the approaches learned

  6. Measure, Then Show: Grasping Human Evolution Through an Inquiry-Based, Data-driven Hominin Skulls Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Chris N; Luberda, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Incomprehension and denial of the theory of evolution among high school students has been observed to also occur when teachers are not equipped to deliver a compelling case also for human evolution based on fossil evidence. This paper assesses the outcomes of a novel inquiry-based paleoanthropology lab teaching human evolution to high-school students. The inquiry-based Be a Paleoanthropologist for a Day lab placed a dozen hominin skulls into the hands of high-school students. Upon measuring three variables of human evolution, students explain what they have observed and discuss findings. In the 2013/14 school year, 11 biology classes in 7 schools in the Greater New Orleans area participated in this lab. The interviewed teacher cohort unanimously agreed that the lab featuring hominin skull replicas and stimulating student inquiry was a pedagogically excellent method of delivering the subject of human evolution. First, the lab's learning path of transforming facts to data, information to knowledge, and knowledge to acceptance empowered students to themselves execute part of the science that underpins our understanding of deep time hominin evolution. Second, although challenging, the hands-on format of the lab was accessible to high-school students, most of whom were readily able to engage the lab's scientific process. Third, the lab's exciting and compelling pedagogy unlocked higher order thinking skills, effectively activating the cognitive, psychomotor and affected learning domains as defined in Bloom's taxonomy. Lastly, the lab afforded students a formative experience with a high degree of retention and epistemic depth. Further study is warranted to gauge the degree of these effects.

  7. Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Göbel, Britta; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Chung, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regul...

  8. Inquiry based learning: a student centered learning to develop mathematical habits of mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, A. D.; Herman, T.; Fatimah, S.; Setyowidodo, I.; Katminingsih, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Inquiry based learning is learning that based on understanding constructivist mathematics learning. Learning based on constructivism is the Student centered learning. In constructivism, students are trained and guided to be able to construct their own knowledge on the basis of the initial knowledge that they have before. This paper explained that inquiry based learning can be used to developing student’s Mathematical habits of mind. There are sixteen criteria Mathematical Habits of mind, among which are diligent, able to manage time well, have metacognition ability, meticulous, etc. This research method is qualitative descriptive. The result of this research is that the instruments that have been developed to measure mathematical habits of mind are validated by the expert. The conclusion is the instrument of mathematical habits of mind are valid and it can be used to measure student’s mathematical habits of mind.

  9. Teaching numerical methods with IPython notebooks and inquiry-based learning

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2014-01-01

    A course in numerical methods should teach both the mathematical theory of numerical analysis and the craft of implementing numerical algorithms. The IPython notebook provides a single medium in which mathematics, explanations, executable code, and visualizations can be combined, and with which the student can interact in order to learn both the theory and the craft of numerical methods. The use of notebooks also lends itself naturally to inquiry-based learning methods. I discuss the motivation and practice of teaching a course based on the use of IPython notebooks and inquiry-based learning, including some specific practical aspects. The discussion is based on my experience teaching a Masters-level course in numerical analysis at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), but is intended to be useful for those who teach at other levels or in industry.

  10. Inquiry-based training improves teaching effectiveness of biology teaching assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P. William; Ellefson, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are used extensively as undergraduate science lab instructors at universities, yet they often have having minimal instructional training and little is known about effective training methods. This blind randomized control trial study assessed the impact of two training regimens on GTA teaching effectiveness. GTAs teaching undergraduate biology labs (n = 52) completed five hours of training in either inquiry-based learning pedagogy or general instructional “best practices”. GTA teaching effectiveness was evaluated using: (1) a nine-factor student evaluation of educational quality; (2) a six-factor questionnaire for student learning; and (3) course grades. Ratings from both GTAs and undergraduates indicated that indicated that the inquiry-based learning pedagogy training has a positive effect on GTA teaching effectiveness. PMID:24147138

  11. Independent Interactive Inquiry-Based Learning Modules Using Audio-Visual Instruction In Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Scott N.; Green, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Simulations can make complex ideas easier for students to visualize and understand. It has been shown that guidance in the use of these simulations enhances students’ learning. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of the Independent Interactive Inquiry-based (I3) Learning Modules, which use existing open-source Java applets, combined with audio-visual instruction. Students are guided to discover and visualize important concepts in post-calculus and algebra-based courses in p...

  12. Gender Differences in Achievement in an Inquiry-Based Learning Precalculus Course

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas E. Cooper; Brad Bailey; Karen S. Briggs

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted a two-semester quasi-experimental study in which each author taught a traditional lecture-based section of precalculus and a section using an inquiry-based approach called a Modified Moore Method in which the students worked through and presented the course material. A common final exam was used to compare student achievement. The results were compared for the overall population and by each instructor. Gender proved to be an important variable with the females performing...

  13. Inquiry-based laboratory investigations and student performance on standardized tests in biological science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patke, Usha

    Achievement data from the 3rd International Mathematics and Sciences Study and Program for International Student Assessment in science have indicated that Black students from economically disadvantaged families underachieve at alarming rates in comparison to White and economically advantaged peer groups. The study site was a predominately Black, urban school district experiencing underachievement. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between students' use of inquiry-based laboratory investigations and their performance on the Biology End of Course Test, as well as to examine the relationship while partialling out the effects of student gender. Constructivist theory formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Students' perceived levels of experience with inquiry-based laboratory investigations were measured using the Laboratory Program Variable Inventory (LPVI) survey. LPVI scores of 256 students were correlated with test scores and were examined by student gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a small direct correlation between students' experience in inquiry-based laboratory investigation classes and standardized test scores on the Biology EOCT. A partial correlational analysis indicated that the correlation remained after controlling for gender. This study may prompt a change from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy at the local site in order to increase academic achievement for all students. The results of this study may also influence administrators and policy makers to initiate local, state, or nationwide curricular development. A change in curriculum may promote social change as students become more competent, and more able, to succeed in life beyond secondary school.

  14. Assessing the Effectiveness of Inquiry-based Learning Techniques Implemented in Large Classroom Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, D. N.; McConnell, D. A.; Owens, K.

    2001-12-01

    Geoscience and education faculty at The University of Akron jointly developed a series of inquiry-based learning modules aimed at both non-major and major student populations enrolled in introductory geology courses. These courses typically serve 2500 students per year in four to six classes of 40-160 students each per section. Twelve modules were developed that contained common topics and assessments appropriate to Earth Science, Environmental Geology and Physical Geology classes. All modules were designed to meet four primary learning objectives agreed upon by Department of Geology faculty. These major objectives include: 1) Improvement of student understanding of the scientific method; 2) Incorporation of problem solving strategies involving analysis, synthesis, and interpretation; 3) Development of the ability to distinguish between inferences, data and observations; and 4) Obtaining an understanding of basic processes that operate on Earth. Additional objectives that may be addressed by selected modules include: 1) The societal relevance of science; 2) Use and interpretation of quantitative data to better understand the Earth; 3) Development of the students' ability to communicate scientific results; 4) Distinguishing differences between science, religion and pseudo-science; 5) Evaluation of scientific information found in the mass media; and 6) Building interpersonal relationships through in-class group work. Student pre- and post-instruction progress was evaluated by administering a test of logical thinking, an attitude toward science survey, and formative evaluations. Scores from the logical thinking instrument were used to form balanced four-person working groups based on the students' incoming cognitive level. Groups were required to complete a series of activities and/or exercises that targeted different cognitive domains based upon Bloom's taxonomy (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation of information). Daily

  15. Implementing inquiry-based kits within a professional development school model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mark Thomas

    2005-07-01

    Implementation of guided inquiry teaching for the first time carries inherent problems for science teachers. Reform efforts on inquiry-based science teaching are often unsustainable and are not sensitive to teachers' needs and abilities as professionals. Professional development schools are meant to provide a research-based partnership between a public school and a university. These collaborations can provide support for the professional development of teachers. This dissertation reports a study focused on the implementation of inquiry-based science kits within the support of one of these collaborations. The researcher describes the difficulties and successful adaptations experienced by science teachers and how a coteaching model provided support. These types of data are needed in order to develop a bottom-up, sustainable process that will allow teachers to implement inquiry-based science. A qualitative methodology with "researcher as participant" was used in this study of two science teachers during 2002--2003. These two teachers were supported by a coteaching model, which included preservice teachers for each teacher as well as a supervising professor. Data were collected from the researcher's direct observations of coteachers' practice. Data were also collected from interviews and reflective pieces from the coteachers. Triangulation of the data on each teacher's case supported the validity of the findings. Case reports were prepared from these data for each classroom teacher. These case reports were used and cross-case analysis was conducted to search for major themes and findings in the study. Major findings described the hurdles teachers encounter, examples of adaptations observed in the teachers' cases and the supportive interactions with their coteachers while implementing the inquiry-based kits. In addition, the data were used to make recommendations for future training and use of the kits and the coteaching model. Results from this study showed that the

  16. Kindergarten Teachers' Understanding of the Elements of Implementing Inquiry-Based Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Kathryn

    The purpose of this basic qualitative research study was to identify the extent to which kindergarten teachers understand and implement inquiry-based instruction in their science classrooms. This study was conducted in response to the indication that traditional didactic teaching methods were not enough to adequately prepare American students to compete in the global economy. Inquiry is a teaching method that could prepare students for the critical thinking skills needed to enter society in the 21st century. It is vital that teachers be sufficiently trained in teaching using the necessary components of inquiry-based instruction. This study could be used to inform leaders in educational administration of the gaps in teachers' understanding as it pertains to inquiry, thus allowing for the delivery of professional development that will address teachers' needs. Existing literature on inquiry-based instruction provides minimal information on kindergarten teachers' understanding and usage of inquiry to teach science content, and this information would be necessary to inform administrators in their response to supporting teachers in the implementation of inquiry. The primary research question for this study was "To what extent do kindergarten teachers understand the elements of implementing inquiry-based lessons in science instruction?" The 10 participants in this study were all kindergarten teachers in a midsized school district in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Data were collected using face-to-face semistructured interviews, observations of the teachers implementing what they perceived to be inquiry-based instruction, and the analysis of lesson plans to indicate the components used to plan for inquiry-instruction. The findings of this study indicated that while teachers believed inquiry to be a beneficial method for teaching science, they did not understand the components of inquiry and tended to implement lesson plans created at the district level. By

  17. Teaching neuroscience to science teachers: facilitating the translation of inquiry-based teaching instruction to the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, G H; Michlin, M; Schmitt, L; MacNabb, C; Dubinsky, J M

    2012-01-01

    In science education, inquiry-based approaches to teaching and learning provide a framework for students to building critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Teacher professional development has been an ongoing focus for promoting such educational reforms. However, despite a strong consensus regarding best practices for professional development, relatively little systematic research has documented classroom changes consequent to these experiences. This paper reports on the impact of sustained, multiyear professional development in a program that combined neuroscience content and knowledge of the neurobiology of learning with inquiry-based pedagogy on teachers' inquiry-based practices. Classroom observations demonstrated the value of multiyear professional development in solidifying adoption of inquiry-based practices and cultivating progressive yearly growth in the cognitive environment of impacted classrooms.

  18. Development of inquiry-based planetary science resources for Canadian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Gilbert, A.; Brown, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Centre for Planetary Science and Exploration (CPSX - http://cpsx.uwo.ca) at The University of Western Ontario has initiated a comprehensive outreach and education program focusing on planetary science and exploration. The goal is to use planetary science to raise general interest in science. Currently, the activities being preformed by the centre can be divided into three broad categories: (1) educational/curriculum based activities, (2) outreach/community based activities, and (3) training. The first is where the push for an increase in interest for science is really critical and is the focus here. In partnership with the Thames Valley District School Board and by using inquiry-based teaching methods, students study various topics under the guidance of a CPSX graduate students and faculty. The educational activities that have taken place are all based on the Ontario curriculum and have been developed with the support of the local school board and teachers. An annual teacher workshop provides a hands-on opportunity for the teachers to interact with CPSX members. The first activity to be developed was on meteorite impact craters. The CPSX web page also contains the lesson plans and activity work sheets for this Cratering Activity, as well as additional activities. As the Cratering Activity is available online, teachers can perform the experiment independently or request the support from a CPSX outreach member. The activity is designed with the following structure: (1) The teacher gives a background presentation (provided by CPSX) which describes crater processes throughout our solar system (specifically comparing Earth to other planets), the consequences of impacts on Earth, the origins of impactors (small bodies) in our solar system, and the mechanical process of an impact. (2) The teacher demonstrates an impact event. Students are to make observations in their lab handout, and sketch what they see. (3) Students (either individually or as a group, based on

  19. Motor activation in SPG4-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, KH; Nielsen, JE; Krabbe, Katja

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of motor cortical functional reorganisation in patients with SPG4-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia by exploring cortical motor activation related to movements of clinically affected (lower) and unaffected (upper) limbs. METHODS: T...

  20. Effects of an Inquiry-Based Short Intervention on State Test Anxiety in Comparison to Alternative Coping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Krispenz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Test anxiety can have undesirable consequences for learning and academic achievement. The control-value theory of achievement emotions assumes that test anxiety is experienced if a student appraises an achievement situation as important (value appraisal, but feels that the situation and its outcome are not fully under his or her control (control appraisal. Accordingly, modification of cognitive appraisals is assumed to reduce test anxiety. One method aiming at the modification of appraisals is inquiry-based stress reduction. In the present study (N = 162, we assessed the effects of an inquiry-based short intervention on test anxiety.Design: Short-term longitudinal, randomized control trial.Methods: Focusing on an individual worry thought, 53 university students received an inquiry-based short intervention. Control participants reflected on their worry thought (n = 55 or were distracted (n = 52. Thought related test anxiety was assessed before, immediately after, and 2 days after the experimental treatment.Results: After the intervention as well as 2 days later, individuals who had received the inquiry-based intervention demonstrated significantly lower test anxiety than participants from the pooled control groups. Further analyses showed that the inquiry-based short intervention was more effective than reflecting on a worry thought but had no advantage over distraction.Conclusions: Our findings provide first experimental evidence for the effectiveness of an inquiry-based short intervention in reducing students’ test anxiety.

  1. Engaging Non-Science Majors Through Citizen Science Projects In Inquiry-Based Introductory Geoscience Laboratory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, R. R.; Hall, C.; Colgan, M. W.; Rhodes, E.

    2010-12-01

    Although inquiry-based/problem-based methods have been successfully incorporated in undergraduate lecture classes, a survey of commonly used laboratory manuals indicates that few non-major geoscience laboratory classes use these strategies. The Department of Geology and Environmental Geosciences faculty members have developed a successful introductory Environmental Geology Laboratory course for undergraduate non-majors that challenges traditional teaching methodology as illustrated in most laboratory manuals. The Environmental Geology lab activities employ active learning methods to engage and challenge students. Crucial to establishing an open learning environment is capturing the attention of non-science majors from the moment they enter the classroom. We use catastrophic ‘gloom and doom’ current events to pique the imagination with images, news stories, and videos. Once our students are hooked, we can further the learning process with use of other teaching methods: an inquiry-based approach that requires students take control of their own learning, a cooperative learning approach that requires the participation of all team members in peer learning, and a problem/case study learning approach that primarily relies on activities distilled from current events. The final outcome is focused on creating innovative methods to communicate the findings to the general public. With the general public being the audience for their communiqué, students are less intimated, more focused, and more involved in solving the problem. During lab sessions, teams of students actively engage in mastering course content and develop essential communication skills while exploring real-world scenarios. These activities allow students to use scientific reasoning and concepts to develop solutions for scenarios such as volcanic eruptions, coastal erosion/sea level rise, flooding or landslide hazards, and then creatively communicate their solutions to the public. For example, during a two

  2. From traditional lab protocols to a Guided Inquiry Based approach: an experience for Biotechnology students at the European University of Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío González Soltero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Current conventional laboratory sessions for science undergraduate students are currently reported to fail in developing research competences. However, authentic research experiences, in and out of the laboratory, are becoming more common in introductory undergraduate science programs after the implantation of The Bologna Process. Project-based learning (PBL experiences based on inquiry-based protocols could be used to help students to identify and analyze the information they need to move into complex problems. Inquiry-based courses have been described in the past, where students participate in semester-long guided research projects focused in specific learning objectives (Hatfull et al. 2006; Call et al., 2007; Lopatto et al., 2008. During this last academic year we have designed a PBL model that provides an active learning laboratory experience based on an inquiry-based protocol for 2nd year Biotechnology students. We have designed a modular molecular genetics course that includes bioinformatics and molecular biology lab sessions. In both modules, students had the opportunity to conduct in collaborative groups different research projects about a central theme in molecular biology: the cell cycle. As they were responsible of their own projects, they becoming practicing scientists by proposing and evaluating biological experiments of their own design mentored by teacher facilitation. Final assessments included a thorough literature review about the central topic of the project and a final written paper resembling established publishing criteria for science research international journals. Students were also encouraged to contact well-known scientists in their research area by email during their bibliography search. From the satisfaction surveys, we conclude that results were positive in terms of student satisfaction (as measured in questionnaires and written reflections. This experience helped students understand the strengths, limitations and

  3. Sustaining inquiry-based teaching methods in the middle school science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Amy Fowler

    This dissertation used a combination of case study and phenomenological research methods to investigate how individual teachers of middle school science in the Alabama Math, Science, and Technology Initiative (AMSTI) program sustain their use of inquiry-based methods of teaching and learning. While the overall context for the cases was the AMSTI program, each of the four teacher participants in this study had a unique, individual context as well. The researcher collected data through a series of interviews, multiple-day observations, and curricular materials. The interview data was analyzed to develop a textural, structural, and composite description of the phenomenon. The Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) was used along with the Assesing Inquiry Potential (AIP) questionnaire to determine the level of inquiry-based instruction occuring in the participants classrooms. Analysis of the RTOP data and AIP data indicated all of the participants utilized inquiry-based methods in their classrooms during their observed lessons. The AIP data also indicated the level of inquiry in the AMSTI curricular materials utilized by the participants during the observations was structured inquiry. The findings from the interview data suggested the ability of the participants to sustain their use of structured inquiry was influenced by their experiences with, beliefs about, and understandings of inquiry. This study contributed to the literature by supporting existing studies regarding the influence of teachers' experiences, beliefs, and understandings of inquiry on their classroom practices. The inquiry approach stressed in current reforms in science education targets content knowledge, skills, and processes needed in a future scientifically literate citizenry.

  4. Development of Guided Inquiry-Based Student Lab Worksheet on the Making of Pineapple Flavoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyanti, G.; Suryatna, A.; Taibah, I.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research was to develop guided inquiry based student lab worksheet on making pineapple flavour and knowing the quality of worksheet that is being developed. Research methods that is being conducted is research and development that is limited by a preliminary studies (literature studies, field surveys, and preparation of the initial product) and development of the model (within limited testing). The results from analyze the books sources and fields survey showed that the characteristic of esterification lab worksheet that currently available still in the direct instruction form (cookbook). The optimization result of making pineapple flavour experiment that was conducted are the ethanol volume 3 mL, butyric acid volume 2 mL, sulfuric acid 5 drops, saturated NaHCO3 solution volume 9 mL, and temperature of heating was 80 °C. The characteristic of guided inquiry based student lab worksheet that was developed contained phenomenon and instructions that suitable with inquiry stages to guide the students in doing the experiment of making pineapple flavour. The evaluation of designated teachers and lecturers of the developed student worksheet were very good (96,08%). Lab-experiment feasibility achieved by using guided inquiry based student lab worksheets that is being developed based on the inquiry stages that conducted by student were found very good (97,50%) and accomplishment based on students’ answer of the tasks in the worksheet were found very good (83,84%). Students’ responses of the experiments using the developed worksheet are found very good (81,84%).

  5. Effectiveness of inquiry-based learning in an undergraduate exercise physiology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybo, Lars; May, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of changing a laboratory physiology course for undergraduate students from a traditional step-by-step guided structure to an inquiry-based approach. With this aim in mind, quantitative and qualitative evaluations of learning outcomes (individual subject-specific tests and group interviews) were performed for a laboratory course in cardiorespiratory exercise physiology that was conducted in one year with a traditional step-by-step guided manual (traditional course) and the next year completed with an inquiry-based structure (I-based course). The I-based course was a guided inquiry course where students had to design the experimental protocol and conduct their own study on the basis of certain predefined criteria (i.e., they should evaluate respiratory responses to submaximal and maximal exercise and provide indirect and direct measures of aerobic exercise capacity). The results indicated that the overall time spent on the experimental course as well as self-evaluated learning outcomes were similar across groups. However, students in the I-based course used more time in preparation (102 ± 5 min) than students in the traditional course (42 ± 3 min, P traditional course. Furthermore, students in the I-based course achieved a higher (P traditional course (31 ± 4%). Although students were unfamiliar with cardiorespiratory exercise physiology and the experimental methods before the course, it appears that an inquiry-based approach rather than one that provides students with step-by-step instructions may benefit learning outcomes in a laboratory physiology course. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  6. Open inquiry-based learning experiences: a case study in the context of energy exchange by thermal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PERG (University of Palermo, Physics Education Research Group) Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Palermo (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (UOPPERG (University of Palermo, Physics Education Research Group) Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Palermo (Italy))" >Pizzolato, Nicola; PERG (University of Palermo, Physics Education Research Group) Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Palermo (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (UOPPERG (University of Palermo, Physics Education Research Group) Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Palermo (Italy))" >Fazio, Claudio; PERG (University of Palermo, Physics Education Research Group) Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Palermo (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (UOPPERG (University of Palermo, Physics Education Research Group) Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Palermo (Italy))" >Battaglia, Onofrio Rosario

    2014-01-01

    An open inquiry (OI)-based teaching/learning experience, regarding a scientific investigation of the process of energy exchange by thermal radiation, is presented. A sample of upper secondary school physics teachers carried out this experience at the University of Palermo, Italy, in the framework of ESTABLISH, a FP7 European Project aimed at promoting and developing inquiry-based science education. The teachers had the opportunity to personally experience an OI-based learning activity, with the aim of exploring the pedagogical potentialities of this teaching approach to promote both the understanding of difficult concepts and a deeper view of scientific practices. The teachers were firstly engaged in discussions concerning real-life problematic situations, and then stimulated to design and carry out their own laboratory activities, aimed at investigating the process of energy exchange by thermal radiation. A scientific study on the energy exchange between a powered resistor and its surrounding environment, during the heating and cooling processes, was designed and performed. Here we report the phases of this experiment by following the teachers' perspective. A structured interview conducted both before and after the OI experience allowed us to analyze and point out the teachers' feedback from a pedagogical point of view. The advantages and limits of an OI-based approach to promote the development of more student-centred inquiry-oriented teaching strategies are finally discussed. (paper)

  7. Making sense of shared sense-making in an inquiry-based science classroom: Toward a sociocultural theory of mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladewski, Barbara G.

    Despite considerable exploration of inquiry and reflection in the literatures of science education and teacher education/teacher professional development over the past century, few theoretical or analytical tools exist to characterize these processes within a naturalistic classroom context. In addition, little is known regarding possible developmental trajectories for inquiry or reflection---for teachers or students---as these processes develop within a classroom context over time. In the dissertation, I use a sociocultural lens to explore these issues with an eye to the ways in which teachers and students develop shared sense-making, rather than from the more traditional perspective of individual teacher activity or student learning. The study includes both theoretical and empirical components. Theoretically, I explore the elaborations of sociocultural theory needed to characterize teacher-student shared sense-making as it develops within a classroom context, and, in particular, the role of inquiry and reflection in that sense-making. I develop a sociocultural model of shared sense-making that attempts to represent the dialectic between the individual and the social, through an elaboration of existing sociocultural and psychological constructs, including Vygotsky's zone of proximal development and theory of mind. Using this model as an interpretive framework, I develop a case study that explores teacher-student shared sense-making within a middle-school science classroom across a year of scaffolded introduction to inquiry-based science instruction. The empirical study serves not only as a test case for the theoretical model, but also informs our understanding regarding possible developmental trajectories and important mechanisms supporting and constraining shared sense-making within inquiry-based science classrooms. Theoretical and empirical findings provide support for the idea that perspectival shifts---that is, shifts of point-of-view that alter relationships

  8. The experiment editor: supporting inquiry-based learning with virtual labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, D.; Heradio, R.; de la Torre, L.; Dormido, S.; Esquembre, F.

    2017-05-01

    Inquiry-based learning is a pedagogical approach where students are motivated to pose their own questions when facing problems or scenarios. In physics learning, students are turned into scientists who carry out experiments, collect and analyze data, formulate and evaluate hypotheses, and so on. Lab experimentation is essential for inquiry-based learning, yet there is a drawback with traditional hands-on labs in the high costs associated with equipment, space, and maintenance staff. Virtual laboratories are helpful to reduce these costs. This paper enriches the virtual lab ecosystem by providing an integrated environment to automate experimentation tasks. In particular, our environment supports: (i) scripting and running experiments on virtual labs, and (ii) collecting and analyzing data from the experiments. The current implementation of our environment supports virtual labs created with the authoring tool Easy Java/Javascript Simulations. Since there are public repositories with hundreds of freely available labs created with this tool, the potential applicability to our environment is considerable.

  9. Do science coaches promote inquiry-based instruction in the elementary science classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Rosemary Knight

    The South Carolina Mathematics and Science Coaching Initiative established a school-based science coaching model that was effective in improving instruction by increasing the level of inquiry-based instruction in elementary science classrooms. Classroom learning environment data from both teacher groups indicated considerable differences in the quality of inquiry instruction for those classrooms of teachers supported by a science coach. All essential features of inquiry were demonstrated more frequently and at a higher level of open-ended inquiry in classrooms with the support of a science coach than were demonstrated in classrooms without a science coach. However, from teacher observations and interviews, it was determined that elementary schoolteacher practice of having students evaluate conclusions and connect them to current scientific knowledge was often neglected. Teachers with support of a science coach reported changes in inquiry-based instruction that were statistically significant. This mixed ethnographic study also suggested that the Mathematics and Science Coaching Initiative Theory of Action for Instructional Improvement was an effective model when examining the work of science coaches. All components of effective school infrastructure were positively impacted by a variety of science coaching strategies intended to promote inquiry. Professional development for competent teachers, implementation of researched-based curriculum, and instructional materials support were areas highly impacted by the work of science coaches.

  10. Implementing and Assessing Inquiry-Based Learning through the CAREER Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudzinski, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    In order to fully attain the benefits of inquiry-based learning, instructors who typically employ the traditional lecture format need to make many adjustments to their approach. This change in styles can be intimidating and logistically difficult to overcome, both for instructors and students, such that a stepwise approach to this transformation is likely to be more manageable. In this session, I will describe a series of tools to promote inquiry-based learning that I am helping to implement and assess in classroom courses and student research projects. I will demonstrate the importance of integrating with existing institutional initiatives as well as recognizing how student development plays a key role in student engagement. Some of the features I will highlight include: defining both student learning outcomes and student development outcomes, converting content training to be self-directed and asynchronous, utilizing conceptests to help students practice thinking like scientists, and employing both objective pre/post assessment and student self-reflective assessment. Lastly, I will reflect on how the well-defined goal of teaching and research integration in the CAREER award solicitation resonated with me even as an undergraduate and helped inspire my early career.

  11. Active link selection for efficient semi-supervised community detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Jin, Di; Wang, Xiao; Cao, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    Several semi-supervised community detection algorithms have been proposed recently to improve the performance of traditional topology-based methods. However, most of them focus on how to integrate supervised information with topology information; few of them pay attention to which information is critical for performance improvement. This leads to large amounts of demand for supervised information, which is expensive or difficult to obtain in most fields. For this problem we propose an active link selection framework, that is we actively select the most uncertain and informative links for human labeling for the efficient utilization of the supervised information. We also disconnect the most likely inter-community edges to further improve the efficiency. Our main idea is that, by connecting uncertain nodes to their community hubs and disconnecting the inter-community edges, one can sharpen the block structure of adjacency matrix more efficiently than randomly labeling links as the existing methods did. Experiments on both synthetic and real networks demonstrate that our new approach significantly outperforms the existing methods in terms of the efficiency of using supervised information. It needs ~13% of the supervised information to achieve a performance similar to that of the original semi-supervised approaches. PMID:25761385

  12. Linking structure and activity in nonlinear spiking networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Koch Ocker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental advances are producing an avalanche of data on both neural connectivity and neural activity. To take full advantage of these two emerging datasets we need a framework that links them, revealing how collective neural activity arises from the structure of neural connectivity and intrinsic neural dynamics. This problem of structure-driven activity has drawn major interest in computational neuroscience. Existing methods for relating activity and architecture in spiking networks rely on linearizing activity around a central operating point and thus fail to capture the nonlinear responses of individual neurons that are the hallmark of neural information processing. Here, we overcome this limitation and present a new relationship between connectivity and activity in networks of nonlinear spiking neurons by developing a diagrammatic fluctuation expansion based on statistical field theory. We explicitly show how recurrent network structure produces pairwise and higher-order correlated activity, and how nonlinearities impact the networks' spiking activity. Our findings open new avenues to investigating how single-neuron nonlinearities-including those of different cell types-combine with connectivity to shape population activity and function.

  13. Linking structure and activity in nonlinear spiking networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocker, Gabriel Koch; Josić, Krešimir; Shea-Brown, Eric; Buice, Michael A

    2017-06-01

    Recent experimental advances are producing an avalanche of data on both neural connectivity and neural activity. To take full advantage of these two emerging datasets we need a framework that links them, revealing how collective neural activity arises from the structure of neural connectivity and intrinsic neural dynamics. This problem of structure-driven activity has drawn major interest in computational neuroscience. Existing methods for relating activity and architecture in spiking networks rely on linearizing activity around a central operating point and thus fail to capture the nonlinear responses of individual neurons that are the hallmark of neural information processing. Here, we overcome this limitation and present a new relationship between connectivity and activity in networks of nonlinear spiking neurons by developing a diagrammatic fluctuation expansion based on statistical field theory. We explicitly show how recurrent network structure produces pairwise and higher-order correlated activity, and how nonlinearities impact the networks' spiking activity. Our findings open new avenues to investigating how single-neuron nonlinearities-including those of different cell types-combine with connectivity to shape population activity and function.

  14. Examining the Link Between Public Transit Use and Active Commuting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bopp

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An established relationship exists between public transportation (PT use and physical activity. However, there is limited literature that examines the link between PT use and active commuting (AC behavior. This study examines this link to determine if PT users commute more by active modes. Methods: A volunteer, convenience sample of adults (n = 748 completed an online survey about AC/PT patterns, demographic, psychosocial, community and environmental factors. t-test compared differences between PT riders and non-PT riders. Binary logistic regression analyses examined the effect of multiple factors on AC and a full logistic regression model was conducted to examine AC. Results: Non-PT riders (n = 596 reported less AC than PT riders. There were several significant relationships with AC for demographic, interpersonal, worksite, community and environmental factors when considering PT use. The logistic multivariate analysis for included age, number of children and perceived distance to work as negative predictors and PT use, feelings of bad weather and lack of on-street bike lanes as a barrier to AC, perceived behavioral control and spouse AC were positive predictors. Conclusions: This study revealed the complex relationship between AC and PT use. Further research should investigate how AC and public transit use are related.

  15. Investigation of Inquiry-based Science Pedagogy among Middle Level Science Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Sunny Minelli

    This study implemented a qualitative approach to examine the phenomenon of "inquiry-based science pedagogy or inquiry instruction" as it has been experienced by individuals. Data was collected through online open-ended surveys, focus groups, and teacher reported self-reflections to answer the research questions: 1) How do middle level science teachers conceptualize "inquiry-based instruction?" 2) What are preferred instructional strategies for implementation in middle level science classrooms? And 3) How do middle level science teachers perceive the connection between science instruction and student learning? The participants within this research study represent 33 percent of teachers in grades 5 through 9 within six school districts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Of the 12 consent forms originally obtained, 10 teachers completed all three phases of the data collection, including the online survey, participation in focus groups, and teacher self-reflection. 60 percent of the participants taught only science, and 40 percent taught all content areas. Of the ten participants, 50 percent were certified teachers of science and 50 percent were certified as teachers of elementary education. 70 percent of the research participants reflected having obtained a master's, with 60 percent of these degrees being received in areas of education, and 10 percent in the area of science. The research participants have a total of 85 collective years of experience as professional educators, with the average years of experience being 8.5 years. Analysis of data revealed three themes related to research question #1) How do middle-level science teachers conceptualize inquiry-based instruction? and sub-question #1) How do middle-level science teachers characterize effective instruction? The themes that capture the essence of teachers' formulation of inquiry-based instruction that emerged in this study were student centered, problem solving, and hands-on . Analysis of data revealed one theme

  16. Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Britta; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Chung, Matthias

    2013-08-29

    Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regulatory elements of the human brain in the whole body energy homeostasis. First, we introduce a general mathematical model describing the human whole body energy metabolism. It takes into account the two central roles of the brain in terms of energy metabolism. The brain is considered as energy consumer as well as regulatory instance. Secondly, we validate our mathematical model by experimental data. Cerebral high-energy phosphate content and peripheral glucose metabolism are measured in healthy men upon neuronal activation induced by transcranial direct current stimulation versus sham stimulation. By parameter estimation we identify model parameters that provide insight into underlying neurophysiological processes. Identified parameters reveal effects of neuronal activity on regulatory mechanisms of systemic glucose metabolism. Our examinations support the view that the brain increases its glucose supply upon neuronal activation. The results indicate that the brain supplies itself with energy according to its needs, and preeminence of cerebral energy supply is reflected. This mechanism ensures balanced cerebral energy homeostasis. The hypothesis of the central role of the brain in whole body energy homeostasis as active controller is supported.

  17. Tools to investigate how interprofessional education activities link to competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Courtney; Veronin, Michael; Landry, Karen; Kurz, Terri; Watzak, Bree; Quiram, Barbara; Graham, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Integrating interprofessional education (IPE) activities and curricular components in health professions education has been emphasized recently by the inclusion of accreditation standards across disciplines. The Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) established IPE competencies in 2009, but evaluating how activities link to competencies has not been investigated in depth. The purpose of this project is to investigate how well two IPE activities align with IPEC competencies. To evaluate how our IPE activities met IPEC competencies, we developed a checklist and an observation instrument. A brief description of each is included as well as the outcomes. We analyzed Disaster Day, a simulation exercise that includes participants from Nursing, Medicine, and Pharmacy, and Interprofessional Healthcare Ethics (IPHCE), a course that introduced medical, nursing, and pharmacy students to ethical issues using didactic sessions and case discussions. While both activities appeared to facilitate the development of IPE competencies, Disaster Day aligned more with IPEC competencies than the IPHCE course and appears to be a more comprehensive way of addressing IPEC competencies. However, offering one IPE activity or curricular element is not sufficient. Having several IPE options available, utilizing the tools we developed to map the IPE curriculum and evaluating competency coverage is recommended.

  18. Tools to investigate how interprofessional education activities link to competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney West

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrating interprofessional education (IPE activities and curricular components in health professions education has been emphasized recently by the inclusion of accreditation standards across disciplines. The Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC established IPE competencies in 2009, but evaluating how activities link to competencies has not been investigated in depth. The purpose of this project is to investigate how well two IPE activities align with IPEC competencies. To evaluate how our IPE activities met IPEC competencies, we developed a checklist and an observation instrument. A brief description of each is included as well as the outcomes. We analyzed Disaster Day, a simulation exercise that includes participants from Nursing, Medicine, and Pharmacy, and Interprofessional Healthcare Ethics (IPHCE, a course that introduced medical, nursing, and pharmacy students to ethical issues using didactic sessions and case discussions. While both activities appeared to facilitate the development of IPE competencies, Disaster Day aligned more with IPEC competencies than the IPHCE course and appears to be a more comprehensive way of addressing IPEC competencies. However, offering one IPE activity or curricular element is not sufficient. Having several IPE options available, utilizing the tools we developed to map the IPE curriculum and evaluating competency coverage is recommended.

  19. Cellular Links between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Pavan K; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function). Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (i.e., development and aging) and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation) which leads initially to substrate depletion, induction of a variety of signals for enhanced astrocytic function, and increased local blood flow and substrate delivery. Energy generation (particularly in mitochondria) and use during ATP hydrolysis also lead to considerable heat generation. The local increases in blood flow noted following neuronal activation can both enhance local substrate delivery but also provides a heat sink to help cool the brain and removal of waste by-products. In this review we highlight the interactions between short-term neuronal activity and energy metabolism with an emphasis on signals and factors regulating astrocyte function and substrate supply.

  20. Cellular Links Between Neuronal Activity and Energy Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan K Shetty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal activity, astrocytic responses to this activity, and energy homeostasis are linked together during baseline, conscious conditions, and short-term rapid activation (as occurs with sensory or motor function. Nervous system energy homeostasis also varies during long-term physiological conditions (ie, development and aging and with adaptation to pathological conditions, such as ischemia or low glucose. Neuronal activation requires increased metabolism (i.e., ATP generation which leads initially to substrate depletion, induction of a variety of signals for enhanced astrocytic function, and increased local blood flow and substrate delivery. Energy generation (particularly in mitochondria and use during ATP hydrolysis also lead to considerable heat generation. The local increases in blood flow noted following neuronal activation can both enhance local substrate delivery but also provides a heat sink to help cool the brain and removal of waste byproducts. In this review we highlight the interactions between short-term neuronal activity and energy metabolism with an emphasis on signals and factors regulating astrocyte function and substrate supply.

  1. Adapting a successful inquiry-based immersion program to create an Authentic, Hands- on, Field based Curriculum in Environmental Science at Barnard College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, T. C.; Pfirman, S.; Mailloux, B. J.; Martin, S.; Kelsey, R.; Bower, P.

    2008-12-01

    Adapting a successful inquiry-based immersion program to create an Authentic, Hands-on, Field based Curriculum in Environmental Science at Barnard College T. C. Kenna, S. Pfirman, B. J. Mailloux, M. Stute, R. Kelsey, and P. Bower By adapting a successful inquiry-based immersion program (SEA semester) to the typical college format of classes, we are improving the technical and quantitative skills of undergraduate women and minorities in environmental science and improving their critical thinking and problem-solving by exposing our students to open-ended real-world environmental issues. Our approach uses the Hudson River Estuary as a natural laboratory. In a series of hands-on inquiry-based activities, students use advanced equipment to collect data and samples. Each class session introduces new analytical and data analysis techniques. All classes have the connecting theme of the river. Working with real data is open-ended. Our major findings as indicated by surveys as well as journaling throughout the semester are that the field- based experience significantly contributed to student learning and engagement. Journaling responses indicated that nearly all students discussed the importance and excitement of an authentic research experience. Some students were frustrated with data irregularities, uncertainty in methods and data, and the general challenge of a curriculum with inherent ambiguity. The majority were satisfied with the aims of the course to provide an integrative experience. All students demonstrated transfer of learned skills. This project has had a significant impact on our undergraduate female students: several students have pursued senior thesis projects stemming from grant activities, stating that the field activities were the highlight of their semester. Some students love the experience and want more. Others decide that they want to pursue a different career. All learn how science is conducted and have a better foundation to understand concepts such

  2. Linking Environmental Orientation to Start-ups’ Networking Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickel, Petra; Ritter, Thomas

    Besides for-profit start-ups, an increasing number of firms start their existence with the purpose to “do good” for society – mirrored in an increasing academic discussion of sustainable firms. Yet, there is little research on the networking activities of start-ups that do not have profit...... generation as their primary focus. Addressing this research gap, we develop hypotheses on the different networking activities of environmentally oriented start-ups arguing that their societal focus has a positive impact on the frequency of their networking and the size of their network. For empirically...... investigating such networking differences, we use data from 179 technology-based start-ups and show that start-ups with a strong external environmental orientation have significantly higher networking frequency and build larger networks. On the contrary, strong internal environmental orientation is linked...

  3. hysical Activity and Snus: Is There a Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Henninger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing the link between physical activity (PA, sports activity and snus use among young men in Switzerland. Data from the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF were used to measure PA with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and sports activity with a single item. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to measure the association between snus use, PA and sports activity. Similar models were run for smoking and snuff use. Snus use increased in a dose-response association with PA (high level: OR = 1.72; 95% CI 1.16–2.55 and with individuals exercising once a week or more often (OR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.26–2.16; p < 0.001 or almost every day (OR = 2.27; 95% CI 1.72–3.01; p < 0.001 in separate models. Entered simultaneously, only sports and exercise maintained a basically unchanged significant dose-response relationship, whereas PA became non-significant. A non-significant dose-response relation was found for cigarette smoking and snuff use, indicating that the association with sport is specific to snus and not to tobacco use in general or smokeless tobacco in particular. This study showed that the association between snus use and sports is not specific to Nordic countries.

  4. Effectiveness of inquiry-based learning in an undergraduate exercise physiology course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; May, Michael

    2015-01-01

    (individual subject-specific tests and group interviews) were performed for a laboratory course in cardiorespiratory exercise physiology that was conducted in one year with a traditional step-by-step guided manual (traditional course) and the next year completed with an inquiry-based structure (I-based course......). The I-based course was a guided inquiry course where students had to design the experimental protocol and conduct their own study on the basis of certain predefined criteria (i.e., they should evaluate respiratory responses to submaximal and maximal exercise and provide indirect and direct measures...... of aerobic exercise capacity). The results indicated that the overall time spent on the experimental course as well as self-evaluated learning outcomes were similar across groups. However, students in the I-based course used more time in preparation (102 ± 5 min) than students in the traditional course (42...

  5. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program: Green Earth Enhanced with Inquiry and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanna

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a guided inquiry integrated with technology, in terms of female middle-school students' attitudes toward science/scientists and content knowledge regarding selective science concepts (e.g., Greenhouse Effect, Air/Water Quality, Alternative Energy, and Human Health). Thirty-five female students who were entering eighth grade attended an intensive, 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program which used a main theme, "Green Earth Enhanced with Inquiry and Technology." We used pre- and post-attitude surveys, pre- and post-science content knowledge tests, and selective interviews to collect data and measure changes in students' attitudes and content knowledge. The study results indicated that at the post-intervention measures, participants significantly improved their attitudes toward science and science-related careers and increased their content knowledge of selected science concepts ( p < .05).

  6. The impact of inquiry-based instructional professional development upon instructional practice: An action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Frances A.

    This mixed method case study employs action research, conducted over a three month period with 11 elementary math and science practitioners. Inquiry as an instructional practice is a vital component of math and science instruction and STEM teaching. Teachers examined their beliefs and teaching practices with regard to those instructional factors that influence inquiry instruction. Video-taped lessons were compared to a rubric and pre and post questionnaires along with two interviews which informed the study. The results showed that while most beliefs were maintained, teachers implemented inquiry at a more advanced level after examining their teaching and reflecting on ways to increase inquiry practices. Because instructional practices provide only one component of inquiry-based instruction, other components need to be examined in a future study.

  7. An Open Educational Resource Supports a Diversity of Inquiry-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Anne Schmidt-Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous calls for research that demonstrates how open education resources (OERs are actually being used. This case study sought to shed light on the users of a well-visited set of modular music-education materials published at Connexions. Respondents to a voluntary survey included teachers, students, self-directed learners, music ensemble participants, and casual learners. Most reported accessing individual modules on their own initiative, as part of a specific, immediate inquiry, rather than responding to institutional directives or following entire online courses. This was supported by computer-log records, which showed that most visitors to a module arrived from an Internet search for terms specific to that module. The study suggests that, for teachers and students as well as self-directed learners, one function of OERs is as a resource for just-in-time, inquiry-based learning.

  8. Inquiry Based Science Education og den sociokulturelt forankrede dialog i naturfagsundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    2012-01-01

    Through study, investigation and discussion of the concept Best Practice in science education (Ellebæk & Østergaard, 2009) it was shown, that the dialogue in the teaching sequences was an important factor for the children’s understanding, engagement and interest for the science subjects......). The method is central in the action research project NatSats, where focus is on chidren’s hypothesizing and the way teacher’s use dialogue in their teaching or guiding of children in kindergarten and primary school. Results from the project indicate that an open and interrogative dialogue based...... and phenomena. In this article we will discuss dialogue in the light of sociocultural learning theories, and relate it to Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE), as the pedagogical and didactical method, which are promoted most strongly these years (e.g. in the inter-European Pollen and Fibonacci projects...

  9. Engagerande samtal i det naturvetenskapliga klassrummetInquiry based dialouge in science classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild Löfgren

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on classroom communication within an inquiry-based science education (IBSE program, called NTA (Naturvetenskap och Teknik för Alla. The overall aim of the study is to highlight the ways in which productive and engaging conversations are conducted in the classroom. We have analysed the work within the unit ”The Chemistry of food” and the theme testing of fat in food in grade five and six in a Swedish and a Danish science classroom. We have used video cameras and mp3-players to follow the classroom interaction. Our findings indicate that the classroom communication was focused on everyday science content and that the introduction and the summary of the theme were very important for the pupils’ possibilities to productive disciplinary engagement.

  10. Laboratory projects using inquiry-based learning: an application to a practical inorganic course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Carriazo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports how laboratory projects (LP coupled to inquiry-based learning (IBL were implemented in a practical inorganic chemistry course. Several coordination compounds have been successfully synthesised by students according to the proposed topics by the LP-IBL junction, and the chemistry of a number of metals has been studied. Qualitative data were collected from written reports, oral presentations, lab-notebook reviews and personal discussions with the students through an experimental course with undergraduate second-year students at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia during the last 5 years. Positive skills production was observed by combining LP and IBL. Conceptual, practical, interpretational, constructional (questions, explanations, hypotheses, communicational, environmental and application abilities were revealed by the students throughout the experimental course.

  11. The Influence of Inquiry-Based Teaching on Male and Female Students' Motivation and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yen-Ruey; Tuan, Hsiao-Lin; Chin, Chi-Chin

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of inquiry-based instruction on eighth-grade male and female students' motivation and engagement in science learning in two public junior high schools in central Taiwan. Mixed-methods methodology was adopted with 60 students (32 males and 28 females) in the experimental group and 56 students (28 males and 28 females) in the control group. The study lasted for one semester and six units using inquiry-based teaching (90-180 min each) were implemented in the experimental group. Questionnaires used for measuring students' motivation and engagement in science learning were administered as pre- and post-tests. In addition, eight to ten male and female students from both experimental and control groups, as well as two instructors were interviewed four times throughout the semester. Quantitative data were analyzed with t test and the interview data were fully transcribed and coded. Results show that male and female students under intervention expected to do more experiments because it improved their understanding. Male and female students under intervention also used more learning strategies. However, males benefited more than females from the intervention in regard to their motivation and engagement in learning science. Males improved more in motivational constructs, recognized the value of learning science, and increased their cognitive, behavioral, and emotional engagement because what they learned applied to real life. In contrast, females had higher exam anxiety and lower cognitive engagement due to mathematics fear, stronger sense of pride in class, and caring too much about the right answers.

  12. EXAMINING FACTORS AFFECTING IMPLEMENTATION OF INQUIRY-BASED LEARNING IN FINLAND AND SOUTH KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingoo Kang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using inquiry has become a universal factor in science education, but teachers often face challenges in implementing inquiry-based learning (IBL because of, for instance, teachers’ low confidence in conducting inquiry or insufficient school resources. Much research has been conducted to identify the barriers that impede inquiry practice. However, most studies have employed small-scale qualitative methods from a single-country sample, and, thus, the effects of each factor on conducting inquiry in different educational systems have yet to be measured in one statistical model. Accordingly, this research was aimed to explore the extent to which various teacher- and school-factors have respectively affected teachers’ implementation of inquiry-based learning at lower secondary schools. To examine this issue, samples of 496 Finnish teachers in 135 lower secondary schools and 184 Korean teachers in 147 lower secondary schools were selected from the TIMSS 2011 science data set. The findings reveal that teachers’ confidence in teaching science and their collaboration to improve science teaching were strongly associated with facilitating inquiry in both countries, and these two factors’ positive effects on the implementation were partially derived from inquiry-related professional development in the Finnish sample. In addition, class size and school resources were also significantly related to inquiry practice in Finland, and the teachers’ education levels were negatively correlated with the frequency of inquiry practice in Korea. However, in both countries, the teachers’ emphasis on exams was indicated as a non-significant factor in predicting inquiry frequency. The results have implications in respect of the roles of professional development and school environment in increasing IBL practice in school science.

  13. Blended learning in dentistry: 3-D resources for inquiry-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Bridges

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is an important factor for inquiry-based learning, so creative design of learning resources and materials is critical to enhance students’ motivation and hence their cognition. Modern dentistry is moving towards “electronic patient records” for both clinical treatment and teaching. Study models have long been an essential part of dental records. Traditional plaster casts are, however, among the last type of clinical record in the dental field to be converted into digital media as virtual models. Advantages of virtual models include: simpler storage; reduced risk of damage, disappearance, or misplacement; simpler and effective measuring; and easy transferal to colleagues. In order to support student engagement with the rapidly changing world of digital dentistry, and in order to stimulate the students’ motivation and depth of inquiry, this project aims to introduce virtual models into a Bachelor and Dental Surgery (BDS curriculum. Under a “blended” e-learning philosophy, students are first introduced to the new software then 3-D models are incorporated into inquiry-based problems as stimulus materials. Face-to-face tutorials blend virtual model access via interactive whiteboards (IWBs. Students’ perceptions of virtual models including motivation and cognition as well as the virtual models’ functionality were rated after a workshop introducing virtual models and plaster models in parallel. Initial student feedback indicates that the 3-D models have been generally well accepted, which confirmed the functionality of the programme and the positive perception of virtual models for enhancing students’ learning motivation. Further investigation will be carried out to assess the impact of virtual models on students’ learning outcomes.

  14. BAX channel activity mediates lysosomal disruption linked to Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bové, Jordi; Martínez-Vicente, Marta; Dehay, Benjamin; Perier, Celine; Recasens, Ariadna; Bombrun, Agnes; Antonsson, Bruno; Vila, Miquel

    2014-05-01

    Lysosomal disruption is increasingly regarded as a major pathogenic event in Parkinson disease (PD). A reduced number of intraneuronal lysosomes, decreased levels of lysosomal-associated proteins and accumulation of undegraded autophagosomes (AP) are observed in PD-derived samples, including fibroblasts, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons, and post-mortem brain tissue. Mechanistic studies in toxic and genetic rodent PD models attribute PD-related lysosomal breakdown to abnormal lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying PD-linked LMP and subsequent lysosomal defects remain virtually unknown, thereby precluding their potential therapeutic targeting. Here we show that the pro-apoptotic protein BAX (BCL2-associated X protein), which permeabilizes mitochondrial membranes in PD models and is activated in PD patients, translocates and internalizes into lysosomal membranes early following treatment with the parkinsonian neurotoxin MPTP, both in vitro and in vivo, within a time-frame correlating with LMP, lysosomal disruption, and autophagosome accumulation and preceding mitochondrial permeabilization and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Supporting a direct permeabilizing effect of BAX on lysosomal membranes, recombinant BAX is able to induce LMP in purified mouse brain lysosomes and the latter can be prevented by pharmacological blockade of BAX channel activity. Furthermore, pharmacological BAX channel inhibition is able to prevent LMP, restore lysosomal levels, reverse AP accumulation, and attenuate mitochondrial permeabilization and overall nigrostriatal degeneration caused by MPTP, both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our results reveal that PD-linked lysosomal impairment relies on BAX-induced LMP, and point to small molecules able to block BAX channel activity as potentially beneficial to attenuate both lysosomal defects and neurodegeneration occurring in PD.

  15. Teaching Inquiry with Linked Classes and Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercey, Victor; Cullen, Roxanne

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve problem-solving dispositions, a section of an inquiry-based math sequence for first-year business students was linked with a section of our general education English sequence. We describe how the linked classes worked and compare some preliminary results from linked and unlinked sections of the math sequence.

  16. Motor activation in SPG4-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, KH; Nielsen, JE; Krabbe, Katja

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of motor cortical functional reorganisation in patients with SPG4-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia by exploring cortical motor activation related to movements of clinically affected (lower) and unaffected (upper) limbs. METHODS......: Thirteen patients and 13 normal controls matched for age, gender and handedness underwent O15-labelled water positron emission tomography during (1) right ankle flexion-extension, (2) right shoulder flexion-extension and (3) rest. Within-group comparisons of movement vs. rest (simple main effects......, the supplementary motor areas and the right premotor cortex compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Motor cortical reorganisation may explain this result, but as no significant differences were recognised in the motor response of the unaffected limb, differences in functional demands should also be considered...

  17. What Is a Scientific Experiment? The Impact of a Professional Development Course on Teachers' Ability to Design an Inquiry-Based Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María del Carmen B.; Furman, Melina

    2016-01-01

    Designing inquiry-based science lessons can be a challenge for secondary school teachers. In this study we evaluated the development of in-service teachers' lesson plans as they took part in a 10-month professional development course in Peru which engaged teachers in the design of inquiry-based lessons. At the beginning, most teachers designed…

  18. Inquiry-Based Science Education Competencies of Primary School Teachers: A Literature Study and Critical Review of the American National Science Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alake-Tuenter, Ester; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Tobi, Hilde; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Oosterheert, Ida; Mulder, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based science education is an important innovation. Researchers and teachers consider it to be stimulating for pupils' application of research skills, construction of meaning and acquiring scientific knowledge. However, there is ambiguity as to what competencies are required to teach inquiry-based science. Our purpose is to develop a…

  19. Assessing Gains in Science Teaching Self-Efficacy after Completing an Inquiry-Based Earth Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Preservice elementary teachers are often required to take an Earth Science content course as part of their teacher education program but typically enter the course with little knowledge of key Earth Science concepts and are uncertain in their ability to teach science. This study investigated whether completing an inquiry-based Earth Science course…

  20. Investigating the Effectiveness of Inquiry-Based Instruction on Students with Different Prior Knowledge and Reading Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Ru; Wang, Yuh-Chao; Tai, Hsin-Jung; Chen, Wen-Ju

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the differential impacts of an inquiry-based instruction on conceptual changes across levels of prior knowledge and reading ability. The instrument emphasized four simultaneously important components: conceptual knowledge, reading ability, attitude toward science, and learning environment. Although the learning patterns and…

  1. Deepening Inquiry: What Processes of Making Music Can Teach Us about Creativity and Ontology for Inquiry Based Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Walter S.; Oded, Ben-Horin

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from their respective work at the intersection of music and science, the coauthors argue that engaging in processes of making music can help students more deeply engage in the kinds of creativity associated with inquiry based science education (IBSE) and scientists better convey their ideas to others. Of equal importance, the processes of…

  2. Developing Students' Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Analysis Skills in an Inquiry-Based Synthetic Organic Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Marisa G.; Samoshin, Andrey V.; Lewis, Robert B.; Gainer, Morgan J.

    2016-01-01

    A course is described where students are engaged in an inquiry-based quarter-long research project to synthesize a known pharmaceutical target. Students use literature search engines, such as Reaxys and SciFinder, and the primary chemical literature as resources to plan and perform the synthesis of their pharmaceutical target. Through this…

  3. Ordinary Least Squares and Quantile Regression: An Inquiry-Based Learning Approach to a Comparison of Regression Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, James E.; Krog, K. Peter

    2018-01-01

    We present a short, inquiry-based learning course on concepts and methods underlying ordinary least squares (OLS), least absolute deviation (LAD), and quantile regression (QR). Students investigate squared, absolute, and weighted absolute distance functions (metrics) as location measures. Using differential calculus and properties of convex…

  4. An Inquiry-Based Project Focused on the X-Ray Powder Diffraction Analysis of Common Household Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulien, Molly L.; Lekse, Jonathan W.; Rosmus, Kimberly A.; Devlin, Kasey P.; Glenn, Jennifer R.; Wisneski, Stephen D.; Wildfong, Peter; Lake, Charles H.; MacNeil, Joseph H.; Aitken, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    While X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) is a fundamental analytical technique used by solid-state laboratories across a breadth of disciplines, it is still underrepresented in most undergraduate curricula. In this work, we incorporate XRPD analysis into an inquiry-based project that requires students to identify the crystalline component(s) of…

  5. Effects of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction on Science Achievement and Interest in Science: Evidence from Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    The author sought to investigate the effects of inquiry-based science instruction on science achievement and interest in science of 5,120 adolescents from 85 schools in Qatar. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed the substantial positive effects of science teaching and learning with a focus on model or applications and…

  6. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Practical Inquiry-Based Learning Bioinformatics Module on Undergraduate Student Engagement and Applied Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James A. L.

    2016-01-01

    A pedagogic intervention, in the form of an inquiry-based peer-assisted learning project (as a practical student-led bioinformatics module), was assessed for its ability to increase students' engagement, practical bioinformatic skills and process-specific knowledge. Elements assessed were process-specific knowledge following module completion,…

  7. Working with mathematics and science teachers on Inquiry Based Learning (IBL) approaches : teacher belief. [VISIONS 2011: Teacher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikko, S.A.; Lyngved, R.; Pepin, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on mathematics and science teachers’ beliefs concerning the use of inquiry-based teaching strategies. Two different surveys were conducted: one with 24 teachers who were to become future instructional leaders; and one with 75 teachers as part of an international baseline study. We

  8. Red Seaweed Enzyme-Catalyzed Bromination of Bromophenol Red: An Inquiry-Based Kinetics Laboratory Experiment for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittam, Piyachat; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Promptmas, Chamras; Sriwattanarothai, Namkang; Archavarungson, Nattinee; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    Haloperoxidase enzymes are of interest for basic and applied bioscientists because of their increasing importance in pharmaceutical industry and environmental cleanups. In a guided inquiry-based laboratory experiment for life-science, agricultural science, and health science undergraduates, the bromoperoxidase from a red seaweed was used to…

  9. An Inquiry-Based Approach to Teaching the Spherical Earth Model to Preservice Teachers Using the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngjin; Schwenz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an inquiry-based lesson to deepen preservice teachers' understanding of the spherical Earth model using the Global Positioning System. The lesson was designed with four learning goals: (1) to increase preservice teachers' conceptual knowledge of the spherical Earth model; (2) to develop preservice teachers'…

  10. Authenticating Children's Literature: Raising Cultural Awareness with an Inquiry-Based Project in a Teacher Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jane; Wiese, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of authentic picture-storybook adaptations of multicultural folktales and describes an action research project through which a children's picture-book adaptation of a traditional tale can be authenticated using an inquiry-based process. In addition to modeling an actual authentication project using "The Golden…

  11. Development of a pre-service teacher training course on integration of ICT into inquiry based science education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Trinh-Ba; van den Berg, Ed; Ellermeijer, Ton; Beishuizen, Jos; Dvořák, Leoš; Koudelková, Věra

    In order to be able to integrate ICT into Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE), teachers need much time and support for mastering ICT tools, learning the basis of IBSE, and getting experience in applying these tools in pupil investigations. For this purpose, we have developed a course within the

  12. Sweet Science for ALL! Supporting Inquiry-Based Learning through M&Ms Investigation for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngjin; Higgins, Teresa; Harding-DeKam, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a series of inquiry-based lessons that provide English language learners (ELLs) with opportunities to experience science and engineering practices with conceptual understanding as well as to develop their language proficiency in elementary classrooms. The four-lesson sequence models how various types of instructional…

  13. The Inquiry Based Science and Technology Education Program (IN-STEP): The Evaluation of the First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    This is the first report on the evaluation of the Inquiry Based Science and Technology Education Program (IN-STEP), an innovative and ambitious science education initiative for lower secondary schools being undertaken by a public-private partnership in Thailand funded by MSD-Thailand, an affiliate of Merck & Co. IN-STEP is a public-private…

  14. Elementary Teachers' Comprehension of Flooding through Inquiry-Based Professional Development and Use of Self-Regulation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth B.; van der Hoeven Kraft, Katrien J.; Watts, Nievita Bueno; Baker, Dale R.; Wilson, Meredith J.; Lang, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on elementary teachers' comprehension of flooding before and after inquiry-based professional development (PD). There was an improvement in teachers' understanding toward a normative view from pre- to post-test (n = 17, mean gain = 4.3, SD = 3.27). Several misunderstandings and a general lack of knowledge about flooding emerged…

  15. Teaching and Learning Numerical Analysis and Optimization: A Didactic Framework and Applications of Inquiry-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Pantelis Z.; Kritikos, Manolis N.

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to propose a didactic framework for teaching Applied Mathematics in higher education. After describing the structure of the framework, several applications of inquiry-based learning in teaching numerical analysis and optimization are provided to illustrate the potential of the proposed framework. The framework…

  16. Relationship between teacher preparedness and inquiry-based instructional practices to students' science achievement: Evidence from TIMSS 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynn A.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers' self-reported preparedness for teaching science content and their instructional practices to the science achievement of eighth grade science students in the United States as demonstrated by TIMSS 2007. Six hundred eighty-seven eighth grade science teachers in the United States representing 7,377 students responded to the TIMSS 2007 questionnaire about their instructional preparedness and their instructional practices. Quantitative data were reported. Through correlation analysis, the researcher found statistically significant positive relationships emerge between eighth grade science teachers' main area of study and their self-reported beliefs about their preparedness to teach that same content area. Another correlation analysis found a statistically significant negative relationship existed between teachers' self-reported use of inquiry-based instruction and preparedness to teach chemistry, physics and earth science. Another correlation analysis discovered a statistically significant positive relationship existed between physics preparedness and student science achievement. Finally, a correlation analysis found a statistically significant positive relationship existed between science teachers' self-reported implementation of inquiry-based instructional practices and student achievement. The data findings support the conclusion that teachers who have feelings of preparedness to teach science content and implement more inquiry-based instruction and less didactic instruction produce high achieving science students. As science teachers obtain the appropriate knowledge in science content and pedagogy, science teachers will feel prepared and will implement inquiry-based instruction in science classrooms.

  17. Using Expectancy-Value Theory to Explore Aspects of Motivation and Engagement in Inquiry-Based Learning in Primary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Wells, Jill; O'Brien, Mia; Makar, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning (IBL) is a pedagogical approach in which students address complex, ill-structured problems set in authentic contexts. While IBL is gaining ground in Australia as an instructional practice, there has been little research that considers implications for student motivation and engagement. Expectancy-value theory (Eccles and…

  18. The Effect of Inquiry-Based Explorations in a Dynamic Geometry Environment on Sixth Grade Students' Achievements in Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Ayhan Kursat; Yenmez, Arzu Aydogan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using a dynamic geometry environment (DGE) together with inquiry-based explorations on the sixth grade students' achievements in polygons and congruency and similarity of polygons. Two groups of sixth grade students were selected for this study: an experimental group composed of 66…

  19. Using educational data from teaching and learning to inform teachers' reflective educational design in inquiry-based STEM education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sergis, Stylianos; Sampson, Demetrios G.; Rodríguez-Triana, María Jesús; Gillet, Denis; Pelliccione, Lina; de Jong, Ton

    2017-01-01

    Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education is recognized as a top school education priority worldwide and Inquiry-based teaching and learning is identified as a promising approach. To effectively engage students in Inquiry tasks, appropriate guidance should be provided,

  20. Self-Efficacy of Students with Visual Impairments before and after Participation in an Inquiry-Based Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, Kathleen; Wild, Tiffany A.; Hilson, Margilee P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine students' self-efficacy level prior to participation and after participation in an inquiry-based science camp to determine if self-efficacy levels changed as a result of participation. A validated instrument, the 30 item Morgan-Jinks Student Self-Efficacy Scale (MJSES) (Jinks & Morgan, 1996) was…

  1. Enhancing Hispanic Minority Undergraduates' Botany Laboratory Experiences: Implementation of an Inquiry-Based Plant Tissue Culture Module Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Navas, Vivian; Diffoot, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Early involvement of students in hands-on research experiences are known to demystify research and promote the pursuit of careers in science. But in large enrollment departments such opportunities for undergraduates to participate in research are rare. To counteract such lack of opportunities, inquiry-based laboratory module in plant tissue…

  2. "Me? Teach Science?" Exploring EC-4 Pre-Service Teachers' Self Efficacy in an Inquiry-Based Constructivist Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ratna; Lamp, David

    2010-01-01

    In this qualitative and interpretive study, we investigated factors that influenced elementary preservice teachers' self-efficacy in a constructivist, inquiry-based physics class. Bandura's (1977) theory of social learning was used as a basis to examine preservice teacher's self-efficacy. Participants included 70 female EC-4 preservice teachers…

  3. Developing the conceptual instructional design with inquiry-based instruction model of secondary students at the 10th grade level on digestion system and cellular degradation issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotjanakunnatam, Boonthida; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this research study was to develop the conceptual instructional design with the Inquiry-Based Instruction Model (IBIM) of secondary students at the 10th grade level on Digestion System and Cellular Degradation issue using both oxygen and oxygen-degrading cellular nutrients were designed instructional model with a sample size of 45 secondary students at the 10th Grade level. Data were collected by asking students to do a questionnaire pre and post learning processes. The questionnaire consists of two main parts that composed of students' perception questionnaire and the questionnaire that asked the question answer concept for the selected questionnaire. The 10-item Conceptual Thinking Test (CTT) was assessed students' conceptual thinking evaluation that it was covered in two main concepts, namely; Oxygen degradation nutrients and degradation nutrients without oxygen. The data by classifying students' answers into 5 groups and measuring them in frequency and a percentage of students' performances of their learning pre and post activities with the Inquiry-Based Instruction Model were analyzed as a tutorial. The results of this research found that: After the learning activities with the IBIM, most students developed concepts of both oxygen and oxygen-degrading cellular nutrients in the correct, complete and correct concept, and there are a number of students who have conceptual ideas in the wrong concept, and no concept was clearly reduced. However, the results are still found that; some students have some misconceptions, such as; the concept of direction of electron motion and formation of the ATP of bioactivities of life. This cause may come from the nature of the content, the complexity, the continuity, the movement, and the time constraints only in the classroom. Based on this research, it is suggested that some students may take some time, and the limited time in the classroom to their learning activity with content creation content binding and

  4. Investigating the impact of a LEGO(TM)-based, engineering-oriented curriculum compared to an inquiry-based curriculum on fifth graders' content learning of simple machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulcu, Ismail

    This mixed method study examined the impact of a LEGO-based, engineering-oriented curriculum compared to an inquiry-based curriculum on fifth graders' content learning of simple machines. This study takes a social constructivist theoretical stance that science learning involves learning scientific concepts and their relations to each other. From this perspective, students are active participants, and they construct their conceptual understanding through the guidance of their teacher. With the goal of better understanding the use of engineering education materials in classrooms the National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council in the book "Engineering in K-12 Education" conducted an in-depth review of the potential benefits of including engineering in K--12 schools as (a) improved learning and achievement in science and mathematics, (b) increased awareness of engineering and the work of engineers, (c) understanding of and the ability to engage in engineering design, (d) interest in pursuing engineering as a career, and (e) increased technological literacy (Katehi, Pearson, & Feder, 2009). However, they also noted a lack of reliable data and rigorous research to support these assertions. Data sources included identical written tests and interviews, classroom observations and videos, teacher interviews, and classroom artifacts. To investigate the impact of the design-based simple machines curriculum compared to the scientific inquiry-based simple machines curriculum on student learning outcomes, I compared the control and the experimental groups' scores on the tests and interviews by using ANCOVA. To analyze and characterize the classroom observation videotapes, I used Jordan and Henderson's (1995) method and divide them into episodes. My analyses revealed that the design-based Design a People Mover: Simple Machines unit was, if not better, as successful as the inquiry-based FOSS Levers and Pulleys unit in terms of students' content learning. I also

  5. Evidencing the Value of Inquiry Based, Constructionist Learning for Student Coders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew John Yee-King

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For the last decade, there has been growing interest in the STEAM approach (essentially combining methods and practices in arts, humanities and social sciences into STEM teaching and research to develop better research and education, and enable us to produce students who can work most effectively in the current and developing market-place. However, despite this interest, there seems to be little quantitative evidence of the true power of STEAM learning, especially describing how it compares and performs with respect to more established approaches. To address this, we present a comparative, quantitative study of two distinct approaches to teaching programming, one based on STEAM (with an open-ended inquiry-based approach, the other based on a more traditional, non-STEAM approach (where constrained problems are set and solved. Our key results evidence how students exhibit different styles of programming in different types of lessons and, crucially, that students who tend to exhibit more of the style of programming observed in our STEAM lessons also tend to achieve higher grades. We present our claims through a range of visualisations and statistical validations which clearly show the significance of the results, despite the small scale of the study. We believe that this work provides clear evidence for the advantages of STEAM over non-STEAM, and provides a strong theoretical and technological framework for future, larger studies.

  6. Inquiry-based science education: towards a pedagogical framework for primary school teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uum, Martina S. J.; Verhoeff, Roald P.; Peeters, Marieke

    2016-02-01

    Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) has been promoted as an inspiring way of learning science by engaging pupils in designing and conducting their own scientific investigations. For primary school teachers, the open nature of IBSE poses challenges as they often lack experience in supporting their pupils during the different phases of an open IBSE project, such as formulating a research question and designing and conducting an investigation. The current study aims to meet these challenges by presenting a pedagogical framework in which four domains of scientific knowledge are addressed in seven phases of inquiry. The framework is based on video analyses of pedagogical interventions by primary school teachers participating in open IBSE projects. Our results show that teachers can guide their pupils successfully through the process of open inquiry by explicitly addressing the conceptual, epistemic, social and/or procedural domain of scientific knowledge in the subsequent phases of inquiry. The paper concludes by suggesting further research to validate our framework and to develop a pedagogy for primary school teachers to guide their pupils through the different phases of open inquiry.

  7. Known structure, unknown function: An inquiry-based undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Cynthia; Price, Carol W; Lee, Christopher T; Dewald, Alison H; Cline, Matthew A; McAnany, Charles E; Columbus, Linda; Mura, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate biochemistry laboratory courses often do not provide students with an authentic research experience, particularly when the express purpose of the laboratory is purely instructional. However, an instructional laboratory course that is inquiry- and research-based could simultaneously impart scientific knowledge and foster a student's research expertise and confidence. We have developed a year-long undergraduate biochemistry laboratory curriculum wherein students determine, via experiment and computation, the function of a protein of known three-dimensional structure. The first half of the course is inquiry-based and modular in design; students learn general biochemical techniques while gaining preparation for research experiments in the second semester. Having learned standard biochemical methods in the first semester, students independently pursue their own (original) research projects in the second semester. This new curriculum has yielded an improvement in student performance and confidence as assessed by various metrics. To disseminate teaching resources to students and instructors alike, a freely accessible Biochemistry Laboratory Education resource is available at http://biochemlab.org. © 2015 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Girls on Ice: An Inquiry-Based Wilderness Science Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, E. C.; Koppes, M. N.

    2001-12-01

    We developed a wilderness science education program for high school girls. The program offers opportunities for students to explore and learn about mountain glaciers and the alpine landscape through scientific field studies with geologists and glaciologists. Our purpose is to give students a feeling for the natural processes that create the alpine world and provide an environment that fosters the critical thinking necessary to all scientific inquiry. The program is currently being offered through the North Cascades Institute, a non-profit organization offering outdoor education programs for the general public. We lead eight girls for a weeklong expedition to the remote USGS South Cascade Glacier Research Station in Washington's North Cascades. For four days, we explore the glacier and the nearby alpine valleys. We encourage the girls to observe and think like scientists through making observations and inferences. They develop their own experiments to test ideas about glacier dynamics and geomorphology. In addition to scientific exploration, we engage the students in discussions about the philosophy of science and its role in our everyday lives. Our program exemplifies the success of hands-on, inquiry-based teaching in small groups for science education in the outdoors. The wilderness setting and single gender field team inspires young women's interest in science and provides a challenging environment that increases their physical and intellectual self-confidence.

  9. Implementation of inquiry-based science education in different countries: some reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundgren, Carl-Johan

    2017-03-01

    In this forum article, I reflect on issues related to the implementation of inquiry-based science education (IBSE) in different countries. Regarding education within the European Union (EU), the Bologna system has in later years provided extended coordination and comparability at an organizational level. However, the possibility of the EU to influence the member countries regarding the actual teaching and learning in the classrooms is more limited. In later years, several EU-projects focusing on IBSE have been funded in order to make science education in Europe better, and more motivating for students. Highlighting what Heinz and her colleagues call the policy of `soft governance' of the EU regarding how to improve science education in Europe, I discuss the focus on IBSE in the seventh framework projects, and how it is possible to maintain more long-lasting results in schools through well-designed teacher professional development programs. Another aspect highlighted by Heinz and her colleagues is how global pressures on convergence in education interact with educational structures and traditions in the individual countries. The rise of science and science education as a global culture, encompassing contributions from all around the world, is a phenomenon of great potential and value to humankind. However, it is important to bear in mind that if science and science education is going to become a truly global culture, local variation and differences regarding foci and applications of science in different cultures must be acknowledged.

  10. Differential Performance by English Language Learners on an Inquiry-Based Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkan, Sultan; Liu, Ou Lydia

    2012-10-01

    The performance of English language learners (ELLs) has been a concern given the rapidly changing demographics in US K-12 education. This study aimed to examine whether students' English language status has an impact on their inquiry science performance. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis was conducted with regard to ELL status on an inquiry-based science assessment, using a multifaceted Rasch DIF model. A total of 1,396 seventh- and eighth-grade students took the science test, including 313 ELL students. The results showed that, overall, non-ELLs significantly outperformed ELLs. Of the four items that showed DIF, three favored non-ELLs while one favored ELLs. The item that favored ELLs provided a graphic representation of a science concept within a family context. There is some evidence that constructed-response items may help ELLs articulate scientific reasoning using their own words. Assessment developers and teachers should pay attention to the possible interaction between linguistic challenges and science content when designing assessment for and providing instruction to ELLs.

  11. A Quantitative Reasoning Approach to Algebra Using Inquiry-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor I. Piercey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I share a hybrid quantitative reasoning/algebra two-course sequence that challenges the common assumption that quantitative literacy and reasoning are less rigorous mathematics alternatives to algebra and illustrates that a quantitative reasoning framework can be used to teach traditional algebra. The presentation is made in two parts. In the first part, which is somewhat philosophical and theoretical, I explain my personal perspective of what I mean by “algebra” and “doing algebra.” I contend that algebra is a form of communication whose value is precision, which allows us to perform algebraic manipulations in the form of simplification and solving moves. A quantitative reasoning approach to traditional algebraic manipulations rests on intentional and purposeful use of simplification and solving moves within contextual situations. In part 2, I describe a 6-week instructional module intended for undergraduate business students that was delivered to students who had placed into beginning algebra. The perspective described in part 1 heavily informed the design of this module. The course materials, which involve the use of Excel in multiple authentic contexts, are built around the use of inquiry-based learning. Upon completion of this module, the percentage of students who successfully complete model problems in an assessment is in the same range as surveyed students in precalculus and calculus, approximately two “grade levels” ahead of their placement.

  12. Instrumental neutron activation analysis, a valuable link in chemical metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Lindstrom, R.M.; Greenberg, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is sufficiently versatile to establish a direct link to the amount of substance determined. The inherent quality parameters of INAA, such as being virtually free of blank, having fully accountable effects of matrix and physical form, and operating over a huge range of amounts, allows the comparison of a mole (or its fraction) of a pure element with the amount of substance in the sample analyzed with the same direct relationship as a beam balance provides. Indeed, varieties of this approach are in common use in INAA in the comparator methods of quantitation. To eliminate possible perturbations of the traceability chain as they may occur in common INAA practice, experimental measurements have been set up that only involve the fraction of a mole of the element(s) of interest in form of the pure element, compound or certified standard and the unknown sample. This principle has been used in INAA measurements for certification value assignment of high temperature alloy SRMs. To further demonstrate the performance parameters of INAA, we selected the determination of chromium in SRM 1152a Stainless Steel by direct non-destructive comparison with the pure metal in form of crystalline chromium. The measurements were validated with weighed aliquots of SRM 3112a dried on filter paper pellets. The experimental results do not show deviations beyond the uncertainties of the SRMs (≤ 0.2 % relative), and the assessment of the uncertainty budget indicates that expanded uncertainties of ≤ 0.3 % are achievable. The measurements demonstrate that INAA can meet the CCQM definition of a primary ratio method of analysis

  13. THE EFFECT OF INQUIRY BASED LEARNING ON THE REASONING ABILITY OF GRADE VII STUDENTS ABOUT HEAT CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. C. Damawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of Inquiry Based Learningon the reasoning ability of grade 7 students about heat concept. This study is a quasi-experimental research design with non-equivalent post-test only controls group design. Two groups of seventh grade students were included as samples, which receive the experimental class of Inquiry Based Learning treatment while the other group acted as a control group who received the learning process in accordance with the applicable provisions of the curriculum. The data collected in this study is the students reasoning ability which obtained from the test of reasoning ability. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical parametric t-test. Results of independet research shows that there are significant differences in reasoning abilities between the experimental class and control class. In this research, the experiment class perform more better reasoning skills than the control class.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh Inquiry Based Learning terhadap kemampuan penalaran siswa kelas VII pada materi Kalor. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen semu dengan rancangan non-equivalent post-test only control group design.  Dua kelompok siswa kelas VII  dilibatkan sebagai sampel penelitian, dimana kelas eksperimen menerima perlakuan Inquiry Based Learning sementara kelompok lainnya bertindak sebagai kelas kontrol yang menerima proses pembelajaran sesuai dengan ketentuan kurikulum yang berlaku di sekolah tempat penelitian dilaksanakan. Data yang dikumpulkan dalam penelitian ini adalah kemampuan penalaran siswa yang diperoleh dari hasil tes kemampuan penalaran. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan statistik deskriptif dan statistik parametrik Independent t-test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan kemampuan penalaran yang signifikan antara kelas eksperimen dan kelas kontrol Kelas eksperimen menunjukkan kemampuan penalaran yang lebih baik

  14. "Bugs on Bugs": An Inquiry-Based, Collaborative Activity to Learn Arthropod & Microbial Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan C.; Morgan, Jeanelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Diverse communities of arthropods and microbes provide humans with essential ecosystem goods and services. Arthropods are the most diverse and abundant macroscopic animals on the planet, and many remain to be discovered. Much less is known about microbial diversity, despite their importance as free-living species and as symbionts. We created…

  15. The impact of inquiry-based learning on the critical thinking dispositions of pre-service science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsal, Zeki

    2017-07-01

    In the study, the impact of inquiry-based learning on pre-service teachers' critical thinking dispositions was investigated. The sample of the study comprised of 56 pre-service teachers in the science education teacher education programme at the public university in the north of Turkey. In the study, quasi-experimental design with an experimental and a control group were applied to find out the impact of inquiry-based learning on the critical thinking dispositions of the pre-service teachers in the teacher education programme. The results showed that the pre-service teachers in the experimental group did not show statistically significant greater progress in terms of critical thinking dispositions than those in the control group. Teacher educators who are responsible for pedagogical courses in the teacher education programme should consider that the inquiry-based learning could not be effective method to improve pre-service teachers' critical thinking dispositions. The results are discussed in relation to potential impact on science teacher education and implications for future research.

  16. The influence inquiry-based science has on elementary teachers' perception of instruction and self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Felecia J.

    The nature and purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy of teachers who use an inquiry-based science program to provide authentic experiences within the elementary school setting. It is essential to explore necessary improvements to bring about effective science education. Using a mixed methods study, the researcher conducted interviews with elementary teachers from five elementary schools within the same school district. The interviews focused on the teachers' experiences with inquiry-based science and their perceptions of quality science instruction. The Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale was used to collect quantitative data regarding the teachers' perception of instructional practice and student engagement. The study revealed that limited science content knowledge, inadequate professional development, and a low sense of self-efficacy have a substantial effect on teacher outcomes, instructional planning, and ability to motivate students to participate in inquiry-based learning. It will take a collective effort from administrators, teachers, parents, and students to discover ways to improve elementary science education.

  17. Investigating the use of a digital library in an inquiry-based undergraduate geology course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xornam S. Apedoe

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of a qualitative research study designed to investigate the opportunities and obstacles presented by a digital library for supporting teaching and learning in an inquiry-based undergraduate geology course. Data for this study included classroom observations and field-notes of classroom practices, questionnaires, and audiotapes and transcripts of interviews conducted with student and instructor participants. The findings suggest that although both the instructor and students recognized a number of opportunities presented by the digital library to support teaching and learning (e.g., provides access to various types of data, they encountered a number of obstacles (e.g., difficulty with the search mechanism that discouraged them from taking advantage of the resources available. Recommendations are presented for (a developers of digital libraries, and (b instructors wishing to integrate use of a digital library for supporting their teaching and student learning in an inquiry-based course. Le présent article rend compte des conclusions d’une étude de recherche qualitative élaborée afin d’examiner les occasions et les obstacles que présente une bibliothèque numérique appuyant l’enseignement et l’apprentissage dans le cadre d’un cours de géologie de premier cycle axé sur la recherche. Les données pour cette étude comprenaient les observations effectuées en salle de classe et les notes d’excursion des pratiques en salle de classe, les questionnaires, les bandes audio ainsi que les transcriptions des entrevues menées auprès des étudiants et de l’instructeur participant. Les conclusions laissent entendre que bien que l’instructeur et les étudiants reconnaissent un certain nombre d’occasions que présente la bibliothèque numérique en appui à l’enseignement et à l’apprentissage (p. ex. accès à divers types de données, ils ont dû surmonter un certain nombre d’obstacles (p. ex

  18. Closing the science achievement gap for ninth grade English learners through standards- and inquiry-based science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Myrna Hipol

    In light of the need to close the achievement gap among our culturally and linguistically diverse students, more specifically the Hispanics and the Hispanic English Learners (ELs), the effects of teacher professional development (2 year PD vs. 1 Year PD vs. no PD) on the implementation of a standards-aligned and inquiry-based science curriculum program---the Integrated Coordinated Science for the 21st Century published by It's About Time, Inc. (ICS-IAT)---on the LAUSD ninth graders science scores were examined. Participants included 8,937 9th grade students (7,356 Hispanics). The primary outcome measurement was scaled scores from the California Standard Test (CST) in Integrated Coordinated Science (CST_ICS1). Correlations between California English Language Development Test (CELDT) component subscores (reading, listening and speaking) and CST scores were also examined. Results indicated that the science scores of the students of teachers who participated in two year PD were significantly higher compared to the scores of students of the one year PD group and the control group. The results show that all ethnic groups benefited from two years of teacher PD, except the African American group. Among Hispanics, students classified as IFEP, RFEP and EO gained from the teachers having two years of professional development. But the target population, ELs did not benefit from two years of teacher PD. The correlations between the CELDT and CST_ELA were much higher than the CELDT and CST_ICS1 correlations. This finding validates Abedi's claim (2004) that EL students are disadvantaged because of their language handicap on tests that have a greater language load. Two year PD participation significantly enhanced the accessibility of science to the ninth graders. The essential features in the PD were classroom simulation of all the activities identified in the storyboard with the actual and correct use of needed equipment and materials; creation and presentation of sample or model

  19. Evaluation of a High School Fair Program for Promoting Successful Inquiry-based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Julia Nykeah

    The success of inquiry-based learning (IBL) in supporting science literacy can be challenged when students encounter obstacles in the absence of proper support. This research is intended to evaluate the effectiveness of an Oregon public school district's regional science fair coaching program in promoting inquiry skills and positive attitudes toward science in participating high school students. The purpose of this study was to better understand students' perception of program support, obstacles or barriers faced by students, and potential benefits of IBL facilitated by the science fair program. Data included responses to informal and semi-structured interviews, an anonymous survey, a Skills assessment of final project displays, and an in-depth case study on three students' experiences. Results suggest that the science fair program can properly engage participants in authentic IBL. However, when assessing the participant's final project displays, I found that previous fair experience did not significantly increase mean scores as identified by the official Oregon Department of Education (ODE) scoring guides. Based on results from the case study, it is suggested that participants' low science self-concept, poor understanding of inquiry skills, and inability to engage in reflective discourse may reduce students' abilities to truly benefit. Recommendations to address this discrepancy include identifying specific needs of students through a pre--fair survey to develop more targeted support, and providing new opportunities to develop skills associated with science-self concept, understanding of inquiry and reflective discourse. In addition, results suggest that students would benefit from more financial support in the form of grants, and more connections with knowledgeable mentors.

  20. Constrained Active Learning for Anchor Link Prediction Across Multiple Heterogeneous Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junxing; Zhang, Jiawei; Wu, Quanyuan; Jia, Yan; Zhou, Bin; Wei, Xiaokai; Yu, Philip S

    2017-08-03

    Nowadays, people are usually involved in multiple heterogeneous social networks simultaneously. Discovering the anchor links between the accounts owned by the same users across different social networks is crucial for many important inter-network applications, e.g., cross-network link transfer and cross-network recommendation. Many different supervised models have been proposed to predict anchor links so far, but they are effective only when the labeled anchor links are abundant. However, in real scenarios, such a requirement can hardly be met and most anchor links are unlabeled, since manually labeling the inter-network anchor links is quite costly and tedious. To overcome such a problem and utilize the numerous unlabeled anchor links in model building, in this paper, we introduce the active learning based anchor link prediction problem. Different from the traditional active learning problems, due to the one-to-one constraint on anchor links, if an unlabeled anchor link a = ( u , v ) is identified as positive (i.e., existing), all the other unlabeled anchor links incident to account u or account v will be negative (i.e., non-existing) automatically. Viewed in such a perspective, asking for the labels of potential positive anchor links in the unlabeled set will be rewarding in the active anchor link prediction problem. Various novel anchor link information gain measures are defined in this paper, based on which several constraint active anchor link prediction methods are introduced. Extensive experiments have been done on real-world social network datasets to compare the performance of these methods with state-of-art anchor link prediction methods. The experimental results show that the proposed Mean-entropy-based Constrained Active Learning (MC) method can outperform other methods with significant advantages.

  1. Using Videoconferencing to Provide Mentorship in Inquiry-Based Urban and Rural Secondary Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this design-based research study is to examine the effects of an inquiry-based learning environment, with the support of videoconferencing, on both rural and urban secondary students’ mathematics and science learning. An important aspect of this learning environment is the use of videoconferencing to connect classes with mathematicians/ scientists (as e-mentors. Specifically, the following two research questions guide this study: (1 In what ways, if any, does the inquiry-based learning environment impact student beliefs and learning outcomes? (2 What challenges emerge in the development of an inquiry-based learning environment with secondary students in both rural and urban schools? Using a mixed methods approach, this study focuses on two grade 9 classes in an urban school and three Grade 8 classes in a rural school. The results suggest positive effects of this learning environment on student learning of math and science. In particular, both urban and rural students showed significant gains in their achievement. In addition, students showed an increased interest and heightened confidence in math and science. As well, the results point to issues arising from the process, suggesting useful guidelines for the development of such environments. Résumé : L’objectif principal de cette étude de recherche axée sur la conception est d’examiner les effets d’un environnement d’apprentissage basé sur le processus d’enquête et utilisant le soutien de la vidéoconférence sur l’apprentissage des mathématiques et des sciences auprès d’élèves du secondaire en milieux ruraux et urbains. L’utilisation de la vidéoconférence pour mettre les classes en lien avec des mathématiciens et des scientifiques (en tant que cybermentors constitue un aspect important de cet environnement d’apprentissage. Plus précisément, les deux questions suivantes orientent la présente étude : (1 De quelle manière, le cas

  2. Linking Indian rivers vs Bay of Bengal monsoon Activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamani, V.; Mohanty, U.C.; Ramesh, R.; Bhat, G.S.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Sengupta, D.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Kolli, R.K.

    stream_size 12553 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name CurrSci_2006_Linking_rivers.pdf.txt stream_source_info CurrSci_2006_Linking_rivers.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859.... Stratification below the mixed layer also affects the chemical and bi o logical pro c esses in the Bay. It is worth noting here that because the low salinity layer in the BOB prevents vertical mi x ing, the Bay is not a source of CO 2 to the atmo s- phere...

  3. The effects of inquiry-based science on the social and communicative skills of students with low-incidence disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Heather Hopkins

    This research utilized inquiry based science as a vehicle to implement and maintain social skills training for secondary students, ages 14 to 20, with low-incidence disabilities in a self-contained classroom. This three year action research study examined the effects of an inquiry based science curriculum on the level and quantity of social skills used by students with one or more of the following challenges: significant learning disability (functioning more than two grade levels below grade level), emotional/social disability, mental retardation, Autism, and/or varying degrees of brain damage. Through the use of video recording, the students in the study were analyzed based on the level of social interaction and the amount of socialization that took place during inquiry based science. The skills sought were based on the social and communication skills earmarked in the students' weekly social skills training class and their Individualized Education Plans (IEP). Based on previous research in social skills training it has been determined that where social skills training is lacking are in the areas of transfer and maintenance of skills. Due to the natural social behavior that must take place in inquiry based science this group of students were found to exhibit gains in (1) quantity of social interactions on topic; (2) developing higher levels of social interactions (sharing, taking other's suggestions, listening and responding appropriately, etc.); and (3) maintenance of social skills taught outside of formal social skills training. These gains were seen overall in the amount of student involvement during inquiry based science verses teacher involvement. Such increases are depicted through students' verbal exchanges, excerpts from field notes, and student reflections. The findings of this research is expected to guide special educators, administrators and directors of curriculum as to how to better create curriculum for this specific population where social skills

  4. A cognitive framework to inform the design of professional development supporting teachers' classroom assessment of inquiry-based science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matese, Gabrielle

    Inquiry-based science places new demands on teachers for assessing students' growth, both of deep conceptual understanding as well as developing inquiry skills. In addition, new ideas about classroom assessment, such as the importance of formative assessment, are gaining currency. While we have ideas about what classroom assessment consistent with inquiry-based pedagogy might look like, and why it is necessary, we have little understanding of what it takes to implement it. That teachers face a challenge in doing so is well-documented. Researchers have noted that teachers attempting changes in classroom assessment often bring with them incompatible beliefs, knowledge, and practices. However, noting general incompatibility is insufficient to support addressing these issues through professional development. In response to this need, I initiated a research project to identify and describe in more detail the categories of beliefs, knowledge and skills that play an important role in inquiry-based science assessment practices. I created an assessment framework outlining specific categories of beliefs, knowledge, and skills affecting particular classroom assessment practices. I then used the framework to examine teachers' classroom assessment practices and to create comparative cases between three middle-school science teachers, highlighting how the different cognitive factors affect four particular assessment practices. The comparative cases demonstrate the framework's utility for analyzing and explicating teacher assessment practices. As a tool for analyzing and understanding teacher practice, the framework supports the design of professional development. To demonstrate the value of the framework, I draw on the comparative cases to identify implications for the design of professional development to support teachers' classroom assessment of inquiry-based science. In this dissertation I provide a brief overview of the framework and its rationale, present an example of the

  5. Student's social interaction in inquiry-based science education: how experiences of flow can increase motivation and achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Robin; Abrams, Eleanor

    2017-02-01

    This research investigated how student social interactions within two approaches to an inquiry-based science curriculum could be related to student motivation and achievement outcomes. This qualitative case study consisted of two cases, Off-Campus and On-Campus, and used ethnographic techniques of participant observation. Research participants included eight eighth grade girls, aged 13-14 years old. Data sources included formal and informal participant interviews, participant journal reflections, curriculum artifacts including quizzes, worksheets, and student-generated research posters, digital video and audio recordings, photographs, and researcher field notes. Data were transcribed verbatim and coded, then collapsed into emergent themes using NVIVO 9. The results of this research illustrate how setting conditions that promote focused concentration and communicative interactions can be positively related to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science. Participants in the Off-Campus case experienced more frequent states of focused concentration and out performed their peers in the On-Campus case on 46 % of classroom assignments. Off-Campus participants also designed and implemented a more cognitively complex research project, provided more in-depth analyses of their research results, and expanded their perceptions of what it means to act like a scientist to a greater extent than participants in the On-Campus case. These results can be understood in relation to Flow Theory. Student interactions that promoted the criteria necessary for initiating flow, which included having clearly defined goals, receiving immediate feedback, and maintaining a balance between challenges and skills, fostered enhanced student motivation and achievement outcomes. Implications for science teaching and future research include shifting the current focus in inquiry-based science from a continuum that progresses from teacher-directed to open inquiry experiences to a

  6. Marketing activities and national development: is there a link ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study is to establish the link that exists between marketing and national development without losing sight of the intervening variables that might exist between them. The study suggested comparative advantage (CAD), resource-use efficiency (RUET), wealth creation (WECRE) as the possible ...

  7. Interprofessional, practice-driven research: reflections of one "community of inquiry" based in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, I J; Vyslysel, G; Parsons, M W

    2009-01-01

    Research is often scholarship driven and the findings are then channelled into the practice community on the assumption that it is utilising an evidence-based approach in its service delivery. Because of persisting difficulties in bridging the practice-evidence gap in health care, there has been a call for more active links between researchers and practitioners. The authors were part of an interprofessional research initiative which originated from within an acute stroke clinical community. This research initiative aimed to encourage active participation of health professionals employed in the clinical setting and active collaboration across departments and institutions. On reflection, it appeared that in setting up an interprofessional, practice-driven research collaborative, achievements included the instigation of a community of inquiry and the affording of opportunities for allied health professionals to be actively involved in research projects directly related to their clinical setting. Strategies were put in place to overcome the challenges faced which included managing a demanding and frequently changing workplace, and overcoming differences in professional knowledge, skills and expertise. From our experience, we found that interprofessional, practice-driven research can encourage allied health professionals to bridge the practice-evidence gap, and is a worthwhile experience which we would encourage others to consider.

  8. Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkar, Niki H; Lewis, Daniel J; van den Bos, Wouter; Morton, J Bruce

    2017-08-01

    Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards. The findings suggest that early-life adversity is associated with alterations in the brain's sensitivity to rewards accounting, in part, for the link between adversity and altered reward processing in children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki H. Kamkar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards. The findings suggest that early-life adversity is associated with alterations in the brain’s sensitivity to rewards accounting, in part, for the link between adversity and altered reward processing in children.

  10. The effect of guided inquiry-based instruction in secondary science for students with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Michael H.

    Students with learning disabilities (SWLDs) need to attain academic rigor to graduate from high school and college, as well as achieve success in life. Constructivist theories suggest that guided inquiry may provide the impetus for their success, yet little research has been done to support this premise. This study was designed to fill that gap. This quasi-experimental study compared didactic and guided inquiry-based teaching of science concepts to secondary SWLDs in SDC science classes. The study examined 38 students in four classes at two diverse, urban high schools. Participants were taught two science concepts using both teaching methods and posttested after each using paper-and-pencil tests and performance tasks. Data were compared to determine increases in conceptual understanding by teaching method, order of teaching method, and exposure one or both teaching methods. A survey examined participants' perceived self-efficacy under each method. Also, qualitative comparison of the two test formats examined appropriate use with SWLDs. Results showed significantly higher scores after the guided inquiry method on concept of volume, suggesting that guided inquiry does improve conceptual understanding over didactic instruction in some cases. Didactic teaching followed by guided inquiry resulted in higher scores than the reverse order, indicating that SWLDs may require direct instruction in basic facts and procedures related to a topic prior to engaging in guided inquiry. Also application of both teaching methods resulted in significantly higher scores than a single method on the concept of density, suggesting that SWLDs may require more in depth instruction found using both methods. No differences in perceived self-efficacy were shown. Qualitative analysis both assessments and participants' behaviors during testing support the use of performance tasks over paper-and-pencil tests with SWLDs. Implications for education include the use of guided inquiry to increase SWLDs

  11. Climate Proxies: An Inquiry-Based Approach to Discovering Climate Change on Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    An attractive way to advance climate literacy in higher education is to emphasize its relevance while teaching climate change across the curriculum to science majors and non-science majors. An inquiry-based pedagogical approach was used to engage five groups of students on a "Polar Discovery Project" aimed at interpreting the paleoclimate history of ice cores from Antarctica. Learning objectives and student learning outcomes were clearly defined. Students were assigned several exercises ranging from examination of Antarctic topography to the application of physical and chemical measurements as proxies for climate change. Required materials included base and topographic maps of Antarctica; graph sheets for construction of topographic cross-sectional profiles from profile lines of the Western Antarctica Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide and East Antarctica; high-resolution photographs of Antarctic ice cores; stratigraphic columns of ice cores; borehole and glaciochemical data (i.e. anions, actions, δ18O, δD etc.); and isotope data on greenhouse gases (CH4, O2, N2) extracted from gas bubbles in ice cores. The methodology was to engage students in (2) construction of topographic profiles; (2) suggest directions for ice flow based on simple physics; (3) formulate decisions on suitable locations for drilling ice cores; (4) visual ice stratigraphy including ice layer counting; (5) observation of any insoluble particles (i.e. meteoritic and volcanic material); (6) analysis of borehole temperature profiles; and (7) the interpretation of several datasets to derive a paleoclimate history of these areas of the continent. The overall goal of the project was to improve the students analytical and quantitative skills; their ability to evaluate relationships between physical and chemical properties in ice cores, and to advance the understanding the impending consequences of climate change while engaging science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Student learning outcomes

  12. Using inquiry-based instruction to meet the standards of No Child Left Behind for middle school earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael W.

    This study examined the effectiveness of a specific instructional strategy employed to improve performance on the end-of-the-year Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) as mandated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. A growing body of evidence suggests that the perceived pressure to produce adequate aggregated scores on the CRCT causes teachers to neglect other relevant aspects of teaching and attend less to individualized instruction. Rooted in constructivist theory, inquiry-based programs provide a o developmental plan of instruction that affords the opportunity for each student to understand their academic needs and strengths. However, the utility of inquiry-based instruction is largely unknown due to the lack of evaluation studies. To address this problem, this quantitative evaluation measured the impact of the Audet and Jordan inquiry-based instructional model on CRCT test scores of 102 students in a sixth-grade science classroom in one north Georgia school. A series of binomial tests of proportions tested differences between CRCT scores of the program participants and those of a matched control sample selected from other district schools that did not adopt the program. The study found no significant differences on CRCT test scores between the treatment and control groups. The study also found no significant performance differences among genders in the sample using inquiry instruction. This implies that the utility of inquiry education might exist outside the domain of test scores. This study can contribute to social change by informing a reevaluation of the instructional strategies that ideally will serve NCLB high-stakes assessment mandates, while also affording students the individual-level skills needed to become productive members of society.

  13. Linking Employee Development Activity, Social Exchange and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Heather R.; Maurer, Todd J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined "perceived beneficiary" of employee development (self, organization) for relationships with employee development activity. Perceived organizational support served as a moderator. The authors conclude that employees may engage in development activities to partly benefit their organization to the extent that a positive exchange…

  14. Prolonged radioprotective activity of WR-2721 linked to dextran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moenig, H.; Konermann, G.; Oehlert, W.

    1990-01-01

    The radioprotective agent WR-2721 was linked to dextran and poly(glutamic acid) respectively, to obtain a prolonged radioprotective ability. Male mice were administered these water soluble polymer conjugates one to 72 hours prior to a whole body irradiation with X-rays. A prolongation of radioprotective efficiency was achieved with two dextran-(WR-2721)-conjugates. For a period of 24 hours between administration, and irradiation dose reduction factors of 1.14±0.04 and 1.10±0.03 respectively were found. After 72 hours, no protective effect was observed. Histopathological investigations of the liver for formation of tumors 200 to 600 days after irradiation seems to indicate that a protective effect is not produced by the dextran-(WR-2721)-conjugats. (orig.) [de

  15. Abnormal prefrontal and parietal activity linked to deficient active binding in working memory in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grot, Stéphanie; Légaré, Virginie Petel; Lipp, Olivier; Soulières, Isabelle; Dolcos, Florin; Luck, David

    2017-10-01

    Working memory deficits have been widely reported in schizophrenia, and may result from inefficient binding processes. These processes, and their neural correlates, remain understudied in schizophrenia. Thus, we designed an FMRI study aimed at investigating the neural correlates of both passive and active binding in working memory in schizophrenia. Nineteen patients with schizophrenia and 23 matched controls were recruited to perform a working memory binding task, in which they were instructed to memorize three letters and three spatial locations. In the passive binding condition, letters and spatial locations were directly presented as bound. Conversely, in the active binding condition, words and spatial locations were presented as separated, and participants were instructed to intentionally create associations between them. Patients exhibited a similar performance to the controls for the passive binding condition, but a significantly lower performance for the active binding. FMRI analyses revealed that this active binding deficit was related to aberrant activity in the posterior parietal cortex and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. This study provides initial evidence of a specific deficit for actively binding information in schizophrenia, which is linked to dysfunctions in the neural networks underlying attention, manipulation of information, and encoding strategies. Together, our results suggest that all these dysfunctions may be targets for neuromodulation interventions known to improve cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Linking Physical Activity with Academics: Strategies for Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the need for physical activity-integrated lessons for classroom teachers, provide strategies for effective integration, and encourage physical education teachers to be an additional

  17. IDENTITY FRAUD: Prevalence and Links to Alien Illegal Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    To discuss the significance of "identity fraud"-a term that encompasses a broad range of illegal activities based on fraudulent use of identifying information of a real person or of a fictitious person...

  18. Impact of backwards faded scaffolding approach to inquiry-based astronomy laboratory experiences on undergraduate non-science majors' views of scientific inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Daniel J.

    This study explored the impact of a novel inquiry-based astronomy laboratory curriculum designed using the Backwards Faded Scaffolding inquiry teaching framework on non-science majoring undergraduate students' views of the nature of scientific inquiry (NOSI). The study focused on two aspects of NOSI: The Distinction between Data and Evidence (DvE), and The Multiple Methods of Science (MMS). Participants were 220 predominately non-science majoring undergraduate students at a small, doctoral granting, research-extensive university in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. The student participants were enrolled in an introductory astronomy survey course with an associated laboratory section and were selected in two samples over consecutive fall and spring semesters. The participants also included four of the graduate student instructors who taught the laboratory courses using the intervention curriculum. In the first stage, student participant views of NOSI were measured using the VOSI-4 research instrument before and after the intervention curriculum was administered. The responses were quantified, and the distributions of pre and posttest scores of both samples were separately analyzed to determine if there was a significant improvement in understanding of either of the two aspects of NOSI. The results from both samples were compared to evaluate the consistency of the results. In the second stage, the quantitative results were used to strategically design a qualitative investigation, in which the four lab instructors were interviewed about their observations of how the student participants interacted with the intervention curriculum as compared to traditional lab activities, as well as their suggestions as to how the curriculum may or may not have contributed to the results of the first stage. These interviews were summarized and analyzed for common themes as to how the intervention curriculum influenced the students' understandings of the two aspect of

  19. Science Teachers' Understanding and Practice of Inquiry-Based Instruction in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssempala, Fredrick

    High school students in Uganda perform poorly in science subjects despite the Ugandan government's efforts to train science teachers and build modern science laboratories in many public high schools. The poor performance of students in science subjects has been largely blamed on the inability by many science teachers to teach science through Inquiry-Based Instruction (IBI) to motivate the students to learn science. However, there have been no empirical studies done to establish the factors that influence science teachers' understanding and practice of IBI in Uganda. Most of the published research on IBI has been conducted in developed countries, where the prevailing contexts are very different from the contexts in developing countries such as Uganda. Additionally, few studies have explored how professional development (PD) training workshops on inquiry and nature of science (NOS) affect chemistry teachers' understanding and practice of IBI. My purpose in this multi-case exploratory qualitative study was to explore the effect of a PD workshop on inquiry and NOS on chemistry teachers' understanding and practice of IBI in Kampala city public schools in Uganda. I also explored the relationship between chemistry teachers' NOS understanding and the nature of IBI implemented in their classrooms and the internal and external factors that influence teachers' understanding and practice of IBI. I used a purposive sampling procedure to identify two schools of similar standards from which I selected eight willing chemistry teachers (four from each school) to participate in the study. Half of the teachers (those from School A) attended the PD workshop on inquiry and NOS for six days, while the control group (those from School B) did not. I collected qualitative data through semi-structured interviews, classroom observation, and document analysis. I analyzed these data by structural, conceptual and theoretical coding approach. I established that all the participating chemistry

  20. Explore the concept of “light” and its interaction with matter: an inquiry-based science education project in primary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, P.; Costa, M. F.

    2015-04-01

    The exploration process leading to the understanding of physical phenomena, such as light and its interaction with matter, raises great interest and curiosity in children. However, in most primary schools, children rarely have the opportunity to conduct science activities in which they can engage in an enquiry process even if by the action of the teacher. In this context, we have organised several in-service teacher training courses and carried out several pedagogic interventions in Portuguese primary schools, with the aim of promoting inquiry- based science education. This article describes one of those projects, developed with a class of the third grade, which explored the curricular topic “Light Experiments”. Various activities were planned and implemented, during a total of ten hours spread over five lessons. The specific objectives of this paper are: to illustrate and analyse the teaching and learning process promoted in the classroom during the exploration of one of these lessons, and to assess children's learning three weeks after the lessons. The results suggest that children made significant learning which persisted. We conclude discussing some processes that stimulated children’ learning, including the importance of teacher questioning in scaffolding children's learning and some didactic implications for teacher training.

  1. Investigating engagement, thinking, and learning among culturally diverse, urban sixth graders experiencing an inquiry-based science curriculum, contextualized in the local environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Sybil Schantz

    This mixed-methods study combined pragmatism, sociocultural perspectives, and systems thinking concepts to investigate students' engagement, thinking, and learning in science in an urban, K-8 arts, science, and technology magnet school. A grant-funded school-university partnership supported the implementation of an inquiry-based science curriculum, contextualized in the local environment through field experiences. The researcher worked as co-teacher of 3 sixth-grade science classes and was deeply involved in the daily routines of the school. The purposes of the study were to build a deeper understanding of the complex interactions that take place in an urban science classroom, including challenges related to implementing culturally-relevant instruction; and to offer insight into the role educational systems play in supporting teaching and learning. The central hypothesis was that connecting learning to meaningful experiences in the local environment can provide culturally accessible points of engagement from which to build science learning. Descriptive measures provided an assessment of students' engagement in science activities, as well as their levels of thinking and learning throughout the school year. Combined with analyses of students' work files and focus group responses, these findings provided strong evidence of engagement attributable to the inquiry-based curriculum. In some instances, degree of engagement was found to be affected by student "reluctance" and "resistance," terms defined but needing further examination. A confounding result showed marked increases in thinking levels coupled with stasis or decrease in learning. Congruent with past studies, data indicated the presence of tension between the diverse cultures of students and the mainstream cultures of school and science. Findings were synthesized with existing literature to generate the study's principal product, a grounded theory model representing the complex, interacting factors involved in

  2. Hypoglycemic activity of dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, A M; Menon, S; Menon, R; Couto, A G; Bürger, C; Biavatti, M W

    2010-01-01

    Leaves of the pantropical genus Bauhinia (Fabaceae) are known popularly as cow's foot, due to their unique characteristic bilobed aspect. The species Bauhinia forficata (Brazilian Orchid-tree) is widely used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic. The present work investigates the hypoglycemic activity of the dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata leaves in vivo, as well as the influence of the drying and granulation processes on this activity. The fluid extract was dried to generate oven-dried (ODE), spray-dried (SDE) and wet granulation (WGE) extracts, with the aid of colloidal silicon dioxide and/or cellulose:lactose mixture. The dried extracts were characterized by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and photo microscopy image analysis. 200 mg/kg body wt., p.o. of each dried product were administered orally to male Wistar rats over 7 days old, for biomonitoring of the hypoglycemic activity profile. The effect of the extracts was studied in STZ-induced diabetic rats. After 7 days of treatment, fasting glucose was determined, and the livers were removed, dried on tissue paper, weighed, and stored at -20 degrees C to estimate hepatic glycogen. Our results show that spray-drying or oven-drying processes applied to B. forficata extracts did not significantly alter its flavonoid profile or its hypoglycemic activity. Indeed, the dried extracts of B. forficata act differently from glibenclamide. Despite the lower active content in WGE, because of the higher concentration of adjuvants, the use of the granulation process improved the manufacturing properties of the ODE, making this material more appropriate for use in tablets or capsules.

  3. Active Damping Control Methods for Three-Phase Slim DC-link Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Feng; Wang, Dong; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    for stabilizing such slim dc-link drives together with the benefit of low cost and high flexibility. This paper gives an overview of the state-of-the-art active damping methods for the three-phase slim dc-link drive. The main pros and cons of each method are identified. The theoretical comparison is validated...

  4. A well-started beginning elementary teacher's beliefs and practices in relation to reform recommendations about inquiry-based science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2017-06-01

    Given reform recommendations emphasizing scientific inquiry and empirical evidence pointing to the difficulties beginning teachers face in enacting inquiry-based science, this study explores a well-started beginning elementary teacher's (Sofia) beliefs about inquiry-based science and related instructional practices. In order to explore Sofia's beliefs and instructional practices, several kinds of data were collected in a period of 9 months: a self-portrait and an accompanying narrative, a personal philosophy assignment, three interviews, three journal entries, ten lesson plans, and ten videotaped classroom observations. The analysis of these data showed that Sofia's beliefs and instructional practices were reform-minded. She articulated contemporary beliefs about scientific inquiry and how children learn science and was able to translate these beliefs into practice. Central to Sofia's beliefs about science teaching were scientific inquiry and engaging students in investigations with authentic data, with a prevalent emphasis on the role of evidence in the construction of scientific claims. These findings are important to research aiming at supporting teachers, especially beginning ones, to embrace reform recommendations.

  5. K63-Linked Ubiquitination in Kinase Activation and Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guocan [Department of Cancer Biology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gao, Yuan [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Li, Liren [Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Jin, Guoxiang; Cai, Zhen [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Chao, Jui-I [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hui-Kuan, E-mail: hklin@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-01-31

    Ubiquitination has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in multiple biological functions, which include cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, innate immune response, and neuronal degeneration. Although the role of ubiquitination in targeting proteins for proteasome-dependent degradation have been extensively studied and well-characterized, the critical non-proteolytic functions of ubiquitination, such as protein trafficking and kinase activation, involved in cell survival and cancer development, just start to emerge, In this review, we will summarize recent progresses in elucidating the non-proteolytic function of ubiquitination signaling in protein kinase activation and its implications in human cancers. The advancement in the understanding of the novel functions of ubiquitination in signal transduction pathways downstream of growth factor receptors may provide novel paradigms for the treatment of human cancers.

  6. K63-Linked Ubiquitination in Kinase Activation and Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guocan; Gao, Yuan; Li, Liren; Jin, Guoxiang; Cai, Zhen; Chao, Jui-I; Lin, Hui-Kuan

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitination has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in multiple biological functions, which include cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, innate immune response, and neuronal degeneration. Although the role of ubiquitination in targeting proteins for proteasome-dependent degradation have been extensively studied and well-characterized, the critical non-proteolytic functions of ubiquitination, such as protein trafficking and kinase activation, involved in cell survival and cancer development, just start to emerge, In this review, we will summarize recent progresses in elucidating the non-proteolytic function of ubiquitination signaling in protein kinase activation and its implications in human cancers. The advancement in the understanding of the novel functions of ubiquitination in signal transduction pathways downstream of growth factor receptors may provide novel paradigms for the treatment of human cancers.

  7. Links with NEA activities: Nuclear Data services and WPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabellos, O.

    2016-01-01

    During the last three years a significant number of international activities have been undertaken on Primary Radiation Damage (PRD): the Expert Group on Primary Radiation Damage belonging to the Working Party on Multi-scale Modelling of Fuels and Structural Materials for Nuclear Systems (WPMM- OECD/NEA/NSC), Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Primary Radiation Damage Cross Sections” (IAEA/NDS) and the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion within the Fusion for Energy (F4E) Program. NEA activities related to fuels and structural materials are coordinated by the Working Party on Multi-scale Modelling of Fuels and Structural Materials for Nuclear Systems, WPMM. In May 2015, the Expert Group on “Primary Radiation Damage” reviewed the limitation of the NRT-dpa standard, and recommended a new improved standard of primary damage characteristics, the arc-dpa. Recently, the new Expert Group on Structural Materials Modelling (SMM) has been created to enhance efforts on the multiscale modelling approach applied to structural materials, in order to investigate phenomena that can not be studied experimentally, predicting how the nanostructure and the microchemistry changes under irradiation

  8. Timeless links replication termination to mitotic kinase activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraju Dheekollu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that coordinate the termination of DNA replication with progression through mitosis are not completely understood. The human Timeless protein (Tim associates with S phase replication checkpoint proteins Claspin and Tipin, and plays an important role in maintaining replication fork stability at physical barriers, like centromeres, telomeres and ribosomal DNA repeats, as well as at termination sites. We show here that human Tim can be isolated in a complex with mitotic entry kinases CDK1, Auroras A and B, and Polo-like kinase (Plk1. Plk1 bound Tim directly and colocalized with Tim at a subset of mitotic structures in M phase. Tim depletion caused multiple mitotic defects, including the loss of sister-chromatid cohesion, loss of mitotic spindle architecture, and a failure to exit mitosis. Tim depletion caused a delay in mitotic kinase activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as a reduction in global histone H3 S10 phosphorylation during G2/M phase. Tim was also required for the recruitment of Plk1 to centromeric DNA and formation of catenated DNA structures at human centromere alpha satellite repeats. Taken together, these findings suggest that Tim coordinates mitotic kinase activation with termination of DNA replication.

  9. Understanding the Development of a Hybrid Practice of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction and Language Development: A Case Study of One Teacher's Journey Through Reflections on Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitelli, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Rankin, Lynn; Austin, Marilyn; Caven, Gennifer

    2016-04-01

    This qualitative case study looks closely at an elementary teacher who participated in professional development experiences that helped her develop a hybrid practice of using inquiry-based science to teach both science content and English language development (ELD) to her students, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). This case study examines the teacher's reflections on her teaching and her students' learning as she engaged her students in science learning and supported their developing language skills. It explicates the professional learning experiences that supported the development of this hybrid practice. Closely examining the pedagogical practice and reflections of a teacher who is developing an inquiry-based approach to both science learning and language development can provide insights into how teachers come to integrate their professional development experiences with their classroom expertise in order to create a hybrid inquiry-based science ELD practice. This qualitative case study contributes to the emerging scholarship on the development of teacher practice of inquiry-based science instruction as a vehicle for both science instruction and ELD for ELLs. This study demonstrates how an effective teaching practice that supports both the science and language learning of students can develop from ongoing professional learning experiences that are grounded in current perspectives about language development and that immerse teachers in an inquiry-based approach to learning and instruction. Additionally, this case study also underscores the important role that professional learning opportunities can play in supporting teachers in developing a deeper understanding of the affordances that inquiry-based science can provide for language development.

  10. Using inquiry-based instruction with Web-based data archives to facilitate conceptual change about tides among preservice teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Sedat

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe and understand preservice teachers' conceptions of tides and to explore an instructional strategy that might promote the learning of scientific concepts. The participants were preservice teachers in three initial licensure programs. A total of 80 graduate students, in secondary, middle, and early childhood education programs completed a multiple choice assessment of their knowledge of tides-related concepts. Thirty of the 80 participants were interviewed before the instruction. Nineteen of the 30 students who were interviewed also participated in the instruction and were interviewed after the instruction. These 19 students also completed both the pre-test and 18 of them completed the post-test on tides and related content. Data regarding the participants' conceptual understandings of tides were collected before and after the instruction using both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. A multiple choice pre-test was developed by the researcher. The same test was used before and after the instructional intervention. Structured interviews were conducted with participants before and after instruction. In addition to interviews, participants were asked to write a short journal after instruction. The constant comparative method was used to analyze the qualitative data. Preservice teachers' conceptual understandings of tides were categorized under six different types of conceptual understandings. Before the instruction, all preservice teachers held alternative or alternative fragments as their types of conceptual understandings of tides, and these preservice teachers who held alternative conceptions about tides were likely to indicate that there is one tidal bulge on Earth. They tried to explain this one tidal bulge using various alternative conceptions. After completing an inquiry-based and technology-enhanced instruction of tides, preservice teachers were more likely to hold a scientific conceptual

  11. Teacher enactment of an inquiry-based science curriculum and its relationship to student interest and achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimichino, Daniela C.

    This mixed-methods case study, influenced by aspects of grounded theory, aims to explore the relationships among a teacher's attitude toward inquiry-based middle school reform, their enactment of such a curriculum, and student interest and achievement in science. A solid theoretical basis was constructed from the literature on the benefits of inquiry-based science over traditional science education, the benefits of using constructivist learning techniques in the classroom, the importance of motivating teachers to change their teaching practices to be more constructive, and the importance of motivating and exciting students in order to boost achievement in science. Data was collected using qualitative documents such as teacher and student interviews, classroom observations, and curriculum development meetings, in addition to quantitative documents such as student science interest surveys and science skills tests. The qualitative analysis focused on examining teacher attitudes toward curricular reform efforts, and the enactments of three science teachers during the initial year of an inquiry-based middle school curriculum adoption using a fidelity of implementation tool constructed from themes that emerged from the data documents utilized in this study. In addition, both qualitative and quantitative tools were used to measure an increase or decrease in student interest and student achievement over the study year, and their resulting relationships to their teachers' attitudes and enactments of the curriculum. Results from data analysis revealed a positive relationship between the teachers' attitude toward curricular change and their fidelity of implementation to the developers' intentions, or curricular enactment. In addition, strong positive relationships were also discovered among teacher attitude, student interest, and student achievement. Variations in teacher enactment also related to variations in student interest and achievement, with considerable positive

  12. Connecting Indigenous Stories with Geology: Inquiry-Based Learning in a Middle Years Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Damian; King, Donna; Kidman, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    One way to integrate indigenous perspectives in junior science is through links between indigenous stories of the local area and science concepts. Using local indigenous stories about landforms, a teacher of Year 8 students designed a unit on geology that catered for the diverse student population in his class. This paper reports on the…

  13. Evaluating Learning Outcomes in Introductory Chemistry Using Virtual Laboratories to Support Inquiry Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Cecile R.

    2012-01-01

    In the U.S., future economic viability is being challenged by an increasing inability to replace retiring engineers and scientists through the year 2020 due to declines in learner motivation and proficiency in science. The expository laboratory appears to be linked with non-engagement and is one possible contributing factor to this problem…

  14. Connecting Educators with Inter-Disciplinary Inquiry-Based Science and Students with STEM Careers with Real-World Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Our professional development workshops have provided participating teachers (inservice and pre-service with interdisciplinary experiences in earth and environmental science that have built their content into real-world problem based research initiatives (STEM, Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. One of our real-world issues has been the detection of phenol since it has been a concern in the real-world coal mining industry. Coal tars are a complex of variable mixtures of phenols. Phenol and phenol derivative compounds are widely used in the production of polymers, drugs, dyes, explosives, pesticides, stabilizers and antioxidants. These phenolic compounds are discharged into the environment and can represent a serious hazard, mainly by the contamination of superficial and underground waters. The toxic effect of phenol can cause comas, convulsions, cyanosis, liver damage, kidney damage, lung damage and death. The mining industry for coal is an alternative source of energy and used in thermoelectric power plants. However, the pollutant phenol that can be found in coal has high need to be detected and is an important aspect to keep an eye on due to these harmful chemicals such as phenol discharging into the environment. Our inquiry-based labs have engaged our inservice and pre-service students by visiting a mine and learning the positive and negative aspects of mining and the importance of water quality. Thus, this inquiry-based module will illustrate the use of an electrochemistry modified carbon nanotube poly-3-hexylthiophene electrode to detect such harmful chemicals as phenol by unique electrochemistry techniques such as Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV.

  15. A rights-based approach to science literacy using local languages: Contextualising inquiry-based learning in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaci-Wilhite, Zehlia

    2017-06-01

    This article addresses the importance of teaching and learning science in local languages. The author argues that acknowledging local knowledge and using local languages in science education while emphasising inquiry-based learning improve teaching and learning science. She frames her arguments with the theory of inquiry, which draws on perspectives of both dominant and non-dominant cultures with a focus on science literacy as a human right. She first examines key assumptions about knowledge which inform mainstream educational research and practice. She then argues for an emphasis on contextualised learning as a right in education. This means accounting for contextualised knowledge and resisting the current trend towards de-contextualisation of curricula. This trend is reflected in Zanzibar's recent curriculum reform, in which English replaced Kiswahili as the language of instruction (LOI) in the last two years of primary school. The author's own research during the initial stage of the change (2010-2015) revealed that the effect has in fact proven to be counterproductive, with educational quality deteriorating further rather than improving. Arguing that language is essential to inquiry-based learning, she introduces a new didactic model which integrates alternative assumptions about the value of local knowledge and local languages in the teaching and learning of science subjects. In practical terms, the model is designed to address key science concepts through multiple modalities - "do it, say it, read it, write it" - a "hands-on" experiential combination which, she posits, may form a new platform for innovation based on a unique mix of local and global knowledge, and facilitate genuine science literacy. She provides examples from cutting-edge educational research and practice that illustrate this new model of teaching and learning science. This model has the potential to improve learning while supporting local languages and culture, giving local languages their

  16. Implementation of Inquiry-Based Tutorials in AN Introductory Physics Course: the Role of the Graduate Teaching Assistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Carol Wiggins

    1994-01-01

    This study determined if the training provided physics teaching assistants was sufficient to accomplish the objectives of inquiry-based tutorials for an introductory physics course. Qualitative research methods were used: (1) to determine if the Physics by Inquiry method was modeled; (2) to describe the process from the teaching assistant perspective; (3) to determine TA opinions on training methods; (4) to develop a frame of reference to better understand the role of TA's as instructional support staff. The study determined that the teaching assistants verbalized appropriate instructional actions, but were observed to use a predominantly didactic teaching style. TA's held a variety of perceptions and beliefs about inquiry -based learning and how science is learned. They felt comfortable in the role of tutorial instructor. They were satisfied with the training methods provided and had few suggestions to change or improve training for future tutorial instructors. A concurrent theme of teacher action dependent on teacher beliefs was sustained throughout the study. The TA's actions, as tutorial instructors, reflected their educational beliefs, student background and learning experiences. TA's performance as tutorial instructors depended on what they think and believe about learning science. Practical implications exist for training teaching assistants to be tutorial instructors. Some recommendations may be appropriate for TA's required to use instructional methods that they have not experienced as students. Interview prospective teaching assistants to determine educational experience and beliefs. Employ inexperienced teaching assistants whose perspectives match the proposed instructional role and who might be more receptive to modeling. Incorporate training into staff meetings. Provide time for TA's to experience the instructional model with simulation or role play as students and as instructors, accompanied by conference discussion. Use strategies known to enhance

  17. Active damping technique for small DC-link capacitor based drive system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Henriksen, Bjarne

    2010-01-01

    A detailed model of Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) is discussed, which yield a general rule for active damping in a small DC link based drive. A desired value of input LC resonance damping coefficient can be achieved by changing gain parameters. The modified state space matrix due to active damping...

  18. The Impact of High School Science Teachers' Beliefs, Curricular Enactments and Experience on Student Learning during an Inquiry-Based Urban Ecology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Katherine L.; Pimentel, Diane Silva; Strauss, Eric G.

    2013-01-01

    Inquiry-based curricula are an essential tool for reforming science education yet the role of the teacher is often overlooked in terms of the impact of the curriculum on student achievement. Our research focuses on 22 teachers' use of a year-long high school urban ecology curriculum and how teachers' self-efficacy, instructional practices,…

  19. Investigating the Effectiveness of an Inquiry-Based Intervention on Human Reproduction in Relation to Students' Gender, Prior Knowledge and Motivation for Learning in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichambis, Andreas Ch.; Georgiou, Yiannis; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Demetra; Kyza, Eleni A.; Mappouras, Demetrios

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of understanding how the human reproductive system works, adolescents worldwide exhibit weak conceptual understanding, which leads to serious risks, such as unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. Studies focusing on the development and evaluation of inquiry-based learning interventions, promoting the…

  20. Detergent-Based Isolation of Yeast Membrane Rafts: An Inquiry-Based Laboratory Series for the Undergraduate Cell Biology or Biochemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhite, D. Grant; Wright, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts have been implicated in numerous cellular processes including cell signaling, endocytosis, and even viral infection. Isolation of these lipid rafts often involves detergent treatment of the membrane to dissolve nonraft components followed by separation of raft regions in a density gradient. We present here an inquiry-based lab series…

  1. Inquiry-Based Science Education Competencies of Primary School Teachers: A literature study and critical review of the American National Science Education Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alake - Tuenter, E.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Tobi, H.; Wals, A.E.J.; Oosterheert, I.; Mulder, M.

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based science education is an important innovation. Researchers and teachers consider it to be stimulating for pupils’ application of research skills, construction of meaning and acquiring scientific knowledge. However, there is ambiguity as to what competencies are required to teach

  2. Understanding the Development of a Hybrid Practice of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction and Language Development: A Case Study of One Teacher's Journey through Reflections on Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitelli, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Rankin, Lynn; Austin, Marilyn; Caven, Gennifer

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative case study looks closely at an elementary teacher who participated in professional development experiences that helped her develop a hybrid practice of using inquiry-based science to teach both science content and English language development (ELD) to her students, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). This case study…

  3. Changes in Teachers' Beliefs and Classroom Practices Concerning Inquiry-Based Instruction Following a Year-Long RET-PLC Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Rommel J.; Damico, Julie B.

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examines how engaging science teachers in a summer Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) followed by an academic-year Professional Learning Community (PLC) focused on translating teacher research experiences to inquiry-based classroom lessons might facilitate changes in their beliefs and classroom practices regarding…

  4. Science Teachers' Views and Stereotypes of Religion, Scientists and Scientific Research: A Call for Scientist-Science Teacher Partnerships to Promote Inquiry-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing consensus regarding the value of inquiry-based learning (IBL) for students' learning and engagement in the science classroom, the implementation of such practices continues to be a challenge. If science teachers are to use IBL to develop students' inquiry practices and encourage them to think and act as scientists, a better…

  5. Preparing Digital Stories through the Inquiry-Based Learning Approach: Its Effect on Prospective Teachers' Resistive Behaviors toward Research and Technology-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz Konokman, Gamze; Yanpar Yelken, Tugba

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of preparing digital stories through an inquiry based learning approach on prospective teachers' resistive behaviors toward technology based instruction and conducting research. The research model was convergent parallel design. The sample consisted of 50 prospective teachers who had completed…

  6. Effect of Inquiry-Based Computer Simulation Modeling on Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Homeostasis and Their Perceptions of Design Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalengula, Vivien; Fateen, Rasheta; Mumba, Frackson; Ochs, Laura Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of an inquiry-based computer simulation modeling (ICoSM) instructional approach on pre-service science teachers' understanding of homeostasis and its related concepts, and their perceived design features of the ICoSM and simulation that enhanced their conceptual understanding of these concepts. Fifty pre-service…

  7. Integrating Various Apps on BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) into Seamless Inquiry-Based Learning to Enhance Primary Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanjie; Wen, Yun

    2018-01-01

    Despite that BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) technology model has been increasingly adopted in education, few studies have been reported on how to integrate various apps on BYOD into inquiry-based pedagogical practices in primary schools. This article reports a case study, examining what apps on BYOD can help students enhance their science learning,…

  8. Adsorption of Arsenic by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: A Versatile, Inquiry-Based Laboratory for a High School or College Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDorn, Daniel; Ravalli, Matthew T.; Small, Mary Margaret; Hillery, Barbara; Andreescu, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    There has been much interest in magnetite (Fe[subscript 3]O[subscript 4]) due to its utility in adsorbing high concentrations of arsenic in contaminated water. The magnetic properties of the material allow for simple dispersion and removal from an aqueous system. An inquiry-based laboratory has been developed that illustrates these unique…

  9. The Impact of Inquiry Based Instruction on Science Process Skills and Self-Efficacy Perceptions of Pre-Service Science Teachers at a University Level Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ceylan; Sezen Vekli, Gülsah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the influence of inquiry-based teaching approach on pre-service science teachers' laboratory self-efficacy perceptions and scientific process skills. The quasi experimental model with pre-test-post-test control group design was used as an experimental design in this research. The sample of this study included…

  10. The Effects of Teacher and Teacher-librarian High-end Collaboration on Inquiry-based Project Reports and School Monthly Test Scores of Fifth-grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Hon Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold. The first purpose was to establish the high level collaboration of integrated instruction model between social studies teacher and teacher-librarian. The second purpose was to investigate the effects of high-end collaboration on the individual and groups’ inquiry-based project reports, as well as monthly test scores of fifth-grade students. A quasi-experimental method was adopted, two classes of elementary school fifth graders in Tainan Municipal city, Taiwan were used as samples. Students were randomly assigned to experimental conditions by class. Twenty eight students of the experimental group were taught by the collaboration of social studies teacher and teacher-librarian; while 27 students of the controlled group were taught separately by teacher in didactic teaching method. Inquiry-Based Project Record, Inquiry-Based Project Rubrics, and school monthly test scores were used as instruments for collecting data. A t-test and correlation were used to analyze the data. The results indicate that: (1 High-end collaboration model between social studies teacher and teacher-librarian was established and implemented well in the classroom. (2There was a significant difference between the experimental group and the controlled group in individual and groups’ inquiry-based project reports. Students that were taught by the collaborative teachers got both higher inquiry-based project reports’ scores than those that were taught separately by the teachers. Experimental group’s students got higher school monthly test scores than controlled groups. Suggestions for teachers’ high-end collaboration and future researcher are provided in this paper.

  11. Links between Older and Younger Adolescent Siblings' Adjustment: The Moderating Role of Shared Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2008-01-01

    Siblings' constructive and unstructured shared activities were examined as moderators of the links between first- and second-born siblings' adjustment across a two-year period in adolescence. Siblings (N = 189 dyads) reported on their depression, peer competency, self worth during home interviews, and their time together in constructive (e.g.,…

  12. Linking Motivation and Commitment through Learning Activities in the Volunteer Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafino, Allan

    2001-01-01

    Volunteer motivation and commitment are linked through learning about the organization, the job, and oneself. Volunteer managers should (1) identity volunteer motivations and establish conditions to support them; (2) identify learning activities appropriate for motivations and learning styles; (3) ensure congruence between volunteer learning and…

  13. Filling the Gap : Relationship Between the Serotonin-Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region and Amygdala Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Servaas, Michelle N.; Marsman, Jan-Bernard; Ormel, Johan; Nolte, Ilja M.; Riese, Harriette; Aleman, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The alleged association between the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and amygdala activation forms a cornerstone of the common view that carrying the short allele of this polymorphism is a potential risk factor for affective disorders. The authors of a recent meta-analysis

  14. Filling the Gap : Relationship Between the Serotonin-Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region and Amygdala Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Servaas, Michelle N.; Marsman, Jan-Bernard; Ormel, Johan; Nolte, Ilja M.; Riese, Harriette; Aleman, Andre

    The alleged association between the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and amygdala activation forms a cornerstone of the common view that carrying the short allele of this polymorphism is a potential risk factor for affective disorders. The authors of a recent meta-analysis

  15. Linking subsistence activities to global marketing systems: the role of institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to improve the understanding of how micro-level subsistence activities might be related to higher-level phenomena to increase the well-being of individuals and communities in contexts characterized by institutional gaps. Using coffee as illustrative case, it explores the link

  16. Linking Obesity and Activity Level with Children's Television and Video Game Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Shim, Mi-suk; Caplovitz, Allison G.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the links between childhood obesity, activity participation and television and video game use in a nationally representative sample of children (N=2831) ages 1-12 using age-normed body mass index (BMI) ratings. Results indicated that while television use was not related to children's weight status, video game use was. Children…

  17. An Active Damping Technique for Small DC-Link Capacitor Based Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2013-01-01

    A small dc-link capacitor based drive system shows instability when it is operated with large input line inductance at operating points with high power. This paper presents a simple, new active damping technique that can stabilize effectively the drive system at unstable operating points, offering...

  18. A cross-cultural, multilevel study of inquiry-based instruction effects on conceptual understanding and motivation in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Meiko

    Student achievement and motivation to learn physics is highly valued in many industrialized countries including the United States and Japan. Science education curricula in these countries emphasize the importance and encourage classroom teachers to use an inquiry approach. This dissertation investigated high school students' motivational orientations and their understanding of physics concepts in a context of inquiry-based instruction. The goals were to explore the patterns of instructional effects on motivation and learning in each country and to examine cultural differences and similarities. Participants consisted of 108 students (55 females, 53 males) and 9 physics teachers in the United States and 616 students (203 females and 413 males) and 11 physics teachers in Japan. Students were administered (a) Force Concept Inventory measuring physics conceptual understanding and (b) Attitudes about Science Questionnaire measuring student motivational orientations. Teachers were given a survey regarding their use of inquiry teaching practices and background information. Additionally, three teachers in each country were interviewed and observed in their classrooms. For the data analysis, two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) methods were used to examine individual student differences (i.e., learning, motivation, and gender) within each classroom (i.e., inquiry-based teaching, teaching experience, and class size) in the U.S. and Japan, separately. Descriptive statistical analyses were also conducted. The results indicated that there was a cultural similarity in that current teaching practices had minimal influence on conceptual understanding as well as motivation of high school students between the U.S. and Japan. In contrast, cultural differences were observed in classroom structures and instructional approaches. Furthermore, this study revealed gender inequity in Japanese students' conceptual understanding and self-efficacy. Limitations of the study, as well as

  19. Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link). Schindler

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Yeşim

    2017-01-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link). Schnider)  leaves and seeds werescreened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidative potential of ethanol andmethanol extracts of Jojoba (Simmondsiachinensis) were investigated for the first time using DPPH2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity.Total phenolic substance amounts were calculated according to Folin-Ciocalteumethod, substance concentrations in mg/GAE g, equivalent to gall...

  20. Best Practices for Implementing Inquiry-Based Science Instruction for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Erica

    This applied dissertation was designed to provide better access to current information to link literacy and science. Students frequently used literacy skills to gather information and communicate understanding of scientific concepts to others. Science became applicable through the tools associated with literacy. There was a need for instruction that integrated language development with science content. This research focused on revealing the instructional trends of English language learners science teachers in the United Arab Emirates. The researcher introduced the questionnaire surveys in the form of a professional development session. The participants were asked to complete the questionnaire concurrently with the descriptive presentation of each component of the sheltered instruction observation protocol (SIOP) model. Completing the SIOP Checklist Survey provided data on the type of constructivist strategies (best practices) teachers were utilizing and to what degree of fidelity the strategies were being implemented. Teachers were encouraged to continue to use these services for curriculum enrichment and as an additional source for future lesson plans. An analysis of the data revealed authentic learning as the most common best practice used with the most fidelity by teachers. The demographic subgroup, teaching location, was the only subgroup to show statistical evidence of an association between teaching location and the use of problem-based learning techniques in the classroom. Among factors that influenced the degree of teacher fidelity, teachers' expectation for student achievement had a moderate degree of association between the use of scaffolding techniques and co-operative learning.

  1. Shifting more than the goal posts: developing classroom norms of inquiry-based learning in mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Katie; Fielding-Wells, Jill

    2018-03-01

    The 3-year study described in this paper aims to create new knowledge about inquiry norms in primary mathematics classrooms. Mathematical inquiry addresses complex problems that contain ambiguities, yet classroom environments often do not adopt norms that promote curiosity, risk-taking and negotiation needed to productively engage with complex problems. Little is known about how teachers and students initiate, develop and maintain norms of mathematical inquiry in primary classrooms. The research question guiding this study is, "How do classroom norms develop that facilitate student learning in primary classrooms which practice mathematical inquiry?" The project will (1) analyse a video archive of inquiry lessons to identify signature practices that enhance productive classroom norms of mathematical inquiry and facilitate learning, (2) engage expert inquiry teachers to collaborate to identify and design strategies for assisting teachers to develop and sustain norms over time that are conducive to mathematical inquiry and (3) support and study teachers new to mathematical inquiry adopting these practices in their classrooms. Anticipated outcomes include identification and illustration of classroom norms of mathematical inquiry, signature practices linked to these norms and case studies of primary teachers' progressive development of classroom norms of mathematical inquiry and how they facilitate learning.

  2. Salting the Oats: Using Inquiry-based Science To Engage Learners at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Paddy

    2001-01-01

    Considers how due to the emphasis of reading, writing, and math, low-performing students are pulled from their regular classes for one-on-one tutorial sessions, restricting their exposure to group discussions and activities that encourage higher-order thinking skills. Suggests a reshaping of remedial curricula based on six guidelines. (SG)

  3. A voltage control method for an active capacitive DC-link module with series-connected circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Many efforts have been made to improve the performance of power electronic systems with active capacitive DC-link module in terms of power density as well as reliability. One of the attractive solution is an active capacitive DC-link with the series-connected circuit because of handling small......-rated power. However, in the existing control method of this circuit, the DC-link current of the backward-stage or forward-stage need to be sensed for extracting the ripple components, which limits the flexibility of the active DC-link module. Thus, in this paper, a voltage control method of an active...... capacitive DC-link module is proposed. Current sensor at the DC-link will be cancel from the circuit. The controller of the series-connected circuit requires internal voltage signals of the DC-link module only, making it possible to be fully independent without any additional connection to the main circuit...

  4. Implementation and outcomes of inquiry-based learning in mathematics content courses for pre-service teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Sandra L.; Hassi, Marja-Liisa; Hough, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    This mixed-methods study describes classroom characteristics and student outcomes from university mathematics courses that are based in mathematics departments, targeted to future pre-tertiary teachers, and taught with inquiry-based learning (IBL) approaches. The study focused on three two-term sequences taught at two research universities, separately targeting elementary and secondary pre-service teachers. Classroom observation established that the courses were taught with student-centred methods that were comparable to those used in IBL courses for students in mathematics-intensive fields at the same institutions. To measure pre-service teachers' gains in mathematical knowledge for teaching, we administered the Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) instrument developed by Hill, Ball and Schilling for in-service teacher professional development. Results from the LMT show that pre-service teachers made significant score gains from beginning to end of their course, while data from interviews and from surveys of learning gains show that pre-service teachers viewed their gains as relevant to their future teaching work. Measured changes on pre-/post-surveys of attitudes and beliefs were generally supportive of learning mathematics but modest in magnitude. The study is distinctive in applying the LMT to document pre-service teachers' growth in mathematical knowledge for teaching. The study also suggests IBL is an approach well suited to mathematics departments seeking to strengthen their pre-service teacher preparation offerings in ways consistent with research-based recommendations.

  5. Critical-Inquiry-Based-Learning: Model of Learning to Promote Critical Thinking Ability of Pre-service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayogi, S.; Yuanita, L.; Wasis

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to develop Critical-Inquiry-Based-Learning (CIBL) learning model to promote critical thinking (CT) ability of preservice teachers. The CIBL learning model was developed by meeting the criteria of validity, practicality, and effectiveness. Validation of the model involves 4 expert validators through the mechanism of the focus group discussion (FGD). CIBL learning model declared valid to promote CT ability, with the validity level (Va) of 4.20 and reliability (r) of 90,1% (very reliable). The practicality of the model was evaluated when it was implemented that involving 17 of preservice teachers. The CIBL learning model had been declared practice, its measuring from learning feasibility (LF) with very good criteria (LF-score = 4.75). The effectiveness of the model was evaluated from the improvement CT ability after the implementation of the model. CT ability were evaluated using the scoring technique adapted from Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test. The average score of CT ability on pretest is - 1.53 (uncritical criteria), whereas on posttest is 8.76 (critical criteria), with N-gain score of 0.76 (high criteria). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that developed CIBL learning model is feasible to promote CT ability of preservice teachers.

  6. The Development of Scientific Literacy through Nature of Science (NoS) within Inquiry Based Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widowati, A.; Widodo, E.; Anjarsari, P.; Setuju

    2017-11-01

    Understanding of science instructional leading to the formation of student scientific literacy, seems not yet fully understood well by science teachers. Because of this, certainly needs to be reformed because science literacy is a major goal in science education for science education reform. Efforts of development science literacy can be done by help students develop an information conception of the Nature of Science (NoS) and apply inquiry approach. It is expected that students’ science literacy can develop more optimal by combining NoS within inquiry approach. The purpose of this research is to produce scientific literacy development model of NoS within inquiry-based learning. The preparation of learning tools will be maked through Research and Development (R & D) following the 4-D model (Define, Design, Develop, and Disseminate) and Borg & Gall. This study is a follow-up of preliminary research results about the inquiry profile of junior high school students indicating that most categories are quite good. The design of the model NoS within inquiry approach for developing scientific literacy is using MER Model in development educational reconstruction. This research will still proceed to the next stage that is Develop.

  7. Developing Guided Inquiry-Based Student Lab Worksheet for Laboratory Knowledge Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmi, Y. L.; Novriyanti, E.; Ardi, A.; Rifandi, R.

    2018-04-01

    The course of laboratory knowledge is an introductory course for biology students to follow various lectures practicing in the biology laboratory. Learning activities of laboratory knowledge course at this time in the Biology Department, Universitas Negeri Padang has not been completed by supporting learning media such as student lab worksheet. Guided inquiry learning model is one of the learning models that can be integrated into laboratory activity. The study aimed to produce student lab worksheet based on guided inquiry for laboratory knowledge course and to determine the validity of lab worksheet. The research was conducted using research and developmet (R&D) model. The instruments used in data collection in this research were questionnaire for student needed analysis and questionnaire to measure the student lab worksheet validity. The data obtained was quantitative from several validators. The validators consist of three lecturers. The percentage of a student lab worksheet validity was 94.18 which can be categorized was very good.

  8. Reading, writing, and reserve: Literacy activities are linked to hippocampal volume and memory in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumowski, James F; Rocca, Maria A; Leavitt, Victoria M; Riccitelli, Gianna; Meani, Alessandro; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    Engagement in cognitive leisure activities during early adulthood has been linked to preserved memory and larger hippocampal volume in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate which specific types of cognitive leisure activities contribute to hippocampal volume and memory. We investigated links between three types of cognitive activities (Reading-Writing, Art-Music, Games-Hobbies) and (a) hippocampal volume within independent samples of Italian (n=187) and American (n=55) MS patients and (b) memory in subsamples of Italian (n=97) and American (n=53) patients. Reading-Writing was the only predictor of hippocampal volume (rp=.204, p=.002), and the best predictor of memory (rp=.288, p=.001). Findings inform the development of targeted evidence-based enrichment programs aiming to bolster reserve against memory decline. © The Author(s), 2016.

  9. Analysis of Harmonics Suppression by Active Damping Control on Multi Slim DC-link Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Feng; Máthé, Lászlo; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Compared with conventional dc-link drive, slim dc-link drive is expected to achieve lower cost and longer life time. However, harmonics distortion problem may occur in such drive systems. This paper proposes to use an active damping control method to suppress the harmonic distortion...... with the benefit of low cost and also low loss. A new analysis method, based on the frequency domain impedance model, is presented to explore the mechanism of harmonics suppression. Also, a general method is presented to build the impedance model of a PMSM drive system using Field Oriented Control (FOC) method....... Some design issues, including power levels, current control bandwidth and harmonic interaction, are discussed when the drive system is fed by a weak grid. Case studies on a two-drive system composed by two slim dc-link drive units are provided to verify the proposed analysis method....

  10. Project HEAT: Temperature as an Organizing Theme for Inquiry-Based Learning in the Environmental Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, T. P.; Howard, K. L.; Ewing-Taylor, J.

    2014-12-01

    Professionals in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields do not reflect the diversity of the US population. Among the most effective ways to attract and retain underrepresented students in STEM disciplines is to provide opportunities for participation in the scientific process and interaction with practicing scientists. Project HEAT (Hot Environments, Animals, & Temperature) is "boot-camp"-style workshop aimed at increasing interest in STEM topics among underrepresented, first-generation, college-bound middle school students. Linking to our NASA-funded research project "Desert Birds in a Warming World", we focused on how surprisingly variable temperature is in space and time, why temperature is important to plants, animals, and people, and how we measure temperature in the field and from space. Perhaps more importantly, this theme was a vehicle for students to experience science as a process: field observations, brainstorming questions and hypotheses, designing experiments to test them, and analyzing and reporting their data. The centerpiece was a set of experiments with small temperature sensors and radiation shields that teams of students designed, executed at a local park, analyzed, and reported. Two years of pre and post assessments revealed that Project HEAT participants increased understanding in content areas and showed slight increases in STEM interest. Year two results were markedly stronger than year one in both assessments as well as our perception. We attribute this to earlier summer timing of the workshop, a change from two half-day weeks to one full-day week, and a more age-homogeneous selection of students. In comments, participants expressed their special enjoyment of the hands-on nature of the program and the outdoor learning. Though providing such opportunities can be challenging, our experience here suggests that it can be worth while. Project HEAT also benefited our cadre of graduate student mentors by providing exposure

  11. An Inquiry-based Course Using ``Physics?'' in Cartoons and Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Books, cartoons, movies, and video games provide engaging opportunities to get both science and nonscience students excited about physics. An easy way to use these media in one's classroom is to have students view clips and identify unusual events, odd physics, or list things that violate our understanding of the physics that governs our universe.1,2 These activities provide a lesson or two of material, but how does one create an entire course on examining the physics in books, cartoons, movies, and video games? Other approaches attempt to reconcile events in various media with our understanding of physics3-8 or use cartoons themselves to help explain physics topics.9

  12. SPARC regulates extracellular matrix organization through its modulation of integrin-linked kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Thomas H; Baneyx, Gretchen; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Workman, Gail A; Weaver, Matt; Menon, Priya M; Dedhar, Shoukat; Rempel, Sandra A; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata; Vogel, Viola; Sage, E Helene

    2005-10-28

    SPARC, a 32-kDa matricellular glycoprotein, mediates interactions between cells and their extracellular matrix, and targeted deletion of Sparc results in compromised extracellular matrix in mice. Fibronectin matrix provides provisional tissue scaffolding during development and wound healing and is essential for the stabilization of mature extracellular matrix. Herein, we report that SPARC expression does not significantly affect fibronectin-induced cell spreading but enhances fibronectin-induced stress fiber formation and cell-mediated partial unfolding of fibronectin molecules, an essential process in fibronectin matrix assembly. By phage display, we identify integrin-linked kinase as a potential binding partner of SPARC and verify the interaction by co-immunoprecipitation and colocalization in vitro. Cells lacking SPARC exhibit diminished fibronectin-induced integrin-linked kinase activation and integrin-linked kinase-dependent cell-contractile signaling. Furthermore, induced expression of SPARC in SPARC-null fibroblasts restores fibronectin-induced integrin-linked kinase activation, downstream signaling, and fibronectin unfolding. These data further confirm the function of SPARC in extracellular matrix organization and identify a novel mechanism by which SPARC regulates extracellular matrix assembly.

  13. A biological pathway linking inflammation and depression: activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christmas DM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available David M Christmas, JP Potokar, Simon JC DaviesAcademic Unit of Psychiatry, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK A presentation relating to this manuscript was made by Dr David Christmas at the 9th International Meeting on Clinical Pharmacology in Psychiatry (9th IMCPP in Copenhagen, Denmark in September 2010Abstract: This article highlights the evidence linking depression to increased inflammatory drive and explores putative mechanisms for the association by reviewing both preclinical and clinical literature. The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is induced by proinflammatory cytokines and may form a link between immune functioning and altered neurotransmission, which results in depression. Increased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity may cause both tryptophan depletion and increased neurotoxic metabolites of the kynurenine pathway, two alterations which have been hypothesized to cause depression. The tryptophan-kynurenine pathway is comprehensively described with a focus on the evidence linking metabolite alterations to depression. The use of immune-activated groups at high risk of depression have been used to explore these hypotheses; we focus on the studies involving chronic hepatitis C patients receiving interferon-alpha, an immune activating cytokine. Findings from this work have led to novel strategies for the future development of antidepressants including inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, moderating the cytokines which activate it, or addressing other targets in the kynurenine pathway.Keywords: depression, inflammation, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, kynurenine, serotonin, tryptophan

  14. Inquiry Based Science Education and Getting Immediate Students’ Feedback about Their Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kekule

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on collecting evidence of the Establish project impact on students. For the purpose two questionnaires based on the existing tools have been used. Questionnaire 1 is a part of Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI based on the Self-determination theory. It is aimed at assessing students’ interests, their perceived choice and usefulness of implemented learning units and should be answered after each learning unit/several IBSE activities. Several items of CLES questionnaire are included there as well. Questionnaire 2 assesses the impact on students’ attitudes towards science and technology and on their knowledge about nature of building up science knowledge. Both questionnaires exist in the lower and upper secondary school versions. The paper presents selected data and results which were obtained by addressing the Questionnaire 1, so that the focus is on getting students’ feedback about their intrinsic motivation. Our assumption is that active learning is associated with positive intrinsic motivation of students. That is why we find as very important that educators have a possibility to understand the phenomenon more deeply. We aim to present the reliable tool for getting the feedback and to present a way of data processing which does not need advanced statistical methods, so that teachers (as well as science education researchers can use and analyze data obtained by the tool. Means and standard deviations for items of the subscales Interest/Enjoyment, Perceived choice and Value/Usefulness were computed. To determine the consistency of results, the Standard Pearson correlation cofficient was computed for all items within the subscales. Based on the findings, we can conclude that participants’ answers (questionnaire results were consistent (not responded mechanically.

  15. Integrating Various Apps on BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) into Seamless Inquiry-Based Learning to Enhance Primary Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanjie; Wen, Yun

    2018-04-01

    Despite that BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) technology model has been increasingly adopted in education, few studies have been reported on how to integrate various apps on BYOD into inquiry-based pedagogical practices in primary schools. This article reports a case study, examining what apps on BYOD can help students enhance their science learning, and how students develop their science knowledge in a seamless inquiry-based learning environment supported by these apps. A variety of qualitative data were collected and analyzed. The findings show that the affordances of the apps on BYOD could help students improve their science knowledge without time and place constraints and gain a better sense of ownership in learning.

  16. How does a Next Generation Science Standard Aligned, Inquiry Based, Science Unit Impact Student Achievement of Science Practices and Student Science Efficacy in an Elementary Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Kayla Lee

    This study examined the impact of an inquiry based Next Generation Science Standard aligned science unit on elementary students' understanding and application of the eight Science and Engineering Practices and their relation in building student problem solving skills. The study involved 44 second grade students and three participating classroom teachers. The treatment consisted of a school district developed Second Grade Earth Science unit: What is happening to our playground? that was taught at the beginning of the school year. Quantitative results from a Likert type scale pre and post survey and from student content knowledge assessments showed growth in student belief of their own abilities in the science classroom. Qualitative data gathered from student observations and interviews performed at the conclusion of the Earth Science unit further show gains in student understanding and attitudes. This study adds to the existing literature on the importance of standard aligned, inquiry based science curriculum that provides time for students to engage in science practices.

  17. Validity And Practicality of Experiment Integrated Guided Inquiry-Based Module on Topic of Colloidal Chemistry for Senior High School Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andromeda, A.; Lufri; Festiyed; Ellizar, E.; Iryani, I.; Guspatni, G.; Fitri, L.

    2018-04-01

    This Research & Development study aims to produce a valid and practical experiment integrated guided inquiry based module on topic of colloidal chemistry. 4D instructional design model was selected in this study. Limited trial of the product was conducted at SMAN 7 Padang. Instruments used were validity and practicality questionnaires. Validity and practicality data were analyzed using Kappa moment. Analysis of the data shows that Kappa moment for validity was 0.88 indicating a very high degree of validity. Kappa moments for the practicality from students and teachers were 0.89 and 0.95 respectively indicating high degree of practicality. Analysis on the module filled in by students shows that 91.37% students could correctly answer critical thinking, exercise, prelab, postlab and worksheet questions asked in the module. These findings indicate that the integrated guided inquiry based module on topic of colloidal chemistry was valid and practical for chemistry learning in senior high school.

  18. Inquiry-Based Science Education Competencies of Primary School Teachers: A literature study and critical review of the American National Science Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alake-Tuenter, Ester; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Tobi, Hilde; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Oosterheert, Ida; Mulder, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Inquiry-based science education is an important innovation. Researchers and teachers consider it to be stimulating for pupils' application of research skills, construction of meaning and acquiring scientific knowledge. However, there is ambiguity as to what competencies are required to teach inquiry-based science. Our purpose is to develop a profile of professional competence, required for effective inquiry-based science teaching in primary schools in the Netherlands. This article reviews literature and compares the outcomes to the American National Science Education Standards (NSES). In so doing, it seeks to answer the following research questions: What elements of competencies required by primary school teachers who teach inquiry-based science are mentioned, discussed and researched in recent literature? To what extent are the American NSES (introduced 15 years ago) consistent with elements of competencies found in recent literature? A comprehensive literature review was conducted using Educational Resources Information Centre and Google Scholar databases. Fifty-seven peer-reviewed scientific journal articles from 2004 to 2011 were found using keyword combinations. Analysis of these articles resulted in the identification and classification of 22 elements of competencies. This outcome was compared to the American NSES, revealing gaps in the standards with respect to a lack of focus on how teachers view science teaching and themselves as teachers. We also found that elements of competencies are connected and poor mastery of one may affect a teacher's mastery of another. Therefore, we propose that standards for the Netherlands should be presented in a non-linear, holistic, competence-based model.

  19. The Effects of Teacher and Teacher-librarian High-end Collaboration on Inquiry-based Project Reports and School Monthly Test Scores of Fifth-grade Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-Hon Chen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. The first purpose was to establish the high level collaboration of integrated instruction model between social studies teacher and teacher-librarian. The second purpose was to investigate the effects of high-end collaboration on the individual and groups’ inquiry-based project reports, as well as monthly test scores of fifth-grade students. A quasi-experimental method was adopted, two classes of elementary school fifth graders in Tainan Municipal city, T...

  20. ENHANCING STUDENTS’ READING ABILITY THROUGH INQUIRY BASED LEARNING TO EFL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnia Sari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available IBT techniques is series of activities that involved maximally throughout the student's ability to search and investigate in a systematic, critical, logical, analytical, so that they can formulate their own discoveries with confidence the search of knowledge and understanding to satisfy curiosity. IBT technique is also supposed to the teachers be creative to set situations. This method used was quasi experimental design. The purposive sampling technique was used on this study. The data were collected by reading test. The collected data was analyzed by using paired sample t-test and independent sample t-test. The results showed that the students’ reading ability was improved and there was a significant difference between the students who were taught by using IBT and those who were not. With IBT technique encouraged students to take the initiative to have question the phenomenon, to conduct field observations, to analyze the data, and to draw conclusions. Thus, it is to integrate students and synergize various skills of language and different methods.

  1. Semester-long inquiry-based molecular biology laboratory: Transcriptional regulation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkers, Peter M

    2017-03-04

    A single semester molecular biology laboratory has been developed in which students design and execute a project examining transcriptional regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three weeks of planning are allocated to developing a hypothesis through literature searches and use of bioinformatics. Common experimental plans address a cell process and how three genes that encode for proteins involved in that process are transcriptionally regulated in response to changing environmental conditions. Planning includes designing oligonucleotides to amplify the putative promoters of the three genes of interest. After the PCR, each product is cloned proximal to β-galactosidase in a yeast reporter plasmid. Techniques used include agarose electrophoresis, extraction of DNA from agarose, plasmid purification from bacteria, restriction digestion, ligation, and bacterial transformation. This promoter/reporter plasmid is then transformed into yeast. Transformed yeast are cultured in conditions prescribed in the experimental design, lysed and β-galactosidase activity is measured. The course provides an independent research experience in a group setting. Notebooks are maintained on-line with regular feedback. Projects culminate with the presentation of a poster worth 60% of the grade. Over the last three years, about 65% of students met expectations for experimental design, data acquisition, and analysis. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(2):145-151, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Learning to Become a More Effective Research or Inquiry-based Project Mentor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, E. J.; Pfund, C.; Mathieu, R.; Branchaw, J.

    2010-08-01

    How effective of a mentor are you? Have you thought much about this question? Have you participated in training to become a better mentor? For many academics, the typical three answers are "pretty good, I think ... why wouldn't I be?!"; "I am right now while reading this;" "Uh, no." The University of Wisconsin-Madison has developed a program called Research Mentor Training to help train scientists in myriad STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) disciplines, including astronomy, for their crucial role of mentoring the next generation. Most of the field testing to date has focused on graduate students, post-docs, academic staff, and faculty mentoring undergraduate students who are participating in summer research experiences. The materials have proven quite effective in other areas as well, with only modest modifications. For example, several faculty cohorts concentrating on mentoring graduate students and post-docs have completed the training. In addition, the materials are used to prepare graduate students and undergraduates to mentor high school students. The preferred venue for the mentor training program is a seminar meeting one hour per week for 8 to 9 weeks, plus readings and outside activities, including mentoring a student. However, the structure is flexible, and some meaningful learning can occur in a single 90-minute interactive workshop like the one presented at the 2009 ASP annual meeting, "Science Education and Outreach: Forging a Path to the Future." All of the materials, including case studies, facilitator notes and guidelines, plus reading lists, are available online for no charge (http://researchmentortraining.org). Users can select pre-built curricula, or they can customize a package using a "shopping cart" interface.

  3. 3.3. Sorption activity of cross-linked polymers of ethynyl-piperidol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalikov, D.Kh.

    2012-01-01

    The sorption activity of cross-linked polymers of ethynyl-piperidol was studied. The bilirubin sorption was studied as well. The kinetic of bilirubin sorption and human serum albumin at their joint presence in hydrogel solutions was defined. Bilirubin sorption and change of albumin composition was considered. The sorption of middle molecular peptides was considered as well. The sorption of endogenous toxin by means of ethynyl-piperidol polymers was done.

  4. In vitro Antiglycation and Cross-Link Breaking Activities of Sri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antiglycation and cross-link breaking activities of Sri Lankan low-grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L) Methods: Five concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 or 100.0 ìg/ml) of Black tea brew (BTB) were made using Sri Lankan low-grown Orange Pekoe (O.P.) grade ...

  5. Symposium 20 - PABMB: Teaching biochemistry in a connected world: Hands-on inquiry-based biochemistry courses for improving scientific literacy of school teachers and students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea T. da Poian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wednesday – August 26th, 2015 - 3:30 to 5:30 pm – Room: Iguaçu II – 5th floorSymposium 20 - PABMB: Teaching biochemistry in a connected world Chair: Miguel Castanho, Universidade de Lisboa, PortugalAbstract:In the last decades, Brazil has reached a prominent position in the world rank of scientific production. Despite this progress, the establishment of a scientific culture in Brazilian society is still challenging. Our group has been offering hands-on inquiry-based courses to primary and secondary students, which aim to introduce them to the scientific method and improve their interest in science. More recently, we started new initiatives focused on the improvement of the scientific literacy of school science teachers. Here we describe two intensive short-term courses designed in different formats. One consists in a discipline offered to a Master Program to school science teachers, in which the main objective was to work with core disciplinary concepts through an active teachers engagement in “doing science”. The discipline, named “Energy transformation in the living organisms”, intends to deal with the main Biochemistry subjects that take part of the high-school science curriculum, namely, fermentation, photosynthesis and cellular respiration processes. The other initiative was developed in Urucureá, a small community with about 600 residents, located on the banks of the River Arapiuns, in Amazonia region. We trained the local school teachers to act as tutors in the course offered to 40 students of the community, ages 10 to 17. The theme we chose to address was the properties and effects of snakes´ poisons, since poisoning events are a problem with which the local community frequently deal with. Another important point was that we adapted a number of experiments to make them feasible with very limited laboratory resources. Our results show that the activities that we have developed offer real opportunity of scientific training

  6. Antibacterial activity of berberine-NorA pump inhibitor hybrids with a methylene ether linking group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samosorn, Siritron; Tanwirat, Bongkot; Muhamad, Nussara; Casadei, Gabriele; Tomkiewicz, Danuta; Lewis, Kim; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Prammananan, Therdsak; Gornall, Karina C; Beck, Jennifer L; Bremner, John B

    2009-06-01

    Conjugation of the NorA substrate berberine and the NorA inhibitor 5-nitro-2-phenyl-1H-indole via a methylene ether linking group gave the 13-substituted berberine-NorA inhibitor hybrid, 3. A series of simpler arylmethyl ether hybrid structures were also synthesized. The hybrid 3 showed excellent antibacterial activity (MIC Staphylococcus aureus, 1.7 microM), which was over 382-fold more active than the parent antibacterial berberine, against this bacterium. This compound was also shown to block the NorA efflux pump in S. aureus.

  7. Amino acid linked bromobenzoyl thiourea derivatives: syntheses, characterization and antimicrobial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raheel, A.; Din, I.U.; Badshah, A.; Rauf, M.K.; Andleeb, S.

    2016-01-01

    Five new bromobenzoyl thiourea derivatives (1-5) linked with different amino acids were synthesized via the reaction of bromobenzoyl chloride with potassium thiocyanide and the corresponding amines. The synthetic compounds were characterized by single crystal XRD, IR and NMR (/sup 1/H- and /sup 13/C-) spectroscopy in addition to elemental analysis and melting point determinations. These compounds were also preliminary analyzed for antifungal and antibacterial activity against different strains of fungi and bacteria, respectively. The data suggest that the compounds exhibited promising antimicrobial activity and may prove potential lead compounds as antimicrobial agent. (author)

  8. "I am a scientist": How setting conditions that enhance focused concentration positively relate to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Robin B.

    This research investigated how student social interactions within two approaches to an inquiry-based science curriculum could be related to student motivation and achievement outcomes. This qualitative case study consisted of two cases, Off-Campus and On-Campus, and used ethnographic techniques of participant observation. Research participants included eight eighth grade girls, aged thirteen to fourteen years old. Data sources included formal and informal participant interviews, participant journal reflections, curriculum artifacts including quizzes, worksheets, and student-generated research posters, digital video and audio recordings, photographs, and researcher field notes. Data were transcribed verbatim and coded, then collapsed into emergent themes using NVIVO 9. The results of this research illustrate how setting conditions that promote focused concentration and communicative interactions can be positively related to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science. Participants in the Off-Campus case experienced more frequent states of focused concentration and out performed their peers in the On-Campus case on forty-six percent of classroom assignments. Off-Campus participants also designed and implemented a more cognitively complex research project, provided more in-depth analyses of their research results, and expanded their perceptions of what it means to act like a scientist to a greater extent than participants in the On-Campus case. These results can be understood in relation to Flow Theory. Student interactions that promoted the criteria necessary for initiating flow, which included having clearly defined goals, receiving immediate feedback, and maintaining a balance between challenges and skills, fostered enhanced student motivation and achievement outcomes. This research also illustrates the positive gains in motivation and achievement outcomes that emerge from student experiences with extended time in isolated areas referred to

  9. Are physical activity levels linked to nutrient adequacy? Implications for cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizmadi, Ilona; Kelemen, Linda E; Speidel, Thomas; Yuan, Yan; Dale, Laura C; Friedenreich, Christine M; Robson, Paula J

    2014-01-01

    Cancer prevention guidelines recommend a healthy body mass index, physical activity, and nutrient intake from food rather than supplements. Sedentary individuals may restrict energy intake to prevent weight gain and in so doing may compromise nutritional intake. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to determine if adequacy of micronutrients is linked to physical activity levels (PALs) in healthy-weight adults. Tomorrow Project participants in Alberta, Canada (n = 5333), completed past-year diet and physical activity questionnaires. The percent meeting Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) was reported across low and high PAL groups, and the relation between PAL and percent achieved DRI was determined using multiple linear regression analyses. Overall, genders (P physical activity to include having a more favorable impact on nutrient adequacy.

  10. Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Ethyl-Linked Anthocyanin-Flavanol Pigments from Model Wine Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingxi; Zhang, Minna; Zhang, Shuting; Cui, Yan; Sun, Baoshan

    2018-05-03

    Anthocyanin-flavanol pigments, formed during red wine fermentation and storage by condensation reactions between anthocyanins and flavanols (monomers, oligomers, and polymers), are one of the major groups of polyphenols in aged red wine. However, knowledge of their biological activities is lacking. This is probably due to the structural diversity and complexity of these molecules, which makes the large-scale separation and isolation of the individual compounds very difficult, thus restricting their further study. In this study, anthocyanins (i.e., malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside) and (⁻)-epicatechin were first isolated at a preparative scale by high-speed counter-current chromatography. The condensation reaction between each of the isolated anthocyanins and (⁻)-epicatechin, mediated by acetaldehyde, was conducted in model wine solutions to obtain ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. The effects of pH, molar ratio, and temperature on the reaction rate were investigated, and the reaction conditions of pH 1.7, molar ratio 1:6:10 (anthocyanin/(⁻)-epicatechin/acetaldehyde), and reaction temperature of 35 °C were identified as optimal for conversion of anthocyanins to ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. Six ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments were isolated in larger quantities and collected under optimal reaction conditions, and their chemical structures were identified by HPLC-QTOF-MS and ECD analyses. Furthermore, DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays indicate that ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments show stronger antioxidant activities than their precursor anthocyanins.

  11. Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Ethyl-Linked Anthocyanin-Flavanol Pigments from Model Wine Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxi Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin-flavanol pigments, formed during red wine fermentation and storage by condensation reactions between anthocyanins and flavanols (monomers, oligomers, and polymers, are one of the major groups of polyphenols in aged red wine. However, knowledge of their biological activities is lacking. This is probably due to the structural diversity and complexity of these molecules, which makes the large-scale separation and isolation of the individual compounds very difficult, thus restricting their further study. In this study, anthocyanins (i.e., malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside and (–-epicatechin were first isolated at a preparative scale by high-speed counter-current chromatography. The condensation reaction between each of the isolated anthocyanins and (–-epicatechin, mediated by acetaldehyde, was conducted in model wine solutions to obtain ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. The effects of pH, molar ratio, and temperature on the reaction rate were investigated, and the reaction conditions of pH 1.7, molar ratio 1:6:10 (anthocyanin/(–-epicatechin/acetaldehyde, and reaction temperature of 35 °C were identified as optimal for conversion of anthocyanins to ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. Six ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments were isolated in larger quantities and collected under optimal reaction conditions, and their chemical structures were identified by HPLC-QTOF-MS and ECD analyses. Furthermore, DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays indicate that ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments show stronger antioxidant activities than their precursor anthocyanins.

  12. Physiology Should Be Taught as Science Is Practiced: An Inquiry-Based Activity to Investigate the "Alkaline Tide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) strongly recommends that "science be taught as science is practiced." This means that the teaching approach must be consistent with the nature of scientific inquiry. In this article, the authors describe how they added scientific inquiry to a large lecture-based physiology…

  13. Learning Environment, Attitudes and Achievement among Middle-School Science Students Using Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephen J.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared inquiry and non-inquiry laboratory teaching in terms of students' perceptions of the classroom learning environment, attitudes toward science, and achievement among middle-school physical science students. Learning environment and attitude scales were found to be valid and related to each other for a sample of 1,434 students in…

  14. ACTIVE STRATEGIES DURING INQUIRY-BASED SCIENCE TEACHER EDUCATION TO IMPROVE LONG-TERM TEACHER SELF-EFFICACY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Robert Harry

    2012-01-01

    products, is the personal capacity belief of self- efficacy which has been shown to be important to personal behavioral change. The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of teacher professional development (TPD) which adds specific elements for altering teacher self......-efficacies to existing FP7 IBST products. This model was tested for its usefulness in increasing participant self-efficacy as evidenced by short and long term quantitative measures as well as by evaluation of long terminquiry lessons. Workshops to promote IBST were conducted in five different countries. Each workshop...... months. The promotion of self-efficacy in TPD provides a consistent way of evaluating the impact of IBST workshops through the use of changes in self-efficacy....

  15. Metal active site elasticity linked to activation of homocysteine in methionine synthases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutmos, Markos; Pejchal, Robert; Bomer, Theresa M.; Matthews, Rowena G.; Smith, Janet L.; Ludwig, Martha L. (Michigan)

    2008-04-02

    Enzymes possessing catalytic zinc centers perform a variety of fundamental processes in nature, including methyl transfer to thiols. Cobalamin-independent (MetE) and cobalamin-dependent (MetH) methionine synthases are two such enzyme families. Although they perform the same net reaction, transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine (Hcy) to form methionine, they display markedly different catalytic strategies, modular organization, and active site zinc centers. Here we report crystal structures of zinc-replete MetE and MetH, both in the presence and absence of Hcy. Structural investigation of the catalytic zinc sites of these two methyltransferases reveals an unexpected inversion of zinc geometry upon binding of Hcy and displacement of an endogenous ligand in both enzymes. In both cases a significant movement of the zinc relative to the protein scaffold accompanies inversion. These structures provide new information on the activation of thiols by zinc-containing enzymes and have led us to propose a paradigm for the mechanism of action of the catalytic zinc sites in these and related methyltransferases. Specifically, zinc is mobile in the active sites of MetE and MetH, and its dynamic nature helps facilitate the active site conformational changes necessary for thiol activation and methyl transfer.

  16. Differential Links Between Leisure Activities and Depressive Symptoms in Unemployed Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, William K; Geiger, Ashley M; Wolf, Jutta M

    2016-01-01

    Unemployment has consistently been linked to an elevated risk for depression. Exercise, specifically leisure-based physical activities, has received increasing attention as alternative treatment options. However, because leisure activities are pursued during discretionary time, it is unclear if the mental health benefits of physical and leisure activities apply during times of unemployment as well. Depressive symptoms and participation in recreational activities were assessed in 142 employed and 158 unemployed participants (age = 34 ± 11 years; male = 150). Independent of employment status, all recreational activities were inversely associated with depressive symptoms. However, social (employed: ηp (2) = .21; unemployed: ηp (2) = .11) and self-focused (employed: ηp (2) = .19; unemployed: ηp (2) = .10) recreational activities were more strongly related to depressive symptoms than exercise (employed: ηp (2) = .12; unemployed: ηp (2) > .05). These findings highlight the strong mental health associations of recreational activities and suggest that, particularly for unemployed individuals, promoting recreational activities, rather than exercise, may leverage the stronger negative relationship with risk of depression. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Development of an accelerometer-linked online intervention system to promote physical activity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Nicole; Bradlyn, Andrew; Thompson, Sharon K; Yen, Sophia; Haritatos, Jana; Dillon, Fred; Cole, Steve W

    2015-01-01

    Most adolescents do not achieve the recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), placing them at increased risk for a diverse array of chronic diseases in adulthood. There is a great need for scalable and effective interventions that can increase MVPA in adolescents. Here we report the results of a measurement validation study and a preliminary proof-of-concept experiment testing the impact of Zamzee, an accelerometer-linked online intervention system that combines proximal performance feedback and incentive motivation features to promote MVPA. In a calibration study that parametrically varied levels of physical activity in 31 12-14 year-old children, the Zamzee activity meter was shown to provide a valid measure of MVPA (sensitivity in detecting MVPA = 85.9%, specificity = 97.5%, and r = .94 correspondence with the benchmark RT3 accelerometer system; all p videogame (p adolescents.

  18. Time with friends and physical activity as mechanisms linking obesity and television viewing among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Park, Seoung Eun; Hébert, Emily T; Cummings, Hope M

    2015-07-27

    Though bivariate relationships between childhood obesity, physical activity, friendships and television viewing are well documented, empirical assessment of the extent to which links between obesity and television may be mediated by these factors is scarce. This study examines the possibility that time with friends and physical activity are potential mechanisms linking overweight/obesity to television viewing in youth. Data were drawn from children ages 10-18 years old (M = 13.81, SD = 2.55) participating in the 2002 wave of Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) (n = 1,545). Data were collected both directly and via self-report from children and their parents. Path analysis was employed to examine a model whereby the relationships between youth overweight/obesity and television viewing were mediated by time spent with friends and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Overweight/obesity was directly related to less time spent with friends, but not to MVPA. Time spent with friends was directly and positively related to MVPA, and directly and negatively related to time spent watching television without friends. In turn, MVPA was directly and negatively related to watching television without friends. There were significant indirect effects of both overweight/obesity and time with friends on television viewing through MVPA, and of overweight/obesity on MVPA through time with friends. Net of any indirect effects, the direct effect of overweight/obesity on television viewing remained. The final model fit the data extremely well (χ2 = 5.77, df = 5, ptelevision viewing in youth. These findings highlight the importance of moving from examinations of bivariate relationships between weight status and television viewing to more nuanced explanatory models which attempt to identify and unpack the possible mechanisms linking them.

  19. Viability, Apoptosis, Proliferation, Activation, and Cytokine Secretion of Human Keratoconus Keratocytes after Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cross-linking (CXL on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus (KC keratocytes, in vitro. Methods. Primary KC keratocytes were cultured in DMEM/Ham’s F12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and underwent UVA illumination (370 nm, 2 J/cm2 during exposure to 0.1% riboflavin and 20% Dextran in PBS. Twenty-four hours after CXL, viability was assessed using Alamar blue assay; apoptosis using APO-DIRECT Kit; proliferation using ELISA-BrdU kit; and CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA expression using flow cytometry. Five and 24 hours after CXL, FGFb, HGF, TGFβ1, VEGF, KGF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was measured using enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Following CXL, cell viability and proliferation decreased (P0.06. Five hours after CXL, FGFb secretion increased significantly (P=0.037; however no other cytokine secretion differed significantly from controls after 5 or 24 hours (P>0.12. Conclusions. Cross-linking decreases viability, triggers apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, without an impact on multipotent hematopoietic stem cell transformation and myofibroblastic transformation of KC keratocytes. CXL triggers FGFb secretion of KC keratocytes transiently (5 hours, normalizing after 24 hours.

  20. Teaching the Interior Composition and Rheology of the Earth to Undergraduate Students Using an Inquiry Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, T. G.; Callahan, C. N.; Sibert, R. J.; Ewald, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    Most introductory geology courses include a lesson on the internal layered structure of the Earth. Due to the abstract nature of the content, this topic is difficult to teach using an inquiry-based approach. The challenge is two-fold: first, students cannot directly see the layers from their perspective on the earth's surface, and second, students have trouble grasping the vast scale of the earth, which far exceeds their everyday experiences. In addition, the two separate classification systems for dividing the internal structure of the Earth are often a point of confusion and source of misconceptions. In response to this challenge, we developed an inquiry lesson that scaffolds students' understanding of the compositional and rheological properties of the Earth's interior. The intent is to build students' understanding of the Earth's layers by guiding their attention to the reasons for the separate classification systems and the individual layers. The investigation includes teacher- or material-driven components such as guiding questions and specific hand-samples for analogues as well as student-driven components like collecting data and constructing explanations. The lesson opens with a series of questions designed to elicit students' existing ideas about the Earth's interior. The students are then guided to make observations of hand samples meant to represent examples of the crust and mantle as well as physical materials meant to serve as analogues for the lithosphere and asthenosphere. The lesson concludes with students integrating their observations into a model of the Earth's internal structure that accounts for both the compositional and rheological properties. Although this lesson was originally developed as a roughly 60 minute lesson for a class of 24 students, we also note ways this lesson can be modified for use at a variety of course levels. The lesson was pilot-tested in an introductory Earth Science course for future elementary (K-8) teachers. Data

  1. Employing Inquiry-Based Computer Simulations and Embedded Scientist Videos To Teach Challenging Climate Change and Nature of Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, E.

    2013-12-01

    Design based research was utilized to investigate how students use a greenhouse effect simulation in order to derive best learning practices. During this process, students recognized the authentic scientific process involving computer simulations. The simulation used is embedded within an inquiry-based technology-mediated science curriculum known as Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE). For this research, students from a suburban, diverse, middle school setting use the simulations as part of a two week-long class unit on climate change. A pilot study was conducted during phase one of the research that informed phase two, which encompasses the dissertation. During the pilot study, as students worked through the simulation, evidence of shifts in student motivation, understanding of science content, and ideas about the nature of science became present using a combination of student interviews, focus groups, and students' conversations. Outcomes of the pilot study included improvements to the pedagogical approach. Allowing students to do 'Extreme Testing' (e.g., making the world as hot or cold as possible) and increasing the time for free exploration of the simulation are improvements made as a result of the findings of the pilot study. In the dissertation (phase two of the research design) these findings were implemented in a new curriculum scaled for 85 new students from the same school during the next school year. The modifications included new components implementing simulations as an assessment tool for all students and embedded modeling tools. All students were asked to build pre and post models, however due to technological constraints these were not an effective tool. A non-video group of 44 students was established and another group of 41 video students had a WISE curriculum which included twelve minutes of scientists' conversational videos referencing explicit aspects on the nature of science, specifically the use of models and simulations in science

  2. Antioxidant activity of the various extracts of cyclamen graecum link tubers and leaves from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metin, H.; Aydin, C.; Mammadov, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant activities of various solvent extracts (methanol, ethanol, acetone and petroleum benzine) obtained from tubers and leaves of Cyclamen graecum Link (Primulaceae) were determined. Antioxidant properties of various extracts from C. graecum were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene-linoleic acid assays. In addition, total phenolic contents in all the extracts of C. graecum tubers and leaves were determined as pyrocatechol equivalents. Leaves extracts of C. graecum exhibited higher antioxidant activity than tuber extracts with all the types of solvent used. All extracts of C. graecum tubers and leaves had effective free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging activity of C. graecum leaf-ethanol extract (97.3 +- 0.55%) was found more effective than BHT (92.30 +- 0.35%). A positive correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and amount of phenolic contents of the extracts. In this study, all types of extracts obtained from C. graecum have showed strong antioxidant activity. Therefore, this species can be used as a natural antioxidant in food processing and pharmaceutical industries. (author)

  3. Is active participation in specific sport activities linked with back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, A.M.; Gausel, AM; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 439 children/adolescents aged 12-13, living in Odense, Denmark, in the year 2001. To investigate (1) if there is any difference in back pain reporting among those practising specific sports as compared with non-performers and (2) if there is an association between...... specific kinds of sports and self-reported back problems. Back pain is a common complaint in young people and physical inactivity is generally thought to contribute to this. However, some specific sport activities may be detrimental or beneficial to the spine. Information was collected through a semi......-structured interview, a physical examination, and a questionnaire. Associations for back pain, low back pain, mid back pain and neck pain in the preceding month were investigated in relation to specific sports. Associations were controlled for body mass index, puberty stage and sex. There was no association between...

  4. Impact of an engineering design-based curriculum compared to an inquiry-based curriculum on fifth graders' content learning of simple machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulcu, Ismail; Barnett, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elementary Science Education is struggling with multiple challenges. National and State test results confirm the need for deeper understanding in elementary science education. Moreover, national policy statements and researchers call for increased exposure to engineering and technology in elementary science education. The basic motivation of this study is to suggest a solution to both improving elementary science education and increasing exposure to engineering and technology in it. Purpose/Hypothesis: This mixed-method study examined the impact of an engineering design-based curriculum compared to an inquiry-based curriculum on fifth graders' content learning of simple machines. We hypothesize that the LEGO-engineering design unit is as successful as the inquiry-based unit in terms of students' science content learning of simple machines. Design/Method: We used a mixed-methods approach to investigate our research questions; we compared the control and the experimental groups' scores from the tests and interviews by using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and compared each group's pre- and post-scores by using paired t-tests. Results: Our findings from the paired t-tests show that both the experimental and comparison groups significantly improved their scores from the pre-test to post-test on the multiple-choice, open-ended, and interview items. Moreover, ANCOVA results show that students in the experimental group, who learned simple machines with the design-based unit, performed significantly better on the interview questions. Conclusions: Our analyses revealed that the design-based Design a people mover: Simple machines unit was, if not better, as successful as the inquiry-based FOSS Levers and pulleys unit in terms of students' science content learning.

  5. Physical Activity and Telomere Biology: Exploring the Link with Aging-Related Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Ludlow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several age-related diseases as well as with increased longevity in both rodents and humans. Though these associations are well established, evidence of the molecular and cellular factors associated with reduced disease risk and increased longevity resulting from physical activity is sparse. A long-standing hypothesis of aging is the telomere hypothesis: as a cell divides, telomeres shorten resulting eventually in replicative senescence and an aged phenotype. Several reports have recently associated telomeres and telomere-related proteins to diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging including cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Interestingly several reports have also shown that longer telomeres are associated with higher physical activity levels, indicating a potential mechanistic link between physical activity, reduced age-related disease risk, and longevity. The primary purpose of this review is to discuss the potential importance of physical activity in telomere biology in the context of inactivity- and age-related diseases. A secondary purpose is to explore potential mechanisms and important avenues for future research in the field of telomeres and diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging.

  6. Source-space EEG neurofeedback links subjective experience with brain activity during effortless awareness meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; Houlihan, Sean D; Pal, Prasanta; Sacchet, Matthew D; McFarlane-Blake, Cinque; Patel, Payal R; Sullivan, John S; Ossadtchi, Alex; Druker, Susan; Bauer, Clemens; Brewer, Judson A

    2017-05-01

    Meditation is increasingly showing beneficial effects for psychiatric disorders. However, learning to meditate is not straightforward as there are no easily discernible outward signs of performance and thus no direct feedback is possible. As meditation has been found to correlate with posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) activity, we tested whether source-space EEG neurofeedback from the PCC followed the subjective experience of effortless awareness (a major component of meditation), and whether participants could volitionally control the signal. Sixteen novice meditators and sixteen experienced meditators participated in the study. Novice meditators were briefly trained to perform a basic meditation practice to induce the subjective experience of effortless awareness in a progressively more challenging neurofeedback test-battery. Experienced meditators performed a self-selected meditation practice to induce this state in the same test-battery. Neurofeedback was provided based on gamma-band (40-57Hz) PCC activity extracted using a beamformer algorithm. Associations between PCC activity and the subjective experience of effortless awareness were assessed by verbal probes. Both groups reported that decreased PCC activity corresponded with effortless awareness (Pneurofeedback to link an objective measure of brain activity with the subjective experience of effortless awareness, and suggest potential utility of this paradigm as a tool for meditation training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Frontal responses during learning predict vulnerability to the psychotogenic effects of ketamine : Linking cognition, brain activity, and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corlett, Philip R.; Honey, Garry D.; Aitken, Michael R. F.; Dickinson, Anthony; Shanks, David R.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Lee, Michael; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Murray, Graham K.; McKenna, Peter J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    Context: Establishing a neurobiological account of delusion formation that links cognitive processes, brain activity, and symptoms is important to furthering our understanding of psychosis. Objective: To explore a theoretical model of delusion formation that implicates prediction error - dependent

  8. Structure Activity Relationships of N-linked and Diglycosylated Glucosamine-Based Antitumor Glycerolipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makanjuola Ogunsina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 1-O-Hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-3-O-(2'-amino-2'-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (1 was previously reported to show potent in vitro antitumor activity on a range of cancer cell lines derived from breast, pancreas and prostate cancer. This compound was not toxic to mice and was inactive against breast tumor xenografts in mice. This inactivity was attributed to hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkage by glycosidases. Here three N-linked (glycosylamide analogs 2–4, one triazole-linked analog 5 of 1 as well as two diglycosylated analogs 6 and 7 with different stereochemistry at the C2-position of the glycerol moiety were synthesized and their antitumor activity against breast (JIMT-1, BT-474, MDA-MB-231, pancreas (MiaPaCa2 and prostrate (DU145, PC3 cancer cell lines was determined. The diglycosylated analogs 1-O-hexadecyl-2(R-, 3-O-di-(2'-amino-2'-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (7 and the 1:1 diastereomeric mixture of 1-O-hexadecyl-2(R/S, 3-O-di-(2'-amino-2'-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (6 showed the most potent cytotoxic activity at CC50 values of 17.5 µM against PC3 cell lines. The replacement of the O-glycosidic linkage by a glycosylamide or a glycosyltriazole linkage showed little or no activity at highest concentration tested (30 µM, whereas the replacement of the glycerol moiety by triazole resulted in CC50 values in the range of 20 to 30 µM. In conclusion, the replacement of the O-glycosidic linkage by an N-glycosidic linkage or triazole-linkage resulted in about a two to three fold loss in activity, whereas the replacement of the methoxy group on the glycerol backbone by a second glucosamine moiety did not improve the activity. The stereochemistry at the C2-position of the glycero backbone has minimal effect on the anticancer activities of these diglycosylated analogs.

  9. Patterns of longitudinal neural activity linked to different cognitive profiles in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Nagano-Saito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PD has been linked with functional brain changes. Previously, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we reported reduced cortico-striatal activity in patients with PD who also had mild cognitive impairment (MCI versus those who did not (non-MCI. We followed up these patients to investigate the longitudinal effect on the neural activity. Twenty-four non-demented patients with Parkinson’s disease (non-MCI: 12, MCI; 12 were included in the study. Each participant underwent two fMRIs while performing the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task 20 months apart. The non-MCI patients recruited the usual cognitive corticostriatal loop at the first and second sessions (Time 1 and Time 2, respectively. However, decreased activity was observed in the cerebellum and occipital area and increased activity was observed in the medial prefrontal cortex and parietal lobe during planning set-shift at Time 2. Increased activity in the precuneus was also demonstrated while executing set-shifts at Time 2. The MCI patients revealed more activity in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes during planning set-shifts, and in the parietal and occipital lobes, precuneus, and cerebellum, during executing set-shift at Time 2. Analysis regrouping of both groups of PD patients revealed that hippocampal and thalamic activity at Time 1 was associated with less cognitive decline over time. Our results reveal that functional alteration along the time-points differed between the non-MCI and MCI patients. They also underline the importance of preserving thalamic and hippocampal function with respect to cognitive decline over time.

  10. Earthworm activities in cassava and egusi melon fields in the transitional zone of Benin: linking farmers' perceptions with field studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saïdou, A.; Kossou, D.; Brussaard, L.; Richards, P.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Farmers' perceptions of earthworm activities were studied in the transitional zone of Benin and linked to scientific explanations of earthworm casting activities. Earthworm activity was assessed in farmers' fields with three different cassava cultivars and in a field experiment with three different

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features as Surrogate Markers of X-Linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempicki, Marta; Rothenbuhler, Anya; Merzoug, Valérie; Franchi-Abella, Stéphanie; Chaussain, Catherine; Adamsbaum, Catherine; Linglart, Agnès

    2017-01-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is the most common form of inheritable rickets. Rickets treatment is monitored by assessing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, clinical features, and radiographs. Our objectives were to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of XLH and to assess correlations with disease activity. Twenty-seven XLH patients (median age 9.2 years) were included in this prospective single-center observational study. XLH activity was assessed using height, leg bowing, dental abscess history, and serum ALP levels. We looked for correlations between MRI features and markers of disease activity. On MRI, the median maximum width of the physis was 5.6 mm (range 4.8-7.8; normal 1.5 mm in all of the patients. The appearance of the zone of provisional calcification was abnormal on 21 MRI images (78%), Harris lines were present on 24 (89%), and bone marrow signal abnormalities were present on 16 (59%). ALP levels correlated with the maximum physeal widening and with the transverse extent of the widening. MRI of the knee provides precise rickets patterns that are correlated with ALP, an established biochemical marker of the disease, avoiding X-ray exposure and providing surrogate quantitative markers of disease activity. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Acrolein inhibits NADH-linked mitochondrial enzyme activity: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocernich, Chava B; Butterfield, D Allan

    2003-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain increased lipid peroxidation and decreased energy utilization are found. Mitochondria membranes contain a significant amount of arachidonic and linoleic acids, precursors of lipid peroxidation products, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 2-propen-1-al (acrolein), that are extremely reactive. Both alkenals are increased in AD brain. In this study, we examined the effects of nanomolar levels of acrolein on the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH), both reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-linked mitochondrial enzymes. Acrolein decreased PDH and KGDH activities significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), acrolein was found to bind lipoic acid, a component in both the PDH and KGDH complexes, most likely explaining the loss of enzyme activity. Acrolein also interacted with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) in such a way as to decrease the production of NADH. Acrolein, which is increased in AD brain, may be partially responsible for the dysfunction of mitochondria and loss of energy found in AD brain by inhibition of PDH and KGDH activities, potentially contributing to the neurodegeneration in this disorder.

  13. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of echinochloa colona (linn.) link and sporobolus coromandelianus (retz.) kunth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaib, M.; Khan, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of two plants Echinochloa colona (Linn.) Link and Sporobolus coromandelianus (Retz.) Kunth, were carried out. The results revealed that the extracts of both plants were active against Gram positive bacteria, i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae and Gram negative bacteria, i.e. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as the fungal strains Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger. The most significant results were obtained from the methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of E. colona, i.e. 24 +- 2.64 mm and 23 +- 2.64 mm against S. aureus, respectively. A significant inhibition zone of 23.66 +- 1.52 was observed by petroleum ether extract of S. coromandelianus. The chloroform extracts of S. coromandelianus showed an inhibition zone 72.33 +- 4.09 mm against A. oryzae and 66.33 +- 1.15 mm against A. niger. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using five approaches, i.e. 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) method; ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, metal chelating assay, total phenolic contents (TPC) and flavonoid contents. The results showed that the methanolic extracts of both plants possessed significant antioxidant activity. The results also indicated that methanolic extract of E. colona had total phenolic and flavonoid contents, i.e. 734.25 and 7774.54 mg/ml, however, methanolic extract of S. coromandelianus had phenolic and flavonoid contents, i.e. 366.75 and 3010.90 mg/ml. (author)

  14. Development of an accelerometer-linked online intervention system to promote physical activity in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Guthrie

    Full Text Available Most adolescents do not achieve the recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, placing them at increased risk for a diverse array of chronic diseases in adulthood. There is a great need for scalable and effective interventions that can increase MVPA in adolescents. Here we report the results of a measurement validation study and a preliminary proof-of-concept experiment testing the impact of Zamzee, an accelerometer-linked online intervention system that combines proximal performance feedback and incentive motivation features to promote MVPA. In a calibration study that parametrically varied levels of physical activity in 31 12-14 year-old children, the Zamzee activity meter was shown to provide a valid measure of MVPA (sensitivity in detecting MVPA = 85.9%, specificity = 97.5%, and r = .94 correspondence with the benchmark RT3 accelerometer system; all p < .0001. In a subsequent randomized controlled multi-site experiment involving 182 middle school-aged children assessed for MVPA over 6 wks, intent-to-treat analyses found that those who received access to the Zamzee intervention had average MVPA levels 54% greater than those of a passive control group (p < 0.0001 and 68% greater than those of an active control group that received access to a commercially available active videogame (p < .0001. Zamzee's effects on MVPA did not diminish significantly over the course of the 6-wk study period, and were statistically significant in both females and males, and in normal- vs. high-BMI subgroups. These results provide promising initial indications that combining the Zamzee activity meter with online proximal performance feedback and incentive motivation features can positively impact MVPA levels in adolescents.

  15. Lifetime Estimation of DC-link Capacitors in a Single-phase Converter with an Integrated Active Power Decoupling Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Siyuan; Wang, Haoran; Tang, Junchaojie

    2016-01-01

    In single-phase inverters, DC-link capacitors are installed at the DC-link to buffer the ripple power between the AC side and DC side. Active decoupling methods introduce additional circuits at the DC side or AC side to partially or fully supply the ripple power. So that the demanded DC-link capa......In single-phase inverters, DC-link capacitors are installed at the DC-link to buffer the ripple power between the AC side and DC side. Active decoupling methods introduce additional circuits at the DC side or AC side to partially or fully supply the ripple power. So that the demanded DC......-link capacitor capacitance can be decreased. However, few research is about the effect of DC side and AC side decoupling on the DC-link capacitor reliability considering its electro-thermal stresses. This paper presents a quantitative analysis on the lifetime of capacitors with power decoupling circuits...... at the DC side and AC side, respectively. The ripple current spectrum of the capacitors is obtained by double Fourier analysis of a H-bridge inverter with natural sampling PWM modulation. A study case is demonstrated by a 2,000 W H-bridge inverter with 400 V DC-link voltage....

  16. cGAS produces a 2'-5'-linked cyclic dinucleotide second messenger that activates STING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablasser, Andrea; Goldeck, Marion; Cavlar, Taner; Deimling, Tobias; Witte, Gregor; Röhl, Ingo; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Ludwig, Janos; Hornung, Veit

    2013-06-20

    Detection of cytoplasmic DNA represents one of the most fundamental mechanisms of the innate immune system to sense the presence of microbial pathogens. Moreover, erroneous detection of endogenous DNA by the same sensing mechanisms has an important pathophysiological role in certain sterile inflammatory conditions. The endoplasmic-reticulum-resident protein STING is critically required for the initiation of type I interferon signalling upon detection of cytosolic DNA of both exogenous and endogenous origin. Next to its pivotal role in DNA sensing, STING also serves as a direct receptor for the detection of cyclic dinucleotides, which function as second messenger molecules in bacteria. DNA recognition, however, is triggered in an indirect fashion that depends on a recently characterized cytoplasmic nucleotidyl transferase, termed cGAMP synthase (cGAS), which upon interaction with DNA synthesizes a dinucleotide molecule that in turn binds to and activates STING. We here show in vivo and in vitro that the cGAS-catalysed reaction product is distinct from previously characterized cyclic dinucleotides. Using a combinatorial approach based on mass spectrometry, enzymatic digestion, NMR analysis and chemical synthesis we demonstrate that cGAS produces a cyclic GMP-AMP dinucleotide, which comprises a 2'-5' and a 3'-5' phosphodiester linkage >Gp(2'-5')Ap(3'-5')>. We found that the presence of this 2'-5' linkage was required to exert potent activation of human STING. Moreover, we show that cGAS first catalyses the synthesis of a linear 2'-5'-linked dinucleotide, which is then subject to cGAS-dependent cyclization in a second step through a 3'-5' phosphodiester linkage. This 13-membered ring structure defines a novel class of second messenger molecules, extending the family of 2'-5'-linked antiviral biomolecules.

  17. Could occupational physical activity mitigate the link between moderate kidney dysfunction and coronary heart disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquirol, Yolande; Tully, Mark; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Fogarty, Damian; Ferrieres, Jean; Quinn, Michael; Hughes, Maria; Kee, Frank

    2014-12-20

    Chronic kidney disease is now regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The impact of occupational or non-occupational physical activity (PA) on moderate decreases of renal function is uncertain. We aimed to identify the potential association of PA (occupational and leisure-time) on early decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and to determine the potential mediating effect of PA on the relationship between eGFR and heart disease. From the PRIME study analyses were conducted in 1058 employed men. Energy expended during leisure, work and commuting was calculated. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the link between types of PA and moderate decrements of eGFR determined with the KDIGO guideline at the baseline assessment. Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to explore the potential effect of PA on the relationship between eGFR and heart disease, ascertained during follow-up over 10 years. For these employed men, and after adjustment for known confounders of GFR change, more time spent sitting at work was associated with increased risk of moderate decline in kidney function, while carrying objects or being active at work was associated with decreased risk. In contrast, no significant link with leisure PA was apparent. No potential mediating effect of occupational PA was found for the relationship between eGFR and coronary heart disease. Occupational PA (potential modifiable factors) could provide a dual role on early impairment of renal function, without influence on the relationship between early decrease of e-GFR and CHD risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Utility of Inquiry-Based Exercises in Mexican Science Classrooms: Reports from a Professional Development Workshop for Science Teachers in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racelis, A. E.; Brovold, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    The quality of science teaching is of growing importance in Mexico. Mexican students score well below the world mean in math and science. Although the government has recognized these deficiencies and has implemented new policies aimed to improve student achievement in the sciences, teachers are still encountering in-class barriers to effective teaching, especially in public colleges. This paper reports on the utility of inquiry based exercises in Mexican classrooms. In particular, it describes a two-day professional development workshop with science teachers at the Instituto Tecnologico Superior in Felipe Carrillo Puerto in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Felipe Carrillo Puerto is an indigenous municipality where a significant majority of the population speak Maya as their first language. This alone presents a unique barrier to teaching science in the municipality, but accompanied with other factors such as student apathy, insufficient prior training of both students and teachers, and pressure to deliver specific science curriculum, science teachers have formidable challenges for effective science teaching. The goals of the workshop were to (1) have a directed discussion regarding science as both content and process, (2) introduce inquiry based learning as one tool of teaching science, and (3) get teachers to think about how they can apply these techniques in their classes.

  19. Analysis of students' difficulties on the material elasticity and harmonic oscillation in the inquiry-based physics learning in senior high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimatus Sa’diyah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze of students' difficulties on the material elasticity and harmonic oscillation in the inquiry-based physics learning. It has eight stages. They are the orientation, the problem formulation, the formulation of hypotheses, the data obtaining, the testing hypotheses, conclusions, the implementation of the conclusions and generalizations, and the reflection stage. This research determines the student's learning difficulties on the each stage. The subject of this research is all of the students in X IPA 4 SMA N Sambungmacan Sragen. The amount of this research subject is thirty students. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative. The data acquired with the learning process observation, the student's response questionnaire, and the student's cognitive tests. The results show that the student has difficulty in analyzing the elasticity and the force of deviation, speed, and acceleration concept, illustrates hooke law, and the matter's modulus elasticity. The difficult stages of the inquiry-based physics learning are the problem formulation, the formulation of hypotheses, the data obtaining, the testing hypotheses, conclusions, the implementation of the conclusions and generalizations, and the reflection stage.

  20. A set of vertically integrated inquiry-based practical curricula that develop scientific thinking skills for large cohorts of undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardi, Kirsten; Bugarcic, Andrea; Colthorpe, Kay; Good, Jonathan P; Lluka, Lesley J

    2013-12-01

    Science graduates require critical thinking skills to deal with the complex problems they will face in their 21st century workplaces. Inquiry-based curricula can provide students with the opportunities to develop such critical thinking skills; however, evidence suggests that an inappropriate level of autonomy provided to underprepared students may not only be daunting to students but also detrimental to their learning. After a major review of the Bachelor of Science, we developed, implemented, and evaluated a series of three vertically integrated courses with inquiry-style laboratory practicals for early-stage undergraduate students in biomedical science. These practical curricula were designed so that students would work with increasing autonomy and ownership of their research projects to develop increasingly advanced scientific thinking and communication skills. Students undertaking the first iteration of these three vertically integrated courses reported learning gains in course content as well as skills in scientific writing, hypothesis construction, experimental design, data analysis, and interpreting results. Students also demonstrated increasing skills in both hypothesis formulation and communication of findings as a result of participating in the inquiry-based curricula and completing the associated practical assessment tasks. Here, we report the specific aspects of the curricula that students reported as having the greatest impact on their learning and the particular elements of hypothesis formulation and communication of findings that were more challenging for students to master. These findings provide important implications for science educators concerned with designing curricula to promote scientific thinking and communication skills alongside content acquisition.

  1. Radical-scavenging-linked antioxidant activities of extracts from black chokeberry and blueberry cultivated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seok Joon; Yoon, Won Byong; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Cha, Seung Ju; Kim, Jong Dai

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the radical-scavenging-linked antioxidant properties of the extracts from black chokeberry and blueberry cultivated in Korea. The 70% ethanol extracts were prepared from black chokeberry and blueberry, and evaluated for total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, total proanthocyanidin content, and antioxidative activities, using various in vitro assays, such as DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulphonic acid)) radical-scavenging activity, FRAP(ferric-reducing antioxidant power) and reducing power. The major phenolic compounds, including cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, neochlorogenic acid, procyanidin B1, were analysed by HPLC with a photodiode array detector. Results showed that total phenol, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of black chokeberry extract were higher than those of blueberry extract. In addition, black chokeberry extract exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity and reducing power than did blueberry extract. Cyanidin-3-galactoside was identified as a major phenolic compound, with considerable content in black chokeberry, that correlated with its higher antioxidant and radical-scavenging effects. These results suggest that black chokeberry extracts could be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants and functional food ingredients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Linking surface morphology, composition and activity on the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko’s nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, Sonia; Hoang, Van Hong; Hasselmann, Pedro H.; Barucci, Maria Antonieta; Feller, Clement; Prasanna Deshapriya, Jasinghege Don; Keller, Horst Uwe; OSIRIS Team

    2017-10-01

    The Rosetta mission orbited around the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for more than 2 years, getting an incredible amount of unique data of the comet nucleus and inner coma. This has enabled us to study its activity continuously from 4 AU inbound to 3.6 AU outbound, including the perihelion passage at 1.25 AU.This work focuses on the identification of the regions sources of faint jets and outbursts, and on the study of their spectrophotometric properties, from observations acquired with the OSIRIS/NAC camera during the July-October 2015 period, i.e. close to perihelion. More than 150 jets of different intensities were identified directly on the nucleus from NAC color sequences acquired in 7-11 filters covering the 250-1000 nm wavelength range, and their spectrophotometric properties studied for the first time. Some spectacular outbursts appear dominated by water ice particles, while fainter jets often show colors redder than the nucleus and appear dominated by dusty particles. Some jets are very faint and were identified on the nucleus thanks to the unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution of the ROSETTA/OSIRIS observations. Some of them have an extremely short lifetime, appearing on the cometary surface during the color sequence observations, reaching their peak in flux and then vanishing in less than a couple of minutes.We will present the results on the location, duration, and colors of active sources on the 67P nucleus from the relatively low resolution (i.e. 6-10 m/pixel) images acquired close to the perihelion passage. Some of this active regions were observed and investigated in higher resolution (up to few dm per pixel) during other phases of the mission. These observations allow us to study the morphological and spectral evolution of the regions found to be active and to further investigate the link between morphology, composition, and activity on cometary nuclei.

  3. Effectiveness of the use of question-driven levels of inquiry based instruction (QD-LOIBI) assisted visual multimedia supported teaching material on enhancing scientific explanation ability senior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandi, A.; Muslim; Samsudin, A.; Hermita, N.; Supriyatman

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of the use of Question-Driven Levels of Inquiry Based Instruction (QD-LOIBI) assisted visual multimedia supported teaching materials on enhancing senior high school students scientific explanation ability has been studied. QD-LOIBI was designed by following five-levels of inquiry proposed by Wenning. Visual multimedia used in teaching materials included image (photo), virtual simulation and video phenomena. QD-LOIBI assisted teaching materials supported by visual multimedia were tried out on senior high school students at one high school in one district in West Java. A quasi-experiment method with design one experiment group (n = 31) and one control group (n = 32) were used. Experimental group were given QD-LOIBI assisted teaching material supported by visual multimedia, whereas the control group were given QD-LOIBI assisted teaching materials not supported visual multimedia. Data on the ability of scientific explanation in both groups were collected by scientific explanation ability test in essay form concerning kinetic gas theory concept. The results showed that the number of students in the experimental class that has increased the category and quality of scientific explanation is greater than in the control class. These results indicate that the use of multimedia supported instructional materials developed for implementation of QD-LOIBI can improve students’ ability to provide explanations supported by scientific evidence gained from practicum activities and applicable concepts, laws, principles or theories.

  4. High-resolution mapping reveals links of HP1 with active and inactive chromatin components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzo de Wit

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1 is commonly seen as a key factor of repressive heterochromatin, even though a few genes are known to require HP1-chromatin for their expression. To obtain insight into the targeting of HP1 and its interplay with other chromatin components, we have mapped HP1-binding sites on Chromosomes 2 and 4 in Drosophila Kc cells using high-density oligonucleotide arrays and the DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID technique. The resulting high-resolution maps show that HP1 forms large domains in pericentric regions, but is targeted to single genes on chromosome arms. Intriguingly, HP1 shows a striking preference for exon-dense genes on chromosome arms. Furthermore, HP1 binds along entire transcription units, except for 5' regions. Comparison with expression data shows that most of these genes are actively transcribed. HP1 target genes are also marked by the histone variant H3.3 and dimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2, which are both typical of active chromatin. Interestingly, H3.3 deposition, which is usually observed along entire transcription units, is limited to the 5' ends of HP1-bound genes. Thus, H3.3 and HP1 are mutually exclusive marks on active chromatin. Additionally, we observed that HP1-chromatin and Polycomb-chromatin are nonoverlapping, but often closely juxtaposed, suggesting an interplay between both types of chromatin. These results demonstrate that HP1-chromatin is transcriptionally active and has extensive links with several other chromatin components.

  5. Who is good at this game? Linking an activity to a social category undermines children's achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpian, Andrei; Mu, Yan; Erickson, Lucy C

    2012-05-01

    Children's achievement-related theories have a profound impact on their academic success. Children who adopt entity theories believe that their ability to perform a task is dictated by the amount of natural talent they possess for that task--a belief that has well-documented adverse consequences for their achievement (e.g., lowered persistence, impaired performance). It is thus important to understand what leads children to adopt entity theories. In the experiments reported here, we hypothesized that the mere act of linking success at an unfamiliar, challenging activity to a social group gives rise to entity beliefs that are so powerful as to interfere with children's ability to perform the activity. Two experiments showed that, as predicted, the performance of 4- to 7-year-olds (N = 192) was impaired by exposure to information that associated success in the task at hand with membership in a certain social group (e.g., "boys are good at this game"), regardless of whether the children themselves belonged to that group.

  6. Tranexamic acid, an inhibitor of plasminogen activation, reduces urinary collagen cross-link excretion in both experimental and rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronday, H.K.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Greenwald, R.A.; Moak, S.A.; Roos, J.A.D.M. de; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Breedveld, F.C.; Verheijen, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The plasminogen activation system is one of the enzyme systems held responsible for bone and cartilage degradation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we evaluated the effect of tranexamic acid (TEA), an inhibitor of plasminogen activation, on urinary collagen cross-link excretion and

  7. Oscillatory theta activity during memory formation and its impact on overnight consolidation: a missing link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heib, Dominik P J; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin; Anderer, Peter; Gruber, Georg; Zeitlhofer, Josef; Schabus, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Sleep has been shown to promote memory consolidation driven by certain oscillatory patterns, such as sleep spindles. However, sleep does not consolidate all newly encoded information uniformly but rather "selects" certain memories for consolidation. It is assumed that such selection depends on salience tags attached to the new memories before sleep. However, little is known about the underlying neuronal processes reflecting presleep memory tagging. The current study sought to address the question of whether event-related changes in spectral theta power (theta ERSP) during presleep memory formation could reflect memory tagging that influences subsequent consolidation during sleep. Twenty-four participants memorized 160 word pairs before sleep; in a separate laboratory visit, they performed a nonlearning control task. Memory performance was tested twice, directly before and after 8 hr of sleep. Results indicate that participants who improved their memory performance overnight displayed stronger theta ERSP during the memory task in comparison with the control task. They also displayed stronger memory task-related increases in fast sleep spindle activity. Furthermore, presleep theta activity was directly linked to fast sleep spindle activity, indicating that processes during memory formation might indeed reflect memory tagging that influences subsequent consolidation during sleep. Interestingly, our results further indicate that the suggested relation between sleep spindles and overnight performance change is not as direct as once believed. Rather, it appears to be mediated by processes beginning during presleep memory formation. We conclude that theta ERSP during presleep memory formation reflects cortico-hippocampal interactions that lead to a better long-term accessibility by tagging memories for sleep spindle-related reprocessing.

  8. Diurnal, seasonal, and interannual differences in the links of probabilities of derivation of different types Es with solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrukhin, Venedict F.; Poddubnaya, I. V.; Ponomarev, Evgenij A.; Sutyrin, Nicolaj A.

    2004-12-01

    The analysis of the ionospheric data on Irkutsk obtained from 1960 to 1996 was made. Was shown, that the link of probabilities of observation of the sporadic derivations in E-region of ionosphere with solar activity (SA) essentially depends on time of day, season and correlation between solar and geophysical parameters. For different types of sporadic derivations this link has different character and with a different image varies with current of time. It is necessary to mark, that the link of night sporadic derivations (Es such as "f") with solar activity in the summer very high and practically does not vary in time (r=-0.897-/+0.04). The temporary course of coefficients of correlation between solar activity and probability of observation of sporadic stratums (r) of a different type varies depending on the season. Further, for stratums of a type "cl" and "l" the change r happens within increase of SA. At the same time, there is an abnormal behavior of height so f sporadic stratums such as "cl". There is an impression that in a considered time frame there is competition of two factors. One of them - solar activity, which in the norm supports the negative correlation link with frequency of observation and second - a factor of an unknown nature, which has caused evocative anomaly of altitude, becomes dominant above natural negative link.

  9. A Novel Topology Link-Controlling Approach for Active Defense of a Node in a Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of virtual machine technology and cloud computing, distributed denial of service (DDoS attacks, or some peak traffic, poses a great threat to the security of the network. In this paper, a novel topology link control technique and mitigation attacks in real-time environments is proposed. Firstly, a non-invasive method of deploying virtual sensors in the nodes is built, which uses the resource manager of each monitored node as a sensor. Secondly, a general topology-controlling approach of resisting the tolerant invasion is proposed. In the proposed approach, a prediction model is constructed by using copula functions for predicting the peak of a resource through another resource. The result of prediction determines whether or not to initiate the active defense. Finally, a minority game with incomplete strategy is employed to suppress attack flows and improve the permeability of the normal flows. The simulation results show that the proposed approach is very effective in protecting nodes.

  10. Plasticity during Sleep Is Linked to Specific Regulation of Cortical Circuit Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Niethard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is thought to be involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity in two ways: by enhancing local plastic processes underlying the consolidation of specific memories and by supporting global synaptic homeostasis. Here, we briefly summarize recent structural and functional studies examining sleep-associated changes in synaptic morphology and neural excitability. These studies point to a global down-scaling of synaptic strength across sleep while a subset of synapses increases in strength. Similarly, neuronal excitability on average decreases across sleep, whereas subsets of neurons increase firing rates across sleep. Whether synapse formation and excitability is down or upregulated across sleep appears to partly depend on the cell’s activity level during wakefulness. Processes of memory-specific upregulation of synapse formation and excitability are observed during slow wave sleep (SWS, whereas global downregulation resulting in elimination of synapses and decreased neural firing is linked to rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep. Studies of the excitation/inhibition balance in cortical circuits suggest that both processes are connected to a specific inhibitory regulation of cortical principal neurons, characterized by an enhanced perisomatic inhibition via parvalbumin positive (PV+ cells, together with a release from dendritic inhibition by somatostatin positive (SOM+ cells. Such shift towards increased perisomatic inhibition of principal cells appears to be a general motif which underlies the plastic synaptic changes observed during sleep, regardless of whether towards up or downregulation.

  11. Linking rapid erosion of the Mekong River delta to human activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Edward J; Brunier, Guillaume; Besset, Manon; Goichot, Marc; Dussouillez, Philippe; Nguyen, Van Lap

    2015-10-08

    As international concern for the survival of deltas grows, the Mekong River delta, the world's third largest delta, densely populated, considered as Southeast Asia's most important food basket, and rich in biodiversity at the world scale, is also increasingly affected by human activities and exposed to subsidence and coastal erosion. Several dams have been constructed upstream of the delta and many more are now planned. We quantify from high-resolution SPOT 5 satellite images large-scale shoreline erosion and land loss between 2003 and 2012 that now affect over 50% of the once strongly advancing >600 km-long delta shoreline. Erosion, with no identified change in the river's discharge and in wave and wind conditions over this recent period, is consistent with: (1) a reported significant decrease in coastal surface suspended sediment from the Mekong that may be linked to dam retention of its sediment, (2) large-scale commercial sand mining in the river and delta channels, and (3) subsidence due to groundwater extraction. Shoreline erosion is already responsible for displacement of coastal populations. It is an additional hazard to the integrity of this Asian mega delta now considered particularly vulnerable to accelerated subsidence and sea-level rise, and will be exacerbated by future hydropower dams.

  12. Sox4 Links Tumor Suppression to Accelerated Aging in Mice by Modulating Stem Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Foronda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sox4 expression is restricted in mammals to embryonic structures and some adult tissues, such as lymphoid organs, pancreas, intestine, and skin. During embryogenesis, Sox4 regulates mesenchymal and neural progenitor survival, as well as lymphocyte and myeloid differentiation, and contributes to pancreas, bone, and heart development. Aberrant Sox4 expression is linked to malignant transformation and metastasis in several types of cancer. To understand the role of Sox4 in the adult organism, we first generated mice with reduced whole-body Sox4 expression. These mice display accelerated aging and reduced cancer incidence. To specifically address a role for Sox4 in adult stem cells, we conditionally deleted Sox4 (Sox4cKO in stratified epithelia. Sox4cKO mice show increased skin stem cell quiescence and resistance to chemical carcinogenesis concomitantly with downregulation of cell cycle, DNA repair, and activated hair follicle stem cell pathways. Altogether, these findings highlight the importance of Sox4 in regulating adult tissue homeostasis and cancer.

  13. Double blind comparative study of piroxicam and indomethacin in acute locomotor affections linked with sports activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commandre, F

    1983-01-01

    181 patients suffering from acute locomotor affections linked with sports activities were included in a multi-center study. The indications most frequently seen were sprains and tendinitis. 92 patients received piroxicam in a daily dosage of 4 capsules (40 mg) during the first two days, then 20 mg during the following days. 89 patients received a daily dose of indomethacin in a daily dose of 6 capsules (150 mg) for the first two days, and then 100 mg daily thereafter. Treatment lasted from 5 to seven days. Efficacy was judged to be very good or good in 89% of the patients treated with piroxicam against 76% of those treated with indomethacin, a statistically significant difference. Tolerance was also judged better with piroxicam. 4 patients suffered side effects with piroxicam, of which one stopped treatment after the second administration due to allergic reaction. 18 patients treated with indomethacin suffered from side effects, of which 5 stopped the treatment. In total, the use of piroxicam seems particularly interesting in sports medicine in comparison with indomethacin.

  14. Finite Element Analysis for Active-force Control on Vibration of a Flexible Single-link Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadir Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research are to formulate the equations of motion of the system, to develop computational codes by a finite element analysis in order to perform dynamics simulation with vibration control, to propose an effective control scheme using active-force (AF control a flexible single-link manipulator. The system used in this paper consists of an aluminum beam as a flexible link, a clamp-part, a servo motor to rotate the link and a piezoelectric actuator to control vibration. Computational codes on time history responses, FFT (Fast Fourier Transform processing and eigenvalues-eigenvectors analysis were developed to calculate dynamic behavior of the link. Furthermore, the AF control was designed to drive the piezoelectric actuator. Calculated results have revealed that the vibration of the system can be suppressed effectively.

  15. Analysis of voltage modulation based active damping techniques for small DC-link drive system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2015-01-01

    Small DC-link drive system, built with film capacitor in the DC link, may have the advantages of longer lifetime and the possibility to achieve a more compact design of capacitor bank at medium and high power rates. However, it exhibits instability problem, especially when it is fed by a soft grid...

  16. Investigating the Role of an Inquiry-Based Biology Lab Course on Student Attitudes and Views toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Erica; Nomme, Kathy; Deane, Thomas; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2016-01-01

    Students' academic experiences can influence their conceptualization of science. In contrast experts hold particular beliefs, perceptions, opinions, and attitudes about science that are often absent in first-year undergraduate students. Shifts toward more expert-like attitudes and views have been linked to improved student engagement,…

  17. CYLD, a deubiquitinase specific for lysine63-linked polyubiquitins, accumulates at the postsynaptic density in an activity-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosemeci, Ayse; Thein, Soe; Yang, Yijung; Reese, Thomas S.; Tao-Cheng, Jung-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► CYLD is a deubiquitinase specific for lysine63-linked polyubiquitins. ► Presence of CYLD in PSDs is established by biochemistry and immunoEM. ► CYLD accumulates on PSDs upon depolarization of neurons. ► Accumulation of CYLD at PSDs may regulate trafficking/degradation of synaptic proteins. -- Abstract: Polyubiquitin chains on proteins flag them for distinct fates depending on the type of polyubiquitin linkage. While lysine48-linked polyubiquitination directs proteins to proteasomal degradation, lysine63-linked polyubiquitination promotes different protein trafficking and is involved in autophagy. Here we show that postsynaptic density (PSD) fractions from adult rat brain contain deubiquitinase activity that targets both lysine48 and lysine63-linked polyubiquitins. Comparison of PSD fractions with parent subcellular fractions by Western immunoblotting reveals that CYLD, a deubiquitinase specific for lysine63-linked polyubiquitins, is highly enriched in the PSD fraction. Electron microscopic examination of hippocampal neurons in culture under basal conditions shows immunogold label for CYLD at the PSD complex in approximately one in four synapses. Following depolarization by exposure to high K+, the proportion of CYLD-labeled PSDs as well as the labeling intensity of CYLD at the PSD increased by more than eighty percent, indicating that neuronal activity promotes accumulation of CYLD at the PSD. An increase in postsynaptic CYLD following activity would promote removal of lysine63-polyubiquitins from PSD proteins and thus could regulate their trafficking and prevent their autophagic degradation.

  18. CYLD, a deubiquitinase specific for lysine63-linked polyubiquitins, accumulates at the postsynaptic density in an activity-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosemeci, Ayse, E-mail: dosemeca@mail.nih.gov [Laboratory of Neurobiology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Thein, Soe; Yang, Yijung; Reese, Thomas S. [Laboratory of Neurobiology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Tao-Cheng, Jung-Hwa [EM Facility, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYLD is a deubiquitinase specific for lysine63-linked polyubiquitins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of CYLD in PSDs is established by biochemistry and immunoEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYLD accumulates on PSDs upon depolarization of neurons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accumulation of CYLD at PSDs may regulate trafficking/degradation of synaptic proteins. -- Abstract: Polyubiquitin chains on proteins flag them for distinct fates depending on the type of polyubiquitin linkage. While lysine48-linked polyubiquitination directs proteins to proteasomal degradation, lysine63-linked polyubiquitination promotes different protein trafficking and is involved in autophagy. Here we show that postsynaptic density (PSD) fractions from adult rat brain contain deubiquitinase activity that targets both lysine48 and lysine63-linked polyubiquitins. Comparison of PSD fractions with parent subcellular fractions by Western immunoblotting reveals that CYLD, a deubiquitinase specific for lysine63-linked polyubiquitins, is highly enriched in the PSD fraction. Electron microscopic examination of hippocampal neurons in culture under basal conditions shows immunogold label for CYLD at the PSD complex in approximately one in four synapses. Following depolarization by exposure to high K+, the proportion of CYLD-labeled PSDs as well as the labeling intensity of CYLD at the PSD increased by more than eighty percent, indicating that neuronal activity promotes accumulation of CYLD at the PSD. An increase in postsynaptic CYLD following activity would promote removal of lysine63-polyubiquitins from PSD proteins and thus could regulate their trafficking and prevent their autophagic degradation.

  19. Linking inter-individual differences in the conflict adaptation effect to spontaneous brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Chen, Zhencai; Zhao, Guang; Hitchman, Glenn; Liu, Congcong; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Liu, Yijun; Chen, Antao

    2014-04-15

    Conflict adaptation has been widely researched in normal and clinical populations. There are large individual differences in conflict adaptation, and it has been linked to the schizotypal trait. However, no study to date has examined how individual differences in spontaneous brain activity are related to behavioral conflict adaptation (performance). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) is a promising tool to investigate this issue. The present study evaluated the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of RS-fMRI signals in order to explore the neural basis of individual differences in conflict adaptation across two independent samples comprising a total of 67 normal subjects. A partial correlation analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between ReHo and behavioral conflict adaptation, while controlling for reaction time, standard deviation and flanker interference effects. This analysis was conducted on 39 subjects' data (sample 1); the results showed significant positive correlations in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. We then conducted a test-validation procedure on the remaining 28 subjects' data (sample 2) to examine the reliability of the results. Regions of interest were defined based on the correlation results. Regression analysis showed that variability in ReHo values in the DLPFC accounted for 48% of the individual differences in the conflict adaptation effect in sample 2. The present findings provide further support for the importance of the DLPFC in the conflict adaptation process. More importantly, we demonstrated that ReHo of RS-fMRI signals in the DLPFC can predict behavioral performance in conflict adaptation, which provides potential biomarkers for the early detection of cognitive control deterioration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Linking brain-wide multivoxel activation patterns to behaviour: Examples from language and math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizada, Rajeev D.S.; Tsao, Feng-Ming; Liu, Huei-Mei; Holloway, Ian D.; Ansari, Daniel; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2010-01-01

    A key goal of cognitive neuroscience is to find simple and direct connections between brain and behaviour. However, fMRI analysis typically involves choices between many possible options, with each choice potentially biasing any brain–behaviour correlations that emerge. Standard methods of fMRI analysis assess each voxel individually, but then face the problem of selection bias when combining those voxels into a region-of-interest, or ROI. Multivariate pattern-based fMRI analysis methods use classifiers to analyse multiple voxels together, but can also introduce selection bias via data-reduction steps as feature selection of voxels, pre-selecting activated regions, or principal components analysis. We show here that strong brain–behaviour links can be revealed without any voxel selection or data reduction, using just plain linear regression as a classifier applied to the whole brain at once, i.e. treating each entire brain volume as a single multi-voxel pattern. The brain–behaviour correlations emerged despite the fact that the classifier was not provided with any information at all about subjects' behaviour, but instead was given only the neural data and its condition-labels. Surprisingly, more powerful classifiers such as a linear SVM and regularised logistic regression produce very similar results. We discuss some possible reasons why the very simple brain-wide linear regression model is able to find correlations with behaviour that are as strong as those obtained on the one hand from a specific ROI and on the other hand from more complex classifiers. In a manner which is unencumbered by arbitrary choices, our approach offers a method for investigating connections between brain and behaviour which is simple, rigorous and direct. PMID:20132896

  1. Links between personality, time perspective, and intention to practice physical activity during cancer treatment: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaron, Charlène; Marqueste, Tanguy; Eisinger, François; Cappiello, Maria-Antonietta; Therme, Pierre; Cury, François

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze links between personality, time perspective, and intention to practice physical activity during cancer treatment. One hundred forty-three patients participated in survey by questionnaire. Intention to practice physical activity, time perspective using Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and personality with the Big Five Inventory were measured. Structural equation models using Lisrel were developed to examine hypothetical links between the variables. The adjusted model evidenced an excellent fit (comparative fit index = 0.92; root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.076; P = .014). Results showed that intention to practice exercise was positively linked with openness to experience and negatively with present fatalist time perspective. Moreover, conscientiousness and neuroticism were found to be linked with future time perspective, which was positively related with intention to practice physical activity. The present exploratory study with patients suffering from cancer underlined the importance of considering jointly time perspective dimensions and personality factors for health behavior recommendations. Based on our results, we propose some reflections on practice to help nurses and physicians increase patient's motivation to be physically active. Taking into account patients' personality and time perspective, we would be able to propose specific awareness messages and offer short interventions to have an impact on patients' motivation to practice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Young people's beliefs about the risk of bowel cancer and its link with physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Katie V; Cook, Chloe; Meisel, Susanne F; Webb, Thomas L; Fisher, Bernadette; Fisher, Abi

    2017-09-01

    The primary objective was to explore young people's risk appraisals of bowel cancer, including whether they had a coherent understanding of the protective effects of physical activity (PA). A secondary objective was to examine whether the illness risk representations (IRRs) framework could be used to understand beliefs underlying bowel cancer risk appraisals. Qualitative. Framework analysis of semi-structured interviews with 19 people aged 14-17 years. Participants judged their risk of getting bowel cancer as low. This was based on a lack of family history of cancer and their current lifestyle behaviours, which were viewed as having a protective effect, or because they planned on making change to their lifestyle in the future when disease risk became more relevant. Participants were not aware of, and struggled to understand, the link between PA and bowel cancer. They also lacked knowledge of the effects of, or treatments for, bowel cancer. Beliefs underlying judgements about the risk of bowel cancer fitted the IRR framework reasonably well. The present research suggests that interventions designed to increase PA with a view to reducing the risk of bowel cancer should aim to make the future risk of bowel cancer feel more tangible, help young people to understand the full range of consequences, explain how and why preventative behaviours such as PA are effective in reducing risk, and emphasize that the typical late presentation of symptoms, and therefore investigation by health care services, reduces treatability. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Physical activity (PA) performed throughout the lifespan can have a protective effect on bowel cancer, but levels of PA are low among young people. Changing beliefs about the risk of getting bowel cancer may be a useful strategy in motivating PA. What does this study add? Increased understanding of how young people think about bowel cancer and the relationship between PA and cancer

  3. Activating transcription factor 3 is a target molecule linking hepatic steatosis to impaired glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Park, Keon Jae; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Kim, Gyu Hee; Lee, DaeYeon; Lee, Yoo Jeong; Song, Eun Hyun; Yoo, Min-Gyu; Kim, Bong-Jo; Suh, Young Ho; Roh, Gu Seob; Gao, Bin; Kim, Won; Kim, Won-Ho

    2017-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) contributes to impaired glucose tolerance, leading to type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, the precise mechanisms and target molecules that are involved remain unclear. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is associated with β-cell dysfunction that is induced by severe stress signals in T2D. We aimed to explore the exact functional role of ATF3 as a mechanistic link between hepatic steatosis and T2D development. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were utilized for animal experiments. An in vivo-jetPEI siRNA delivery system against ATF3 was used for loss-of-function experiments. We analyzed the baseline cross-sectional data derived from the biopsy-proven NAFLD registry (n=322). Human sera and liver tissues were obtained from 43 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and from seven healthy participants. ATF3 was highly expressed in the livers of ZDF rats and in human participants with NAFLD and/or T2D. Insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis were associated with increased ATF3 expression and decreased fatty acid oxidation via mitochondrial dysfunction and were attenuated by in vivo ATF3 silencing. Knockdown of ATF3 also ameliorated glucose intolerance, impaired insulin action, and inflammatory responses in ZDF rats. In patients with NAFLD and/or T2D, a significant positive correlation was observed between hepatic ATF3 expression and surrogate markers of T2D, mitochondrial dysfunction, and macrophage infiltration. Increased hepatic ATF3 expression is closely associated with hepatic steatosis and incident T2D; therefore, ATF3 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for NAFLD and hepatic steatosis-induced T2D. Hepatic activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) may play an important role in oxidative stress-mediated hepatic steatosis and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat model and in human patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, ATF3 may be a useful biomarker for

  4. Linking the Lusi mud eruption dynamics with regional and global seismic activity: a statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Marine; Hammer, Øyvind; Fallahi, Mohammad J.; Lupi, Matteo; Schmid, Daniel W.; Alwi, Husein; Hadi, Soffian; Mazzini, Adriano

    2017-04-01

    The 29th May 2006, gas water and mud breccia started to erupt at several localities along the Watukosek fault system in the Sidoarjo Regency in East Java Indonesia. The most prominent eruption site, named Lusi, is still active and the emitted material now covers a surface of nearly 7 km2, resulting in the displacement of 60.000 people (up to date). Due to its social and economic impacts, as well as its spectacular dimensions, the Lusi eruption still attracts the attention of international media and scientists. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126), many efforts were made to develop a quasi-constant monitoring of the site and the regional areas. Several studies attempted to predict the flow rate evolution or ground deformation, resulting in either overestimating or underestimating the longevity of the eruption. Models have failed because Lusi is not a mud volcano but a sedimentary hosted hydrothermal system that became apparent after the M6.3 Yogyakarta earthquake. Another reason is because such models usually assume that the flow will decrease pacing the overpressure reduction during the deflation of the chamber. These models typically consider a closed system with a unique chamber that is not being recharged. Overall the flow rate has decreased over the past ten years, although it has been largely fluctuating with monthly periods of higher mud breccia discharge. Monitoring of the eruption has revealed that numerous anomalous events are temporally linked to punctual events such as earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. Nevertheless, the quantification of these events has never been investigated in details. In this study, we present a compilation of anomalous events observed at the Lusi site during the last 10 years. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we then statistically compare the displacement, recorded at different seismic stations around Lusi, with the regional and global earthquakes catalogue to test the probability that an earthquake

  5. Exploring the Link Between Daily Relationship Quality, Sexual Desire, and Sexual Activity in Couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewitte, Marieke; Mayer, Axel

    2018-01-01

    Current models of sexual responding emphasize the role of contextual and relational factors in shaping sexual behavior. The present study used a prospective diary design to examine the temporal sequence and variability of the link between sexual and relationship variables in a sample of couples.

  6. A Generic Topology Derivation Method for Single-phase Converters with Active Capacitive DC-links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Huai; Zhu, Guorong

    2016-01-01

    capacitive DCDC- link solutions, but important aspects of the topology assess-ment, such as the total energy storage, overall capacitive energy buffer ratio, cost, and reliability are still not available. This paper proposes a generic topology derivation method of single-phase power converters...

  7. Nucleolar Proteome Analysis and Proteasomal Activity Assays Reveal a Link between Nucleolus and 26S Proteasome in A. thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montacié, Charlotte; Durut, Nathalie; Opsomer, Alison; Palm, Denise; Comella, Pascale; Picart, Claire; Carpentier, Marie-Christine; Pontvianne, Frederic; Carapito, Christine; Schleiff, Enrico; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio

    2017-01-01

    In all eukaryotic cells, the nucleolus is functionally and structurally linked to rRNA synthesis and ribosome biogenesis. This compartment contains as well factors involved in other cellular activities, but the functional interconnection between non-ribosomal activities and the nucleolus (structure and function) still remains an open question. Here, we report a novel mass spectrometry analysis of isolated nucleoli from Arabidopsis thaliana plants using the FANoS (Fluorescence Assisted Nucleolus Sorting) strategy. We identified many ribosome biogenesis factors (RBF) and proteins non-related with ribosome biogenesis, in agreement with the recognized multi-functionality of the nucleolus. Interestingly, we found that 26S proteasome subunits localize in the nucleolus and demonstrated that proteasome activity and nucleolus organization are intimately linked to each other. Proteasome subunits form discrete foci in the disorganized nucleolus of nuc1.2 plants. Nuc1.2 protein extracts display reduced proteasome activity in vitro compared to WT protein extracts. Remarkably, proteasome activity in nuc1.2 is similar to proteasome activity in WT plants treated with proteasome inhibitors (MG132 or ALLN). Finally, we show that MG132 treatment induces disruption of nucleolar structures in WT but not in nuc1.2 plants. Altogether, our data suggest a functional interconnection between nucleolus structure and proteasome activity. PMID:29104584

  8. Enhancement of antiviral activity of collectin trimers through cross-linking and mutagenesis of the carbohydrate recognition domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Mitchell R; Boland, Patrick; Tecle, Tesfaldet

    2010-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in innate defense against respiratory viruses [including influenza A viruses (IAVs)]. Truncated trimers composed of its neck and carbohydrate recognition domains (NCRDs) bind various ligands; however, they have minimal inhibitory activity for IAV......., complementary strategies, namely cross-linking of NCRDs through various means and mutagenesis of CRD residues to increase viral binding. These findings may be relevant for antiviral therapy....

  9. Structure-activity relationship of carbamate-linked cationic lipids bearing hydroxyethyl headgroup for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Defu; Zhang, Shubiao; Qureshi, Farooq; Zhao, Yinan; Cui, Shaohui; Wang, Bing; Chen, Huiying; Yang, Baoling; Zhao, Defeng

    2013-12-01

    A novel series of carbamate-linked cationic lipids containing hydroxyl headgroup were synthesized and included in formulations for transfection assays. The DNA-lipid complexes were characterized for their ability to bind DNA, their size, ζ-potential and cytotoxicity. Compared with our previously reported cationic transfection lipid DDCDMA lacking the hydroxyl group and the commercially available, these cationic liposomes exhibited relatively higher transfection efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A role for Pyk2 and Src in linking G-protein-coupled receptors with MAP kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikic, I; Tokiwa, G; Lev, S; Courtneidge, S A; Schlessinger, J

    1996-10-10

    The mechanisms by which mitogenic G-protein-coupled receptors activate the MAP kinase signalling pathway are poorly understood. Candidate protein tyrosine kinases that link G-protein-coupled receptors with MAP kinase include Src family kinases, the epidermal growth factor receptor, Lyn and Syk. Here we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and bradykinin induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 and complex formation between Pyk2 and activated Src. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 leads to binding of the SH2 domain of Src to tyrosine 402 of Pyk2 and activation of Src. Transient overexpression of a dominant interfering mutant of Pyk2 or the protein tyrosine kinase Csk reduces LPA- or bradykinin-induced activation of MAP kinase. LPA- or bradykinin-induced MAP kinase activation was also inhibited by overexpression of dominant interfering mutants of Grb2 and Sos. We propose that Pyk2 acts with Src to link Gi- and Gq-coupled receptors with Grb2 and Sos to activate the MAP kinase signalling pathway in PC12 cells.

  11. Neural activity, neural connectivity, and the processing of emotionally valenced information in older adults: links with life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, Robert J; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Schulz, Marc S

    2011-09-01

    This study examines whether differences in late-life well-being are linked to how older adults encode emotionally valenced information. Using fMRI with 39 older adults varying in life satisfaction, we examined how viewing positive and negative images would affect activation and connectivity of an emotion-processing network. Participants engaged most regions within this network more robustly for positive than for negative images, but within the PFC this effect was moderated by life satisfaction, with individuals higher in satisfaction showing lower levels of activity during the processing of positive images. Participants high in satisfaction showed stronger correlations among network regions-particularly between the amygdala and other emotion processing regions-when viewing positive, as compared with negative, images. Participants low in satisfaction showed no valence effect. Findings suggest that late-life satisfaction is linked with how emotion-processing regions are engaged and connected during processing of valenced information. This first demonstration of a link between neural recruitment and late-life well-being suggests that differences in neural network activation and connectivity may account for the preferential encoding of positive information seen in some older adults.

  12. Culturally Relevant Inquiry-Based Laboratory Module Implementations in Upper-Division Genetics and Cell Biology Teaching Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Montero-Rojas, Maria; Carrero, Katherine; Toro, Gladys; Velez, Ana; Carrero-Martinez, Franklin A.

    2011-01-01

    Today, more minority students are entering undergraduate programs than ever before, but they earn only 6% of all science or engineering PhDs awarded in the United States. Many studies suggest that hands-on research activities enhance students' interest in pursuing a research career. In this paper, we present a model for the implementation of…

  13. Multidisciplinary Inquiry-Based Investigation Learning Using an Ex Ovo Chicken Culture Platform: Role of Vitamin A on Embryonic Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskohl, Philip R.; Gould, Russell A.; Curran, Susan; Archer, Shivaun D.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic development offers a unique perspective on the function of many biological processes because of embryos' heightened sensitivity to environmental factors. This hands-on lesson investigates the effects of elevated vitamin A on the morphogenesis of chicken embryos. The active form of vitamin A (retinoic acid) is applied to shell-less (ex…

  14. Development of a Semester-Long, Inquiry-Based Laboratory Course in Upper-Level Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pushpalatha P. N.; Thompson, Martin; Hungwe, Kedmon

    2014-01-01

    A semester-long laboratory course was designed and implemented to familiarize students with modern biochemistry and molecular biology techniques. The designed format involved active student participation, evaluation of data, and critical thinking, and guided students to become independent researchers. The first part of the course focused on…

  15. Science Teachers' Views and Stereotypes of Religion, Scientists and Scientific Research: A call for scientist-science teacher partnerships to promote inquiry-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nasser

    2015-07-01

    Despite a growing consensus regarding the value of inquiry-based learning (IBL) for students' learning and engagement in the science classroom, the implementation of such practices continues to be a challenge. If science teachers are to use IBL to develop students' inquiry practices and encourage them to think and act as scientists, a better understanding of factors that influence their attitudes towards scientific research and scientists' practices is very much needed. Within this context there is a need to re-examine the science teachers' views of scientists and the cultural factors that might have an impact on teachers' views and pedagogical practices. A diverse group of Egyptian science teachers took part in a quantitative-qualitative study using a questionnaire and in-depth interviews to explore their views of scientists and scientific research, and to understand how they negotiated their views of scientists and scientific research in the classroom, and how these views informed their practices of using inquiry in the classroom. The findings highlighted how the teachers' cultural beliefs and views of scientists and scientific research had constructed idiosyncratic pedagogical views and practices. The study suggested implications for further research and argued for teacher professional development based on partnerships with scientists.

  16. How to Incorporate Technology with Inquiry-Based Learning to Enhance the Understanding of Chemical Composition; How to Analyze Unknown Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of technology in teaching offers numerous amounts of possibilities and can be challenging for physics, chemistry and geology content courses. When incorporating technology into a science content lab it is better to be driven by pedagogy than by technology in an inquiry-based lab setting. Students need to be introduced to real-world technology in the beginning of first year chemistry or physics course to ensure real-world technology concepts while assisting with content such as periodic trends on the periodic table. This article will describe the use of technology with Raman Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive XRay Spectroscopy (EDS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR to research chemical compositions in the real world of unknown samples. Such unknown samples utilized in this lab were clamshell (parts of clams that look like shark teeth versus shark teeth. The data will be shared to show how the students (pre-service teachers and in-service teachers solved the problem using technology while learning important content that will assist in the next level of chemistry, physics and even geology.

  17. Using Eight Key Questions as an Inquiry-Based Framework for Ethical Reasoning Issues in a General Education Earth Systems and Climate Change Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Ball, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    An important objective in general education geoscience courses is to help students evaluate social and ethical issues based upon scientific knowledge. It can be difficult for instructors trained in the physical sciences to design effective ways of including ethical issues in large lecture courses where whole-class discussions are not practical. The Quality Enhancement Plan for James Madison University, "The Madison Collaborative: Ethical Reasoning in Action," (http://www.jmu.edu/mc/index.shtml) has identified eight key questions to be used as a framework for developing ethical reasoning exercises and evaluating student learning. These eight questions are represented by the acronym FOR CLEAR and are represented by the concepts of Fairness, Outcomes, Responsibilities, Character, Liberty, Empathy, Authority, and Rights. In this study, we use the eight key questions as an inquiry-based framework for addressing ethical issues in a 100-student general education Earth systems and climate change course. Ethical reasoning exercises are presented throughout the course and range from questions of personal behavior to issues regarding potential future generations and global natural resources. In the first few exercises, key questions are identified for the students and calibrated responses are provided as examples. By the end of the semester, students are expected to identify key questions themselves and justify their own ethical and scientific reasoning. Evaluation rubrics are customized to this scaffolding approach to the exercises. Student feedback and course data will be presented to encourage discussion of this and other approaches to explicitly incorporating ethical reasoning in general education geoscience courses.

  18. A Mind of Their Own: Using Inquiry-based Teaching to Build Critical Thinking Skills and Intellectual Engagement in an Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Ralf R; Quitadamo, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    A changing undergraduate demographic and the need to help students develop advanced critical thinking skills in neuroanatomy courses has prompted many faculty to consider new teaching methods including clinical case studies. This study compared primarily conventional and inquiry-based clinical case (IBCC) teaching methods to determine which would produce greater gains in critical thinking and content knowledge. Results showed students in the conventional neuroanatomy course gained less than 3 national percentile ranks while IBCC students gained over 7.5 within one academic term using the valid and reliable California Critical Thinking Skills Test. In addition to 2.5 times greater gains in critical thinking, IBCC teaching methods also produced 12% greater final exam performance and 11% higher grades using common grade performance benchmarks. Classroom observations also indicated that IBCC students were more intellectually engaged and participated to a greater extent in classroom discussions. Through the results of this study, it is hoped that faculty who teach neuroanatomy and desire greater critical thinking and content student learning outcomes will consider using the IBCC method.

  19. Levels of use of an elementary school inquiry-based instructional innovation among a selected group of teacher participants in the Delaware Elementary Science Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchelle, Henry Ellsworth Wirt, III

    Science education in Delaware's public elementary and middle schools has experienced much change in recent years as a result of the adoption of state standards and, in particular, the adoption by school districts of the Smithsonian/National Science Resources Council-sponsored inquiry-based instruction modules as part of the "Elementary Science Initiative." As part of this adoption process, each participating elementary teacher and middle school science teacher receives extensive training in the use of several discrete science kits. The trainings include reinforcement and development of content knowledge, in addition to the modeling of and practice with complementary pedagogy. One measure of the effectiveness of the science kit training process (and perhaps the Initiative itself) is the teachers' levels of use of the Initiative. The purpose of this study was to determine the participating teachers' use of the science kit innovation through the use of the Concerns-based Adoption Model Levels of Use Questionnaire. Eight K--5 elementary classroom teachers who had completed at least three science kit trainings participated. The results of this study indicate that on the Overall Level of Use Rating Scale, teachers who had completed training in at least three science kits generally scored at the Routine (IVA) level. All of the teachers, regardless of the wide range in the number of years of experience, had achieved the Mechanical Use level in Overall (III) LoU, and 6 of the 8 participants (75%) were operating at no less than the Refinement (IVA) Overall LoU level.

  20. Preparing Historically Underserved Students for STEM Careers: The Role of an Inquiry-based High School Science Sequence Beginning with Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Jon P.

    Improving the STEM readiness of students from historically underserved groups is a moral and economic imperative requiring greater attention and effort than has been shown to date. The current literature suggests a high school science sequence beginning with physics and centered on developing conceptual understanding, using inquiry labs and modeling to allow students to explore new ideas, and addressing and correcting student misconceptions can increase student interest in and preparation for STEM careers. The purpose of this study was to determine if the science college readiness of historically underserved students can be improved by implementing an inquiry-based high school science sequence comprised of coursework in physics, chemistry, and biology for every student. The study used a retrospective cohort observational design to address the primary research question: are there differences between historically underserved students completing a Physics First science sequence and their peers completing a traditional science sequence in 1) science college-readiness test scores, 2) rates of science college-and career-readiness, and 3) interest in STEM? Small positive effects were found for all three outcomes for historically underserved students in the Physics First sequence.

  1. Presentation of the decay data group activities at LPRI. (Links with international evaluation works)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Be, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    The activities of the Primary Ionizing Radiation Laboratory (LPRI) which is affiliated with the French National Bureau of Metrology (BNM), include evaluation of decay data, absolute activity measurements, X- and gamma-ray spectrometry, development of new measuring techniques, etc. The following three activities in the field of decay data evaluation are briefly presented: NUCLEIDE software, internal conversion coefficients, and nuclide evaluations

  2. The OKE Corral : Code organisation and reconfiguration at runtime using active linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Herbert; Samwel, Bart

    2002-01-01

    The OKE Corral is an active network environment which allows third-party active code to configure an active node’s code organisation at any level, including the kernel. Using the safety properties of an open kernel environment and a simple ‘Click-like’ software model, third parties are able to load

  3. Tests of biological activity of metabolites from Penicillium expansum (Link Thom various isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqrobacterium tumefaciens and cucumber, mustard and linseeds were compared as test organisms for evaluation of the biological activity of patulin. It was found that the reaction of cucumber seeds and linseed to the patulin concentrations was more pronounced than that of mustard and Aqrobacterium tumefaciens. The activity of metabolites produced by Penicillium expansum was investigated with the use of cucumber seeds. As measure of activity served the percentage of radicule growth inhibition was compared with the growth in control seeds. The biological activity of the metabolites was specific for the isolates, those from apples being more active. Thirty two isolates from pears and 34 from apples were examined.

  4. Mars Rover Model Celebration: Developing Inquiry Based Lesson Plans to Teach Planetary Science In Elementary And Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.; Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Kapral, A.; Dominey, W.; Ramsey, J.; Konstantinidis, I.; James, J.; Sweaney, S.; Mendez, R.

    2012-12-01

    The recent NASA Mars Rover missions capture the imagination of children, as NASA missions have done for decades. The University of Houston is in the process of developing a prototype of a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model rover. The existing prototype program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration. It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students will design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. The model will be a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost from art supplies. The students will build the models as part of a project on Mars. The students will be given design criteria for a rover and will do basic research on Mars that will determine the objectives and features of their rover. This project may be used either informally as an after school club or youth group activity or formally as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics, or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. The project's unique strength lies in engaging students in the process of spacecraft design and interesting them in aerospace engineering careers. The project is aimed at elementary and secondary education. Not only will these students learn about scientific fields relevant to the mission (space science, physics, geology, robotics, and more), they will gain an appreciation for how this knowledge is used to tackle complex problems. The low cost of the event makes it an ideal enrichment vehicle for low income schools. It provides activities that provide professional development to educators, curricular support resources using NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) content, and provides family opportunities for involvement in K-12 student learning. This paper will describe the development of a detailed set of new 5E lesson plans to

  5. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi B

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown......-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....... the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. METHODS: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients...

  6. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown...... in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....... the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. METHODS: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients...

  7. Ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase: a catalytically active dithiol group links photoreduced ferredoxin to thioredoxin functional in photosynthetic enzyme regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droux, M.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.; Jacquot, J.P.; Gadal, P.; Crawford, N.A.; Kosower, N.S.; Buchanan, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism by which the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system activates the target enzyme, NADP-malate dehydrogenase, was investigated by analyzing the sulfhydryl status of individual protein components with [ 14 C]iodoacetate and monobromobimane. The data indicate that ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR)--an iron-sulfur enzyme present in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms--is the first member of a thiol chain that links light to enzyme regulation. FTR possesses a catalytically active dithiol group localized on the 13 kDa (similar) subunit, that occurs in all species investigated and accepts reducing equivalents from photoreduced ferredoxin and transfers them stoichiometrically to the disulfide form of thioredoxin m. The reduced thioredoxin m, in turn, reduces NADP-malate dehydrogenase, thereby converting it from an inactive (S-S) to an active (SH) form. The means by which FTR is able to combine electrons (from photoreduced ferredoxin) with protons (from the medium) to reduce its active disulfide group remains to be determined

  8. HTLV-1 Tax-induced NFκB activation is independent of Lys-63-linked-type polyubiquitination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohda, Jin; Irisawa, Masato; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Sato, Shintaro; Ohtani, Kiyoshi; Fujisawa, Jun-ichi; Inoue, Jun-ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) is thought to play a critical role in T-cell transformation and onset of adult T-cell leukemia. However, the molecular mechanism of the Tax-induced NFκB activation remains unknown. One of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinses (MAP3Ks) members, TAK1, plays a critical role in cytokine-induced activation of NFκB, which involves lysine 63-linked (K63) polyubiquitination of NEMO, a noncatalytic subunit of the IκB kinase complex. Here we show that Tax induces K63 polyubiquitination of NEMO. However, TAK1 is dispensable for Tax-induced NFκB activation, and deubiquitination of the K63 polyubiquitin chain failed to block Tax-induced NFκB activation. In addition, silencing of other MAP3Ks, including MEKK1, MEKK3, NIK, and TPL-2, did not affect Tax-induced NFκB activation. These results strongly suggest that unlike cytokine signaling, Tax-induced NFκB activation does not involve K63 polyubiquitination-mediated MAP3K activation

  9. Activated Integrin-Linked Kinase Negatively Regulates Muscle Cell Enhancement Factor 2C in C2C12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguo Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study reported that muscle cell enhancement factor 2C (MEF2C was fully activated after inhibition of the phosphorylation activity of integrin-linked kinase (ILK in the skeletal muscle cells of goats. It enhanced the binding of promoter or enhancer of transcription factor related to proliferation of muscle cells and then regulated the expression of these genes. In the present investigation, we explored whether ILK activation depended on PI3K to regulate the phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of MEF2C during C2C12 cell proliferation. We inhibited PI3K activity in C2C12 with LY294002 and then found that ILK phosphorylation levels and MEF2C phosphorylation were decreased and that MCK mRNA expression was suppressed significantly. After inhibiting ILK phosphorylation activity with Cpd22 and ILK-shRNA, we found MEF2C phosphorylation activity and MCK mRNA expression were increased extremely significantly. In the presence of Cpd22, PI3K activity inhibition increased MEF2C phosphorylation and MCK mRNA expression indistinctively. We conclude that ILK negatively and independently of PI3K regulated MEF2C phosphorylation activity and MCK mRNA expression in C2C12 cells. The results provide new ideas for the study of classical signaling pathway of PI3K-ILK-related proteins and transcription factors.

  10. Finite Element Analysis for Active-force Control on Vibration of a Flexible Single-link Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadir Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research are to formulate theequations of motion of the system, to develop computationalcodes by a finite element analysis in order to perform dynamicssimulation with vibration control, to propose an effective controlscheme using active-force (AF control a flexible single-linkmanipulator. The system used in this paper consists of analuminum beam as a flexible link, a clamp-part, a servo motor torotate the link and a piezoelectric actuator to control vibration.Computational codes on time history responses, FFT (FastFourier Transform processing and eigenvalues-eigenvectorsanalysis were developed to calculate dynamic behavior of thelink. Furthermore, the AF control was designed to drive thepiezoelectric actuator. Calculated results have revealed that thevibration of the system can be suppressed effectively

  11. Relief of fecal incontinence by sacral nerve stimulation linked to focal brain activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Lilli; Møller, Arne; Buntzen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that sacral nerve stimulation affects afferent vagal projections to the central nervous system associated with frontal cortex activation in patients with fecal incontinence.......This study aimed to test the hypothesis that sacral nerve stimulation affects afferent vagal projections to the central nervous system associated with frontal cortex activation in patients with fecal incontinence....

  12. High efflux pump activity and gene expression at baseline linked to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic TB drug resistance, also known as drug tolerance, has been previously attributed to slowed bacterial growth in vivo. The increased activity and expression of efflux systems can lower the intracellular concentration of many antibiotics thus reducing their efficacy. We hypothesized that efflux pump activation and ...

  13. Bcl10 links saturated fat overnutrition with hepatocellular NF-kB activation and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.H. van; Oravecz-Wilson, K.I.; Delekta, P.C.; Gu, S.; Li, X.; Jin, X.; Apel, I.J.; Konkle, K.S.; Feng, Y.; Teitelbaum, D.H.; Ruland, J.; McAllister-Lucas, L.M.; Lucas, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Excess serum free fatty acids (FFAs) are fundamental to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. With high-fat feeding, FFAs activate NF-kB in target tissues, initiating negative crosstalk with insulin signaling. However, the mechanisms underlying FFA-dependent NF-kB activation remain unclear. Here,

  14. Inquiry Based Projects Using Student Ozone Measurements and the Status of Using Plants as Bio-Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, I. H.; Fishman, J.; Pippin, M.; Sachs, S.; Skelly, J.; Chappelka, A.; Neufeld, H.; Burkey, K.

    2006-05-01

    Students around the world work cooperatively with their teachers and the scientific research community measuring local surface ozone levels using a hand-held optical scanner and ozone sensitive chemical strips. Through the GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Program, students measuring local ozone levels are connected with the chemistry of the air they breathe and how human activity impacts air quality. Educational tools have been developed and correlated with the National Science and Mathematics Standards to facilitate integrating the study of surface ozone with core curriculum. Ozone air pollution has been identified as the major pollutant causing foliar injury to plants when they are exposed to concentrations of surface ozone. The inclusion of native and agricultural plants with measuring surface ozone provides an Earth system approach to understanding surface ozone. An implementation guide for investigating ozone induced foliar injury has been developed and field tested. The guide, Using Sensitive Plants as Bio-Indicators of Ozone Pollution, provides: the background information and protocol for implementing an "Ozone Garden" with native and agricultural plants; and, a unique opportunity to involve students in a project that will develop and increase their awareness of surface ozone air pollution and its impact on plants.

  15. Geomagnetic anomalies - possible earthquake precursors - linked with 2004 significant seismic activity in Vrancea, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enescu, D.

    2005-01-01

    The association between a precursory geomagnetic anomaly and a Vrancea earthquake of moderate-to-high magnitude (M W = 6.3) followed by weaker earthquakes (M W W ≤ 6.3 the conclusion of our earlier papers, i.e., that the great majority of Vrancea earthquakes of magnitudes 3.7 ≤ M W ≤5.0 were accompanied by observable precursory electromagnetic anomalies. Our works show that neither the precursor time nor the amplitude of the precursory magnetic anomaly can be linked reliably with the magnitude of the anticipated earthquake. Knowing the way electric resistivity varies ahead of an earthquake, we can assert that the earthquake-precursory growth in geomagnetic impedance is matched by an earthquake-precursory decrease of electric resistivity. (authors)

  16. Physical Activity and Health Perception in Aging: Do Body Mass and Satisfaction Matter? A Three-Path Mediated Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condello, Giancarlo; Capranica, Laura; Stager, Joel; Forte, Roberta; Falbo, Simone; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Pesce, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals. Hundred and seventy-nine late middle-aged, (55-64 yrs), young-old (65-74 yrs), and old (75-84 yrs) senior athletes (n = 56), physically active (n = 58) or sedentary adults (n = 65) were submitted to anthropometric evaluations (body mass, height) and self-reported questionnaires: Body Image Dimensional Assessment, Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Attitude Test, and Short Form Health Survey (Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] of and health and quality of life perception). Senior athletes, physically active, and sedentary participants subgroups differed (Psatisfaction. Findings confirm the relevant role of physically active life habits for older individuals to perceive good physical and mental health. The novelty of the three-path mediated link between physical activity level and mental health perception suggests that the beneficial effect of a physically active lifestyle on weight control can positively impinge on the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health by ensuring the maintenance, also at older age, of a satisfactory body image.

  17. Linking Activity and Function to Ecosystem Dynamics in a Coastal Bacterioplankton Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Michael Gifford

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For bacterial communities containing hundreds to thousands of distinct populations, connecting functional processes and environmental dynamics at high taxonomic resolution has remained challenging. Here we use the expression of ribosomal proteins (%RP as a proxy for in situ activity of 200 taxa within 20 metatranscriptomic samples in a coastal ocean time series encompassing both seasonal variability and diel dynamics. %RP patterns grouped the taxa into seven activity clusters with distinct profiles in functional gene expression and correlations with environmental gradients. Clusters 1-3 had their highest potential activity in the winter and fall, and included some of the most active taxa, while Clusters 4-7 had their highest potential activity in the spring and summer. Cluster 1 taxa were characterized by gene expression for motility and complex carbohydrate degradation (dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and Cluster 2 taxa by transcription of genes for amino acid and aromatic compound metabolism and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophy (Roseobacter. Other activity clusters were enriched in transcripts for proteorhodopsin and methylotrophy (Cluster 4; SAR11 and methylotrophs, photosynthesis and attachment (Clusters 5 and 7; Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes, Verucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes, and sulfur oxidation (Cluster 7; Gammaproteobacteria. The seasonal patterns in activity were overlain, and sometimes obscured, by large differences in %RP over shorter day-night timescales. Seventy-eight taxa, many of them heterotrophs, had a higher %RP activity index during the day than night, indicating strong diel activity at this coastal site. Emerging from these taxonomically- and time-resolved estimates of in situ microbial activity are predictions of specific ecological groupings of microbial taxa in a dynamic coastal environment.

  18. Microbial Activity and Depositional System Dynamics: Linking Scales With The Aid of New Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defew, E. C.; Hagerthey, S. E.; Honeywill, C.; Perkins, R. G.; Black, K. S.; Paterson, D. M.

    The dynamics of estuarine depositional systems are influenced by sediment-dwelling microphytobenthic assemblages. These assemblages produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are known to be important in the process of sediment biosta- bilisation. However, these communities are generally studied on very small spatial scales making the prediction of primary productivity and their importance in terms of sediment stability over large areas uncertain. Recent advances in our knowledge of the biostabilisation process have allowed the establishment of links between EPS produc- tion, spatial distribution of algal biomass and their primary productivity over much larger spatial scales. For example, during the multidisciplinary BIOPTIS project, re- mote sensing (RS) was combined with ground-truthing measurements of physical and biological parameters to produce synoptic maps leading to a better understanding of system dynamics and the potential effects of environmental perturbations such as cli- mate change. Recent work using low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT- SEM) and in-line laser holography has measured the influence of EPS on the erosional behaviour of sediment flocs and particles and has shown that an increase in the con- centration of EPS determines the nature of the eroded floc material and the critical threshold for sediment erosion. This provides the mechanistic link required between EPS concentration and sediment stability. Whilst it is not yet possible to discern EPS concentration directly by RS studies, we know that EPS concentrations in sediments co-vary with chlorophyll a content, and are closely related to algal productivity. There- fore, RS studies which provide large-scale spatial information of chlorophyll a distri- bution may be used to model the stability and productivity of intertidal depositional systems. This paper introduces the basis of these linkages from the cellular level (in situ chlorophyll fluorescence), the ground

  19. Gremlin Activates the Smad Pathway Linked to Epithelial Mesenchymal Transdifferentiation in Cultured Tubular Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodrigues-Diez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gremlin is a developmental gene upregulated in human chronic kidney disease and in renal cells in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT is one process involved in renal fibrosis. In tubular epithelial cells we have recently described that Gremlin induces EMT and acts as a downstream TGF-β mediator. Our aim was to investigate whether Gremlin participates in EMT by the regulation of the Smad pathway. Stimulation of human tubular epithelial cells (HK2 with Gremlin caused an early activation of the Smad signaling pathway (Smad 2/3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and Smad-dependent gene transcription. The blockade of TGF-β, by a neutralizing antibody against active TGF-β, did not modify Gremlin-induced early Smad activation. These data show that Gremlin directly, by a TGF-β independent process, activates the Smad pathway. In tubular epithelial cells long-term incubation with Gremlin increased TGF-β production and caused a sustained Smad activation and a phenotype conversion into myofibroblasts-like cells. Smad 7 overexpression, which blocks Smad 2/3 activation, diminished EMT changes observed in Gremlin-transfected tubuloepithelial cells. TGF-β neutralization also diminished Gremlin-induced EMT changes. In conclusion, we propose that Gremlin could participate in renal fibrosis by inducing EMT in tubular epithelial cells through activation of Smad pathway and induction of TGF-β.

  20. Structural coupling of SH2-kinase domains links Fes and Abl substrate recognition and kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Kofler, Michael; Hantschel, Oliver; Gish, Gerald D; Grebien, Florian; Salah, Eidarus; Neudecker, Philipp; Kay, Lewis E; Turk, Benjamin E; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Pawson, Tony; Knapp, Stefan

    2008-09-05

    The SH2 domain of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases can enhance catalytic activity and substrate recognition, but the molecular mechanisms by which this is achieved are poorly understood. We have solved the structure of the prototypic SH2-kinase unit of the human Fes tyrosine kinase, which appears specialized for positive signaling. In its active conformation, the SH2 domain tightly interacts with the kinase N-terminal lobe and positions the kinase alphaC helix in an active configuration through essential packing and electrostatic interactions. This interaction is stabilized by ligand binding to the SH2 domain. Our data indicate that Fes kinase activation is closely coupled to substrate recognition through cooperative SH2-kinase-substrate interactions. Similarly, we find that the SH2 domain of the active Abl kinase stimulates catalytic activity and substrate phosphorylation through a distinct SH2-kinase interface. Thus, the SH2 and catalytic domains of active Fes and Abl pro-oncogenic kinases form integrated structures essential for effective tyrosine kinase signaling.

  1. Joint associations of smoking and physical activity with disability retirement: a register-linked cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lahti, Jouni

    2015-07-29

    We examined the risk of disability retirement by smoking and physical activity, and particularly whether the risk due to smoking is affected by the level of physical activity. Additionally, the contribution of baseline health, sociodemographic and work-related factors to the joint associations of smoking and physical activity with disability retirement was considered. Cohort study. Helsinki, Finland. Employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years at baseline in 2000-2002, were followed up using complete register data from the Finnish Centre of Pensions until the end of 2010 (n=6390, with a consent to register linkage from 74%). All-cause disability retirement (ICD-10). Altogether, 608 employees (9.5%) retired due to disability during the follow-up. Cox regression models were fitted to examine the joint associations of smoking and physical activity with subsequent disability retirement. Never-smokers, ex-smokers and moderate smokers who were inactive or moderately active had an increased risk of disability retirement, but if they were vigorously active, they had no excess risk. Instead, all heavy smokers (15 or more cigarettes per day among women, and 20 or more among men), irrespective of physical activity, had an increased risk of disability retirement. The examined associations attenuated but remained for ex-smokers and heavy smokers after adjustments for gender, age, socioeconomic position, mental and physical workload, problem drinking, body mass index and self-rated health. No gender interactions were found. Vigorous physical activity might help prevent disability retirement not only among never-smokers, but even among ex-smokers and moderate smokers. However, among heavy smokers, physical activity is not sufficient to eliminate the adverse effects of smoking on health and work ability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Analysis of HR consultants and French recruiters activity on LinkedIn. In between work resource and quest of identity development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène HOBLINGRE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates usage of LinkedIn by HR professionals. Based on twelve HR consultants and recruiters interviews, LinkedIn usage analysis highlights that this tool is used in a mix of private and professional practices. It sheds a light on the tension of using LinkedIn as a business tool versus LinkedIn as a tool to develop personal projects. Using LinkedIn in a professional context implies following norms and guidelines that impact user freedom. As a consequence, this prevents user from benefiting from all LinkedIn developmental capabilities. Eventually, our results stress the need for an individual to use LinkedIn as a reflective practitioner. This should be done in the light of building purpose to professional activities and accommodating functional usage with strategic practices.

  3. Activation tagging of the two closely linked genes LEP and VAS independently affects vascular cell number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Graaff, Eric; Hooykaas, Paul J J; Keller, Beat

    2002-01-01

    report that in addition to this leafy petiole phenotype, the size of the vascular bundles is increased in all aerial organs in let as a result of an increase in the number of xylem, phloem (pro)cambial and pericycle cells. This vascular phenotype is caused by activation tagging of the two genes VASCULAR......-promoting factor. The activation tagging of VAS only resulted in a specific increase in phloem (pro)cambial and pericycle cells. We conclude that activation tagging of LEP and VAS results in additive phenotypes. Insertional mutants for LEP and VAS display wild-type vascular development, indicating the relevance...... of activation tagging for functional analysis of novel genes involved in plant development....

  4. Physical Activity and Telomere Biology: Exploring the Link with Aging-Related Disease Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew T. Ludlow; Stephen M. Roth

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several age-related diseases as well as with increased longevity in both rodents and humans. Though these associations are well established, evidence of the molecular and cellular factors associated with reduced disease risk and increased longevity resulting from physical activity is sparse. A long-standing hypothesis of aging is the telomere hypothesis: as a cell divides, telomeres shorten resulting eventually in replicative senescence and...

  5. Ethyne-linked push-pull chromophores: implications of crystal structure and molecular electronics on the quadric nonlinear activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kautny, P.; Kriegner, H.; Bader, D.; Dušek, Michal; Reider, G.A.; Froehlich, J.; Stoeger, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 8 (2017), s. 4124-4136 ISSN 1528-7483 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12653S; GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ethyne-linked materials * nonlinear optical chromophores * molecular structure * optical activity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.055, year: 2016

  6. Generation of nitric oxide from nitrite by carbonic anhydrase: a possible link between metabolic activity and vasodilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamand, Rasmus; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Jensen, Frank Bo

    2009-01-01

    In catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate and protons, the ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) plays a crucial role in CO2 transport, in acid-base balance, and in linking local acidosis to O2 unloading from hemoglobin. Considering the structural similarity between...... bicarbonate and nitrite, we hypothesized that CA uses nitrite as a substrate to produce the potent vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) to increase local blood flow to metabolically active tissues. Here we show that CA readily reacts with nitrite to generate NO, particularly at low pH, and that the NO produced...

  7. A Study on The Effectiveness of a Pilot Inquiry-Based Middle School Science Program on Non- Cognitive Outcomes and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Rui Meira

    The randomized research study assessed the effect of an inquiry-based science (IBS) program on non-cognitive outcomes and academic achievement. The study was the result of a grant that was awarded by Professional Resources in Science and Mathematics (PRISM), a program affiliated with Montclair State University in conjunction with Bristol-Myers Squibb, and part of the New Jersey Statewide Systemic Initiative (NJSSI). The NJSSI is a partnership of schools, districts, colleges and universities, science centers, businesses, and museums dedicated to improving the teaching and learning of science, mathematics, and technology in New Jersey. The quantitative research study utilized an IBS instructional program titled Science and Technology Concepts for Middle Schools (STC/MS) and was implemented in two middle schools within the same suburban school district. This study examined the effect of IBS classrooms on learning outcomes specifically related to gender and special education. Evaluation of student learning outcomes was conducted through the administration of three instruments: the Academic Self-Concept (ASC) scale, unit assessments, and NJASK 8 Science. The ASC scale and unit assessments were administered as a pretest and posttest in IBS classrooms. NJASK 8 Science scale scores were obtained through reporting of student performance data from the New Jersey Department of Education to the district. The quantitative analysis in this study provided evidence that IBS classrooms had a positive effect on academic achievement. Overall, students in IBS classrooms performed better than students in traditional classrooms on unit assessments. Additionally, male students and special education students in IBS classrooms outperformed students in traditional classrooms on unit assessments.

  8. Assessing Conceptual Understanding via Literacy-Infused, Inquiry-Based Science among Middle School English Learners and Economically-Challenged Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lara-Alecio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The overarching purpose of our study was to compare performances of treatment and control condition students who completed a literacy-infused, inquiry-based science intervention through sixth grade as measured by a big idea assessment tool which we refer to as the Big Ideas in Science Assessment (BISA. First, we determine the concurrent validity of the BISA; second, we investigate the differences in the post-test of the BISA between treatment and control English Learners (ELs, controlling for their performance in the pre-test; third, we analyze the differences in the post-test of the BISA between treatment and control non-ELs, controlling for their performance in the pre-test; and fourth, we examine the relationship between students’ English language proficiency as measured by standardized assessment, and their performance in the BISA among ELs and non-ELs, respectively. Our findings indicate: (a literacy-infused science lessons with big ideas, implemented through the tested intervention, improved students’ language acquisition and science concept understanding for ELs and economically challenged students (ECs; (b there was a positive relationship between language and content for both ELs and non-ELs, with a similar magnitude, suggesting that students with a higher level of English proficiency score higher in science assessment; and (c the lesson plans prepared were successful for promoting a literacy-infused science curriculum via a 5E Model (Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate that includes three to five of the Es used daily. A pedagogical approach for a literacy-infused science model with big ideas is proposed.

  9. Inquiry-Based Integrated Science Education: Implementation of Local Content “Soil Washing” Project To Improve Junior High School Students’ Environmental Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syifahayu

    2017-02-01

    The study was conducted based on teaching and learning problems led by conventional method that had been done in the process of learning science. It gave students lack opportunities to develop their competence and thinking skills. Consequently, the process of learning science was neglected. Students did not have opportunity to improve their critical attitude and creative thinking skills. To cope this problem, the study was conducted using Project-Based Learning model through inquiry-based science education about environment. The study also used an approach called Sains Lingkungan and Teknologi masyarakat - “Saling Temas” (Environmental science and Technology in Society) which promoted the local content in Lampung as a theme in integrated science teaching and learning. The study was a quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest control group design. Initially, the subjects were given a pre-test. The experimental group was given inquiry learning method while the control group was given conventional learning. After the learning process, the subjects of both groups were given post-test. Quantitative analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and also a qualitative descriptive. Based on the result, environmental literacy skills of students who get inquiry learning strategy, with project-based learning model on the theme soil washing, showed significant differences. The experimental group is better than the control group. Data analysis showed the p-value or sig. (2-tailed) is 0.000 <α = 0.05 with the average N-gain of experimental group is 34.72 and control group is 16.40. Besides, the learning process becomes more meaningful.

  10. Virtual Cross-Linking of the Active Nemorubicin Metabolite PNU-159682 to Double-Stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalabrin, Matteo; Quintieri, Luigi; Palumbo, Manlio; Riccardi Sirtori, Federico; Gatto, Barbara

    2017-02-20

    The DNA alkylating mechanism of PNU-159682 (PNU), a highly potent metabolite of the anthracycline nemorubicin, was investigated by gel-electrophoretic, HPLC-UV, and micro-HPLC/mass spectrometry (MS) measurements. PNU quickly reacted with double-stranded oligonucleotides, but not with single-stranded sequences, to form covalent adducts which were detectable by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (DPAGE). Ion-pair reverse-phase HPLC-UV analysis on CG rich duplex sequences having a 5'-CCCGGG-3' central core showed the formation of two types of adducts with PNU, which were stable and could be characterized by micro-HPLC/MS. The first type contained one alkylated species (and possibly one reversibly bound species), and the second contained two alkylated species per duplex DNA. The covalent adducts were found to produce effective bridging of DNA complementary strands through the formation of virtual cross-links reminiscent of those produced by classical anthracyclines in the presence of formaldehyde. Furthermore, the absence of reactivity of PNU with CG-rich sequence containing a TA core (CGTACG), and the minor reactivity between PNU and CGC sequences (TACGCG·CGCGTA) pointed out the importance of guanine sequence context in modulating DNA alkylation.

  11. Pedophilia is linked to reduced activation in hypothalamus and lateral prefrontal cortex during visual erotic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Martin; Witzel, Joachim; Wiebking, Christine; Gubka, Udo; Rotte, Michael; Schiltz, Kolja; Bermpohl, Felix; Tempelmann, Claus; Bogerts, Bernhard; Heinze, Hans Jochen; Northoff, Georg

    2007-09-15

    Although pedophilia is of high public concern, little is known about underlying neural mechanisms. Although pedophilic patients are sexually attracted to prepubescent children, they show no sexual interest toward adults. This study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of deficits of sexual and emotional arousal in pedophiles. Thirteen pedophilic patients and 14 healthy control subjects were tested for differential neural activity during visual stimulation with emotional and erotic pictures with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regions showing differential activations during the erotic condition comprised the hypothalamus, the periaqueductal gray, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the latter correlating with a clinical measure. Alterations of emotional processing concerned the amygdala-hippocampus and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Hypothesized regions relevant for processing of erotic stimuli in healthy individuals showed reduced activations during visual erotic stimulation in pedophilic patients. This suggests an impaired recruitment of key structures that might contribute to an altered sexual interest of these patients toward adults.

  12. Hyperglycemia induces memory impairment linked to increased acetylcholinesterase activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; De Moraes, Daiani Almeida; Menezes, Fabiano Peres; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2014-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus, which causes hyperglycemia, affects the central nervous system and can impairs cognitive functions, such as memory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hyperglycemia on memory as well as on the activity of acethylcholinesterase. Hyperglycemia was induced in adult zebrafish by immersion in glucose 111mM by 14 days. The animals were divided in 4 groups: control, glucose-treated, glucose-washout 7-days and glucose-washout 14-days. We evaluated the performance in inhibitory avoidance task and locomotor activity. We also determined acethylcholinesterase activity and gene expression from whole brain. In order to counteract the effect of hyperglycemia underlined by effects on acethylcholinesterase activity, we treated the animals with galantamine (0.05ng/g), an inhibitor of this enzyme. Also we evaluated the gene expression of insulin receptor and glucose transporter from zebrafish brain. The hyperglycemia promoted memory deficit in adult zebrafish, which can be explained by increased AChE activity. The ache mRNA levels from zebrafish brain were decrease in 111mM glucose group and returned to normal levels after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. Insulin receptors (insra-1, insra-2, insrb-1 and insrb-2) and glut-3 mRNA levels were not significantly changed. Our results also demonstrated that galantamine was able to reverse the memory deficit caused by hyperglycemia, demonstrating that these effects involve modulation of AChE activity. These data suggest that the memory impairment induced by hyperglycemia is underlined by the cholinergic dysfunction caused by the mechanisms involving the control of acetylcholinesterase function and gene expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Soluble IgM links apoptosis to complement activation in early alcoholic liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smathers, Rebecca L; Chiang, Dian J; McMullen, Megan R; Feldstein, Ariel E; Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; Nagy, Laura E

    2016-04-01

    Ethanol feeding in mice activates complement via C1q binding to apoptotic cells in the liver; complement contributes to ethanol-induced inflammation and injury. Despite the critical role of C1q in ethanol-induced injury, the mechanism by which ethanol activates C1q remains poorly understood. Secretory IgM (sIgM), traditionally considered to act as an anti-microbial, also has critical housekeeping functions, facilitating clearance of apoptotic cells, at least in part through activation of C1q. Therefore, we hypothesized that (1) ethanol-induced apoptosis in the liver recruits sIgM, facilitating the activation of C1q and complement and (2) C1INH (C1 esterase inhibitor), which inhibits C1 functional activity, prevents complement activation and decreases ethanol-induced liver injury. Female C57BL/6 wild-type, C1qa(-/-), BID(-/-) and sIgM(-/-) mice were fed ethanol containing liquid diets or pair-fed control diets. C1INH or vehicle was given via tail vein injection to ethanol- or pair-fed wild-type mice at 24 and 48h prior to euthanasia. Ethanol exposure increased apoptosis in the liver, as well as the accumulation of IgM in the liver. In the early stages of ethanol feeding, C1q co-localized with IgM in the peri-sinusoidal space of the liver and accumulation of IgM and C3b was dependent on ethanol-induced BID-dependent apoptosis. sIgM(-/-) mice were protected from both ethanol-induced activation of complement and early ethanol-induced liver injury when compared to wild-type mice. Treatment with C1INH also decreased hepatic C3b deposition and ethanol-induced injury. These data indicate that sIgM contributes to activation of complement and ethanol-induced increases in inflammatory cytokine expression and hepatocyte injury in the early stages of ethanol-induced liver injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Leisure-time aerobic physical activity, muscle-strengthening activity and mortality risks among US adults: the NHANES linked mortality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guixiang; Li, Chaoyang; Ford, Earl S; Fulton, Janet E; Carlson, Susan A; Okoro, Catherine A; Wen, Xiao Jun; Balluz, Lina S

    2014-02-01

    Regular physical activity elicits multiple health benefits in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. We examined the mortality risks associated with levels of leisure-time aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activity based on the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans among US adults. We analysed data from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with linked mortality data obtained through 2006. Cox proportional HRs with 95% CIs were estimated to assess risks for all-causes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality associated with aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activity. Of 10 535 participants, 665 died (233 deaths from CVD) during an average of 4.8-year follow-up. Compared with participants who were physically inactive, the adjusted HR for all-cause mortality was 0.64 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.79) among those who were physically active (engaging in ≥150 min/week of the equivalent moderate-intensity physical activity) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.97) among those who were insufficiently active (engaging in >0 to benefits among insufficiently active adults.

  15. Impact of estrogenic compounds on DNA integrity in human spermatozoa: Evidence for cross-linking and redox cycling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennetts, L.E.; De Iuliis, G.N.; Nixon, B.; Kime, M.; Zelski, K.; McVicar, C.M.; Lewis, S.E.; Aitken, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    A great deal of circumstantial evidence has linked DNA damage in human spermatozoa with adverse reproductive outcomes including reduced fertility and high rates of miscarriage. Although oxidative stress is thought to make a significant contribution to DNA damage in the male germ line, the factors responsible for creating this stress have not been elucidated. One group of compounds that are thought to be active in this context are the estrogens, either generated as a result of the endogenous metabolism of androgens within the male reproductive tract or gaining access to the latter as a consequence of environmental exposure. In this study, a wide variety of estrogenic compounds were assessed for their direct effects on human spermatozoa in vitro. DNA integrity was assessed using the Comet and TUNEL assays, lesion frequencies were quantified by QPCR using targets within the mitochondrial and nuclear (β-globin) genomes, DNA adducts were characterized by mass spectrometry and redox activity was monitored using dihydroethidium (DHE) as the probe. Of the estrogenic and estrogen analogue compounds evaluated, catechol estrogens, quercetin, diethylstilbestrol and pyrocatechol stimulated intense redox activity while genistein was only active at the highest doses tested. Other estrogens and estrogen analogues, such as 17β-estradiol, nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene were inactive. Estrogen-induced redox activity was associated with a dramatic loss of motility and, in the case of 2-hydroxyestradiol, the induction of significant DNA fragmentation. Mass spectrometry also indicated that catechol estrogens were capable of forming dimers that can cross-link the densely packed DNA strands in sperm chromatin, impairing nuclear decondensation. These results highlight the potential importance of estrogenic compounds in creating oxidative stress and DNA damage in the male germ line and suggest that further exploration of these compounds in the aetiology of male

  16. Impact of estrogenic compounds on DNA integrity in human spermatozoa: Evidence for cross-linking and redox cycling activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennetts, L.E.; De Iuliis, G.N.; Nixon, B.; Kime, M.; Zelski, K. [ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development and Discipline of Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, NSW (Australia); McVicar, C.M.; Lewis, S.E. [Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen' s University, Belfast (United Kingdom); Aitken, R.J. [ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development and Discipline of Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, NSW (Australia)], E-mail: jaitken@mail.newcastle.edu.au

    2008-05-10

    A great deal of circumstantial evidence has linked DNA damage in human spermatozoa with adverse reproductive outcomes including reduced fertility and high rates of miscarriage. Although oxidative stress is thought to make a significant contribution to DNA damage in the male germ line, the factors responsible for creating this stress have not been elucidated. One group of compounds that are thought to be active in this context are the estrogens, either generated as a result of the endogenous metabolism of androgens within the male reproductive tract or gaining access to the latter as a consequence of environmental exposure. In this study, a wide variety of estrogenic compounds were assessed for their direct effects on human spermatozoa in vitro. DNA integrity was assessed using the Comet and TUNEL assays, lesion frequencies were quantified by QPCR using targets within the mitochondrial and nuclear ({beta}-globin) genomes, DNA adducts were characterized by mass spectrometry and redox activity was monitored using dihydroethidium (DHE) as the probe. Of the estrogenic and estrogen analogue compounds evaluated, catechol estrogens, quercetin, diethylstilbestrol and pyrocatechol stimulated intense redox activity while genistein was only active at the highest doses tested. Other estrogens and estrogen analogues, such as 17{beta}-estradiol, nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene were inactive. Estrogen-induced redox activity was associated with a dramatic loss of motility and, in the case of 2-hydroxyestradiol, the induction of significant DNA fragmentation. Mass spectrometry also indicated that catechol estrogens were capable of forming dimers that can cross-link the densely packed DNA strands in sperm chromatin, impairing nuclear decondensation. These results highlight the potential importance of estrogenic compounds in creating oxidative stress and DNA damage in the male germ line and suggest that further exploration of these compounds in the aetiology of

  17. Is there a link between physical activity and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a chronic and progressive neuro-degenerative pathology that starts in adult age and usually leads patients to death for respiratory distress after 3 years from the onset of symptoms In some studies, vigorous and continuous physical activity due to heavy working activity and sport is associated with ALS. On the other hand other studies are against this association. A study carried out in Europe found overall physical activity is associated with reduced odds of having ALS (OR=0.65, 95% CI=0.48-0.89, and the same protective factor is seen for work-related physical activity (OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.36-0.87 and organized sports (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.32-0.75.A recent literature review found that football/soccer may be considered as a possible risk factor for ALS (level C and there is a strong need for further research that must take into account the numerous confounding factors that could be present in this field. However only well conducted observational studies, such as cohort and case-control studies, carried out with the same design in different countries could give a final answer to this suspected but still unconfirmed association

  18. Oculocutaneous albinism type 1: link between mutations, tyrosinase conformational stability, and enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinska, Monika B; Kus, Nicole J; Farney, S Katie; Wingfield, Paul T; Brooks, Brian P; Sergeev, Yuri V

    2017-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism type 1 (OCA1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the tyrosinase gene. Two subtypes of OCA1 have been described: severe OCA1A with complete absence of tyrosinase activity and less severe OCA1B with residual tyrosinase activity. Here, we characterize the recombinant human tyrosinase intramelanosomal domain and mutant variants, which mimic genetic changes in both subtypes of OCA1 patients. Proteins were prepared using site-directed mutagenesis, expressed in insect larvae, purified by chromatography, and characterized by enzymatic activities, tryptophan fluorescence, and Gibbs free energy changes. The OCA1A mutants showed very low protein expression and protein yield and are enzymatically inactive. Mutants mimicking OCA1B were biochemically similar to the wild type, but exhibited lower specific activities and protein stabilities. The results are consistent with clinical data, which indicates that OCA1A mutations inactivate tyrosinase and result in severe phenotype, while OCA1B mutations partially inactivate tyrosinase and result in OCA1B albinism. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Selenium enrichment on Cordyceps militaris link and analysis on its main active components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing Z; Lei, C; Ai, Xun R; Wang, Y

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effects of selenium on the main active components of Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies, selenium-enriched cultivation of C. militaris and the main active components of the fruit bodies were studied. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and contents of cordycepin, cordycepic acid, and organic selenium of fruit bodies were sodium selenite concentration dependent; contents of adenosine and cordycep polysaccharides were significantly enhanced by adding sodium selenite in the substrates, but not proportional to sodium selenite concentrations. In the cultivation of wheat substrate added with 18.0 ppm sodium selenite, SOD activity and contents of cordycepin, cordycepic acid, adenosine, cordycep polysaccharides, and total amino acids were enhanced by 121/145%, 124/74%, 325/520%, 130/284%, 121/145%, and 157/554%, respectively, compared to NS (non-selenium-cultivated) fruit bodies and wild Cordyceps sinensis; organic selenium contents of fruit bodies reached 6.49 mg/100 g. So selenium-enriched cultivation may be a potential way to produce more valuable medicinal food as a substitute for wild C. sinensis.

  20. Neuronal activation by mucosal biopsy supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome patients is linked to visceral sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhner, Sabine; Braak, Breg; Li, Qin; Kugler, Eva Maria; Klooker, Tamira; Wouters, Mira; Donovan, Jemma; Vignali, Sheila; Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Grundy, David; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Schemann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Based on the discomfort/pain threshold during rectal distension, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients may be subtyped as normo- or hypersensitive. We previously showed that mucosal biopsy supernatants from IBS patients activated enteric and visceral afferent neurons. We tested the hypothesis that

  1. Adolescent binge drinking linked to abnormal spatial working memory brain activation: differential gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Schweinsburg, Alecia Dager; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F

    2011-10-01

    Binge drinking is prevalent during adolescence, and its effect on neurocognitive development is of concern. In adult and adolescent populations, heavy substance use has been associated with decrements in cognitive functioning, particularly on tasks of spatial working memory (SWM). Characterizing the gender-specific influences of heavy episodic drinking on SWM may help elucidate the early functional consequences of drinking on adolescent brain functioning. Forty binge drinkers (13 females, 27 males) and 55 controls (24 females, 31 males), aged 16 to 19 years, completed neuropsychological testing, substance use interviews, and an SWM task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Significant binge drinking status × gender interactions were found (p working memory performances (p performance (p gender-specific differences in frontal, temporal, and cerebellar brain activation during an SWM task, which in turn relate to cognitive performance. Activation correlates with neuropsychological performance, strengthening the argument that blood oxygen level-dependent activation is affected by alcohol use and is an important indicator of behavioral functioning. Females may be more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of heavy alcohol use during adolescence, while males may be more resilient to the deleterious effects of binge drinking. Future longitudinal research will examine the significance of SWM brain activation as an early neurocognitive marker of alcohol impact to the brain on future behaviors, such as driving safety, academic performance, and neuropsychological performance. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Metabolic Features of Protochlamydia amoebophila Elementary Bodies – A Link between Activity and Infectivity in Chlamydiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzka, Margarete; Wultsch, Anna; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Richter, Andreas; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Horn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB), has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS), and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from 13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila EBs and provide

  3. Metabolic features of Protochlamydia amoebophila elementary bodies--a link between activity and infectivity in Chlamydiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S Sixt

    Full Text Available The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB, has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS, ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from (13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila

  4. Melanin-concentrating hormone directly inhibits GnRH neurons and blocks kisspeptin activation, linking energy balance to reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Dumalska, Iryna; Morozova, Elena; van den Pol, Anthony; Alreja, Meenakshi

    2009-10-06

    A link between energy balance and reproduction is critical for the survival of all species. Energy-consuming reproductive processes need to be aborted in the face of a negative energy balance, yet knowledge of the pathways mediating this link remains limited. Fasting and food restriction that inhibit fertility also upregulate the hypothalamic melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system that promotes feeding and decreases energy expenditure; MCH knockout mice are lean and have a higher metabolism but remain fertile. MCH also modulates sleep, drug abuse behavior, and mood, and MCH receptor antagonists are currently being developed as antiobesity and antidepressant drugs. Despite the clinical implications of MCH, the direct postsynaptic effects of MCH have never been reported in CNS neurons. Using patch-clamp recordings in brain slices from multiple lines of transgenic GFP mice, we demonstrate a strong inhibitory effect of MCH on an exclusive population of septal vGluT2-GnRH neurons that is activated by the puberty-triggering and preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge-mediating peptide, kisspeptin. MCH has no effect on kisspeptin-insensitive GnRH, vGluT2, cholinergic, or GABAergic neurons located within the same nucleus. The inhibitory effects of MCH are reproducible and nondesensitizing and are mediated via a direct postsynaptic Ba(2+)-sensitive K(+) channel mechanism involving the MCHR1 receptor. MCH immunoreactive fibers are in close proximity to vGluT2-GFP and GnRH-GFP neurons. Importantly, MCH blocks the excitatory effect of kisspeptin on vGluT2-GnRH neurons. Considering the role of MCH in regulating energy balance and of GnRH and kisspeptin in triggering puberty and maintaining fertility, MCH may provide a critical link between energy balance and reproduction directly at the level of the kisspeptin-activated vGluT2-GnRH neuron.

  5. Physical Activity and Health Perception in Aging: Do Body Mass and Satisfaction Matter? A Three-Path Mediated Link.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Condello

    Full Text Available Although ageing people could benefit from healthy diet and physical activity to maintain health and quality of life, further understandings of the diet- and physical activity-related mechanisms that may cause changes in health and quality of life perception are necessary. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of eating attitudes, body mass and image satisfaction, and exercise dependence in the relationship between physical activity and health and quality of life perception in older individuals. Hundred and seventy-nine late middle-aged, (55-64 yrs, young-old (65-74 yrs, and old (75-84 yrs senior athletes (n = 56, physically active (n = 58 or sedentary adults (n = 65 were submitted to anthropometric evaluations (body mass, height and self-reported questionnaires: Body Image Dimensional Assessment, Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Attitude Test, and Short Form Health Survey (Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] of and health and quality of life perception. Senior athletes, physically active, and sedentary participants subgroups differed (P<0.05 from each other in body mass index (BMI and several components of body image and exercise dependence. Senior athletes showed, compared to their sedentary counterparts, further differences (P<0.05 in eating attitudes and in both PCS and MCS. Mediation analysis showed that the relationship between physical activity habit and MCS, but not PCS, was indirectly explained by a serial mediation chain composed of objective BMI and subjective body image (dissatisfaction. Findings confirm the relevant role of physically active life habits for older individuals to perceive good physical and mental health. The novelty of the three-path mediated link between physical activity level and mental health perception suggests that the beneficial effect of a physically active lifestyle on weight control can positively impinge on the cognitive-emotional dimension of mental health

  6. MicroRNAs Control Macrophage Formation and Activation: The Inflammatory Link between Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cheng-An Chang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Activation and recruitment of resident macrophages in tissues in response to physiological stress are crucial regulatory processes in promoting the development of obesity-associated metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have provided compelling evidence that microRNAs play important roles in modulating monocyte formation, macrophage maturation, infiltration into tissues and activation. Macrophage-dependent systemic physiological and tissue-specific responses also involve cell-cell interactions between macrophages and host tissue niche cell components, including other tissue-resident immune cell lineages, adipocytes, vascular smooth muscle and others. In this review, we highlight the roles of microRNAs in regulating the development and function of macrophages in the context of obesity, which could provide insights into the pathogenesis of obesity-related metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Decreased plasma levels of soluble CD18 link leukocyte infiltration with disease activity in spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Jalilian, Babak; Hvid, Malene

    2014-01-01

    of arthritis patients to have anti-inflammatory functions. Here, we study the mechanisms for these alterations and their association with SpA disease activity. METHODS: Plasma levels of sCD18 in a study population with 84 SpA patients and matched healthy controls were analyzed with a time resolved......A patients compared with healthy volunteers (P levels in the HLA-B27-positive subgroup (P levels exhibited an inverse correlation with the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) (P level of morning...... immunoflourometric assay (TRIFMA). Binding of sCD18 to endothelial cells and fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLS) was studied with confocal microscopy. Shedding of CD18 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was studied with flow cytometry and TRIFMA. RESULTS: Plasma levels of sCD18 were decreased in Sp...

  8. IDO chronic immune activation and tryptophan metabolic pathway: A potential pathophysiological link between depression and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves Filho, Adriano José Maia; Lima, Camila Nayane Carvalho; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; de Lucena, David Freitas; Maes, Michael; Macedo, Danielle

    2018-01-03

    Obesity and depression are among the most pressing health problems in the contemporary world. Obesity and depression share a bidirectional relationship, whereby each condition increases the risk of the other. By inference, shared pathways may underpin the comorbidity between obesity and depression. Activation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is a key factor in the pathophysiology of depression. CMI cytokines, including IFN-γ, TNFα and IL-1β, induce the catabolism of tryptophan (TRY) by stimulating indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) resulting in the synthesis of kynurenine (KYN) and other tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). In the CNS, TRYCATs have been related to oxidative damage, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, cytotoxicity, excitotoxicity, neurotoxicity and lowered neuroplasticity. The pathophysiology of obesity is also associated with a state of aberrant inflammation that activates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a pathway involved in the detection of intracellular or environmental changes as well as with increases in the production of TRYCATs, being KYN an agonists of AHR. Both AHR and TRYCATS are involved in obesity and related metabolic disorders. These changes in the TRYCAT pathway may contribute to the onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms in obesity. This paper reviews the role of immune activation, IDO stimulation and increased TRYCAT production in the pathophysiology of depression and obesity. Here we suggest that increased synthesis of detrimental TRYCATs is implicated in comorbid obesity and depression and is a new drug target to treat both diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Urokinase links plasminogen activation and cell adhesion by cleavage of the RGD motif in vitronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi, Valentina; Sarra Ferraris, Gian Maria; Madsen, Jeppe B; Lupia, Michela; Andreasen, Peter A; Sidenius, Nicolai

    2016-07-01

    Components of the plasminogen activation system including urokinase (uPA), its inhibitor (PAI-1) and its cell surface receptor (uPAR) have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes related to tissue homoeostasis. Firstly, the binding of uPA to uPAR favours extracellular proteolysis by enhancing cell surface plasminogen activation. Secondly, it promotes cell adhesion and signalling through binding of the provisional matrix protein vitronectin. We now report that uPA and plasmin induces a potent negative feedback on cell adhesion through specific cleavage of the RGD motif in vitronectin. Cleavage of vitronectin by uPA displays a remarkable receptor dependence and requires concomitant binding of both uPA and vitronectin to uPAR Moreover, we show that PAI-1 counteracts the negative feedback and behaves as a proteolysis-triggered stabilizer of uPAR-mediated cell adhesion to vitronectin. These findings identify a novel and highly specific function for the plasminogen activation system in the regulation of cell adhesion to vitronectin. The cleavage of vitronectin by uPA and plasmin results in the release of N-terminal vitronectin fragments that can be detected in vivo, underscoring the potential physiological relevance of the process. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. Psychopathic traits linked to alterations in neural activity during personality judgments of self and others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Deming

    Full Text Available Psychopathic individuals are notorious for their grandiose sense of self-worth and disregard for the welfare of others. One potential psychological mechanism underlying these traits is the relative consideration of “self” versus “others”. Here we used task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to identify neural responses during personality trait judgments about oneself and a familiar other in a sample of adult male incarcerated offenders (n = 57. Neural activity was regressed on two clusters of psychopathic traits: Factor 1 (e.g., egocentricity and lack of empathy and Factor 2 (e.g., impulsivity and irresponsibility. Contrary to our hypotheses, Factor 1 scores were not significantly related to neural activity during self- or other-judgments. However, Factor 2 traits were associated with diminished activation to self-judgments, in relation to other-judgments, in bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and right temporoparietal junction. These findings highlight cortical regions associated with a dimension of social-affective cognition that may underlie psychopathic individuals' impulsive traits. Keywords: Psychopathy, fMRI, Social cognition, Self-referential processing, Emotion, Psychopathology

  11. Psychopathic traits linked to alterations in neural activity during personality judgments of self and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Philip; Philippi, Carissa L; Wolf, Richard C; Dargis, Monika; Kiehl, Kent A; Koenigs, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Psychopathic individuals are notorious for their grandiose sense of self-worth and disregard for the welfare of others. One potential psychological mechanism underlying these traits is the relative consideration of "self" versus "others". Here we used task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural responses during personality trait judgments about oneself and a familiar other in a sample of adult male incarcerated offenders ( n  = 57). Neural activity was regressed on two clusters of psychopathic traits: Factor 1 (e.g., egocentricity and lack of empathy) and Factor 2 (e.g., impulsivity and irresponsibility). Contrary to our hypotheses, Factor 1 scores were not significantly related to neural activity during self- or other-judgments. However, Factor 2 traits were associated with diminished activation to self-judgments, in relation to other-judgments, in bilateral posterior cingulate cortex and right temporoparietal junction. These findings highlight cortical regions associated with a dimension of social-affective cognition that may underlie psychopathic individuals' impulsive traits.

  12. Phosphopeptide occupancy and photoaffinity cross-linking of the v-Src SH2 domain attenuates tyrosine kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, P; Shoelson, S E; Drew, J S; Miller, W T

    1994-12-02

    Phosphorylation of c-Src at carboxyl-terminal Tyr-527 suppresses tyrosine kinase activity and transforming potential, presumably by facilitating the intramolecular interaction of the C terminus of Src with its SH2 domain. In addition, it has been shown previously that occupancy of the c-Src SH2 domain with a phosphopeptide stimulates c-Src kinase catalytic activity. We have performed analogous studies with v-Src, the transforming protein from Rous sarcoma virus, which has extensive homology with c-Src. v-Src lacks an autoregulatory phosphorylation site, and its kinase domain is constitutively active. Phosphopeptides corresponding to the sequences surrounding c-Src Tyr-527 and a Tyr-Glu-Glu-Ile motif from the hamster polyoma virus middle T antigen inhibit tyrosine kinase activity of baculovirus-expressed v-Src 2- and 4-fold, respectively. To determine the mechanism of this regulation, the Tyr-527 phosphopeptide was substituted with the photoactive amino acid p-benzoylphenylalanine at the adjacent positions (N- and C-terminal) to phosphotyrosine. These peptides photoinactivate the v-Src tyrosine kinase 5-fold in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the peptides cross-link an isolated Src SH2 domain with similar rates and specificity. These data indicate that occupancy of the v-Src SH2 domain induces a conformational change that is transmitted to the kinase domain and attenuates tyrosine kinase activity.

  13. Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) - A possible link between coagulation and complement activation in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giorgia; Vikerfors, Anna; Woodhams, Barry; Adam, Mariette; Bremme, Katarina; Holmström, Margareta; Ågren, Anna; Eelde, Anna; Bruzelius, Maria; Svenungsson, Elisabet; Antovic, Aleksandra

    2017-10-01

    Thrombosis and complement activation are pathogenic features of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Their molecular link is Plasma carboxypeptidase-B, also known as thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa), which plays a dual role: anti-fibrinolytic, by cleaving carboxyl-terminal lysine residues from partially degraded fibrin, and anti-inflammatory, by downregulating complement anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. To investigate the levels of TAFI (proenzyme) and TAFIa (active enzyme) in relation to complement activation, fibrin clot permeability and fibrinolytic function in clinical and immunological subsets of 52 APS patients and 15 controls. TAFI (pAPS patients compared to controls. Furthermore, TAFIa was increased (pAPS patients affected by arterial thrombosis compared to other APS-phenotypes. Positive associations were found between TAFI and age, fibrinogen and C5a, and between TAFIa and age, fibrinogen and thrombomodulin. TAFI and TAFIa levels were increased in patients with APS as a potential response to complement activation. Interestingly, TAFI activation was associated with arterial thrombotic APS manifestations. Thus, TAFIa may be considered a novel biomarker for arterial thrombosis in APS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Leisure activities are linked to mental health benefits by providing time structure: comparing employed, unemployed and homemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, William K; Geiger, Ashley M; Wolf, Jutta M

    2017-01-01

    Unemployment has consistently been linked to negative mental health outcomes, emphasising the need to characterise the underlying mechanisms. The current study aimed at testing whether compared with other employment groups, fewer leisure activities observed in unemployment may contribute to elevated risk for negative mental health via loss of time structure. Depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression), leisure activities (exercise, self-focused, social), and time structure (Time Structure Questionnaire (TSQ)) were assessed cross-sectionally in 406 participants (unemployed=155, employed=140, homemakers=111) recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Controlling for gender and age, structural equation modelling revealed time structure partially (employed, homemakers) and fully (unemployed) mediated the relationship between leisure activities and depressive symptoms. With the exception of differential effects for structured routines, all other TSQ factors (sense of purpose, present orientation, effective organisation and persistence) contributed significantly to all models. These findings support the idea that especially for the unemployed, leisure activities impose their mental health benefits through increasing individuals' perception of spending their time effectively. Social leisure activities that provide a sense of daily structure may thereby be a particularly promising low-cost intervention to improve mental health in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Early-Late Heterobimetallic Complexes Linked by Phosphinoamide Ligands. Tuning Redox Potentials and Small Molecule Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Christine M. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Recent attention in the chemical community has been focused on the energy efficient and environmentally benign conversion of abundant small molecules (CO2, H2O, etc.) to useful liquid fuels. This project addresses these goals by examining fundamental aspects of catalyst design to ultimately access small molecule activation processes under mild conditions. Specifically, Thomas and coworkers have targetted heterobimetallic complexes that feature metal centers with vastly different electronic properties, dictated both by their respective positions on the periodic table and their coordination environment. Unlike homobimetallic complexes featuring identical or similar metals, the bonds between metals in early/late heterobimetallics are more polarized, with the more electron-rich late metal center donating electron density to the more electron-deficient early metal center. While metal-metal bonds pose an interesting strategy for storing redox equivalents and stabilizing reactive metal fragments, the polar character of metal-metal bonds in heterobimetallic complexes renders these molecules ideally poised to react with small molecule substrates via cleavage of energy-rich single and double bonds. In addition, metal-metal interactions have been shown to dramatically affect redox potentials and promote multielectron redox activity, suggesting that metal-metal interactions may provide a mechanism to tune redox potentials and access substrate reduction/activation at mild overpotentials. This research project has provided a better fundamental understanding of how interactions between transition metals can be used as a strategy to promote and/or control chemical transformations related to the clean production of fuels. While this project focused on the study of homogeneous systems, it is anticipated that the broad conclusions drawn from these investigations will be applicable to heterogeneous catalysis as well, particularly on heterogeneous processes that occur at interfaces in

  16. Physicochemical properties of cross-linked poly-gamma-glutamic acid and its flocculating activity against kaolin suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, M.; Kato, K.; Shimauchi, A.; Ping, X.; Fujita, K.; Tanaka, T.; Tarui, Y.; Hirasawa, E.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-linked poly-Gamma-glutamic acid (C-L Gamma-PGA) was prepared with Gamma-PGA irradiated with Gamma-PGA at various kGy values. The physicochemical properties including viscosity and water absorption capacity were compared between C-L Gamma-PGA and several typical flocculating agents. The viscosity of C-L Gamma-PGA increased with the dose of Gamma-lrradiatio, although the water absorption capacity of C-L Gamma-PGA did not, which showed a maximum of 1005.6 ml/g at 20 kGy. Flocculating activity against kaolin suspension was not observed for any of the test compounds when used singly. However, the activity of C-L Gamma-PGA markedly increased following the addition of polyaluminum chloride. The activity increased with temperature up to 80deg C and remained at 80 deg C of heat pretreatment for 1 h, but did not at more than 50 deg C of beat pretreatment for 24 h. The activity was also observed within a pH range of 4.5-10.0. Roth the water absorption capacity and flocculating activity of C-L Gamma-PGA decreased in parallel with increasing NaCl concentration, suggesting that the hocculating activity of C-L Gamma-PGA was associated with its water absorption capacity, rather than viscosity. An investigation of the effects of various cations on the flocculating activity of C-L Gamma-PGA showed that only trivalent catlons had a synergistic effect. The mechanism of C-L Gamma-PGA flocculating activity is discussed based on the results of preliminary experiments

  17. Examining the links between employed mothers' work characteristics, physical activity, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan C; Allen, Tammy D

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested a process model through which the strain-based (job control and role ambiguity) and time-based (work hours) job demands of employed mothers relate to child health via child modeling of mother's physical activity. Support was found for a model of these relationships using dyadic mother-child data (N = 359) from a large, multi-wave nationwide data set and job demands data from the Occupational Information Network (O*Net). Theoretical and practical implications, as well as future research directions, are also discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Faulty Suppression of Irrelevant Material in Patients with Thought Disorder Linked to Attenuated Frontotemporal Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Arcuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Formal thought disorder is a feature schizophrenia that manifests as disorganized, incoherent speech, and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. The neurocognitive basis of this symptom is unclear but it is thought to involve an impairment in semantic processing classically described as a loosening of meaningful associations. Using a paradigm derived from the n400 event-related, potential, we examined the extent to which regional activation during semantic processing is altered in schizophrenic patients with formal thought disorder. Ten healthy control and 18 schizophrenic participants (9 with and 9 without formal thought disorder performed a semantic decision sentence task during an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. We employed analysis of variance to estimate the main effects of semantic congruency and groups on activation and specific effects of formal thought disorder were addressed using post-hoc comparisons. We found that the frontotemporal network, normally engaged by a semantic decision task, was underactivated in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with FTD. This network is implicated in the inhibition of automatically primed stimuli and impairment of its function interferes with language processing and contributes to the production of incoherent speech.

  19. The link between hypomania risk and creativity: The role of heightened behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bin-Na; Kwon, Seok-Man

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between bipolar disorder (BD) and creativity is well-known; however, relatively little is known about its potential mechanism. We investigated whether heightened behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity may mediate such relationship. Korean young adults (N=543) completed self-report questionnaires that included the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS), the Behavioral Activation System(BAS) Scale, the Everyday Creativity Scale (ECS), the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and the Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM). Correlational, hierarchical regression and mediation analyses using bootstrap confidence intervals were conducted. As predicted, BAS sensitivity was associated with self-reported creativity as well as hypomania risk and symptoms. Even when positive affect was controlled, BAS sensitivity predicted incrementally significant variance in explaining creativity. In mediation analysis, BAS sensitivity partially mediated the relation between hypomania risk and creativity. Reliance on self-report measures in assessing creativity and usage of non-clinical sample. BAS sensitivity was related not only to mood pathology but also to creativity. As a basic affective temperament, BAS sensitivity may help explain incompatible sides of adaptation associated with BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Daily Parental Knowledge of Youth Activities Is Linked to Youth Physical Symptoms and HPA functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, Mean Age Youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via telephone calls on eight consecutive evenings. On four study days, cortisol samples were collected at 4 time points (waking, 30 min after waking, before dinner, bedtime). Multi-level models revealed that, at the between-person level, youth whose parents had higher average knowledge about their activities, exhibited lower bedtime cortisol levels. Furthermore, at the within-person level, on days when parents displayed more knowledge than usual (relative to their own eight-day average), youth had lower before-dinner cortisol than usual. Linkages between average parental knowledge and physical health symptoms were moderated by youth age: Younger but not older adolescents whose parents were more knowledgeable had fewer physical health symptoms, on average. A next step is to identify the processes that underlie these associations. PMID:26751757

  1. Daily parental knowledge of youth activities is linked to youth physical symptoms and HPA functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Almeida, David M

    2016-03-01

    Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, mean age youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via telephone calls on 8 consecutive evenings. On 4 study days, cortisol samples were collected at 4 time points (waking, 30 min after waking, before dinner, bedtime). Multilevel models revealed that, at the between-person level, youth whose parents had higher average knowledge about their activities, exhibited lower bedtime cortisol levels. Furthermore, at the within-person level, on days when parents displayed more knowledge than usual (relative to their own 8-day average), youth had lower before-dinner cortisol than usual. Linkages between average parental knowledge and physical health symptoms were moderated by youth age: Younger but not older adolescents whose parents were more knowledgeable had fewer physical health symptoms, on average. A next step is to identify the processes that underlie these associations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Periodic analysis of solar activity and its link with the Arctic oscillation phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Weizheng; Li, Chun; Du, Ling; Huang, Fei [Ocean University of China, 14-1' -601, 2117 Jinshui Road, Qingdao 266100 (China); Li, Yanfang, E-mail: quweizhe@ouc.edu.cn [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2014-12-01

    Based on spectrum analysis, we provide the arithmetic expressions of the quasi 11 yr cycle, 110 yr century cycle of relative sunspot numbers, and quasi 22 yr cycle of solar magnetic field polarity. Based on a comparative analysis of the monthly average geopotential height, geopotential height anomaly, and temperature anomaly of the northern hemisphere at locations with an air pressure of 500 HPa during the positive and negative phases of AO (Arctic Oscillation), one can see that the abnormal warming period in the Arctic region corresponds to the negative phase of AO, while the anomalous cold period corresponds to its positive phase. This shows that the abnormal change in the Arctic region is an important factor in determining the anomalies of AO. In accordance with the analysis performed using the successive filtering method, one can see that the AO phenomenon occurring in January shows a clear quasi 88 yr century cycle and quasi 22 yr decadal cycle, which are closely related to solar activities. The results of our comparative analysis show that there is a close inverse relationship between the solar activities (especially the solar magnetic field index changes) and the changes in the 22 yr cycle of the AO occurring in January, and that the two trends are basically opposite of each other. That is to say, in most cases after the solar magnetic index MI rises from the lowest value, the solar magnetic field turns from north to south, and the high-energy particle flow entering the Earth's magnetosphere increases to heat the polar atmosphere, thus causing the AO to drop from the highest value; after the solar magnetic index MI drops from the highest value, the solar magnetic field turns from south to north, and the solar high-energy particle flow passes through the top of the Earth's magnetosphere rather than entering it to heat the polar atmosphere. Thus the polar temperature drops, causing the AO to rise from the lowest value. In summary, the variance

  3. Is there a link between proprotein convertase PC7 activity and human lipid homeostasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Guillemot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A genome-wide association study suggested that a R504H mutation in the proprotein convertase PC7 is associated with increased circulating levels of HDL and reduced triglycerides in black Africans. Our present results show that PC7 and PC7-R504H exhibit similar processing of transferrin receptor-1, proSortilin, and apolipoprotein-F. Plasma analyses revealed no change in the lipid profiles, insulin or glucose of wild type and PC7 KO mice. Thus, the R504H mutation does not modify the proteolytic activity of PC7. The mechanisms behind the implication of PC7 in the regulation of human HDL, triglycerides and in modifying the levels of atherogenic small dense LDL remain to be elucidated.

  4. The health risk linked to oil activities in the Ecuadorian Amazon: From alerts to decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissardon, Pauline; Becerra, Sylvia; Maurice, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the long and difficult process of demonstrating the health impact associated with environmental contamination caused by the oil exploration and production underway in the Ecuadorian Amazon for the past 40 years. Contamination in the areas affected by oil activities is both accidental and chronic. The latter is more complex to perceive and demonstrate, due to the lack of visual evidence of oil products. Currently, the health consequences to local populations of environmental exposures have neither been described with precision, nor managed by public authorities. The history of governance in the Ecuadorian Amazon helps to illuminate the pathway that weak signals of environmental contamination and their health consequences have travelled through the public space, as well as the political conditions which explain the negligible impact. We demonstrate that public policy remains limited to repairing the social and environmental impact of oil contamination and that the health risks have not yet reached the political agenda despite their recent legal recognition. (authors)

  5. Assessment of Preschool Early Literacy Skills: Linking Children's Educational Needs with Empirically Supported Instructional Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Nicholas P; Lerner, Matthew D

    2011-05-01

    The importance of the preschool period for becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children's development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary school. Although there are now a number of empirically supported instructional activities for helping children who are at -risk of later reading difficulties acquire these early literacy skills, limitations in instructional time and opportunities in most preschool settings requires the use of valid assessment procedures to ensure that instructional resources are utilized efficiently. In this paper, we discuss the degree to which informal, diagnostic, screening, and progress-monitoring assessments of preschool early literacy skills can inform instructional decisions by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to assessment.

  6. Linking dynamic patterns of neural activity in orbitofrontal cortex with decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Erin L; Stoll, Frederic M; Rudebeck, Peter H

    2018-04-01

    Humans and animals demonstrate extraordinary flexibility in choice behavior, particularly when deciding based on subjective preferences. We evaluate options on different scales, deliberate, and often change our minds. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that underlie these dynamic aspects of decision-making, although neural activity in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) likely plays a central role. Recent evidence from studies in macaques shows that attention modulates value responses in OFC, and that ensembles of OFC neurons dynamically signal different options during choices. When contexts change, these ensembles flexibly remap to encode the new task. Determining how these dynamic patterns emerge and relate to choices will inform models of decision-making and OFC function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Constraining the Lateral Helix of Respiratory Complex I by Cross-linking Does Not Impair Enzyme Activity or Proton Translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaotong; Vik, Steven B

    2015-08-21

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is a multisubunit, membrane-bound enzyme of the respiratory chain. The energy from NADH oxidation in the peripheral region of the enzyme is used to drive proton translocation across the membrane. One of the integral membrane subunits, nuoL in Escherichia coli, has an unusual lateral helix of ∼75 residues that lies parallel to the membrane surface and has been proposed to play a mechanical role as a piston during proton translocation (Efremov, R. G., Baradaran, R., and Sazanov, L. A. (2010) Nature 465, 441-445). To test this hypothesis we have introduced 11 pairs of cysteine residues into Complex I; in each pair one is in the lateral helix, and the other is in a nearby region of subunit N, M, or L. The double mutants were treated with Cu(2+) ions or with bi-functional methanethiosulfonate reagents to catalyze cross-link formation in membrane vesicles. The yields of cross-linked products were typically 50-90%, as judged by immunoblotting, but in no case did the activity of Complex I decrease by >10-20%, as indicated by deamino-NADH oxidase activity or rates of proton translocation. In contrast, several pairs of cysteine residues introduced at other interfaces of N:M and M:L subunits led to significant loss of activity, in particular, in the region of residue Glu-144 of subunit M. The results do not support the hypothesis that the lateral helix of subunit L functions like a piston, but rather, they suggest that conformational changes might be transmitted more directly through the functional residues of the proton translocation apparatus. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. A statistical method linking geological and historical eruption time series for volcanic hazard estimations: Applications to active polygenetic volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Rosas, Ana Teresa; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando

    2008-09-01

    The probabilistic analysis of volcanic eruption time series is an essential step for the assessment of volcanic hazard and risk. Such series describe complex processes involving different types of eruptions over different time scales. A statistical method linking geological and historical eruption time series is proposed for calculating the probabilities of future eruptions. The first step of the analysis is to characterize the eruptions by their magnitudes. As is the case in most natural phenomena, lower magnitude events are more frequent, and the behavior of the eruption series may be biased by such events. On the other hand, eruptive series are commonly studied using conventional statistics and treated as homogeneous Poisson processes. However, time-dependent series, or sequences including rare or extreme events, represented by very few data of large eruptions require special methods of analysis, such as the extreme-value theory applied to non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Here we propose a general methodology for analyzing such processes attempting to obtain better estimates of the volcanic hazard. This is done in three steps: Firstly, the historical eruptive series is complemented with the available geological eruption data. The linking of these series is done assuming an inverse relationship between the eruption magnitudes and the occurrence rate of each magnitude class. Secondly, we perform a Weibull analysis of the distribution of repose time between successive eruptions. Thirdly, the linked eruption series are analyzed as a non-homogeneous Poisson process with a generalized Pareto distribution as intensity function. As an application, the method is tested on the eruption series of five active polygenetic Mexican volcanoes: Colima, Citlaltépetl, Nevado de Toluca, Popocatépetl and El Chichón, to obtain hazard estimates.

  9. Ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase: a catalytically active dithiol group links photoreduced ferredoxin to thioredoxin functional in photosynthetic enzyme regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droux, M.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.; Jacquot, J.P.; Gadal, P.; Crawford, N.A.; Kosower, N.S.; Buchanan, B.B.

    1987-07-01

    The mechanism by which the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system activates the target enzyme, NADP-malate dehydrogenase, was investigated by analyzing the sulfhydryl status of individual protein components with (/sup 14/C)iodoacetate and monobromobimane. The data indicate that ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR)--an iron-sulfur enzyme present in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms--is the first member of a thiol chain that links light to enzyme regulation. FTR possesses a catalytically active dithiol group localized on the 13 kDa (similar) subunit, that occurs in all species investigated and accepts reducing equivalents from photoreduced ferredoxin and transfers them stoichiometrically to the disulfide form of thioredoxin m. The reduced thioredoxin m, in turn, reduces NADP-malate dehydrogenase, thereby converting it from an inactive (S-S) to an active (SH) form. The means by which FTR is able to combine electrons (from photoreduced ferredoxin) with protons (from the medium) to reduce its active disulfide group remains to be determined.

  10. Disease-linked mutations in factor H reveal pivotal role of cofactor activity in self-surface-selective regulation of complement activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Heather; Wong, Edwin; Makou, Elisavet; Yang, Yi; Marchbank, Kevin; Kavanagh, David; Richards, Anna; Herbert, Andrew P; Barlow, Paul N

    2017-08-11

    Spontaneous activation enables the complement system to respond very rapidly to diverse threats. This activation is efficiently suppressed by complement factor H (CFH) on self-surfaces but not on foreign surfaces. The surface selectivity of CFH, a soluble protein containing 20 complement-control protein modules (CCPs 1-20), may be compromised by disease-linked mutations. However, which of the several functions of CFH drives this self-surface selectivity remains unknown. To address this, we expressed human CFH mutants in Pichia pastoris We found that recombinant I62-CFH (protective against age-related macular degeneration) and V62-CFH functioned equivalently, matching or outperforming plasma-derived CFH, whereas R53H-CFH, linked to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), was defective in C3bBb decay-accelerating activity (DAA) and factor I cofactor activity (CA). The aHUS-linked CCP 19 mutant D1119G-CFH had virtually no CA on (self-like) sheep erythrocytes ( E S ) but retained DAA. The aHUS-linked CCP 20 mutant S1191L/V1197A-CFH (LA-CFH) had dramatically reduced CA on E S but was less compromised in DAA. D1119G-CFH and LA-CFH both performed poorly at preventing complement-mediated hemolysis of E S PspCN, a CFH-binding Streptococcus pneumoniae protein domain, binds CFH tightly and increases accessibility of CCPs 19 and 20. PspCN did not improve the DAA of any CFH variant on E S Conversely, PspCN boosted the CA, on E S , of I62-CFH, R53H-CFH, and LA-CFH and also enhanced hemolysis protection by I62-CFH and LA-CFH. We conclude that CCPs 19 and 20 are critical for efficient CA on self-surfaces but less important for DAA. Exposing CCPs 19 and 20 with PspCN and thus enhancing CA on self-surfaces may reverse deficiencies of some CFH variants. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Watershed Watch: Using undergraduate student-driven inquiry-based research projects as a means of engaging undeclared students in the biogeosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, B. N.; Hale, S.; Graham, K.; Hayden, L. B.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed Watch (NSF 0525433) engages early undergraduate students from two-year and four-year colleges in student-driven full inquiry-based instruction in the biogeosciences. Program goals for Watershed Watch are to test if inquiry-rich student-driven projects sufficiently engage undeclared students (or noncommittal STEM majors) to declare a STEM major (or remain with their STEM major). The program is a partnership between two four-year campuses - the University of New Hampshire (UNH), and Elizabeth City State University (ECSU, in North Carolina); and two two-year campuses - Great Bay Community College (GBCC, in New Hampshire) and the College of the Albemarle (COA, in North Carolina). The program focuses on two watersheds: the Merrimack Ricer Watershed in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, and the Pasquotank River Watershed in Virginia and North Carolina. Both the terrestrial and aquatic components of both watersheds are evaluated using the student-driven projects. A significant component of this program is an intensive two-week Summer Research Institute (SRI), in which undeclared freshmen and sophomores investigate various aspects of their local watershed. Two Summer Research Institutes have been held on the UNH campus (2006 and 2008) and two on the ECSU campus (2007 and 2009). Students develop their own research questions and study design, collect and analyze data, and produce a scientific oral or poster presentation on the last day of the SRI. The course objectives, curriculum and schedule are presented as a model for dissemination for other institutions and programs seeking to develop inquiry-rich programs or courses designed to attract students into biogeoscience disciplines. Data from self-reported student feedback indicate the most important factors explaining high-levels of student motivation and research excellence in the program are: 1) working with committed, energetic, and enthusiastic faculty mentors, and 2) faculty mentors demonstrating high degrees of

  12. Quantitation of the receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, E; Behrendt, N; Ploug, M

    1994-01-01

    variant of uPAR, suPAR, has been constructed by recombinant technique and the protein content of a purified suPAR standard preparation was determined by amino acid composition analysis. The sensitivity of the assay (0.6 ng uPAR/ml) is strong enough to measure uPAR in extracts of cultured cells and cancer......Binding of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) to a specific cell surface receptor (uPAR) plays a crucial role in proteolysis during tissue remodelling and cancer invasion. An immunosorbent assay for the quantitation of uPAR has now been developed. This assay is based on two monoclonal...... antibodies recognizing the non-ligand binding part of this receptor, and it detects both free and occupied uPAR, in contrast to ligand-binding assays used previously. In a variant of the assay, the occupied fraction of uPAR is selectively detected with a uPA antibody. To be used as a standard, a soluble...

  13. Development of a model for activated sludge aeration systems: linking air supply, distribution, and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraa, Oliver; Rieger, Leiv; Alex, Jens

    2017-02-01

    During the design of a water resource recovery facility, it is becoming industry practice to use simulation software to assist with process design. Aeration is one of the key components of the activated sludge process, and is one of the most important aspects of modelling wastewater treatment systems. However, aeration systems are typically not modelled in detail in most wastewater treatment process modelling studies. A comprehensive dynamic aeration system model has been developed that captures both air supply and demand. The model includes sub-models for blowers, pipes, fittings, and valves. An extended diffuser model predicts both oxygen transfer efficiency within an aeration basin and pressure drop across the diffusers. The aeration system model allows engineers to analyse aeration systems as a whole to determine biological air requirements, blower performance, air distribution, control valve impacts, controller design and tuning, and energy costs. This enables engineers to trouble-shoot the entire aeration system including process, equipment and controls. It also allows much more realistic design of these highly complex systems.

  14. Parental knowledge of adolescent activities: links with parental attachment style and adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason D; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Lejuez, C W; Cassidy, Jude

    2015-04-01

    Parents' knowledge of their adolescents' whereabouts and activities is a robust predictor of adolescent risk behavior, including the use of drugs and alcohol. Surprisingly few studies have attempted to identify parental characteristics that are associated with the degree of parental knowledge. The present study is the first to examine how parental attachment style relates to mother, father, and adolescent reports of parental knowledge. Further, we used structural equation modeling to test the associations among parents' attachment styles, reports of parental knowledge, and adolescents' alcohol and marijuana use. Participants included 203 adolescents (M age = 14.02, SD = .91) living in 2-parent households and their parent(s). As predicted, mothers' and fathers' insecure attachment styles were negatively associated with self-reported and adolescent-reported parental knowledge, and all 3 reports of parental knowledge were negatively related to adolescent substance use. Mothers' and fathers' attachment styles were unrelated to adolescent substance use. However, evidence emerged for indirect effects of parental attachment style on adolescent substance use through reports of parental knowledge. Implications for prevention efforts and the importance of multiple reporters within the family are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Linking Existing Instruments to Develop an Activity of Daily Living Item Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Ying; Romero, Sergio; Bonilha, Heather S; Simpson, Kit N; Simpson, Annie N; Hong, Ickpyo; Velozo, Craig A

    2018-03-01

    This study examined dimensionality and item-level psychometric properties of an item bank measuring activities of daily living (ADL) across inpatient rehabilitation facilities and community living centers. Common person equating method was used in the retrospective veterans data set. This study examined dimensionality, model fit, local independence, and monotonicity using factor analyses and fit statistics, principal component analysis (PCA), and differential item functioning (DIF) using Rasch analysis. Following the elimination of invalid data, 371 veterans who completed both the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and minimum data set (MDS) within 6 days were retained. The FIM-MDS item bank demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .98) and met three rating scale diagnostic criteria and three of the four model fit statistics (comparative fit index/Tucker-Lewis index = 0.98, root mean square error of approximation = 0.14, and standardized root mean residual = 0.07). PCA of Rasch residuals showed the item bank explained 94.2% variance. The item bank covered the range of θ from -1.50 to 1.26 (item), -3.57 to 4.21 (person) with person strata of 6.3. The findings indicated the ADL physical function item bank constructed from FIM and MDS measured a single latent trait with overall acceptable item-level psychometric properties, suggesting that it is an appropriate source for developing efficient test forms such as short forms and computerized adaptive tests.

  16. Phosphopeptide binding by Sld3 links Dbf4-dependent kinase to MCM replicative helicase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Tom D; Yeeles, Joseph Tp; Diffley, John Fx

    2016-05-02

    The initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication requires the assembly of active CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS) helicases at replication origins by a set of conserved and essential firing factors. This process is controlled during the cell cycle by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), and in response to DNA damage by the checkpoint kinase Rad53/Chk1. Here we show that Sld3, previously shown to be an essential CDK and Rad53 substrate, is recruited to the inactive MCM double hexamer in a DDK-dependent manner. Sld3 binds specifically to DDK-phosphorylated peptides from two MCM subunits (Mcm4, 6) and then recruits Cdc45. MCM mutants that cannot bind Sld3 or Sld3 mutants that cannot bind phospho-MCM or Cdc45 do not support replication. Moreover, phosphomimicking mutants in Mcm4 and Mcm6 bind Sld3 without DDK and facilitate DDK-independent replication. Thus, Sld3 is an essential "reader" of DDK phosphorylation, integrating signals from three distinct protein kinase pathways to coordinate DNA replication during S phase. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  17. A Motivational Model of Physical Education and Links to Enjoyment, Knowledge, Performance, Total Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Gråstén, Anthony Watt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examined the full sequence of the Hierarchical Model of Motivation in physical education (PE including motivational climate, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, and related links to contextual enjoyment, knowledge, performance, and total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Gender differences and correlations with body mass index (BMI were also analyzed. Cross-sectional data was represented by self-reports and objective assessments of 770 middle school students (52% of girls in North-East Finland. The results showed that task-involving climate in girls’ PE classes was related to enjoyment and knowledge through physical competence and intrinsic motivation, whereas task-involving climate was associated with enjoyment and knowledge via competence and autonomy, and total MVPA via autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and knowledge within boys. This may indicate that girls and boys perceive PE classes in a different way. Graded PE assessments appeared to be essential in motivating both girls and boys to participate in greater total MVPA, whereas BMI was negatively linked with competence and social relatedness only among girls. Although, the current and previous empirical findings supported task-involving teaching methods in PE, in some cases, ego-involving climate should be considered. Therefore, both task- and ego-involving teaching practices can be useful ways of developing preferred behaviors in PE classes.

  18. A close link between metabolic activity and functional connectivity in the resting human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passow, Susanne [Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen (Norway); NORMENT Center of Excellence, University of Oslo (Norway); Specht, Karsten [Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen (Norway); Department of Clinical Engineering, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Adamsen, Tom Christian [Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen (Norway); Biermann, Martin; Brekke, Njål [Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology and Medical Physics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Craven, Alexander Richard [Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen (Norway); NORMENT Center of Excellence, University of Oslo (Norway); Ersland, Lars [Department of Clinical Engineering, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); NORMENT Center of Excellence, University of Oslo (Norway); Grüner, Renate [Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); NORMENT Center of Excellence, University of Oslo (Norway); Kleven-Madsen, Nina [Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Kvernenes, Ole-Heine [Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Schwarzlmüller, Thomas [Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Olesen, Rasmus [Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience and MINDLab, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Hugdahl, Kenneth [Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen (Norway); Department of Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Division of Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); NORMENT Center of Excellence, University of Oslo (Norway)

    2015-05-18

    Default-mode network (DMN) functional connectivity and its task-dependent down-regulation have attracted a lot of attention in the field of neuroscience. Nevertheless, the exact underlying mechanisms of DMN functional connectivity, or more specifically, the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, are still not completely understood. To investigate more directly the association between local glucose consumption, local glutamatergic neurotransmission and DMN functional connectivity during rest, the present study combined for the first time 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoroglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Seed-based correlation analyses, using a key region of the DMN i.e. the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex as seed, revealed overall striking spatial similarities between fluctuations in FDG-uptake and the BOLD signal. More specifically, a conjunction analysis across both modalities showed that DMN areas as the inferior parietal lobe, angular gyrus, precuneus, middle and medial frontal gyrus were positively correlated with the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, we could demonstrate that local glucose consumption in the medial frontal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex and left angular gyrus was associated with functional connectivity within the DMN. We did not find a relationship between glutamatergic neurotransmission and functional connectivity. In line with very recent findings, our results provide further evidence for a close association between local metabolic activity and functional connectivity and enable further insights towards a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the BOLD signal.

  19. A close link between metabolic activity and functional connectivity in the resting human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passow, Susanne; Specht, Karsten; Adamsen, Tom Christian; Biermann, Martin; Brekke, Njål; Craven, Alexander Richard; Ersland, Lars; Grüner, Renate; Kleven-Madsen, Nina; Kvernenes, Ole-Heine; Schwarzlmüller, Thomas; Olesen, Rasmus; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Default-mode network (DMN) functional connectivity and its task-dependent down-regulation have attracted a lot of attention in the field of neuroscience. Nevertheless, the exact underlying mechanisms of DMN functional connectivity, or more specifically, the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, are still not completely understood. To investigate more directly the association between local glucose consumption, local glutamatergic neurotransmission and DMN functional connectivity during rest, the present study combined for the first time 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoroglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Seed-based correlation analyses, using a key region of the DMN i.e. the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex as seed, revealed overall striking spatial similarities between fluctuations in FDG-uptake and the BOLD signal. More specifically, a conjunction analysis across both modalities showed that DMN areas as the inferior parietal lobe, angular gyrus, precuneus, middle and medial frontal gyrus were positively correlated with the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, we could demonstrate that local glucose consumption in the medial frontal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex and left angular gyrus was associated with functional connectivity within the DMN. We did not find a relationship between glutamatergic neurotransmission and functional connectivity. In line with very recent findings, our results provide further evidence for a close association between local metabolic activity and functional connectivity and enable further insights towards a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the BOLD signal.

  20. Kinase inhibitors can produce off-target effects and activate linked pathways by retroactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynn Michelle L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown in experimental and theoretical work that covalently modified signaling cascades naturally exhibit bidirectional signal propagation via a phenomenon known as retroactivity. An important consequence of retroactivity, which arises due to enzyme sequestration in covalently modified signaling cascades, is that a downstream perturbation can produce a response in a component upstream of the perturbation without the need for explicit feedback connections. Retroactivity may, therefore, play an important role in the cellular response to a targeted therapy. Kinase inhibitors are a class of targeted therapies designed to interfere with a specific kinase molecule in a dysregulated signaling pathway. While extremely promising as anti-cancer agents, kinase inhibitors may produce undesirable off-target effects by non-specific interactions or pathway cross-talk. We hypothesize that targeted therapies such as kinase inhibitors can produce off-target effects as a consequence of retroactivity alone. Results We used a computational model and a series of simple signaling motifs to test the hypothesis. Our results indicate that within physiologically and therapeutically relevant ranges for all parameters, a targeted inhibitor can naturally induce an off-target effect via retroactivity. The kinetics governing covalent modification cycles in a signaling network were more important for propagating an upstream off-target effect in our models than the kinetics governing the targeted therapy itself. Our results also reveal the surprising and crucial result that kinase inhibitors have the capacity to turn "on" an otherwise "off" parallel cascade when two cascades share an upstream activator. Conclusions A proper and detailed characterization of a pathway's structure is important for identifying the optimal protein to target as well as what concentration of the targeted therapy is required to modulate the pathway in a safe and effective