WorldWideScience

Sample records for linking great watersheds

  1. Linking economic water use, freshwater ecosystem impacts, and virtual water trade in a Great Lakes watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of human water uses and economic pressures on freshwater ecosystems is of growing interest for water resource management worldwide. This case study for a water-rich watershed in the Great Lakes region links the economic pressures on water resources as revealed by virtual water trade balances to the nature of the economic water use and the associated impacts on the freshwater ecosystem. A water accounting framework that combines water consumption data and economic data from input output tables is applied to quantify localized virtual water imports and exports in the Kalamazoo watershed which comprises ten counties. Water using economic activities at the county level are conformed to watershed boundaries through land use-water use relationships. The counties are part of a region implementing the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Process, including new regulatory approaches for adaptive water resources management under a riparian water rights framework. The results show that at local level, there exists considerable water use intensity and virtual water trade balance disparity among the counties and between water use sectors in this watershed. The watershed is a net virtual water importer, with some counties outsourcing nearly half of their water resource impacts, and some outsourcing nearly all water resource impacts. The largest virtual water imports are associated with agriculture, thermoelectric power generation and industry, while the bulk of the exports are associated with thermoelectric power generation and commercial activities. The methodology is applicable to various spatial levels ranging from the micro sub-watershed level to the macro Great Lakes watershed region, subject to the availability of reliable water use and economic data.

  2. Compilation of watershed models for tributaries to the Great Lakes, United States, as of 2010, and identification of watersheds for future modeling for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) during 2009–10, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled a list of existing watershed models that had been created for tributaries within the United States that drain to the Great Lakes. Established Federal programs that are overseen by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are responsible for most of the existing watershed models for specific tributaries. The NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) uses the Large Basin Runoff Model to provide data for the management of water levels in the Great Lakes by estimating United States and Canadian inflows to the Great Lakes from 121 large watersheds. GLERL also simulates streamflows in 34 U.S. watersheds by a grid-based model, the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model. The NOAA National Weather Service uses the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model to predict flows at river forecast sites. The USACE created or funded the creation of models for at least 30 tributaries to the Great Lakes to better understand sediment erosion, transport, and aggradation processes that affect Federal navigation channels and harbors. Many of the USACE hydrologic models have been coupled with hydrodynamic and sediment-transport models that simulate the processes in the stream and harbor near the mouth of the modeled tributary. Some models either have been applied or have the capability of being applied across the entire Great Lakes Basin; they are (1) the SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model, which was developed by the USGS; (2) the High Impact Targeting (HIT) and Digital Watershed models, which were developed by the Institute of Water Research at Michigan State University; (3) the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L–THIA) model, which was developed by researchers at Purdue University; and (4) the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, which was

  3. Watershed Urbanization Linked to Differences in Stream Bacterial Community Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob D. Hosen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization strongly influences headwater stream chemistry and hydrology, but little is known about how these conditions impact bacterial community composition. We predicted that urbanization would impact bacterial community composition, but that stream water column bacterial communities would be most strongly linked to urbanization at a watershed-scale, as measured by impervious cover, while sediment bacterial communities would correlate with environmental conditions at the scale of stream reaches. To test this hypothesis, we determined bacterial community composition in the water column and sediment of headwater streams located across a gradient of watershed impervious cover using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Alpha diversity metrics did not show a strong response to catchment urbanization, but beta diversity was significantly related to watershed impervious cover with significant differences also found between water column and sediment samples. Samples grouped primarily according to habitat—water column vs. sediment—with a significant response to watershed impervious cover nested within each habitat type. Compositional shifts for communities in urbanized streams indicated an increase in taxa associated with human activity including bacteria from the genus Polynucleobacter, which is widespread, but has been associated with eutrophic conditions in larger water bodies. Another indicator of communities in urbanized streams was an OTU from the genus Gallionella, which is linked to corrosion of water distribution systems. To identify changes in bacterial community interactions, bacterial co-occurrence networks were generated from urban and forested samples. The urbanized co-occurrence network was much smaller and had fewer co-occurrence events per taxon than forested equivalents, indicating a loss of keystone taxa with urbanization. Our results suggest that urbanization has significant impacts on the community composition

  4. The Social Construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link.......Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link....

  5. Climate Change Impacts on Nutrient Losses of Two Watersheds in the Great Lakes Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-point sources (NPS of agricultural chemical pollution are one major reason for the water quality degradation of the Great Lakes, which impacts millions of residents in the states and provinces that are bordering them. Future climate change will further impact water quality in both direct and indirect ways by influencing the hydrological cycle and processes of nutrient transportation and transformation, but studies are still rare. This study focuses on quantifying the impacts of climate change on nutrient (Nitrogen and Phosphorus losses from the two small watersheds (Walworth watershed and Green Lake watershed within the Great Lakes region. Analysis focused on changes through this century (comparing the nutrient loss prediction of three future periods from 2015 to 2099 with 30 years for each period against the historical nutrient estimation data from 1985 to 2008. The effects on total phosphorus and nitrate-nitrogen losses due to changes in precipitation quantity, intensity, and frequency, as well as air temperature, are evaluated for the two small watersheds, under three special report emission scenarios (SRES A2, A1B, B1. The newly developed Water Erosion Prediction Project-Water Quality (WEPP-WQ model is utilized to simulate nutrient losses with downscaled and bias corrected future climate forcing from two General Circulation Models (GFDL, HadCM3. For each watershed, the observed runoff and nutrient loads are used to calibrate and validate the model before the application of the WEPP-WQ model to examine potential impacts from future climate change. Total phosphorus loss is projected to increase by 28% to 89% for the Green Lake watershed and 25% to 108% for the Walworth watershed mainly due to the combined effects of increase of precipitation quantity, extreme storm events in intensity and frequency, and air temperature. Nitrate-nitrogen losses are projected to increase by 1.1% to 38% for the Green Lake watershed and 8% to 95% for the

  6. Linking Resilience of Aquatic Species to Watershed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flitcroft, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Watershed condition means different things to different people. From the perspective of aquatic ecology, watershed condition may be interpreted to mean the capacity of a watershed to support life history diversity of native species. Diversity in expression of life history is thought to confer resilience allowing portions of the broader population to survive stressful conditions. Different species have different life history strategies, many of which were developed through adaptation to regional or local environmental conditions and natural disturbance regimes. By reviewing adaptation strategies for species of interest at regional scales, characteristics of watersheds that confer resilience may be determined. Such assessments must be completed at multiple levels of spatial organization (i.e. sub-watershed, watershed, region) allowing assessments to be inferred across broad spatial extents. In a project on the Wenatchee River watershed, we guided models of wildfire effects on bull trout and spring Chinook from a meta-population perspective to determine risks to survival at local and population scales over multiple extents of spatial organization. In other work in the Oregon Coast Range, we found that historic landslides continue to exert habitat-forming pressure at local scales, leading to patchiness in distribution of habitats for different life stages of coho salmon. Further, climate change work in Oregon estuaries identified different vulnerabilities in terms of juvenile rearing habitat depending on the species of interest and the intensity of future changes in climate. All of these studies point to the importance of considering physical conditions in watersheds at multiple spatial extents from the perspective of native aquatic species in order to understand risks to long-term survival. The broader implications of watershed condition, from this perspective, is the determination of physical attributes that confer resilience to native biota. This may require

  7. The hydrological calibration and validation of a complexly-linked watershed reservoir model for the Occoquan watershed, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongyan; Godrej, Adil N.; Grizzard, Thomas J.

    2007-10-01

    SummaryRunoff models such as HSPF and reservoir models such as CE-QUAL-W2 are used to model water quality in watersheds. Most often, the models are independently calibrated to observed data. While this approach can achieve good calibration, it does not replicate the physically-linked nature of the system. When models are linked by using the model output from an upstream model as input to a downstream model, the physical reality of a continuous watershed, where the overland and waterbody portions are parts of the whole, is better represented. There are some additional challenges in the calibration of such linked models, because the aim is to simulate the entire system as a whole, rather than piecemeal. When public entities are charged with model development, one of the driving forces is to use public-domain models. This paper describes the use of two such models, HSPF and CE-QUAL-W2, in the linked modeling of the Occoquan watershed located in northern Virginia, USA. The description of the process is provided, and results from the hydrological calibration and validation are shown. The Occoquan model consists of six HSPF and two CE-QUAL-W2 models, linked in a complex way, to simulate two major reservoirs and the associated drainage areas. The overall linked model was calibrated for a three-year period and validated for a two-year period. The results show that a successful calibration can be achieved using the linked approach, with moderate additional effort. Overall flow balances based on the three-year calibration period at four stream stations showed agreement ranging from -3.95% to +3.21%. Flow balances for the two reservoirs, compared via the daily water surface elevations, also showed good agreement ( R2 values of 0.937 for Lake Manassas and 0.926 for Occoquan Reservoir), when missing (un-monitored) flows were included. Validation of the models ranged from poor to fair for the watershed models and excellent for the waterbody models, thus indicating that the

  8. Plastic debris in 29 Great Lakes tributaries: Relations to watershed attributes and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven; Mason, Sherri A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris is a growing contaminant of concern in freshwater environments, yet sources, transport, and fate remain unclear. This study characterized the quantity and morphology of floating micro- and macroplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries in six states under different land covers, wastewater effluent contributions, population densities, and hydrologic conditions. Tributaries were sampled three or four times each using a 333 μm mesh neuston net. Plastic particles were sorted by size, counted, and categorized as fibers/lines, pellets/beads, foams, films, and fragments. Plastics were found in all 107 samples, with a maximum concentration of 32 particles/m3 and a median of 1.9 particles/m3. Ninety-eight percent of sampled plastic particles were less than 4.75 mm in diameter and therefore considered microplastics. Fragments, films, foams, and pellets/beads were positively correlated with urban-related watershed attributes and were found at greater concentrations during runoff-event conditions. Fibers, the most frequently detected particle type, were not associated with urban-related watershed attributes, wastewater effluent contribution, or hydrologic condition. Results from this study add to the body of information currently available on microplastics in different environmental compartments, including unique contributions to quantify their occurrence and variability in rivers with a wide variety of different land-use characteristics while highlighting differences between surface samples from rivers compared with lakes.

  9. Plastic Debris in 29 Great Lakes Tributaries: Relations to Watershed Attributes and Hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K; Corsi, Steven R; Mason, Sherri A

    2016-10-04

    Plastic debris is a growing contaminant of concern in freshwater environments, yet sources, transport, and fate remain unclear. This study characterized the quantity and morphology of floating micro- and macroplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries in six states under different land covers, wastewater effluent contributions, population densities, and hydrologic conditions. Tributaries were sampled three or four times each using a 333 μm mesh neuston net. Plastic particles were sorted by size, counted, and categorized as fibers/lines, pellets/beads, foams, films, and fragments. Plastics were found in all 107 samples, with a maximum concentration of 32 particles/m 3 and a median of 1.9 particles/m 3 . Ninety-eight percent of sampled plastic particles were less than 4.75 mm in diameter and therefore considered microplastics. Fragments, films, foams, and pellets/beads were positively correlated with urban-related watershed attributes and were found at greater concentrations during runoff-event conditions. Fibers, the most frequently detected particle type, were not associated with urban-related watershed attributes, wastewater effluent contribution, or hydrologic condition. Results from this study add to the body of information currently available on microplastics in different environmental compartments, including unique contributions to quantify their occurrence and variability in rivers with a wide variety of different land-use characteristics while highlighting differences between surface samples from rivers compared with lakes.

  10. Evaluating Hydrologic Transience in Watershed Delineation, Numerical Modeling and Solute Transport in the Great Basin. Clayton Valley, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underdown, C. G.; Boutt, D. F.; Hynek, S. A.; Munk, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Importance of transience in managed groundwater systems is generally determined by timeframe of management decisions. Watersheds with management times shorter than the aquifer (watershed) response time, or the time it takes a watershed to recover from a change in hydrologic state, would not include the new state and are treated as steady-state. However, these watersheds will experience transient response between hydrologic states. Watershed response time is a function of length. Therefore flat, regional watersheds characteristic of the Great Basin have long response times. Defining watershed extents as the area in which the water budget is balanced means inputs equal outputs. Steady-state budgets in the Great Basin have been balanced by extending watershed boundaries to include more area for recharge; however, the length and age of requisite flow paths are poorly constrained and often unrealistic. Inclusion of stored water in hydrologic budget calculations permits water balance within smaller contributing areas. As groundwater flow path lengths, depths, and locations differ between steady-state and transient systems, so do solute transport mechanisms. To observe how transience affects response time and solute transport, a refined (transient) version of the USGS steady-state groundwater flow model of the Great Basin is evaluated. This model is used to assess transient changes in contributing area for Clayton Valley, a lithium-brine producing endorheic basin in southwestern Nevada. Model runs of various recharge, discharge and storage bounds are created from conceptual models based upon historical climate data. Comparing results of the refined model to USGS groundwater observations allows for model validation and comparison against the USGS steady-state model. The transient contributing area to Clayton Valley is 85% smaller than that calculated from the steady-state solution, however several long flow paths important to both water and solute budgets at Clayton Valley

  11. Empirical assessment of effects of urbanization on event flow hydrology in watersheds of Canada's Great Lakes-St Lawrence basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, M. P.; Richardson, Murray

    2016-10-01

    We conducted an empirical hydrological analysis of high-temporal resolution streamflow records for 27 watersheds within 11 river systems in the Greater Toronto Region of the Canadian Great Lakes basin. Our objectives were to model the event-scale flow response of watersheds to urbanization and to test for scale and threshold effects. Watershed areas ranged from 37.5 km2 to 806 km2 and urban percent land cover ranged from less than 0.1-87.6%. Flow records had a resolution of 15-min increments and were available over a 42-year period, allowing for detailed assessment of changes in event-scale flow response with increasing urban land use during the post-freshet period (May 26 to November 15). Empirical statistical models were developed for flow characteristics including total runoff, runoff coefficient, eightieth and ninety-fifth percentile rising limb event runoff and mean rising limb event acceleration. Changes in some of these runoff metrics began at very low urban land use (acceleration increased with increasing urban cover, thus causing 80th percentile runoff depths to be reached sooner. These results indicate the potential for compromised water balance when cumulative changes are considered at the watershed scale. No abrupt or threshold changes in hydrologic characteristics were identified along the urban land use gradient. A positive interaction of urban percent land use and watershed size indicated a scale effect on total runoff. Overall, the results document compromised hydrologic stability attributable to urbanization during a period with no detectable change in rainfall patterns. They also corroborate literature recommendations for spatially distributed low impact urban development techniques; measures would be needed throughout the urbanized area of a watershed to dampen event-scale hydrologic responses to urbanization. Additional research is warranted into event-scale hydrologic trends with urbanization in other regions, in particular rising limb event

  12. Links between climate change, water-table depth, and water chemistry in a mineralized mountain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Todd, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that climate change is causing rising solute concentrations in mountain lakes and streams. These changes may be more pronounced in mineralized watersheds due to the sensitivity of sulfide weathering to changes in subsurface oxygen transport. Specific causal mechanisms linking climate change and accelerated weathering rates have been proposed, but in general remain entirely hypothetical. For mineralized watersheds, a favored hypothesis is that falling water tables caused by declining recharge rates allow an increasing volume of sulfide-bearing rock to become exposed to air, thus oxygen. Here, we test the hypothesis that falling water tables are the primary cause of an increase in metals and SO4 (100-400%) observed since 1980 in the Upper Snake River (USR), Colorado. The USR drains an alpine watershed geologically and climatologically representative of many others in mineralized areas of the western U.S. Hydrologic and chemical data collected from 2005 to 2011 in a deep monitoring well (WP1) at the top of the USR watershed are utilized. During this period, both water table depths and groundwater SO4 concentrations have generally increased in the well. A numerical model was constructed using TOUGHREACT that simulates pyrite oxidation near WP1, including groundwater flow and oxygen transport in both saturated and unsaturated zones. The modeling suggests that a falling water table could produce an increase in metals and SO4 of a magnitude similar to that observed in the USR (up to 300%). Future water table declines may produce limited increases in sulfide weathering high in the watershed because of the water table dropping below the depth of oxygen penetration, but may continue to enhance sulfide weathering lower in the watershed where water tables are shallower. Advective air (oxygen) transport in the unsaturated zone caused by seasonally variable recharge and associated water table fluctuations was found to have little influence on pyrite

  13. Analysis of climate change impact on runoff and sediment delivery in a Great Lake watershed using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Bhattarai, R.; Cooke, R.

    2011-12-01

    The green house gas loading of the atmosphere has been increasing since the mid 19th century which threatens to dramatically change the earth's climate in the 21st Century. Scientific evidences show that earth's global average surface temperature has risen some 0.75°C (1.3°F) since 1850. Third Assessment Report (TAR) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that human activities have increased the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs), which will result in a warming world and other changes in the climate. TAR has projected an increase in globally average surface temperature of 1.4 to 5.8 °C and an increase in precipitation of 5 to 20 % over the period of 1990 to 2100. Assuming a global temperature increase of between 2.8 and 5.2 °C, it was estimated a 7-15% increase in global evaporation and precipitation rates. Global warming and subsequent climate change could raise sea level by several tens of centimeters in the next fifty years. Such a rise may erode beaches, worsen coastal flooding and threaten water quality in estuaries and aquifers. With the climate already changing and further change in climate highly likely to happen, study of impact of climate and the adaptation is a necessary component of any response to climate change. The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of climate change on runoff and sediment delivery in a Great Lake watershed located in Northern Ohio. Maumee River watershed is predominantly an agricultural watershed with an area of 6330 sq mile and drains to Lake Erie. Agricultural area covers about 89.9% of the watershed while wooded area covers 7.3%, 1.2% is urban area and other land uses account for 1.6%. Water Quality Laboratory, Heidelberg College has monitored the watershed for last 25 years. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is used for both water quantity and water quality simulations for past and future scenarios. SWAT is a continuous, long-term watershed scale

  14. Geomorphic controls on Great Basin riparian vegetation at the watershed and process zone scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake Meneken Engelhardt

    2009-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems supply valuable resources in all landscapes, but especially in semiarid regions such as the Great Basin of the western United States. Over half of Great Basin streams are thought to be in poor ecological condition and further deterioration is of significant concern to stakeholders. A thorough understanding of how physical processes acting at...

  15. Development of a GIS interface for WEPP Model application to Great Lakes forested watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. R. Frankenberger; S. Dun; D. C. Flanagan; J. Q. Wu; W. J. Elliot

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will highlight efforts on development of a new online WEPP GIS interface, targeted toward application in forested regions bordering the Great Lakes. The key components and algorithms of the online GIS system will be outlined. The general procedures used to provide input to the WEPP model and to display model output will be demonstrated.

  16. Linking the watershed to the schoolshed: teaching sustainable development in K-12 with the Chester RIver Watershed Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembanis, A. C.; Levin, D.; Seidel, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Chester River has been the subject of ongoing scientific studies in response to both the Clean Water Act and the EPA's Chesapeake Bay Program initiatives. The Upper, Middle, and Lower Chester are on the Maryland Department of Environment's list of "impaired waters". The Chester River Watershed (CRW) Observatory is lead by the Center for Environment & Society at Washington College. Eight clusters representing 22 public and private K-12 schools in the CRW provide the sampling sites distributed throughout the watershed. Weather stations will be installed at these sites allowing monitoring of the watershed's microclimate. Each cluster will be assigned a Basic Observation Buoy (BOB), an easy to assemble inexpensive buoy platform for real-time water column and atmospheric condition measurements. The BOBs are fitted with a data sonde to collect similar data parameters (e.g. salinity, temperature) as the main stem Chesapeake Bay buoys do. These assets will be deployed and the data transmitted to the Chester River Geographic Information System site for archival and visual display. Curriculum already developed for the Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System by the NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office will be adapted to the Chester River Watershed. Social issues of water sustainability will be introduced using the Watershed Game (Northland NEMO ®). During 2011 NOAA's Chesapeake Bay Office completed curriculum projects including Chesapeake Exploration, Build-a-Buoy (BaBs) and Basic Observation Buoys (BOBs). These engaging projects utilize authentic data and hands-on activities to demonstrate the tools scientists use to understand system interactions in the Bay. Chesapeake Exploration is a collection of online activities that provides teachers and students with unprecedented access to Bay data. Students are guided through a series of tasks that explore topics related to the interrelation between watersheds, land-use, weather, water quality, and living resources. The BaBs and BOBs

  17. Water towers of the Great Basin: climatic and hydrologic change at watershed scales in a mountainous arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of climate change in the Great Basin will manifest through changes in the hydrologic cycle. Downscaled climate data and projections run through the Basin Characterization Model (BCM) produce time series of hydrologic response - recharge, runoff, actual evapotranspiration (AET), and climatic water deficit (CWD) - that directly affect water resources and vegetation. More than 50 climate projections from CMIP5 were screened using a cluster analysis of end-century (2077-2099) seasonal precipitation and annual temperature to produce a reduced subset of 12 climate futures that cover a wide range of macroclimate response. Importantly, variations among GCMs in summer precipitation produced by the SW monsoon are captured. Data were averaged within 84 HUC8 watersheds with widley varying climate, topography, and geology. Resultant time series allow for multivariate analysis of hydrologic response, especially partitioning between snowpack, recharge, runoff, and actual evapotranspiration. Because the bulk of snowpack accumulation is restricted to small areas of isolated mountain ranges, losses of snowpack can be extreme as snowline moves up the mountains with warming. Loss of snowpack also affects recharge and runoff rates, and importantly, the recharge/runoff ratio - as snowpacks fade, recharge tends to increase relative to runoff. Thresholds for regime shifts can be identified, but the unique topography and geology of each basin must be considered in assessing hydrologic response.

  18. Predicting runoff induced mass loads in urban watersheds: Linking land use and pyrethroid contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Kazue; Lau, Sim-Lin; Nonezyan, Michael; McElroy, Elizabeth; Wolfe, Becky; Suffet, Irwin H; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2016-10-01

    Pyrethroid pesticide mass loadings in the Ballona Creek Watershed were calculated using the volume-concentration method with a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to explore potential relationships between urban land use, impervious surfaces, and pyrethroid runoff flowing into an urban stream. A calibration of the GIS volume-concentration model was performed using 2013 and 2014 wet-weather sampling data. Permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were detected as the highest concentrations; deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin and cyfluthrin were the most frequently detected synthetic pyrethroids. Eight neighborhoods within the watershed were highlighted as target areas based on a Weighted Overlay Analysis (WOA) in GIS. Water phase concentration of synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) were calculated from the reported usage. The need for stricter BMP and consumer product controls was identified as a possible way of reducing the detections of pyrethroids in Ballona Creek. This model has significant implications for determining mass loadings due to land use influence, and offers a flexible method to extrapolate data for a limited amount of samplings for a larger watershed, particularly for chemicals that are not subject to environmental monitoring. Offered as a simple approach to watershed management, the GIS-volume concentration model has the potential to be applied to other target pesticides and is useful for simulating different watershed scenarios. Further research is needed to compare results against other similar urban watersheds situated in mediterranean climates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Linking Ecosystem Services Supply to Stakeholder Values in Guanica Bay Watershed, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policies to protect coastal resources will be more effective when they account for the social and economic concerns of stakeholders in the coastal zone and watershed, and are responsive to potential tradeoffs between benefits offered by both land and sea. We focus on the Gu&aacu...

  20. Linking Decisions to Stakeholder Values in the Guanica Bay Watershed, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation lays the foundation for the session by introducing the Structured Decision-Making (SDM) approach that is being used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the Guánica Bay watershed of southwestern Puerto Rico. EPA is working with other agencies i...

  1. Linking the Scales of Scientific inquiry and Watershed Management: A Focus on Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, H. E.; Hoghooghi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Urbanization modifies the hydrologic cycle, resulting in potentially deleterious downstream water quality and quantity effects. However, the cumulative interacting effects of water storage, transport, and biogeochemical processes occurring within other land cover and use types of the same watershed can render management explicitly targeted to limit the negative outcomes from urbanization ineffective. For example, evidence indicates that green infrastructure, or low impact development (LID), practices can attenuate the adverse water quality and quantity effects of urbanizing systems. However, the research providing this evidence has been conducted at local scales (e.g., plots, small homogeneous urban catchments) that isolate the measurable effects of such approaches. Hence, a distinct disconnect exists between the scale of scientific inquiry and the scale of management and decision-making practices. Here we explore the oft-discussed yet rarely directly addressed scientific and management conundrum: How do we scale our well-documented scientific knowledge of the water quantity and quality responses to LID practices measured and modeled at local scales to that of "actual" management scales? We begin by focusing on LID practices in mixed land cover watersheds. We present key concepts that have emerged from LID research at the local scale, considerations for scaling this research to watersheds, recent advances and findings in scaling the effects of LID practices on water quality and quantity at watershed scales, and the use of combined novel measurements and models for these scaling efforts. We underscore these concepts with a case study that evaluates the effects of three LID practices using simulation modeling across a mixed land cover watershed. This synthesis and case study highlight that scientists are making progress toward successfully tailoring fundamental research questions with decision-making goals in mind, yet we still have a long road ahead.

  2. Linking Watershed Nitrogen Sources with Nitrogen Dynamics in Rivers of Western Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, D. J.; Compton, J.; Goodwin, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    We constructed contemporary nitrogen (N) budgets for 25 river basins in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon, USA, to improve the understanding of how recent trends in human-driven N loading have influenced riverine N dynamics in the region. Nearly 20% of WRB stream length is currently in fair or poor condition because of high N concentrations. Additionally, nitrate contamination of drinking water affects at least 8,000 people in the WRB. We hypothesized that 1) the majority of N inputs in the WRB would originate from agricultural activities in lowland portions of watersheds, 2) annual riverine N yield (kg/ha/yr) would correspond to annual per area watershed N inputs, and 3) riverine N yields would be seasonal and highest during winter due to the region's Mediterranean climate. We calculated average annual N inputs for each study basin by summing newly available datasets describing spatially explicit N inputs of synthetic fertilizer, atmospheric deposition, crop biological N2 fixation, biological N2 fixation by red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), livestock manure, and point sources for the period 1996 - 2007. Annual and seasonal riverine N exports were estimated with the USGS model LOADEST calibrated to N concentration data collected during the study period. We estimated that two-thirds of total N input to the WRB study basins in the 2000s came from synthetic fertilizer application. Nearly all fertilizer application occurred on the lowlands near watershed mouths. We found a wide range of riverine N yields from the study basins, ranging from one to 70 kg N/ha/yr. Across the study basins, N export was more strongly correlated to fertilizer application rates than to percent of agricultural area in the watershed. Low watershed N yields reflected a high proportion of watershed area in the forested Cascade Mountain Range, which received low N inputs mainly from atmospheric deposition. N yields from study basins were strongly seasonal, with at least 50%, and

  3. Linking the Molecular Signature of Heteroatomic Dissolved Organic Matter to Watershed Characteristics in World Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sasha; Riedel, Thomas; Niggemann, Jutta; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Dittmar, Thorsten; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2015-12-01

    Large world rivers are significant sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the oceans. Watershed geomorphology and land use can drive the quality and reactivity of DOM. Determining the molecular composition of riverine DOM is essential for understanding its source, mobility and fate across landscapes. In this study, DOM from the main stem of 10 global rivers covering a wide climatic range and land use features was molecularly characterized via ultrahigh-resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). FT-ICR mass spectral data revealed an overall similarity in molecular components among the rivers. However, when focusing specifically on the contribution of nonoxygen heteroatomic molecular formulas (CHON, CHOS, CHOP, etc.) to the bulk molecular signature, patterns relating DOM composition and watershed land use became apparent. Greater abundances of N- and S-containing molecular formulas were identified as unique to rivers influenced by anthropogenic inputs, whereas rivers with primarily forested watersheds had DOM signatures relatively depleted in heteroatomic content. A strong correlation between cropland cover and dissolved black nitrogen was established when focusing specifically on the pyrogenic class of compounds. This study demonstrated how changes in land use directly affect downstream DOM quality and could impact C and nutrient cycling on a global scale.

  4. Application of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT Model on a small tropical island (Great River Watershed, Jamaica as a tool in Integrated Watershed and Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orville P. Grey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Great River Watershed, located in north-west Jamaica, is critical for development, particularly for housing, tourism, agriculture, and mining. It is a source of sediment and nutrient loading to the coastal environment including the Montego Bay Marine Park. We produced a modeling framework using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and GIS. The calculated model performance statistics for high flow discharge yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE value of 0.68 and a R² value of 0.70 suggesting good measured and simulated (calibrated discharge correlation. Calibration and validation results for streamflow were similar to the observed streamflows. For the dry season the simulated urban landuse scenario predicted an increase in surface runoff in excess of 150%. During the wet season it is predicted to range from 98 to 234% presenting a significant risk of flooding, erosion and other environmental issues. The model should be used for the remaining 25 watersheds in Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean. The models suggests that projected landuse changes will have serious impacts on available water (streamflow, stream health, potable water treatment, flooding and sensitive coastal ecosystems.

  5. Minnesota Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Statewide minor watershed delineations with major/minor watershed identifiers and names for provinces, major watersheds, and basins. Also included are watershed...

  6. Ocean acidification: Linking science to management solutions using the Great Barrier Reef as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Rebecca; Anthony, Kenneth R N; Baird, Mark; Beeden, Roger; Byrne, Maria; Collier, Catherine; Dove, Sophie; Fabricius, Katharina; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Kelly, Ryan P; Lough, Janice; Mongin, Mathieu; Munday, Philip L; Pears, Rachel J; Russell, Bayden D; Tilbrook, Bronte; Abal, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to ocean acidification. While our understanding of the potential impacts of ocean acidification on coral reef ecosystems is growing, gaps remain that limit our ability to translate scientific knowledge into management action. To guide solution-based research, we review the current knowledge of ocean acidification impacts on coral reefs alongside management needs and priorities. We use the world's largest continuous reef system, Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR), as a case study. We integrate scientific knowledge gained from a variety of approaches (e.g., laboratory studies, field observations, and ecosystem modelling) and scales (e.g., cell, organism, ecosystem) that underpin a systems-level understanding of how ocean acidification is likely to impact the GBR and associated goods and services. We then discuss local and regional management options that may be effective to help mitigate the effects of ocean acidification on the GBR, with likely application to other coral reef systems. We develop a research framework for linking solution-based ocean acidification research to practical management options. The framework assists in identifying effective and cost-efficient options for supporting ecosystem resilience. The framework enables on-the-ground OA management to be the focus, while not losing sight of CO2 mitigation as the ultimate solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Further investigations of plutonium in aquatic biota of the Great Miami River Watershed including the canal and ponds in Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayman, C.W.; Bartelt, G.E.; Groves, S.E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from a preliminary investigation of Pu in aquatic organisms of the Great Miami River Watershed, Ohio. Data are presented on the Pu content of aquatic biota from the canal and ponds located adjacent to the Mound Laboratory. These areas have elevated levels of 238 Pu in the water and sediments as the result of a past incident. Radiochemical analysis of biota sampled both upstream and downstream from the effluent pipe of Mound Laboratory showed that plants collected downstream of the laboratory concentrate more 238 Pu than the plants located upstream by two to three orders of magnitude. Activities of 238 Pu in background samples are unexpectedly high and may be attributed to contamination. Activities of fallout 239 , 240 Pu in the plants from upstream and downstream were approximately the same

  8. The link between great earthquakes and the subduction of oceanic fracture zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Müller

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Giant subduction earthquakes are known to occur in areas not previously identified as prone to high seismic risk. This highlights the need to better identify subduction zone segments potentially dominated by relatively long (up to 1000 yr and more recurrence times of giant earthquakes. We construct a model for the geometry of subduction coupling zones and combine it with global geophysical data sets to demonstrate that the occurrence of great (magnitude ≥ 8 subduction earthquakes is strongly biased towards regions associated with intersections of oceanic fracture zones and subduction zones. We use a computational recommendation technology, a type of information filtering system technique widely used in searching, sorting, classifying, and filtering very large, statistically skewed data sets on the Internet, to demonstrate a robust association and rule out a random effect. Fracture zone–subduction zone intersection regions, representing only 25% of the global subduction coupling zone, are linked with 13 of the 15 largest (magnitude Mw ≥ 8.6 and half of the 50 largest (magnitude Mw ≥ 8.4 earthquakes. In contrast, subducting volcanic ridges and chains are only biased towards smaller earthquakes (magnitude < 8. The associations captured by our statistical analysis can be conceptually related to physical differences between subducting fracture zones and volcanic chains/ridges. Fracture zones are characterised by laterally continuous, uplifted ridges that represent normal ocean crust with a high degree of structural integrity, causing strong, persistent coupling in the subduction interface. Smaller volcanic ridges and chains have a relatively fragile heterogeneous internal structure and are separated from the underlying ocean crust by a detachment interface, resulting in weak coupling and relatively small earthquakes, providing a conceptual basis for the observed dichotomy.

  9. Structures linking physical and biological processes in headwater streams of the Maybeso watershed, Southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason D. Bryant; Takashi Gomi; Jack J. Piccolo

    2007-01-01

    We focus on headwater streams originating in the mountainous terrain of northern temperate rain forests. These streams rapidly descend from gradients greater than 20% to less than 5% in U-shaped glacial valleys. We use a set of studies on headwater streams in southeast Alaska to define headwater stream catchments, link physical and biological processes, and describe...

  10. Across Hydrological Interfaces from Coastal Watersheds to the Open Lake: Finding Landscape Signals in the Great Lakes Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past decade, our group has been working to bring coastal ecosystems into integrated basin-lakewide monitoring and assessment strategies for the Great Lakes. We have conducted a wide range of research on coastal tributaries, coastal wetlands, semi-enclosed embayments an...

  11. Modeling Sustainability of Water, Environment, Livelihood, and Culture in Traditional Irrigation Communities and Their Linked Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Boykin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity, land use conversion and cultural and ecosystem changes threaten the way of life for traditional irrigation communities of the semi-arid southwestern United States. Traditions are strong, yet potential upheaval is great in these communities that rely on acequia irrigation systems. Acequias are ancient ditch systems brought from the Iberian Peninsula to the New World over 400 years ago; they are simultaneously gravity flow water delivery systems and shared water governance institutions. Acequias have survived periods of drought and external shocks from changing economics, demographics, and resource uses. Now, climate change and urbanization threaten water availability, ecosystem functions, and the acequia communities themselves. Do past adaptive practices hold the key to future sustainability, or are new strategies required? To explore this issue we translated disciplinary understanding into a uniform format of causal loop diagrams to conceptualize the subsystems of the entire acequia-based human-natural system. Four subsystems are identified in this study: hydrology, ecosystem, land use/economics, and sociocultural. Important linkages between subsystems were revealed as well as variables indicating community cohesion (e.g., total irrigated land, intensity of upland grazing, mutualism. Ongoing work will test the conceptualizations with field data and modeling exercises to capture tipping points for non-sustainability and thresholds for sustainable water use and community longevity.

  12. Use of Integrated Landscape Indicators to Evaluate the Health of Linked Watersheds and Coral Reef Environments in the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Ku`ulei S.; Kido, Michael H.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K.

    2012-07-01

    A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai`i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management.

  13. Groundwater declines are linked to changes in Great Plains stream fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, Joshuah S; Gido, Keith B; Falke, Jeffrey A; Fausch, Kurt D; Crockett, Harry; Johnson, Eric R; Sanderson, John

    2017-07-11

    Groundwater pumping for agriculture is a major driver causing declines of global freshwater ecosystems, yet the ecological consequences for stream fish assemblages are rarely quantified. We combined retrospective (1950-2010) and prospective (2011-2060) modeling approaches within a multiscale framework to predict change in Great Plains stream fish assemblages associated with groundwater pumping from the United States High Plains Aquifer. We modeled the relationship between the length of stream receiving water from the High Plains Aquifer and the occurrence of fishes characteristic of small and large streams in the western Great Plains at a regional scale and for six subwatersheds nested within the region. Water development at the regional scale was associated with construction of 154 barriers that fragment stream habitats, increased depth to groundwater and loss of 558 km of stream, and transformation of fish assemblage structure from dominance by large-stream to small-stream fishes. Scaling down to subwatersheds revealed consistent transformations in fish assemblage structure among western subwatersheds with increasing depths to groundwater. Although transformations occurred in the absence of barriers, barriers along mainstem rivers isolate depauperate western fish assemblages from relatively intact eastern fish assemblages. Projections to 2060 indicate loss of an additional 286 km of stream across the region, as well as continued replacement of large-stream fishes by small-stream fishes where groundwater pumping has increased depth to groundwater. Our work illustrates the shrinking of streams and homogenization of Great Plains stream fish assemblages related to groundwater pumping, and we predict similar transformations worldwide where local and regional aquifer depletions occur.

  14. Endolysosomal Cation Channels and Cancer—A Link with Great Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Christian; Bartel, Karin; Vollmar, Angelika M.; Biel, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The endolysosomal system (ES) consists of lysosomes; early, late, and recycling endosomes; and autophagosomes. It is a key regulator not only of macromolecule degradation and recycling, plasma membrane repair, homeostasis, and lipid storage, but also of antigen presentation, immune defense, cell motility, cell death signaling, tumor growth, and cancer progression. In addition, it plays a critical role in autophagy, and the autophagy-lysosome pathway is intimately associated with the hallmarks of cancer, such as escaping cell death pathways, evading immune surveillance, and deregulating metabolism. The function of endolysosomes is critically dependent on both soluble and endolysosomal membrane proteins such as ion channels and transporters. Cation channels found in the ES include members of the TRP (transient receptor potential) channel superfamily, namely TRPML channels (mucolipins) as well as two-pore channels (TPCs). In recent studies, these channels have been found to play crucial roles in endolysosomal trafficking, lysosomal exocytosis, and autophagy. Mutation or loss of these channel proteins can impact multiple endolysosomal trafficking pathways. A role for TPCs in cancer cell migration and metastasis, linked to distinct defects in endolysosomal trafficking such as integrin trafficking, has been recently established. In this review, we give an overview on the function of lysosomes in cancer with a particular focus on the roles which TPCs and TRPML channels play in the ES and how this can affect cancer cells. PMID:29303993

  15. Endolysosomal Cation Channels and Cancer-A Link with Great Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Christian; Bartel, Karin; Vollmar, Angelika M; Biel, Martin

    2018-01-05

    The endolysosomal system (ES) consists of lysosomes; early, late, and recycling endosomes; and autophagosomes. It is a key regulator not only of macromolecule degradation and recycling, plasma membrane repair, homeostasis, and lipid storage, but also of antigen presentation, immune defense, cell motility, cell death signaling, tumor growth, and cancer progression. In addition, it plays a critical role in autophagy, and the autophagy-lysosome pathway is intimately associated with the hallmarks of cancer, such as escaping cell death pathways, evading immune surveillance, and deregulating metabolism. The function of endolysosomes is critically dependent on both soluble and endolysosomal membrane proteins such as ion channels and transporters. Cation channels found in the ES include members of the TRP (transient receptor potential) channel superfamily, namely TRPML channels (mucolipins) as well as two-pore channels (TPCs). In recent studies, these channels have been found to play crucial roles in endolysosomal trafficking, lysosomal exocytosis, and autophagy. Mutation or loss of these channel proteins can impact multiple endolysosomal trafficking pathways. A role for TPCs in cancer cell migration and metastasis, linked to distinct defects in endolysosomal trafficking such as integrin trafficking, has been recently established. In this review, we give an overview on the function of lysosomes in cancer with a particular focus on the roles which TPCs and TRPML channels play in the ES and how this can affect cancer cells.

  16. Building multi-country collaboration on watershed management: lessons on linking environment and public health from the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community-based watershed resilience programs that bridge public health and environmental outcomes often require cross-boundary, multi-country collaboration. The CRESSIDA project, led by the Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC) and supported by the U...

  17. Watershed analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Gallegos

    2002-01-01

    Watershed analyses and assessments for the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project were done on about 33,000 acres of the 45,500-acre Big Creek watershed and 32,000 acres of the 85,100-acre Dinkey Creek watershed. Following procedures developed for analysis of cumulative watershed effects (CWE) in the Pacific Northwest Region of the USDA Forest Service, the...

  18. Occurrence and Distribution of Pesticides in the St. Lucie River Watershed, South-Central Florida, 2000-01, Based on Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    The St. Lucie River watershed is a valuable estuarine ecosystem and resource in south-central Florida. The watershed has undergone extensive changes over the last century because of anthropogenic activities. These activities have resulted in a complex urban and agricultural drainage network that facilitates the transport of contaminants, including pesticides, to the primary canals and then to the estuary. Historical data indicate that aquatic life criteria for selected pesticides have been exceeded. To address this concern, a reconnaissance was conducted to assess the occurrence and distribution of selected pesticides within the St. Lucie River watershed. Numerous water samples were collected from 37 sites among various land-use categories (urban/built-up, citrus, cropland/pastureland, and inte-grated). Samples were collected at inflow points to primary canals (C-23, C-24, and C-44) and at control structures along these canals from October 2000 to September 2001. Samples were screened for four pesticide classes (triazines, chloroacetanilides, chlorophenoxy compounds, and organophosphates) by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) screening. A temporal distribution of pesticides within the watershed was made based on samples collected at the integrated sites during different rainfall events between October 2000 and September 2001. Triazines were detected in 32 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites. Chloroacetanilides were detected in 60 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites, with most detections occurring at one site. Chlorophenoxy compounds were detected in 17 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites. Organophosphates were detected in only one sample. A spatial distribution and range of concentration of pesticides at the 37 sampling sites in the watershed were determined among land-use categories. Triazine concentrations ranged from highest to lowest in the citrus, urban/built-up, and integrated areas

  19. River basins as social-ecological systems: linking levels of societal and ecosystem water metabolism in a semiarid watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Cabello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available River basin modeling under complexity requires analytical frameworks capable of dealing with the multiple scales and dimensions of environmental problems as well as uncertainty in the evolution of social systems. Conceptual and methodological developments can now be framed using the wide socio-eco-hydrological approach. We add hierarchy theory into the mix to discuss the conceptualization of river basins as complex, holarchic social-ecological systems. We operationalize the social-ecological systems water metabolism framework in a semiarid watershed in Spain, and add the governance dimension that shapes human-environment reciprocity. To this purpose, we integrate an eco-hydrological model with the societal metabolism accounting scheme for land use, human activity, and water use. We explore four types of interactions: between societal organization and water uses/demands, between ecosystem organization and their water requirements/supplies, between societal metabolism and aquatic ecosystem health, and between water demand and availability. Our results reveal a metabolic pattern of a high mountain rural system striving to face exodus and agricultural land abandonment with a multifunctional economy. Centuries of social-ecological evolution shaping waterscapes through traditional water management practices have influenced the eco-hydrological functioning of the basin, enabling adaptation to aridity. We found a marked spatial gradient on water supply, use pattern, and impact on water bodies from the head to the mouth of the basin. Management challenges posed by the European water regulatory framework as a new driver of social-ecological change are highlighted.

  20. Linking river nutrient concentrations to land use and rainfall in a paddy agriculture-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yongqiu; Ti, Chaopu; She, Dongli; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    The effects of land use and land-use changes on river nutrient concentrations are not well understood, especially in the watersheds of developing countries that have a mixed land use of rice paddy fields and developing urban surfaces. Here, we present a three-year study of a paddy agricultural-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China. The annual anthropogenic nitrogen (N) input from the agricultural region to the urban region was high, yet the results showed that the monthly nutrient concentrations in the river were low in the rainy seasons. The nutrient concentrations decreased continuously as the river water passed through the traditional agriculture region (TAR; paddy rice and wheat rotation) and increased substantially in the city region (CR). The traditional agricultural reference region exported most of the nutrient loads at high flows (>1mmd(-1)), the intensified agricultural region (IAR, aquaculture and poultry farming) exported most of the nutrient loads at moderate flows (between 0.5 and 1mmd(-1)), and the CR reference area exported most of the nutrient loads under low to moderate flows. We developed a statistical model to link variations in the nutrient concentrations to the proportion of land-use types and rainfall. The statistical results showed that impervious surfaces, which we interpret as a proxy for urban activities including sewage disposal, were the most important drivers of nutrient concentrations, whereas water surfaces accounted for a substantial proportion of the nutrient sinks. Therefore, to efficiently reduce water pollution, sewage from urban areas must be addressed as a priority, although wetland restoration could also achieve substantial pollutant removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. A Watershed Integrity Definition and Assessment Approach to Support Strategic Management of Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although defined hydrologically as a drainage basin, watersheds are systems that physically link the individual social and ecological attributes that comprise them. Hence the structure, function, and feedback systems of watersheds are dependent on interactions between these soci...

  2. Tracking Water, C, N, and P by Linking Local Scale Soil Hydrologic and Biogeochemical Features to Watershed Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghatdoost, A.; Mohanty, B.; Huang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) have many contemporary significance due to their critical roles in determining the structure and function of ecosystems. The objectives of our study is to find out temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of soil physical, chemical, and biological properties and their interaction with C, N, and P cycles in the soil for different land covers and weather conditions. The study is being conducted at three locations within Texas Water Observatory (TWO), including Riesel (USDA-ARS experimental watersheds), Texas A&M Agrilife Research Farm, and Danciger forest in Texas. Soil physical, hydraulic, chemical (total C, total N, total P, pH, EC, redox potential, N-NO3-, N-NH4+, PO42-, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, and Alox and Feox), and microbiological (Microbial biomass C, N, and P, PLFA analysis, enzymatic activity) properties are being measured in the top 30 cm of the soil profile. Our preliminary data shows that biogeochemical processes would be more profound in the areas with higher temperature and precipitation as these factors stimulate microbial activity and thus influence C, N, and P cycles. Also concentrations of C and N are greater in woodlands relative to remnant grasslands as a consequence of the greater above- and below-ground productivity of woodlands relative to remnant grasslands. We hypothesize that finer soil textures have more organic matter, microbial population, and reactive surfaces for chemicals than coarse soils, as described in some recent literature. However, the microbial activity may not be active in fine textured soils as organic materials may be sorbed to clay surfaces or protected from decomposing organisms. We also expect reduced condition in saturated soils which will decrease carbon mineralization while increase denitrification and alkalinity in the soil. Spatio-temporal data with initial evaluation of biogeochemical factors/processes for different land covers will be presented.

  3. Linking ecosystem service supply to stakeholder concerns on both land and sea: An example from Guánica Bay watershed, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policies to protect coastal resources may lead to greater social, economic, and ecological returns when they consider potential co-benefits and trade-offs on land. In Guánica Bay watershed, Puerto Rico, a watershed management plan is being implemented to restore declining quality...

  4. From ridge to reef—linking erosion and changing watersheds to impacts on the coral reef ecosystems of Hawai‘i and the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Jonathan D.; Cochran, Susan A.; Field, Michael E.; Jacobi, James D.; Tribble, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are threatened by unprecedented watershed changes in the United States and worldwide. These ecosystems sustain fishing and tourism industries essential to the economic survival of many communities. Sediment, nutrients, and pollutants from watersheds are increasingly transported to coastal waters, where these contaminants damage corals. Although pollution from watersheds is one of many factors threatening coral survival, it is one that local people can have a profound influence on. U.S. Geological Survey scientists are using mapping, monitoring, and computer modeling to better forecast the effects of watershed changes on reef health. Working with communities in Hawai‘i and on other U.S. islands in the Pacific, they are helping to provide the science needed to make informed decisions on watershed and coral reef management.

  5. Representativeness of Social Media in Great Britain: Investigating Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Pinterest, Google+, and Instagram

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Grant; Lutz, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The accepted and peer reviewed manuscript to the article Sociological studies show that Internet access, skills, uses, and outcomes vary between different population segments. However, we lack differentiated statistical evidence of the social characteristics of users of distinct social media platforms. We address this issue using a representative survey of Great Britain and investigate the social characteristics of six major social media platforms. We find that age and socioeconomic status...

  6. Forecasting effects of climate change on Great Lakes fisheries: models that link habitat supply to population dynamics can help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael L.; Shuter, Brian J.; Zhao, Yingming; Stockwell, Jason D.

    2006-01-01

    Future changes to climate in the Great Lakes may have important consequences for fisheries. Evidence suggests that Great Lakes air and water temperatures have risen and the duration of ice cover has lessened during the past century. Global circulation models (GCMs) suggest future warming and increases in precipitation in the region. We present new evidence that water temperatures have risen in Lake Erie, particularly during summer and winter in the period 1965–2000. GCM forecasts coupled with physical models suggest lower annual runoff, less ice cover, and lower lake levels in the future, but the certainty of these forecasts is low. Assessment of the likely effects of climate change on fish stocks will require an integrative approach that considers several components of habitat rather than water temperature alone. We recommend using mechanistic models that couple habitat conditions to population demographics to explore integrated effects of climate-caused habitat change and illustrate this approach with a model for Lake Erie walleye (Sander vitreum). We show that the combined effect on walleye populations of plausible changes in temperature, river hydrology, lake levels, and light penetration can be quite different from that which would be expected based on consideration of only a single factor.

  7. The ugly face of tourism: Marine debris pollution linked to visitation in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott P; Verlis, Krista M

    2017-04-15

    Marine debris is one of the most significant issues facing oceans worldwide. The sources of this debris vary depending on proximity to urban centres and the nature of activities within an area. This paper examines the influence of tourism in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and its contribution to litter levels in the region. By conducting beach debris surveys on occupied and unoccupied islands, this study found that debris was prevalent throughout the region with significant differences in material types between locations. The greatest source of debris from publically accessible islands was tourist-related, with this source also influencing debris loads on nearby uninhabited islands. A focus on debris at Heron Island, showed that sites close to amenities had greater levels of tourist-sourced items like cigarette butts. These findings indicate the contribution of tourists to this problem and that working with operators and managers is needed to minimise visitor impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Is There Synchronicity in Nitrogen Input and Output Fluxes at the Noland Divide Watershed, a Small N-Saturated Forested Catchment in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Van Miegroet

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available High-elevation red spruce [Picea rubens Sarg.]-Fraser fir [Abies fraseri (Pursh. Poir] forests in the Southern Appalachians currently receive large nitrogen (N inputs via atmospheric deposition (30 kg N ha�1 year�1 but have limited N retention capacity due to a combination of stand age, heavy fir mortality caused by exotic insect infestations, and numerous gaps caused by windfalls and ice storms. This study examined the magnitude and timing of the N fluxes into, through, and out of a small, first-order catchment in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. It also examined the role of climatic conditions in causing interannual variations in the N output signal. About half of the atmospheric N input was exported annually in the streamwater, primarily as nitrate (NO3-N. While most incoming ammonium (NH4-N was retained in the canopy and the forest floor, the NO3-N fluxes were very dynamic in space as well as in time. There was a clear decoupling between NO3-N input and output fluxes. Atmospheric N input was greatest in the growing season while largest NO3-N losses typically occurred in the dormant season. Also, as water passed through the various catchment compartments, the NO3-N flux declined below the canopy, increased in the upper soil due to internal N mineralization and nitrification, and declined again deeper in the mineral soil due to plant uptake and microbial processing. Temperature control on N production and hydrologic control on NO3-N leaching during the growing season likely caused the observed inter-annual variation in fall peak NO3-N concentrations and N discharge rates in the stream.

  9. An Experimental Test of a Causal Link between Problem-Solving Performance and Reproductive Success in Wild Great Tits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Cauchard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have uncovered relationships between measures of various cognitive performances and proxies of fitness such as reproductive success in non-human animals. However, to better understand the evolution of cognition in the wild, we still have to determine the causality of these relationships and the underlying mechanisms. The cognitive ability of an individual may directly influence its ability to raise many and/or high quality young through for example its provisioning ability. Conversely, large and/or high quality broods may lead to high parental motivation to solve problems related to their care. To answer this question, we manipulated reproductive success through brood size and measured subsequent problem-solving performance in wild great tit parents. Our results show that brood size manipulation did not affect the probability to solve the task. Moreover, solver pairs fledged more young than non-solver pairs independently of brood size treatment in one of the two experimental years and they showed higher nestling provisioning rate in both years. Overall, it shows that problem-solving performance was not driven by motivation and suggest that problem-solvers may achieve higher fledging success through higher provisioning rates. Our study constitutes a first key step toward a mechanistic understanding of the consequences of innovation ability for individual fitness in the wild.

  10. Linking field-based metabolomics and chemical analyses to prioritize contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John M.; Ekman, Drew R.; Teng, Quincy; Ankley, Gerald T.; Berninger, Jason P.; Cavallin, Jenna E.; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Kahl, Michael D.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Collette, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to focus on the most biologically relevant contaminants affecting aquatic ecosystems can be challenging because toxicity-assessment programs have not kept pace with the growing number of contaminants requiring testing. Because it has proven effective at assessing the biological impacts of potentially toxic contaminants, profiling of endogenous metabolites (metabolomics) may help screen out contaminants with a lower likelihood of eliciting biological impacts, thereby prioritizing the most biologically important contaminants. The authors present results from a study that utilized cage-deployed fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) at 18 sites across the Great Lakes basin. They measured water temperature and contaminant concentrations in water samples (132 contaminants targeted, 86 detected) and used 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure endogenous metabolites in polar extracts of livers. They used partial least-squares regression to compare relative abundances of endogenous metabolites with contaminant concentrations and temperature. The results indicated that profiles of endogenous polar metabolites covaried with at most 49 contaminants. The authors identified up to 52% of detected contaminants as not significantly covarying with changes in endogenous metabolites, suggesting they likely were not eliciting measurable impacts at these sites. This represents a first step in screening for the biological relevance of detected contaminants by shortening lists of contaminants potentially affecting these sites. Such information may allow risk assessors to prioritize contaminants and focus toxicity testing on the most biologically relevant contaminants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2493–2502.

  11. Watershed District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Boundaries show on this map are derived from legal descriptions contained in petitions to the Kansas Secretary of State for the creation or extension of watershed...

  12. Watershed management in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    Watershed degradation, watershed management, background of watershed management in Myanmar (condition of watershed, manpower), discussion and recommendation (proposed administrative structure, the need for watershed survey and planning, bottom-up approach) are emphasized. Watershed management, after all can be seen that it is the interphase between the forest, agriculture, soil, wildlife and the local communities

  13. Watershed management in Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, K S

    1993-10-01

    Watershed degradation, watershed management, background of watershed management in Myanmar (condition of watershed, manpower), discussion and recommendation (proposed administrative structure, the need for watershed survey and planning, bottom-up approach) are emphasized. Watershed management, after all can be seen that it is the interphase between the forest, agriculture, soil, wildlife and the local communities

  14. Predicting Near-Term Water Quality from Satellite Observations of Watershed Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W. J.; Wang, L.; Hoffman, K.; West, D.; Mehta, A. V.; Lee, C.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the strong influence of watershed conditions on source water quality, most water utilities and water resource agencies do not currently have the capability to monitor watershed sources of contamination with great temporal or spatial detail. Typically, knowledge of source water quality is limited to periodic grab sampling; automated monitoring of a limited number of parameters at a few select locations; and/or monitoring relevant constituents at a treatment plant intake. While important, such observations are not sufficient to inform proactive watershed or source water management at a monthly or seasonal scale. Satellite remote sensing data on the other hand can provide a snapshot of an entire watershed at regular, sub-monthly intervals, helping analysts characterize watershed conditions and identify trends that could signal changes in source water quality. Accordingly, the authors are investigating correlations between satellite remote sensing observations of watersheds and source water quality, at a variety of spatial and temporal scales and lags. While correlations between remote sensing observations and direct in situ measurements of water quality have been well described in the literature, there are few studies that link remote sensing observations across a watershed with near-term predictions of water quality. In this presentation, the authors will describe results of statistical analyses and discuss how these results are being used to inform development of a desktop decision support tool to support predictive application of remote sensing data. Predictor variables under evaluation include parameters that describe vegetative conditions; parameters that describe climate/weather conditions; and non-remote sensing, in situ measurements. Water quality parameters under investigation include nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, chlorophyll-a, and turbidity.

  15. Forging the Link: Using a Conservative Mixing Framework to Characterize Connections between Rivers and Great Lakes in River-lake Transition Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    River-to-Great Lake transition zones are hydrologically, biogeochemically and biologically dynamic areas that regulate nutrient and energy fluxes between rivers and Great Lakes. Our goal is to characterize the biogeochemical properties of the river-lake transition zones and under...

  16. Adopt Your Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adopt Your Watershed is a Website that encourages stewardship of the nation's water resources and serves as a national inventory of local watershed groups and...

  17. Attenuation of landscape signals through the coastal zone: A basin-wide analysis for the US Great Lakes shoreline, circa 2002-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compare statistical models developed to describe a) the relationship between watershed properties and Great Lakes coastal wetlands with b) the relationship developed between watershed properties and the Great Lakes nearshore. Using landscape metrics from the GLEI project (Dan...

  18. Linking the effects of land use change with water quality and discharge :an integrated approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fauss, Lynn Michael

    1992-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality equilibria are greatly affected by changing land use. This study presents a methodology that integrates the use of remote sensing, geographical information systems (GIS) and water-quality modeling. Archived aerial photography proved to be a valuable source of historical land use data. GIS technology was used to compile and analyze spatial data. A comprehensive watershed model was used to link the effects of land use change to water quali...

  19. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  20. Coral-macroalgal phase shifts or reef resilience: links with diversity and functional roles of herbivorous fishes on the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheal, A. J.; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Cripps, E.; Emslie, M. J.; Jonker, M.; Schaffelke, B.; Sweatman, H.

    2010-12-01

    Changes from coral to macroalgal dominance following disturbances to corals symbolize the global degradation of coral reefs. The development of effective conservation measures depends on understanding the causes of such phase shifts. The prevailing view that coral-macroalgal phase shifts commonly occur due to insufficient grazing by fishes is based on correlation with overfishing and inferences from models and small-scale experiments rather than on long-term quantitative field studies of fish communities at affected and resilient sites. Consequently, the specific characteristics of herbivorous fish communities that most promote reef resilience under natural conditions are not known, though this information is critical for identifying vulnerable ecosystems. In this study, 11 years of field surveys recorded the development of the most persistent coral-macroalgal phase shift (>7 years) yet observed on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR). This shift followed extensive coral mortality caused by thermal stress (coral bleaching) and damaging storms. Comparisons with two similar reefs that suffered similar disturbances but recovered relatively rapidly demonstrated that the phase shift occurred despite high abundances of one herbivore functional group (scraping/excavating parrotfishes: Labridae). However, the shift was strongly associated with low fish herbivore diversity and low abundances of algal browsers (predominantly Siganidae) and grazers/detritivores (Acanthuridae), suggesting that one or more of these factors underpin reef resilience and so deserve particular protection. Herbivorous fishes are not harvested on the GBR, and the phase shift was not enhanced by unusually high nutrient levels. This shows that unexploited populations of herbivorous fishes cannot ensure reef resilience even under benign conditions and suggests that reefs could lose resilience under relatively low fishing pressure. Predictions of more severe and widespread coral mortality due to global

  1. Watershed condition [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Jonathan W. Long; Malchus B. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Managers of the Prescott National Forest are obliged to evaluate the conditions of watersheds under their jurisdiction in order to guide informed decisions concerning grazing allotments, forest and woodland management, restoration treatments, and other management initiatives. Watershed condition has been delineated by contrasts between “good” and “poor” conditions (...

  2. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  3. Applying online WEPP to assess forest watershed hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Dun; J. Q. Wu; W. J. Elliot; J. R. Frankenberger; D. C. Flanagan; D. K. McCool

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and the Great Lakes Commission are developing technologies and predictive tools to aid in watershed management with an ultimate goal of improving and preserving the water quality in the Great Lakes Basin. A new version of the online Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) GIS interface has been developed to assist in evaluating...

  4. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  5. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  6. DefenseLink Feature: The Great War

    Science.gov (United States)

    passing of Charlotte Winters on March 27, 2007, marked the end of an era in military women's history-she American recognition of Kosovo's independence provided a somber reminder of how another violent incident

  7. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  8. Stormwater Impaired Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Stormwater impaired watersheds occuring on both the Priority Waters (Part D - Completed TMDL) and 303(d) list of waters (Part A - need TMDL) The Vermont State...

  9. URBAN WATERSHED STUDIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  10. URBAN WATERSHED STUDIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  11. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  12. Weathering, landscape equilibrium, and carbon in four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter H in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program research in eastern Puerto Rico involves a double pair-wise comparison of four montane river basins, two on granitic bedrock and two on fine-grained volcaniclastic bedrock; for each rock type, one is forested and the other is developed. A confounding factor in this comparison is that the developed watersheds are substantially drier than the forested (runoff of 900–1,600 millimeters per year compared with 2,800–3,700 millimeters per year). To reduce the effects of contrasting runoff, the relation between annual runoff and annual constituent yield were used to estimate mean-annual yields at a common, intermediate mean-annual runoff of 1,860 millimeters per year. Upon projection to this intermediate runoff, the ranges of mean-annual yields among all watersheds became more compact or did not substantially change for dissolved bedrock, sodium, silica, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, and calcium. These constituents are the primary indicators of chemical weathering, biological activity on the landscape, and atmospheric inputs; the narrow ranges indicate little preferential influence by either geology or land cover. The projected yields of biologically active constituents (potassium, nitrate, ammonium ion, phosphate), and particulate constituents (suspended bedrock and particulate organic carbon) were considerably greater for developed landscapes compared with forested watersheds, consistent with the known effects of land clearing and human waste inputs. Equilibrium rates of combined chemical and physical weathering were estimated by using a method based on concentrations of silicon and sodium in bedrock, river-borne solids, and river-borne solutes. The observed rates of landscape denudation greatly exceed rates expected for a dynamic equilibrium, except possibly for the forested watershed on volcaniclastic rock. Deforestation and agriculture can explain the accelerated physical

  13. Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Polygon representing the area of the Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District. The Watershed Protection District (PDF) is a sensitive area of land that drains to...

  14. Watershed characterization and analysis using the VELMA ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a broadly applicable watershed simulator – VELMA (Visualizing Ecosystem and Land Management Assessments) – to characterize hydrological and ecological processes essential to the healthy functioning of watersheds, and to identify best management practices (BMPs) for restoring ecosystem services such as provisioning of clean water, food and fiber, and habitat for fish and wildlife. VELMA has been applied to agricultural, forest, rangeland and arctic watersheds across North America. Urban applications are under development. This seminar will discuss how VELMA is being used to help inform (1) salmon recovery planning in Puget Sound, and (2) water quality protection in Chesapeake Bay agricultural landscapes. These examples highlight the importance of model validation; how VELMA is being linked with additional models to aid BMP identification; and how the model is being transferred to community groups, tribes, and state and federal agencies engaged in environmental decision making. This invited seminar for the Washington State Department of Ecology will provide an overview of EPA’s VELMA watershed simulator and its applications for identifying best management practices for protecting and restoring vital ecosystem services, such as provisioning of clean water, food and fiber, and habitat for fish and wildlife. After the seminar, the presenter will meet with Department of Ecology staff to discuss the feasibility of including VELMA in their Puget Sound

  15. Causes and consequences of ecosystem service regionalization in a coastal suburban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Mark B. Green,; Pellerin, Brian A.; Morse, Nathaniel B.; Hopkinson, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    The demand for ecosystem services and the ability of natural ecosystems to provide those services evolve over time as population, land use, and management practices change. Regionalization of ecosystem service activity, or the expansion of the area providing ecosystem services to a population, is a common response in densely populated coastal regions, with important consequences for watershed water and nitrogen (N) fluxes to the coastal zone. We link biophysical and historical information to explore the causes and consequences of change in ecosystem service activity—focusing on water provisioning and N regulation—from 1850 to 2010 in a coastal suburban watershed, the Ipswich River watershed in northeastern Massachusetts, USA. Net interbasin water transfers started in the late 1800s due to regionalization of water supply for use by larger populations living outside the Ipswich watershed boundaries, reaching a peak in the mid-1980s. Over much of the twentieth century, about 20 % of river runoff was diverted from reaching the estuary, with greater proportions during drought years. Ongoing regionalization of water supply has contributed to recent declines in diversions, influenced by socioecological feedbacks resulting from the river drying and fish kills. Similarly, the N budget has been greatly perturbed since the suburban era began in the 1950s due to food and lawn fertilizer imports and human waste release. However, natural ecosystems are able to remove most of this anthropogenic N, mitigating impacts on the coastal zone. We propose a conceptual model whereby the amount and type of ecosystem services provided by coastal watersheds in urban regions expand and contract over time as regional population expands and ecosystem services are regionalized. We hypothesize that suburban watersheds can be hotspots of ecosystem service sources because they retain sufficient ecosystem function to still produce services that meet increasing demand from the local population

  16. Local-scale and watershed-scale determinants of summertime urban stream temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek B. Booth; Kristin A. Kraseski; C. Rhett. Jackson

    2014-01-01

    The influence of urbanization on the temperature of small streams is widely recognized, but these effects are confounded by the great natural variety of their contributing watersheds. To evaluate the relative importance of local-scale and watershed-scale factors on summer temperatures in urban streams, hundreds of near-instantaneous temperature measurements throughout...

  17. Beyond formal groups: neighboring acts and watershed protection in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Lukacs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how watershed organizations in Appalachia have persisted in addressing water quality issues in areas with a history of coal mining. We identified two watershed groups that have taken responsibility for restoring local creeks that were previously highly degraded and sporadically managed. These watershed groups represent cases of self-organized commons governance in resource-rich, economically poor Appalachian communities. We describe the extent and characteristics of links between watershed group volunteers and watershed residents who are not group members. Through surveys, participant observation, and key-informant consultation, we found that neighbors – group members as well as non-group-members – supported the group's function through informal neighboring acts. Past research has shown that local commons governance institutions benefit from being nested in supportive external structures. We found that the persistence and success of community watershed organizations depends on the informal participation of local residents, affirming the necessity of looking beyond formal, organized groups to understand the resources, expertise, and information needed to address complex water pollution at the watershed level. Our findings augment the concept of nestedness in commons governance to include that of a formal organization acting as a neighbor that exchanges informal neighboring acts with local residents. In this way, we extend the concept of neighboring to include interactions between individuals and a group operating in the same geographic area.

  18. Watershed assessment-watershed analysis: What are the limits and what must be considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    2000-01-01

    Watershed assessment or watershed analysis describes processes and interactions that influence ecosystems and resources in a watershed. Objectives and methods differ because issues and opportunities differ.

  19. Allegheny County Watershed Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the 52 isolated sub-Watersheds of Allegheny County that drain to single point on the main stem rivers. Created by 3 Rivers 2nd Nature based...

  20. Fundamentals of watershed hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover

    2015-01-01

    This is a primer about hydrology, the science of water. Watersheds are the basic land unit for water resource management and their delineation, importance, and variation are explained and illustrated. The hydrologic cycle and its components (precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, soil water, groundwater, and streamflow) which collectively provide a foundation for...

  1. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the parameterization and execution of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and KINEmatic Runoff and EROSion (KINEROS2) hydrologic models. The application of these two models allows AGWA to conduct hydrologic modeling and watershed assessments at multiple temporal and spatial scales. AGWA’s current outputs are runoff (volumes and peaks) and sediment yield, plus nitrogen and phosphorus with the SWAT model. AGWA uses commonly available GIS data layers to fully parameterize, execute, and visualize results from both models. Through an intuitive interface the user selects an outlet from which AGWA delineates and discretizes the watershed using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the individual model requirements. The watershed model elements are then intersected with soils and land cover data layers to derive the requisite model input parameters. The chosen model is then executed, and the results are imported back into AGWA for visualization. This allows managers to identify potential problem areas where additional monitoring can be undertaken or mitigation activities can be focused. AGWA also has tools to apply an array of best management practices. There are currently two versions of AGWA available; AGWA 1.5 for

  2. Watersheds in disordered media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José S. Andrade Jr.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watershedsseparating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have beenused to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes betweencountries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance,slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in awatershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arisesnaturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide,and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields suchas image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scalingproperties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a moreprofound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed andstatistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of awatershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometricaland physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificialmodel landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be ingood qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.

  3. Watershed hydrology. Chapter 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elons S. Verry; Kenneth N. Brooks; Dale S. Nichols; Dawn R. Ferris; Stephen D. Sebestyen

    2011-01-01

    Watershed hydrology is determined by the local climate, land use, and pathways of water flow. At the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF), streamflow is dominated by spring runoff events driven by snowmelt and spring rains common to the strongly continental climate of northern Minnesota. Snowmelt and rainfall in early spring saturate both mineral and organic soils and...

  4. The experimental watersheds in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sraj, M; Rusjan, S; Petan, S; Vidmar, A; Mikos, M; Globevnik, L; Brilly, M

    2008-01-01

    Experimental watersheds are critical to the advancement of hydrological science. By setting up three experimental watersheds, Slovenia also obtained its grounds for further development of the science and discipline. In the Dragonja experimental watershed the studies are focused on the afforestation of the watershed in a mediterranean climate, on the Reka river the water balance in a partly karstic area is examined, and on the case of the Glinscica stream the implications of the urban environment are studied. We have obtained valuable experience and tested new measuring equipment on all three experimental watersheds. Measurements and analysis on the experimental watersheds improved the current understanding of hydrological processes. They resulted in several PhD Theses, Master Theses and scientific articles. At the same time the experimental watersheds provide support to the teaching and studying process.

  5. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...... links' that indicate cooperative levels which facilitate a creative and innovative effort in disease prevention and health promotion targeted at children and adolescents - across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  6. Linking ciguatera poisoning to spatial ecology of fish: a novel approach to examining the distribution of biotoxin levels in the great barracuda by combining non-lethal blood sampling and biotelemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Amanda C; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Danylchuk, Andy J; Ramsdell, John S; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-06-15

    Ciguatera in humans is typically caused by the consumption of reef fish that have accumulated Ciguatoxins (CTXs) in their flesh. Over a six month period, we captured 38 wild adult great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda), a species commonly associated with ciguatera in The Bahamas. We sampled three tissues (i.e., muscle, liver, and blood) and analysed them for the presence of ciguatoxins using a functional in vitro N2A bioassay. Detectable concentrations of ciguatoxins found in the three tissue types ranged from 2.51 to 211.74pg C-CTX-1 equivalents/g. Blood and liver toxin concentrations were positively correlated (ρ=0.86, P=0.003), indicating that, for the first time, blood sampling provides a non-lethal method of detecting ciguatoxin in wild fish. Non-lethal blood sampling also presents opportunities to couple this approach with biotelemetry and biologging techniques that enable the study of fish distribution and movement. To demonstrate the potential for linking ciguatoxin occurrence with barracuda spatial ecology, we also present a proof-of-concept case study where blood samples were obtained from 20 fish before releasing them with acoustic transmitters and tracking them in the coastal waters using a fixed acoustic telemetry array covering 44km(2). Fish that tested positive for CTX may have smaller home ranges than non-toxic fish (median distance travelled, U=2.21, P=0.03). Results presented from this study may help identify high risk areas and source-sink dynamics of toxins, potentially reducing the incidence and human health risk of ciguatera fish poisoning. Moreover, development of the non-lethal sampling approach and measurement of ciguatera from blood provide future opportunities to understand the mechanistic relationship between toxins and the spatial ecology of a broad range of marine fish species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of Nutrient Balances in Comprehensive Watershed Water Quality Modeling of Chesapeake Bay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donigian, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    ... state of-the-art watershed modeling capability that includes detailed soil process simulation for agricultural areas, linked to an instream water quality and nutrient model capable of representing...

  8. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar Jha

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science...

  9. Adaptive Management Fitness of Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Porzecanski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management (AM promises to improve our ability to cope with the inherent uncertainties of managing complex dynamic systems such as watersheds. However, despite the increasing adherence and attempts at implementation, the AM approach is rarely successful in practice. A one-size-fits-all AM strategy fails because some watersheds are better positioned at the outset to succeed at AM than others. We introduce a diagnostic tool called the Index of Management Condition (IMC and apply it to twelve diverse watersheds in order to determine their AM "fitness"; that is, the degree to which favorable adaptive management conditions are in place in a watershed.

  10. Spatially varying determinants of farmland conversion across Qiantang watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shiliang; Xiao, Rui

    2013-10-01

    This paper employed geographically weighted regression (GWR) to characterize the determinants of farmland conversion at administrative scale between 1994 and 2003 across Qiantang watershed, China. Six determinants were identified: total area of forest, distance to highway, distance to second road, distance to river, population, and gross domestic product. Relationships between these identified determinants and farmland conversion showed great spatial non-stationarity, since their character, nature, and strength varied significantly across space. Typically, for cities whose development was heavily relied on road infrastructure development, the impacts of "distance to second road" and "distance to river" was negative. However, in mountainous areas, the restriction of terrain factors led to positive impacts from these two variables. For areas undergoing rapid socio-economic development, farmland conversion was accelerated by population growth and economic development. However, for more urbanized regions, a slow-down rate of farmland conversion would be expected. Our study highlighted that the problem of spatial non-stationarity should be addressed when qualifying the determinants of farmland conversion. Linking our results within the context of farmland protection, we argue that implementing local-specific land management practices, instead of the current one-size-fits-all framework, is the key for the success of farmland protection in China.

  11. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  12. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  13. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a

  14. Global perspective of watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth N. Brooks; Karlyn Eckman

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of watershed management in moving towards sustainable natural resource and agricultural development. Examples from 30 field projects and six training projects involving over 25 countries are presented to illustrate watershed management initiatives that have been implemented over the last half of the 20th century. The level of success has...

  15. Alaska Index of Watershed Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Index of Watershed Integrity (IWI) is used to calculate and visualize the status of natural watershed infrastructure that supports ecological processes (e.g., nutrient cycling) and services provided to society (e.g., subsistenc...

  16. Watershed-based survey designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detenbeck, N.E.; Cincotta, D.; Denver, J.M.; Greenlee, S.K.; Olsen, A.R.; Pitchford, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Watershed-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Section 303(d), and development of empirical relationships between causes or sources of impairment and biological responses. Creation of GIS databases for hydrography, hydrologically corrected digital elevation models, and hydrologic derivatives such as watershed boundaries and upstream–downstream topology of subcatchments would provide a consistent seamless nationwide framework for these designs. The elements of a watershed-based sample framework can be represented either as a continuous infinite set defined by points along a linear stream network, or as a discrete set of watershed polygons. Watershed-based designs can be developed with existing probabilistic survey methods, including the use of unequal probability weighting, stratification, and two-stage frames for sampling. Case studies for monitoring of Atlantic Coastal Plain streams, West Virginia wadeable streams, and coastal Oregon streams illustrate three different approaches for selecting sites for watershed-based survey designs.

  17. Linking the Local and the Global. What Today’s Environmental Humanities Movement Can Learn from Their Predecessor’s Successful Leadership of the 1965–1975 War to Save the Great Barrier Reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain McCalman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For a decade from 1965–1975, an Australian poet, Judith Wright, and a Reef artist, John Busst, played a major role in helping to save the Great Barrier Reef. The Queensland State Government had declared its intention of mining up to eighty percent of the Reef’s corals for oil, gas, fertiliser and cement. The campaign of resistance led by these two humanists, in alliance with a forester, Dr. Len Webb, contributed substantively to the establishment of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park in 1975 and to then to the Reef’s World Heritage listing in 1983 as ‘the most impressive marine environment in the world’. This paper explains the challenges facing today’s environmental scholars and activists as they attempt to replicate the success of their 1970s predecessors in helping to save the Great Barrier Reef from even graver and more immediate threats to its survival.

  18. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  19. [New paradigm for soil and water conservation: a method based on watershed process modeling and scenario analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, A-Xing; Chen, La-Jiao; Qin, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Ping; Liu, Jun-Zhi; Li, Run-Kui; Cai, Qiang-Guo

    2012-07-01

    With the increase of severe soil erosion problem, soil and water conservation has become an urgent concern for sustainable development. Small watershed experimental observation is the traditional paradigm for soil and water control. However, the establishment of experimental watershed usually takes long time, and has the limitations of poor repeatability and high cost. Moreover, the popularization of the results from the experimental watershed is limited for other areas due to the differences in watershed conditions. Therefore, it is not sufficient to completely rely on this old paradigm for soil and water loss control. Recently, scenario analysis based on watershed modeling has been introduced into watershed management, which can provide information about the effectiveness of different management practices based on the quantitative simulation of watershed processes. Because of its merits such as low cost, short period, and high repeatability, scenario analysis shows great potential in aiding the development of watershed management strategy. This paper elaborated a new paradigm using watershed modeling and scenario analysis for soil and water conservation, illustrated this new paradigm through two cases for practical watershed management, and explored the future development of this new soil and water conservation paradigm.

  20. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

  1. Landslides and sediment budgets in four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter F in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    two watersheds underlain by granitic bedrock. In these granitic watersheds, landslide frequency, slopewash, and suspended sediment yield were 0.43 landslides per square kilometer per year, 20 metric tons per square kilometer per year, and 2,140 metric tons per square kilometer per year, respectively, in the forested Icacos watershed and 0.8 landslides per square kilometer per year, 105 metric tons per square kilometer per year, and 2,110 metric tons per square kilometer per year, respectively, in the agriculturally developed Cayaguás watershed. Comparison of sediment budgets from the forested and developed watersheds indicates that human activities increase landslide frequency by as much as factor of 5 and slopewash by as much as a factor of 6. When the difference in annual runoff is considered, the effect of land use on suspended sediment yields is also notable. Sediment concentration, calculated as sediment yield normalized by runoff, was about 2.3 to 3.7 times as great in the two watersheds in secondary forest and pasture compared with sediment concentration in the watersheds in primary forest. Even in the two watersheds with primary forest cover, the Mameyes and Icacos, located in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, the effects of anthropogenic disturbance were marked: 43 to 63 percent of landslide-related erosion was associated with road construction and maintenance.

  2. Watershed Simulation of Nutrient Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this presentation, nitrogen processes simulated in watershed models were reviewed and compared. Furthermore, current researches on nitrogen losses from agricultural fields were also reviewed. Finally, applications with those models were reviewed and selected successful and u...

  3. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  4. Why are there no great women chefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    This article applies the rhetorical and deliberately provocative approach of the watershed essay art historian Linda Nochlin wrote in 1971—“Why Have there Been No Great Women Artists?”—to today's culinary industry. Nochlin used the question her title posed as a theoretical trap that would draw attention not only to the inherent sexism or prejudice that pervades the way the public perceives art, but also to those same issues' existence within and impact on academia and the other cultural institutions responsible for posing these sorts of questions. Nochlin bypassed the obvious and irrelevant debate over women's being less or differently talented and, in so doing, exposed that debate for being a distraction from the heart of the matter: how, sociologically (media) or institutionally (museums, foundations, etc.), people define a “great artist.” Although it's 40 years later, the polemic is as effective when used to understand the gender divide in the food world.

  5. Type and timing of stream flow changes in urbanizing watersheds in the Eastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina G. Hopkins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Linking the type and timing of hydrologic changes with patterns of urban growth is essential to identifying the underlying mechanisms that drive declines in urban aquatic ecosystems. In six urbanizing watersheds surrounding three U.S. cities (Baltimore, MD, Boston, MA, and Pittsburgh, PA, we reconstructed the history of development patterns since 1900 and assessed the magnitude and timing of stream flow changes during watershed development. Development reconstructions indicated that the majority of watershed development occurred during a period of peak population growth, typically between 1950 and 1970. Stream flow records indicated significant increases in annual frequency of high-flow events in all six watersheds and increases in annual runoff efficiency in five watersheds. Annual development intensity during the peak growth period had the strongest association with the magnitude of changes in high-flow frequency from the pre- to post-development periods. Results suggest the timing of the peak growth period is particularly important to understanding hydrologic changes, because it can set the type of stormwater infrastructure installed within a watershed. In three watersheds there was a rapid (∼10-15 years shift toward more frequent high-flow events, and in four watersheds there was a shift toward higher runoff efficiency. Breakpoint analyses indicated these shifts occurred between 1969 and 1976 for high-flow frequency and between 1962 and 1984 for runoff efficiency. Results indicated that the timing of high-flow changes were mainly driven by the development trajectory of each watershed, whereas the timing of runoff-efficiency changes were driven by a combination of development trajectories and extreme weather events. Our results underscore the need to refine the causes of urban stream degradation to incorporate the impact of gradual versus rapid urbanization on hydrologic changes and aquatic ecosystem function, as well as to

  6. Great Basin Research and Management Project: Restoring and maintaining riparian ecosystem integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2000-01-01

    The Great Basin Research and Management Project was initiated in 1994 by the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station’s Ecology, Paleoecology, and Restoration of Great Basin Watersheds Project to address the problems of stream incision and riparian ecosystem degradation in central Nevada. It is a highly interdisciplinary project that is being conducted in...

  7. Application of Watershed Scale Models to Predict Nitrogen Loading From Coastal Plain Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    George M. Chescheir; Glenn P Fernandez; R. Wayne Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya

    2004-01-01

    DRAINMOD-based watershed models have been developed and tested using data collected from an intensively instrumented research site on Kendricks Creek watershed near Plymouth. NC. These models were applied to simulate the hydrology and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) loading from two other watersheds in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, the 11600 ha Chicod Creek watershed...

  8. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and...

  9. DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 02 - HUC 04

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data consists of watershed delineations in one seamless dataset of drainage areas called Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Level 02 Watersheds....

  10. Automatic fuzzy inference system development for marker-based watershed segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M A; Meschino, G J; Ballarin, V L

    2007-01-01

    Texture image segmentation is a constant challenge in digital image processing. The partition of an image into regions that allow the experienced observer to obtain the necessary information can be done using a Mathematical Morphology tool called the Watershed Transform. This transform is able to distinguish extremely complex objects and is easily adaptable to various kinds of images. The success of the Watershed Transform depends essentially on the existence of unequivocal markers for each of the objects of interest. The standard methods for marker detection are highly specific and complex when objects presenting great variability of shape, size and texture are processed. This paper proposes the automatic generation of a fuzzy inference system for marker detection using object selection done by the expert. This method allows applying the Watershed Transform to biomedical images with diferent kinds of texture. The results allow concluding that the method proposed is an effective tool for the application of the Watershed Transform

  11. Cloud GIS Based Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediroğlu, G.; Colak, H. E.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we generated a Cloud GIS based watershed management system with using Cloud Computing architecture. Cloud GIS is used as SAAS (Software as a Service) and DAAS (Data as a Service). We applied GIS analysis on cloud in terms of testing SAAS and deployed GIS datasets on cloud in terms of DAAS. We used Hybrid cloud computing model in manner of using ready web based mapping services hosted on cloud (World Topology, Satellite Imageries). We uploaded to system after creating geodatabases including Hydrology (Rivers, Lakes), Soil Maps, Climate Maps, Rain Maps, Geology and Land Use. Watershed of study area has been determined on cloud using ready-hosted topology maps. After uploading all the datasets to systems, we have applied various GIS analysis and queries. Results shown that Cloud GIS technology brings velocity and efficiency for watershed management studies. Besides this, system can be easily implemented for similar land analysis and management studies.

  12. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  13. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

    2008-02-04

    habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat-forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area

  14. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-04-01

    habitat conditions, and biological integrity. In addition, human land-use impacts are factored into the conceptual model because they can alter habitat quality and can disrupt natural habitat forming processes. In this model (Figure S.1), aquatic habitat--both instream and riparian--is viewed as the link between watershed conditions and biologic responses. Based on this conceptual model, assessment of habitat loss and the resultant declines in salmonid populations can be conducted by relating current and historical (e.g., natural) habitat conditions to salmonid utilization, diversity, and abundance. In addition, assessing disrupted ecosystem functions and processes within the watershed can aid in identifying the causes of habitat change and the associated decline in biological integrity. In this same way, restoration, enhancement, and conservation projects can be identified and prioritized. A watershed assessment is primarily a landscape-scale evaluation of current watershed conditions and the associated hydrogeomorphic riverine processes. The watershed assessment conducted for this project focused on watershed processes that form and maintain salmonid habitat. Landscape metrics describing the level of human alteration of natural ecosystem attributes were used as indicators of water quality, hydrology, channel geomorphology, instream habitat, and biotic integrity. Ecological (watershed) processes are related to and can be predicted based on specific aspects of spatial pattern. This study evaluated the hydrologic regime, sediment delivery regime, and riparian condition of the sub-watersheds that comprise the upper Grays River watershed relative to their natural range of conditions. Analyses relied primarily on available geographic information system (GIS) data describing landscape characteristics such as climate, vegetation type and maturity, geology and soils, topography, land use, and road density. In addition to watershed-scale landscape characteristics, the study area

  15. Watershed Education for Broadcast Meteorologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamos, J. P.; Sliter, D.; Espinoza, S.; Spangler, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    The National Environmental Education and Training Organization (NEETF) published a report in 2005 that summarized the findings of ten years of NEETF and Roper Research. The report stated, "Our years of data from Roper surveys show a persistent pattern of environmental ignorance even among the most educated and influential members of society." Market research has also shown that 80% of television viewers list the weather as the primary reason for watching the local news. Broadcast meteorologists, with a broader understanding of environmental and related sciences have an opportunity to use their weathercasts to inform the public about the environment and the factors that influence environmental health. As "station scientists," broadcast meteorologists can use the weather, and people's connection to it, to broaden their understanding of the environment they live in. Weather and watershed conditions associated with flooding and drought have major human and environmental impacts. Increasing the awareness of the general public about basic aspects of the hydrologic landscape can be an important part of mitigating the adverse effects of too much or too little precipitation, and of protecting the environment as well. The concept of a watershed as a person's natural neighborhood is a very important one for understanding hydrologic and environmental issues. Everyone lives in a watershed, and the health of a watershed is the result of the interplay between weather and human activity. This paper describes an online course to give broadcast meteorologists a basic understanding of watersheds and how watersheds are impacted by weather. It discusses how to convey watershed science to a media- savvy audience as well as how to model the communication of watershed and hydrologic concepts to the public. The course uses a narrative, story-like style to present its content. It is organized into six short units of instruction, each approximately 20 minutes in duration. Each unit is

  16. Chapter 19. Cumulative watershed effects and watershed analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid

    1998-01-01

    Cumulative watershed effects are environmental changes that are affected by more than.one land-use activity and that are influenced by.processes involving the generation or transport.of water. Almost all environmental changes are.cumulative effects, and almost all land-use.activities contribute to cumulative effects

  17. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  18. Multiagent distributed watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Amigoni, F.; Cai, X.

    2012-04-01

    Deregulation and democratization of water along with increasing environmental awareness are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional centralized approach to water management, as described in much of water resources literature, is often unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts. Thus it should be reconsidered from a more realistic and distributed perspective, in order to account for the presence of multiple and often independent Decision Makers (DMs) and many conflicting stakeholders. Game theory based approaches are often used to study these situations of conflict (Madani, 2010), but they are limited to a descriptive perspective. Multiagent systems (see Wooldridge, 2009), instead, seem to be a more suitable paradigm because they naturally allow to represent a set of self-interested agents (DMs and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision process at the agent level, resulting in a promising compromise alternative between the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. Casting a water management problem in a multiagent framework allows to exploit the techniques and methods that are already available in this field for solving distributed optimization problems. In particular, in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems (DCSP, see Yokoo et al., 2000), each agent controls some variables according to his own utility function but has to satisfy inter-agent constraints; while in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOP, see Modi et al., 2005), the problem is generalized by introducing a global objective function to be optimized that requires a coordination mechanism between the agents. In this work, we apply a DCSP-DCOP based approach to model a steady state hypothetical watershed management problem (Yang et al., 2009), involving several active human agents (i.e. agents who make decisions) and reactive ecological agents (i.e. agents representing

  19. Assessment of nitrate export from a high elevation watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, E.M.; Nodvin, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Nitrate leaching from forest soils can be detrimental to both the forest ecosystems and stream water quality. Nitrate moving through the soil transports plant nutrients and acidifying agents, hydrogen and aluminum, and can export them to streams. In the high elevation spruce-fir forests in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) nitrate has been found to be leaching from the rooting zone. Streams associated with these ecosystems are poorly buffered. Therefore rapid export of nitrate from the soils to the streams could lead to episodic acidification. The purpose of the Noland Divide watershed study is to assess the levels of nitrate export from the watershed to the streams and the potential impacts of the export to the ecosystem

  20. Water cycle observations in forest watersheds of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, A.; Tamai, K.; Kabeya, N.; Shimizu, T.; Iida, S. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Mekong River flows through Cambodia, where forests cover ~60% of the country and are believed to have a marked effect on the water cycle. These tropical seasonal forests in the Cambodian flat lands are very precious in the Indochinese Peninsula as few forests of this type remain. However, few hydrological observations have been conducted in these areas. In Cambodia, deciduous and evergreen forests make up 42% and 33% of the total forest area, respectively. We established experimental watersheds both in deciduous and evergreen forests containing meteorological observation towers in Cambodia and collected various observational data since 2003 (O'Krieng, deciduous forest watershed including a 30-m-high observation tower, 2,245 km2; Stung Chinit, evergreen forest watershed including a 60-m-high observation tower, 3,700 km2 including three small watersheds). The basic data from these sites included various kinds of information related to the composition of vegetation, soil characteristics, etc. Hydrologic data was collected and linked to the above data; the main hydrologic research results follow. The water budget for each watershed was determined using an observational rainfall and runoff dataset. The evapotranspiration rate in an evergreen forest was obtained using various observational methods including the Bowen energy-balance ratio and the bandpass eddy covariance method. The annual evapotranspiration of evergreen forests, estimated using the Bowen energy-balance ratio method and water balance, was about 1100-1200 mm, corresponding to 70-80% of annual rainfall. While considering the importance of the presence of evergreen forest, we conducted sap flow measurements to analyze the transpiration process that maintains water uptake through root systems that reach to depths exceeding 8 m. Characteristics of the evaporation from the forest floor that form an important element of the evaporation system were estimated in both evergreen and deciduous forests.

  1. Evapotranspiration from two peatland watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger R. Bay

    1968-01-01

    Measurements of precipitation, runoff, and bog water table levels have provided data for the calculation of evapotranspiration from two forested peatland watersheds near Grand Rapids, Minnesota (ca. 47? 32'N, 93? 28'W). Continuous hydrologie records were collected on one experimental bog for 6 years (1961-1966) and on the other for the past 2 years (1965-1966...

  2. Some references on watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.E. Bullard

    1950-01-01

    Several of you in the field administrative jobs have asked for a summary of available information from forest influences studies relating to watershed management practices. This paper hits some of the high spots, giving a brief survey of European and American studies and recommendations that may be applicable within our region. Further, it contains a few pertinent...

  3. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  4. The Next Great Generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ideas from a new book, "Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation," (by Neil Howe and William Strauss) suggesting that youth culture is on the cusp of a radical shift with the generation beginning with this year's college freshmen who are typically team oriented, optimistic, and poised for greatness on a global scale. Includes a…

  5. Modeling urbanized watershed flood response changes with distributed hydrological model: key hydrological processes, parameterization and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Urbanization is the world development trend for the past century, and the developing countries have been experiencing much rapider urbanization in the past decades. Urbanization brings many benefits to human beings, but also causes negative impacts, such as increasing flood risk. Impact of urbanization on flood response has long been observed, but quantitatively studying this effect still faces great challenges. For example, setting up an appropriate hydrological model representing the changed flood responses and determining accurate model parameters are very difficult in the urbanized or urbanizing watershed. In the Pearl River Delta area, rapidest urbanization has been observed in China for the past decades, and dozens of highly urbanized watersheds have been appeared. In this study, a physically based distributed watershed hydrological model, the Liuxihe model is employed and revised to simulate the hydrological processes of the highly urbanized watershed flood in the Pearl River Delta area. A virtual soil type is then defined in the terrain properties dataset, and its runoff production and routing algorithms are added to the Liuxihe model. Based on a parameter sensitive analysis, the key hydrological processes of a highly urbanized watershed is proposed, that provides insight into the hydrological processes and for parameter optimization. Based on the above analysis, the model is set up in the Songmushan watershed where there is hydrological data observation. A model parameter optimization and updating strategy is proposed based on the remotely sensed LUC types, which optimizes model parameters with PSO algorithm and updates them based on the changed LUC types. The model parameters in Songmushan watershed are regionalized at the Pearl River Delta area watersheds based on the LUC types of the other watersheds. A dozen watersheds in the highly urbanized area of Dongguan City in the Pearl River Delta area were studied for the flood response changes due to

  6. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakaran, A. D.; Williams, T. M.; Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Song, B.; Trettin, C. C.

    2014-03-01

    Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal South Carolina watersheds in terms of streamflow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a reversal in relative streamflow difference between two paired watersheds, and to examine the selective impacts of a hurricane on the vegetative composition of the forest. We related these impacts to their potential contribution to change watershed hydrology through altered evapotranspiration processes. Using over 30 years of monthly rainfall and streamflow data we showed that there was a significant transformation in the hydrologic character of the two watersheds - a transformation that occurred soon after the hurricane's passage. We linked the change in the rainfall-runoff relationship to a catastrophic change in forest vegetation due to selective hurricane damage. While both watersheds were located in the path of the hurricane, extant forest structure varied between the two watersheds as a function of experimental forest management techniques on the treatment watershed. We showed that the primary damage was to older pines, and to some extent larger hardwood trees. We believe that lowered vegetative water use impacted both watersheds with increased outflows on both watersheds due to loss of trees following hurricane impact. However, one watershed was able to recover to pre hurricane levels of evapotranspiration at a quicker rate due to the greater abundance of pine seedlings and saplings in that watershed.

  7. Watershed System Model: The Essentials to Model Complex Human-Nature System at the River Basin Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Cheng, Guodong; Lin, Hui; Cai, Ximing; Fang, Miao; Ge, Yingchun; Hu, Xiaoli; Chen, Min; Li, Weiyue

    2018-03-01

    Watershed system models are urgently needed to understand complex watershed systems and to support integrated river basin management. Early watershed modeling efforts focused on the representation of hydrologic processes, while the next-generation watershed models should represent the coevolution of the water-land-air-plant-human nexus in a watershed and provide capability of decision-making support. We propose a new modeling framework and discuss the know-how approach to incorporate emerging knowledge into integrated models through data exchange interfaces. We argue that the modeling environment is a useful tool to enable effective model integration, as well as create domain-specific models of river basin systems. The grand challenges in developing next-generation watershed system models include but are not limited to providing an overarching framework for linking natural and social sciences, building a scientifically based decision support system, quantifying and controlling uncertainties, and taking advantage of new technologies and new findings in the various disciplines of watershed science. The eventual goal is to build transdisciplinary, scientifically sound, and scale-explicit watershed system models that are to be codesigned by multidisciplinary communities.

  8. Implementation of retrofit best management practices in a suburban watershed (Cincinnati OH) via economic incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is great potential for managing stormwater runoff quantity; however, implementation in already-developed areas remains a challenge. We assess the viability of economic incentives to place best management practices (BMPs) on parcels in a 1.8 km2 suburban watershed near Cinci...

  9. Statistically extracted fundamental watershed variables for estimating the loads of total nitrogen in small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholm, Scott C.; Capel, Paul D.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of total nitrogen loads is essential for evaluating conditions in the aquatic environment. Extrapolation of estimates beyond measured streams will greatly expand our understanding of total nitrogen loading to streams. Recursive partitioning and random forest regression were used to assess 85 geospatial, environmental, and watershed variables across 636 small (monitoring may be beneficial.

  10. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  11. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  12. Watershed Fact Sheet: Improving Utah's Water Quality, Upper Bear River Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Extension, USU

    2012-01-01

    The Upper Watershed of the Bear River Basin extends from the river's headwaters to Pixley Dam in Wyoming. This is the largest watershed in the Bear River Basin, with an area of about 2,000 square miles.

  13. A simple metric to predict stream water quality from storm runoff in an urban watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Zachary M; Sullivan, Patrick J; Walter, M Todd; Fuka, Daniel R; Petrovic, A Martin; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of runoff from various land uses to stream channels in a watershed is often speculated and used to underpin many model predictions. However, these contributions, often based on little or no measurements in the watershed, fail to appropriately consider the influence of the hydrologic location of a particular landscape unit in relation to the stream network. A simple model was developed to predict storm runoff and the phosphorus (P) status of a perennial stream in an urban watershed in New York State using the covariance structure of runoff from different landscape units in the watershed to predict runoff in time. One hundred and twenty-seven storm events were divided into parameterization (n = 85) and forecasting (n = 42) data sets. Runoff, dissolved P (DP), and total P (TP) were measured at nine sites distributed among three land uses (high maintenance, unmaintained, wooded), three positions in the watershed (near the outlet, midwatershed, upper watershed), and in the stream at the watershed outlet. The autocorrelation among runoff and P concentrations from the watershed landscape units (n = 9) and the covariance between measurements from the landscape units and measurements from the stream were calculated and used to predict the stream response. Models, validated using leave-one-out cross-validation and a forecasting method, were able to correctly capture temporal trends in streamflow and stream P chemistry (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies, 0.49-0.88). The analysis suggests that the covariance structure was consistent for all models, indicating that the physical processes governing runoff and P loss from these landscape units were stationary in time and that landscapes located in hydraulically active areas have a direct hydraulic link to the stream. This methodology provides insight into the impact of various urban landscape units on stream water quantity and quality.

  14. DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Watershed Hydrology - UAV Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, S. D.; Baruah, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States, with a watershed extending through six states and the nation's capital. Urbanization and agriculture practices have led to an excess runoff of nutrients and sediment into the bay. Nutrients and sediment loading stimulate the growth of algal blooms associated with various problems including localized dissolved oxygen deficiencies, toxic algal blooms and death of marine life. The Chesapeake Bay Program, among other stakeholder organizations, contributes greatly to the restoration efforts of the Chesapeake Bay. These stakeholders contribute in many ways such as monitoring the water quality, leading clean-up projects, and actively restoring native habitats. The first stage of the DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Coastal Management project, relating to water quality, contributed to the restoration efforts by introducing NASA satellite-based water quality data products to the stakeholders as a complement to their current monitoring methods. The second stage, to be initiated in the fall 2008 internship term, will focus on the impacts of land cover variability within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Multiple student led discussions with members of the Land Cover team at the Chesapeake Bay Program Office in the DEVELOP GSFC 2008 summer term uncovered the need for remote sensing data for hydrological mapping in the watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Program expressed in repeated discussions on Land Cover mapping that significant portions of upper river areas, streams, and the land directly interfacing those waters are not accurately depicted in the watershed model. Without such hydrological mapping correlated with land cover data the model will not be useful in depicting source areas of nutrient loading which has an ecological and economic impact in and around the Chesapeake Bay. The fall 2008 DEVELOP team will examine the use of UAV flown sensors in connection with in-situ and Earth Observation satellite data. To maximize the

  15. Modeling soil erosion in a watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Lanuza, R.

    1999-01-01

    Most erosion models have been developed based on a plot scale and have limited application to a watershed due to the differences in aerial scale. In order to address this limitation, a GIS-assisted methodology for modeling soil erosion was developed using PCRaster to predict the rate of soil erosion at watershed level; identify the location of erosion prone areas; and analyze the impact of landuse changes on soil erosion. The general methodology of desktop modeling or soil erosion at watershe...

  16. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  17. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v3: Theoretical Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that facilitates integrated water management at the local or small watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed context, accounting fo...

  18. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  19. The GREAT3 challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, H; Mandelbaum, R; Rowe, B

    2014-01-01

    The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 3 (GREAT3) challenge is an image analysis competition that aims to test algorithms to measure weak gravitational lensing from astronomical images. The challenge started in October 2013 and ends 30 April 2014. The challenge focuses on testing the impact on weak lensing measurements of realistically complex galaxy morphologies, realistic point spread function, and combination of multiple different exposures. It includes simulated ground- and space-based data. The details of the challenge are described in [1], and the challenge website and its leader board can be found at http://great3challenge.info and http://great3.projects.phys.ucl.ac.uk/leaderboard/, respectively

  20. Water and Poverty in Two Colombian Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Johnson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Watersheds, especially in the developing world, are increasingly being managed for both environmental conservation and poverty alleviation. How complementary are these objectives? In the context of a watershed, the actual and potential linkages between land and water management and poverty are complex and likely to be very site specific and scale dependent. This study analyses the importance of watershed resources in the livelihoods of the poor in two watersheds in the Colombian Andes. Results of the participatory poverty assessment reveal significant decreases in poverty in both watersheds over the past 25 years, which was largely achieved by the diversification of livelihoods outside of agriculture. Water is an important resource for household welfare. However, opportunities for reducing poverty by increasing the quantity or quality of water available to the poor may be limited. While improved watershed management may have limited direct benefits in terms of poverty alleviation, there are important indirect linkages between watershed management and poverty, mainly through labour and service markets. The results suggest that at the level of the watershed the interests of the rich and the poor are not always in conflict over water. Sectoral as well as socio-economic differences define stakeholder groups in watershed management. The findings have implications for policymakers, planners and practitioners in various sectors involved in the implementation of integrated water resources management (IWRM.

  1. Nothing Great Is Easy

    OpenAIRE

    Stansbie, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    A solo exhibition of 13 pieces of art work.\\ud \\ud Nothing Great is Easy is an exhibition of sculpture, film, drawing and photography that proposes reconstructed narratives using the sport of swimming and in particular the collective interaction and identity of the channel swimmer. The work utilises the processes, rituals/rules, language and the apparatus of sport.\\ud \\ud “Nothing great is easy” are the words on the memorial to Captain Matthew Webb who was the first man to swim the English ch...

  2. Classification of the Relationship between Household Welfare and Ecosystem Reliance in the Miyun Reservoir Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchun Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Household welfare is inseparable from the environment because of its dependence on ecosystems and their services. However, linking household welfare and ecosystems in order to inform differentiated household livelihood development in spatially heterogeneous regions is still a great challenge. Based on a field survey of 1754 households, we grouped the relationships between household welfare (defined by total income and ecosystem reliance (expressed by an index of dependence on ecosystem services in the Watershed of Miyun Reservoir, the only source of surface water for domestic use in Beijing, China. The relationships can be grouped into four types: high welfare and high dependency; low welfare and low dependency; high welfare and low dependence; and low welfare and high dependency. Family structure, households’ education and skill level, and the proximity to Beijing have significant impacts on household welfare, while the quantity of natural capital and eco-compensation fund significantly contribute to the ecosystem dependence. Maintaining suitable family size and age structure, improving education and skill levels, and strengthening payment for ecosystem services within low welfare households would be effective approaches to their welfare improvement. The above classification can help design tailored policy and management options to promote sustainable livelihoods based on different household subgroups.

  3. The Great Hedge of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxham, Roy

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great Hedge of India', a 3 700 kilometre-long hedge installed by the British customs to safeguard the colonial salt tax system and avoid salt smuggling totally faded from both memory and records (e.g. maps) in less than a century. Roy Moxham found traces of the hedge in a book footnote and searched it for several years until he found its meagre remains. The speaker wrote a book about this quest. He said that this story reveals how things disappear when they are no longer useful and, especially, when they are linked to parts of history that are not deemed particularly positive (the hedge was a means of colonial power)

  4. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  5. The Great Mathematician Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Sabrina R.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Mathematician Project (GMP) introduces both mathematically sophisticated and struggling students to the history of mathematics. The rationale for the GMP is twofold: first, mathematics is a uniquely people-centered discipline that is used to make sense of the world; and second, students often express curiosity about the history of…

  6. What great managers do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Much has been written about the qualities that make a great manager, but most of the literature overlooks a fundamental question: What does a great manager actually do? While there are countless management styles, one thing underpins the behavior of all great managers. Above all, an exceptional manager comes to know and value the particular quirks and abilities of her employees. She figures out how to capitalize on her staffers' strengths and tweaks her environment to meet her larger goals. Such a specialized approach may seem like a lot of work. But in fact, capitalizing on each person's uniqueness can save time. Rather than encourage employees to conform to strict job descriptions that may include tasks they don't enjoy and aren't good at, a manager who develops positions for his staff members based on their unique abilities will be rewarded with behaviors that are far more efficient and effective than they would be otherwise. This focus on individuals also makes employees more accountable. Because staffers are evaluated on their particular strengths and weaknesses, they are challenged to take responsibility for their abilities and to hone them. Capitalizing on a person's uniqueness also builds a stronger sense of team. By taking the time to understand what makes each employee tick, a great manager shows that he sees his people for who they are. This personal investment not only motivates individuals but also galvanizes the entire team. Finally, this approach shakes up existing hierarchies, which leads to more creative thinking. To take great managing from theory to practice, the author says, you must know three things about a person: her strengths, the triggers that activate those strengths, and how she learns. By asking the right questions, squeezing the right triggers, and becoming aware of your employees' learning styles, you will discover what motivates each person to excel.

  7. The Applications of GIS in the Analysis of the Impacts of Human Activities on South Texas Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Richardson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With water resource planning assuming greater importance in environmental protection efforts, analyzing the health of agricultural watersheds using Geographic Information Systems (GIS becomes essential for decision-makers in Southern Texas. Within the area, there exist numerous threats from conflicting land uses. These include the conversion of land formerly designated for agricultural purposes to other uses. Despite current efforts, anthropogenic factors are greatly contributing to the degradation of watersheds. Additionally, the activities of waste water facilities located in some of the counties, rising populations, and other socioeconomic variables are negatively impacting the quality of water in the agricultural watersheds. To map the location of these stressors spatially and the extent of their impacts across time, the paper adopts a mix scale method of temporal spatial analysis consisting of simple descriptive statistics. In terms of objectives, this research provides geo-spatial analysis of the effects of human activities on agricultural watersheds in Southern Texas and the factors fuelling the concerns under the purview of watershed management. The results point to growing ecosystem decline across time and a geographic cluster of counties experiencing environmental stress. Accordingly, the emergence of stressors such as rising population, increased use of fertilizer treatments on farm land, discharges of atmospheric pollutants and the large presence of municipal and industrial waste treatment facilities emitting pathogens and pesticides directly into the agricultural watersheds pose a growing threat to the quality of the watershed ecosystem.

  8. Precipitation Dynamical Downscaling Over the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Ming; McPherson, Renee A.; Martin, Elinor; Rosendahl, Derek H.; Qiao, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, regional climate projections, particularly for precipitation, are critical for many applications. Accurate precipitation downscaling in the United States Great Plains remains a great challenge for most Regional Climate Models, particularly for warm months. Most previous dynamic downscaling simulations significantly underestimate warm-season precipitation in the region. This study aims to achieve a better precipitation downscaling in the Great Plains with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. To this end, WRF simulations with different physics schemes and nudging strategies are first conducted for a representative warm season. Results show that different cumulus schemes lead to more pronounced difference in simulated precipitation than other tested physics schemes. Simply choosing different physics schemes is not enough to alleviate the dry bias over the southern Great Plains, which is related to an anticyclonic circulation anomaly over the central and western parts of continental U.S. in the simulations. Spectral nudging emerges as an effective solution for alleviating the precipitation bias. Spectral nudging ensures that large and synoptic-scale circulations are faithfully reproduced while still allowing WRF to develop small-scale dynamics, thus effectively suppressing the large-scale circulation anomaly in the downscaling. As a result, a better precipitation downscaling is achieved. With the carefully validated configurations, WRF downscaling is conducted for 1980-2015. The downscaling captures well the spatial distribution of monthly climatology precipitation and the monthly/yearly variability, showing improvement over at least two previously published precipitation downscaling studies. With the improved precipitation downscaling, a better hydrological simulation over the trans-state Oologah watershed is also achieved.

  9. MANAGING AND RESTORING UPLAND RIPARIAN MEADOWS IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian meadow ecosystems in upland watersheds are of local and regional importance in the Great Basin. Covering only 1-3% of the total land area, these ecosystems contain a disproportionally large percentage of the region's biodiversity. Stream incision, due to natural and anth...

  10. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also

  11. Great magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Yen Te Lee; Tang, F.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    The five largest magnetic storms that occurred between 1971 and 1986 are studied to determine their solar and interplanetary causes. All of the events are found to be associated with high speed solar wind streams led by collisionless shocks. The high speed streams are clearly related to identifiable solar flares. It is found that (1) it is the extreme values of the southward interplanetary magnetic fields rather than solar wind speeds that are the primary causes of great magnetic storms, (2) shocked and draped sheath fields preceding the driver gas (magnetic cloud) are at least as effective in causing the onset of great magnetic storms (3 of 5 events ) as the strong fields within the driver gas itself, and (3) precursor southward fields ahead of the high speed streams allow the shock compression mechanism (item 2) to be particularly geoeffective

  12. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  13. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion...

  14. Watershed Scale Impacts of Stormwater Green Infrastructure ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the increasing use of urban stormwater green infrastructure (SGI), including detention ponds and rain gardens, few studies have quantified the cumulative effects of multiple SGI projects on hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale. To assess the effects of SGI, Baltimore County, MD, Montgomery County, MD, and Washington, DC, were selected based on the availability of data on SGI, water quality, and stream flow. The watershed scale impact of SGI was evaluated by assessing how increased spatial density of SGI correlates with stream hydrology and nitrogen exports over space and time. The most common SGI types were detention ponds (58%), followed by marshes (12%), sand filters (9%), wet ponds (7%), infiltration trenches (4%), and rain gardens (2%). When controlling for watersheds size and percent impervious surface cover, watersheds with greater amounts of SGI (>10% SGI) have 44% lower peak runoff, 26% less frequent runoff events, and 26% less variable runoff than watersheds with lower SGI. Watersheds with more SGI also show 44% less NO3− and 48% less total nitrogen exports compared to watersheds with minimal SGI. There was no significant reduction in combined sewer overflows in watersheds with greater SGI. Based on specific SGI types, infiltration trenches (R2 = 0.35) showed the strongest correlation with hydrologic metrics, likely due to their ability to attenuate flow, while bioretention (R2 = 0.19) and wet ponds (R2 = 0.12) showed stronger

  15. 5. Basin assessment and watershed analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1994-01-01

    Abstract - Basin assessment is an important component of the President's Forest Plan, yet it has received little attention. Basin assessments are intended both to guide watershed analyses by specifying types of issues and interactions that need to be understood, and, eventually, to integrate the results of watershed analyses occurring within a river basin....

  16. Subdivision of Texas watersheds for hydrologic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a set of findings and examples for subdivision of watersheds for hydrologic modeling. Three approaches were used to examine the impact of watershed subdivision on modeled hydrologic response: (1) An equal-area...

  17. Applying soil property information for watershed assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, V.; Mayn, C.; Brown, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Forest Service uses a priority watershed scheme to guide where to direct watershed restoration work. Initial assessment was done across the nation following the watershed condition framework process. This assessment method uses soils information for a three step ranking across each 12 code hydrologic unit; however, the soil information used in the assessment may not provide adequate detail to guide work on the ground. Modern remote sensing information and terrain derivatives that model the environmental gradients hold promise of showing the influence of soil forming factors on watershed processes. These small scale data products enable the disaggregation of coarse scale soils mapping to show continuous soil property information across a watershed. When this information is coupled with the geomorphic and geologic information, watershed specialists can more aptly understand the controlling influences of drainage within watersheds and focus on where watershed restoration projects can have the most success. A case study on the application of this work shows where road restoration may be most effective.

  18. Turbidity Threshold sampling in watershed research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand Eads; Jack Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - When monitoring suspended sediment for watershed research, reliable and accurate results may be a higher priority than in other settings. Timing and frequency of data collection are the most important factors influencing the accuracy of suspended sediment load estimates, and, in most watersheds, suspended sediment transport is dominated by a few, large...

  19. Segmentation by watersheds : definition and parallel implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Meijster, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    The watershed algorithm is a method for image segmentation widely used in the area of mathematical morphology. In this paper we first address the problem of how to define watersheds. It is pointed out that various existing definitions are not equivalent. In particular we explain the differences

  20. Geology of the Teakettle Creek watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. LaMotte

    1937-01-01

    The Teakettle Creek Experimental Watersheds lie for the most part on quartzites of probable Triassic age. However one of the triplicate drainages has a considerable acreage developed on weathered granodiorite. Topography is relatively uniform and lends itself to triplicate watershed studies. Locations for dams are suitable if certain engineering precautions...

  1. Watershed Management: Lessons from Common Property Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kerr

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Watershed development is an important component of rural development and natural resource management strategies in many countries. A watershed is a special kind of common pool resource: an area defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinated use of natural resources by all users. Management is difficult because natural resources comprising the watershed system have multiple, conflicting uses, so any given management approach will spread benefits and costs unevenly among users. To address these challenges, watershed approaches have evolved from more technocratic to a greater focus on social organization and participation. However, the latter cannot necessarily be widely replicated. In addition, participatory approaches have worked better at a small scale, but hydrological relationships cover a larger scale and some projects have faced tradeoffs in choosing between the two. Optimal approaches for future efforts are not clear, and theories from common property research do not support the idea that complex watershed management can succeed everywhere. Solutions may include simplifying watershed projects, pursuing watershed projects where conditions are favorable, and making other investments elsewhere, including building the organizational capacity that can facilitate watershed management.

  2. Cumulative watershed effects: a research perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1989-01-01

    A cumulative watershed effect (CWE) is any response to multiple land-use activities that is caused by, or results in, altered watershed function. The CWE issue is politically defined, as is the significance of particular impacts. But the processes generating CWEs are the traditional focus of geomorphology and ecology, and have thus been studied for decades. The CWE...

  3. The great intimidators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2006-02-01

    After Disney's Michael Eisner, Miramax's Harvey Weinstein, and Hewlett-Packard's Carly Fiorina fell from their heights of power, the business media quickly proclaimed thatthe reign of abrasive, intimidating leaders was over. However, it's premature to proclaim their extinction. Many great intimidators have done fine for a long time and continue to thrive. Their modus operandi runs counter to a lot of preconceptions about what it takes to be a good leader. They're rough, loud, and in your face. Their tactics include invading others' personal space, staging tantrums, keeping people guessing, and possessing an indisputable command of facts. But make no mistake--great intimidators are not your typical bullies. They're driven by vision, not by sheer ego or malice. Beneath their tough exteriors and sharp edges are some genuine, deep insights into human motivation and organizational behavior. Indeed, these leaders possess political intelligence, which can make the difference between paralysis and successful--if sometimes wrenching--organizational change. Like socially intelligent leaders, politically intelligent leaders are adept at sizing up others, but they notice different things. Those with social intelligence assess people's strengths and figure out how to leverage them; those with political intelligence exploit people's weaknesses and insecurities. Despite all the obvious drawbacks of working under them, great intimidators often attract the best and brightest. And their appeal goes beyond their ability to inspire high performance. Many accomplished professionals who gravitate toward these leaders want to cultivate a little "inner intimidator" of their own. In the author's research, quite a few individuals reported having positive relationships with intimidating leaders. In fact, some described these relationships as profoundly educational and even transformational. So before we throw out all the great intimidators, the author argues, we should stop to consider what

  4. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  5. Payments for watershed services: opportunities and realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Ivan

    2007-08-15

    Many nations have found that regulatory approaches to land and water management have limited impact. An alternative is to create incentives for sound management - under mechanisms known as payments for ecosystem services. It is a simple idea: people who look after ecosystems that benefit others should be recognised and rewarded. In the case of watersheds, downstream beneficiaries of wise upstream land and water use should compensate the stewards. To be effective these 'payments for watershed services' must cover the cost of watershed management. In developing countries, they might also aid local development and reduce poverty. But new research shows that the problems in watersheds are complex and not easily solved. Payments for watershed services do not guarantee poverty reduction and cannot replace the best aspects of regulation.

  6. Land cover change of watersheds in Southern Guam from 1973 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuming; Khosrowpanah, Shahram; Heitz, Leroy

    2011-08-01

    Land cover change can be caused by human-induced activities and natural forces. Land cover change in watershed level has been a main concern for a long time in the world since watersheds play an important role in our life and environment. This paper is focused on how to apply Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) satellite image of 1973 and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite image of 2001 to determine the land cover changes of coastal watersheds from 1973 to 2001. GIS and remote sensing are integrated to derive land cover information from Landsat satellite images of 1973 and 2001. The land cover classification is based on supervised classification method in remote sensing software ERDAS IMAGINE. Historical GIS data is used to replace the areas covered by clouds or shadows in the image of 1973 to improve classification accuracy. Then, temporal land cover is utilized to determine land cover change of coastal watersheds in southern Guam. The overall classification accuracies for Landsat MSS image of 1973 and Landsat TM image of 2001 are 82.74% and 90.42%, respectively. The overall classification of Landsat MSS image is particularly satisfactory considering its coarse spatial resolution and relatively bad data quality because of lots of clouds and shadows in the image. Watershed land cover change in southern Guam is affected greatly by anthropogenic activities. However, natural forces also affect land cover in space and time. Land cover information and change in watersheds can be applied for watershed management and planning, and environmental modeling and assessment. Based on spatio-temporal land cover information, the interaction behavior between human and environment may be evaluated. The findings in this research will be useful to similar research in other tropical islands.

  7. Smart markers for watershed-based cell segmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Fahrettin Koyuncu

    Full Text Available Automated cell imaging systems facilitate fast and reliable analysis of biological events at the cellular level. In these systems, the first step is usually cell segmentation that greatly affects the success of the subsequent system steps. On the other hand, similar to other image segmentation problems, cell segmentation is an ill-posed problem that typically necessitates the use of domain-specific knowledge to obtain successful segmentations even by human subjects. The approaches that can incorporate this knowledge into their segmentation algorithms have potential to greatly improve segmentation results. In this work, we propose a new approach for the effective segmentation of live cells from phase contrast microscopy. This approach introduces a new set of "smart markers" for a marker-controlled watershed algorithm, for which the identification of its markers is critical. The proposed approach relies on using domain-specific knowledge, in the form of visual characteristics of the cells, to define the markers. We evaluate our approach on a total of 1,954 cells. The experimental results demonstrate that this approach, which uses the proposed definition of smart markers, is quite effective in identifying better markers compared to its counterparts. This will, in turn, be effective in improving the segmentation performance of a marker-controlled watershed algorithm.

  8. Smart markers for watershed-based cell segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Can Fahrettin; Arslan, Salim; Durmaz, Irem; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2012-01-01

    Automated cell imaging systems facilitate fast and reliable analysis of biological events at the cellular level. In these systems, the first step is usually cell segmentation that greatly affects the success of the subsequent system steps. On the other hand, similar to other image segmentation problems, cell segmentation is an ill-posed problem that typically necessitates the use of domain-specific knowledge to obtain successful segmentations even by human subjects. The approaches that can incorporate this knowledge into their segmentation algorithms have potential to greatly improve segmentation results. In this work, we propose a new approach for the effective segmentation of live cells from phase contrast microscopy. This approach introduces a new set of "smart markers" for a marker-controlled watershed algorithm, for which the identification of its markers is critical. The proposed approach relies on using domain-specific knowledge, in the form of visual characteristics of the cells, to define the markers. We evaluate our approach on a total of 1,954 cells. The experimental results demonstrate that this approach, which uses the proposed definition of smart markers, is quite effective in identifying better markers compared to its counterparts. This will, in turn, be effective in improving the segmentation performance of a marker-controlled watershed algorithm.

  9. Hydrological and biogeochemical investigation of an agricultural watershed, southeast New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. M.; McDowell, W. H.; Campbell, J. E.; Hristov, A. N.

    2010-12-01

    Developing sustainable agricultural practices and policies requires an understanding of the hydrological and biological processes that control nutrient fluxes and how those processes are manifested in nutrient loading of surface water bodies. Groundwater and surface water from the UNH Organic Research Dairy, located in southeast New Hampshire, flow into the Lamprey River and then into the Great Bay, New Hampshire; both are experiencing increasing nutrient loads. The farm hosts approximately 80 Jersey cows (40 milking) and is located on relatively thin (pastures has been underway since June 2009. A three-dimensional transient unsaturated-saturated groundwater flow model was developed using LIDAR topography and detailed field mapping. The transient model was calibrated to observed water level and streamflow observations. Model results suggest that summer recharge rates vary considerably across the site and depth to the water table is the dominant control on the recharge flux. Areas having depth to water of 1-2 m experience the greatest recharge (up to 60% of precipitation). Areas with deeper water tables experience greater evapotranspiration from the vadose zone, and shallower water tables experience greater runoff. Water budget calculations suggest that the hydrologic fluxes occur predominately in the shallow groundwater, wetlands, and small surface streams draining the watershed. High dissolved nitrogen (N) concentrations (up to an average concentration of 35 mg N/L) are observed in groundwater immediately downgradient from the main farm operation and decrease more than an order of magnitude along the flowpaths. However, Nitrogen-15 concentrations do not change appreciably along flowpaths, suggesting that reductions in N concentrations are primarily due to dilution rather than denitrification. Our overall objective is to understand how farm hydrology and biogeochemistry are linked to farm management. Our understanding of biophysical feedbacks and functional links

  10. Influence of Physiochemical and watershed characteristics on mercury concentration in walleye, Sander vitreus, M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Cari-Ann; Chipps, Steven R.; Stone, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated mercury concentration has been documented in a variety of fish and is a growing concern for human consumption. Here, we explore the influence of physiochemical and watershed attributes on mercury concentration in walleye (Sander vitreus, M.) from natural, glacial lakes in South Dakota. Regression analysis showed that water quality attributes were poor predictors of walleye mercury concentration (R2 = 0.57, p = 0.13). In contrast, models based on watershed features (e.g., lake level changes, watershed slope, agricultural land, wetlands) and local habitat features (i.e., substrate composition, maximum lake depth) explained 81% (p = 0.001) and 80% (p = 0.002) of the variation in walleye mercury concentration. Using an information theoretic approach we evaluated hypotheses related to water quality, physical habitat and watershed features. The best model explaining variation in walleye mercury concentration included local habitat features (Wi = 0.991). These results show that physical habitat and watershed features were better predictors of walleye mercury concentration than water chemistry in glacial lakes of the Northern Great Plains.

  11. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  12. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education......, health professionalism, and management strategies pose the foremost challenge. Operational links indicates cooperative levels that facilitate a creative and innovative effort across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  13. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  14. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  15. Making Psychotherapy Great Again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2017-05-01

    Psychotherapy never stopped being as "great" as other treatments. This column explores the evidence base for both psychotherapy and medications, using depression as a specific example. The limitations are comparable for psychotherapy and medication, with much of the evidence based on small degrees of "statistically significant" rather than "clinically meaningful" change. Our field's biomedical emphasis leads to a false assumption that most patients present with single disorders, when comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception. This false assumption contributes to limitations in the evidence base and in our ability to treat patients optimally.

  16. Groundwater storage changes in arctic permafrost watersheds from GRACE and in situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muskett, Reginald R; Romanovsky, Vladimir E

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic permafrost regions make up the largest area component of the cryosphere. Observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission offer to provide a greater understanding of changes in water mass within permafrost regions. We investigate a GRACE monthly time series, snow water equivalent from the special scanning microwave imager (SSM/I), vegetation water content and soil moisture from the advanced microwave scanning radiometer for the Earth observation system (AMSR-E) and in situ discharge of the Lena, Yenisei, Ob', and Mackenzie watersheds. The GRACE water equivalent mass change responded to mass loading by snow accumulation in winter and mass unloading by runoff in spring-summer. Comparison of secular trends from GRACE to runoff suggests groundwater storage increased in the Lena and Yenisei watersheds, decreased in the Mackenzie watershed, and was unchanged in the Ob' watershed. We hypothesize that the groundwater storage changes are linked to the development of closed- and open-talik in the continuous permafrost zone and the decrease of permafrost lateral extent in the discontinuous permafrost zone of the watersheds.

  17. Watershed Management and Public Health: An Exploration of the Intersection of Two Fields as Reported in the Literature from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Martin J.; Parkes, Margot; Zubrycki, Karla; Venema, Henry; Hallstrom, Lars; Neudorffer, Cynthia; Berbés-Blázquez, Marta; Morrison, Karen

    2014-08-01

    Watersheds are settings for health and well-being that have a great deal to offer the public health community due to the correspondence between the spatial form of the watershed unit and the importance to health and well-being of water. However, managing watersheds for human health and well-being requires the ability to move beyond typical reductionist approaches toward more holistic methods. Health and well-being are emergent properties of inter-related social and biophysical processes. This paper characterizes points of connection and integration between watershed management and public health and tests a new conceptual model, the Watershed Governance Prism, to determine the prevalence in peer-reviewed literature of different perspectives relating to watersheds and public health. We conducted an initial search of academic databases for papers that addressed the interface between watershed management (or governance) and public health themes. We then generated a sample of these papers and undertook a collaborative analysis informed by the Watershed Governance Prism. Our analysis found that although these manuscripts dealt with a range of biophysical and social determinants of health, there was a tendency for social factors and health outcomes to be framed as context only for these studies, rather than form the core of the relationships being investigated. At least one cluster of papers emerged from this analysis that represented a cohesive perspective on watershed governance and health; "Perspective B" on the Watershed Governance Prism, "water governance for ecosystems and well-being," was dominant. Overall, the integration of watershed management/governance and public health is in its infancy.

  18. Evaluation of an operational water cycle prediction system for the Laurentian Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Vincent; Durnford, Dorothy; Smith, Gregory; Dyck, Sarah; Martinez, Yosvany; Mackay, Murray; Winter, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) is implementing new numerical guidance products based on fully coupled numerical models to better inform the public as well as specialized users on the current and future state of various components of the water cycle, including stream flow and water levels. Outputs from this new system, named the Water Cycle Prediction System (WCPS), have been available for the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River watershed since June 2016. WCPS links together ECCC's weather forecasting model, GEM, the 2-D ice model C-ICE, the 3-D lake and ocean model NEMO, and a 2-D hydrological model, WATROUTE. Information concerning the water cycle is passed between the models at intervals varying from a few minutes to one hour. It currently produces two forecasts per day for the next three days of the complete water cycle in the Great Lakes region, the largest freshwater lake system in the world. Products include spatially-varying precipitation, evaporation, river discharge, water level anomalies, surface water temperatures, ice coverage, and surface currents. These new products are of interest to water resources and management authority, flood forecasters, hydroelectricity producers, navigation, environmental disaster managers, search and rescue teams, agriculture, and the general public. This presentation focuses on the evaluation of various elements forecasted by the system, and weighs the advantages and disadvantages of running the system fully coupled.

  19. Determinants of fish assemblage structure in Northwestern Great Plains streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, J.A.; Bramblett, R.G.; Guy, C.S.; Zale, A.V.; Roberts, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Prairie streams are known for their harsh and stochastic physical conditions, and the fish assemblages therein have been shown to be temporally variable. We assessed the spatial and temporal variation in fish assemblage structure in five intermittent, adventitious northwestern Great Plains streams representing a gradient of watershed areas. Fish assemblages and abiotic conditions varied more spatially than temporally. The most important variables explaining fish assemblage structure were longitudinal position and the proportion of fine substrates. The proportion of fine substrates increased proceeding upstream, approaching 100% in all five streams, and species richness declined upstream with increasing fine substrates. High levels of fine substrate in the upper reaches appeared to limit the distribution of obligate lithophilic fish species to reaches further downstream. Species richness and substrates were similar among all five streams at the lowermost and uppermost sites. However, in the middle reaches, species richness increased, the amount of fine substrate decreased, and connectivity increased as watershed area increased. Season and some dimensions of habitat (including thalweg depth, absolute distance to the main-stem river, and watershed size) were not essential in explaining the variation in fish assemblages. Fish species richness varied more temporally than overall fish assemblage structure did because common species were consistently abundant across seasons, whereas rare species were sometimes absent or perhaps not detected by sampling. The similarity in our results among five streams varying in watershed size and those from other studies supports the generalization that spatial variation exceeds temporal variation in the fish assemblages of prairie and warmwater streams. Furthermore, given longitudinal position, substrate, and stream size, general predictions regarding fish assemblage structure and function in prairie streams are possible. ?? American

  20. Watershed modeling applications in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Diana E.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2012-01-01

    Watershed models can be used to simulate natural and human-altered processes including the flow of water and associated transport of sediment, chemicals, nutrients, and microbial organisms within a watershed. Simulation of these processes is useful for addressing a wide range of water-resource challenges, such as quantifying changes in water availability over time, understanding the effects of development and land-use changes on water resources, quantifying changes in constituent loads and yields over time, and quantifying aquifer recharge temporally and spatially throughout a watershed.

  1. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) version 2 is a decision support tool designed to facilitate integrated water management by communities at the small watershed scale. WMOST allows users to look across management options in stormwater (including green infrastructure), wastewater, drinking water, and land conservation programs to find the least cost solutions. The pdf version of these presentations accompany the recorded webinar with closed captions to be posted on the WMOST web page. The webinar was recorded at the time a training workshop took place for EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST, v2).

  2. Hydroarchaeology: Measuring the Ancient Human Impact on the Palenque Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, K. D.; Duffy, C. J.

    2010-03-01

    Palenque, one of the best known Classic Maya centers, has what is arguably the most unique and intricate system of water management known anywhere in the Maya Lowlands. Years of archaeological research, including intensive mapping between 1997 and 2000, reveal that this major center, situated on a narrow escarpment at the base of a high mountain range in northern Chiapas, Mexico, began as a modest settlement about AD 100. Then, during the seventh and eighth centuries, Palenque experienced explosive growth, mushrooming into a dense community with an estimated population of 6000 and approximately 1500 structures — residences, palaces, and temples¬ - under a series of powerful rulers. This process of "urban" growth led to obvious changes in landcover. In order to better understand the effects that landcover and climate change have on the availability of water for an ancient city a new approach is required. In this paper we explore a hydroarchaeological approach that utilizes simulated daily paleoclimate data, watershed modeling, and traditional archaeology to view the response of ancient human impact within the watershed surrounding Palenque. There is great potential for watershed-climate modeling in developing plausible scenarios of water use and supply, and the effect of extreme conditions (flood and drought), all of which cannot be fully represented by atmosphere-based climate and weather projections. The first objective of the paper is to test the hypothesis that drought was a major cause for Palenque’s collapse. Did the Maya abandon Palenque in search of water? Secondly, we evaluate the hydraulic design of the water management features at Palenque against extreme meteorological events. How successful was the hydraulic engineering of the Maya in coping with droughts and floods? The archaeological implications for this non-invasive "virtual" method are many, including detecting periods of stress within a community, estimating population by developing caps

  3. Adapting to Climate Change through Improved Watershed ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    With greater demand for water in agriculture, industry, and tourism, the country must ... and climate change impacts, are compromising water quality and availability, ... affecting socio-economic and biophysical vulnerability in the watershed.

  4. Stream Tables and Watershed Geomorphology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillquist, Karl D.; Kinner, Patricia W.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews copious stream tables and provides a watershed approach to stream table exercises. Results suggest that this approach to learning the concepts of fluvial geomorphology is effective. (Contains 39 references.) (DDR)

  5. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  6. The role of interior watershed processes in improving parameter estimation and performance of watershed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Haw; Bailey, Ryan T; Arabi, Mazdak; Ahmadi, Mehdi; White, Michael J; Arnold, Jeffrey G

    2014-09-01

    Watershed models typically are evaluated solely through comparison of in-stream water and nutrient fluxes with measured data using established performance criteria, whereas processes and responses within the interior of the watershed that govern these global fluxes often are neglected. Due to the large number of parameters at the disposal of these models, circumstances may arise in which excellent global results are achieved using inaccurate magnitudes of these "intra-watershed" responses. When used for scenario analysis, a given model hence may inaccurately predict the global, in-stream effect of implementing land-use practices at the interior of the watershed. In this study, data regarding internal watershed behavior are used to constrain parameter estimation to maintain realistic intra-watershed responses while also matching available in-stream monitoring data. The methodology is demonstrated for the Eagle Creek Watershed in central Indiana. Streamflow and nitrate (NO) loading are used as global in-stream comparisons, with two process responses, the annual mass of denitrification and the ratio of NO losses from subsurface and surface flow, used to constrain parameter estimation. Results show that imposing these constraints not only yields realistic internal watershed behavior but also provides good in-stream comparisons. Results further demonstrate that in the absence of incorporating intra-watershed constraints, evaluation of nutrient abatement strategies could be misleading, even though typical performance criteria are satisfied. Incorporating intra-watershed responses yields a watershed model that more accurately represents the observed behavior of the system and hence a tool that can be used with confidence in scenario evaluation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Understanding human impacts to tropical coastal ecosystems through integrated hillslope erosion measurements, optical coastal waters characterization, watershed modeling, marine ecosystem assessments, and natural resource valuations in two constrasting watersheds in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Zayas, J.; Melendez, J.; Barreto, M.; Santiago, L.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Figueroa, Y.; Setegn, S. G.; Guild, L. S.; Armstrong, R.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal ecosystems are an asset to many tropical island economies. In Puerto Rico, however, many invaluable coastal ecosystems are at risk due to multiple social and natural environmental stressors. To quantify the role of anthropogenic versus natural stressors, an integrated multidisciplinary approach was applied in two contrasting watersheds in Puerto Rico. The Rio Loco (RL) watershed in Southeastern Puerto Rico is hydrologically modified with interbasin water transfers, hydroelectric generation, and with water extraction for irrigation and water supply. Intensive agricultural production dominates both the lower and upper portions of the basin. In contrast, the Rio Grande de Manatí (RGM) shows a natural flow regime with minor flow regulation and limited agriculture. The Surface Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to each watershed to assess the effects of land use changes on water and sediment fluxes to coastal areas. From 1977 to 2016, forest areas increased in both watersheds due to the abandonment of farms in the mountains. However, in upper and lower RL, agricultural lands have remained active. Coffee plantations in the upper watershed contribute with high sediment loads, particularly in unpaved service roads. We hypothesize that water fluxes will be higher in the larger RGM than in RL. However, suspended sediment fluxes will be higher in the agriculturally active RL basin. A willingness-to-pay approach was applied to assess how residents from each watershed value water and coastal ecosystems revealing a general higher natural resources valuation in the RGM than in RL. Coastal ecosystems at each site revealed structural differences in benthic coral communities due to local currents influenced largely by coastal morphology. The optical properties of coastal waters are also being determined and linked to fluvial sediment fluxes. Stakeholder meetings are being held in each watershed to promote transfer of scientific insights into a sustainable coastal and

  8. Using Four Capitals to Assess Watershed Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M. Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  9. 50 years of change at 14 headwater snowmelt-dominated watersheds in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutchkova, D. D.; Miller, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Wyoming is a headwater state contributing to the water resources of four major US basins: Columbia River, Colorado River, Great Basin, and Missouri River. Most of the annual precipitation in this semi-arid state is received at high elevations as snow. Water availability for drinking water supply, reservoir storage, industrial, agricultural, and ecological needs - all depends on the variable and potentially changing annual snowmelt. Thus, characterizing snowmelt and snowmelt-dominated runoff variability and change at high-elevation headwater watersheds in Wyoming is of utmost importance. Next to quantifying variability and changes in total precipitation, snow-water equivalent (SWE), annual runoff and low flows at 14 selected and representative high-elevation watersheds during the previous 50 years, we also explore past watershed disturbances. Wildfires, forest management (e.g. timber harvest), and recent bark beetle outbakes have altered the vegetation and potentially the hydrology of these high-elevation watersheds. We present a synthesis and trend analysis of 49-75 complete water years (wy) of daily streamflow data for 14 high-elevation watersheds, 25-36 complete wy of daily SWE and precipitation data for the closest SNOTEL stations, and spatiotemporal data on burned areas for 20 wy, tree mortality for 18 wy, timber harvest during the 20th century, as well as overview on legacy tie-drive related distrbances. These results are discussed with respect to the differing watershed characteristics in order to present a spectrum of possible hydrologic responses. The importance of our work lies in extending our understanding of snowmelt headwater annual runoff and low-flow dynamics in Wyoming specifically. Such regional synthesis would inform and facilitate water managers and planners both at local state-wide level, but also in the intermountain US West.

  10. Characterising Event-Based DOM Inputs to an Urban Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croghan, D.; Bradley, C.; Hannah, D. M.; Van Loon, A.; Sadler, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) composition in urban streams is dominated by terrestrial inputs after rainfall events. Urban streams have particularly strong terrestrial-riverine connections due to direct input from terrestrial drainage systems. Event driven DOM inputs can have substantial adverse effects on water quality. Despite this, DOM from important catchment sources such as road drains and Combined Sewage Overflows (CSO's) remains poorly characterised within urban watersheds. We studied DOM sources within an urbanised, headwater watershed in Birmingham, UK. Samples from terrestrial sources (roads, roofs and a CSO), were collected manually after the onset of rainfall events of varying magnitude, and again within 24-hrs of the event ending. Terrestrial samples were analysed for fluorescence, absorbance and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentration. Fluorescence and absorbance indices were calculated, and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) was undertaken to aid sample characterization. Substantial differences in fluorescence, absorbance, and DOC were observed between source types. PARAFAC-derived components linked to organic pollutants were generally highest within road derived samples, whilst humic-like components tended to be highest within roof samples. Samples taken from the CSO generally contained low fluorescence, however this likely represents a dilution effect. Variation within source groups was particularly high, and local land use seemed to be the driving factor for road and roof drain DOM character and DOC quantity. Furthermore, high variation in fluorescence, absorbance and DOC was apparent between all sources depending on event type. Drier antecedent conditions in particular were linked to greater presence of terrestrially-derived components and higher DOC content. Our study indicates that high variations in DOM character occur between source types, and over small spatial scales. Road drains located on main roads appear to contain the poorest

  11. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  12. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  13. Third annual Walker Branch Watershed research symposium. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The methods and concepts of watershed research, originally applied in an experimental or monitoring mode to relatively small catchments, are increasingly being used at larger scales and for specific applied problems. Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the US Forest Service, and other agencies and institutions participating in this symposium reflects research over a broad range of spatial scales that is being integrated through large-scale experiments along with computer modeling and graphical interfaces. These research projects address the basic atmospheric, geophysical, biogeochemical, and biological processes that regulate the responses of forested ecosystems to natural environmental variation and anthropogenic stresses. Regional and global issues addressed by presentations include emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons; deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and mercury; land-use changes; biological diversity; droughts; and water quality. The reports presented in this symposium illustrate a wide range of methods and approaches and focus more on concepts and techniques than on a specific physical site. Sites and projects that have contributed research results to this symposium include Walker Branch Watershed (DOE), the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and LTER site (USFS and NSF), Great Smoky Mountains National Park (research funded by NPS, TVA, and EPRI), Imnavait Creek, Alaska (DOE), the TVA-Norris Whole-tree Facility (TVA and EPRI), and DOE`s Biomass Program.

  14. Watershed Central: Harnessing a social media tool to organize local technical knowledge and find the right watershed resources for your watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed Central was developed to be a bridge between sharing and searching for information relating to watershed issues. This is dependent upon active user support through additions and updates to the Watershed Central Wiki. Since the wiki is user driven, the content and applic...

  15. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  16. Climate change and watershed mercury export in a Coastal Plain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather Golden; Christopher D. Knightes; Paul A. Conrads; Toby D. Feaster; Gary M. Davis; Stephen T. Benedict; Paul M. Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Future changes in climatic conditions may affect variations in watershed processes (e.g., hydrological, biogeochemical) and surface water quality across a wide range of physiographic provinces, ecosystems, and spatial scales. How such climatic shifts will impact watershed mercury (Hg) dynamics and hydrologically-driven Hg transport is a significant concern.

  17. THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED MANIPULATION PROJECT: WATERSHED SCIENCE IN A POLICY PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation in Maine is a paired watershed experiment. Monitoring of the paired catchments (East Bear Brook - reference; West Bear Brook - experimental) began in early 1987. Chemical manipulation of West Bear Brook catchment began in November 1989. Proce...

  18. Public participation in watershed management: International practices for inclusiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Patricia E. (Ellie)

    This paper outlines a number of examples from around the world of participatory processes for watershed decision-making, and discusses how they work, why they are important, their social and ecological potential, and the practical details of how to start, expand and develop them. Because of long-standing power differentials in all societies along gender, class and ethnic lines, equitable public participation requires the recognition that different members of society have different kinds of relationships with the environment in general, and with water in particular. From a range of political perspectives, inclusive participatory governance processes have many benefits. The author has recently completed a 5 year project linking universities and NGOs in Brazil and Canada to develop methods of broadening public engagement in local watershed management committees, with a special focus on gender and marginalized communities. The innovative environmental education and multi-lingual international public engagement practices of the Centre for Socio-Environmental Knowledge and Care of the La Plata Basin (which spans Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia) are also discussed in this paper.

  19. Characterisation of diffuse pollutions from forested watersheds in Japan during storm events - its association with rainfall and watershed features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Fukushima, Takehiko; Onda, Yuichi; Mizugaki, Shigeru; Gomi, Takashi; Kosugi, Ken'ichirou; Hiramatsu, Shinya; Kitahara, Hikaru; Kuraji, Koichiro; Terajima, Tomomi; Matsushige, Kazuo; Tao, Fulu

    2008-02-01

    Forest areas have been identified as important sources of nonpoint pollution in Japan. The managers must estimate stormwater quality and quantities from forested watersheds to develop effective management strategies. Therefore, stormwater runoff loads and concentrations of 10 constituents (total suspended solids, dissolved organic carbon, PO(4)-P, dissolved total phosphorus, total phosphorus, NH(4)-N, NO(2)-N, NO(3)-N, dissolved total nitrogen, and total nitrogen) for 72 events across five regions (Aichi, Kochi, Mie, Nagano, and Tokyo) were characterised. Most loads were significantly and positively correlated with stormwater variables (total event rainfall, event duration, and rainfall intensity), but most discharge-weighted event concentrations (DWECs) showed negative correlations with rainfall intensity. Mean water quality concentration during baseflow was correlated significantly with storm concentrations (r=0.41-0.77). Although all pollutant load equations showed high coefficients of determination (R(2)=0.55-0.80), no models predicted well pollutant concentrations, except those for the three N constituents (R(2)=0.59-0.67). Linear regressions to estimate stormwater concentrations and loads were greatly improved by regional grouping. The lower prediction capability of the concentration models for Mie, compared with the other four regions, indicated that other watershed or storm characteristics should be included in the prediction models. Significant differences among regions were found more frequently in concentrations than in loads for all constituents. Since baseflow conditions implied available pollutant sources for stormwater, the similar spatial characteristics of pollutant concentrations between baseflow and stormflow conditions were an important control for stormwater quality.

  20. Operative links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2010-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...

  1. Plutonium in aquatic biota of the Great Miami River Watershed, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayman, C.W.; Bartelt, G.E.; Edgington, D.N.

    1974-01-01

    Methods for collection and preparation of biological samples are described. Radiochemical analysis for 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu was performed on an alga, Cladophora sp., a vascular plant, Potamogeton sp., goldfish, carp, and other fishes. Results showed that concentration of Pu by algae and macrophytes was 10 2 to 10 3 that of fish, excluding the gastrointestinal tract and its contents. An average of 80 percent of 238 Pu in carp was associated with the gastrointestinal tract and contents. The levels of 238 Pu in Cladophora were a function of the distance from the release site

  2. Contributions of human activities to suspended-sediment yield during storm events from a steep, small, tropical watershed, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, A. T.; Biggs, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    project investigating relationships and interactions between terrigenous sediment, water circulation over the reef, and the spatial distribution of sediment accumulation under various conditions in a linked watershed and fringing-reef embayment.

  3. Lessons From Watershed-Based Climate Smart Agricultural Practices In Jogo-Gudedo Watershed Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abera Assefa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Land degradation is the most chronic problem in the Ethiopia. Soil erosion and denudation of vegetation covers are tending to enlarge the area of degraded and west land in semi-arid watersheds. It is therefore watershed management is believed as a holistic approach to create a climate smart landscape that integrate forestry agriculture pasture and soil water management with an objective of sustainable management of natural resources to improve livelihood. This approach pursues to promote interactions among multiple stakeholders and their interests within and between the upstream and downstream locations of a watershed. Melkassa Agricultural Research Centre MARC has been implementing integrated watershed management research project in the Jogo-gudedo watershed from 2010-2014 and lessons from Jogo-gudedo watershed are presented in this research report. Participatory action research PAR was implemented on Soil and Water Conservation SWC area enclosure Agroforestry AF Conservation Tillage CT energy saving stove drought resistance crop varieties in the Jogo-gudedo watershed. Empirical research and action research at plot level and evaluation of introduced technologies with farmers through experimental learning approach and documentation were employed. The participatory evaluation and collective action of SWC and improved practices brought high degree of acceptance of the practices and technologies. This had been ratified by the implementation of comprehensive watershed management action research which in turn enabled to taste and exploit benefits of climate-smart agricultural practices. Eventually significant reduction on soil loss and fuel wood consumption improvements on vegetation cover and crop production were quantitatively recorded as a good indicator and success. Field visit meetings trainings and frequent dialogues between practitioners and communities at watershed level have had a help in promoting the climate smart agriculture

  4. Hydrographs showing groundwater levels for selected wells in the Puyallup River watershed and vicinity, Pierce and King Counties, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R.C.; Julich, R.J.; Justin, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrographs of groundwater levels for selected wells in and adjacent to the Puyallup River watershed in Pierce and King Counties, Washington, are presented using an interactive Web-based map of the study area to illustrate changes in groundwater levels on a monthly and seasonal basis. The interactive map displays well locations that link to the hydrographs, which in turn link to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System, Groundwater Site Inventory System.

  5. Scandinavian links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    are impressive mega structures spanning international waterways. These waterways between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea have played major roles in history. The length of each of the crossings are around 20 km. The fixed links closes gaps between the Scandinavian and European motorway and rail networks...

  6. Geochemical baseline level and function and contamination of phosphorus in Liao River Watershed sediments of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoqing; Wang, Jing; Lin, Chunye; He, Mengchang; Liu, Xitao

    2013-10-15

    The quantitative assessment of P contamination in sediments is a challenge due to sediment heterogeneity and the lacking of geochemical background or baseline levels. In this study, a procedure was proposed to determine the average P background level and P geochemical baseline level (GBL) and develop P geochemical baseline functions (GBF) for riverbed sediments of the Liao River Watershed (LRW). The LRW has two river systems - the Liao River System (LRS) and the Daliao River System (DRS). Eighty-eight samples were collected and analyzed for P, Al, Fe, Ca, organic matter, pH, and texture. The results show that Fe can be used as a better particle-size proxy to construct the GBF of P (P (mg/kg) = 39.98 + 166.19 × Fe (%), R(2) = 0.835, n = 66). The GBL of P was 675 mg/kg, while the average background level of P was 355 mg/kg. Noting that many large cities are located in the DRS watershed, most of the contaminated sites were located within the DRS and the riverbed sediments were more contaminated by P in the DRS watershed than in the LRS watershed. The geochemical background and baseline information of P are of great importance in managing P levels within the LRW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. AN INTEGRATED, SCIENCE-BASED APPROACH TO MANAGING AND RESTORING UPLAND RIPARIAN MEADOWS IN THE GREAT BASIN OF CENTRAL NEVADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian corridor and meadow ecosystems in upland watersheds are of local and regional importance in the Great Basin. Covering only 1-3% of the total land area, these ecosystems contain a disproportionally large percentage of the region's biodiversity. Stream incision is a major ...

  8. Nitrate source apportionment in a subtropical watershed using Bayesian model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liping; Han, Jiangpei; Xue, Jianlong; Zeng, Lingzao [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Shi, Jiachun, E-mail: jcshi@zju.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Wu, Laosheng, E-mail: laowu@zju.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Jiang, Yonghai [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}) pollution in aquatic system is a worldwide problem. The temporal distribution pattern and sources of nitrate are of great concern for water quality. The nitrogen (N) cycling processes in a subtropical watershed located in Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, China were greatly influenced by the temporal variations of precipitation and temperature during the study period (September 2011 to July 2012). The highest NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentration in water was in May (wet season, mean ± SD = 17.45 ± 9.50 mg L{sup −1}) and the lowest concentration occurred in December (dry season, mean ± SD = 10.54 ± 6.28 mg L{sup −1}). Nevertheless, no water sample in the study area exceeds the WHO drinking water limit of 50 mg L{sup −1} NO{sub 3}{sup −}. Four sources of NO{sub 3}{sup −} (atmospheric deposition, AD; soil N, SN; synthetic fertilizer, SF; manure and sewage, M and S) were identified using both hydrochemical characteristics [Cl{sup −}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, HCO{sub 3}{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, Ca{sup 2+}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, dissolved oxygen (DO)] and dual isotope approach (δ{sup 15}N–NO{sub 3}{sup −} and δ{sup 18}O–NO{sub 3}{sup −}). Both chemical and isotopic characteristics indicated that denitrification was not the main N cycling process in the study area. Using a Bayesian model (stable isotope analysis in R, SIAR), the contribution of each source was apportioned. Source apportionment results showed that source contributions differed significantly between the dry and wet season, AD and M and S contributed more in December than in May. In contrast, SN and SF contributed more NO{sub 3}{sup −} to water in May than that in December. M and S and SF were the major contributors in December and May, respectively. Moreover, the shortcomings and uncertainties of SIAR were discussed to provide implications for future works. With the assessment of temporal variation and sources of NO{sub 3}{sup −}, better

  9. Nitrate source apportionment in a subtropical watershed using Bayesian model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liping; Han, Jiangpei; Xue, Jianlong; Zeng, Lingzao; Shi, Jiachun; Wu, Laosheng; Jiang, Yonghai

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate (NO 3 − ) pollution in aquatic system is a worldwide problem. The temporal distribution pattern and sources of nitrate are of great concern for water quality. The nitrogen (N) cycling processes in a subtropical watershed located in Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, China were greatly influenced by the temporal variations of precipitation and temperature during the study period (September 2011 to July 2012). The highest NO 3 − concentration in water was in May (wet season, mean ± SD = 17.45 ± 9.50 mg L −1 ) and the lowest concentration occurred in December (dry season, mean ± SD = 10.54 ± 6.28 mg L −1 ). Nevertheless, no water sample in the study area exceeds the WHO drinking water limit of 50 mg L −1 NO 3 − . Four sources of NO 3 − (atmospheric deposition, AD; soil N, SN; synthetic fertilizer, SF; manure and sewage, M and S) were identified using both hydrochemical characteristics [Cl − , NO 3 − , HCO 3 − , SO 4 2− , Ca 2+ , K + , Mg 2+ , Na + , dissolved oxygen (DO)] and dual isotope approach (δ 15 N–NO 3 − and δ 18 O–NO 3 − ). Both chemical and isotopic characteristics indicated that denitrification was not the main N cycling process in the study area. Using a Bayesian model (stable isotope analysis in R, SIAR), the contribution of each source was apportioned. Source apportionment results showed that source contributions differed significantly between the dry and wet season, AD and M and S contributed more in December than in May. In contrast, SN and SF contributed more NO 3 − to water in May than that in December. M and S and SF were the major contributors in December and May, respectively. Moreover, the shortcomings and uncertainties of SIAR were discussed to provide implications for future works. With the assessment of temporal variation and sources of NO 3 − , better agricultural management practices and sewage disposal programs can be implemented to sustain water quality in subtropical watersheds

  10. Evaluating the influence of spatial resolutions of DEM on watershed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    watersheds under different management practices. (Arnold et al. 1998). ... Smith 1978). These methods of runoff and sed- ... sediments and nutrient production in an agricul- tural watershed of ...... Agriculture Handbook No. 537. Xu H, Taylor ...

  11. Estimation of the peak factor based on watershed characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, Jean; Nolin, Simon; Ruest, Benoit [BPR Inc., Quebec, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Hydraulic modeling and dam structure design require the river flood flow as a primary input. For a given flood event, the ratio of peak flow over mean daily flow defines the peak factor. The peak factor value is dependent on the watershed and location along the river. The main goal of this study consisted in finding a relationship between watershed characteristics and this peak factor. Regression analyses were carried out on 53 natural watersheds located in the southern part of the province of Quebec using data from the Centre d'expertise hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ). The watershed characteristics included in the analyses were the watershed area, the maximum flow length, the mean slope, the lake proportion and the mean elevation. The results showed that watershed area and length are the major parameters influencing the peak factor. Nine natural watersheds were also used to test the use of a multivariable model in order to determine the peak factor for ungauged watersheds.

  12. INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE. Book Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through a wide range of information and topics, Integrated Watershed Management Principles and Practice shows how involved the watershed management planning process can be. The book is informative, and the author obviously has researched the subject thoroughly. The book's case...

  13. DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 04 - HUC 08 - Majors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data consists of 81 watershed delineations in one seamless dataset of drainage areas called Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Major Watersheds....

  14. Information Management for the Watershed Approach in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of interviews with leaders and key participants in the statewide watershed approach activities in the State of Washington. Additionally, there are reviews of Washington’s statewide watershed activities in a case study fashion.

  15. Floodplain Mapping for the Continental United States Using Machine Learning Techniques and Watershed Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadegan, K.; Merwade, V.; Saksena, S.

    2017-12-01

    Using conventional hydrodynamic methods for floodplain mapping in large-scale and data-scarce regions is problematic due to the high cost of these methods, lack of reliable data and uncertainty propagation. In this study a new framework is proposed to generate 100-year floodplains for any gauged or ungauged watershed across the United States (U.S.). This framework uses Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), topographic, climatic and land use data which are freely available for entire U.S. for floodplain mapping. The framework consists of three components, including a Random Forest classifier for watershed classification, a Probabilistic Threshold Binary Classifier (PTBC) for generating the floodplains, and a lookup table for linking the Random Forest classifier to the PTBC. The effectiveness and reliability of the proposed framework is tested on 145 watersheds from various geographical locations in the U.S. The validation results show that around 80 percent of total watersheds are predicted well, 14 percent have acceptable fit and less than five percent are predicted poorly compared to FIRMs. Another advantage of this framework is its ability in generating floodplains for all small rivers and tributaries. Due to the high accuracy and efficiency of this framework, it can be used as a preliminary decision making tool to generate 100-year floodplain maps for data-scarce regions and all tributaries where hydrodynamic methods are difficult to use.

  16. Watershed clearcutting and canopy arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara C. Reynolds; Timothy D. Schowalter; D.A. Crossley

    2014-01-01

    The southern Appalachian forests are home to myriad species of insects, spiders, and other arthropods. There are more than 4,000 invertebrate species know in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park , and easily a thousand insect species in the Coweeta basin alone. The forest environment, with its favorable microclimates and structural diversity, offers a large variety...

  17. Geoarchaeology of water management at Great Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulas, Federica; Pikirayi, Innocent; Sagiya, Munyaradzi Elton

    In Africa, research on water management in urban contexts has often focussed rainfall, and the occurrence floods and droughts, whereas small-scale catchment systems and soil moisture regimes have received far less attention. This paper sets out to re-address the issue by examining the occurrence......, distribution and use of multiple water resources at the ancient urban landscape of Great Zimbabwe. Here, the rise and demise of the urban site have been linked to changing rainfall in the 1st mill. AD. Accordingly, rainfall shortages and consequent droughts eventually leading to the decline and abandonment...... of Great Zimbabwe at around 1550 AD. However, new research findings suggest a different scenario. Combining geoarchaeolological investigations, soil micromorphology and geochemistry with the study of historical sources and ethnographic records, new datasets indicate prolonged availability and diversified...

  18. Application of a virtual watershed in academic education

    OpenAIRE

    Horn , A. L.; Hörmann , G.; Fohrer , N.

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Hydrologic models of watersheds often represent complex systems which are difficult to understand regarding to their structure and dynamics. Virtual watersheds, i.e. watersheds which exist only in the virtual reality of a computer system, are an approach to simplify access to this real-world complexity. In this study we present the virtual watershed KIELSHED-1, a 117 km2 v-shaped valley with grassland on a "Cambisol" soil type. Two weather scenarios are delivered with ...

  19. Effects of landforms on the erosion rate in a small watershed by the {sup 137}Cs tracing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mian, E-mail: hnli-mian@163.co [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Key Laboratory of Sediment Research of Yellow River of Ministry of Water Resources, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China); Yao Wenyi [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Key Laboratory of Sediment Research of Yellow River of Ministry of Water Resources, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China); Li Zhanbin [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710048 (China); Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Liu Puling [Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Shen Zhenzhou [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Key Laboratory of Sediment Research of Yellow River of Ministry of Water Resources, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China)

    2010-05-15

    It's very important to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the effects of landforms on soil erosion for the prevention and treatment of soil loss in a small watershed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of landform factors on erosion rate by the {sup 137}Cs tracing method in a small watershed in the Purple Hilly Area of China. The erosion rates under different slope lengths, slope gradients and slope aspects were estimated in Xiangshuitan watershed in the Purple Hilly Area in Sichuan Basin by the {sup 137}Cs tracing method. The results showed that the erosion rate decreased exponentially with downslope distance, and it increased with increasing slope gradient during the scope of 5 deg. - 16 deg. The slope aspect had great impact on the erosion rate, and the hillside on the sunny slope had larger erosion rate than that on the shady slope, particularly for the farmland.

  20. Effects of landforms on the erosion rate in a small watershed by the 137Cs tracing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mian; Yao Wenyi; Li Zhanbin; Liu Puling; Shen Zhenzhou

    2010-01-01

    It's very important to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the effects of landforms on soil erosion for the prevention and treatment of soil loss in a small watershed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of landform factors on erosion rate by the 137 Cs tracing method in a small watershed in the Purple Hilly Area of China. The erosion rates under different slope lengths, slope gradients and slope aspects were estimated in Xiangshuitan watershed in the Purple Hilly Area in Sichuan Basin by the 137 Cs tracing method. The results showed that the erosion rate decreased exponentially with downslope distance, and it increased with increasing slope gradient during the scope of 5 deg. - 16 deg. The slope aspect had great impact on the erosion rate, and the hillside on the sunny slope had larger erosion rate than that on the shady slope, particularly for the farmland.

  1. Watershed Conservation in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    We studied unanticipated long-run outcomes of conservation activities that occurred in forested watersheds on O`ahu, Hawaii, in the early twentieth century. The initial general impetus for the conservation activities was to improve irrigation surface water flow for the sugar industry. Industry...... concentration facilitated conservation of entire ecosystems. We investigate the benefits that accrued through dynamic linkages of the hydrological cycle and groundwater aquifer system. This provides a clear example of the need to consider integrated watershed effects, industrial structure, and linkages...... in determining conservation policy. We incorporated remote-sensing data, expert opinion on current watershed quality, and a spatial economic and hydrological model of O`ahu’s freshwater use with reports of conservation activities from 1910–1960 to assess these benefits. We find a 2.3% annual increase...

  2. New efficient methods for calculating watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, E; Andrade, J S Jr; Herrmann, H J; Kadau, D; Moukarzel, C F; Da Cunha, S D; Da Silva, L R; Oliveira, E A

    2009-01-01

    We present an advanced algorithm for the determination of watershed lines on digital elevation models (DEMs) which is based on the iterative application of invasion percolation (IP). The main advantage of our method over previously proposed ones is that it has a sub-linear time-complexity. This enables us to process systems comprising up to 10 8 sites in a few CPU seconds. Using our algorithm we are able to demonstrate, convincingly and with high accuracy, the fractal character of watershed lines. We find the fractal dimension of watersheds to be D f = 1.211 ± 0.001 for artificial landscapes, D f = 1.10 ± 0.01 for the Alps and D f = 1.11 ± 0.01 for the Himalayas

  3. Redistribution of cesium-137 in southeastern watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, J.R.; Ritchie, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Sediment samples from 14 southeastern agricultural reservoirs and surface samples from representative soils from the contributing water shed areas were analyzed for 137 Cs. The concentrations of 137 Cs measured reflect the nature of the watershed, its cover, its use, and man's activities. Since the redistribution of 137 Cs was assumed to result from soil erosion, recent erosion rates can be calculated from the measured 137 Cs accumulations in sediments and from the decreases in the 137 Cs calculated to have been deposited on upland soils. Measured concentrations of 137 Cs ranged from 14 to 158 nCi/m 2 in surface soils. As much as 525 nCi/m 2 of 137 Cs was measured in the deposited sediment profile. Watershed budgets for 137 Cs were calculated for three representative watersheds using available sediment survey information and the measured 137 Cs concentrations

  4. Watershed-based Morphometric Analysis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukristiyanti, S.; Maria, R.; Lestiana, H.

    2018-02-01

    Drainage basin/watershed analysis based on morphometric parameters is very important for watershed planning. Morphometric analysis of watershed is the best method to identify the relationship of various aspects in the area. Despite many technical papers were dealt with in this area of study, there is no particular standard classification and implication of each parameter. It is very confusing to evaluate a value of every morphometric parameter. This paper deals with the meaning of values of the various morphometric parameters, with adequate contextual information. A critical review is presented on each classification, the range of values, and their implications. Besides classification and its impact, the authors also concern about the quality of input data, either in data preparation or scale/the detail level of mapping. This review paper hopefully can give a comprehensive explanation to assist the upcoming research dealing with morphometric analysis.

  5. Watershed and Economic Data InterOperability (WEDO): Facilitating Discovery, Evaluation and Integration through the Sharing of Watershed Modeling Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed and Economic Data InterOperability (WEDO) is a system of information technologies designed to publish watershed modeling studies for reuse. WEDO facilitates three aspects of interoperability: discovery, evaluation and integration of data. This increased level of interop...

  6. Private sector embedded water risk: Merging the corn supply chain network and regional watershed depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Brauman, K. A.; Schmitt, J.; Goodkind, A. L.; Smith, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity in US corn farming regions is a significant risk consideration for the ethanol and meat production sectors, which comprise 80% of all US corn demand. Water supply risk can lead to effects across the supply chain, affecting annual corn yields. The purpose of our study is to assess the water risk to the US's most corn-intensive sectors and companies by linking watershed depletion estimates with corn production, linked to downstream companies through a corn transport model. We use a water depletion index as an improved metric for seasonal water scarcity and a corn sourcing supply chain model based on economic cost minimization. Water depletion was calculated as the fraction of renewable (ground and surface) water consumption, with estimates of more than 75% depletion on an annual average basis indicating a significant water risk. We estimated company water risk as the amount of embedded corn coming from three categories of water stressed counties. The ethanol sector had 3.1% of sourced corn grown from counties that were more than 75% depleted while the beef sector had 14.0%. From a firm perspective, Tyson, JBS, Cargill, the top three US corn demanding companies, had 4.5%, 9.6%, 12.8% of their sourced corn respectively, coming from watersheds that are more than 75% depleted. These numbers are significantly higher than the global average of 2.2% of watersheds being classified as more than 75% depleted. Our model enables corn using industries to evaluate their supply chain risk of water scarcity through modeling corn sourcing and watershed depletion, providing the private sector a new method for risk estimation. Our results suggest corn dependent industries are already linked to water scarcity risk in disproportionate amounts due to the spatial heterogeneity of corn sourcing and water scarcity.

  7. Assessment of landscape change and occurrence at watershed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the southern watershed zones. Monitoring land cover change at the watershed scale is more indicative of impact level and where efforts for managing and conserving the urban landscape should be prioritized. Key words: Urban expansion, land cover type, remote sensing, watershed units, urban landscape conservation.

  8. Watershed analysis on federal lands of the Pacific northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer; Michael J. Furniss

    1994-01-01

    Abstract - Watershed analysis-the evaluation of processes that affect ecosystems and resources in a watershed-is now being carried out by Federal land-management and regulatory agencies on Federal lands of the Pacific Northwest. Methods used differ from those of other implementations of watershed analysis because objectives and opportunities differ. In particular,...

  9. Understanding Human Impact: Second Graders Explore Watershed Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magruder, Robin; Rosenauer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a second grade science enrichment unit with a focus on human impact, both positive and negative, on the living and nonliving components of the local watershed. Investigating the local watershed gave the unit a personal and pragmatic connection to students' lives because they depend on the local watershed for what they need…

  10. Regionalization of SWAT Model Parameters for Use in Ungauged Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajeet Chaubey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and validation to achieve adequate watershed and therefore BMP representation. This is, however, only possible for gauged watersheds. There are many watersheds for which there are very little or no monitoring data available, thus the question as to whether it would be possible to extend and/or generalize model parameters obtained through calibration of gauged watersheds to ungauged watersheds within the same region. This study explored the possibility of developing regionalized model parameter sets for use in ungauged watersheds. The study evaluated two regionalization methods: global averaging, and regression-based parameters, on the SWAT model using data from priority watersheds in Arkansas. Resulting parameters were tested and model performance determined on three gauged watersheds. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NS for stream flow obtained using regression-based parameters (0.53–0.83 compared well with corresponding values obtained through model calibration (0.45–0.90. Model performance obtained using global averaged parameter values was also generally acceptable (0.4 ≤ NS ≤ 0.75. Results from this study indicate that regionalized parameter sets for the SWAT model can be obtained and used for making satisfactory hydrologic response predictions in ungauged watersheds.

  11. Guiding principles for management of forested, agricultural, and urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W.J. Williard

    2015-01-01

    Human actions must be well planned and include consideration of their potential influences on water and aquatic ecosystems - such consideration is the foundation of watershed management. Watersheds are the ideal land unit for managing and protecting water resources and aquatic health because watersheds integrate the physical, biological and chemical processes within...

  12. Regional versus local influences on lead and cadmium loading to the Great Lakes region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohn, S.; Long, D.; Fett, J.; Patino, L. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Science

    2004-07-01

    Environmental legislation has reduced the anthropogenic loadings of Pb and Cd to the Great Lakes region over the past 3 decades. However, the accumulation rates of these metals still remain above background values. Because environmental legislation was targeted at major sources (e.g., Pb in gasoline) whose influence on the environment was on a regional scale, local sources (e.g., watershed scale) for the metals may now play a more significant role. The relative importance of regional versus local scale influences on metal inputs to the environment is poorly understood. In this study, sediment chronologies of Pb and Cd were examined from 12 inland lakes that cover the broad geographic area of the State of Michigan. These chronologies were compared temporally and spatially and to watershed population densities and metal production records to gain an understanding of local and regional influences on metal inputs to the Great Lakes region. Results show that anthropogenic Pb loading during the 1930s and 1970s was dominated by regional sources. such as coal burning and use of leaded gasoline. Current loadings are now more related to local influences such as watershed population densities, rather than atmospheric deposition. Anthropogenic Cd loadings to the Great Lakes region have been dominated by both regional and local sources over time. Lead may also have shown the influence of local sources over time, if the influence of emissions from gasoline had not been present. This work shows that Pb and Cd loadings in the Great Lakes region are strongly related to watershed population densities; however, the specific sources and pathways for the metal cycling are unclear.

  13. MODELING ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF POST-FIRE REVEGETATION IN THE GREAT BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    Niell, Rebecca; Englin, Jeffrey E.; Nalle, Darek

    2004-01-01

    This study employs a Markov chain model of vegetation dynamics to examine the economic and ecological benefits of post-fire revegetation in the Great Basin sagebrush steppe. The analysis is important because synergies between wildland fire and invasive weeds in this ecosystem are likely to result in the loss of native biodiversity, less predictable forage availability for livestock and wildlife, reduced watershed stability and water quality, and increased costs and risk associated with firefi...

  14. Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-09-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  15. The Impact of Drainage Network Structure on Flooding in a Small Urban Watershed in Metropolitan Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierdiercks, K. L.; Smith, J. A.; Miller, A. J.

    2006-12-01

    The impact of urban development on watershed-scale hydrology is examined in a small urban watershed in the Metropolitan Baltimore area. Analyses focus on Dead Run, a 14.3 km2 tributary of the Gwynns Falls, which is the principal study watershed of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study. Field observations of rainfall and discharge have been collected for storms occurring in the 2003, 2004, and 2005 warm seasons including the flood of record for the USGS Dead Run at Franklintown gage (7 July 2004), in which 5 inches of rain fell in less than 4 hours. Dead Run has stream gages at 6 locations with drainage areas ranging from 1.2 to 14.3 km2. Hydrologic response to storm events varies greatly in each of the subwatersheds due to the diverse development types located there. These subwatersheds range in land use from medium-density residential, with and without stormwater management control, to commercial/light industrial with large impervious lots and an extensive network of stormwater management ponds. The unique response of each subwatershed is captured using field observations in conjunction with the EPA Stormwater Management Model (SWMM), which routes storm runoff over the land surface and through the drainage network of a watershed. Of particular importance to flood response is the structure of the drainage network (both surface channels and storm drain network) and its connectivity to preferential flow paths within the watershed. The Dead Run drainage network has been delineated using geospatial data derived from aerial photography and engineering planning drawings. Model analyses are used to examine the characteristics of flow paths that control flood response in urban watersheds. These analyses aim to identify patterns in urban flow pathways and use those patterns to predict response in other urban watersheds.

  16. Wood Export and Deposition Dynamics in Mountain Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Anne Elizabeth

    conditions and accompanying hydrologic responses. Chapter 2 contains development of new theory in support of the introduction of multiplicative coefficients, categorized by water year type, that were used to predict wood export quantities via utilization of an existing discharge-based theoretical equation. This new theory was the product of continued investigations into watershed-scale factors in search of explanation of observed variation of wood export rates into New Bullards Bar Reservoir. The gap between known variability and the attribution of wood export to one hydrologic relation continues to be a persistent issue, as the hierarchical and stochastic temporal and spatial nature of wood budget components remain difficult to quantify. The development of "watershed processes" coefficients was specifically focused on a generalized, parsimonious approach using water year type categories, with validation exercises supporting the approach. In dry years, predictions more closely represented observed wood export quantities, whereas the previously derived annual peak discharge relation yielded large over-predictions. Additional data are needed to continue development of these watershed-specific coefficients. This new approach to wood export prediction may be beneficial in regulated river systems for planning purposes, and its efficacy could be tested in other watersheds. Chapter 3 presents the results of an investigation into wood deposition mechanisms in a 12.2 km segment of the confined, bedrock-dominated South Yuba River watershed. Inclusion of coarse wood particles in the analyses was essential in recognizing depositional patterns, thus supporting the value of utilizing a wider wood-size range. A near-census data collection effort yielded myriad data, of which topographic wetted width and bed elevation data, developed for an observed 4.5-year flood event, were standardized in 10-m intervals and then univariate and linked values were ordered into landform classifications

  17. Field estimates of groundwater circulation depths in two mountainous watersheds in the western U.S. and the effect of deep circulation on solute concentrations in streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Marty D.; Tolley, Douglas G.; Wilson, John L.

    2017-04-01

    Estimates of groundwater circulation depths based on field data are lacking. These data are critical to inform and refine hydrogeologic models of mountainous watersheds, and to quantify depth and time dependencies of weathering processes in watersheds. Here we test two competing hypotheses on the role of geology and geologic setting in deep groundwater circulation and the role of deep groundwater in the geochemical evolution of streams and springs. We test these hypotheses in two mountainous watersheds that have distinctly different geologic settings (one crystalline, metamorphic bedrock and the other volcanic bedrock). Estimated circulation depths for springs in both watersheds range from 0.6 to 1.6 km and may be as great as 2.5 km. These estimated groundwater circulation depths are much deeper than commonly modeled depths suggesting that we may be forcing groundwater flow paths too shallow in models. In addition, the spatial relationships of groundwater circulation depths are different between the two watersheds. Groundwater circulation depths in the crystalline bedrock watershed increase with decreasing elevation indicative of topography-driven groundwater flow. This relationship is not present in the volcanic bedrock watershed suggesting that both the source of fracturing (tectonic versus volcanic) and increased primary porosity in the volcanic bedrock play a role in deep groundwater circulation. The results from the crystalline bedrock watershed also indicate that relatively deep groundwater circulation can occur at local scales in headwater drainages less than 9.0 km2 and at larger fractions than commonly perceived. Deep groundwater is a primary control on streamflow processes and solute concentrations in both watersheds.

  18. Identifying change in spatial accumulation of soil salinity in an inland river watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yugang; Deng, Caiyun; Liu, Yan; Niu, Ziru; Li, Yan

    2018-04-15

    Soil salinity accumulation is strong in arid areas and it has become a serious environmental problem. Knowledge of the process and spatial changes of accumulated salinity in soil can provide an insight into the spatial patterns of soil salinity accumulation. This is especially useful for estimating the spatial transport of soil salinity at the watershed scale. This study aimed to identify spatial patterns of salt accumulation in the top 20cm soils in a typical inland watershed, the Sangong River watershed in arid northwest China, using geostatistics, spatial analysis technology and the Lorenz curve. The results showed that: (1) soil salt content had great spatial variability (coefficient variation >1.0) in both in 1982 and 2015, and about 56% of the studied area experienced transition the degree of soil salt content from one class to another during 1982-2015. (2) Lorenz curves describing the proportions of soil salinity accumulation (SSA) identified that the boundary between soil salinity migration and accumulation regions was 24.3m lower in 2015 than in 1982, suggesting a spatio-temporal inequality in loading of the soil salinity transport region, indicating significant migration of soil salinity from the upstream to the downstream watershed. (3) Regardless of migration or accumulation region, the mean value of SSA per unit area was 0.17kg/m 2 higher in 2015 than 1982 (pwatershed during the studied period in the arid northwest of China. This study demonstrates the spatial patterns of soil salinity accumulation, which is particularly useful for estimating the spatial transport of soil salinity at the watershed scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  20. Risk Assessment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loss in a Hilly-Plain Watershed Based on the Different Hydrological Period: A Case Study in Tiaoxi Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmeng Ye

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-point source pollution is widely considered a serious threat to drinking water. Eutrophication in Chinese watershed is mainly due to nitrogen and phosphorus output from agricultural source. Taihu Lake is a typical eutrophic lake in China, a basin representative for the study of the temporal-spatial characteristics of pollution loading of nitrogen and phosphorus to provide scientific basis for reasonable estimation and targeted control measures of nitrogen and phosphorus loss. Based on data from nitrogen and phosphorus loss in agricultural land, livestock breeding, domestic discharge and aquaculture, this study calculated the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk for each pollution source. Using the superposition of ArcGIS raster data, we also described the spatial distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk by the formula of comprehensive loss risk. The results showed that critical risk areas of nitrogen and phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding and agricultural land during flood period in Tiaoxi watershed. Agricultural land and livestock breeding sources formed major parts of nitrogen loss, accounting for 30.85% and 36.18%, respectively, while phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding (56.28%. During non-flood period, integrated management of livestock breeding and domestic discharge requires much attention to control nitrogen and phosphorus loss in the critical risk area. Finally, it is of great practical significance to propose spatial-temporal targeted measurements to control nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in watershed for various periods and different areas.

  1. Watershed Modeling System Hydrological Simulation Program; Watershed Model User Documentation and Tutorial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dellman, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    .... This analysis helps predict possible environmental problems in the watershed. With the growing need to care for and monitor the effects of man on the environment, it became apparent that a method for rapid analysis of those effects was needed...

  2. Sources of baseflow for the Minnehaha Creek Watershed, Minnesota, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieber, J. L.; Moore, T. L.; Gulliver, J. S.; Magner, J. A.; Lahti, L. B.

    2013-12-01

    Minnehaha Creek is among the most valued surface water features in the Minneapolis, MN metro area, with a waterfall as it enters the Minnehaha Creek park. Flow in Minnehaha Creek is heavily dependent on discharge from the stream's origin, Lake Minnetonka, the outlet of which is closed during drought periods to maintain water elevations in the lake resulting in low- (or no-) flow conditions in the creek. Stormwater runoff entering directly to the creek from the creek's largely urbanized watershed exacerbates extremes in flow conditions. Given the cultural and ecological value of this stream system, there is great interest in enhancing the cultural and ecosystem services provided by Minnehaha Creek through improvements in streamflow regime by reducing flashiness and sustaining increased low-flows. Determining the potential for achieving improvements in flow requires first that the current sources of water contributing to low-flows in the creek be identified and quantified. Work on this source identification has involved a number of different approaches, including analyses of the streamflow record using a hydrologic system model framework, examination of the Quaternary and bedrock geology of the region, estimation of groundwater-surface water exchange rates within the channel using hyporheic zone temperature surveys and flux meter measurements, and analyses of the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in samples of stream water, groundwater, and rainfall. Analysis of baseflow recessions using the method of Brutsaert and Nieber (1977) indicates that only a small portion of the catchment, probably the riparian zone, contributes to baseflows. This result appears to be supported by the observation that the limestone/shale bedrock layer underlying the surficial aquifer has a non-zero permeability, and in a significant portion of the watershed the layer has been eroded away leaving the surficial aquifer ';bottomless' and highly susceptible to vertical (down) water loss

  3. Watershed manipulation project: Field implementation plan for 1990-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, H.; Narahara, A.M.; Rustad, L.E.; Mitchell, M.; Lee, J.

    1993-02-01

    The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) was established in 1986 at Lead Mountain, Maine as part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Watershed Manipulation Project (WPM). The goals of the project are to: (1) assess the chemical response of a small upland forested watershed to increased loadings of SO4, (2) determine interactions among biogeochemical mechanisms controlling watershed response to acidic deposition, and (3) test the assumptions of the Direct/Delayed Response Programs (DDRP) computer models of watershed acidification. The document summarizes the field procedures used in the establishment and initial implementation of the plot- and catchment- scale activities at the BBWM, and outlines plans for 1990-02 project activities

  4. Surface runoff generation in a small watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pires Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since an understanding of how runoff is generated is of great importance to soil conservation, to water availability and to the management of a watershed, the objective of this study was to understand the generation of surface runoff in a watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest. Nine surface runoff plots were set up, evenly distributed on the lower, middle and upper slopes. The lower portion was covered by riparian forest. We showed that the average surface runoff coefficient along the slope in the present study was higher than in other studies under different land uses. Furthermore, the surface runoff was higher under sugarcane compared to the riparian forest, especially after sugarcane harvesting. Besides land cover, other factors such as the characteristics of rainfall events, relief and physical soil characteristics such as soil bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity influenced the surface runoff generation.

  5. Functional changes in littoral macroinvertebrate communities in response to watershed-level anthropogenic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya E Kovalenko

    Full Text Available Watershed-scale anthropogenic stressors have profound effects on aquatic communities. Although several functional traits of stream macroinvertebrates change predictably in response to land development and urbanization, little is known about macroinvertebrate functional responses in lakes. We assessed functional community structure, functional diversity (Rao's quadratic entropy and voltinism in macroinvertebrate communities sampled across the full gradient of anthropogenic stress in Laurentian Great Lakes coastal wetlands. Functional diversity and voltinism significantly decreased with increasing development, whereas agriculture had smaller or non-significant effects. Functional community structure was affected by watershed-scale development, as demonstrated by an ordination analysis followed by regression. Because functional community structure affects energy flow and ecosystem function, and functional diversity is known to have important implications for ecosystem resilience to further environmental change, these results highlight the necessity of finding ways to remediate or at least ameliorate these effects.

  6. A watershed modeling approach to streamflow reconstruction from tree-ring records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Laurel; Biondi, Franco; Salas, Jose D; Panorska, Anna K; Kozubowski, Tomasz J

    2008-01-01

    Insight into long-term changes of streamflow is critical for addressing implications of global warming for sustainable water management. To date, dendrohydrologists have employed sophisticated regression techniques to extend runoff records, but this empirical approach cannot directly test the influence of watershed factors that alter streamflow independently of climate. We designed a mechanistic watershed model to calculate streamflows at annual timescales using as few inputs as possible. The model was calibrated for upper reaches of the Walker River, which straddles the boundary between the Sierra Nevada of California and the Great Basin of Nevada. Even though the model incorporated simplified relationships between precipitation and other components of the hydrologic cycle, it predicted water year streamflows with correlations of 0.87 when appropriate precipitation values were used

  7. Prioritization of watersheds in order to perform administrative measures using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Abdolhossein Arami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prioritization of watersheds in order to perform administrative measures is necessary and inevitable. Determining areas of top priority for flood control projects is a managerial decision that should be approved by studies of physical, social and economic status of the region of interesrt and by assessing the outcomes of the past operations. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study morphological and physiographic characteristics, and to use geographic information systems (GIS and multi-criteria decision-making methods (MCDM, to identify the critical sub-basins which have the tendency to be destructed, in Galikesh watershed, Golestan province. This watershed is important, yet critical, in terms of land use change, erosion and flooding in the Golestan Province, Iran. In total, nine morphological parameters were used to prioritize sub-watersheds using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP. The morphological parameters were by some means linked to watershed drainage system. Based on FAHP approach, sub-basins, as vulnerable zones, have been evaluated and cetegorized in five priority levels (very low, low, medium, high and very high levels. The results showed that 44.44% and 22.22% of sub-basins were categorized respectively under average, and high to very high levels, suggesting that the conservation and management measures are essential in order to maintain stability in the region. Thus, the FAHP technique is a practical and convenient method to show potential zones in order to implement effective management strategies, especially in areas where data availability is low and soil diversity is high. Finally, it can be said that without having to encounter high costs and a waste of time, sub-basins could be categorized by means of morphometric parameters in order to implement conservational measures to simutaneously conserve soil and the environment

  8. ORD’s Urban Watershed Management Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a poster for the Edison Science Day, tentatively scheduled for June 10, 2009. This poster presentation summarizes key elements of the EPA Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB). An overview of the national problems posed by w...

  9. Modeling rock weathering in small watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco, F.A.L.; van der Weijden, C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Many mountainous watersheds are conceived as aquifer media where multiple groundwater flow systems have developed (Tóth, 1963), and as bimodal landscapes where differential weathering of bare and soil-mantled rock has occurred (Wahrhaftig, 1965). The results of a weathering algorithm (Pacheco and

  10. AGWA: The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA, see: www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa or http://www.epa.gov/esd/land-sci/agwa/) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona...

  11. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans

    2015-02-01

    How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960-2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Linking current river pollution to historical pesticide use: Insights for territorial management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rossa, Pauline; Jannoyer, Magalie; Mottes, Charles; Plet, Joanne; Bazizi, Abderazak; Arnaud, Luc; Jestin, Alexandra; Woignier, Thierry; Gaude, Jean-Marie; Cattan, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants like organochlorine pesticides continue to contaminate large areas worldwide raising questions concerning their management. We designed and tested a method to link soil and water pollution in the watershed of the Galion River in Martinique. We first estimated the risk of soil contamination by chlordecone by referring to past use of land for banana cultivation and took 27 soil samples. We then sampled surface waters at 39 points and groundwater at 16 points. We tested three hypotheses linked to the source of chlordecone pollution at the watershed scale: (i) soils close to the river, (ii) soils close to the sampling point, (iii) throughout the sub-watershed generated at the sampling point. Graphical and statistical analysis showed that contamination of the river increased when it passed through an area with contaminated plots and decreased when it passed through area not contaminated by chlordecone. Modeling showed that the entire surface area of the watershed contributed to river pollution, suggesting that the river was mainly being contaminated by the aquifers and groundwater flows. Our method proved to be a reliable way to identify areas polluted by chlordecone at the watershed scale and should help stakeholders focus their management actions on both hot spots and the whole watershed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Linking lab and field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronje, P.B.

    1988-01-01

    The multitude of different supplements recommended for animals grazing natural pastures, which testifies to the need for a metabolic basis for supplementary feeding practices. The first approach to this problem was to simulate different feeding conditions in the laboratory, where the metabolic responses of body tissues to changes in the supply of purified nutrients could be studied using radioisotope techniques. The second step was to link these fundamental studies to field conditions. The results of these studies suggest that the efficiency of feed conversion and growth rates of ruminants grazing winter pastures in the highveld region of South Africa could be substantially improved by strategic supplementation with glucose precursors. Acetate clearance rate represents a valuable link in the process of applying information obtained from controlled laboratory experiments to field conditions. As this technique is inexpensive, quick and simple to carry out, it is ideally suited to application under field conditions where the use of isotopes is impractical. By providing a link with field conditions, it greatly extended the scope and practical application of isotope tracer techniques

  14. Coupling a continuous watershed-scale microbial fate and transport model with a stochastic dose-response model to estimate risk of illness in an urban watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hehuan; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Kline, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Within the United States, elevated levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) remain the leading cause of surface water-quality impairments requiring formal remediation plans under the federal Clean Water Act's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The sufficiency of compliance with numerical FIB criteria as the targeted endpoint of TMDL remediation plans may be questionable given poor correlations between FIB and pathogenic microorganisms and varying degrees of risk associated with exposure to different fecal pollution sources (e.g. human vs animal). The present study linked a watershed-scale FIB fate and transport model with a dose-response model to continuously predict human health risks via quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), for comparison to regulatory benchmarks. This process permitted comparison of risks associated with different fecal pollution sources in an impaired urban watershed in order to identify remediation priorities. Results indicate that total human illness risks were consistently higher than the regulatory benchmark of 36 illnesses/1000 people for the study watershed, even when the predicted FIB levels were in compliance with the Escherichia coli geometric mean standard of 126CFU/100mL. Sanitary sewer overflows were associated with the greatest risk of illness. This is of particular concern, given increasing indications that sewer leakage is ubiquitous in urban areas, yet not typically fully accounted for during TMDL development. Uncertainty analysis suggested the accuracy of risk estimates would be improved by more detailed knowledge of site-specific pathogen presence and densities. While previous applications of the QMRA process to impaired waterways have mostly focused on single storm events or hypothetical situations, the continuous modeling framework presented in this study could be integrated into long-term water quality management planning, especially the United States' TMDL program, providing greater clarity to watershed

  15. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  16. What Caused the Great Recession?

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines five possible explanations for the Great Recession of 2008 and 2009, using data for the United States and the eurozone. Of these five hypotheses, four are not supported by the data, while the fifth appears reasonable.

  17. Arthroscopy of the great toe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey, C.; van Dijk, C. N.

    1999-01-01

    The few available reports of arthroscopic treatment of the first MTP joint in the literature indicate favorable outcome. However, arthroscopy of the great toe is an advanced technique and should only be undertaken by experienced surgeons

  18. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  19. Watershed Adaptation Measures to Climate Change Impacts: A case of Kiha Watershed in Albertine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizinga, A.

    2017-12-01

    Watershed Adaptation Measures to Climate Change Impacts: A case of Kiha Watershed in Albertine GrabenAlex Zizinga1, Moses Tenywa2, Majaliwa Jackson Gilbert1, 1Makerere University, Department of Environmental Sciences, O Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda 1Makerere University, Department of Agricultural Production, P.O Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda Corresponding author: azizinga@caes.mak.ac.ug AbstractThe most pressing issues local communities in Uganda are facing result from land-use and land cover changes exacerbated by climate change impacts. A key issue is the documentation of land-cover changes visible with the ongoing clearance of remaining forests, bush-lands and wetlands for expanding farmland for sugarcane production, producing charcoal and collecting firewood for local distilleries using imported molasses. Decision-makers, resource managers, farmers and practitioners must build their capacity for adaptive measures. Here we present the potential impacts of climate change on watershed hydrological processes in the River Kiha Watershed, located in Western Uganda, Lake Albert Water Management Zone, by using social learning techniques incorporating water users, local stakeholders and researchers. The research team examined different farming and economic activities within the watershed to assess their impacts on catchment water resources, namely on water quality and discharge of river Kiha. We present the impacts of locally induced climate change, which are already manifested in increasing seasonal variability of rainfall. The study aims at answering questions posed by local communities and stakeholders about climate change and its effects on livelihood and key resources, specifically water and soils within the Kiha watershed. Key words: Climate change impacts, Social Learning and Watershed Management

  20. Social Exclusion in Watershed Development: Evidence From the Indo-German Watershed Development Project in Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshwer Kale

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social exclusion is context-specific and there is no uniform paradigm of exclusion across the world. This paper attempts to analyse exclusion of resource-poor groups in watershed development programmes in the Indian context. It aims to explore excluded community groups from the perspective of people’s equal opportunity and equal access to newly generated economic benefits in watershed development programmes. The paper also traces the determinant factors responsible for denial and exclusion of resource-poor groups and describes the detailed processes involved in their exclusion from institutional and livelihood opportunities in watershed programmes. At the same time, the paper also explores suggestions and views of resource-poor groups about their meaningful social inclusion in watershed programme. The Gadiwat Indo-German Watershed Development Project in Aurangabad district in the State of Maharashtra is studied in detail in terms of its social, economic and political realities through mix-method and multi-stakeholder approaches. The key findings of the paper are that landownership, caste, gender, membership in village institutions and/or watershed institutions or close relationship with members, as well as the limitations of the programme guidelines, are the major determinants of institutional inclusion and the extent of resulting economic benefits. The exclusion of resource-poor groups mainly takes the form of their exclusion from institutional representation. In order to promote meaningful social inclusion of resource-poor groups, there is need for a more livelihood-oriented focus and their equal representation and participation in watershed institutions.

  1. Understanding the Hydrologic Response of a Coastal Plain Watershed to Forest Management and Climate Change in South Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Lu; Ge Sun; Devendra M. Amatya; S. V. Harder; Steve G. McNulty

    2006-01-01

    The hydrologic processes in wetland ecosystems are not well understood. There are also great concerns and uncertainties about the hydrologic response of wetlands to forest management and climate change. The objective of this study is to apply a hydrologic model to better understand the hydrologic processes of a low relief coastal forested watershed and its responses to...

  2. The Suwannee River Hydrologic Observatory: A Subtropical Coastal Plain Watershed in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, W. D.

    2004-12-01

    . In addition, population growth is fueling increased groundwater withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer for local consumption affecting water supply. Inter-basin transfers from the lower Suwannee River to south Florida have been suggested as one solution to south Florida's growing water crisis. Three Distinct Hydrologic Regimes - The Suwannee River watershed comprises three distinct but linked hydrologic landscape units. The upper Suwannee River interacts with the surficial aquifer but is largely separated from the Floridan aquifer by a confining unit. The middle Suwannee River interacts with both surficial aquifers and the unconfined karstic Floridan aquifer. The lower Suwannee River discharges to a deltaic estuary as surface water along with diffuse submarine groundwater discharge. Extensive Existing Data Infrastructure - Some discharge data exists from the turn of the 19th century to the present. More recently, the USDA Agricultural Research Service through the Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory (SEWRL) has monitored the Little River watershed in Georgia at the headwaters of the Suwannee River since 1965, and the Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD) has monitored the Suwannee River watershed in Florida since 1972. Other groups (USGS, Suwannee River Partnership, and individual university investigators) have long worked on specific, local geological, hydrological, and biological problems within the watershed. Contributing Organizations: University of Florida, Florida State University, University of South Florida, University of Central Florida, University of Georgia, USGS, USDA, and SRWMD

  3. Watershed modeling tools and data for prognostic and diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambel-Leitao, P.; Brito, D.; Neves, R.

    2009-04-01

    When eutrophication is considered an important process to control it can be accomplished reducing nitrogen and phosphorus losses from both point and nonpoint sources and helping to assess the effectiveness of the pollution reduction strategy. HARP-NUT guidelines (Guidelines on Harmonized Quantification and Reporting Procedures for Nutrients) (Borgvang & Selvik, 2000) are presented by OSPAR as the best common quantification and reporting procedures for calculating the reduction of nutrient inputs. In 2000, OSPAR HARP-NUT guidelines on a trial basis. They were intended to serve as a tool for OSPAR Contracting Parties to report, in a harmonized manner, their different commitments, present or future, with regard to nutrients under the OSPAR Convention, in particular the "Strategy to Combat Eutrophication". HARP-NUT Guidelines (Borgvang and Selvik, 2000; Schoumans, 2003) were developed to quantify and report on the individual sources of nitrogen and phosphorus discharges/losses to surface waters (Source Orientated Approach). These results can be compared to nitrogen and phosphorus figures with the total riverine loads measured at downstream monitoring points (Load Orientated Approach), as load reconciliation. Nitrogen and phosphorus retention in river systems represents the connecting link between the "Source Orientated Approach" and the "Load Orientated Approach". Both approaches are necessary for verification purposes and both may be needed for providing the information required for the various commitments. Guidelines 2,3,4,5 are mainly concerned with the sources estimation. They present a set of simple calculations that allow the estimation of the origin of loads. Guideline 6 is a particular case where the application of a model is advised, in order to estimate the sources of nutrients from diffuse sources associated with land use/land cover. The model chosen for this was SWAT (Arnold & Fohrer, 2005) model because it is suggested in the guideline 6 and because it

  4. Commentary: Ethics, animals and the nonhuman great apes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-11-13

    , animals and the nonhuman great apes. Paola Cavalieri. Volume 31 Issue 5 December 2006 pp 509-512. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/031/05/0509-0512 ...

  5. Evaluating watershed protection programs in New York City's Cannonsville Reservoir source watershed using SWAT-HS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, L.; Mukundan, R.; Moore, K. E.; Owens, E. M.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    New York City (NYC)'s reservoirs supply over one billion gallons of drinking water each day to over nine million consumers in NYC and upstate communities. The City has invested more than $1.5 billion in watershed protection programs to maintain a waiver from filtration for the Catskill and Delaware Systems. In the last 25 years, the NYC Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) has implemented programs in cooperation with upstate communities that include nutrient management, crop rotations, improvement of barnyards and manure storage, implementing tertiary treatment for Phosphorus (P) in wastewater treatment plants, and replacing failed septic systems in an effort to reduce P loads to water supply reservoirs. There have been several modeling studies evaluating the effect of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs) on P control in the Cannonsville watershed in the Delaware System. Although these studies showed that BMPs would reduce dissolved P losses, they were limited to farm-scale or watershed-scale estimates of reduction factors without consideration of the dynamic nature of overland flow and P losses from variable source areas. Recently, we developed the process-based SWAT-Hillslope (SWAT-HS) model, a modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) that can realistically predict variable source runoff processes. The objective of this study is to use the SWAT-HS model to evaluate watershed protection programs addressing both point and non-point sources of P. SWAT-HS predicts streamflow very well for the Cannonsville watershed with a daily Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.85 at the watershed outlet and NSE values ranging from 0.56 - 0.82 at five other locations within the watershed. Based on good hydrological prediction, we applied the model to predict P loads using detailed P inputs that change over time due to the implementation of watershed protection programs. Results from P model predictions provide improved projections of P

  6. Integrating local research watersheds into hydrologic education: Lessons from the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J. P.; Aishlin, P. S.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.; Marshall, H. P.; Pierce, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    While a proliferation of instrumented research watersheds and new data sharing technologies has transformed hydrologic research in recent decades, similar advances have not been realized in hydrologic education. Long-standing problems in hydrologic education include discontinuity of hydrologic topics from introductory to advanced courses, inconsistency of content across academic departments, and difficulties in development of laboratory and homework assignments utilizing large time series and spatial data sets. Hydrologic problems are typically not amenable to "back-of-the-chapter" examples. Local, long-term research watersheds offer solutions to these problems. Here, we describe our integration of research and monitoring programs in the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed into undergraduate and graduate hydrology programs at Boise State University. We developed a suite of watershed-based exercises into courses and curriculums using real, tangible datasets from the watershed to teach concepts not amenable to traditional textbook and lecture methods. The aggregation of exercises throughout a course or degree allows for scaffolding of concepts with progressive exposure of advanced concepts throughout a course or degree. The need for exercises of this type is growing as traditional lecture-based classes (passive learning from a local authoritative source) are being replaced with active learning courses that integrate many sources of information through situational factors.

  7. Nitrogen fate and Transport in Diverse Agricultural Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, H.; McCarthy, K. A.; Baker, N. T.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrogen mass budgets have been estimated for ten agricultural watersheds located in a range of hydrologic settings in order to understand the factors controlling the fate of nitrogen applied at the surface. The watersheds, study areas of the Agricultural Chemical Sources, Transport and Fate study of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program, are located in Indiana (IN), Iowa (IA), Maryland (MD), Nebraska (NE), Mississippi (MS) and Washington (WA). They range in size from 7 to 1254 km2, with four of the watersheds nested within larger watersheds. Surface water outflow (normalized to watershed area) ranged from 4 to 83 cm/yr. Crops planted include corn, soybean, small grains, rice, cotton, orchards and vegetables. “Surplus nitrogen” was determined for each watershed by subtracting estimates of crop uptake and volatilization from estimates of nitrogen input from atmospheric deposition, plant fixation, and fertilizer and manure applications for the period from 1987 to 2004. This surplus nitrogen is transported though the watershed via surface and subsurface flow paths, while simultaneously undergoing transformations (such as denitrification and in-stream processing) that result in less export of nitrogen from the watershed. Surface-water discharge and concentration data were used to estimate the export of nitrogen from the watersheds (groundwater outflow from the watersheds was minimal). Subtracting nitrogen export from surplus nitrogen provides an estimate of the net amount of nitrogen removal occurring during internal watershed transport. Watershed average nitrogen surplus ranged from 6 to 49 kg-N/ha. The more permeable and/or greater water flux watersheds (MD, NE, and WA) tended to have larger surplus nitrogen, possibly due to less crop uptake caused by greater leaching and runoff of nitrogen. Almost all of the surplus nitrogen in the low permeability (MS) and tile drained watersheds (IA, IN) was exported from the watershed with

  8. A watershed model to integrate EO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Eduardo; Chambel-Leitao, Pedro; Carina, Almeida; Brito, David; Cherif, Ines; Alexandridis, Thomas; Neves, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    MOHID LAND is a open source watershed model developed by MARETEC and is part of the MOHID Framework. It integrates four mediums (or compartments): porous media, surface, rivers and atmosphere. The movement of water between these mediums are based on mass and momentum balance equations. The atmosphere medium is not explicity simulated. Instead, it's used as boundary condition to the model through meteorological properties: precipitation, solar radiation, wind speed/direction, relative humidity and air temperature. The surface medium includes the overland runoff and vegetation growth processes and is simulated using a 2D grid. The porous media includes both the unsaturated (soil) and saturated zones (aquifer) and is simulated using a 3D grid. The river flow is simulated through a 1D drainage network. All these mediums are linked through evapotranspiration and flow exchanges (infiltration, river-soil growndwater flow, surface-river overland flow). Besides the water movement, it is also possible to simulate water quality processes and solute/sediment transport. Model setup include the definition of the geometry and the properties of each one of its compartments. After the setup of the model, the only continuous input data that MOHID LAND requires are the atmosphere properties (boundary conditions) that can be provided as timeseries or spacial data. MOHID LAND has been adapted the last 4 years under FP7 and ESA projects to integrate Earth Observation (EO) data, both variable in time and in space. EO data can be used to calibrate/validate or as input/assimilation data to the model. The currently EO data used include LULC (Land Use Land Cover) maps, LAI (Leaf Area Index) maps, EVTP (Evapotranspiration) maps and SWC (Soil Water Content) maps. Model results are improved by the EO data, but the advantage of this integration is that the model can still run without the EO data. This means that model do not stop due to unavailability of EO data and can run on a forecast mode

  9. Assessing Resilience in Stressed Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine T. Nemec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although several frameworks for assessing the resilience of social-ecological systems (SESs have been developed, some practitioners may not have sufficient time and information to conduct extensive resilience assessments. We have presented a simplified approach to resilience assessment that reviews the scientific, historical, and social literature to rate the resilience of an SES with respect to nine resilience properties: ecological variability, diversity, modularity, acknowledgement of slow variables, tight feedbacks, social capital, innovation, overlap in governance, and ecosystem services. We evaluated the effects of two large-scale projects, the construction of a major dam and the implementation of an ecosystem recovery program, on the resilience of the central Platte River SES (Nebraska, United States. We used this case study to identify the strengths and weaknesses of applying a simplified approach to resilience assessment. Although social resilience has increased steadily since the predam period for the central Platte River SES, ecological resilience was greatly reduced in the postdam period as compared to the predam and ecosystem recovery program time periods.

  10. Famous puzzles of great mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Petković, Miodrag S

    2009-01-01

    This entertaining book presents a collection of 180 famous mathematical puzzles and intriguing elementary problems that great mathematicians have posed, discussed, and/or solved. The selected problems do not require advanced mathematics, making this book accessible to a variety of readers. Mathematical recreations offer a rich playground for both amateur and professional mathematicians. Believing that creative stimuli and aesthetic considerations are closely related, great mathematicians from ancient times to the present have always taken an interest in puzzles and diversions. The goal of this

  11. Granite Exfoliation, Cosumnes River Watershed, Somerset, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, I. Q.; Neiss-Cortez, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Sierra Nevada foothills of California there are many exposed granite plutons within the greater Sierra Nevada batholith. As with most exposed parts of the batholith, these granite slabs exfoliate. It is important to understand exfoliation for issues of public safety as it can cause rock slides near homes, roads, and recreation areas. Through observation, measuring, and mapping we characterize exfoliation in our Cosumnes River watershed community.

  12. New trends in watershed management and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    I would like to present some new environmental technologies by shoving restoration projects that are currently being implemented in the eastern United States that require this co-operation for successful implementation. The environmental technologies that will be discussed include the use of existing or constructed wetlands to treat surface and groundwater impacted in contaminants from various sources. The main goal of these type projects are to provide a low-cost and effective treatment for existing pollution problems. Many of these projects are initiated by civic associations (or NGOs) that wanted to improve the state of environment in their area. Because everyone has the responsibility to a clean environment in which they live, NGOs, state government, business, and local citizens, and local citizens worked closely together to solve problems in their watersheds. These projects are only examples of what is being done in the United States. However, I would like also to discuss what projects exist in eastern Slovakia, and others that could be started in Slovakia that improve relationships between MGOs and the state and local governmental decision-making process, with the ultimate goal to improve water quality in the Danube watershed in the future. There are severe environmental technologies that can be applied to improve the water quality of rivers throughout the Danube watershed, such as treatment of wastewater using wetland vegetation, and treatment of acid-mine drainage. In April 1996, NGO People and Water in co-operation with the village governments of the Upper Torysa River watershed started the project Villages for the 3 rd millennium in the Carpathian Euro-Region. One of the main goals of this project is to introduce new environmental technologies in the rural communities of the Upper Torysa River area. Since people trust their eyes than their ears. It is important to initiate practical, pilot projects to convince citizens and governments that these low

  13. Watershed modeling at the Savannah River Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vache, Kellie [Oregon State University

    2015-04-29

    The overall goal of the work was the development of a watershed scale model of hydrological function for application to the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The primary outcomes is a grid based hydrological modeling system that captures near surface runoff as well as groundwater recharge and contributions of groundwater to streams. The model includes a physically-based algorithm to capture both evaporation and transpiration from forestland.

  14. Application of a virtual watershed in academic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Horn

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic models of watersheds often represent complex systems which are difficult to understand regarding to their structure and dynamics. Virtual watersheds, i.e. watersheds which exist only in the virtual reality of a computer system, are an approach to simplify access to this real-world complexity. In this study we present the virtual watershed KIELSHED-1, a 117 km2 v-shaped valley with grassland on a "Cambisol" soil type. Two weather scenarios are delivered with the watershed: a simplified artificial weather scenario based on long-term data of a German weather station as well as an unmodified data record. The input data and parameters are compiled according to the conventions of the SWAT 2000 hydrological model. KIELSHED-1 is mainly used for education, and illustrative application examples, i.e. calculation of water balance, model calibration, development of land use scenarios, give an insight to the capabilities of the virtual watershed.

  15. Residence times and nitrate transport in ground water discharging to streams in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Phillips, Scott; Donnelly, Colleen A.; Speiran, Gary K.; Plummer, Niel; Bohlke, John Karl; Focazio, Michael J.; Burton, William C.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2003-01-01

    similar pattern: younger water discharges to small order streams in headwater basins and older water discharges to larger streams near the basin outlet.Factors affecting nitrogen transport in ground water include spatial and temporal variation in input sources, ground-water age, and aquifer processes that lead to denitrification. Spatial and temporal variations in nitrogen sources affect all the watersheds. Tributaries with higher inputs of nitrogen have higher concentrations in stream base flow. Areas where nitrogen application rates have increased over time show an age-nitrate relation in ground-water samples. The age-nitrate relation can be affected by denitrification, which occurs in Pocomoke and East Mahantango Creeks but is not evident in Polecat and Muddy Creeks. In East Mahantango Creek, the level of denitrification is significant in water with residence times greater than 20 years, but because this is a small component of overall ground-water discharge to a stream, it may not remove a significant quantity of nitrogen from the system. Denitrification in Pocomoke Creek is significant and appears to affect mostly older water discharging to streams. Therefore, if most of the nitrogen entering these two streams is associated with the discharge of younger ground water, denitrification may not greatly affect the overall nitrogen delivery to these streams.Other findings of this study show that nitrate in ground water discharging along preferential flow paths may not be affected by natural processes, such as denitrification or uptake by riparian vegetation. Seeps to swales and ditches beneath the north uplands at Polecat Creek indicate a shallow water table and discharge of young ground water whereas the absence of such seeps on the south side indicates a deep water table and a lack of young ground water. Similarly, discharge at the base of the slope and to the valley wetland south of the creek but not north of the creek indicates a different role for the

  16. Challenges in Aquatic Physical Habitat Assessment: Improving Conservation and Restoration Decisions for Contemporary Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Hubbart

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Attribution of in-stream biological impairment to anthropogenic activities and prioritization for restoration and/or conservation can be challenging in contemporary mixed-land-use watersheds. Critical information necessary to improve decision making can be costly and labor intensive, and thus unobtainable for many municipalities. A reduced cost, rapid stream physical habitat assessment (rPHA can yield information that, when paired with land use data may reveal causal patterns in aquatic physical habitat degradation, and thus assist targeting sites for restoration. However, a great deal of work is needed to reduce associated costs, and validate the potential of rPHA for documenting fine-scale incremental change in physical habitat conditions in complex contemporary watersheds. The following commentary serves to draw attention to rPHA challenges and research needs including (but not limited to field-based validation and optimization of new remote sensing technologies, evaluation of the accuracy and representativeness of rapid vegetation survey methods, refinement of analytical methods, and consideration of legacy land use impacts and hydrologic system evolution in rPHA results interpretation. Considering the value of rPHA-generated data for improvement of watershed resource management, such challenges constitute timely, high-impact research opportunities for investigators wishing to advance complex, contemporary aquatic ecosystem management.

  17. Assessment of the fate of anthropogenic nitrogen in large watersheds by isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, B.

    1999-01-01

    Human activity has greatly altered the nitrogen cycle in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and increased the nitrogen flow in many rivers. Preliminary work of the International SCOPE Nitrogen Project indicates that only 20% of the human-controlled nitrogen inputs to large watersheds are exported to the oceans in riverine flow (Howarth, 1998). Therefore, approximately 80% of the anthropogenic nitrogen inputs are either stored or denitrified in the catchments. Anthropogenic nitrogen can be retained in forests (possibly as a result of increased productivity) or in agricultural soils. It can also be stored in groundwater. These sinks are, however, often not large enough to account for the 'missing' nitrogen. It is, therefore, assumed that the majority of the human-controlled nitrogen inputs to large watersheds is denitrified in soils, riparian zones, wetlands, lakes, and rivers. Within the SCOPE Nitrogen Project, preliminary isotope analyses were performed on dissolved nitrates from several streams draining into the North Atlantic Ocean. Both δ 15 N nitrate and δ 18 O nitrate values were determined in order to identify nitrate sources. A further objective was to test, whether the isotopic composition of dissolved nitrate provides a measure for the extent to which denitrification occurs in the respective watersheds

  18. Land Capability Evaluation of Upper Sekampung Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Sukri Banuwa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is a serious problem in the Upper Sekampung Watersheds. This is because the farmers cultivated in steep land to coffee crops without in adequate soil and water conservation practices. The land degradation is mostly caused by erosion. The erosion problem not only stripping the most fertile top soil and decreasing crop production, but also resulting problems in lowland. Therefore, the reorientation land management should be improved to produce agriculture sustainability. The first step is to evaluated land capability this area. The objectives of the research were evaluate land capability of Upper Sekampung Watersheds. The results showed that the Upper Sekampung Watersheds were dominated with class and subclass land capability of III-l2 about 17.630,51 ha (41,58%. All of the constrain for each land capability in this area is erosion hazard, especially land slope. From this research, cultivated land to coffee base crops were allowed in land capability II-l1.e1, III-l2, IV-l3, and VI-l4, with in adequate soil and water conservation practices. In contrary, the land capability of VII-l5 unsuitable for agriculture, they should be a nature or for conservation forest.

  19. Accounting for inter-annual and seasonal variability in regionalization of hydrologic response in the Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kult, J. M.; Fry, L. M.; Gronewold, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Methods for predicting streamflow in areas with limited or nonexistent measures of hydrologic response typically invoke the concept of regionalization, whereby knowledge pertaining to gauged catchments is transferred to ungauged catchments. In this study, we identify watershed physical characteristics acting as primary drivers of hydrologic response throughout the US portion of the Great Lakes basin. Relationships between watershed physical characteristics and hydrologic response are generated from 166 catchments spanning a variety of climate, soil, land cover, and land form regimes through regression tree analysis, leading to a grouping of watersheds exhibiting similar hydrologic response characteristics. These groupings are then used to predict response in ungauged watersheds in an uncertainty framework. Results from this method are assessed alongside one historical regionalization approach which, while simple, has served as a cornerstone of Great Lakes regional hydrologic research for several decades. Our approach expands upon previous research by considering multiple temporal characterizations of hydrologic response. Due to the substantial inter-annual and seasonal variability in hydrologic response observed over the Great Lakes basin, results from the regression tree analysis differ considerably depending on the level of temporal aggregation used to define the response. Specifically, higher levels of temporal aggregation for the response metric (for example, indices derived from long-term means of climate and streamflow observations) lead to improved watershed groupings with lower within-group variance. However, this perceived improvement in model skill occurs at the cost of understated uncertainty when applying the regression to time series simulations or as a basis for model calibration. In such cases, our results indicate that predictions based on long-term characterizations of hydrologic response can produce misleading conclusions when applied at shorter

  20. With great power comes great responsibility : Max Havelaar Lecture 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.M. van Tulder (Rob)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis is the motto of the struggling hero Spiderman. The continuous struggle of Spiderman with grasping his powers as well as linking this to his responsibilities not only provides an exiting sequel, but also a strong metaphor for the struggle of big corporations around the world when

  1. Linkage of a Physically Based Distributed Watershed Model and a Dynamic Plant Growth Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Billy E; Coldren, Cade L

    2006-01-01

    The impact of hydrological alteration on vegetation and of vegetation on water quality can be greatly facilitated by linking existing water engines with general ecosystem models designed to make long...

  2. Understanding toxicity at the watershed scale : design of the Syncrude Sandhill Fen watershed research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wytrykush, C.

    2010-01-01

    Fens are peat-accumulating wetlands with a water table consisting of mineral-rich ground or surface water. This study discussed the construction of a fen-type reclaimed wetland constructed in a post-mining oil sands landscape. Syncrude Canada's Sandhill fen watershed project represents the first attempt at constructing a fen wetland in the oil sands region. The wetland and its watershed will be constructed on a soft tailings deposit. The design basis for the fen and watershed was developed by a team of researchers and scientists. The aim of the fen design was to control the salinity caused by tailings consolidation and seepage over time. Methods of mitigating potentially toxic effects from salinity were discussed.

  3. The Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata) of the St. Lawrence Great Lakes region: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Douglas R.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    2003-01-01

    An updated oligochaete species list for the Great Lakes region is provided. The list was developed through the reexamination of the taxa reported in a previous report in 1980, addition of new taxa or records collected from the region since 1980, and an update of taxonomy commensurate with systematic and nomenclatural changes over the intervening years since the last review. The authors found 74 papers mentioning Great Lakes oligochaete species. The majority of these papers were published in the 1980s. The literature review and additional collections resulted in 15 species being added to the previous list. Nine taxa were removed from the previous list due to misidentification, synonymies, level of identification, or inability to confirm the identity. Based on this review, 101 species of Oligochaeta are now known from the St. Lawrence Great Lakes watershed. Of these, 95 species are known from the St. Lawrence Great Lakes proper, with an additional 6 species recorded from the inland waters of the watershed. The greatest diversity of oligochaete species was found in the inland waters of the region (81) followed by Lake Huron (72), Lake Ontario (65), Lake Erie (64), Lake Superior (63), Lake Michigan (62), St. Marys River (60), Niagara River (49), Saginaw Bay (44), St. Clair River (37), Lake St. Clair (36), St. Lawrence River (27), and the Detroit River (21). Three species are suspected of being introduced, Branchiura sowerbyi, Gianius aquaedulcisand Ripistes parasita, and two are believed to be endemic, Thalassodrilus hallae andTeneridrilus flexus.

  4. ROLE OF WATERSHED SUBDIVISION ON MODELING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WITH SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distributed parameter watershed models are often used for evaluating the effectiveness of various best management practices (BMPs). Streamflow, sediment, and nutrient yield predictions of a watershed model can be affected by spatial resolution as dictated by watershed subdivisio...

  5. Making a Great First Impression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Managers and business owners often base hiring decisions on first impressions. That is why it is so important to teach students to make a great first impression--before they go on that first job interview. Managers do not have unrealistic expectations, they just want to hire people who they believe can develop into valuable employees. A nice…

  6. Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Project goals, project tasks, progress on tasks, and problems encountered are described and discussed for each of the studies that make up the Great Basin Paleoenvironmental Studies Project for Yucca Mountain. These studies are: Paleobotany, Paleofauna, Geomorphology, and Transportation. Budget summaries are also given for each of the studies and for the overall project

  7. The Great Books and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an introductory economics course in which all of the reading material is drawn from the Great Books of Western Civilization. Explains the rationale and mechanics of the course. Includes an annotated course syllabus that details how the reading material relates to the lecture material. (RLH)

  8. Great tit hatchling sex ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Mateman, A.C.; Visser, J.

    1996-01-01

    The sex of Great Tit Parus major nestlings was determined using PCR RAPDs. Because this technique requires minute amounts of DNA, chicks could be sampled soon (0-2d) after hatching, before any nestling mortality occurred. The proportion of males among 752 chicks hatching in 102 broods (98.9% of

  9. The Great Gatsby. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Ken

    Based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel "The Great Gatsby," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that adapting part of a novel into a dramatic reading makes students more intimate with the author's intentions and craft; and that a part of a novel may lend itself to various oral interpretations. The main activity…

  10. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ Mason

    2008-01-01

    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  11. An approach to measure parameter sensitivity in watershed hydrologic modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Abstract Hydrologic responses vary spatially and temporally according to watershed characteristics. In this study, the hydrologic models that we developed earlier...

  12. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  13. Impacts of Salinity on Saint-Augustin Lake, Canada: Remediation Measures at Watershed Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Guesdon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter road network management is a source of anthropogenic salinity in the Saint-Augustin Lake watershed (Quebec City, QC, Canada. To prevent the potential impact caused by road runoff involving de-icing salts (NaCl and trace metals (Cd and Pb on the watershed, a full-scale treatment chain system (including a detention basin, a filtering bed, and a constructed wetland was built. Average Cl and Na concentrations in groundwater were higher in wells affected by road network (125 mg/L Cl and 64 mg/L Na than in control wells (13 mg/L Cl and 33 mg/L Na suggesting a contamination by de-icing salts. The monitoring of influent and effluent surface water in the treatment system has shown a seasonal dependence in NaCl concentrations and electrical conductivity values, being the highest in summer, linked with the lower precipitation and higher temperature. Concentration ranges were as follows: 114–846 mg/L Na and 158–1757 mg/L Cl (summer > 61–559 mg/L Na and 63–799 mg/L Cl (spring and autumn. The treatment system removal efficiency was significant, however with seasonal variations: 16%–20% Cl, 3%–25% Na, 7%–10% Cd and 7%–36% Pb. The treatment system has shown an interesting potential to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic salinity at watershed scale with higher expected performances in the subsequent years of operation.

  14. Evaluation of stream chemistry trends in US Geological Survey reference watersheds, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M Alisa

    2013-11-01

    The Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) is a long-term monitoring program established by the US Geological Survey in the 1960s to track changes in the streamflow and stream chemistry in undeveloped watersheds across the USA. Trends in stream chemistry were tested at 15 HBN stations over two periods (1970-2010 and 1990-2010) using the parametric Load Estimator (LOADEST) model and the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test. Trends in annual streamflow and precipitation chemistry also were tested to help identify likely drivers of changes in stream chemistry. At stations in the northeastern USA, there were significant declines in stream sulfate, which were consistent with declines in sulfate deposition resulting from the reductions in SO₂ emissions mandated under the Clean Air Act Amendments. Sulfate declines in stream water were smaller than declines in deposition suggesting sulfate may be accumulating in watershed soils and thereby delaying the stream response to improvements in deposition. Trends in stream chemistry at stations in other part of the country generally were attributed to climate variability or land disturbance. Despite declines in sulfate deposition, increasing stream sulfate was observed at several stations and appeared to be linked to periods of drought or declining streamflow. Falling water tables might have enhanced oxidation of organic matter in wetlands or pyrite in mineralized bedrock thereby increasing sulfate export in surface water. Increasing sulfate and nitrate at a station in the western USA were attributed to release of soluble salts and nutrients from soils following a large wildfire in the watershed.

  15. United States‐Mexican border watershed assessment: Modeling nonpoint source pollution in Ambos Nogales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    Ecological considerations need to be interwoven with economic policy and planning along the United States‐Mexican border. Non‐point source pollution can have significant implications for the availability of potable water and the continued health of borderland ecosystems in arid lands. However, environmental assessments in this region present a host of unique issues and problems. A common obstacle to the solution of these problems is the integration of data with different resolutions, naming conventions, and quality to create a consistent database across the binational study area. This report presents a simple modeling approach to predict nonpoint source pollution that can be used for border watersheds. The modeling approach links a hillslopescale erosion‐prediction model and a spatially derived sediment‐delivery model within a geographic information system to estimate erosion, sediment yield, and sediment deposition across the Ambos Nogales watershed in Sonora, Mexico, and Arizona. This paper discusses the procedures used for creating a watershed database to apply the models and presents an example of the modeling approach applied to a conservation‐planning problem.

  16. Towards a digital watershed, with a case study in the Heihe River Basin of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Cheng, G.-D.; Ma, M.-G.; Lu, L.; Ge, Y.-C.

    2003-04-01

    Integrated watershed study and river basin management needs integrated database and integrated hydrological and water resource models. We define digital watershed as a web-based information system that integrates data from different sources and in different scales through both information technology and hydrological modeling. In the last two years, a “digital basin” of the Heihe River Basin, which is a well-studied in-land catchment in China’s arid region was established. More than 6 Gb of in situ observation data, GIS maps, and remotely sensed data have been uploaded to the Heihe web site. Various database and dynamic web techniques such as PHP, ASP, XML, VRML are being used for data service. In addition, the DIAL (Data and Information Access Link), IMS (Internet Map Server) and other Web-GISs are used to make GIS and remote sensing datasets of the Heihe River Basin available and accessible on the Internet. We also have developed models for estimating the evapotranspiration, bio-physical parameters, and snow runoff. These methods can be considered as the elements to build up the integrated watershed model that can be used for integrated management of the Heihe River Basin. The official domain name of the digital Heihe River Basin is heihe.westgis.ac.cn

  17. Evaluation of stream chemistry trends in US Geological Survey reference watersheds, 1970-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M. Alisa

    2013-01-01

    The Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) is a long-term monitoring program established by the US Geological Survey in the 1960s to track changes in the streamflow and stream chemistry in undeveloped watersheds across the USA. Trends in stream chemistry were tested at 15 HBN stations over two periods (1970–2010 and 1990–2010) using the parametric Load Estimator (LOADEST) model and the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test. Trends in annual streamflow and precipitation chemistry also were tested to help identify likely drivers of changes in stream chemistry. At stations in the northeastern USA, there were significant declines in stream sulfate, which were consistent with declines in sulfate deposition resulting from the reductions in SO2 emissions mandated under the Clean Air Act Amendments. Sulfate declines in stream water were smaller than declines in deposition suggesting sulfate may be accumulating in watershed soils and thereby delaying the stream response to improvements in deposition. Trends in stream chemistry at stations in other part of the country generally were attributed to climate variability or land disturbance. Despite declines in sulfate deposition, increasing stream sulfate was observed at several stations and appeared to be linked to periods of drought or declining streamflow. Falling water tables might have enhanced oxidation of organic matter in wetlands or pyrite in mineralized bedrock thereby increasing sulfate export in surface water. Increasing sulfate and nitrate at a station in the western USA were attributed to release of soluble salts and nutrients from soils following a large wildfire in the watershed.

  18. Telemetric system for hydrology and water quality monitoring in watersheds of northern New Mexico, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael L; Huey, Greg M

    2006-05-01

    This study utilized telemetric systems to sample microbes and pathogens in forest, burned forest, rangeland, and urban watersheds to assess surface water quality in northern New Mexico. Four sites included remote mountainous watersheds, prairie rangelands, and a small urban area. The telemetric system was linked to dataloggers with automated event monitoring equipment to monitor discharge, turbidity, electrical conductivity, water temperature, and rainfall during base flow and storm events. Site data stored in dataloggers was uploaded to one of three types of telemetry: 1) radio in rangeland and urban settings; 2) a conventional phone/modem system with a modem positioned at the urban/forest interface; and 3) a satellite system used in a remote mountainous burned forest watershed. The major variables affecting selection of each system were site access, distance, technology, and cost. The systems were compared based on operation and cost. Utilization of telecommunications systems in this varied geographic area facilitated the gathering of hydrologic and water quality data on a timely basis.

  19. Coupling a continuous watershed-scale microbial fate and transport model with a stochastic dose-response model to estimate risk of illness in an urban watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Hehuan, E-mail: hehuan86@vt.edu [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, 155 Ag Quad Lane, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Krometis, Leigh-Anne H. [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, 155 Ag Quad Lane, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Kline, Karen [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, 155 Ag Quad Lane, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Center for Watershed Studies, Virginia Tech, 155 Ag Quad Lane, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Within the United States, elevated levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) remain the leading cause of surface water-quality impairments requiring formal remediation plans under the federal Clean Water Act's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The sufficiency of compliance with numerical FIB criteria as the targeted endpoint of TMDL remediation plans may be questionable given poor correlations between FIB and pathogenic microorganisms and varying degrees of risk associated with exposure to different fecal pollution sources (e.g. human vs animal). The present study linked a watershed-scale FIB fate and transport model with a dose-response model to continuously predict human health risks via quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), for comparison to regulatory benchmarks. This process permitted comparison of risks associated with different fecal pollution sources in an impaired urban watershed in order to identify remediation priorities. Results indicate that total human illness risks were consistently higher than the regulatory benchmark of 36 illnesses/1000 people for the study watershed, even when the predicted FIB levels were in compliance with the Escherichia coli geometric mean standard of 126 CFU/100 mL. Sanitary sewer overflows were associated with the greatest risk of illness. This is of particular concern, given increasing indications that sewer leakage is ubiquitous in urban areas, yet not typically fully accounted for during TMDL development. Uncertainty analysis suggested the accuracy of risk estimates would be improved by more detailed knowledge of site-specific pathogen presence and densities. While previous applications of the QMRA process to impaired waterways have mostly focused on single storm events or hypothetical situations, the continuous modeling framework presented in this study could be integrated into long-term water quality management planning, especially the United States' TMDL program, providing greater clarity to

  20. Coupling a continuous watershed-scale microbial fate and transport model with a stochastic dose-response model to estimate risk of illness in an urban watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Hehuan; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H.; Kline, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Within the United States, elevated levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) remain the leading cause of surface water-quality impairments requiring formal remediation plans under the federal Clean Water Act's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The sufficiency of compliance with numerical FIB criteria as the targeted endpoint of TMDL remediation plans may be questionable given poor correlations between FIB and pathogenic microorganisms and varying degrees of risk associated with exposure to different fecal pollution sources (e.g. human vs animal). The present study linked a watershed-scale FIB fate and transport model with a dose-response model to continuously predict human health risks via quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), for comparison to regulatory benchmarks. This process permitted comparison of risks associated with different fecal pollution sources in an impaired urban watershed in order to identify remediation priorities. Results indicate that total human illness risks were consistently higher than the regulatory benchmark of 36 illnesses/1000 people for the study watershed, even when the predicted FIB levels were in compliance with the Escherichia coli geometric mean standard of 126 CFU/100 mL. Sanitary sewer overflows were associated with the greatest risk of illness. This is of particular concern, given increasing indications that sewer leakage is ubiquitous in urban areas, yet not typically fully accounted for during TMDL development. Uncertainty analysis suggested the accuracy of risk estimates would be improved by more detailed knowledge of site-specific pathogen presence and densities. While previous applications of the QMRA process to impaired waterways have mostly focused on single storm events or hypothetical situations, the continuous modeling framework presented in this study could be integrated into long-term water quality management planning, especially the United States' TMDL program, providing greater clarity to watershed

  1. Water quality trading opportunities in two sub-watersheds in the northern Lake Okeechobee watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    For decades, the increase of nutrient enrichment has threatened the ecological integrity and economic sustainability of many rivers, lakes, and coastal waters, including Lake Okeechobee, the second largest freshwater lake in the contiguous United States. Water quality trading programs have been an area of active development to both, reduce nutrient pollution and minimize abatement costs. The objective of this study was to apply a comprehensive modeling framework, integrating a hydrologic-water quality model with an economic model, to assess and compare the cost-effectiveness of a water quality trading program over a command-and-control approach in order to reduce phosphorus loadings to Lake Okeechobee. The Upper Kissimmee (UK) and Taylor Creek/Nubbin Slough (TCNS) sub-watersheds, identified as major sources of total phosphorus (TP) loadings to the lake, were selected for this analysis. The effect of different caps on the market potential was assessed while considering four factors: the least-cost abatement solutions, credit prices, potential cost savings, and credit supply and demand. Hypothetical trading scenarios were also developed, using the optimal caps selected for the two sub-watersheds. In both sub-watersheds, a phosphorus credit trading program was less expensive than the conventional command-and-control approach. While attaining cost-effectiveness, keeping optimal credit prices, and fostering market competition, phosphorus reduction targets of 46% and 32% were selected as the most appropriate caps in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds, respectively. Wastewater treatment facilities and urban areas in the UK, and concentrated animal feeding operations in the TCNS sub-watershed were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas improved pastures were identified as the major credit sellers in both sub-watersheds. The estimated net cost savings resulting from implementing a phosphorus trading program in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds were 76% ($ 34.9 million per

  2. Coastal watershed management across an international border in the Tijuana River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Linda

    2005-05-01

    The paper develops and applies a game theoretic model of upstream and downstream countries to examine cooperative and noncooperative strategies of a common watershed. The application to the Tijuana River watershed shared by the United States and Mexico provides quantification of the strategies for internalizing water quality externalities to upstream and downstream originating from sedimentation. Results show that different transfer payments, such as the Chander/Tulkens cost sharing rule and the Shapley value, imply the size of the existing transfer from downstream to upstream could increase the amount currently allocated.

  3. Integration of Tidal Prism Model and HSPF for simulating indicator bacteria in coastal watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Rose S.; Rifai, Hanadi S.; Petersen, Christina M.

    2017-09-01

    Coastal water quality is strongly influenced by tidal fluctuations and water chemistry. There is a need for rigorous models that are not computationally or economically prohibitive, but still allow simulation of the hydrodynamics and bacteria sources for coastal, tidally influenced streams and bayous. This paper presents a modeling approach that links a Tidal Prism Model (TPM) implemented in an Excel-based modeling environment with a watershed runoff model (Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN, HSPF) for such watersheds. The TPM is a one-dimensional mass balance approach that accounts for loading from tidal exchange, runoff, point sources and bacteria die-off at an hourly time step resolution. The novel use of equal high-resolution time steps in this study allowed seamless integration of the TPM and HSPF. The linked model was calibrated to flow and E. Coli data (for HSPF), and salinity and enterococci data (for the TPM) for a coastal stream in Texas. Sensitivity analyses showed the TPM to be most influenced by changes in net decay rates followed by tidal and runoff loads, respectively. Management scenarios were evaluated with the developed linked models to assess the impact of runoff load reductions and improved wastewater treatment plant quality and to determine the areas of critical need for such reductions. Achieving water quality standards for bacteria required load reductions that ranged from zero to 90% for the modeled coastal stream.

  4. Runoff response to climate change and human activities in a typical karst watershed, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Shijie; Shu, Dongcai; Tian, Yichao

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the runoff variation characteristics of long time series in a karst region, analyse comprehensively its different driving factors, and estimate quantitatively the contribution rates of climate change and human activities to net runoff variation. Liudong river basin, a typical karst watershed in southwest China, is the study site. Statistical methods, such as linear fitting, the Morlet wavelet analysis, normalized curve and double mass curve, are applied to analyse the runoff of the watershed. Results show that the runoff in the karst watershed during the research period exhibits a three-stage change and the abrupt change points are the years 1981 and 2007: (1) 1968–1980, the runoff initially exhibited a trend of sustained decreasing and then an abrupt fluctuation. The runoff was obviously destroyed through precipitation-producing processes. Improper land utilisation and serious forest and grass destruction intensified the fluctuation variation amplitude of the runoff. (2) 1981–2006, the changing processes of runoff and precipitation exhibited good synchronism. Precipitation significantly affected runoff variation and human activities had a slight interference degree. (3) 2007–2013, the fluctuation range of runoff was considerably smaller than that of precipitation. The significant growth of forest and grassland areas and the increase in water consumption mitigated runoff fluctuation and greatly diminished runoff variation amplitude. According to calculation, the relative contribution rates of precipitation and human activities to net runoff variation with 1981–2007 as the reference period were −81% and 181% in average, respectively, during 1968–1980, and −117% and 217% in average, respectively, during 2007–2013. In general, the analysis of runoff variation trend and of the contribution rate of its main influencing factors in the typical karst watershed for nearly half a century may be significant to solve the drought

  5. Runoff response to climate change and human activities in a typical karst watershed, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Shu, Dongcai; Tian, Yichao

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the runoff variation characteristics of long time series in a karst region, analyse comprehensively its different driving factors, and estimate quantitatively the contribution rates of climate change and human activities to net runoff variation. Liudong river basin, a typical karst watershed in southwest China, is the study site. Statistical methods, such as linear fitting, the Morlet wavelet analysis, normalized curve and double mass curve, are applied to analyse the runoff of the watershed. Results show that the runoff in the karst watershed during the research period exhibits a three-stage change and the abrupt change points are the years 1981 and 2007: (1) 1968-1980, the runoff initially exhibited a trend of sustained decreasing and then an abrupt fluctuation. The runoff was obviously destroyed through precipitation-producing processes. Improper land utilisation and serious forest and grass destruction intensified the fluctuation variation amplitude of the runoff. (2) 1981-2006, the changing processes of runoff and precipitation exhibited good synchronism. Precipitation significantly affected runoff variation and human activities had a slight interference degree. (3) 2007-2013, the fluctuation range of runoff was considerably smaller than that of precipitation. The significant growth of forest and grassland areas and the increase in water consumption mitigated runoff fluctuation and greatly diminished runoff variation amplitude. According to calculation, the relative contribution rates of precipitation and human activities to net runoff variation with 1981-2007 as the reference period were -81% and 181% in average, respectively, during 1968-1980, and -117% and 217% in average, respectively, during 2007-2013. In general, the analysis of runoff variation trend and of the contribution rate of its main influencing factors in the typical karst watershed for nearly half a century may be significant to solve the drought problem in the karst

  6. Pre- and post-fire pollutant loads in an urban fringe watershed in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M P; Hogue, T S; Kinoshita, A M; Barco, J; Wessel, C; Stein, E D

    2013-12-01

    Post-fire runoff has the potential to be a large source of contaminants to downstream areas. However, the magnitude of this effect in urban fringe watersheds adjacent to large sources of airborne contaminants is not well documented. The current study investigates the impacts of wildfire on stormwater contaminant loading from the upper Arroyo Seco watershed, burned in 2009. This watershed is adjacent to the Greater Los Angeles, CA, USA area and has not burned in over 60 years. Consequently, it acts as a sink for regional urban pollutants and presents an opportunity to study the impacts of wildfire. Pre- and post-fire storm samples were collected and analyzed for basic cations, trace metals, and total suspended solids. The loss of vegetation and changes in soil properties from the fire greatly increased the magnitude of storm runoff, resulting in sediment-laden floods carrying high concentrations of particulate-bound constituents. Post-fire concentrations and loads were up to three orders of magnitude greater than pre-fire values for many trace metals, including lead and cadmium. A shift was also observed in the timing of chemical delivery, where maximum suspended sediment, trace metal, and cation concentrations coincided with, rather than preceded, peak discharge in the post-fire runoff, amplifying the fire's impacts on mass loading. The results emphasize the importance of sediment delivery as a primary mechanism for post-fire contaminant transport and suggest that traditional management practices that focus on treating only the early portion of storm runoff may be less effective following wildfire. We also advocate that watersheds impacted by regional urban pollutants have the potential to pose significant risk for downstream communities and ecosystems after fire.

  7. Spatiotemporal variation of watershed health propensity through reliability-resilience-vulnerability based drought index (case study: Shazand Watershed in Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Hazbavi, Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    Quantitative response of the watershed health to climate variability is of critical importance for watershed managers. However, existing studies seldom considered the impact of climate variability on watershed health. The present study therefore aimed to analyze the temporal and spatial variability of reliability (R el ), resilience (R es ) and vulnerability (V ul ) indicators in node years of 1986, 1998, 2008 and 2014 in connection with Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for 24 sub-watersheds in the Shazand Watershed of Markazi Province in Iran. The analysis was based on rainfall variability as one of the main climatic drivers. To achieve the study purposes, the monthly rainfall time series of eight rain gauge stations distributed across the watershed or neighboring areas were analyzed and corresponding SPIs and R el R es V ul indicators were calculated. Ultimately, the spatial variation of SPI oriented R el R es V ul was mapped for the study watershed using Geographic Information System (GIS). The average and standard deviation of SPI-R el R es V ul index for the study years of 1986, 1998, 2008 and 2014 was obtained 0.240±0.025, 0.290±0.036, 0.077±0.0280 and 0.241±0.081, respectively. In overall, the results of the study proved the spatiotemporal variations of SPI-R el R es V ul watershed health index in the study area. Accordingly, all the sub-watersheds of the Shazand Watershed were grouped in unhealthy and very unhealthy conditions in all the study years. For 1986 and 1998 all the sub-watersheds were assessed in unhealthy status. Whilst, it declined to very unhealthy condition in 2008 and then some 75% of the watershed ultimately referred again to unhealthy and the rest still remained under very unhealthy conditions in 2014. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Retrospective Review of Watershed Characteristics and a Framework for Future Research in the Sarasota Bay Watershed, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, George R.; Harrison, Arnell S.; Alderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sarasota Bay Estuary Program conducted a retrospective review of characteristics of the Sarasota Bay watershed in west-central Florida. This report describes watershed characteristics, surface- and ground-water processes, and the environmental setting of the Sarasota Bay watershed. Population growth during the last 50 years is transforming the Sarasota Bay watershed from rural and agriculture to urban and suburban. The transition has resulted in land-use changes that influence surface- and ground-water processes in the watershed. Increased impervious cover decreases recharge to ground water and increases overland runoff and the pollutants carried in the runoff. Soil compaction resulting from agriculture, construction, and recreation activities also decreases recharge to ground water. Conventional approaches to stormwater runoff have involved conveyances and large storage areas. Low-impact development approaches, designed to provide recharge near the precipitation point-of-contact, are being used increasingly in the watershed. Simple pollutant loading models applied to the Sarasota Bay watershed have focused on large-scale processes and pollutant loads determined from empirical values and mean event concentrations. Complex watershed models and more intensive data-collection programs can provide the level of information needed to quantify (1) the effects of lot-scale land practices on runoff, storage, and ground-water recharge, (2) dry and wet season flux of nutrients through atmospheric deposition, (3) changes in partitioning of water and contaminants as urbanization alters predevelopment rainfall-runoff relations, and (4) linkages between watershed models and lot-scale models to evaluate the effect of small-scale changes over the entire Sarasota Bay watershed. As urbanization in the Sarasota Bay watershed continues, focused research on water-resources issues can provide information needed by water

  9. The great supernova of 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Despite their apparently very different objectives, astrophysics - the study of the largest structures in the Universe - and particle physics - the study of the smallest - have always had common ground. On 23 February 1987 a supernova explosion provided additional impetus to reinforce these links. In this article, David Schramm of the University of Chicago and the NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, explains why

  10. The Cultural Heritage of the Great Prespa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Muslli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Great Prespa region is situated in the Balkan Peninsula and is divided between Albania, Macedonia and Greece. It includes the Great Prespa Lake and the surrounding beach and meadow, areas designated for agricultural use and the towns of Pusteci (formerly known as Liqenas and Resen. This region is now part of the Trans-Boundary Biosphere Reserve ‘Ohrid-Prespa Watershed. Great and Small Prespa lakes plus Ohrid Lake are included in this newly-approved UNESCO world Heritage Site, but for this paper, we are looking only at the area surrounding the Great Prespa Lake. It is critical for this area to be protected immediately, because of the overuse it has undergone in recent years. While current levels of fauna are dangerously declining due to recent over-harvesting, this area has been known historically for its diverse natural and cultural features. Thus it is important to take drastic measures to reclaim the natural beauty immediately, including those areas currently covered by Prespa National Parks in Albania and Greece and Galichica and Pelisteri National Parks in Macedonia. Due to many wars over the centuries, it exists a mixture of Albanian and Macedonian culture. The historical and architectural remaining, religious structures and artifacts testify the richness and uniqueness of the communities of Pustec and Resen have. The cultural heritage is now a key element designated for the development of the region’s sustainable tourism development. This study was enhanced via the Geographic Info System (GIS digital presentation showing the opportunities for natural and cultural tourism in both countries (Albania and Macedonia.

  11. Sources of plutonium to the great Miami River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, G.E.; Kennedy, C.W.; Bobula, C.M. III.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported in the study of 238 Pu, in the Great Miami River watershed the contribution of various sources to the total 238 Pu transported by the river. Periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from Mound Laboratory from 1973 to 1975 have released approximately 20 mCi of 238 Pu each year to the Great Miami River. Changes in the wastewater treatment system in 1976 have reduced the annual discharge to less than 3 mCi/year. However, despite this sevenfold reduction of plutonium in the wastewater discharge, the annual flux of 238 Pu down the river has remained relatively constant and is approximately 10 times greater than can be accounted for by the reported effluent discharges. Therefore, other sources of the 238 Pu in the Great Miami River exist. A second possible source of plutonium is the resuspension of sediments enriched by earlier waste water releases and deposited in the river. However, since there appear to be few areas where large accumulations of sediment could occur, it seems improbable that resuspension of earlier sediment deposits would continue to be a significant contributor to the annual flux of plutonium. A much more likely source is the continuing erosion of soil from a canal and stream system contaminated with approx. 5 Ci of 238 Pu, 7 which connects directly to the river 6.9 km upstream from Franklin. Results from samples analyzed in 1978 show the average concentration of 238 Pu in suspended sediments from the canal to be approximately 10 3 times greater than suspended sediment concentrations in the river and waste water effluent.Thus the main contributor to the total amount of plutonium transported by the Great Miami River appears to be highly enriched sediment from the canal, which is eroded into the river where it is then diluted by uncontaminated sediments

  12. Beginnings of range management: an anthology of the Sampson-Ellison photo plots (1913 to 2003) and a short history of the Great Basin Experiment Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Prevedel; E. Durant McArthur; Curtis M. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    High-elevation watersheds on the Wasatch Plateau in central Utah were severely overgrazed in the late 1800s, resulting in catastrophic flooding and mudflows through adjacent communities. Affected citizens petitioned the Federal government to establish a Forest Reserve (1902), and the Manti National Forest was established by the Transfer Act of 1905. The Great Basin...

  13. Dynamic modeling of organophosphate pesticide load in surface water in the northern San Joaquin Valley watershed of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yuzhou [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, 325000 (China); Zhang Xuyang [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Liu Xingmei [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Ficklin, Darren [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zhang Minghua [Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Institute of Watershed Science and Environmental Ecology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, 325000 (China)], E-mail: mhzhang@ucdavis.edu

    2008-12-15

    The hydrology, sediment, and pesticide transport components of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) were evaluated on the northern San Joaquin Valley watershed of California. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients for monthly stream flow and sediment load ranged from 0.49 to 0.99 over the watershed during the study period of 1992-2005. The calibrated SWAT model was applied to simulate fate and transport processes of two organophosphate pesticides of diazinon and chlorpyrifos at watershed scale. The model generated satisfactory predictions of dissolved pesticide loads relative to the monitoring data. The model also showed great success in capturing spatial patterns of dissolved diazinon and chlorpyrifos loads according to the soil properties and landscape morphology over the large agricultural watershed. This study indicated that curve number was the major factor influencing the hydrology while pesticide fate and transport were mainly affected by surface runoff and pesticide application and in the study area. - Major factors governing the instream loads of organophosphate pesticides are magnitude and timing of surface runoff and pesticide application.

  14. Dynamic modeling of organophosphate pesticide load in surface water in the northern San Joaquin Valley watershed of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yuzhou; Zhang Xuyang; Liu Xingmei; Ficklin, Darren; Zhang Minghua

    2008-01-01

    The hydrology, sediment, and pesticide transport components of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) were evaluated on the northern San Joaquin Valley watershed of California. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients for monthly stream flow and sediment load ranged from 0.49 to 0.99 over the watershed during the study period of 1992-2005. The calibrated SWAT model was applied to simulate fate and transport processes of two organophosphate pesticides of diazinon and chlorpyrifos at watershed scale. The model generated satisfactory predictions of dissolved pesticide loads relative to the monitoring data. The model also showed great success in capturing spatial patterns of dissolved diazinon and chlorpyrifos loads according to the soil properties and landscape morphology over the large agricultural watershed. This study indicated that curve number was the major factor influencing the hydrology while pesticide fate and transport were mainly affected by surface runoff and pesticide application and in the study area. - Major factors governing the instream loads of organophosphate pesticides are magnitude and timing of surface runoff and pesticide application

  15. Hydrologic Connectivity for Understanding Watershed Processes: Brand-new Puzzle or Emerging Panacea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, G. A.; Roy, A. G.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    As a way to develop a more holistic approach to watershed assessment and management, the concept of hydrologic connectivity (HC) is often put at the forefront. HC can be seen as the strength of the water-mediated linkages between discrete units of the landscape and as such, it facilitates our intuitive understanding of the mechanisms driving runoff initiation and cessation. Much of the excitement surrounding HC is attributable to its potential to enhance our ability to gain insights into multiple areas including process dynamics, numerical model building, the effects of human elements in our landscape conceptualization, and the development of simplified watershed management tools. However, before such potential can be fully demonstrated, many issues must be resolved with regards to the measure of HC. Here we provide examples highlighting how connectivity can be useful towards understanding water routing in river basins, ecohydrological systems coupling, and intermittent rainfall-runoff dynamics. First, the use of connectivity metrics to examine the relative influence of surface/subsurface topography and soil characteristics on runoff generation will be discussed. Second, the effectiveness of using geochemical tracers will be examined with respect to identifying non-point runoff sources and linking hillslope-to-channel connectivity with surface water-groundwater exchanges in the biologically sensitive hyporheic zone. Third, the identification of different hydrologic thresholds will be presented as a way to discriminate the establishment of connectivity across a range of contrasted catchments located in Canada, Scotland, the USA, and Sweden. These examples will show that current challenges with regards to HC revolve around the choice of an accurate methodological framework for an appropriate translation of experimental findings into effective watershed management approaches. Addressing these questions simultaneously will lead to the emergence of HC as a powerful tool

  16. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  17. WATERSHED BASED WEB GIS: CASE STUDY OF PALOPO WATERSHED AREA SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaluddin Rumi PRASAD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Data and land resource information complete, accurate, and current is an input in management planning, evaluation, and monitoring Watershed. Implementation of this research is conducted with optimum utilization of secondary data that is supported by direct field measurement data, digitalizing the maps associated, Geographic Information Systems modeling, and model calibration. This research has resulted in a Geographic Information System Management of potential Watershed GIS Web-based or abbreviated WEB GIS MPPDAS using Palopo watershed area, South Sulawesi as a case study sites for the development of a prototype that consists of three applications the main website ie Web Portal, Web GIS, and Web Tutorial. The system is built to show online (and offline maps watershed in the administrative area of Palopo along with the location of its potential accumulated in the four (4 groups of layers, including groups of main layer (2 layer, a group of base layer (14 layers, groups of thematic layers (12 layers, a group of policy layer (8 layer. In addition to display a map, use the WEB application of GIS MPPDAS can also use tools or controls in the application to perform analyzes in its monitoring and evaluation, including: Geocoding, Add layer, Digitizing, Selection, Measurements, Graph, Filtering, Geolocation, Overlay cartographic, and etc.

  18. Modeling Mitigation Activities in North Carolina Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient enrichment and excessive sediment loadings have contributed to the degradation of rivers, lakes and estuaries in North Carolina. The North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality (NCDEQ) has implemented several basin-wide nutrient and sediment management strategies, yet gaps remain in understanding the impact of these strategies given the complexities in quantifying the processes that govern the transport of nutrient and sediment. In particular, improved assessment of the status of nutrient and sediment loadings to lakes and estuaries throughout the state is needed, including characterizing their sources and describing the relative contributions of different areas. The NCDEQ Division of Mitigation Services (DMS) uses watershed planning to identify and prioritize the best locations to implement stream, wetland, and riparian-buffer restoration to improve water quality. To support better decision-making for watershed restoration activities we are developing a SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) model framework specifically for North Carolina. The SPARROW analysis (developed by the U.S. Geological Survey) relates water-quality monitoring data to better understand the effects of human activities and natural processes on surface-water quality. The core of the model consists of using a nonlinear-regression equation to describe the non-conservative transport of contaminants from point and nonpoint sources on land to rivers, lakes and estuaries through the stream and river network. In this presentation, preliminary total Nitrogen, total Phosphorus, and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) NC-SPARROW models are described that illustrate the SPARROW modeling framework incorporating specific restoration datasets and activity metrics, such as extent of riparian buffer and easements.

  19. McKenzie River Focus Watershed Coordination: Fiscal Year 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runyon, John; Davis-Born, Renee

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments made by the McKenzie River Focus Watershed Council in the areas of coordination and administration during Fiscal Year 1998. Coordination and administration consists of tasks associated with Focus Watershed Council staffing, project management, and public outreach.

  20. [Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-10-01

    Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed.

  1. Probabilistic assessment of wildfire hazard and municipal watershed exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe Scott; Don Helmbrecht; Matthew P. Thompson; David E. Calkin; Kate Marcille

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of wildfires within municipal watersheds can result in significant impacts to water quality and ultimately human health and safety. In this paper, we illustrate the application of geospatial analysis and burn probability modeling to assess the exposure of municipal watersheds to wildfire. Our assessment of wildfire exposure consists of two primary...

  2. Large woody debris budgets in the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of large woody debris (LWD) in the two mainstem channels of the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds since 1998, combined with older data from other work in the watersheds, gives estimates of channel wood input rates, survival, and outputs in intermediate-sized channels in coastal redwood forests. Input rates from standing trees for the two reaches over a 15...

  3. Economic Tools for Managing Nitrogen in Coastal Watersheds ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed managers are interested in using economics to communicate the value of estuarine resources to the wider community, determine the most cost-effective means to reduce nitrogen pollution, and evaluate the benefits of taking action to improve coastal ecosystems. We spoke to coastal watershed managers who had commissioned economic studies and found that they were largely satisfied with the information and their ability to communicate the importance of coastal ecosystems. However, while managers were able to use these studies as communication tools, methods used in some studies were inconsistent with what some economists consider best practices. In addition, many watershed managers are grappling with how to implement nitrogen management activities in a way that is both cost-effective and achieves environmental goals, while maintaining public support. These and other issues led to this project. Our intent is to provide information to watershed managers and others interested in watershed management – such as National Estuary Programs, local governments, or nongovernmental organizations – on economic tools for managing nitrogen in coastal watersheds, and to economists and other analysts who are interested in assisting them in meeting their needs. Watershed management requires balancing scientific, political, and social issues to solve environmental problems. This document summarizes questions that watershed managers have about using economic analysis, and g

  4. The Watershed Transform : Definitions, Algorithms and Parallelization Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Meijster, Arnold

    2000-01-01

    The watershed transform is the method of choice for image segmentation in the field of mathematical morphology. We present a critical review of several definitions of the watershed transform and the associated sequential algorithms, and discuss various issues which often cause confusion in the

  5. Accountability to Public Stakeholders in Watershed-Based Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increasing push at the federal, state, and local levels for watershed-based conservation projects. These projects work to address water quality issues in degraded waterways through the implementation of a suite of best management practices on land throughout a watersh...

  6. Hydrological processes of reference watersheds in Experimental Forests, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; John Campbell; Pete Wohlgemuth; Kelly Elder; Stephen Sebestyen; Sherri Johnson; Elizabeth Keppeler; Mary Beth Adams; Peter Caldwell; D. Misra

    2016-01-01

    Long-term research at small, gauged, forested watersheds within the USDA Forest Service, Experimental Forest and Range network (USDA-EFR) has contributed substantially to our current understanding of relationships between forests and streamflow (Vose et al., 2014). Many of these watershed studies were established in the early to mid-20th century and have been used to...

  7. Watershed Scale Optimization to Meet Sustainable Cellulosic Energy Crop Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaubey, Indrajeet [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cibin, Raj [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Bowling, Laura [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Brouder, Sylvie [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cherkauer, Keith [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Engel, Bernard [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Frankenberger, Jane [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Goforth, Reuben [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Gramig, Benjamin [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Volenec, Jeffrey [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2017-03-24

    The overall goal of this project was to conduct a watershed-scale sustainability assessment of multiple species of energy crops and removal of crop residues within two watersheds (Wildcat Creek, and St. Joseph River) representative of conditions in the Upper Midwest. The sustainability assessment included bioenergy feedstock production impacts on environmental quality, economic costs of production, and ecosystem services.

  8. Risk of impaired condition of watersheds containing National Forest lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the risk of impaired condition of the nearly 3700 5th-level watersheds in the contiguous 48 states containing the national forests and grasslands that make up the U.S. Forest Service's National Forest System (NFS). The assessment was based on readily available, relatively consistent nationwide data sets for a series of indicators representing watershed...

  9. Computation of watersheds based on parallel graph algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, A.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Maragos, P; Schafer, RW; Butt, MA

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the implementation of a parallel watershed algorithm is described. The algorithm has been implemented on a Cray J932, which is a shared memory architecture with 32 processors. The watershed transform has generally been considered to be inherently sequential, but recently a few research

  10. Consistency of Hydrologic Relationships of a Paired Watershed Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert Ssegane; Devendra M. Amatya; George M. Chescheir; Wayne R. Skaggs; Ernest W. Tollner; Jami E.. Nettles

    2013-01-01

    Paired watershed studies are used around the world to evaluate and quantify effects of forest and water management practices on hydrology and water quality. The basic concept uses two neighboring watersheds (one as a control and another as a treatment), which are concurrently monitored during calibration (pre-treatment) and post-treatment periods. A statistically...

  11. Participatory policy development for integrated watershed management in Uganda's highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutekanga, F.P.

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a serious problem in the densely populated Uganda highlands and previous interventions were ineffective. This study, on the Ngenge watershed, Mount Elgon, was aimed at developing policy for the implementation of a new strategy for solving the problem, Integrated Watershed

  12. An environmental assessment of United States drinking water watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wickham; Timothy Wade; Kurt Riitters

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography and conservation status. Approximately 78% of the conterminous United States...

  13. AN ARCGIS TOOL FOR CREATING POPULATIONS OF WATERSHEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the Landscape Investigations for Pesticides Study in the Midwest, the goal is to sample a representative subset of watersheds selected statistically from a target population of watersheds within the glaciated corn belt. This area stretches from Ohio to Iowa and includes parts...

  14. Applying Spatially Distributed Rainfall to a Hydrological Model in a Tropical Watershed, Manoa Watershed, in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. F.; Tsang, Y. P.

    2017-12-01

    Rainfall in Hawaii is characterized with high spatial and temporal variability. In the south side of Oahu, the Manoa watershed, with an area of 11 km2, has the annual maximum rainfall of 3900mm and the minimum rainfall of 1000 mm. Despite this high spatial heterogeneity, the rain gage network seems insufficiently capture this pattern. When simulating stream flow and predicting floods with hydrological models in Hawaii, the model performance is often unsatisfactory because of inadequate representation of rainfall data. Longman et al. (in prep.) have developed the spatially distributed daily rainfall across the Hawaiian Islands by applying ordinary kriging, yet these data have not been applied to hydrological models. In this study, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to assess the streamflow simulation by applying spatially-distributed rainfall in the Manoa watershed. We first used point daily-rainfall at Lyon Arboretum from National Center of Environmental Information (NCEI) as the uniform rainfall input. Secondly, we summarized sub-watershed mean rainfall from the daily spatial-statistical rainfall. Both rainfall data are available from 1999 to 2014. The SWAT was set up for five-year warm-up, nine-year calibration, and two-year validation. The model parameters were calibrated and validated with four U.S. Geological Survey stream gages. We compared the calibrated watershed parameters, characteristics, and assess the streamflow hydrographs from these two rainfall inputs. The differences and improvement of using spatially distributed rainfall input in SWAT were discussed. In addition to improving the model by the representation of rainfall, this study helped us having a better understanding of the watershed hydrological response in Hawaii.

  15. Climate change impacts in Zhuoshui watershed, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi-Chiung; Liu, Pei-Ling; Cheng, Chao-Tzuen; Li, Hsin-Chi; Wu, Tingyeh; Chen, Wei-Bo; Shih, Hung-Ju

    2017-04-01

    There are 5.3 typhoons hit Taiwan per year on average in last decade. Typhoon Morakot in 2009, the most severe typhoon, causes huge damage in Taiwan, including 677 casualty and roughly NT 110 billion (3.3 billion USD) in economic loss. Some researches documented that typhoon frequency will decrease but increase in intensity in western North Pacific region. It is usually preferred to use high resolution dynamical model to get better projection of extreme events; because coarse resolution models cannot simulate intense extreme events. Under that consideration, dynamical downscaling climate data was chosen to describe typhoon satisfactorily. One of the aims for Taiwan Climate Change Projection and Information Platform (TCCIP) is to demonstrate the linkage between climate change data and watershed impact models. The purpose is to understand relative disasters induced by extreme rainfall (typhoons) under climate change in watersheds including landslides, debris flows, channel erosion and deposition, floods, and economic loss. The study applied dynamic downscaling approach to release climate change projected typhoon events under RCP 8.5, the worst-case scenario. The Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability (TRIGRS) and FLO-2D models, then, were used to simulate hillslope disaster impacts in the upstream of Zhuoshui River. CCHE1D model was used to elevate the sediment erosion or deposition in channel. FVCOM model was used to asses a flood impact in urban area in the downstream. Finally, whole potential loss associate with these typhoon events was evaluated by the Taiwan Typhoon Loss Assessment System (TLAS) under climate change scenario. Results showed that the total loss will increase roughly by NT 49.7 billion (1.6 billion USD) in future in Zhuoshui watershed in Taiwan. The results of this research could help to understand future impact; however model bias still exists. Because typhoon track is a critical factor to consider regional

  16. Surface runoff in the Itaim Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a work done in the Itaim watershed at Taubaté, SP, and had the objective of estimating the surface runoff based on the Curve-Number (CN method in area with vegetation cover of grassland (Brachiaria Decumbens, that prevails in this watershed. The surface runoff was estimated using three different methods: 1st values of accumulated Infiltration (IAc obtained in the field were used, considered as the Potential Infiltration (S, which varied from 15.37 mm to 51.88 mm with an average value of 23.46 mm. With those measured infiltration rates and using the maximum precipitation values for Taubaté, SP, with duration time of 3 hours: P = 54.4; 70.3; 80.8; 86.7; 90.9; 94.1 and 103.9 mm, respectively, for the return times, Tr = 2, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 100 years, the following values of surface runoff were generated: 34.83; 49.33; 59.14; 64.71; 68.69; 71.73 and 81.10 mm, respectively; In the 2nd method it was considered that the prevailing vegetation cover of the watershed was Dirty Pasture (Pasture with regrowth of natural vegetation and therefore, a value of CN = 75 was used and generated a potential infiltration, S = 84,7 mm and resulted in surface runoff values that varied from 11 to 44 mm; In the 3rd method, the value of CN was considered equal to 66.57. This value was calculated weighting the contribution of all land use cover classes of the watershed, and as a result a higher value of potential infiltration, S = 127 mm, was obtained. Consequently, the surface runoff values were 5.33; 11.64; 16.72; 19.83; 22.16; 23.98 and 29.83 mm, respectively. Therefore, the comparison with the results obtained by the two Curve-Number methods (conventional and weighted allowed to be concluded that the Curve-Number method applied in a conventional way underestimated the surface runoff in the studied area. However, results indicate that it is possible to use this method for surface runoff estimates as long as adjustments based on potential

  17. Learning and the Great Moderation

    OpenAIRE

    Bullard, James B.; Singh, Aarti

    2009-01-01

    We study a stylized theory of the volatility reduction in the U.S. after 1984 - the Great Moderation - which attributes part of the stabilization to less volatile shocks and another part to more difficult inference on the part of Bayesian households attempting to learn the latent state of the economy. We use a standard equilibrium business cycle model with technology following an unobserved regime-switching process. After 1984, according to Kim and Nelson (1999a), the variance of U.S. macroec...

  18. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER -the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  19. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER - the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  20. What killed Alexander the Great?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    The cause of the death of the Macedonian King, Alexander the Great, at Babylon in 323 BC has excited interest and conjecture throughout the ages. The information available in the surviving ancient sources, none of which is contemporaneous, has been reviewed and compared with modern knowledge as set out in several well-known recent surgical texts. The ancient sources record epic drinking by the Macedonian nobility since at least the time of Phillip II, Alexander's father. Alexander's sudden illness and death is likely to have resulted from a surgical complication of acute alcoholic excess.

  1. Commanders of the Great Victory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Dmitriyevich Borshchov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The honorary title of «commander» as well as the «admiral» is granted to a military or naval figure on the basis of public recognition of his personal contribution to the success of actions. Generals are usually individuals with creative thinking, the ability to foresee the development of military events. Generals usually have such personality traits as a strong will and determination, rich combat experience, credibility and high organizational skills. In an article dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the Soviet victory in the Great War examines the experience of formation and practice of the most talent-ed Soviet military leaders.

  2. RAINFALL CHARACTERIZATION AND SEDIMENTOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF WATERSHEDS WITH DIFFERENT LAND USES TO PRECIPITATION IN THE SEMIARID REGION OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JACQUES CARVALHO RIBEIRO FILHO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluated the precipitation characteristics (depth, I30 and erosivity and their effects on sediment production in three watersheds under different managements of land use 35 - year regenerating Caatinga (RC, thinned Caatinga (TC, which underwent thinning of trees with diameter smaller than 10 cm; and deforested Caatinga (followed by burning and pasture (DC. The experimente was conducted in the central, tropical semiarid region of the State of Ceará, Brazil. The precipitation events, surface runoff and sediment production were monitored from 2010 to 2015. The precipitation characteristics were subjected to Pearson's correlation at 1 and 5% of significance and the events that produced sediments in each watershed were hierarchically grouped by hierarchical cluster analysis technique. Two hundred precipitation events were recorded, with 23 (RC, 18 (TC and 43 (DC events producing sediments. The use of thinning (TC decreased the sediment production by 53.5%, while the deforestation, burn and pasture cultivation (DC increased soil losses by 14%, compared with the RC. The sediment production was greatly correlated with the I30 in the three watersheds, denoting the erosion process great dependence on the precipitation intensity.

  3. Phosphorus losses from an irrigated watershed in the Northwestern U.S.: Case study of the Upper Snake Rock Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watersheds utilizing surface water for irrigation often return a portion of the water to a water body. This irrigation return flow often includes sediment and nutrients that reduce the quality of the receiving water body. Research in the 82,000 ha Upper Snake Rock (USR) watershed from 2005 to 2008 s...

  4. Great apes prefer cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The cooking hypothesis proposes that a diet of cooked food was responsible for diverse morphological and behavioral changes in human evolution. However, it does not predict whether a preference for cooked food evolved before or after the control of fire. This question is important because the greater the preference shown by a raw-food-eating hominid for the properties present in cooked food, the more easily cooking should have been adopted following the control of fire. Here we use great apes to model food preferences by Paleolithic hominids. We conducted preference tests with various plant and animal foods to determine whether great apes prefer food items raw or cooked. We found that several populations of captive apes tended to prefer their food cooked, though with important exceptions. These results suggest that Paleolithic hominids would likewise have spontaneously preferred cooked food to raw, exapting a pre-existing preference for high-quality, easily chewed foods onto these cooked items. The results, therefore, challenge the hypothesis that the control of fire preceded cooking by a significant period.

  5. Studying The Great Russian Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Torkunov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article revises an established view of Russian Revolution as two separate events - February Revolution and October Revolution. The author supports the concept of the «Great Russian Revolution», which unites these two events in a single process of revolutionary development. The author draws attention to the following advantages of the concept under consideration. First, it conceptualizes the revolution as a process contingent of a local and global historical context. In this sense, the revolution is presented as the transition of society to the modern stage of development, meaning the transition to modernity. Second, revolutionary events in Russia are considered from the point of view of the evolution of the spatial and socioeconomic distribution and rearrangement of key social groups: peasantry, elites, national and ethnic minorities. Third, it takes into account the personal factor in the revolutionary events, the influence of individual personalities on escalation or the reduction of socio-political tensions. Fourth, it draws attention to the fact that revolutions imply the use of various forms of political violence. Each revolution is characterized by a unique correlation of forms and intensity of political violence. Finally, it gives a normative assessment of the Revolution, encouraging a national discussion on the results and consequences of this great event.

  6. Beneficial use of dredged materials in Great Lakes commercial ports for transportation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    This report describes an effort to facilitate beneficial use of dredged materials (DM) from Great Lakes ports and harbors as an alternative construction : material in transportation-related earthwork applications. The overall objective is to link tog...

  7. Biogeochemistry of a treeline watershed, northwestern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottlemyer, R

    2001-01-01

    Since 1950, mean annual temperatures in northwestern Alaska have increased. Change in forest floor and soil temperature or moisture could alter N mineralization rates, production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and organic nitrogen (DON), and their export to the aquatic ecosystem. In 1990, we began study of nutrient cycles in the 800-ha Asik watershed, located at treeline in the Noatak National Preserve, northwestern Alaska. This paper summarizes relationships between topographic aspect, soil temperature and moisture, inorganic and organic N pools, C pools, CO2 efflux, growing season net N mineralization rates, and stream water chemistry. Forest floor (O2) C/N ratios, C pools, temperature, and moisture were greater on south aspects. More rapid melt of the soil active layer (zone of annual freeze-thaw) and permafrost accounted for the higher moisture. The O2 C and N content were correlated with moisture, inorganic N pools, CO2 efflux, and inversely with temperature. Inorganic N pools were correlated with temperature and CO2 efflux. Net N mineralization rates were positive in early summer, and correlated with O2 moisture, temperature, and C and N pools. Net nitrification rates were inversely correlated with moisture, total C and N. The CO2 efflux increased with temperature and moisture, and was greater on south aspects. Stream ion concentrations declined and DOC increased with discharge. Stream inorganic nitrogen (DIN) output exceeded input by 70%. Alpine stream water nitrate (NO3-) and DOC concentrations indicated substantial contributions to the watershed DIN and DOC budgets.

  8. Predicting watershed acidification under alternate rainfall conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of alternate rainfall scenarios on acidification of a forested watershed subjected to chronic acidic deposition was assessed using the model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC). The model was calibrated at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, near Atlanta, Georgia, USA using measured soil properties, wet and dry deposition, and modeled hydrologic routing. Model forecast simulations were evaluated to compare alternate temporal averaging of rainfall inputs and variations in rainfall amount and seasonal distribution. Soil water alkalinity was predicted to decrease to substantially lower concentrations under lower rainfall compared with current or higher rainfall conditions. Soil water alkalinity was also predicted to decrease to lower levels when the majority of rainfall occurred during the growing season compared with other rainfall distributions. Changes in rainfall distribution that result in decreases in net soil water flux will temporarily delay acidification. Ultimately, however, decreased soilwater flux will result in larger increases in soil-adsorbed sulfur and soil-water sulfate concentrations and decreases in alkalinity when compared to higher water flux conditions. Potential climate change resulting in significant changes in rainfall amounts, seasonal distributions of rainfall, or evapotranspiration will change net soil water flux and, consequently, will affect the dynamics of the acidification response to continued sulfate loading. 29 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Aggregate Measures of Watershed Health from Reconstructed ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk-based indices such as reliability, resilience, and vulnerability (R-R-V), have the potential to serve as watershed health assessment tools. Recent research has demonstrated the applicability of such indices for water quality (WQ) constituents such as total suspended solids and nutrients on an individual basis. However, the calculations can become tedious when time-series data for several WQ constituents have to be evaluated individually. Also, comparisons between locations with different sets of constituent data can prove difficult. In this study, data reconstruction using relevance vector machine algorithm was combined with dimensionality reduction via variational Bayesian noisy principal component analysis to reconstruct and condense sparse multidimensional WQ data sets into a single time series. The methodology allows incorporation of uncertainty in both the reconstruction and dimensionality-reduction steps. The R-R-V values were calculated using the aggregate time series at multiple locations within two Indiana watersheds. Results showed that uncertainty present in the reconstructed WQ data set propagates to the aggregate time series and subsequently to the aggregate R-R-V values as well. serving as motivating examples. Locations with different WQ constituents and different standards for impairment were successfully combined to provide aggregate measures of R-R-V values. Comparisons with individual constituent R-R-V values showed that v

  10. Behind every great ant, there is a great gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Sapountzis, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    on the potential contribution of the ants’ gut symbionts. This issue of Molecular Ecology contains a study by Anderson et al. (2012), who take a comparative approach to explore the link between trophic levels and ant microbiomes, specifically, to address three main questions: (i) Do closely related herbivorous...... conserved gut microbiomes, suggesting symbiont functions that directly relate to dietary preference of the ant host. These findings suggest an ecological role of gut symbionts in ants, for example, in metabolism and/or protection, and the comparative approach taken supports a model of co-evolution between...... ant species and specific core symbiont microbiomes. This study, thereby, highlights the omnipresence and importance of gut symbioses—also in the Hymenoptera—and suggests that these hitherto overlooked microbes likely have contributed to the ecological success of the ants....

  11. Predicting watershed post-fire sediment yield with the InVEST sediment retention model: Accuracy and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; McVay, Jason C.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Vaillant, Nicole; Lowe, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Increased sedimentation following wildland fire can negatively impact water supply and water quality. Understanding how changing fire frequency, extent, and location will affect watersheds and the ecosystem services they supply to communities is of great societal importance in the western USA and throughout the world. In this work we assess the utility of the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) Sediment Retention Model to accurately characterize erosion and sedimentation of burned watersheds. InVEST was developed by the Natural Capital Project at Stanford University (Tallis et al., 2014) and is a suite of GIS-based implementations of common process models, engineered for high-end computing to allow the faster simulation of larger landscapes and incorporation into decision-making. The InVEST Sediment Retention Model is based on common soil erosion models (e.g., USLE – Universal Soil Loss Equation) and determines which areas of the landscape contribute the greatest sediment loads to a hydrological network and conversely evaluate the ecosystem service of sediment retention on a watershed basis. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy and uncertainties for InVEST predictions of increased sedimentation after fire, using measured postfire sediment yields available for many watersheds throughout the western USA from an existing, published large database. We show that the model can be parameterized in a relatively simple fashion to predict post-fire sediment yield with accuracy. Our ultimate goal is to use the model to accurately predict variability in post-fire sediment yield at a watershed scale as a function of future wildfire conditions.

  12. Modeling the impact of watershed management policies on marine ecosystem services with application to Hood Canal, WA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, D. A.; Kim, C.; Marsik, M.; Spiridonov, G.; Toft, J.; Ruckelshaus, M.; Guerry, A.; Plummer, M.

    2011-12-01

    Humans obtain numerous benefits from marine ecosystems, including fish to eat; mitigation of storm damage; nutrient and water cycling and primary production; and cultural, aesthetic and recreational values. However, managing these benefits, or ecosystem services, in the marine world relies on an integrated approach that accounts for both marine and watershed activities. Here we present the results of a set of simple, physically-based, and spatially-explicit models that quantify the effects of terrestrial activities on marine ecosystem services. Specifically, we model the circulation and water quality of Hood Canal, WA, USA, a fjord system in Puget Sound where multiple human uses of the nearshore ecosystem (e.g., shellfish aquaculture, recreational Dungeness crab and shellfish harvest) can be compromised when water quality is poor (e.g., hypoxia, excessive non-point source pollution). Linked to the estuarine water quality model is a terrestrial hydrology model that simulates streamflow and nutrient loading, so land cover and climate changes in watersheds can be reflected in the marine environment. In addition, a shellfish aquaculture model is linked to the water quality model to test the sensitivity of the ecosystem service and its value to both terrestrial and marine activities. The modeling framework is general and will be publicly available, allowing easy comparisons of watershed impacts on marine ecosystem services across multiple scales and regions.

  13. Hydrological responses of a watershed to historical land use evolution and future land use scenarios under climate change conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Quilbé

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Watershed runoff is closely related to land use but this influence is difficult to quantify. This study focused on the Chaudière River watershed (Québec, Canada and had two objectives: (i to quantify the influence of historical agricultural land use evolution on watershed runoff; and (ii to assess the effect of future land use evolution scenarios under climate change conditions (CC. To achieve this, we used the integrated modeling system GIBSI. Past land use evolution was constructed using satellite images that were integrated into GIBSI. The general trend was an increase of agricultural land in the 80's, a slight decrease in the beginning of the 90's and a steady state over the last ten years. Simulations showed strong correlations between land use evolution and water discharge at the watershed outlet. For the prospective approach, we first assessed the effect of CC and then defined two opposite land use evolution scenarios for the horizon 2025 based on two different trends: agriculture intensification and sustainable development. Simulations led to a wide range of results depending on the climatologic models and gas emission scenarios considered, varying from a decrease to an increase of annual and monthly water discharge. In this context, the two land use scenarios induced opposite effects on water discharge and low flow sequences, especially during the growing season. However, due to the large uncertainty linked to CC simulations, it is difficult to conclude that one land use scenario provides a better adaptation to CC than another. Nevertheless, this study shows that land use is a key factor that has to be taken into account when predicting potential future hydrological responses of a watershed.

  14. Dreissenid mussels from the Great Lakes contain elevated thiaminase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, D.E.; Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.; Nichols, S.J.; Zajicek, J.L.; Rinchard, J.; Richter, C.A.; Krueger, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at different depths and seasons, and from various locations in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron. Here we present evidence that two dreissenid mussel species (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) contain thiaminase activity that is 5-100 fold greater than observed in Great Lakes fishes. Thiaminase activity in zebra mussels ranged from 10,600 to 47,900??pmol g- 1??min- 1 and activities in quagga mussels ranged from 19,500 to 223,800??pmol g- 1??min- 1. Activity in the mussels was greatest in spring, less in summer, and least in fall. Additionally, we observed greater thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at shallow depths compared to mussels collected at deeper depths. Dreissenids constitute a significant and previously unknown pool of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web compared to other known sources of this thiamine (vitamin B1)-degrading enzyme. Thiaminase in forage fish of the Great Lakes has been causally linked to thiamine deficiency in salmonines. We currently do not know whether linkages exist between thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids and the thiaminase activities in higher trophic levels of the Great Lakes food web. However, the extreme thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids from the Great Lakes may represent a serious unanticipated negative effect of these exotic species on Great Lakes ecosystems.

  15. Gypsum karst in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the most spectacular gypsum karst development is in the Zechstein gypsum (late Permian mainly in north-eastern England. The Midlands of England also has some karst developed in the Triassic gypsum in the vicinity of Nottingham. Along the north-east coast, south of Sunderland, well-developed palaeokarst, with magnificent breccia pipes, was produced by dissolution of Permian gypsum. In north-west England a small gypsum cave system of phreatic origin has been surveyed and recorded. A large actively evolving phreatic gypsum cave system has been postulated beneath the Ripon area on the basis of studies of subsidence and boreholes. The rate of gypsum dissolution here, and the associated collapse lead to difficult civil engineering and construction conditions, which can also be aggravated by water abstraction.

  16. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  17. The origin of 'Great Walls'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandarin, Sergei F.

    2009-01-01

    A new semi-analytical model that explains the formation and sizes of the 'great walls' - the largest structures observed in the universe is suggested. Although the basis of the model is the Zel'dovich approximation it has been used in a new way very different from the previous studies. Instead of traditional approach that evaluates the nonlinear density field it has been utilized for identification of the regions in Lagrangian space that after the mapping to real or redshift space (depending on the kind of structure is studied) end up in the regions where shell-crossing occurs. The set of these regions in Lagrangian space form the progenitor of the structure and after the mapping it determines the pattern of the structure in real or redshift space. The particle trajectories have crossed in such regions and the mapping is no longer unique there. The progenitor after mapping makes only one stream in the multi-stream flow regions therefore it does not comprise all the mass. Nevertheless, it approximately retains the shape of the structure. The progenitor of the structure in real space is determined by the linear density field along with two non-Gaussian fields derived from the initial potential. Its shape in Eulerian space is also affected by the displacement field. The progenitor of the structure in redshift space also depends on these fields but in addition it is strongly affected by two anisotropic fields that determine the pattern of great walls as well as their huge sizes. All the fields used in the mappings are derived from the linear potential smoothed at the current scale of nonlinearity which is R nl = 2.7 h −1 Mpc for the adopted parameters of the ΛCDM universe normalized to σ 8 = 0.8. The model predicts the existence of walls with sizes significantly greater than 500 h −1 Mpc that may be found in sufficiently large redshift surveys

  18. The Great Warming Brian Fagan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

  19. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-05

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  20. The Great Recession and the risk for child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Schneider, William; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-10-01

    This study draws on the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2,032), a birth cohort study of families with children from 20 U.S. cities. Interviews occurred between August 2007, and February 2010, when the children were approximately 9 years old. Macro-economic indicators of the Great Recession such as the Consumer Sentiment Index and unemployment and home foreclosure rates were matched to the data to estimate the links between different measures of the Great Recession and high frequency maternal spanking. We find that the large decline in consumer confidence during the Great Recession, as measured by the Consumer Sentiment Index, was associated with worse parenting behavior. In particular, lower levels of consumer confidence were associated with increased levels of high frequency spanking, a parenting behavior that is associated with greater likelihood of being contacted by child protective services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. When Everything Changes: Mountaintop Mining Effects on Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippgen, F.; Ross, M. R.; McGlynn, B. L.; Bernhardt, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    Mountaintop removal coal mining (MTM) in the Central Appalachians has expanded over the last 40 years to cover ~7% of this mountainous landscape. MTM operations remove mountaintops and ridges with explosives and machinery to access underlying coal seams. Much of this crushed rock overburden is subsequently deposited into nearby valleys, creating valley fills that often bury headwater streams. In contrast to other disturbances such as forest clear-cutting, perturbations from MTM can extend hundreds of meters deep into the critical zone and completely reshape landscapes. Despite the expansiveness and intensity of the disturbance, MTM has only recently begun to receive focused attention from the hydrologic community and the effect of MTM on the hydrology of impacted watersheds is still not well understood. We are using a two-pronged approach consisting of GIS analysis to quantify spoil volumes and landscape change, together with empirical analysis and modeling of rainfall and runoff data collected in two sets of paired watersheds. We seek to investigate how MTM affects basic hydrologic metrics, including storm peakflows, runoff response times, baseflow, statistics of flow duration curves, and longer-term water balances. Each pair consists of a mined and an unmined watershed; the first set contains headwater streams (size ~100ha), the second set consists of 3rd order streams, draining ~3500ha. Mining covers ~ 95% of the headwater watershed, and 40% of the 3rd-order watershed. Initial GIS analysis indicates that the overburden moved during the mining process could be up to three times greater than previously estimated. Storm runoff peaks in the mined watersheds were muted as compared to the unmined watersheds and runoff ratios were reduced by up to 75% during both wet and dry antecedent conditions. The natural reference watersheds were highly responsive while the additional storage in the mined watersheds led to decreased peak flows during storms and enhanced baseflow

  2. Effects of mountain agriculture on nutrient cycling at upstream watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T.-C.; Shaner, P. L.; Wang, L.-J.; Shih, Y.-T.; Wang, C.-P.; Huang, G.-H.; Huang, J.-C.

    2015-05-01

    The expansion of agriculture to rugged mountains can exacerbate negative impacts of agriculture activities on ecosystem function. In this study, we monitored streamwater chemistry of four watersheds with varying proportions of agricultural lands (0.4, 3, 17, 22%) and rainfall chemistry of two of the four watersheds at Feitsui Reservoir Watershed in northern Taiwan to examine the effects of agriculture on watershed nutrient cycling. We found that the greater the proportions of agricultural lands, the higher the ion concentrations, which is evident for fertilizer-associated ions (NO3-, K+) but not for ions that are rich in soils (SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+), suggesting that agriculture enriched fertilizer-associated nutrients in streamwater. The watershed with the highest proportion of agricultural lands had higher concentrations of ions in rainfall and lower nutrient retention capacity (i.e. higher output-input ratio of ions) compared to the relatively pristine watershed, suggesting that agriculture can influence atmospheric deposition of nutrients and a system's ability to retain nutrients. Furthermore, we found that a forested watershed downstream of agricultural activities can dilute the concentrations of fertilizer-associated ions (NO3-, K+) in streamwater by more than 70%, indicating that specific landscape configurations help mitigate nutrient enrichment to aquatic systems. We estimated that agricultural lands at our study site contributed approximately 400 kg ha-1 yr-1 of NO3-N and 260 kg ha-1 yr-1 of PO4-P output via streamwater, an order of magnitude greater than previously reported around the globe and can only be matched by areas under intense fertilizer use. Furthermore, we re-constructed watershed nutrient fluxes to show that excessive leaching of N and P, and additional loss of N to the atmosphere via volatilization and denitrification, can occur under intense fertilizer use. In summary, this study demonstrated the pervasive impacts of agriculture activities

  3. Watershed planning, implementation and assessment: the May River Watershed Action Plan case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly W. Jones; Christopher L. Ellis; Jeremy S. Ritchie

    2016-01-01

    Prior to exponential growth in the early to mid-2000s, the Town of Bluffton, SC was one square mile; as of 2015, it is approximately 55 square miles. Associated with this growth was a shellfish harvesting closure for nearly onethird of the May River in 2009. The Town and its partners developed and began to implement the May River Watershed Action Plan in 2011. The plan...

  4. Watershed restoration through remining in the Tangascootack Creek Watershed, Clinton County, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skema, V.W.; Smith, M.W.; Bisko, D.C.; Dimatteo, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Pennsylvania Geologic Survey are working together to remediate the effects of acid mine drainage. Remining of previously mined areas is a key component of a comprehensive strategy of improving water quality in polluted watersheds. In this new approach sites will be carefully selected on the basis of remaining coal reserves and overburden characteristics. One of the first watersheds targeted was the Tangascootack Creek watershed located in Clinton County near Lock Haven. The Geologic Survey agreed to provide geologic and coal resource maps for this previously unmapped area. This involved conducting field work examining rock exposures. Five cored holes were drilled, and core was examined to develop a geologic framework. Coals from these holes and from highwalls were chemically tested. Strata overlying the coal seams were analyzed using acid base accounting to determine their potential for generating acidity as well as alkalinity. Additional drill hole data and chemical analyses were collected from cooperating mining companies. This information was used to produce a geologic map showing coal crop lines and structure, coal thickness maps, mined-out area maps, overburden thickness maps, overburden geochemistry maps, strip ratio maps, and to estimate the extent of remaining coal reserves. Several significant geologic features were found in the course of mapping the watershed. One is the extreme variability in coal thickness and character of overburden rock. Another is the degree of relief found to be present on the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian unconformity. It is believed that this feature plays an important role in coal and high aluminum flint clay distribution regionally. And finally is the thick occurrence of Loyalhanna Formation calcareous sandstone which is providing a natural source of carbonate for the neutralization of acid mine drainage

  5. Trout Creek, Oregon Watershed Assessment; Findings, Condition Evaluation and Action Opportunities, 2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runyon, John

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of the assessment is to characterize historical and current watershed conditions in the Trout Creek Watershed. Information from the assessment is used to evaluate opportunities for improvements in watershed conditions, with particular reference to improvements in the aquatic environment. Existing information was used, to the extent practicable, to complete this work. The assessment will aid the Trout Creek Watershed Council in identifying opportunities and priorities for watershed restoration projects.

  6. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Trettin, C.C.

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation

  7. Application of the ReNuMa model in the Sha He river watershed: tools for watershed environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Jian; Liu, Min; Wang, Dong; Swaney, Dennis P; Wang, Yuqiu

    2013-07-30

    Models and related analytical methods are critical tools for use in modern watershed management. A modeling approach for quantifying the source apportionment of dissolved nitrogen (DN) and associated tools for examining the sensitivity and uncertainty of the model estimates were assessed for the Sha He River (SHR) watershed in China. The Regional Nutrient Management model (ReNuMa) was used to infer the primary sources of DN in the SHR watershed. This model is based on the Generalized Watershed Loading Functions (GWLF) and the Net Anthropogenic Nutrient Input (NANI) framework, modified to improve the characterization of subsurface hydrology and septic system loads. Hydrochemical processes of the SHR watershed, including streamflow, DN load fluxes, and corresponding DN concentration responses, were simulated following calibrations against observations of streamflow and DN fluxes. Uncertainty analyses were conducted with a Monte Carlo analysis to vary model parameters for assessing the associated variations in model outputs. The model performed accurately at the watershed scale and provided estimates of monthly streamflows and nutrient loads as well as DN source apportionments. The simulations identified the dominant contribution of agricultural land use and significant monthly variations. These results provide valuable support for science-based watershed management decisions and indicate the utility of ReNuMa for such applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. National Biological Service Research Supports Watershed Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Craig D.

    1996-01-01

    The National Biological Service's Leetown Science Center is investigating how human impacts on watershed, riparian, and in-stream habitats affect fish communities. The research will provide the basis for a Ridge and Valley model that will allow resource managers to accurately predict and effectively mitigate human impacts on water quality. The study takes place in the Opequon Creek drainage basin of West Virginia. A fourth-order tributary of the Potomac, the basin falls within the Ridge and Valley. The study will identify biological components sensitive to land use patterns and the condition of the riparian zone; the effect of stream size, location, and other characteristics on fish communities; the extent to which remote sensing can reliable measure the riparian zone; and the relationship between the rate of landscape change and the structure of fish communities.

  9. Watershed services: who pays and for what?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras, Ina; Grieg-Gran, Maryanne

    2007-08-15

    There is increasing interest in using payments to promote sound watershed management. Schemes range from small pilot projects involving just five families to a massive Chinese project that aims to reach 15 million farmers. The expectation is that such schemes will help to resolve problems such as declining water flows, flooding and deteriorating water quality by bringing in new funding from water users, the private sector in particular, and by providing incentives for sustainable management to those closest to natural resources. A review of active and proposed schemes in developing nations shows, however, that most schemes still depend on donor or government funding, and few are driven by water users. Meanwhile, evidence of benefits remains patchy.

  10. The heart and great vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, V.

    1985-01-01

    Heart disease is the fifth most common cause of death in infants and children (preceded by anoxic and hypoxic conditions, gross congenital malformations, accidental death, and immaturity). Of all the cardiac lesions, congenital heart disease (CHD) makes up the gross majority, accounting for approximately 90% of all cardiac deaths. Approximately two-thirds of all infants who die from CHD do so within the first year of life; of these, approximately one-third die within the first month. The most common cause of death in the first month is hypoplastic left heart syndrome and lesions associated with it, i.e., aortic atresia/critical aortic stenosis and mitral atresia/critical mitral stenosis. Severe coarctation of the aorta (coarctation syndrome) and transposition of the great arteries are the other most important causes of death in this age group. CHD occurs as a familial condition in approximately 1-4% of cases; ventricular septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus, and atrial septal defect are particularly common forms. Parental age plays an important role, with a significantly increased risk of CHD in infants of mothers over 39 years of age. Patent ductus arteriosus is more prevalent in firstborn children, particularly those born prematurely to young mothers. Environmental factors, such as exposure to teratogenic agents, have also been shown to increase the incidence of CHD. Children with various syndromes also have increased incidence of CHD. Down syndrome is a classic example, as are other trisomies

  11. Tipping Points, Great and Small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Foster

    2010-12-01

    The Forum by Jordan et al. [2010] addressed environmental problems of various scales in great detail, but getting the critical message through to the formulators of public policies requires going back to basics, namely, that exponential growth (of a population, an economy, or most anything else) is not sustainable. When have you heard any politician or economist from anywhere across the ideological spectrum say anything other than that more growth is essential? There is no need for computer models to demonstrate “limits to growth,” as was done in the 1960s. Of course, as one seeks more details, the complexity of modeling will rapidly outstrip the capabilities of both observation and computing. This is common with nonlinear systems, even simple ones. Thus, identifying all possible “tipping points,” as suggested by Jordan et al. [2010], and then stopping just short of them, is impractical if not impossible. The main thing needed to avoid environmental disasters is a bit of common sense.

  12. Evapotranspiration sensitivity to air temperature across a snow-influenced watershed: Space-for-time substitution versus integrated watershed modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, S. M.; Harmon, T. C.; Ficklin, D. L.; Molotch, N. P.; Guan, B.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in long-term, montane actual evapotranspiration (ET) in response to climate change could impact future water supplies and forest species composition. For scenarios of atmospheric warming, predicted changes in long-term ET tend to differ between studies using space-for-time substitution (STS) models and integrated watershed models, and the influence of spatially varying factors on these differences is unclear. To examine this, we compared warming-induced (+2 to +6 °C) changes in ET simulated by an STS model and an integrated watershed model across zones of elevation, substrate available water capacity, and slope in the snow-influenced upper San Joaquin River watershed, Sierra Nevada, USA. We used the Soil Water and Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the watershed modeling and a Budyko-type relationship for the STS modeling. Spatially averaged increases in ET from the STS model increasingly surpassed those from the SWAT model in the higher elevation zones of the watershed, resulting in 2.3-2.6 times greater values from the STS model at the watershed scale. In sparse, deep colluvium or glacial soils on gentle slopes, the SWAT model produced ET increases exceeding those from the STS model. However, watershed areas associated with these conditions were too localized for SWAT to produce spatially averaged ET-gains comparable to the STS model. The SWAT model results nevertheless demonstrate that such soils on high-elevation, gentle slopes will form ET "hot spots" exhibiting disproportionately large increases in ET, and concomitant reductions in runoff yield, in response to warming. Predicted ET responses to warming from STS models and integrated watershed models may, in general, substantially differ (e.g., factor of 2-3) for snow-influenced watersheds exhibiting an elevational gradient in substrate water holding capacity and slope. Long-term water supplies in these settings may therefore be more resilient to warming than STS model predictions would suggest.

  13. Integrated Modeling System for Analysis of Watershed Water Balance: A Case Study in the Tims Branch Watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.; Mahmoudi, M.; Lawrence, A.; Duque, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Applied Research Center at Florida International University (ARC-FIU) is supporting the soil and groundwater remediation efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) by developing a surface water model to simulate the hydrology and the fate and transport of contaminants and sediment in the Tims Branch watershed. Hydrological models are useful tool in water and land resource development and decision-making for watershed management. Moreover, simulation of hydrological processes improves understanding of the environmental dynamics and helps to manage and protect water resources and the environment. MIKE SHE, an advanced integrated modeling system is used to simulate the hydrological processes of the Tim Branch watershed with the objective of developing an integrated modeling system to improve understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes within the Tims Branch watershed. MIKE SHE simulates water flow in the entire land based phase of the hydrological cycle from rainfall to river flow, via various flow processes such as, overland flow, infiltration, evapotranspiration, and groundwater flow. In this study a MIKE SHE model is developed and applied to the Tim branch watershed to study the watershed response to storm events and understand the water balance of the watershed under different climatic and catchment characteristics. The preliminary result of the integrated model indicated that variation in the depth of overland flow highly depend on the amount and distribution of rainfall in the watershed. The ultimate goal of this project is to couple the MIKE SHE and MIKE 11 models to integrate the hydrological component in the land phase of hydrological cycle and stream flow process. The coupled MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 model will further be integrated with an Ecolab module to represent a range of water quality, contaminant transport, and ecological processes with respect to the stream, surface water and groundwater in the Tims

  14. Linked data management

    CERN Document Server

    Hose, Katja; Schenkel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Desp...

  15. An Accurate Link Correlation Estimator for Improving Wireless Protocol Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Xu, Xianghua; Dong, Wei; Bu, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Wireless link correlation has shown significant impact on the performance of various sensor network protocols. Many works have been devoted to exploiting link correlation for protocol improvements. However, the effectiveness of these designs heavily relies on the accuracy of link correlation measurement. In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art link correlation measurement and analyze the limitations of existing works. We then propose a novel lightweight and accurate link correlation estimation (LACE) approach based on the reasoning of link correlation formation. LACE combines both long-term and short-term link behaviors for link correlation estimation. We implement LACE as a stand-alone interface in TinyOS and incorporate it into both routing and flooding protocols. Simulation and testbed results show that LACE: (1) achieves more accurate and lightweight link correlation measurements than the state-of-the-art work; and (2) greatly improves the performance of protocols exploiting link correlation. PMID:25686314

  16. Watershed Watch: Using undergraduate student-driven inquiry-based research projects as a means of engaging undeclared students in the biogeosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, B. N.; Hale, S.; Graham, K.; Hayden, L. B.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed Watch (NSF 0525433) engages early undergraduate students from two-year and four-year colleges in student-driven full inquiry-based instruction in the biogeosciences. Program goals for Watershed Watch are to test if inquiry-rich student-driven projects sufficiently engage undeclared students (or noncommittal STEM majors) to declare a STEM major (or remain with their STEM major). The program is a partnership between two four-year campuses - the University of New Hampshire (UNH), and Elizabeth City State University (ECSU, in North Carolina); and two two-year campuses - Great Bay Community College (GBCC, in New Hampshire) and the College of the Albemarle (COA, in North Carolina). The program focuses on two watersheds: the Merrimack Ricer Watershed in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, and the Pasquotank River Watershed in Virginia and North Carolina. Both the terrestrial and aquatic components of both watersheds are evaluated using the student-driven projects. A significant component of this program is an intensive two-week Summer Research Institute (SRI), in which undeclared freshmen and sophomores investigate various aspects of their local watershed. Two Summer Research Institutes have been held on the UNH campus (2006 and 2008) and two on the ECSU campus (2007 and 2009). Students develop their own research questions and study design, collect and analyze data, and produce a scientific oral or poster presentation on the last day of the SRI. The course objectives, curriculum and schedule are presented as a model for dissemination for other institutions and programs seeking to develop inquiry-rich programs or courses designed to attract students into biogeoscience disciplines. Data from self-reported student feedback indicate the most important factors explaining high-levels of student motivation and research excellence in the program are: 1) working with committed, energetic, and enthusiastic faculty mentors, and 2) faculty mentors demonstrating high degrees of

  17. INFLUENCE OF DEM IN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AS FLOOD ZONATION MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alrajhi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite of valuable efforts from working groups and research organizations towards flood hazard reduction through its program, still minimal diminution from these hazards has been realized. This is mainly due to the fact that with rapid increase in population and urbanization coupled with climate change, flood hazards are becoming increasingly catastrophic. Therefore there is a need to understand and access flood hazards and develop means to deal with it through proper preparations, and preventive measures. To achieve this aim, Geographical Information System (GIS, geospatial and hydrological models were used as tools to tackle with influence of flash floods in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia due to existence of large valleys (Wadis which is a matter of great concern. In this research paper, Digital Elevation Models (DEMs of different resolution (30m, 20m,10m and 5m have been used, which have proven to be valuable tool for the topographic parameterization of hydrological models which are the basis for any flood modelling process. The DEM was used as input for performing spatial analysis and obtaining derivative products and delineate watershed characteristics of the study area using ArcGIS desktop and its Arc Hydro extension tools to check comparability of different elevation models for flood Zonation mapping. The derived drainage patterns have been overlaid over aerial imagery of study area, to check influence of greater amount of precipitation which can turn into massive destructions. The flow accumulation maps derived provide zones of highest accumulation and possible flow directions. This approach provide simplified means of predicting extent of inundation during flood events for emergency action especially for large areas because of large coverage area of the remotely sensed data.

  18. The Urban Watershed as a Transformer of DOM Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, R. S.; Smith, R. M.; Follstad Shah, J.; Kelso, J. E.; Baker, M. A.; Brooks, P. D.

    2017-12-01

    Growing urban systems stress watersheds, resulting in water quality impacts downstream. Urban stresses can include nutrient runoff from fertilizer, effluent from wastewater treatment plants, and changes in hydrologic routing. Synoptic surveys were performed at two rivers in Salt Lake City, Utah to identify how urbanization drives dissolved organic matter (DOM) chemistry. Red Butte Creek, a small third order stream, flows from a protected mountain environment directly into a highly urbanized mountain area. The organic matter chemistry, as measured by fluorescence, changed dynamics in the urban system, with organic matter demonstrating greater aromaticity and different seasonal patterns than observed in the canyon. Several kilometers downstream of the start of urbanization, the C:N ratio of the organic matter changes from 12.5 to 17.7, at a location where the stream is fed by urban-impacted groundwater, suggesting that subsurface DOC is utilized for microbial respiration in denitrification of urban nitrate inputs. This also corresponds with a shift in the chemistry of the DOM, as measured by fluorescence. Red Butte Creek terminates at the Jordan River, which flows from a highly eutrophic lake and is fed by seven tributaries and five wastewater treatment plants before ending at the Great Salt Lake. The Jordan River is heavily contaminated, with low dissolved oxygen and high nutrient content. The fluorescence index (FI) of DOM in the Jordan River indicates a dominant microbial contribution to the fluorescent organic material, particularly in areas where the dissolved oxygen is low, with the FI becoming less microbial as the DO sag lessens. This corresponds to increasing fluorescence signal in the protein-like area of the fluorescence excitation-emission matrices. Additionally, effluent from four wastewater treatment plants, each with different technologies, had distinct organic matter fluorescence, corresponding with differences in the nitrogen and microbial dynamics

  19. Artificial sweeteners in a large Canadian river reflect human consumption in the watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Spoelstra

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners have been widely incorporated in human food products for aid in weight loss regimes, dental health protection and dietary control of diabetes. Some of these widely used compounds can pass non-degraded through wastewater treatment systems and are subsequently discharged to groundwater and surface waters. Measurements of artificial sweeteners in rivers used for drinking water production are scarce. In order to determine the riverine concentrations of artificial sweeteners and their usefulness as a tracer of wastewater at the scale of an entire watershed, we analyzed samples from 23 sites along the entire length of the Grand River, a large river in Southern Ontario, Canada, that is impacted by agricultural activities and urban centres. Municipal water from household taps was also sampled from several cities within the Grand River Watershed. Cyclamate, saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame were found in elevated concentrations despite high rates of biological activity, large daily cycles in dissolved oxygen and shallow river depth. The maximum concentrations that we measured for sucralose (21 µg/L, cyclamate (2.4 µg/L [corrected], and saccharin (7.2 µg/L are the highest reported concentrations of these compounds in surface waters to date anywhere in the world. Acesulfame persists at concentrations that are up to several orders of magnitude above the detection limit over a distance of 300 km and it behaves conservatively in the river, recording the wastewater contribution from the cumulative population in the basin. Acesulfame is a reliable wastewater effluent tracer in rivers. Furthermore, it can be used to assess rates of nutrient assimilation, track wastewater plume dilution, separate human and animal waste contributions and determine the relative persistence of emerging contaminants in impacted watersheds where multiple sources confound the usefulness of other tracers. The effects of artificial sweeteners on aquatic biota

  20. Assessing the influence of watershed characteristics on chlorophyll a in waterbodies at global and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelmer, Whitney; Kao, Yu-Chun; Bunnell, David B.; Deines, Andrew M.; Bennion, David; Rogers, Mark W.; Brooks, Colin N.; Sayers, Michael J.; Banach, David M.; Grimm, Amanda G.; Shuchman, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of primary production of lentic water bodies (i.e., lakes and reservoirs) is valuable to researchers and resource managers alike, but is very rarely done at the global scale. With the development of remote sensing technologies, it is now feasible to gather large amounts of data across the world, including understudied and remote regions. To determine which factors were most important in explaining the variation of chlorophyll a (Chl-a), an indicator of primary production in water bodies, at global and regional scales, we first developed a geospatial database of 227 water bodies and watersheds with corresponding Chl-a, nutrient, hydrogeomorphic, and climate data. Then we used a generalized additive modeling approach and developed model selection criteria to select models that most parsimoniously related Chl-a to predictor variables for all 227 water bodies and for 51 lakes in the Laurentian Great Lakes region in the data set. Our best global model contained two hydrogeomorphic variables (water body surface area and the ratio of watershed to water body surface area) and a climate variable (average temperature in the warmest model selection criteria to select models that most parsimoniously related Chl-a to predictor variables quarter) and explained ~ 30% of variation in Chl-a. Our regional model contained one hydrogeomorphic variable (flow accumulation) and the same climate variable, but explained substantially more variation (58%). Our results indicate that a regional approach to watershed modeling may be more informative to predicting Chl-a, and that nearly a third of global variability in Chl-a may be explained using hydrogeomorphic and climate variables.

  1. Regional Ecological Risk Assessment in the Huai River Watershed during 2010–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem deterioration has been and is still a serious threat to human survival and regional economic development. Theoretical and methodological challenges exist in assessing ecological risk of watershed ecosystem that is imposed by natural changes or human activities. To fill this research gap, this research proposes an interdisciplinary and quantitative methodology based on some techniques such as the Procedure for Ecological Tiered Assessment of Risk (PETAR, the Entropy, and the Celluar Automata Markov (CA-Markov. We focused on six vulnerable environmental variables, namely land-use change, water quantity, water quality, gross domestic product (GDP, environmental pollutants, and soil erosion in the Huai River watershed in the Henan Province in order to build multi-dimensional quantitative method. Further, the Coupling Coordination Degree Model is constructed, and the “threshold index” is also addressed to reflect the limitation of ecological risk. Our results show that the spatio-temperal distribution of the eco-environmental quality has greatly varied across this study area during different time spans. Natural eco-environmental quality has moderately degraded in 70% of this study area (mainly agricultural region, at a prefectural level from 2000 to 2010, and has slightly improved over the agricultural region (<170 m above sea level during 2010–2015. However, when considering negative stressors from human social system on the natural ecosystem, the extent and distribution of the ecological risk varied across the whole area during 2000–2015. The results show that there was almost 90.40% of this region under the ecological risk, with varying extents over the study time, e.g., Kaifeng, Shangqiu, Xuchang, and Xinyang, with a moderate deterioration in the eco-environmental quality, and Zhengzhou with a slight deterioration in the eco-environmental quality. This paper provides a valuable perspective for governments at all levels to manage

  2. Combining lake and watershed characteristics with Landsat TM data for remote estimation of regional lake clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ian M.; Loftin, Cyndy; Sader, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Water clarity is a reliable indicator of lake productivity and an ideal metric of regional water quality. Clarity is an indicator of other water quality variables including chlorophyll-a, total phosphorus and trophic status; however, unlike these metrics, clarity can be accurately and efficiently estimated remotely on a regional scale. Remote sensing is useful in regions containing a large number of lakes that are cost prohibitive to monitor regularly using traditional field methods. Field-assessed lakes generally are easily accessible and may represent a spatially irregular, non-random sample of a region. We developed a remote monitoring program for Maine lakes >8 ha (1511 lakes) to supplement existing field monitoring programs. We combined Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) brightness values for TM bands 1 (blue) and 3 (red) to estimate water clarity (secchi disk depth) during 1990–2010. Although similar procedures have been applied to Minnesota and Wisconsin lakes, neither state incorporates physical lake variables or watershed characteristics that potentially affect clarity into their models. Average lake depth consistently improved model fitness, and the proportion of wetland area in lake watersheds also explained variability in clarity in some cases. Nine regression models predicted water clarity (R2 = 0.69–0.90) during 1990–2010, with separate models for eastern (TM path 11; four models) and western Maine (TM path 12; five models that captured differences in topography and landscape disturbance. Average absolute difference between model-estimated and observed secchi depth ranged 0.65–1.03 m. Eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes consistently were estimated more accurately than oligotrophic lakes. Our results show that TM bands 1 and 3 can be used to estimate regional lake water clarity outside the Great Lakes Region and that the accuracy of estimates is improved with additional model variables that reflect

  3. Hydrologic connectivity and implications for ecosystem processes - Lessons from naked watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooseff, Michael N.; Wlostowski, Adam; McKnight, Diane M.; Jaros, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Hydrologic connectivity has received great attention recently as our conceptual models of watersheds and water quality have evolved in the past several decades. However, the structural complexity of most temperate watersheds (i.e. connections among shallow soils, deep aquifers, the atmosphere and streams) and the dynamic seasonal changes that occur within them (i.e., plant senescence which impacts evapotranspiration) create significant challenges to characterizing or quantifying hydrologic connectivity. The McMurdo Dry Valleys, a polar desert in Antarctica, provide a unique opportunity to study hydrologic connectivity because there is no vegetative cover (and therefore no transpiration), and no deep aquifers connected to surface soils or streams. Glacier melt provides stream flow to well-established channels and closed-basin, ice-covered lakes on the valley floor. Streams are also connected to shallow hyporheic zones along their lengths, which are bounded at 75 cm depth by ice-cemented permafrost. These hydrologic features and connections provide water for and underpin biological communities. Hence, exchange of water among them provides a vector for exchange of energy and dissolved solutes. Connectivity is dynamic on timescales of a day to a flow season (6-12 weeks), as streamflow varies over these timescales. The timescales over which these connections occur is also dynamic. Exchanges between streams and hyporheic zones, for example, have been estimated to be as short as hours to as long as several weeks. These exchanges have significant implications for the biogeochemistry of these systems and the biotic communities in each feature. Here we evaluate the lessons we can learn about hydrologic connectivity in the MDV watersheds that are simplified in the context of processes occurring and water reservoirs included in the landscape, yet are sensitive to climate controls and contain substantial physical heterogeneity. We specifically explore several metrics that are

  4. Laser altimeter measurements at Walnut Gulch Watershed, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.; Humes, K.S.; Weltz, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of landscape surface roughness properties are necessary for understanding many watershed processes. This paper reviews the use of an airborne laser altimeter to measure topography and surface roughness properties of the landscape at Walnut Gulch Watershed in Arizona. Airborne laser data were used to measure macro and micro topography as well as canopy topography, height, cover, and distribution. Macro topography of landscape profiles for segments up to 5 km (3 mi) were measured and were in agreement with available topographic maps but provided more detail. Gullies and stream channel cross-sections and their associated floodplains were measured. Laser measurements of vegetation properties (height and cover) were highly correlated with ground measurements. Landscape segments for any length can be used to measure these landscape roughness properties. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape profiles can provide detailed information on watershed surface properties for improving the management of watersheds. (author)

  5. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level I, Kansas River Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Upper Kansas River Watershed Land Cover Patterns map represents Phase 1 of a two-phase mapping initiative occurring over a three-year period as part of a...

  6. Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 2: Building Partnerships for Resilient Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 2: Building Partnerships for Resilient Watersheds, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquat

  7. 2011 FEMA Lidar: Chemung Watershed (NY) (AOI 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data was acquired by Tuck Mapping Solutions, Inc. (TMSI) for the Chemung Watershed and broken down into two AOIs based on the level of processing performed on...

  8. Walker Branch Watershed Vegetation Inventory, 1967-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The original objectives of the long-term vegetation survey of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee (WBW; Curlin and Nelson 1968) was to quantify...

  9. Summit to Sea Characterization of Coastal Watersheds - Puerto Rico 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Characterization of Coastal Watershed for Puerto Rico, Culebra Island and Vieques Island, is a GIS products suite consisting of layers derived from diverse...

  10. Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) - USGS National Map Downloadable Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) from The National Map (TNM) defines the perimeter of drainage areas formed by the terrain and other landscape characteristics....

  11. Mathematical modeling of synthetic unit hydrograph case study: Citarum watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islahuddin, Muhammad; Sukrainingtyas, Adiska L. A.; Kusuma, M. Syahril B.; Soewono, Edy

    2015-09-01

    Deriving unit hydrograph is very important in analyzing watershed's hydrologic response of a rainfall event. In most cases, hourly measures of stream flow data needed in deriving unit hydrograph are not always available. Hence, one needs to develop methods for deriving unit hydrograph for ungagged watershed. Methods that have evolved are based on theoretical or empirical formulas relating hydrograph peak discharge and timing to watershed characteristics. These are usually referred to Synthetic Unit Hydrograph. In this paper, a gamma probability density function and its variant are used as mathematical approximations of a unit hydrograph for Citarum Watershed. The model is adjusted with real field condition by translation and scaling. Optimal parameters are determined by using Particle Swarm Optimization method with weighted objective function. With these models, a synthetic unit hydrograph can be developed and hydrologic parameters can be well predicted.

  12. Watershed and Economic Data InterOperability (WEDO) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrologic modeling is essential for environmental, economic, and human health decision-making. However, sharing of modeling studies is limited within the watershed modeling community. Distribution of hydrologic modeling research typically involves publishing summarized data in p...

  13. Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed Protection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for Watershed Protection Web site is a searchable database of financial assistance sources (grants, loans) available to fund a...

  14. Analysis of the Lake Superior Watershed Seasonal Snow Cover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daly, Steven F; Baldwin, Timothy B; Weyrick, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Daily estimates of the snow water equivalent (SWE) distribution for the period from 1 December through 30 April for each winter season from 1979 80 through 2002 03 were calculated for the entire Lake Superior watershed...

  15. Urban Waters and the Patapsco Watershed/Baltimore Region (Maryland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patapsco Watershed / Baltimore Area of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  16. Fish Passage Assessment: Big Canyon Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Richard

    2004-02-01

    This report presents the results of the fish passage assessment as outlined as part of the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project as detailed in the CY2003 Statement of Work (SOW). As part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP), this project is one of Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) many efforts at off-site mitigation for damage to salmon and steelhead runs, their migration, and wildlife habitat caused by the construction and operation of federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The proposed restoration activities within the Big Canyon Creek watershed follow the watershed restoration approach mandated by the Fisheries and Watershed Program. Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program vision focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects. We strive toward maximizing historic ecosystem productive health, for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations. The Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program (NPTFWP) sponsors the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project. The NPTFWP has the authority to allocate funds under the provisions set forth in their contract with BPA. In the state of Idaho vast numbers of relatively small obstructions, such as road culverts, block thousands of miles of habitat suitable for a variety of fish species. To date, most agencies and land managers have not had sufficient, quantifiable data to adequately address these barrier sites. The ultimate objective of this comprehensive inventory and assessment was to identify all barrier crossings within the watershed. The barriers were then prioritized according to the

  17. The Great Recession and risk for child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and four measures of the risk for maternal child abuse and neglect: (1) maternal physical aggression; (2) maternal psychological aggression; (3) physical neglect by mothers; and (4) supervisory/exposure neglect by mothers. It draws on rich longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study of families in 20 U.S. cities (N = 3,177; 50% African American, 25% Hispanic; 22% non-Hispanic white; 3% other). The study collected information for the 9-year follow-up survey before, during, and after the Great Recession (2007-2010). Interview dates were linked to two macroeconomic measures of the Great Recession: the national Consumer Sentiment Index and the local unemployment rate. Also included are a wide range of socio-demographic controls, as well as city fixed effects and controls for prior parenting. Results indicate that the Great Recession was associated with increased risk of child abuse but decreased risk of child neglect. Households with social fathers present may have been particularly adversely affected. Results also indicate that economic uncertainty during the Great Recession, as measured by the Consumer Sentiment Index and the unemployment rate, had direct effects on the risk of abuse or neglect, which were not mediated by individual-level measures of economic hardship or poor mental health.

  18. Critical Zone Exploration in the Tropics: Clues from small experimental watersheds in South Cameroon and South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, J.-J.; Riotte, J.; Audry, S.; Boeglin, J. L.; Descloitres, M.; Deschamps, P.; Maréchal, J. C.; Viers, J.; Ndam, J.-R.; Sekhar, M.

    2009-04-01

    difference is due to the disconnection of groundwater and stream during the monitored period of time. The contemporary denudation rate is then 28 mm/kyr, twice the one integrated over the last 100 kyr estimated with 10Be with the streambed sand. The immature, relatively thick regolith has a great potential to produce alkalinity by chemical weathering. Depending on the runoff and therefore climate variability with a more humid gradient (i. e. intensification of the monsoon), the production of alkalinity would increase and consequently increase the atmospheric CO2 consumption. This study has important signification in terms of quantification of the amount of weathered material at small watershed scale and hence of the assessment of the impact of silicate chemical weathering on atmospheric CO2 consumption. The hydrological functioning may then constitute a critical parameter for carbon cycle modelling. This study also stresses the need to have accurate monitoring at the watershed scale in a context of changing climate and to maintain such observatories for decades. Braun, J.-J. et al. (2008) Regolith mass balance inferred from combined mineralogical, geochemical and geophysical studies: Mule Hole gneissic watershed, South India. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2008.11.013 Braun, J. J. (2005) Present weathering rates in a humid tropical watershed: Nsimi, South Cameroon. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69, 357-387. Maréchal, J.-C. et al. (2009) Indirect and direct recharges in a tropical forested watershed: Mule Hole, India. Journal of Hydrology 364, 272-284.

  19. Exploring an innovative watershed management approach: From feasibility to sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, A.; Sehlke, G.; Stevens, D.K.; Sorensen, D.; Walker, W.; Hardy, T.; Glover, T.

    2006-01-01

    Watershed management is dedicated to solving watershed problems on a sustainable basis. Managing watershed development on a sustainable basis usually entails a balance between the needs of humans and nature, both in the present and in the future. From a watershed or water resources development basis, these problems can be classified into five general categories: lack of water quantity, deterioration in water quality, ecological impacts, weak public participation, and weak economic value. The first three categories can be combined to make up physical sustainability while the last two categories can be defined as social and economic sustainability. Therefore, integrated watershed management should be designed to achieve physical sustainability utilizing, to the greatest extent possible, public participation in an economically viable manner. This study demonstrates an innovative approach using scientific, social, and motivational feasibilities that can be used to improve watershed management. Scientific feasibility is tied to the nature of environmental problems and the scientific means to solve them. Social feasibility is associated with public participation. Motivational feasibility is related to economic stimulation for the stakeholders to take actions. The ecological impacts, lack of water quantity and deterioration in water quality are problems that need scientific means in order to improve watershed health. However, the implementation of these means is typically not achievable without the right public participation. In addition, public participation is typically accelerated by economic motivation for the stakeholders to use the resources in a manner that improves watershed health. The Big Lost River in south-central Idaho has been used as an illustration for implementing scientific, social and motivational feasibilities and in a manner that can achieve sustainability relative to water resources management. However, the same approach can be used elsewhere after

  20. Exploring an innovative watershed management approach: From feasibility to sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Sehlke, G. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Stevens, D.K.; Sorensen, D.; Walker, W.; Hardy, T. [Civil and Environmental Department, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84321 (United States); Glover, T. [Economics Department, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84321 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    Watershed management is dedicated to solving watershed problems on a sustainable basis. Managing watershed development on a sustainable basis usually entails a balance between the needs of humans and nature, both in the present and in the future. From a watershed or water resources development basis, these problems can be classified into five general categories: lack of water quantity, deterioration in water quality, ecological impacts, weak public participation, and weak economic value. The first three categories can be combined to make up physical sustainability while the last two categories can be defined as social and economic sustainability. Therefore, integrated watershed management should be designed to achieve physical sustainability utilizing, to the greatest extent possible, public participation in an economically viable manner. This study demonstrates an innovative approach using scientific, social, and motivational feasibilities that can be used to improve watershed management. Scientific feasibility is tied to the nature of environmental problems and the scientific means to solve them. Social feasibility is associated with public participation. Motivational feasibility is related to economic stimulation for the stakeholders to take actions. The ecological impacts, lack of water quantity and deterioration in water quality are problems that need scientific means in order to improve watershed health. However, the implementation of these means is typically not achievable without the right public participation. In addition, public participation is typically accelerated by economic motivation for the stakeholders to use the resources in a manner that improves watershed health. The Big Lost River in south-central Idaho has been used as an illustration for implementing scientific, social and motivational feasibilities and in a manner that can achieve sustainability relative to water resources management. However, the same approach can be used elsewhere after

  1. Storytelling to support watershed research on emerging issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip Hellman

    2016-01-01

    Projections of budget deficits by the Congressional Budget Office imply ever-increasing pressure on federal spending for all purposes, including long-term watershed research. This presentation will argue that, since federal funding is ultimately a political decision, those responsible for maintaining long-term watershed research programs should not try to provide ...

  2. Examining land-use/land-cover change in the Lake Dianchi watershed of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau of Southwest China with remote sensing and GIS techniques: 1974–2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaolong; Zhang, Ke; Fu, Yingchun; Zhang, Hong

    2012-10-24

    Monitoring land-use/land-cover change (LULCC) and exploring its mechanisms are important processes in the environmental management of a lake watershed. The purpose of this study was to examine the spatiotemporal pattern of LULCC by using multi landscape metrics in the Lake Dianchi watershed, which is located in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau of Southwest China. Landsat images from the years 1974, 1988, 1998, and 2008 were analyzed using geographical information system (GIS) techniques. The results reveal that land-use/land-cover has changed greatly in the watershed since 1974. This change in land use structure was embodied in the rapid increase of developed areas with a relative change rate of up to 324.4%. The increase in developed areas mainly occurred in agricultural land, especially near the shores of Lake Dianchi. The spatial pattern and structure of the change was influenced by the urban sprawl of the city of Kunming. The urban sprawl took on the typical expansion mode of cyclic structures and a jigsaw pattern and expanded to the shore of Lake Dianchi. Agricultural land changed little with respect to the structure but changed greatly in the spatial pattern. The landscape in the watershed showed a trend of fragmentation with a complex boundary. The dynamics of land-use/land-cover in the watershed correlate with land-use policies and economic development in China.

  3. Transposition of the great arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castela Eduardo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposition of the great arteries (TGA, also referred to as complete transposition, is a congenital cardiac malformation characterised by atrioventricular concordance and ventriculoarterial (VA discordance. The incidence is estimated at 1 in 3,500–5,000 live births, with a male-to-female ratio 1.5 to 3.2:1. In 50% of cases, the VA discordance is an isolated finding. In 10% of cases, TGA is associated with noncardiac malformations. The association with other cardiac malformations such as ventricular septal defect (VSD and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is frequent and dictates timing and clinical presentation, which consists of cyanosis with or without congestive heart failure. The onset and severity depend on anatomical and functional variants that influence the degree of mixing between the two circulations. If no obstructive lesions are present and there is a large VSD, cyanosis may go undetected and only be perceived during episodes of crying or agitation. In these cases, signs of congestive heart failure prevail. The exact aetiology remains unknown. Some associated risk factors (gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal exposure to rodenticides and herbicides, maternal use of antiepileptic drugs have been postulated. Mutations in growth differentiation factor-1 gene, the thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein-2 gene and the gene encoding the cryptic protein have been shown implicated in discordant VA connections, but they explain only a small minority of TGA cases. The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography, which also provides the morphological details required for future surgical management. Prenatal diagnosis by foetal echocardiography is possible and desirable, as it may improve the early neonatal management and reduce morbidity and mortality. Differential diagnosis includes other causes of central neonatal cyanosis. Palliative treatment with prostaglandin E1 and balloon atrial septostomy are usually

  4. Watershed Planning within a Quantitative Scenario Analysis Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Eric R; Petty, J Todd; Strager, Michael P

    2016-07-24

    There is a critical need for tools and methodologies capable of managing aquatic systems within heavily impacted watersheds. Current efforts often fall short as a result of an inability to quantify and predict complex cumulative effects of current and future land use scenarios at relevant spatial scales. The goal of this manuscript is to provide methods for conducting a targeted watershed assessment that enables resource managers to produce landscape-based cumulative effects models for use within a scenario analysis management framework. Sites are first selected for inclusion within the watershed assessment by identifying sites that fall along independent gradients and combinations of known stressors. Field and laboratory techniques are then used to obtain data on the physical, chemical, and biological effects of multiple land use activities. Multiple linear regression analysis is then used to produce landscape-based cumulative effects models for predicting aquatic conditions. Lastly, methods for incorporating cumulative effects models within a scenario analysis framework for guiding management and regulatory decisions (e.g., permitting and mitigation) within actively developing watersheds are discussed and demonstrated for 2 sub-watersheds within the mountaintop mining region of central Appalachia. The watershed assessment and management approach provided herein enables resource managers to facilitate economic and development activity while protecting aquatic resources and producing opportunity for net ecological benefits through targeted remediation.

  5. Topography significantly influencing low flows in snow-dominated watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Wei, Xiaohua; Yang, Xin; Giles-Hansen, Krysta; Zhang, Mingfang; Liu, Wenfei

    2018-03-01

    Watershed topography plays an important role in determining the spatial heterogeneity of ecological, geomorphological, and hydrological processes. Few studies have quantified the role of topography in various flow variables. In this study, 28 watersheds with snow-dominated hydrological regimes were selected with daily flow records from 1989 to 1996. These watersheds are located in the Southern Interior of British Columbia, Canada, and range in size from 2.6 to 1780 km2. For each watershed, 22 topographic indices (TIs) were derived, including those commonly used in hydrology and other environmental fields. Flow variables include annual mean flow (Qmean), Q10 %, Q25 %, Q50 %, Q75 %, Q90 %, and annual minimum flow (Qmin), where Qx % is defined as the daily flow that occurred each year at a given percentage (x). Factor analysis (FA) was first adopted to exclude some redundant or repetitive TIs. Then, multiple linear regression models were employed to quantify the relative contributions of TIs to each flow variable in each year. Our results show that topography plays a more important role in low flows (flow magnitudes ≤ Q75 %) than high flows. However, the effects of TIs on different flow magnitudes are not consistent. Our analysis also determined five significant TIs: perimeter, slope length factor, surface area, openness, and terrain characterization index. These can be used to compare watersheds when low flow assessments are conducted, specifically in snow-dominated regions with the watershed size less than several thousand square kilometres.

  6. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake J Beaulieu

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams can increase watershed-scale N retention.

  7. A Stochastic Water Balance Framework for Lowland Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally; MacVean, Lissa; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2017-11-01

    The water balance dynamics in lowland watersheds are influenced not only by local hydroclimatic controls on energy and water availability, but also by imports of water from the upstream watershed. These imports result in a stochastic extent of inundation in lowland watersheds that is determined by the local flood regime, watershed topography, and the rate of loss processes such as drainage and evaporation. Thus, lowland watershed water balances depend on two stochastic processes—rainfall and local inundation dynamics. Lowlands are high productivity environments that are disproportionately associated with urbanization, high productivity agriculture, biodiversity, and flood risk. Consequently, they are being rapidly altered by human development—generally with clear economic and social motivation—but also with significant trade-offs in ecosystem services provision, directly related to changes in the components and variability of the lowland water balance. We present a stochastic framework to assess the lowland water balance and its sensitivity to two common human interventions—replacement of native vegetation with alternative land uses, and construction of local flood protection levees. By providing analytical solutions for the mean and PDF of the water balance components, the proposed framework provides a mechanism to connect human interventions to hydrologic outcomes, and, in conjunction with ecosystem service production estimates, to evaluate trade-offs associated with lowland watershed development.

  8. Sediment sources in an urbanizing, mixed land-use watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erin J.; Booth, Derek B.

    2002-07-01

    The Issaquah Creek watershed is a rapidly urbanizing watershed of 144 km 2 in western Washington, where sediment aggradation of the main channel and delivery of fine sediment into a large downstream lake have raised increasingly frequent concerns over flooding, loss of fish habitat, and degraded water quality. A watershed-scale sediment budget was evaluated to determine the relative effects of land-use practices, including urbanization, on sediment supply and delivery, and to guide management responses towards the most effective source-reduction strategies. Human activity in the watershed, particularly urban development, has caused an increase of nearly 50% in the annual sediment yield, now estimated to be 44 tonnes km -2 yr -1. The main sources of sediment in the watershed are landslides (50%), channel-bank erosion (20%), and road-surface erosion (15%). This assessment characterizes the role of human activity in mixed-use watersheds such as this, and it demonstrates some of the key processes, particularly enhanced stream-channel erosion, by which urban development alters sediment loads.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Severe Combined Immunodeficiency National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases Educational Resources (6 links) Boston Children's Hospital Genetic Science Learning Center, University of Utah Great Ormond ...

  10. Predicting watershed sediment yields after wildland fire with the InVEST sediment retention model at large geographic extent in the western USA: accuracy and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, J. B.; Kreitler, J.; McVay, J.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Vaillant, N.; Lowe, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Wildland fire is a primary threat to watersheds that can impact water supply through increased sedimentation, water quality decline, and change the timing and amount of runoff leading to increased risk from flood and sediment natural hazards. It is of great societal importance in the western USA and throughout the world to improve understanding of how changing fire frequency, extent, and location, in conjunction with fuel treatments will affect watersheds and the ecosystem services they supply to communities. In this work we assess the utility of the InVEST Sediment Retention Model to accurately characterize vulnerability of burned watersheds to erosion and sedimentation. The InVEST tools are GIS-based implementations of common process models, engineered for high-end computing to allow the faster simulation of larger landscapes and incorporation into decision-making. The InVEST Sediment Retention Model is based on common soil erosion models (e.g., RUSLE -Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) and determines which areas of the landscape contribute the greatest sediment loads to a hydrological network and conversely evaluate the ecosystem service of sediment retention on a watershed basis. We evaluate the accuracy and uncertainties for InVEST predictions of increased sedimentation after fire, using measured post-fire sedimentation rates available for many watersheds in different rainfall regimes throughout the western USA from an existing, large USGS database of post-fire sediment yield [synthesized in Moody J, Martin D (2009) Synthesis of sediment yields after wildland fire in different rainfall regimes in the western United States. International Journal of Wildland Fire 18: 96-115]. The ultimate goal of this work is to calibrate and implement the model to accurately predict variability in post-fire sediment yield as a function of future landscape heterogeneity predicted by wildfire simulations, and future landscape fuel treatment scenarios, within watersheds.

  11. Utilisation of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) data for assessment of soil erosion process of a watershed in Chhotanagpur plateau region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod Krishna, Akhouri

    . Based on maximum likelihood classifier, the study area was classified into suitable land use/land cover classes. Digital elevation model (DEM) was created through contour heights from topographic maps. Watershed based erosion estimation was carried out including assessment of soil erosion due to land use land cover changes. This provides predictive assessment capability in soil erosion studies particularly with methods such as USLE. Soil erosion problem varies largely depending upon climate, topography, soil and land use etc. Multi-factor computations on rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, topographic, cover and management, and conservation practice were carried out. Quantified details on soil erosion rates were generated in terms of land use land cover classes of the watershed for the years 1996 and 2004. Annual average soil loss for the watershed was calculated and erosion intensity maps were generated. Thus, space data utilized from the satellites IRS1C LISSIII and IRSP6 LISSIII greatly helped in important research assessment of an important land surface process like soil erosion spatially as well as temporally for a watershed under pressures of development, land use changes and land cover fragmentations.

  12. Cosmic Reason of Great Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrov, Alexander; Murtazov, Andrey

    The origin of long-time and global glaciations in the past of our planet, which have been named «great», is still not clear. Both the advance of glaciers and their subsequent melting must be connected with some energy consuming processes. There is a powerful energy source permanently functioning throughout the Earth’s history - the solar radiation. The equality of the incoming shortwave solar energy and the transformed long-wave energy emitted by the Earth provides for the whole ecosphere’s sustainable evolution. Great glaciations might be caused by space body falls into the world oceans. If the body is large enough, it can stir waters down to the bottom. The world waters are part of the global heat transfer from the planet’s equator to its poles (nowadays, mostly to the North Pole). The mixing of the bottom and surface waters breaks the circulation of flows and they stop. The termination of heat transfer to the poles will result in an icecap at high latitudes which in its turn will decrease the total solar heat inflow to the planet and shift the pole ice boarder to the equator. This positive feedback may last long and result in long-time glaciations. The oceanic currents will remain only near the equator. The factor obstructing the global cooling is the greenhouse effect. Volcanic eruptions supply a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. When due to the increased albedo the planet receives less solar heat, plants bind less carbon oxide into biomass and more of it retains in the atmosphere. Therefore, the outflow of heat from the planet decreases and glaciations does not involve the whole planet. The balance established between the heat inflow and heat losses is unstable. Any imbalance acts as a positive feed-back factor. If the volcanic activity grows, the inflow of the carbon dioxide into the atmosphere will cause its heating-up (plants will fail to reproduce themselves quickly enough to utilize the carbonic acid). The temperature growth will lead to

  13. Linking the Scales of Scientific inquiry and Watershed Management: A Focus on Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanization modifies the hydrologic cycle, resulting in potentially deleterious downstream water quality and quantity effects. However, the cumulative interacting effects of water storage, transport, and biogeochemical processes occurring within other land cover and use types of...

  14. Linking levels of societal and ecosystems metabolism of water in a Mediterranean watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, V.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources degradation is a complex environmental problem that involves multiple dimensions and scales of analysis. The Socio-Ecological Systems Water Metabolism has been proposed as a general holistic framework to deal with integrated analysis of water use sustainability (Madrid and Giampietro 2014). The innovation of the approach is that it sets the research focus beyond the classical supply-demand modeling to societal integrity and ecosystems integrity. To do so, it integrates quantitative grammars of water use (relating water exchange to societal and ecosystems organization) and qualitative methods (discourse analysis). This work presents the first case study focused at a river basin extent: the Upper Andarax, in South-East Spain. Water metabolism is indicated at multiple levels for ecosystems and society. To deal with the interfaces among them, relational indicators of water exploitation, water use and impact over ecosystems are used alongside policies and narratives analysis.While being a rather not intensively exploited river basin (year Water Exploitation Index~0.3 blue water,~0.15 green water), impacts over water bodies are yet important (periodic aquifer overdraft, biological degradation of the river) especially during dry season. Perceived mayor problems of water sustainability are generated by the not integration of different policies at European, national and regional scales: while the water authority establishes a compulsory reduction over water withdrawal to attend environmental flows, agricultural markets force to raise productivity increasing water demands. Adaptation strategies are divided among irrigation efficiency improvement and a reorientation of the economy towards touristic activities. Both of them entail specific trade-offs to be deemed. Aquifer-river interactions and climate change impacts are yet mayor research challenges.

  15. Land and Sea: Linking Ecosystem Services with Local Concerns in Guanica Bay Watershed, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Coral Reef Task Force—comprised of leaders from EPA and 11 other federal agencies along with select States, Territories, and Commonwealths—was established in 1998 to stem loses and preserve and protect coral reef ecosystems.

  16. Climate change and farmers’ cropping patterns in Cemoro watershed area, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihardjo; Sutrisno, J.; Setyono, P.; Suntoro

    2018-03-01

    Cropping pattern applied by farmers is usually based on the availability of water. Farmers cultivate rice when water is available. If it is unavailable, farmers will choose to plant crops that need less water. Climate change greatly affects to farmers in determining the cropping pattern as it alters the rainfall pattern and distribution in the region. This condition requires farmers to adjust the cropping pattern so that they can do the farming successfully. This study aims to examine the application of cropping patterns applied by the farmers in the Cemoro Watershed, Central Java, Indonesia. Descriptive analysis approach is employed in this research. The results showed that farmers’ cropping pattern is not based on the availability of water. However, it adopts a habit that has been practiced since long time ago or just adopt others farmer's habit. The cropping pattern applied by irrigated paddy farmers in Cemoro watershed area consists of two types: rice-rice-rice and rice-rice-secondary crops. Among those two types, most farmers apply the rice-rice-rice pattern. Meanwhile, there are three cropping patterns applied in the rain-land, namely rice-rice-rice, rice-rice-secondary crop, and rice-rice-fallow. The majority of farmers apply the second pattern (rice-rice-secondary crops). It was also found that farmers’ cropping pattern was not in accordance with the recommendation of the local government.

  17. Iterative h-minima-based marker-controlled watershed for cell nucleus segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Can Fahrettin; Akhan, Ece; Ersahin, Tulin; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2016-04-01

    Automated microscopy imaging systems facilitate high-throughput screening in molecular cellular biology research. The first step of these systems is cell nucleus segmentation, which has a great impact on the success of the overall system. The marker-controlled watershed is a technique commonly used by the previous studies for nucleus segmentation. These studies define their markers finding regional minima on the intensity/gradient and/or distance transform maps. They typically use the h-minima transform beforehand to suppress noise on these maps. The selection of the h value is critical; unnecessarily small values do not sufficiently suppress the noise, resulting in false and oversegmented markers, and unnecessarily large ones suppress too many pixels, causing missing and undersegmented markers. Because cell nuclei show different characteristics within an image, the same h value may not work to define correct markers for all the nuclei. To address this issue, in this work, we propose a new watershed algorithm that iteratively identifies its markers, considering a set of different h values. In each iteration, the proposed algorithm defines a set of candidates using a particular h value and selects the markers from those candidates provided that they fulfill the size requirement. Working with widefield fluorescence microscopy images, our experiments reveal that the use of multiple h values in our iterative algorithm leads to better segmentation results, compared to its counterparts. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  18. Spatial considerations of snow chemistry as a non-point contamination source in Alpine watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, K.; Williams, M.; Dozier, J.

    1991-01-01

    Alpine watersheds act as a temporary storage basin for large volumes of precipitation as snow. Monitoring these basins for the presence and effects of acid precipitation is important because these areas are often weakly buffered and sensitive to acidification. Study of these sensitive areas may provide early detection of trends resulting form anthropogenic atmospheric inputs. In an intensive study of an alpine watershed in the Sierra Nevada in 1987 and 1988, the authors carefully monitored snow distribution and chemistry through space and time. They found that the volume-weighted mean ionic concentrations within the snowpack did not vary greatly over the basin at peak accumulation. However, the distribution of total snow water equivalence (SWE) was highly variable spatially. Coefficients of variation (CV) for SWE lead to a corresponding high spatial variance in the chemical loading of their study basin. Their results show that to obtain accurate estimates of chemical loading they must measure the chemical and physical snow parameters at a resolution proportional to their individual variances. It is therefore necessary to combine many SWE measurements with fewer carefully obtained chemistry measurements. They used a classification method based on physical parameters to partition the basin into similar zones for estimation of SWE distribution. This technique can also be used for sample design

  19. Valuing the effects of hydropower development on watershed ecosystem services: Case studies in the Jiulong River Watershed, Fujian Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Fang, Qinhua; Zhang, Luoping; Chen, Weiqi; Chen, Zhenming; Hong, Huasheng

    2010-02-01

    Hydropower development brings many negative impacts on watershed ecosystems which are not fully integrated into current decision-making largely because in practice few accept the cost and benefit beyond market. In this paper, a framework was proposed to valuate the effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development. Watershed ecosystem services were classified into four categories of provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services; then effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development were identified to 21 indicators. Thereafter various evaluation techniques including the market value method, opportunity cost approach, project restoration method, travel cost method, and contingent valuation method were determined and the models were developed to valuate these indicators reflecting specific watershed ecosystem services. This approach was applied to three representative hydropower projects (Daguan, Xizaikou and Tiangong) of Jiulong River Watershed in southeast China. It was concluded that for hydropower development: (1) the value ratio of negative impacts to positive benefits ranges from 64.09% to 91.18%, indicating that the negative impacts of hydropower development should be critically studied during its environmental administration process; (2) the biodiversity loss and water quality degradation (together accounting for 80-94%) are the major negative impacts on watershed ecosystem services; (3) the average environmental cost per unit of electricity is up to 0.206 Yuan/kW h, which is about three quarters of its on-grid power tariff; and (4) the current water resource fee accounts for only about 4% of its negative impacts value, therefore a new compensatory method by paying for ecosystem services is necessary for sustainable hydropower development. These findings provide a clear picture of both positive and negative effects of hydropower development for decision-makers in the monetary term, and also provide a

  20. Climate change and the Great Barrier Reef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Johanna; Marshall, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Climate change is now recognised as the greatest long-term threat to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Managers face a future in which the impacts of climate change on tropical marine ecosystems are becoming increasingly frequent and severe. Further degradation is inevitable as the climate continues to change but the extent of the decline will depend on the rate and magnitude of climate change and the resilience of the ecosystem. Changes to the ecosystem have implications for the industries and regional communities that depend on the GBR. Climate projections for the GBR region include increasing air and sea temperatures, ocean acidification, nutrient enrichment (via changes in rainfall), altered light levels, more extreme weather events, changes to ocean circulation and sea level rise. Impacts have already been observed, with severe coral bleaching events in 1998 and 2002, and mass mortalities of seabirds linked to anomalously warm summer conditions. Climate change also poses significant threats to the industries and communities that depend on the GBR ecosystem, both directly and indirectly through loss of natural resources; industries such as recreational and commercial fishing, and tourism, which contributes to a regional tourism industry worth $6.1 billion (Access Economics 2005). A vulnerability assessment undertaken by leading experts in climate and marine science identified climate sensitivities for GBR species, habitats, key processes, GBR industries and communities (Johnson and Marshall 2007). This information has been used to develop a Climate Change Action Plan for the GBR. The Action Plan is a five-year program aimed at facilitating targeted science, building a resilient ecosystem, assisting adaptation of industries and communities, and reducing climate footprints. The Action Plan identifies strategies to review current management arrangements and raise awareness of the issue in order to work towards a resilient ecosystem. Integral to

  1. Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed, Oklahoma and Thika River Watershed, Kenya Twinning Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriasi, D.; Steiner, J.; Arnold, J.; Allen, P.; Dunbar, J.; Shisanya, C.; Gathenya, J.; Nyaoro, J.; Sang, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed (FCRW) (830 km2) is a watershed within the HELP Washita Basin, located in Caddo and Washita Counties, OK. It is also a benchmark watershed under USDA's Conservation Effects Assessment Project, a national project to quantify environmental effects of USDA and other conservation programs. Population in south-western Oklahoma, in which FCRW is located, is sparse and decreasing. Agricultural focuses on commodity production (beef, wheat, and row crops) with high costs and low margins. Surface and groundwater resources supply public, domestic, and irrigation water. Fort Cobb Reservoir and contributing stream segments are listed on the Oklahoma 303(d) list as not meeting water quality standards based on sedimentation, trophic level of the lake associated with phosphorus loads, and nitrogen in some stream segments in some seasons. Preliminary results from a rapid geomorphic assessment results indicated that unstable stream channels dominate the stream networks and make a significant but unknown contribution to suspended-sediment loadings. Impairment of the lake for municipal water supply, recreation, and fish and wildlife are important factors in local economies. The Thika River Watershed (TRW) (867 km2) is located in central Kenya. Population in TRW is high and increasing, which has led to a poor land-population ratio with population densities ranging from 250 people/km2 to over 500 people/km2. The poor land-population ratio has resulted in land sub-division, fragmentation, over- cultivation, overgrazing, and deforestation which have serious implications on soil erosion, which poses a threat to both agricultural production and downstream reservoirs. Agricultural focuses mainly on subsistence and some cash crops (dairy cattle, corn, beans, coffee, floriculture and pineapple) farming. Surface and groundwater resources supply domestic, public, and hydroelectric power generation water. Thika River supplies 80% of the water for the city of

  2. Using the Remote Sensing and GIS Technology for Erosion Risk Mapping of Kartalkaya Dam Watershed in Kahramanmaras, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah E. Akay

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The soil erosion is the most serious environmental problem in watershed areas in Turkey. The main factors affecting the amount of soil erosion include vegetation cover, topography, soil, and climate. In order to describe the areas with high soil erosion risks and to develop adequate erosion prevention measures in the watersheds of dams, erosion risk maps should be generated considering these factors. Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS technologies were used for erosion risk mapping in Kartalkaya Dam Watershed of Kahramanmaras, Turkey, based on the methodology implemented in COoRdination of INformation on the Environment (CORINE model. ASTER imagery was used to generate a land use/cover classification in ERDAS Imagine. The digital maps of the other factors (topography, soil types, and climate were generated in ArcGIS v9.2, and were then integrated as CORINE input files to produce erosion risk maps. The results indicate that 33.82%, 35.44%, and 30.74% of the study area were under low, moderate, and high actual erosion risks, respectively. The CORINE model integrated with RS and GIS technologies has great potential for producing accurate and inexpensive erosion risk maps in Turkey.

  3. Assessing Climate Change Impact on Gilgel Abbay and Gumara Watershed Hydrology, the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailu Sheferaw Ayele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and variability have significant influences on hydrological cycles and the availability of water in the Horn of Africa. Projections of six General Circulation Models (GCMs in association with high (A2 and low (B1 emission scenarios were adopted in this study from the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES for the period 2020 - 2039 to assess the impacts of climate changes on the Gilgel Abbay and Gumara watershed hydrology, the upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. The GCMs selected were screened in accordance with baseline climate statistics of study areas. A weather generator was employed to generate daily temperature and precipitation to drive the General Water Loading Function (GWLF hydrological model for simulating runoffs. Projected changes in temperature differences and precipitation ratios relative to the baseline were analyzed to explain the variations in evapotranspiration and the influences on runoff. Despite the fact that the projected magnitude varies among GCMs, increasing runoff in both wet and dry seasons was observed for both watersheds, attributable mainly to the increase in precipitation projected by most GCMs. In contrast to the great increases in runoff, variations in evapotranspiration are less significant. The projected runoff in both watersheds implies increased potential for promoting agricultural irrigation in the dry season. Furthermore, it would allow greater inflow to Lake Tana, the largest contributor to the Ethiopian Renaissance Dam on the Blue Nile. Therefore, concerned local, state, and federal government organizations shall be prepared to harness opportunities from the projected increase in runoff.

  4. Experimental Watershed Study Designs: A Tool for Advancing Process Understanding and Management of Mixed-Land-Use Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbart, J. A.; Kellner, R. E.; Zeiger, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Advancements in watershed management are both a major challenge, and urgent need of this century. The experimental watershed study (EWS) approach provides critical baseline and long-term information that can improve decision-making, and reduce misallocation of mitigation investments. Historically, the EWS approach was used in wildland watersheds to quantitatively characterize basic landscape alterations (e.g. forest harvest, road building). However, in recent years, EWS is being repurposed in contemporary multiple-land-use watersheds comprising a mosaic of land use practices such as urbanizing centers, industry, agriculture, and rural development. The EWS method provides scalable and transferrable results that address the uncertainties of development, while providing a scientific basis for total maximum daily load (TMDL) targets in increasing numbers of Clean Water Act 303(d) listed waters. Collaborative adaptive management (CAM) programs, designed to consider the needs of many stakeholders, can also benefit from EWS-generated information, which can be used for best decision making, and serve as a guidance tool throughout the CAM program duration. Of similar importance, long-term EWS monitoring programs create a model system to show stakeholders how investing in rigorous scientific research initiatives improves decision-making, thereby increasing management efficiencies through more focused investments. The evolution from classic wildland EWS designs to contemporary EWS designs in multiple-land-use watersheds will be presented while illustrating how such an approach can encourage innovation, cooperation, and trust among watershed stakeholders working to reach the common goal of improving and sustaining hydrologic regimes and water quality.

  5. Prediction of suspended-sediment concentrations at selected sites in the Fountain Creek watershed, Colorado, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogner, Sr., Robert W.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Richard R.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Mau, David P.

    2013-01-01

    determine fluxes of suspended sediment for the median particle size and for the measured range of particle sizes in the channel. Three different techniques were investigated for making the suspended-sediment predictions; these techniques have varying degrees of reliance on measured data and also have greatly differing degrees of complexity. Based on these data, the calibrated Rouse method provided the best balance between accuracy and both computational and data collection costs; the presence of substantial washload was the primary factor in eliminating the simpler and the more complex techniques. Based on this work, using the selected technique at additional sites in the watershed to determine relative loads and source areas appears plausible. However, to ensure that the methodology presented in this report yields reasonable results at other selected sites in the basin, it is necessary to collect additional verification data sets at those locations.

  6. Open Source GIS based integrated watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Lindsay, J.; Berg, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Optimal land and water management to address future and current resource stresses and allocation challenges requires the development of state-of-the-art geomatics and hydrological modelling tools. Future hydrological modelling tools should be of high resolution, process based with real-time capability to assess changing resource issues critical to short, medium and long-term enviromental management. The objective here is to merge two renowned, well published resource modeling programs to create an source toolbox for integrated land and water management applications. This work will facilitate a much increased efficiency in land and water resource security, management and planning. Following an 'open-source' philosophy, the tools will be computer platform independent with source code freely available, maximizing knowledge transfer and the global value of the proposed research. The envisioned set of water resource management tools will be housed within 'Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools'. Whitebox, is an open-source geographical information system (GIS) developed by Dr. John Lindsay at the University of Guelph. The emphasis of the Whitebox project has been to develop a user-friendly interface for advanced spatial analysis in environmental applications. The plugin architecture of the software is ideal for the tight-integration of spatially distributed models and spatial analysis algorithms such as those contained within the GENESYS suite. Open-source development extends knowledge and technology transfer to a broad range of end-users and builds Canadian capability to address complex resource management problems with better tools and expertise for managers in Canada and around the world. GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science input) is an innovative, efficient, high-resolution hydro- and agro-meteorological model for complex terrain watersheds developed under the direction of Dr. James Byrne. GENESYS is an outstanding research and applications tool to address

  7. Hydrological modelling in sandstone rocks watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponížilová, Iva; Unucka, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The contribution is focused on the modelling of surface and subsurface runoff in the Ploučnice basin. The used rainfall-runoff model is HEC-HMS comprising of the method of SCS CN curves and a recession method. The geological subsurface consisting of sandstone is characterised by reduced surface runoff and, on the contrary, it contributes to subsurface runoff. The aim of this paper is comparison of the rate of influence of sandstone on reducing surface runoff. The recession method for subsurface runoff was used to determine the subsurface runoff. The HEC-HMS model allows semi- and fully distributed approaches to schematisation of the watershed and rainfall situations. To determine the volume of runoff the method of SCS CN curves is used, which results depend on hydrological conditions of the soils. The rainfall-runoff model assuming selection of so-called methods of event of the SCS-CN type is used to determine the hydrograph and peak flow rate based on simulation of surface runoff in precipitation exceeding the infiltration capacity of the soil. The recession method is used to solve the baseflow (subsurface) runoff. The method is based on the separation of hydrograph to direct runoff and subsurface or baseflow runoff. The study area for the simulation of runoff using the method of SCS CN curves to determine the hydrological transformation is the Ploučnice basin. The Ploučnice is a hydrologically significant river in the northern part of the Czech Republic, it is a right tributary of the Elbe river with a total basin area of 1.194 km2. The average value of CN curves for the Ploučnice basin is 72. The geological structure of the Ploučnice basin is predominantly formed by Mesozoic sandstone. Despite significant initial loss of rainfall the basin response to the causal rainfall was demonstrated by a rapid rise of the surface runoff from the watershed and reached culmination flow. Basically, only surface runoff occures in the catchment during the initial phase of

  8. Rangeland degradation in two watersheds of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T; Faour, G.

    2008-01-01

    A complex and rugged nature characterizes the Lebanese mountains.The climatic pattern prevailing in the country, deforestation and man made erosion caused increased rangeland degradation. The purpose of this study was to monitor two contrasting watersheds, representing the Lebanese agro-ecological zones, to analyze the vegetation dynamics and trace the state of rangeland degradation. The Kfarselouane (205 km2) and Aarsal (316.7 km2) watersheds are located in the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountain chain and characterized by sub humid and semi-arid climate respectively.Using multitemporal spot vegetation images between 1999 and 2005 to analyze the normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) revealed some improvement of the vegetation cover over recent years in Kfaselouane with a steady state in Aarsal. The NDVI trend curve inclines in spring and declines in summer and fall. Judging by the time scale amplitude change and highest magnitude between the peak and lower NDVI level in Aarsal, an increased vulnerability to drought is observed in the dry Lebanese areas. Comparing land cover/use in Aarsal area between 1962 and 2000 using aerial photos and large resolution Indian satellite images (IRS) showed wood fragmentation and slight increase of the degenerated forest cover from 1108 ha to 1168 ha. Landuse change was accompanied by a simultaneous increase of cultivated lands (mostly fruit trees) from 932 ha to 4878 ha with absence of soil conservation and water harvesting practices. On the contrary, grasslands decreased from 29581 ha to 25000 ha. In Kfarselouane, the area of grassland was invaded by forestland where rangeland decreased from 8073 ha to 3568 ha and woodland increased from 5766 ha to 11800 ha. Forest expansion occurred even at the account of unproductive land which decreased from 2668 ha to 248 ha, while cultivated lands did not reveal any substantial change. Based on animals' seasonal feeding pattern, a mismatch between land carrying capacity and grazing

  9. The Exit Gradient As a Measure of Groundwater Dependency of Watershed Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, B. R.; Canfield, T. J.; Justin, G. F.

    2014-12-01

    Flux of groundwater to surface water is often of great interest for the determination of the groundwater dependency of ecosystem services, such as maintenance of wetlands and of baseflow as a contributor to stream channel storage. It is difficult to measure. Most methods are based on coarse mass balance estimates or seepage meters. One drawback of these methods is they are not entirely spatially explicit. The exit gradient is commonly used in engineering studies of hydraulic structures affected by groundwater flow. It can be simply defined in the groundwater modeling context as the ratio of the difference between the computed head and the land surface elevation, for each computational cell, to the thickness of the cell, as it varies in space. When combined with calibrated groundwater flow models, it also has the potential to be useful in watershed scale evaluations of groundwater dependency in a spatially explicit way. We have taken advantage of calibrated models for the Calapooia watershed, Oregon, to map exit gradients for the watershed. Streams in the Calapooia are hydraulically well connected with groundwater. Not surprisingly, we found large variations in exit gradients between wet and dry season model runs, supporting the notion of stream expansion, as observed in the field, which may have a substantial influence on water quality. We have mapped the exit gradients in the wet and dry seasons, and compared them to regions which have been mapped in wetland surveys. Those classified as Palustrine types fell largest in the area of contribution from groundwater. In many cases, substantially high exit gradients, even on average, did not correspond to mapped wetland areas, yet nutrient retention ecosystem services may still be playing a role in these areas. The results also reinforce the notion of the importance of baseflow to maintenance of stream flow, even in the dry summer season in this Temperate/Mediterranean climate. Exit gradient mapping is a simple, yet

  10. Simulating mercury and methyl mercury stream concentrations at multiple scales in a wetland influenced coastal plain watershed (McTier Creek, SC, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Knightes; G.M. Davis; H.E. Golden; P.A. Conrads; P.M. Bradley; C.A. Journey

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is the toxicant responsible for the most fish advisories across the United States, with 1.1 million river miles under advisory. The processes governing fate, transport, and transformation of mercury in streams and rivers are not well understood, in large part, because these systems are intimately linked with their surrounding watersheds and are often...

  11. Onondaga Lake Watershed – A Geographic Information System Project Phase I – Needs assessment and spatial data framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freehafer, Douglas A.; Pierson, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2002, the Onondaga Lake Partnership (OLP) formed a Geographic Information System (GIS) Planning Committee to begin the process of developing a comprehensive watershed geographic information system for Onondaga Lake. The goal of the Onondaga Lake Partnership geographic information system is to integrate the various types of spatial data used for scientific investigations, resource management, and planning and design of improvement projects in the Onondaga Lake Watershed. A needs-assessment survey was conducted and a spatial data framework developed to support the Onondaga Lake Partnership use of geographic information system technology. The design focused on the collection, management, and distribution of spatial data, maps, and internet mapping applications. A geographic information system library of over 100 spatial datasets and metadata links was assembled on the basis of the results of the needs assessment survey. Implementation options were presented, and the Geographic Information System Planning Committee offered recommendations for the management and distribution of spatial data belonging to Onondaga Lake Partnership members. The Onondaga Lake Partnership now has a strong foundation for building a comprehensive geographic information system for the Onondaga Lake watershed. The successful implementation of a geographic information system depends on the Onondaga Lake Partnership’s determination of: (1) the design and plan for a geographic information system, including the applications and spatial data that will be provided and to whom, (2) the level of geographic information system technology to be utilized and funded, and (3) the institutional issues of operation and maintenance of the system.

  12. Development of multi-year land cover data to assess wildfire impacts to coastal watersheds and the nearshore environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Katherine D.

    In the Mediterranean ecosystems of coastal California, wildfire is a common disturbance that can significantly alter vegetation in watersheds that transport sediment and nutrients to the adjacent nearshore oceanic environment. We assess the impact of two wildfires that burned in 2008 on land cover and to the nearshore environment along the Big Sur coast in central California. We created a multi-year land cover dataset to assess changes to coastal watersheds as a result of fire. This land cover dataset was then used to model changes in nonpoint source pollutants transported to the nearshore environment. Results indicate post-fire increases in percent export compared to pre-fire years and also link wildfire severity to the specific land cover changes that subsequently increase exports of pollutants and sediment to the nearshore environment. This approach is a replicable across watersheds and also provides a framework for including the nearshore environment as a value at risk terrestrial land management revolving around wildfire, including suppression, thinning, and other activities that change land cover at a landscape scale.

  13. U.S. Geological Survey research in Handcart Gulch, Colorado—An alpine watershed with natural acid-rock drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Bove, Dana J.; Kahn, Katherine G.

    2009-01-01

    alpine watersheds. Additionally, despite the complexity of the fracture controlled aquifer system, it appears that it can be represented with a relatively simple conceptual model and can be treated as an equivalent porous medium at the watershed scale. Interpretation of existing data, collection of new monitoring data, and efforts to link geochemical and hydrologic processes through modeling are ongoing at the site.

  14. Model My Watershed - A Robust Online App to Enable Citizen Scientists to Model Watershed Hydrology and Water Quality at Regulatory-Level Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, M.; Kerlin, S.; Arscott, D.

    2017-12-01

    Citizen-based watershed monitoring has historically lacked scientific rigor and geographic scope due to limitation in access to watershed-level data and the high level skills and resources required to adequately model watershed dynamics. Public access to watershed information is currently routed through a variety of governmental data portals and often requires advanced geospatial skills to collect and present in useable forms. At the same time, tremendous financial resources are being invested in watershed restoration and management efforts, and often these resources pass through local stakeholder groups such as conservation NGO, watershed interest groups, and local municipalities without extensive hydrologic knowledge or access to sophisticated modeling resources. Even governmental agencies struggle to understand how to best steer or prioritize restoration investments. A new app, Model My Watershed, was built to improve access to watershed data and modeling capabilities in a fast, accessible, free web-app format. Working across the contiguous United States, the Model My Watershed app provides land cover, soils, aerial imagery and relief, watershed delineation, and stream network delineation. Users can model watersheds or areas of interest and create management scenarios to evaluate implementation of land cover changes and best management practice implementation with both hydrologic and water quality outputs that meet TMDL regulatory standards.

  15. Hydromentor: An integrated water resources monitoring and management system at modified semi-arid watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Sidiropoulos, Pantelis; Tzabiras, John; Kokkinos, Konstantinos; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Papaioannou, George; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos; Michailidou, Kalliopi; Tziatzios, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2015-04-01

    Natural and engineered water systems interact throughout watersheds and while there is clearly a link between watershed activities and the quantity and quality of water entering the engineered environment, these systems are considered distinct operational systems. As a result, the strategic approach to data management and modeling within the two systems is very different, leading to significant difficulties in integrating the two systems in order to make comprehensive watershed decisions. In this paper, we describe the "HYDROMENTOR" research project, a highly-structured data storage and exchange system that integrates multiple tools and models describing both natural and modified environments, to provide an integrated tool for management of water resources. Our underlying objective in presenting our conceptual design for this water information system is to develop an integrated and automated system that will achieve monitoring and management of the water quantity and quality at watershed level for both surface water (rivers and lakes) and ground water resources (aquifers). The uniqueness of the system is the integrated treatment of the water resources management issue in terms of water quantity and quality in current climate conditions and in future conditions of climatic change. On an operational level, the system provides automated warnings when the availability, use and pollution levels exceed allowable limits pre-set by the management authorities. Decision making with respect to the apportionment of water use by surface and ground water resources are aided through this system, while the relationship between the polluting activity of a source to total incoming pollution by sources are determined; this way, the best management practices for dealing with a crisis are proposed. The computational system allows the development and application of actions, interventions and policies (alternative management scenarios) so that the impacts of climate change in quantity

  16. Climate, water use, and land surface transformation in an irrigation intensive watershed - streamflow responses from 1950 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Joseph; Zou, Chris B.; Andrews, William J.; Long, James M.; Liang, Ye; Qiao, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Climatic variability and land surface change have a wide range of effects on streamflow and are often difficult to separate. We analyzed long-term records of climate, land use and land cover, and re-constructed the water budget based on precipitation, groundwater levels, and water use from 1950 through 2010 in the Cimarron–Skeleton watershed and a portion of the Cimarron–Eagle Chief watershed in Oklahoma, an irrigation-intensive agricultural watershed in the Southern Great Plains, USA. Our results show that intensive irrigation through alluvial aquifer withdrawal modifies climatic feedback and alters streamflow response to precipitation. Increase in consumptive water use was associated with decreases in annual streamflow, while returning croplands to non-irrigated grasslands was associated with increases in streamflow. Along with groundwater withdrawal, anthropogenic-induced factors and activities contributed nearly half to the observed variability of annual streamflow. Streamflow was more responsive to precipitation during the period of intensive irrigation between 1965 and 1984 than the period of relatively lower water use between 1985 and 2010. The Cimarron River is transitioning from a historically flashy river to one that is more stable with a lower frequency of both high and low flow pulses, a higher baseflow, and an increased median flow due in part to the return of cropland to grassland. These results demonstrated the interrelationship among climate, land use, groundwater withdrawal and streamflow regime and the potential to design agricultural production systems and adjust irrigation to mitigate impact of increasing climate variability on streamflow in irrigation intensive agricultural watershed.

  17. Estimation of Annual Average Soil Loss, Based on Rusle Model in Kallar Watershed, Bhavani Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, S. Abdul; Aruchamy, S.; Jegankumar, R.; Ajeez, S. Abdul

    2015-10-01

    Soil erosion is a widespread environmental challenge faced in Kallar watershed nowadays. Erosion is defined as the movement of soil by water and wind, and it occurs in Kallar watershed under a wide range of land uses. Erosion by water can be dramatic during storm events, resulting in wash-outs and gullies. It can also be insidious, occurring as sheet and rill erosion during heavy rains. Most of the soil lost by water erosion is by the processes of sheet and rill erosion. Land degradation and subsequent soil erosion and sedimentation play a significant role in impairing water resources within sub watersheds, watersheds and basins. Using conventional methods to assess soil erosion risk is expensive and time consuming. A comprehensive methodology that integrates Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), coupled with the use of an empirical model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation- RUSLE) to assess risk, can identify and assess soil erosion potential and estimate the value of soil loss. GIS data layers including, rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodability (K), slope length and steepness (LS), cover management (C) and conservation practice (P) factors were computed to determine their effects on average annual soil loss in the study area. The final map of annual soil erosion shows a maximum soil loss of 398.58 t/ h-1/ y-1. Based on the result soil erosion was classified in to soil erosion severity map with five classes, very low, low, moderate, high and critical respectively. Further RUSLE factors has been broken into two categories, soil erosion susceptibility (A=RKLS), and soil erosion hazard (A=RKLSCP) have been computed. It is understood that functions of C and P are factors that can be controlled and thus can greatly reduce soil loss through management and conservational measures.

  18. Analyzing the variability of sediment yield: A case study from paired watersheds in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebabu, Kindiye; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Adgo, Enyew; Meshesha, Derege Tsegaye; Aklog, Dagnachew; Masunaga, Tsugiyuki; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Sultan, Dagnenet; Fenta, Ayele Almaw; Yibeltal, Mesenbet

    2018-02-01

    Improved knowledge of watershed-scale spatial and temporal variability of sediment yields (SY) is needed to design erosion control strategies, particularly in the most severely eroded areas. The present study was conducted to provide this knowledge for the humid tropical highlands of Ethiopia using the Akusity and Kasiry paired watersheds in the Guder portion of the Upper Blue Nile basin. Discharge and suspended sediment concentration data were monitored during the rainy season of 2014 and 2015 using automatic flow stage sensors, manual staff gauges and a depth-integrated sediment sampler. The SY was calculated using empirical discharge-sediment curves for different parts of each rainy season. The measured mean daily sediment concentration differed greatly between years and watersheds (0.51 g L- 1 in 2014 and 0.92 g L- 1 in 2015 for Kasiry, and 1.04 g L- 1 in 2014 and 2.20 g L- 1 in 2015 for Akusity). Sediment concentrations at both sites decreased as the rainy season progressed, regardless of the rainfall pattern, owing to depletion of the sediment supply and limited transport capacity of the flows caused by increased vegetation cover. Rainy season SYs for Kasiry were 7.6 t ha- 1 in 2014 and 27.2 t ha- 1 in 2015, while in Akusity SYs were 25.7 t ha- 1 in 2014 and 71.2 t ha- 1 in 2015. The much larger values in 2015 can be partly explained by increased rainfall and larger peak flow events. The magnitude and timing of peak flow events are major determinants of the amount and variability of SYs. Thus, site-specific assessment of such events is crucial to reveal SY dynamics of small watersheds in tropical highland environments.

  19. Nitrate in watersheds: straight from soils to streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudduth, Elizabeth B.; Perakis, Steven S.; Bernhardt, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Human activities are rapidly increasing the global supply of reactive N and substantially altering the structure and hydrologic connectivity of managed ecosystems. There is long-standing recognition that N must be removed along hydrologic flowpaths from uplands to streams, yet it has proven difficult to assess the generality of this removal across ecosystem types, and whether these patterns are influenced by land-use change. To assess how well upland nitrate (NO3-) loss is reflected in stream export, we gathered information from >50 watershed biogeochemical studies that reported nitrate concentrations ([NO3-]) for stream water and for either upslope soil solution or groundwater NO3- to examine whether stream export of NO3- accurately reflects upland NO3- losses. In this dataset, soil solution and streamwater [NO3-] were correlated across 40 undisturbed forest watersheds, with streamwater [NO3-] typically half (median = 50%) soil solution [NO3-]. A similar relationship was seen in 10 disturbed forest watersheds. However, for 12 watersheds with significant agricultural or urban development, the intercept and slope were both significantly higher than the relationship seen in forest watersheds. Differences in concentration between soil solution or groundwater and stream water may be attributed to biological uptake, microbial processes including denitrification, and/or preferential flow routing. The results of this synthesis are consistent with the hypotheses that undisturbed watersheds have a significant capacity to remove nitrate after it passes below the rooting zone and that land use changes tend to alter the efficiency or the length of watershed flowpaths, leading to reductions in nitrate removal and increased stream nitrate concentrations.

  20. Uncertainty in BMP evaluation and optimization for watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, I.; Cibin, R.; Sudheer, K.; Her, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Use of computer simulation models have increased substantially to make watershed management decisions and to develop strategies for water quality improvements. These models are often used to evaluate potential benefits of various best management practices (BMPs) for reducing losses of pollutants from sources areas into receiving waterbodies. Similarly, use of simulation models in optimizing selection and placement of best management practices under single (maximization of crop production or minimization of pollutant transport) and multiple objective functions has increased recently. One of the limitations of the currently available assessment and optimization approaches is that the BMP strategies are considered deterministic. Uncertainties in input data (e.g. precipitation, streamflow, sediment, nutrient and pesticide losses measured, land use) and model parameters may result in considerable uncertainty in watershed response under various BMP options. We have developed and evaluated options to include uncertainty in BMP evaluation and optimization for watershed management. We have also applied these methods to evaluate uncertainty in ecosystem services from mixed land use watersheds. In this presentation, we will discuss methods to to quantify uncertainties in BMP assessment and optimization solutions due to uncertainties in model inputs and parameters. We have used a watershed model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool or SWAT) to simulate the hydrology and water quality in mixed land use watershed located in Midwest USA. The SWAT model was also used to represent various BMPs in the watershed needed to improve water quality. SWAT model parameters, land use change parameters, and climate change parameters were considered uncertain. It was observed that model parameters, land use and climate changes resulted in considerable uncertainties in BMP performance in reducing P, N, and sediment loads. In addition, climate change scenarios also affected uncertainties in SWAT

  1. Impact of Water Usage on the Hydrology of Streams in the Mill River Watershed, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R. M.; Rhodes, A. L.; Pufall, A.; Bradstreet, E.; Katchpole, S.; Mattison, E.; Woods, R.

    2001-05-01

    Removal of surface water for municipal water supplies has reduced base flow in two tributary streams to the Mill River in Whately Massachusetts. This reduction in the flow of high quality water from these tributaries reduces the amount of dilution of high anthropogenic chemical loads in the main branch of the Mill River leading to high concentrations of chloride and sulfate. The city of Northampton, operates a reservoir on West Brook that removes an average of 5,700 m3/day. West Brook occupies a 28.4 km2 watershed underlain by Paleozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks that are mainly overlain by thin deposits of Pleistocene till. There are isolated areas of stratified drift in the area of the reservoir and where West Brook enters into the area formerly occupied by Glacial Lake Hitchcock. The reservoir (0.35 km2 in area) lies within the upper third of the subcatchment and is primarily fed by Avery Brook (7.6 km2 watershed). Although the reservoirs watershed represent about one third of the West Brook watershed, high water demands limit the release of water from the reservoir to periods of high flow associated with intense rainfall or snowmelt events. A comparison of unit hydrographs from Avery Brook, upstream of the reservoir with those from West Brook near where it enters the Mill River show significant lower discharges downstream (1mm/day). A comparison of flow duration curves show that discharges below the reservoir are dramatically lower during low flow conditions. The town of South Deerfield operates a reservoir on Roaring Brook that removes approximately 3,800 m3/day. Roaring Brook occupies a 14.0 km2 watershed that is similar in geology to West Brook. The reservoir is located on the downstream section of the brook just above where it enters the Mill River. Unlike the Northampton reservoir, water is almost continually released from the reservoir although the rate does fluctuate greatly. Data from a gage station located just downstream of the dam show rapid

  2. Dynamic link: user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hiroo; Asai, Kiyoshi; Kihara, Kazuhisa.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of dynamic link facility is to link a load module dynamically only when it is used in execution time. The facility is very useful for development, execution and maintenance of a large scale computer program which is too big to be saved as one load module in main memory, or it is poor economy to save it due to many unused subroutines depending on an input. It is also useful for standardization and common utilization of programs. Standard usage of dynamic link facility of FACOM M-200 computer system, a software tool which analyzes the effect of dynamic link facility and application of dynamic link to nuclear codes are described. (author)

  3. Hydrographs Showing Groundwater Level Changes for Selected Wells in the Chambers-Clover Creek Watershed and Vicinity, Pierce County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, G.B.; Julich, R.; Payne, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Selected groundwater level hydrographs for the Chambers-Clover Creek watershed (CCCW) and vicinity, Washington, are presented in an interactive web-based map to illustrate changes in groundwater levels in and near the CCCW on a monthly and seasonal basis. Hydrographs are linked to points corresponding to the well location on an interactive map of the study area. Groundwater level data and well information from Federal, State, and local agencies were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS), Groundwater Site Inventory (GWSI) System.

  4. Watershed health assessment to monitor land degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Hazbavi, Zeinab; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation is a worldwide issue that affects the Planet and the fate of the humankind (Cerdà et al., 2009; Choudhury et al., 2016; Fernández et al., 2016; Ferreira et al., 2016). Several processes affect the sustainability of the ecosystems, from soil erosion to soil compation, deforestation, Climate Change or water, soil and air pollution (Sadeghi et al., 2015a; 2015b; Gómez-Acanta et al., 2016; Mengistu et al., 2016; Mukai, 2016). Several ecosystem theories have been presented in the scientific literatures to monitor land degradation (Cerdà et al., 2016; Davudirad et al., 2016; Fava et al., 2016; Mahyou et al., 2016; Soulard et al., 2016). Besides the scientific tasks of improving the indication, the conviction of the potential users to change their concepts toward a higher consideration of ecosystem attributes, and toward a fruitful application of the health or integrity concepts, will be a main task of future activities. Reliability, resilience and vulnerability (R-R-V) indicators are often used in combination for quantifying risk and decision making in many systems. However, the use of hydrological series data for R-R-V computations has been rather limited. Toward this, the overall objective of this paper is to conduct a risk assessment analysis on stream flow discharge from Shazand Watershed located in the south western of Markazi Province in Iran for the period of 1972-2014 using R-R-V indicators. Based on the R-R-V analysis conducted in this study, the stream flow discharge of the study region followed a cyclic pattern with a decreasing trend. The results further showed a decreasing trend in reliability and resilience and an increasing trend in vulnerability in the Shazand Watershed. It may be concluded that the Shazand Watershed was in overall in unhealthy condition from view of stream flow discharge. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant no. 603498 (RECARE Project

  5. Morphometric analysis of sub-watershed in parts of Western Ghats, South India using ASTER DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric analysis is a key to understand the hydrological process and hence is a prerequisite for the assessment of hydrological characteristics of surface water basin. Morphometric analysis to determine the drainage characteristics of Palar sub-watershed, a part of Shanmukha watershed in the Amaravati sub-catchment is done using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM data, and is supplemented with topographical maps in geographical information systems platform. This study uses ASTER GDEM data to extract morphometric features of a mountain stream at micro-watershed level. The sub-watershed is divided into six micro-watersheds. The sub-watershed includes a sixth-order stream. Lower stream orders, in particular first-order streams, dominate the sub-watershed. Development of stream segments is controlled by slope and local relief. Drainage pattern of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds is dendritic in general. The mean bifurcation ratio of the sub-watershed is 3.69 but its variation between the various stream orders suggests structural control in the development of stream network. The shape factors reveal the elongation of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds.The relief ratio reveals the high discharge capability of the sub-watershed and meagre groundwater potential. This study is a useful tool for planning strategies in control of soil erosion and soil conservation.

  6. The Application of a WEPP Technology to a Complex Watershed Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, William; Miller, Ina Sue; Dobre, Mariana

    2017-04-01

    by tractor or by skyline logging. The GeoWEPP erosion estimates by hillslope polygon were merged with the proposed treatment polygons to produce maps of erosion for each condition for each treatment polygon. Road network erosion was estimated using a new online GIS tool to estimate road segment length and steepness, and linking those topographic values to the WEPP model for erosion prediction by road segment. The results were summarized and compared to earlier estimates of sediment delivery using a locally-developed cumulative watershed effects analysis. The results were similar from both tools, in spite of using very different erosion estimation methods, and similar to regional observations of forest watershed sediment delivery ( 12.5 Mg/sq km). The study found that the erosion risk from wildfire was 5 times greater than sediment generated by forest management, justifying the proposed restoration activities to reduce fire risk. Sediment generated from the road network, however, was unacceptably high suggesting that methods improve road erosion prediction and/or to reduce road erosion are warranted.

  7. Second-Generation Outcomes of the Great Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J Trent; Leibbrand, Christine; Massey, Catherine; Tolnay, Stewart

    2017-12-01

    The mass migration of African Americans out of the South during the first two-thirds of the twentieth century represents one of the most significant internal migration flows in U.S. Those undertaking the Great Migration left the South in search of a better life, and their move transformed the cultural, social, and political dynamics of African American life specifically and U.S. society more generally. Recent research offers conflicting evidence regarding the migrants' success in translating their geographic mobility into economic mobility. Due in part to the lack of a large body of longitudinal data, almost all studies of the Great Migration have focused on the migrants themselves, usually over short periods of their working lives. Using longitudinally linked census data, we take a broader view, investigating the long-term economic and social effects of the Great Migration on the migrants' children. Our results reveal modest but statistically significant advantages in education, income, and poverty status for the African American children of the Great Migration relative to the children of southerners who remained in the South. In contrast, second-generation white migrants experienced few benefits from migrating relative to southern or northern stayers.

  8. Great Lakes rivermouth ecosystems: scientific synthesis and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Trebitz, Anett S.; Steinman, Alan D.; Wiley, Michael J.; Carlson Mazur, Martha; Pebbles, Victoria; Braun, Heather A.; Seelbach, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    At the interface of the Great Lakes and their tributary rivers lies the rivermouths, a class of aquatic ecosystem where lake and lotic processes mix and distinct features emerge. Many rivermouths are the focal point of both human interaction with the Great Lakes and human impacts to the lakes; many cities, ports, and beaches are located in rivermouth ecosystems, and these human pressures often degrade key ecological functions that rivermouths provide. Despite their ecological uniqueness and apparent economic importance, there has been relatively little research on these ecosystems as a class relative to studies on upstream rivers or the open-lake waters. Here we present a synthesis of current knowledge about ecosystem structure and function in Great Lakes rivermouths based on studies in both Laurentian rivermouths, coastal wetlands, and marine estuarine systems. A conceptual model is presented that establishes a common semantic framework for discussing the characteristic spatial features of rivermouths. This model then is used to conceptually link ecosystem structure and function to ecological services provided by rivermouths. This synthesis helps identify the critical gaps in understanding rivermouth ecology. Specifically, additional information is needed on how rivermouths collectively influence the Great Lakes ecosystem, how human alterations influence rivermouth functions, and how ecosystem services provided by rivermouths can be managed to benefit the surrounding socioeconomic networks.

  9. Analysis of Runoff due to The Change in Land Use at The Watershed of Upstream Ciliwung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Indriastuti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has triggered extreme climate such as rising temperature, high rainfall intensity, rising sea water level, drought, and others (Thuc, 2014. Challenges of sustainable development are increases in various disasters, climate change and global crisis such as land use change, soil quality degradation, limited water and mineral, environmental pollution, and decreasing in biodiversity. The cause of flooding in Jakarta is due to the overflow of Ciliwung River. The changes of land use greatly affect Ciliwung River flow. Land degradation in upstream of Ciliwung watershed (Puncak area has triggered new problem, annual flooding, especially in downstream area. The change of surface which cannot accommodate water, increasing runoff, moreover, the change of land condition which easily saturated, greatly affected the runoff conditions in Ciliwung watershed. This research using HEC-HMS software in order to know how the land uses changes and rainfall intensity affected the runoff. By using land use maps in 2000, 2005, 2010, and rainfall data in 5 (five rainfall station near location from 1996 to 2013, it can be known how the runoff changes. Parameter calibration is done with measured discharge in Katulampa weir for each occurrence. The parameter value used in simulation later is the real value approach. Simulation by HEC HMS using CN of Spatial Planning in Ciliwung upstream area and rainfall 25 years return period gives that the highest discharge is 226.25 m3/second and water level reaches to 317 cm. If included into the alert in Katulampa weir, then the condition faces to Alert 1 for during ±6 hours.

  10. Application of iron and zinc isotopes to track the sources and mechanisms of metal loading in a mountain watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrok, David M., E-mail: dborrok@utep.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Wanty, Richard B.; Ian Ridley, W.; Lamothe, Paul J. [US Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Kimball, Briant A. [US Geological Survey, 2329 W. Orton Cir., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States); Verplanck, Philip L.; Runkel, Robert L. [US Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Here the hydrogeochemical constraints of a tracer dilution study are combined with Fe and Zn isotopic measurements to pinpoint metal loading sources and attenuation mechanisms in an alpine watershed impacted by acid mine drainage. In the tested mountain catchment, {delta}{sup 56}Fe and {delta}{sup 66}Zn isotopic signatures of filtered stream water samples varied by {approx}3.5 per mille and 0.4 per mille, respectively. The inherent differences in the aqueous geochemistry of Fe and Zn provided complimentary isotopic information. For example, variations in {delta}{sup 56}Fe were linked to redox and precipitation reactions occurring in the stream, while changes in {delta}{sup 66}Zn were indicative of conservative mixing of different Zn sources. Fen environments contributed distinctively light dissolved Fe (<-2.0 per mille) and isotopically heavy suspended Fe precipitates to the watershed, while Zn from the fen was isotopically heavy (>+0.4 per mille). Acidic drainage from mine wastes contributed heavier dissolved Fe ({approx}+0.5 per mille) and lighter Zn ({approx}+0.2 per mille) isotopes relative to the fen. Upwelling of Fe-rich groundwater near the mouth of the catchment was the major source of Fe ({delta}{sup 56}Fe {approx} 0 per mille) leaving the watershed in surface flow, while runoff from mining wastes was the major source of Zn. The results suggest that given a strong framework for interpretation, Fe and Zn isotopes are useful tools for identifying and tracking metal sources and attenuation mechanisms in mountain watersheds.

  11. Development of an Intelligent Digital Watershed to understand water-human interaction for a sustainable Agroeconomy in Midwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Rapolu, U.; Ding, D.; Muste, M.; Bennett, D.; Schnoor, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Human activity is intricately linked to the quality and quantity of water resources. Although many studies have examined water-human interaction, the complexity of such coupled systems is not well understood largely because of gaps in our knowledge of water-cycle processes which are heavily influenced by socio-economic drivers. Considerable research has been performed to develop an understanding of the impact of local land use decisions on field and catchment processes at an annual basis. Still less is known about the impact of economic and environmental outcomes on decision-making processes at the local and national level. Traditional geographic information management systems lack the ability to support the modeling and analysis of complex spatial processes. New frameworks are needed to track, query, and analyze the massive amounts of data generated by ensembles of simulations produced by multiple models that couple socioeconomic and natural system processes. On this context, we propose to develop an Intelligent Digital Watershed (IDW) which fuses emerging concepts of Digital Watershed (DW). DW is a comprehensive characterization of the eco hydrologic systems based on the best available digital data generated by measurements and simulations models. Prototype IDW in the form of a cyber infrastructure based engineered system will facilitate novel insights into human/environment interactions through multi-disciplinary research focused on watershed-related processes at multiple spatio-temporal scales. In ongoing effort, the prototype IDW is applied to Clear Creek watershed, an agricultural dominating catchment in Iowa, to understand water-human processes relevant to management decisions by farmers regarding agro ecosystems. This paper would also lay out the database design that stores metadata about simulation scenarios, scenario inputs and outputs, and connections among these elements- essentially the database. The paper describes the cyber infrastructure and

  12. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Surface Water Protection: A Watershed Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coty, J

    2009-03-16

    This surface water protection plan (plan) provides an overview of the management efforts implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that support a watershed approach to protect surface water. This plan fulfills a requirement in the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A to demonstrate a watershed approach for surface water protection that protects the environment and public health. This plan describes the use of a watershed approach within which the Laboratory's current surface water management and protections efforts have been structured and coordinated. With more than 800 million acres of land in the U.S. under federal management and stewardship, a unified approach across agencies provides enhanced resource protection and cost-effectiveness. The DOE adopted, along with other federal agencies, the Unified Federal Policy for a Watershed Approach to Federal Land and Resource Management (UFP) with a goal to protect water quality and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands. This policy intends to prevent and/or reduce water pollution from federal activities while fostering a cost-effective watershed approach to federal land and resource management. The UFP also intends to enhance the implementation of existing laws (e.g., the Clean Water Act [CWA] and National Environmental Policy Act [NEPA]) and regulations. In addition, this provides an opportunity for the federal government to serve as a model for water quality stewardship using a watershed approach for federal land and resource activities that potentially impact surface water and its uses. As a federal land manager, the Laboratory is responsible for a small but important part of those 800 million acres of land. Diverse land uses are required to support the Laboratory's mission and provide an appropriate work environment for its staff. The Laboratory comprises two sites: its main site in Livermore, California, and the Experimental Test Site (Site 300), near Tracy, California. The main site

  13. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Bob; Munson, Vicki (Kootenai River Network, Libby, MT); Rogers, Rox (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Libby, MT)

    2003-10-01

    The Kootenai River Network Inc. (KRN) was incorporated in Montana in early 1995 with a mission ''to involve stakeholders in the protection and restoration of the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Kootenai River Basin waters''. The KRN operates with funding from donations, membership dues, private, state and federal grants, and with funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a Focus Watershed Coordinator Program. The Focus Watershed Program is administered to KRN as of October 2001, through a Memorandum of Understanding. Katie Randall resigned her position as Watershed Coordinator in late January 2003 and Munson Consulting was contracted to fill that position through the BPA contract period ending May 30, 2003. To improve communications with in the Kootenai River watershed, the board and staff engaged watershed stakeholders in a full day KRN watershed conference on May 15 and 16 in Bonners Ferry, Idaho. This Annual General Meeting was a tremendous success with over 75 participants representing over 40 citizen groups, tribes and state/provincial/federal agencies from throughout northern Montana and Idaho as well as British Columbia and Alberta. Membership in the KRN increased during the course of the BPA 02/03 grant period. The board of directors grew in numbers during this same time frame and an Advisory Council was formed to assist in transboundary efforts while developing two reorganized KRN committees (Habitat/Restoration/Monitoring (HRM) and Communication/Education/Outreach (CEO)). These committees will serve pivotal roles in communications, outreach, and education about watershed issues, as well as habitat restoration work being accomplished throughout the entire watershed. During this BPA grant period, the KRN has capitalized on the transboundary interest in the Kootenai River watershed. Jim and Laura Duncan of Kimberley, British Columbia, have been instrumental volunteers who have acted as Canadian

  14. Improving student comprehension of the interconnectivity of the hydrologic cycle with a novel 'hydrology toolbox', integrated watershed model, and companion textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, L. S.; Margulis, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Concepts in introductory hydrology courses are often taught in the context of process-based modeling that ultimately is integrated into a watershed model. In an effort to reduce the learning curve associated with applying hydrologic concepts to real-world applications, we developed and incorporated a 'hydrology toolbox' that complements a new, companion textbook into introductory undergraduate hydrology courses. The hydrology toolbox contains the basic building blocks (functions coded in MATLAB) for an integrated spatially-distributed watershed model that makes hydrologic topics (e.g. precipitation, snow, radiation, evaporation, unsaturated flow, infiltration, groundwater, and runoff) more user-friendly and accessible for students. The toolbox functions can be used in a modular format so that students can study individual hydrologic processes and become familiar with the hydrology toolbox. This approach allows such courses to emphasize understanding and application of hydrologic concepts rather than computer coding or programming. While topics in introductory hydrology courses are often introduced and taught independently or semi-independently, they are inherently interconnected. These toolbox functions are therefore linked together at the end of the course to reinforce a holistic understanding of how these hydrologic processes are measured, interconnected, and modeled. They are integrated into a spatially-distributed watershed model or numerical laboratory where students can explore a range of topics such as rainfall-runoff modeling, urbanization, deforestation, watershed response to changes in parameters or forcings, etc. Model output can readily be visualized and analyzed by students to understand watershed response in a real river basin or a simple 'toy' basin. These tools complement the textbook, each of which has been well received by students in multiple hydrology courses with various disciplinary backgrounds. The same governing equations that students have

  15. The Independence Pipeline project : ANR's supply link - Independence Pipeline, Transco's market link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persells, T.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the Independence Pipeline project was presented. The project offers access from Chicago to the U.S. Midwest market, as well as to Ontario via MichCon, Consumers Power, Great Lakes and Panhandle. The project has three components: ANR's Supply Link, the Independence Pipeline and Transco's MarketLink. The three components are budgeted at $ 1.332 billion dollars and projected for completion between Nov 1999 and Nov 2000. Each component (services, access advantages, market links, rates, storage services, etc ) are described separately. figs

  16. Composite measures of watershed health from a water quality perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallya, Ganeshchandra; Hantush, Mohamed; Govindaraju, Rao S

    2018-05-15

    Water quality data at gaging stations are typically compared with established federal, state, or local water quality standards to determine if violations (concentrations of specific constituents falling outside acceptable limits) have occurred. Based on the frequency and severity of water quality violations, risk metrics such as reliability, resilience, and vulnerability (R-R-V) are computed for assessing water quality-based watershed health. In this study, a modified methodology for computing R-R-V measures is presented, and a new composite watershed health index is proposed. Risk-based assessments for different water quality parameters are carried out using identified national sampling stations within the Upper Mississippi River Basin, the Maumee River Basin, and the Ohio River Basin. The distributional properties of risk measures with respect to water quality parameters are reported. Scaling behaviors of risk measures using stream order, specifically for the watershed health (WH) index, suggest that WH values increased with stream order for suspended sediment concentration, nitrogen, and orthophosphate in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Spatial distribution of risk measures enable identification of locations exhibiting poor watershed health with respect to the chosen numerical standard, and the role of land use characteristics within the watershed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Virtual Sensors in a Web 2.0 Digital Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Hill, D. J.; Marini, L.; Kooper, R.; Rodriguez, A.; Myers, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    The lack of rainfall data in many watersheds is one of the major barriers for modeling and studying many environmental and hydrological processes and supporting decision making. There are just not enough rain gages on the ground. To overcome this data scarcity issue, a Web 2.0 digital watershed is developed at NCSA(National Center for Supercomputing Applications), where users can point-and-click on a web-based google map interface and create new precipitation virtual sensors at any location within the same coverage region as a NEXRAD station. A set of scientific workflows are implemented to perform spatial, temporal and thematic transformations to the near-real-time NEXRAD Level II data. Such workflows can be triggered by the users' actions and generate either rainfall rate or rainfall accumulation streaming data at a user-specified time interval. We will discuss some underlying components of this digital watershed, which consists of a semantic content management middleware, a semantically enhanced streaming data toolkit, virtual sensor management functionality, and RESTful (REpresentational State Transfer) web service that can trigger the workflow execution. Such loosely coupled architecture presents a generic framework for constructing a Web 2.0 style digital watershed. An implementation of this architecture at the Upper Illinois Rive Basin will be presented. We will also discuss the implications of the virtual sensor concept for the broad environmental observatory community and how such concept will help us move towards a participatory digital watershed.

  18. Hydrological Modeling of the Jiaoyi Watershed (China) Using HSPF Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chang-An; Zhang, Wanchang; Zhang, Zhijie

    2014-01-01

    A watershed hydrological model, hydrological simulation program-Fortran (HSPF), was applied to simulate the spatial and temporal variation of hydrological processes in the Jiaoyi watershed of Huaihe River Basin, the heaviest shortage of water resources and polluted area in China. The model was calibrated using the years 2001–2004 and validated with data from 2005 to 2006. Calibration and validation results showed that the model generally simulated mean monthly and daily runoff precisely due to the close matching hydrographs between simulated and observed runoff, as well as the excellent evaluation indicators such as Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of correlation (R 2), and the relative error (RE). The similar simulation results between calibration and validation period showed that all the calibrated parameters had a certain representation in Jiaoyi watershed. Additionally, the simulation in rainy months was more accurate than the drought months. Another result in this paper was that HSPF was also capable of estimating the water balance components reasonably and realistically in space through the whole watershed. The calibrated model can be used to explore the effects of climate change scenarios and various watershed management practices on the water resources and water environment in the basin. PMID:25013863

  19. Fena Valley Reservoir watershed and water-balance model updates and expansion of watershed modeling to southern Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sarah N.; Hay, Lauren E.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense’s Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, initiated a project to evaluate the potential impacts of projected climate-change on Department of Defense installations that rely on Guam’s water resources. A major task of that project was to develop a watershed model of southern Guam and a water-balance model for the Fena Valley Reservoir. The southern Guam watershed model provides a physically based tool to estimate surface-water availability in southern Guam. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Precipitation Runoff Modeling System, PRMS-IV, was used to construct the watershed model. The PRMS-IV code simulates different parts of the hydrologic cycle based on a set of user-defined modules. The southern Guam watershed model was constructed by updating a watershed model for the Fena Valley watersheds, and expanding the modeled area to include all of southern Guam. The Fena Valley watershed model was combined with a previously developed, but recently updated and recalibrated Fena Valley Reservoir water-balance model.Two important surface-water resources for the U.S. Navy and the citizens of Guam were modeled in this study; the extended model now includes the Ugum River watershed and improves upon the previous model of the Fena Valley watersheds. Surface water from the Ugum River watershed is diverted and treated for drinking water, and the Fena Valley watersheds feed the largest surface-water reservoir on Guam. The southern Guam watershed model performed “very good,” according to the criteria of Moriasi and others (2007), in the Ugum River watershed above Talofofo Falls with monthly Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency statistic values of 0.97 for the calibration period and 0.93 for the verification period (a value of 1.0 represents perfect model fit). In the Fena Valley watershed, monthly simulated streamflow volumes from the watershed model compared reasonably well with the

  20. Multi-scale trends analysis of landscape stressors in an urbanizing coastal watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic land based stressors within a watershed can deliver major impacts to downstream and adjacent coastal waterways affecting water quality and estuarine habitats. Our research focused on a subset of non-point sources of watershed stressors specifically, human population...

  1. Integrating topography, hydrology and rock structure in weathering rate models of spring watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco, F.A.L.; Weijden, C.H. van der

    2012-01-01

    Weathering rate models designed for watersheds combine chemical data of discharging waters with morphologic and hydrologic parameters of the catchments. At the spring watershed scale, evaluation of morphologic parameters is subjective due to difficulties in conceiving the catchment geometry.

  2. LBA-ECO ND-01 Watershed Deforestation from Landsat TM Series, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimates of watershed deforestation, as a proportion of the total area of watersheds, in Rondonia, Brazil for 1999. Deforestation maps were...

  3. LBA-ECO ND-01 Watershed Deforestation from Landsat TM Series, Rondonia, Brazil: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides estimates of watershed deforestation, as a proportion of the total area of watersheds, in Rondonia, Brazil for 1999. Deforestation...

  4. California Counties and San Francisco Bay Area Watershed Boundaries, California, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data layers represent CA counties and the Bay Area Watersheds. These data layers aid in identifying counties and watersheds where the grant projects occur.

  5. Modeled Watershed Runoff Associated with Variations in Precipitation Data with Implications for Contaminant Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed-scale fate and transport models are important tools for estimating the sources, transformation, and transport of contaminants to surface water systems. Precipitation is one of the primary inputs to watershed biogeochemical models, influencing changes in the water budge...

  6. 76 FR 68499 - Draft WaterSMART Cooperative Watershed Management Program Funding Opportunity Announcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... watershed needs. Through this program, we provide Federal leadership and assistance on; Efficient use of... availability and quality issues within the relevant watershed; and Otherwise meet the definition of a...

  7. Application of PCARES in locating the soil erosion Hotspots in the Manupali River Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Paningbatan, E.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation the author covers: GIS mapping of land attributes, dynamic modeling of soil erosion at watershed scale using PCARES (Predicting Catchment Runoff and Soil Erosion for Sustainability), identifying soil erosion "hotspots" in the Manupali River watershed

  8. 'Great Power Style' in China's Economic Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    China’s ascendance attracts concern, even though Beijing claims to be a responsible great power and tries to demonstrate its ‘great power style’ in economic diplomacy. This article therefore discusses the following questions: to what extent does the current notion and practice of Chinese ‘great...... power style’ in economic diplomacy comply with, or differ from, the criteria of benign hegemony; and what are the major constraining factors? Conceptually, China’s ‘great power style’ is rooted in ancient Chinese political philosophy and institution, but it highly resembles the Western notion of benign...

  9. Conjunction of wavelet transform and SOM-mutual information data pre-processing approach for AI-based Multi-Station nitrate modeling of watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourani, Vahid; Andalib, Gholamreza; Dąbrowska, Dominika

    2017-05-01

    Accurate nitrate load predictions can elevate decision management of water quality of watersheds which affects to environment and drinking water. In this paper, two scenarios were considered for Multi-Station (MS) nitrate load modeling of the Little River watershed. In the first scenario, Markovian characteristics of streamflow-nitrate time series were proposed for the MS modeling. For this purpose, feature extraction criterion of Mutual Information (MI) was employed for input selection of artificial intelligence models (Feed Forward Neural Network, FFNN and least square support vector machine). In the second scenario for considering seasonality-based characteristics of the time series, wavelet transform was used to extract multi-scale features of streamflow-nitrate time series of the watershed's sub-basins to model MS nitrate loads. Self-Organizing Map (SOM) clustering technique which finds homogeneous sub-series clusters was also linked to MI for proper cluster agent choice to be imposed into the models for predicting the nitrate loads of the watershed's sub-basins. The proposed MS method not only considers the prediction of the outlet nitrate but also covers predictions of interior sub-basins nitrate load values. The results indicated that the proposed FFNN model coupled with the SOM-MI improved the performance of MS nitrate predictions compared to the Markovian-based models up to 39%. Overall, accurate selection of dominant inputs which consider seasonality-based characteristics of streamflow-nitrate process could enhance the efficiency of nitrate load predictions.

  10. Mercury cycling in peatland watersheds. Chapter 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Carl P.J. Mitchell; Jeffrey D. Jeremiason; Neal A. Hines; David F. Grigal; Daniel R. Engstrom; Jill K. Coleman-Wasik; Edward A. Nater; Edward B. Swain; Bruce A. Monson; Jacob A. Fleck; Brian Johnson; James E. Almendinger; Brian A. Branfireun; Patrick L. Brezonik; James B. Cotner

    2011-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is of great environmental concern due to its transformation into the toxic methylmercury (MeHg) form that bioaccumulates within the food chain and causes health concerns for both humans and wildlife (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2002). Mercury can affect neurological development in fetuses and young children. In adults, exposure to Hg can lead to...

  11. The East River, Colorado Community Watershed: Hydrobiogeochemical Studies Spanning Scales and Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K. H.; Brown, W. S.; Carroll, R. W. H.; Dafflon, B.; Dong, W.; Hubbard, S. S.; Leger, E.; Li, L.; Maxwell, R. M.; Rowland, J. C.; Steltzer, H.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Wainwright, H. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and its collaborating institutions have recently established a "Community Watershed" in the headwaters of the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado (USA) designed to quantify processes impacting the ability of mountainous systems to retain and release water, nutrients, carbon, and metals. The East River Community Watershed spans a range of scales from hillslope to catena to catchment, with surface water and groundwater linking a diversity of geomorphic compartments. Research is highly multi-disciplinary involving hydrologists, plant ecologists, geochemists, geomorphologists, microbiologists, and climate scientists. Research is focused on both mechanistic and empirical studies designed to assess the impact of climate perturbations, such as early snowmelt, on coupled ecohydrological and biogeochemical processes as they relate to both water availability and water quality. Stakeholder participation provides feedback and support on environmental monitoring as well as a direct link to management planning decisions being conducted as part of the Colorado Water Plan. Data collection activities and monitoring infrastructure are emplaced within the catchment in such a way as to assess the aggregate impact of fine scale processes on catchment scale behavior. Monitoring occurs over diversity of time scales from minutes to months to years, with observational data being used to populate and constrain reactive transport models describing water and nutrient flows across the aforementioned scales of enquiry. Strong infrastructural investments in both data and monitoring networks include dispersed stream gaging and water sampling, meteorological station networks, elevation dependent fluxes of carbon, water, and plant phenological behavior, as well as remote sensing datasets designed to establish baseline data required to assess the impacts of both natural and simulated climate perturbations.

  12. Flood risk management in the Souss watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaakkaz, Brahim; El Abidine El Morjani, Zine; Bouchaou, Lhoussaine; Elhimri, Hamza

    2018-05-01

    Flooding is the most devasting natural hazards that causes more damage throughout the world. In 2016, for the fourth year in a row, it was the most costly natural disaster, in terms of global economic losses: 62 billion, according to a Benfield's 2016 annual report on climate and natural disasters [1]. The semi-arid to arid Souss watershed is vulnerable to floods, whose the intensity is becoming increasingly alarming and this area does not escape to the effects of this extreme event.. Indeed, the susceptibility of this region to this type of hazard is accentuated by its rapid evolution in terms of demography, uncontrolled land use, anthropogenic actions (uncontrolled urbanization, encroachment of the hydraulic public domain, overgrazing, clearing and deforestation).), and physical behavior of the environment (higher slope, impermeable rocks, etc.). It is in this context, that we have developed a strategic plan of action to manage this risk in the Souss basin in order to reduce the human, economic and environmental losses, after the modeling of the flood hazard in the study area, using georeferenced information systems (GIS), satellite remote sensing space and multi-criteria analysis techniques, as well as the history of major floods. This study, which generated the high resolution 30m flood hazard spatial distribution map of with accuracy of 85%, represents a decision tool to identify and prioririze area with high probability of hazard occurrence. It can also serve as a basis for urban evacuation plans for anticipating and preventing flood risk in the region, in order to ovoid any dramatic disaster.

  13. Visualisierung von typisierten Links in Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neubauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Themengebiet der Arbeit behandelt Visualisierungen von typisierten Links in Linked Data. Die wissenschaftlichen Gebiete, die im Allgemeinen den Inhalt des Beitrags abgrenzen, sind das Semantic Web, das Web of Data und Informationsvisualisierung. Das Semantic Web, das von Tim Berners Lee 2001 erfunden wurde, stellt eine Erweiterung zum World Wide Web (Web 2.0 dar. Aktuelle Forschungen beziehen sich auf die Verknüpfbarkeit von Informationen im World Wide Web. Um es zu ermöglichen, solche Verbindungen wahrnehmen und verarbeiten zu können sind Visualisierungen die wichtigsten Anforderungen als Hauptteil der Datenverarbeitung. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Sematic Web werden Repräsentationen von zuhammenhängenden Informationen anhand von Graphen gehandhabt. Der Grund des Entstehens dieser Arbeit ist in erster Linie die Beschreibung der Gestaltung von Linked Data-Visualisierungskonzepten, deren Prinzipien im Rahmen einer theoretischen Annäherung eingeführt werden. Anhand des Kontexts führt eine schrittweise Erweiterung der Informationen mit dem Ziel, praktische Richtlinien anzubieten, zur Vernetzung dieser ausgearbeiteten Gestaltungsrichtlinien. Indem die Entwürfe zweier alternativer Visualisierungen einer standardisierten Webapplikation beschrieben werden, die Linked Data als Netzwerk visualisiert, konnte ein Test durchgeführt werden, der deren Kompatibilität zum Inhalt hatte. Der praktische Teil behandelt daher die Designphase, die Resultate, und zukünftige Anforderungen des Projektes, die durch die Testung ausgearbeitet wurden.

  14. GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT AND SOIL CONSERVATION OF KORAYAR WATERSHED THROUGH REMOTE SENSING AND GIS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Balakrishnan; Dr. Ilanthirayan

    2017-01-01

    Watershed management is often seen as a potential engine for agricultural growth and development in fragile and marginal rain-fed areas India. Enhanced livelihood opportunities for watershed community through investment in their assets and improvements in income and productivity are the leading objective of the programme, as mentioned in the guidelines for watershed management programme (WMP) in India. Watershed management may be defined as an integrated approach of greenery for a better env...

  15. [Evaluation on the eco-economic benefits of small watershed in Beijing mountainous area: a case of Yanqi River watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hui-Jie; Wei, Zi-Gang; Wang, Qing; Zhu, Xiao-Bo

    2012-12-01

    Based on the theory of harmonious development of ecological economy, a total of 13 evaluation indices were selected from the ecological, economic, and social sub-systems of Yanqi River watershed in Huairou District of Beijing. The selected evaluation indices were normalized by using trapezoid functions, and the weights of the evaluation indices were determined by analytic hierarchy process. Then, the eco-economic benefits of the watershed were evaluated with weighted composite index method. From 2004 to 2011, the ecological, economic, and social benefits of Yanqi River watershed all had somewhat increase, among which, ecological benefit increased most, with the value changed from 0.210 in 2004 to 0.255 in 2011 and an increment of 21.5%. The eco-economic benefits of the watershed increased from 0.734 in 2004 to 0.840 in 2011, with an increment of 14.2%. At present, the watershed reached the stage of advanced ecosystem, being in beneficial circulation and harmonious development of ecology, economy, and society.

  16. A sensitivity analysis of regional and small watershed hydrologic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambaruch, R.; Salomonson, V. V.; Simmons, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Continuous simulation models of the hydrologic behavior of watersheds are important tools in several practical applications such as hydroelectric power planning, navigation, and flood control. Several recent studies have addressed the feasibility of using remote earth observations as sources of input data for hydrologic models. The objective of the study reported here was to determine how accurately remotely sensed measurements must be to provide inputs to hydrologic models of watersheds, within the tolerances needed for acceptably accurate synthesis of streamflow by the models. The study objective was achieved by performing a series of sensitivity analyses using continuous simulation models of three watersheds. The sensitivity analysis showed quantitatively how variations in each of 46 model inputs and parameters affect simulation accuracy with respect to five different performance indices.

  17. Stochastic Watershed Models for Risk Based Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Over half a century ago, the Harvard Water Program introduced the field of operational or synthetic hydrology providing stochastic streamflow models (SSMs), which could generate ensembles of synthetic streamflow traces useful for hydrologic risk management. The application of SSMs, based on streamflow observations alone, revolutionized water resources planning activities, yet has fallen out of favor due, in part, to their inability to account for the now nearly ubiquitous anthropogenic influences on streamflow. This commentary advances the modern equivalent of SSMs, termed `stochastic watershed models' (SWMs) useful as input to nearly all modern risk based water resource decision making approaches. SWMs are deterministic watershed models implemented using stochastic meteorological series, model parameters and model errors, to generate ensembles of streamflow traces that represent the variability in possible future streamflows. SWMs combine deterministic watershed models, which are ideally suited to accounting for anthropogenic influences, with recent developments in uncertainty analysis and principles of stochastic simulation

  18. Land degradation and integrated watershed management in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Bhan

    2013-06-01

    Government of India has launched various centre-sector, state-sector and foreign aided schemes for prevention of land degradation, reclamation of special problem areas for ensuring productivity of the land, preservation of land resources and improvement of ecology and environment. These schemes are being implemented on watershed basis in rainfed areas. Soil conservation measures and reclamation of degraded lands are decided considering the land capability and land uses. The efforts made so far resulted in enhancement of agricultural production and productivity of lands, increase in employment generation, improving the environment of the areas and socio-economic upgradation of the people. Integrated watershed management approach has been adopted as a key national strategy for sustainable development of rural areas. This has been proved by conducting monitoring and impact evaluation studies of the integrated watershed projects by external agencies.

  19. Small Reservoir Impact on Simulated Watershed-Scale Nutrient Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane J. Prochnow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT is used to assess the influence of small upland reservoirs (PL566 on watershed nutrient yield. SWAT simulates the impact of collectively increasing and decreasing PL566 magnitudes (size parameters on the watershed. Totally removing PL566 reservoirs results in a 100% increase in total phosphorus and an 82% increase in total nitrogen, while a total maximum daily load (TMDL calling for a 50% reduction in total phosphorus can be achieved with a 500% increase in the magnitude of PL566s in the watershed. PL566 reservoirs capture agriculture pollution in surface flow, providing long-term storage of these constituents when they settle to the reservoir beds. A potential strategy to reduce future downstream nutrient loading is to enhance or construct new PL566 reservoirs in the upper basin to better capture agricultural runoff.

  20. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  1. [Influence of land use change on dissolved organic carbon export in Naoli River watershed. Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-min; Lyu, Xian-guo; Liu, Xing-tu; Xue, Zhen-shan

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of land use change on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export in Naoli River watershed, Northeast China. Seasonal variation of DOC concentrations of the river water and its relationship with land use in the whole watershed and 100 m riparian zone at the annual average scale were analyzed using the method of field sampling, laboratory analysis, GIS and statistics analysis. The results showed that the concentrations of DOC under base flow conditions in spring and summer were significantly higher than that in fall in the study watershed. The seasonal trend of DOC concentrations in wetland-watersheds was similar to that in all the sub-watersheds, while significantly different from that in non-wetland watersheds. On the annual average scale, percentage of wetland in the whole watershed and paddy field in the 100 m riparian zone had positive relationship with the DOC concentration in the river water, while percentage of forest in the whole watershed had negative relationship with it (P watershed played a significant role in the seasonal variation of DOC in river water of Naoli River watershed. Wetland in the watershed and paddy field in the 100 m riparian zone significantly promoted DOC export, while forest alleviated it. Land use change in the watershed in the past few decades dramatically changed the DOC balance of river water.

  2. 76 FR 62758 - Wallowa-Whitman and Umatilla National Forests, Oregon Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... environmental analyses for proposed mining Plans in the portions of the Granite Creek Watershed under their... Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans analysis area that meets the Purpose of and Need for Action. It is... Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an...

  3. 78 FR 21590 - Coconino National Forest; Arizona; Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... watersheds around Flagstaff. Specifically, two key areas have been identified for analysis and treatment... Mary Watershed. The FWPP analysis area includes portions of the Coconino National Forest that have... Watershed Protection Project, and is participating in the planning and analysis process. Responsible...

  4. Physiography, geology, and land cover of four watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.F. Murphy; R.F. Stallard; M.C. Larsen; W.A. Gould

    2012-01-01

    Four watersheds with differing geology and land cover in eastern Puerto Rico have been studied on a long-term basis by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate water, energy, and biogeochemical budgets. These watersheds are typical of tropical, island-arc settings found in many parts of the world. Two watersheds are located on coarse-grained granitic rocks that weather...

  5. The development and use of best practices in forest watersheds using GIS and simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. McNulty; Ge Sun

    1998-01-01

    Forest watersheds provide timber and water, wildlife and fisheries habitat, and recreational opportunities. However, not an entire watershed is equally suited for each activity. Steeper slopes may be better left forested and used for wildlife habitat, while more gentle slopes of the watershed could be used for timber production. Logging steep slopes can lead to soil...

  6. Long-term forest watershed studies in the Southwest: recycled for wildfire and prescribed fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Boris Poff

    2012-01-01

    A hydrologic research network was established in Arizona in the 1950s and 1960s called the Arizona Watershed Program (Baker et al. 1999). It consisted of a number of public agencies and private groups interested in obtaining more water for future economic growth while maintaining the State's watersheds in good condition. As part of the Program. paired watershed...

  7. Mercury and Organic Carbon Relationships in Streams Draining Forested Upland/Peatland Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. K. Kolka; D. F. Grigal; E. S. Verry; E. A. Nater

    1999-01-01

    We determined the fluxes of total mecury (HgT), total organic carbon (TOC), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from five upland/peatland watersheds at the watershed outlet. The difference between TOC and DOC was defined as particulate OC (POC). Concentrations of HgT showed moderate to strong relationships with POC (R2 = 0.77) when all watersheds...

  8. An Alternative Algorithm for Computing Watersheds on Shared Memory Parallel Computers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, A.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper a parallel implementation of a watershed algorithm is proposed. The algorithm can easily be implemented on shared memory parallel computers. The watershed transform is generally considered to be inherently sequential since the discrete watershed of an image is defined using recursion.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL ACIDIFICATION CAUSES SOIL BASE-CATION DEPLETION AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is concern that changes in atmospheric deposition, climate, or land use have altered the biogeochemistry of forests causing soil base-cation depletion, particularly Ca. The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a paired watershed experiment with one watershed subjected to...

  10. Agroforestry systems in the Sonora River Watershed, Mexico: An example of effective land stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Valdez-Zamudio; Peter F. Ffolliot

    2000-01-01

    The Sonora River watershed is located in the central part of the state of Sonora,Mexico, and is one of the most important watersheds in the region. Much of the state's economy depends on the natural resources, products, and productive activities developed in this watershed. Many natural areas along the river and its tributaries have been converted to a large...

  11. A review of theoretical frameworks applicable for designing agricultural watershed restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural watershed restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of ecosystem structure and/or function within watersheds that have been degraded and damaged by agriculture. Unfortunately, agricultural watershed restoration is the rare exception within the Midwestern United States despit...

  12. Experimental Acidification Causes Soil Base-Cation Depletion at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan J. Fernandez; Lindsey E. Rustad; Stephen A. Norton; Jeffrey S. Kahl; Bernard J. Cosby

    2003-01-01

    There is concern that changes in atmospheric deposition, climate, or land use have altered the biogeochemistry of forests causing soil base-cation depletion, particularly Ca. The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a paired watershed experiment with one watershed subjected to elevated N and S deposition through bimonthly additions of (NH4)2SO4. Quantitative soil...

  13. Soil erosion and sediment production on watershed landscapes: Processes and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Kenneth N. Brooks; Daniel G. Neary; Roberto Pizarro Tapia; Pablo Garcia-Chevesich

    2013-01-01

    Losses of the soil resources from otherwise productive and well functioning watersheds is often a recurring problem confronting hydrologists and watershed managers. These losses of soil have both on-site and off-site effects on the watershed impacted. In addition to the loss of inherent soil resources through erosion processes, on-site effects can include the breakdown...

  14. Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) Applied to Watershed Assessment on California's North Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich Walker; Chris Keithley; Russ Henly; Scott Downie; Steve Cannata

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the state of California initiated the North Coast Watershed Assessment Program (2003a) to assemble information on the status of coastal watersheds that have historically supported anadromous fish. The five-agency consortium explored the use of Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) (Reynolds and others 1996) as a means to help assess overall watershed...

  15. Timber markets and marketing in the Monocacy River watershed of Maryland and Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    George E. Doverspike; James C. Rettie; Harry W., Jr. Camp

    1951-01-01

    The Maryland Department of State Forests and Parks, cooperating with the locally organized Monocacy River Watershed Council, has requested the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station to undertake a study of the forest resource of that watershed. The objective is to provide information that will be helpful in conserving watershed values and in promoting better management...

  16. What have we learned, and what is new in watershed science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer; Leslie M. Reid

    1997-01-01

    Abstract - Important new lessons are not in technical details, but in how to scale up the details to apply to large watersheds and landscapes. Nearly three years of experience with the Northwest Forest Plan have revealed some major new challenges in the fields of watershed science. In particular, managers and resource specialists engaged in watershed analysis...

  17. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v1: User Manual and Case Study Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is intended to be used as a screening tool as part of an integrated watershed management process such as that described in EPA’s watershed planning handbook (EPA 2008).1 The objective of WMOST is to serve as a public-doma...

  18. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v2: User Manual and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that evaluates the relative cost-effectiveness of management practices at the local or watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed c...

  19. Phosphorus export across an urban to rural gradient in the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuiwang Duan; Sujay S. Kaushal; Peter Groffman; Lawrence E. Band; Kenneth Belt

    2012-01-01

    Watershed export of phosphorus (P) from anthropogenic sources has contributed to eutrophication in freshwater and coastal ecosystems. We explore impacts of watershed urbanization on the magnitude and export flow distribution of P along an urban-rural gradient in eight watersheds monitored as part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long-Term Ecological Research site....

  20. Wind River Watershed restoration: 1999 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-01-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey-Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination-Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring-Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment-Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration-Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education