WorldWideScience

Sample records for linking early experiences

  1. Psychosocially influenced cancer: diverse early-life stress experiences and links to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Linda A; Auger, Anthony P

    2010-11-01

    This perspective on Boyd et al. (beginning on page 1398 in this issue of the journal) discusses recent published research examining the interplay between social stress and breast cancer. Cross-disciplinary studies using genetically defined mouse models and established neonatal and peripubertal paradigms of social stress are illuminating biological programming by diverse early-life experiences for the risk of breast cancer. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this programming can lead to the identification of risk factors and sensitive developmental windows, enabling improved prevention and treatment strategies for this devastating disease. ©2010 AACR.

  2. Linking consumer experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Karina Madsen

    become part of the individual self, worldview, and behaviour. This paper seeks to explore links between consumer experiences through the exploration of narrative sequences in travel blogs. Findings indicate that non-consumption is a central element to the bloggers and also indicative of a community......Consumers consume products in various ways serving a number of purposes. Much attention has been paid to experiences attached to consumption, sometimes very explicitly, e.g. in tourism, the essence of which is experiences of various sorts, but often also implicitly as internalised experiences...

  3. The Early Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gerald

    2013-04-01

    Stuart Freedman obtained his PhD at Berkley with an experimental thesis providing very strong evidence against theories requiring local hidden variables. He then came to Princeton in 1972 and began collaboration on a search for second-class currents. These measurements are quite difficult as the effects are the order of 1%, demonstrating Freedman's drive to take on hard but important experiments. After carrying out some relatively standard nuclear physics measurements he moved on to Stanford in 1976. There, Freedman was involved in identifying measurements sensitive to the existence of light axions. He also carried out searches for various exotica that might be produced from cosmic rays or the SLAC beam stop. During this time he was collaborating with us at Argonne investigating nuclear parity violation and time-like axial beta decay. In 1982 Freedman came to Argonne where he worked on fundamental issues in neutron beta decay. He also initiated what was to become one of his trademarks, demonstrating that surprising peaks in the e^+-e^- spectrum observed in very heavy ion collisions were spurious. He further launched his first neutrino oscillation experiment. This period of early research was marked by a remarkable diversity of subject matter and approach.

  4. Development and early experience from an intervention to facilitate teamwork between general practices and allied health providers: the Team-link study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mark F; Chan, Bibiana C; Daniel, Christopher; Wan, Qing; Zwar, Nick; Davies, Gawaine Powell

    2010-04-27

    This paper describes the development and implementation of an intervention to facilitate teamwork between general practice and outside allied and community health services and providers. A review of organizational theory and a qualitative study of 9 practices was used to design an intervention which was applied in four Divisions of General Practice and 26 urban practices. Clinical record review and qualitative interviews with participants were used to determine the key lessons from its implementation. Facilitating teamwork across organizational boundaries was very challenging. The quality of the relationship between professionals was of key importance. This was enabled by joint education and direct communication between providers. Practice nurses were key links between general practices and allied and community health services. Current arrangements for Team Care planning provide increased opportunities for access to allied health. However the current paper based system is insufficient to build relationships or effectively share roles as part of a patient care team. Facilitation is feasible but constrained by barriers to communication and trust.

  5. Rescripting Early Memories Linked to Negative Images in Social Phobia: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Negative self-images are a maintaining factor in social phobia. A retrospective study (Hackmann, A., Clark, D.M., McManus, F. (2000). Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 601-610) suggested that the images may be linked to early memories of unpleasant social experiences. This preliminary study…

  6. Telomere length and early severe social deprivation: linking early adversity and cellular aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, SS; Theall, K; Gleason, MM; Smyke, AT; De Vivo, I; Wong, JYY; Fox, NA; Zeanah, CH; Nelson, CA

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated telomere length attrition has been associated with psychological stress and early adversity in adults; however, no studies have examined whether telomere length in childhood is associated with early experiences. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a unique randomized controlled trial of foster care placement compared with continued care in institutions. As a result of the study design, participants were exposed to a quantified range of time in institutional care, and represented an ideal population in which to examine the association between a specific early adversity, institutional care and telomere length. We examined the association between average relative telomere length, telomere repeat copy number to single gene copy number (T/S) ratio and exposure to institutional care quantified as the percent of time at baseline (mean age 22 months) and at 54 months of age that each child lived in the institution. A significant negative correlation between T/S ratio and percentage of time was observed. Children with greater exposure to institutional care had significantly shorter relative telomere length in middle childhood. Gender modified this main effect. The percentage of time in institutional care at baseline significantly predicted telomere length in females, whereas the percentage of institutional care at 54 months was strongly predictive of telomere length in males. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between telomere length and institutionalization, the first study to find an association between adversity and telomere length in children, and contributes to the growing literature linking telomere length and early adversity. PMID:21577215

  7. The origins of cognitive vulnerability in early childhood: mechanisms linking early attachment to later depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Tara E; Moran, Greg

    2011-11-01

    This paper examines the theory and research linking attachment relationships to cognitive vulnerability to depression and assesses evidence that early attachment experiences contribute to the development of these cognitive processes. Most research in this area has involved adult participants using self-report measures of both attachment and depressive vulnerabilities and thus cannot convincingly speak to the existence of such a developmental pathway. Several studies, however, have followed individuals from infancy and examined the emergence of self-esteem and responses to failure throughout childhood and adolescence. These studies suggest that early experiences in non-secure attachment relationships place an individual at-risk for developing a cognitive framework that increases their vulnerability to depression following stressful life events. The paper concludes with a discussion of how future research might best explore specific mechanisms through which distinct attachment relationships may lead to divergent developmental pathways sharing the common outcome of cognitive processes that place individuals at risk for depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive Biases and the Link between Shyness and Social Anxiety in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Murray; Ooi, Laura L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Shy children display wariness in unfamiliar social situations and often experience feelings of social anxiety. This study explored the potential mediating role of cognitive biases in the link between shyness and social anxiety in early adolescence. In particular, we focused on judgments of the probability and cost of negative social situations…

  9. Early experience with dual mobility acetabular systems featuring highly cross-linked polyethylene liners for primary hip arthroplasty in patients under fifty five years of age: an international multi-centre preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epinette, Jean-Alain; Harwin, Steven F; Rowan, Fiachra E; Tracol, Philippe; Mont, Michael A; Chughtai, Morad; Westrich, Geoffrey H

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate early performance of contemporary dual mobility acetabular systems with second generation annealed highly cross-linked polyethylene for primary hip arthroplasty of patients under 55 years of age. A prospective observational five years study across five centers in Europe and the USA of 321 patients with a mean age of 48.1 years was performed. Patients were assessed for causes of revision, hip instability, intra-prosthetic dissociation, Harris hip score and radiological signs of osteolysis. There were no dislocations and no intra-prosthetic dissociations. Kaplan Meier analysis demonstrated 97.51% survivorship for all cause revision and 99.68% survivorship for acetabular component revision at five years. Mean Harris hip score was 93.6. Two acetabular shells were revised for neck-rim implant impingement without dislocation and ten femoral stems were revised for causes unrelated to dual mobility implants. Contemporary highly cross-linked polyethylene dual mobility systems demonstrate excellent early clinical, radiological, and survivorship results in a cohort of patients that demand high performance from their implants. It is envisaged that DM and second generation annealed HXLPE may reduce THA instability and wear, the two most common causes of THA revision in hip arthroplasty.

  10. Middle School Transition Stress: Links with Academic Performance, Motivation, and School Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Boxer, Paul; Rudolph, Erin

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates links between early adolescents' subjective experiences of stress associated with the middle school transition and their academic outcomes. Seventh and eighth grade students (N?=?774) were surveyed about their experiences during their transition to middle school. Students answered questions about stress…

  11. Parental experiences of early postnatal discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid; Danbjørg, Dorthe B.; Aagaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    that included both parents, having influence on time of discharge, and getting individualised and available support focused on developing and recognising their own experiences of taking care of the baby. Conclusions and implications for practice the new parents׳ experiences of early discharge and becoming...

  12. Brachytherapy in early prostate cancer--early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, B O; Bailen, J L; Albrink, F H; Steinbock, G S; Cornett, M S; Benson, D C; Schmied, W K; Medley, R N; Spanos, W J; Paris, K J; Koerner, P D; Gatenby, R A; Wilson, D L; Meyer, R

    1999-01-01

    Use of brachytherapy with radioactive seeds in the management of early prostate cancer is commonly used in the United States. The early experience has been reported from the prostate treatment centers in Seattle for the last 10 years. In this manuscript we are reporting our early experience of 150 radioactive seed implantations in early stage prostate cancer using either Iodine 125 or Palladium 103 seeds. The average age of the patient is 66 years and the median Gleason score is 5.4 with a median PSA of 6. A brief description of the evolution of the treatment of prostate cancer as well as the preparation for the seed implantation using the volume study with ultrasound of the prostate, pubic arch study using CT scan of the pelvis and the complete planning using the treatment planning computers are discussed. We also have described the current technique which is used in our experience based on the Seattle guidelines. We plan a follow-up report with the results of the studies with longer follow-up.

  13. Early wind engineering experiments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larose, Guy; Franck, Niels

    1997-01-01

    A review of works by Danish wind engineers is presented to commemorate the 100th year anniversary of the first wind tunnel experiments. Pioneer tests by Irminger and Nøkkentved in "artificial" wind on scaled models are described. The early experiments aimed at measuring the surface pressure......" that governs today´s wind engineering practice and gave birth to the boundary layer wind tunnel....

  14. Early space symmetry restoration and neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, G.G.; Liparteliani, A.G.; Monich, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of early space symmetry restoration on the left-right symmetry models and the models with the extended (due to mirror quarks and leptons) fermion sector is being discussed. The experiments in which the derivations from the standard model of electroweak interactions should be studied are presented

  15. Lessons from early experience in reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.

    1976-09-01

    This paper deals with several issues in U.S. reactor development and demonstration experience. The focus is on the period between 1946 and 1963 during which the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) guided early reactor research and development (R and D) and conducted the Power Reactor Demonstration Program

  16. Hip Hop Dance Experience Linked to Sociocognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Justin W; Lindberg, Jenna C; Pacampara, Marc C

    2017-01-01

    Expertise within gaming (e.g., chess, video games) and kinesthetic (e.g., sports, classical dance) activities has been found to be linked with specific cognitive skills. Some of these skills, working memory, mental rotation, problem solving, are linked to higher performance in science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM) disciplines. In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability. Dancers who varied in hip hop and other dance style experience were presented with a set of computerized tasks that assessed working memory capacity, mental rotation speed, problem solving efficiency, and theory of mind. We found that, when controlling for demographic factors and other dance style experience, those with greater hip hop dance experience were faster at mentally rotating images of hands at greater angle disparities and there was a trend for greater accuracy at identifying positive emotions displayed by cropped images of human faces. We suggest that hip hop dance, similar to other more technical activities such as video gameplay, tap some specific cognitive abilities that underlie STEM skills. Furthermore, we suggest that hip hop dance experience can be used to reach populations who may not otherwise be interested in other kinesthetic or gaming activities and potentially enhance select sociocognitive skills.

  17. Hip Hop Dance Experience Linked to Sociocognitive Ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Bonny

    Full Text Available Expertise within gaming (e.g., chess, video games and kinesthetic (e.g., sports, classical dance activities has been found to be linked with specific cognitive skills. Some of these skills, working memory, mental rotation, problem solving, are linked to higher performance in science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM disciplines. In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability. Dancers who varied in hip hop and other dance style experience were presented with a set of computerized tasks that assessed working memory capacity, mental rotation speed, problem solving efficiency, and theory of mind. We found that, when controlling for demographic factors and other dance style experience, those with greater hip hop dance experience were faster at mentally rotating images of hands at greater angle disparities and there was a trend for greater accuracy at identifying positive emotions displayed by cropped images of human faces. We suggest that hip hop dance, similar to other more technical activities such as video gameplay, tap some specific cognitive abilities that underlie STEM skills. Furthermore, we suggest that hip hop dance experience can be used to reach populations who may not otherwise be interested in other kinesthetic or gaming activities and potentially enhance select sociocognitive skills.

  18. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina De Cosmi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia. While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.

  19. Early Management Experience of Perforation after ERCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Perforation after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is a rare complication, but it is associated with significant mortality. This study evaluated the early management experience of these perforations. Patients and Methods. Between November 2003 and December 2011, a total of 8504 ERCPs were performed at our regional endoscopy center. Sixteen perforations (0.45% were identified and retrospectively reviewed. Results. Nine of these 16 patients with perforations were periampullary, 3 duodenal, 1 gastric fundus, and 3 patients had a perforation of an afferent limb of a Billroth II anastomosis. All patients with perforations were recognized during ERCP by X-ray and managed immediately. One patient with duodenal perforation and three patients with afferent limb perforation received surgery, others received medical conservative treatment which included suturing lesion, endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD, endoscopic retrograde pancreatic duct drainage (ERPD, gastrointestinal decompression, fasting, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and so on. All patients with perforation recovered successfully. Conclusions. We found that: (1 the diagnosis of perforation during ERCP may be easy, but you must pay attention to it. (2 Most retroperitoneal perforations can recover with only medical conservative treatment in early phase. (3 Most peritoneal perforations need surgery unless you can close the lesion up under endoscopy in early phase.

  20. Two functions of early language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshavsky, Yuri I

    2009-05-01

    The unique human ability of linguistic communication, defined as the ability to produce a practically infinite number of meaningful messages using a finite number of lexical items, is determined by an array of "linguistic" genes, which are expressed in neurons forming domain-specific linguistic centers in the brain. In this review, I discuss the idea that infants' early language experience performs two complementary functions. In addition to allowing infants to assimilate the words and grammar rules of their mother language, early language experience initiates genetic programs underlying language production and comprehension. This hypothesis explains many puzzling characteristics of language acquisition, such as the existence of a critical period for acquiring the first language and the absence of a critical period for the acquisition of additional language(s), a similar timetable for language acquisition in children belonging to families of different social and cultural status, the strikingly similar timetables in the acquisition of oral and sign languages, and the surprisingly small correlation between individuals' final linguistic competence and the intensity of their training. Based on the studies of microcephalic individuals, I argue that genetic factors determine not only the number of neurons and organization of interneural connections within linguistic centers, but also the putative internal properties of neurons that are not limited to their electrophysiological and synaptic properties.

  1. Links between Sibling Experiences and Romantic Competence from Adolescence through Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Susan E.; Lam, Chun Bun; Stanik, Christine E.; McHale, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research has linked sibling relationship experiences to youth’s social competencies with peers, we know little about the role of siblings in youth’s romantic relationship experiences. Drawing on data from a longitudinal sample of 190 families, this study examined the links between sibling experiences and the development of perceived romantic competence from early adolescence into young adulthood (ages 12 to 20). The data were collected from 373 youth (50.7% female) in home interviews on up to 5 annual occasions. Multi-level models tested the moderating role of sibling gender constellation in romantic competence development and the links between (changes in) sibling intimacy and conflict, and romantic competence. The results revealed that youth with same-sex siblings showed no change in their perceived romantic competence, but those with opposite-sex siblings exhibited increases in romantic competence over time. Controlling for parent-child intimacy, at times when youth reported more sibling intimacy, they also reported greater romantic competence, and youth with higher cross-time average sibling conflict were lower in romantic competence, on average. This study illustrates that sibling experiences remain important in social development into early adulthood and suggests directions for application and future research. PMID:25183625

  2. Links Between Sibling Experiences and Romantic Competence from Adolescence Through Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Susan E; Lam, Chun Bun; Stanik, Christine E; McHale, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Although previous research has linked sibling relationship experiences to youth's social competencies with peers, we know little about the role of siblings in youth's romantic relationship experiences. Drawing on data from a longitudinal sample of 190 families, this study examined the links between sibling experiences and the development of perceived romantic competence from early adolescence into young adulthood (ages 12-20). The data were collected from 373 youth (50.7 % female) in home interviews on up to five annual occasions. Multi-level models tested the moderating role of sibling gender constellation in romantic competence development and the links between (changes in) sibling intimacy and conflict, and romantic competence. The results revealed that youth with same-sex siblings showed no change in their perceived romantic competence, but those with opposite-sex siblings exhibited increases in romantic competence over time. Controlling for parent-child intimacy, at times when youth reported more sibling intimacy, they also reported greater romantic competence, and youth with higher cross-time average sibling conflict were lower in romantic competence, on average. This study illustrates that sibling experiences remain important in social development into early adulthood and suggests directions for application and future research.

  3. Radiosurgery for acoustic neurinomas: Early experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linskey, M.E.; Lunsford, L.D.; Flickinger, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    We reviewed our early experience with the first 26 patients with acoustic neurinomas (21 unilateral, 5 bilateral) treated by stereotactic radiosurgery using the first North American 201-source cobalt-60 gamma knife. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 19 months (median, 13 months). Serial postoperative imaging showed either a decrease in tumor size (11 patients) or growth arrest (15 patients). Loss of central contrast enhancement was a characteristic change (18 patients). Seven patients had good or serviceable hearing preoperatively. In all 7 the preoperative hearing status was retained immediately after radiosurgery. At follow-up, 3 had preserved hearing, 1 had reduced hearing, and 3 had lost all hearing in the treated ear. Hearing in 1 patient that was nonserviceable preoperatively later improved to a serviceable hearing level. Delayed facial paresis developed in 6 patients, and delayed trigeminal sensory loss developed in 7 patients, none of whom had significant deficits before radiosurgery. Both facial and trigeminal deficits tended to improve within 3 to 6 months of onset with excellent recovery anticipated. Lower cranial nerve dysfunction was not observed. All 26 patients remain at their preoperative employment or functional status. At present, stereotactic radiosurgery is an alternative treatment for acoustic neurinomas in patients who are elderly, have significant concomitant medical problems, have a tumor in their only hearing ear, have bilateral acoustic neurinomas, refuse microsurgical excision, or have recurrent tumor despite surgical resection. Although longer and more extensive follow-up is required, the control of tumor growth and the acceptable rate of complications in this early experience testifies to the future expanding role of this technique in the management of selected acoustic neurinomas

  4. Eocene cooling linked to early flow across the Tasmanian Gateway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Peter K; Bendle, James A P; Bohaty, Steven M; Pross, Jörg; Schouten, Stefan; Tauxe, Lisa; Stickley, Catherine E; McKay, Robert M; Röhl, Ursula; Olney, Matthew; Sluijs, Appy; Escutia, Carlota; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2013-06-11

    The warmest global temperatures of the past 85 million years occurred during a prolonged greenhouse episode known as the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (52-50 Ma). The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum terminated with a long-term cooling trend that culminated in continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica from 34 Ma onward. Whereas early studies attributed the Eocene transition from greenhouse to icehouse climates to the tectonic opening of Southern Ocean gateways, more recent investigations invoked a dominant role of declining atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations (e.g., CO2). However, the scarcity of field data has prevented empirical evaluation of these hypotheses. We present marine microfossil and organic geochemical records spanning the early-to-middle Eocene transition from the Wilkes Land Margin, East Antarctica. Dinoflagellate biogeography and sea surface temperature paleothermometry reveal that the earliest throughflow of a westbound Antarctic Counter Current began ~49-50 Ma through a southern opening of the Tasmanian Gateway. This early opening occurs in conjunction with the simultaneous onset of regional surface water and continental cooling (2-4 °C), evidenced by biomarker- and pollen-based paleothermometry. We interpret that the westbound flowing current flow across the Tasmanian Gateway resulted in cooling of Antarctic surface waters and coasts, which was conveyed to global intermediate waters through invigorated deep convection in southern high latitudes. Although atmospheric CO2 forcing alone would provide a more uniform middle Eocene cooling, the opening of the Tasmanian Gateway better explains Southern Ocean surface water and global deep ocean cooling in the apparent absence of (sub-) equatorial cooling.

  5. Patient experience and hospital profitability: Is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jason P; Muhlestein, David B

    Patient experience has had a direct financial impact on hospitals since value-based purchasing was instituted by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services in 2013 as a method to reward or punish hospitals based on performance on various measures, including patient experience. Although other industries have shown an indirect impact of customer experience on overall profitability, that link has not been well established in the health care industry. Return-to-provider rate and perceptions of health quality have been associated with profitability in the health care industry. Our aims were to assess whether, independent of a direct financial impact, a more positive patient experience is associated with increased profitability and whether a more negative patient experience is associated with decreased profitability. We used a sample of 19,792 observations from 3767 hospitals over the 6-year period 2007-2012. The data were sourced from Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems. Using generalized estimating equations to account for repeated measures, we fit four separate models for three dependent variables: net patient revenue, net income, and operating margin. Each model included one of the following independent variables of interest: percentage of patients who definitely recommend the hospital, percentage of patients who definitely would not recommend the hospital, percentage of patients who rated the hospital 9 or 10, and percentage of patients who rated the hospital 6 or lower. We identified that a positive patient experience is associated with increased profitability and a negative patient experience is even more strongly associated with decreased profitability. Management should have greater justification for incurring costs associated with bolstering patient experience programs. Improvements in training, technology, and staffing can be justified as a way to improve not only quality but now

  6. Effects of Early Musical Experience on Auditory Sequence Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam T. Tierney

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated a possible link between musical training and immediate memory span by testing experienced musicians and three groups of musically inexperienced subjects (gymnasts, Psychology 101 students, and video game players on sequence memory and word familiarity tasks. By including skilled gymnasts who began studying their craft by age six, video game players, and Psychology 101 students as comparison groups, we attempted to control for some of the ways skilled musicians may differ from participants drawn from the general population in terms of gross motor skills and intensive experience in a highly skilled domain from an early age. We found that musicians displayed longer immediate memory spans than the comparison groups on auditory presentation conditions of the sequence reproductive span task. No differences were observed between the four groups on the visual conditions of the sequence memory task. These results provide additional converging support to recent findings showing that early musical experience and activity-dependent learning may selectively affect verbal rehearsal processes and the allocation of attention in sequence memory tasks.

  7. Correlates of Bulimia Nervosa: Early Family Mealtime Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Debra A. F.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined relationship of early mealtime experiences to later bulimia in 128 female college students. Found significant group differences among bulimics, nonbulimics, and repeat dieters on early meal experience questionnaire, with bulimic group reporting most negative and unusual experiences. Found significant differences among groups on depression…

  8. Linking Well-Tempered Metadynamics Simulations with Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barducci, Alessandro; Bonomi, Massimiliano; Parrinello, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Linking experiments with the atomistic resolution provided by molecular dynamics simulations can shed light on the structure and dynamics of protein-disordered states. The sampling limitations of classical molecular dynamics can be overcome using metadynamics, which is based on the introduction of a history-dependent bias on a small number of suitably chosen collective variables. Even if such bias distorts the probability distribution of the other degrees of freedom, the equilibrium Boltzmann distribution can be reconstructed using a recently developed reweighting algorithm. Quantitative comparison with experimental data is thus possible. Here we show the potential of this combined approach by characterizing the conformational ensemble explored by a 13-residue helix-forming peptide by means of a well-tempered metadynamics/parallel tempering approach and comparing the reconstructed nuclear magnetic resonance scalar couplings with experimental data. PMID:20441734

  9. Links between Early Attachment Experiences and Manifestations of Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surr, John

    2011-01-01

    This essay reviews recent research about infant attachment, then discusses the implications of this research as they relate to the following specific manifestations of children's spirituality: faith, wonder, relational consciousness, flow (as in a sense of wholeness or unity), and compassion, in the light of other research on children's…

  10. Mentalization mediates the relation between early traumatic experiences and aggressive behavior in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Taubner Svenja; Curth Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether mentalization serves as a protective factor against aggressive behavior in adolescence in the context of early traumatization. We present data from a non-clinical sample of adolescents from Germany (n=97) and calculate a mediation model to test the link between early traumatic experiences and aggressive behavior with mentalizing skills as a mediator. Mentalization was assessed with the Reflective Functioning Scale on the Adult-Attachment-Inter...

  11. Studies of future readout links for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bukowiec, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies a possible replacement of the existing S-LINK64 implementation by an optical link, based on 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The new link will employ commercial protocols in order to be able to receive the data by standard hardware components like PCs or network switches. Currently prototypes using multiple Gigabit Ethernet links are being developed and tested. The paper summarizes the status of these studies.

  12. Mentalization mediates the relation between early traumatic experiences and aggressive behavior in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taubner Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine whether mentalization serves as a protective factor against aggressive behavior in adolescence in the context of early traumatization. We present data from a non-clinical sample of adolescents from Germany (n=97 and calculate a mediation model to test the link between early traumatic experiences and aggressive behavior with mentalizing skills as a mediator. Mentalization was assessed with the Reflective Functioning Scale on the Adult-Attachment-Interview and aggressive behavior was measured with the Reactive-Proactive-Aggression-Questionnaire. Traumatic experience was operationalized as physical and/or sexual abuse as reported in the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Results show a complete mediation for Reflective Functioning on the relationship between early abuse and aggressive behavior. Thus, the findings of the study support an understanding of mentalizing as a protective factor for the relationship between early abusive experience and the development of aggressive behavior. Clinical implications are discussed.

  13. The early experiments leading to the V-Α interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegdi, V.L.

    1989-01-01

    The author cites a number of early experiments of the 1950s which were central to the understanding of V-Α interaction. Some were proposed by T D Lee and C N Yang, who also described the weak interaction with ∞ nonconservation of parity, and some were not. Crucial experiments were performed by small teams and theory and experiment advanced together. (UK)

  14. Early Results from the Qweak Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Androic D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A subset of results from the recently completed Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment are reported. This experiment, sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, exploits the small parity-violating asymmetry in elastic e→p$\\vec e{\\rm{p}}$ scattering to provide the first determination of the proton’s weak charge Qwp$Q_w^p$. The experiment employed a 180 μA longitudinally polarized 1.16 GeV electron beam on a 35 cm long liquid hydrogen target. Scattered electrons in the angular range 6° < θ < 12° corresponding to Q2 = 0.025 GeV2 were detected in eight Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. The goals of the experiment were to provide a measure of e→p$\\vec e{\\rm{p}}$ to 4.2% (combined statisstatistical and systematic error, which implies a measure of sin2(θw at the level of 0.3%, and to help constrain the vector weak quark charges C1u and C1d. The experimental method is described, with particular focus on the challenges associated with the world’s highest power LH2 target. The new constraints on C1u and C1d provided by the subset of the experiment’s data analyzed to date will also be shown, together with the extracted weak charge of the neutron.

  15. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagovic, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  16. Early thinning experiments established by the Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin P. De Blois; Alex. J. Finkral; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    Between 1925 and 1936, the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (FVEF) scientists initiated a study to examine a series of forest thinning experiments in second growth ponderosa pine stands in Arizona and New Mexico. These early thinning plots furnished much of the early background for the development of methods used in forest management in the Southwest. The plots ranged...

  17. CMS experiment at the LHC Commissioning and early physics

    CERN Document Server

    Safonov, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS collaboration used the past year to greatly improve the level of detector readiness for the first collisions data. The acquired operational experience over this year, large gains in understanding the detector and improved preparedness for early physics will be instrumental in minimizing the time from the first collisions to first LHC physics. The following describes the status of the CMS experiment and outlines early physics plans with the first LHC data.

  18. Transmyocardial laser revascularization. Early clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Sérgio Almeida de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the initial clinical experience of transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR in patients with severe diffuse coronary artery disease. METHODS: Between February, 1998 and February, 1999, 20 patients were submitted to TMLR at the Heart Institute (InCor, University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil, isolated or in association with conventional coronary artery bypass graft (CABG. All patients had severe diffuse coronary artery disease, with angina functional class III/IV (Canadian Cardiovascular Society score unresponsive to medical therapy. Fourteen patients were submitted to TMLR as the sole therapy, whereas 6 underwent concomitant CABG. Fifty per cent of the patients had either been previously submitted to a CABG or to a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA. Mean age was 60 years, ranging from 45 to 74 years. RESULTS: All patients had three-vessel disease, with normal or mildly impaired left ventricular global function. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 13 months (mean 6.6 months, with no postoperative short or long term mortality. There was significant symptom improvement after the procedure, with 85% of the patients free of angina, and the remaining 15 % of the patients showing improvement in functional class, as well as in exercise tolerance. CONCLUSION: This novel technique can be considered a low risk alternative for a highly selected group of patients not suitable for conventional revascularization procedures.

  19. Experience with parallel optical link for the CDF silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Dense Optical Interface Module (DOIM) is a byte-wide optical link developed for the Run II upgrade of the CDF silicon tracking system [1]. The module consists of a transmitter with a laser-diode array for conversion of digitized detector signals to light outputs, a 22 m optical fiber ribbon cable for light transmission, and a receiver converting the light pulses back to electrical signals. We report on the design feature, characteristics, and radiation tolerance

  20. Linking Experiences and Outcomes within a Postsecondary Leadership Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Kellie; McKim, Aaron J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the leadership development outcomes associated with specific experiences in a one-year, intensive leadership development program at a large northwest research university. Students highlighted three programmatic experiences for their effectiveness: (a) faculty mentoring, (b) participation in a weekly seminar, and (c)…

  1. Educability as a Link of Contemporary Civil Experience: Research Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Groppa Aquino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This text argues that the educability of citizens is objectified in terms of a demand for diffuse and perpetual training, which has become a foundational link of social existence. This statement is based upon the results of twelve researches carried out by a group from the school of Education of the University of São Paulo, devoted to Foucaultian studies in education. It is an effort to analyze the relationship between contemporary governmentality and certain ongoing educational imperatives from different social fields.

  2. Link calibrations for the TDRSS orbiting VLBI experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The first successful interferometric observations of extragalactic radio sources using an orbiting antenna as one of the observing stations were achieved in July and August 1986 using the TDRSS. The technical obstacles to maintaining phase coherence between the orbiting antenna and the ground stations are reviewed, with an emphasis on the effects of spacecraft motion. An analysis of the interferometric delay and phase reveals the signature of errors in the spacecraft ephemeris. Various calibration schemes are discussed, including the use of a ground beacon at White Sands to calibrate the communications link between White Sands and the TDRSE satellite. Using all available calibrations, coherence of 84 percent was achieved for 700-sec integrations

  3. Links between early child maltreatment, mental disorders, and cortisol secretion anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsard, Guillaume; Auquier, Pascal; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    Early child maltreatment has been widely associated with the development of mental disorders in both childhood and adulthood. However, such association cannot be systematically established, as only few factors are observed regularly, such as high prevalence of comorbidities and externalized disorders. Similarly, the association between early abuse and cortisol secretion anomalies has been well-documented. Whereas early hypercortisolism followed by hypocortisolism was often described, the results proved inconsistent and at times contradictory. The physiopathological mechanisms are quite complex and varied, including mixed neurotoxicity and stress response anomalies, linked to circadian rhythm disturbances. One of the difficulties inherent to research on this topic is to better define maltreatment in childhood. Studying children's groups at risk of maltreatment, such as children followed by juvenile justice or in child welfare systems, could be a very good tool, provided that social, judiciary, and mental health professionals are able to work together and implement common research objectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Time development in the early history of social networks: link stabilization, group dynamics, and segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, Jesper; Bearden, Ian G

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the time development of empirical networks usually investigate late stages where lasting connections have already stabilized. Empirical data on early network history are rare but needed for a better understanding of how social network topology develops in real life. Studying students who are beginning their studies at a university with no or few prior connections to each other offers a unique opportunity to investigate the formation and early development of link patterns and community structure in social networks. During a nine week introductory physics course, first year physics students were asked to identify those with whom they communicated about problem solving in physics during the preceding week. We use these students' self reports to produce time dependent student interaction networks. We investigate these networks to elucidate possible effects of different student attributes in early network formation. Changes in the weekly number of links show that while roughly half of all links change from week to week, students also reestablish a growing number of links as they progress through their first weeks of study. Using the Infomap community detection algorithm, we show that the networks exhibit community structure, and we use non-network student attributes, such as gender and end-of-course grade to characterize communities during their formation. Specifically, we develop a segregation measure and show that students structure themselves according to gender and pre-organized sections (in which students engage in problem solving and laboratory work), but not according to end-of-coure grade. Alluvial diagrams of consecutive weeks' communities show that while student movement between groups are erratic in the beginning of their studies, they stabilize somewhat towards the end of the course. Taken together, the analyses imply that student interaction networks stabilize quickly and that students establish collaborations based on who is immediately

  5. Linking prenatal experience to the emerging musical mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullal-Gupta, Sangeeta; Vanden Bosch der Nederlanden, Christina M; Tichko, Parker; Lahav, Amir; Hannon, Erin E

    2013-09-03

    The musical brain is built over time through experience with a multitude of sounds in the auditory environment. However, learning the melodies, timbres, and rhythms unique to the music and language of one's culture begins already within the mother's womb during the third trimester of human development. We review evidence that the intrauterine auditory environment plays a key role in shaping later auditory development and musical preferences. We describe evidence that externally and internally generated sounds influence the developing fetus, and argue that such prenatal auditory experience may set the trajectory for the development of the musical mind.

  6. Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Torsten; Valdiosera, Cristina; Malmström, Helena; Ureña, Irene; Rodriguez-Varela, Ricardo; Sverrisdóttir, Óddny Osk; Daskalaki, Evangelia A.; Skoglund, Pontus; Naidoo, Thijessen; Svensson, Emma M.; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald; Dunn, Michael; Storå, Jan; Iriarte, Eneko; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carretero, José-Miguel; Götherström, Anders; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of the Neolithic transition in Europe—one of the most important cultural changes in human prehistory—is a subject of great interest. However, its effect on prehistoric and modern-day people in Iberia, the westernmost frontier of the European continent, remains unresolved. We present, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide sequence data from eight human remains, dated to between 5,500 and 3,500 years before present, excavated in the El Portalón cave at Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. We show that these individuals emerged from the same ancestral gene pool as early farmers in other parts of Europe, suggesting that migration was the dominant mode of transferring farming practices throughout western Eurasia. In contrast to central and northern early European farmers, the Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals additionally mixed with local southwestern hunter–gatherers. The proportion of hunter–gatherer-related admixture into early farmers also increased over the course of two millennia. The Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals showed greatest genetic affinity to modern-day Basques, who have long been considered linguistic and genetic isolates linked to the Mesolithic whereas all other European early farmers show greater genetic similarity to modern-day Sardinians. These genetic links suggest that Basques and their language may be linked with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic. Furthermore, all modern-day Iberian groups except the Basques display distinct admixture with Caucasus/Central Asian and North African groups, possibly related to historical migration events. The El Portalón genomes uncover important pieces of the demographic history of Iberia and Europe and reveal how prehistoric groups relate to modern-day people. PMID:26351665

  7. Experience with early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Po-Jen; Hsieh, Hung-Chang; Liu, Yun-Hen; Liu, Hui-Ping

    2004-03-01

    Abdominal aortic surgery is a form of major vascular surgery, which traditionally involves long hospital stays and significant postoperative morbidity. Experiences with transit ileus are often encountered after the aortic surgery. Thus traditional postoperative care involves delayed oral feeding until the patients regain their normal bowel activities. This report examines the feasibility of early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) open-repair. From May 2002 through May 2003, 10 consecutive patients with infrarenal AAA who underwent elective surgical open-repair by the same surgeon in our department were reviewed. All of them had been operated upon and cared for according to the early feeding postoperative care protocol, which comprised of adjuvant epidural anesthesia, postoperative patient controlled analgesia, early postoperative feeding and early rehabilitation. The postoperative recovery and length of hospital stay were reviewed and analyzed. All patients were able to sip water within 1 day postoperatively without trouble (Average; 12.4 hours postoperatively). All but one patient was put on regular diet within 3 days postoperatively (Average; 2.2 days postoperatively). The average postoperative length of stay in hospital was 5.8 days. No patient died or had major morbidity. Early postoperative feeding after open repair of abdominal aorta is safe and feasible. The postoperative recovery could be improved and the length of stay reduced by simply using adjuvant epidural anesthesia during surgery, postoperative epidural patient-controlled analgesia, early feeding, early ambulation, and early rehabilitation. The initial success of our postoperative recovery program of aortic repair was demonstrated.

  8. Adenovirus type 5 DNA-protein complexes from formaldehyde cross-linked cells early after infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, David J.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.; Baird, Nicholas L.; Engel, Daniel A.

    2003-01-01

    We report here the properties of viral DNA-protein complexes that purify with cellular chromatin following formaldehyde cross-linking of intact cells early after infection. The cross-linked viral DNA fractionated into shear-sensitive (S) and shear- resistant (R) components that were separable by sedimentation, which allowed independent characterization. The R component had the density and sedimentation properties expected for DNA-protein complexes and contained intact viral DNA. It accounted for about 50% of the viral DNA recovered at 1.5 h after infection but less than 20% by 4.5 h. The proportion of R component was independent of multiplicity of infection, even at less than one particle per cell. Viral hexon and protein VII, but not protein VI, were detected in the fractions containing the R component. These properties are consistent with those of partially uncoated virions associated with the nuclear envelope. A substantial proportion of the S component viral DNA had the same density as cellular chromatin. Protein VII was the most abundant viral protein present in gradient fractions that contained the S component. Complexes containing USF transcription factor cross-linked to the adenovirus major late promoter were detected by viral chromatin immunoprecipitation of the fractions containing S component. The S component probably contained uncoated nuclear viral DNA that assembles into early viral transcription complexes

  9. Linking the space shuttle and space stations early docking technologies from concept to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2017-01-01

    How could the newly authorized space shuttle help in the U.S. quest to build a large research station in Earth orbit? As a means of transporting goods, the shuttle could help supply the parts to the station. But how would the two entitles be physically linked? Docking technologies had to constantly evolve as the designs of the early space stations changed. It was hoped the shuttle would make missions to the Russian Salyut and American Skylab stations, but these were postponed until the Mir station became available, while plans for getting a new U. S. space station underway were stalled. In Linking the Space Shuttle and Space Stations, the author delves into the rich history of the Space Shuttle and its connection to these early space stations, culminating in the nine missions to dock the shuttle to Mir. By 1998, after nearly three decades of planning and operations, shuttle missions to Mir had resulted in: • A proven system to link up the space shuttle to a space station • Equipment and hands-on experienc...

  10. Linking experiences with emotions and the development of interpretive repertoires

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Norah I.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper I consider the case of one student, Todd Alexander, through analyzing the transcripts of his interviews between him and his teacher (Wolff-Michael Roth). I examine the role that emotions play in the development of the interpretive repertoires that Todd employed as he talked about his scientific and his religious beliefs. I identify how lived experiences support the development of emotions and what educational conditions are necessary to allow for appropriate lived experiences. In so doing we might be able to support educational conditions that result in interpretive repertoires that allow for acceptance of multiple perspectives with a moral grounding, leading to students who are well positioned to be valuable contributors to society.

  11. Early clinical experience: do students learn what we expect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, E.; Bolhuis, S.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Early clinical experience is thought to contribute to the professional development of medical students, but little is known about the kind of learning processes that actually take place. Learning in practice is highly informal and may be difficult to direct by predefined learning outcomes.

  12. Early clinical experience : do students learn what we expect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    CONTEXT Early clinical experience is thought to contribute to the professional development of medical students, but little is known about the kind of learning processes that actually take place. Learning in practice is highly informal and may be difficult to direct by predefined learning outcomes.

  13. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  14. Early 13 TeV Results from the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has recorded almost 200 pb-1 of collision data at 13 TeV centre-of-mass energy. The seminar presents the status of the data taking, the commissioning of the event reconstruction, focusing on the key techniques that have allowed to quickly reach a good understanding of the basic physics objects, and early physics results.

  15. Radiation tolerant optical links for the readout of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, M

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will use radiation tolerant optical links to transfer data to and from sub-detector systems. The link specifications can be broadly divided into two classes, represented by the inner tracking detectors and the electromagnetic calorimeter. A feature common to all the readout links is the use of vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes coupled to multimode optical fibres. Results from the development for both of these environments are reviewed with particular attention bring paid to irradiation studies. (8 refs).

  16. [X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: a report of three cases. The importance of early diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Úbeda, Marta; de Arriba Muñoz, Antonio; Ferrer Lozano, Marta; Labarta Aizpún, José I; García Jiménez, María C

    2017-10-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is the most common peroxisomal disorder. This disease is caused by a defect in the ABCD1 gen. Saturated very long chain fatty acids are accumulated in serum, adrenal cortex and central nervous system white matter. The clinical spectrum is characterized by progressive neurological dysfunction and adrenal insufficiency with a devastating prognosis. We report a first case of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy with fatal evolution which identified two asymptomatic family members and established a preventive treatment. Although there is no definitive cure, we stress the importance of family study and evaluation of the individual in situation of risk to establish an early preventive treatment and to give in each particular situation suitable professional advice. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  17. Operative link on gastritis assessment stage is an appropriate predictor of early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Ge, Zhi-Zheng; Li, Xiao-Bo

    2016-04-07

    To assess the predictive value of Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) and Operative Link on Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Assessment (OLGIM) stages in gastric cancer. A prospective study was conducted with 71 patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) and 156 patients with non-EGC. All patients underwent endoscopic examination and systematic biopsy. Outcome measures were assessed and compared, including the Japanese endoscopic gastric atrophy (EGA) classification method and the modified OLGA method as well as the modified OLGIM method. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status was determined for all study participants. Stepwise logistic regression modeling was performed to analyze correlations between EGC and the EGA, OLGA and OLGIM methods. For patients with EGC and patients with non-EGC, the proportions of moderate-to-severe EGA cases were 64.8% and 44.9%, respectively (P = 0.005), the proportions of OLGA stages III-IV cases were 52.1% and 22.4%, respectively (P cancer.

  18. Brain structure links trait creativity to openness to experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfu; Li, Xueting; Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiangzhen; Yang, Wenjing; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Jingguang; Cheng, Hongsheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Jia

    2015-02-01

    Creativity is crucial to the progression of human civilization and has led to important scientific discoveries. Especially, individuals are more likely to have scientific discoveries if they possess certain personality traits of creativity (trait creativity), including imagination, curiosity, challenge and risk-taking. This study used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in trait creativity, as measured by the Williams creativity aptitude test, in a large sample (n = 246). We found that creative individuals had higher gray matter volume in the right posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), which might be related to semantic processing during novelty seeking (e.g. novel association, conceptual integration and metaphor understanding). More importantly, although basic personality factors such as openness to experience, extroversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness (as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory) all contributed to trait creativity, only openness to experience mediated the association between the right pMTG volume and trait creativity. Taken together, our results suggest that the basic personality trait of openness might play an important role in shaping an individual's trait creativity. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Linking psychological need experiences to daily and recurring dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Netta; Campbell, Rachel; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2018-01-01

    The satisfaction of individuals' psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, as conceived from a self-determination theory perspective, is said to be conducive to personal growth and well-being. What has been unexamined is whether psychological need-based experiences, either their satisfaction or frustration, manifests in people's self-reported dream themes as well as their emotional interpretation of their dreams. A cross-sectional study ( N  = 200; M age = 21.09) focusing on individuals' recurrent dreams and a three-day diary study ( N  = 110; M age = 25.09) focusing on daily dreams indicated that individuals experiencing psychological need frustration, either more enduringly or on a day-to-day basis, reported more negative dream themes and interpreted their dreams more negatively. The contribution of psychological need satisfaction was more modest, although it related to more positive interpretation of dreams. The discussion focuses on the role of dreams in the processing and integration of psychological need-frustrating experiences.

  20. Linking proteins to signaling pathways for experiment design and evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illés J Farkas

    Full Text Available Biomedical experimental work often focuses on altering the functions of selected proteins. These changes can hit signaling pathways, and can therefore unexpectedly and non-specifically affect cellular processes. We propose PathwayLinker, an online tool that can provide a first estimate of the possible signaling effects of such changes, e.g., drug or microRNA treatments. PathwayLinker minimizes the users' efforts by integrating protein-protein interaction and signaling pathway data from several sources with statistical significance tests and clear visualization. We demonstrate through three case studies that the developed tool can point out unexpected signaling bias in normal laboratory experiments and identify likely novel signaling proteins among the interactors of known drug targets. In our first case study we show that knockdown of the Caenorhabditis elegans gene cdc-25.1 (meant to avoid progeny may globally affect the signaling system and unexpectedly bias experiments. In the second case study we evaluate the loss-of-function phenotypes of a less known C. elegans gene to predict its function. In the third case study we analyze GJA1, an anti-cancer drug target protein in human, and predict for this protein novel signaling pathway memberships, which may be sources of side effects. Compared to similar services, a major advantage of PathwayLinker is that it drastically reduces the necessary amount of manual literature searches and can be used without a computational background. PathwayLinker is available at http://PathwayLinker.org. Detailed documentation and source code are available at the website.

  1. Linking Early Adversity, Emotion Dysregulation, and Psychopathology: The Case of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Drvaric

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to regulate emotion is a crucial process that humans utilize in order to adapt to the demands of environmental constraints. Individuals exposed to early adverse life events such as being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 501–1000 g are known to have problems regulating emotion which have been linked to the development of psychopathology in this population. Recent studies have used psychophysiological measures, such as electroencephalogram (EEG and cardiac vagal tone, to index emotion regulatory processes. The purpose of this paper was three-fold: (1 to investigate the relation between ELBW and emotion regulation issues (pathway 1, (2 to review studies investigating the relation between early emotion regulation and later internalizing problems (pathway 2; and (3 to provide a model in which two psychophysiological measures (i.e., frontal EEG asymmetry and cardiac vagal tone are suggested to understand the proposed conceptual pathways in the relation between ELBW and psychopathology.

  2. Genetic moderation of multiple pathways linking early cumulative socioeconomic adversity and young adults' cardiometabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2018-02-01

    Recent research suggests that psychosocial resources and life stressors are mediating pathways explaining socioeconomic variation in young adults' health risks. However, less research has examined both these pathways simultaneously and their genetic moderation. A nationally representative sample of 11,030 respondents with prospective data collected over 13 years from the National Study of Adolescent to Adult Health was examined. First, the association between early cumulative socioeconomic adversity and young adults' (ages 25-34) cardiometabolic disease risk, as measured by 10 biomarkers, through psychosocial resources (educational attainment) and life stressors (accelerated transition to adulthood) was examined. Second, moderation of these pathways by the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR) was examined. There was evidence for the association between early socioeconomic adversity and young adults' cardiometabolic disease risk directly and indirectly through educational attainment and accelerated transitions. These direct and mediating pathways were amplified by the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. These findings elucidate how early adversity can have an enduring influence on young adults' cardiometabolic disease risk directly and indirectly through psychosocial resources and life stressors and their genetic moderation. This information suggests that effective intervention and prevention programs should focus on early adversity, youth educational attainment, and their transition to young adulthood.

  3. A DAQ system for the experiment of physics based on G-Link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiao; Jin Ge

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a high-speed fiber data transfer system based on G-Link for the experiment of physics is introduced. The architecture and configuration of the fiber link with core chips, HDMP-1022/ 1024, the driver circuit of laser diode and the CIMT coding technology are described. With this high- speed fiber data transfer technology, a 16-channel data acquisition system is designed and is used in an experiment of wind tunnel. (authors)

  4. PPARs Link Early Life Nutritional Insults to Later Programmed Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is an important component of metabolic syndrome. Adulthood hypertension and metabolic syndrome can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs serve as a nutrient-sensing signaling linking nutritional programming to hypertension and metabolic syndrome. All three members of PPARs, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, are expressed in the kidney and involved in blood pressure control. This review provides an overview of potential clinical applications of targeting on the PPARs in the kidney to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome, with an emphasis on the following areas: mechanistic insights to interpret programmed hypertension; the link between the PPARs, nutritional insults, and programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome; the impact of PPAR signaling pathway in a maternal high-fructose model; and current experimental studies on early intervention by PPAR modulators to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Animal studies employing a reprogramming strategy via targeting PPARs to prevent hypertension have demonstrated interesting results. It is critical that the observed effects on developmental reprogramming in animal models are replicated in human studies, to halt the globally-growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome-related diseases.

  5. Medical students, early general practice placements and positive supervisor experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Margaret; Upham, Susan; King, David; Dick, Marie-Louise; van Driel, Mieke

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Community-based longitudinal clinical placements for medical students are becoming more common globally. The perspective of supervising clinicians about their experiences and processes involved in maximising these training experiences has received less attention than that of students. Aims This paper explores the general practitioner (GP) supervisor perspective of positive training experiences with medical students undertaking urban community-based, longitudinal clinical placements in the early years of medical training. Methods Year 2 medical students spent a half-day per week in general practice for either 13 or 26 weeks. Transcribed semi-structured interviews from a convenience sample of participating GPs were thematically analysed by two researchers, using a general inductive approach. Results Identified themes related to the attributes of participating persons and organisations: GPs, students, patients, practices and their supporting institution; GPs' perceptions of student development; and triggers enhancing the experience. A model was developed to reflect these themes. Conclusions Training experiences were enhanced for GPs supervising medical students in early longitudinal clinical placements by the synergy of motivated students and keen teachers with support from patients, practice staff and academic institutions. We developed an explanatory model to better understand the mechanism of positive experiences. Understanding the interaction of factors enhancing teaching satisfaction is important for clinical disciplines wishing to maintain sustainable, high quality teaching.

  6. Are behavioral effects of early experience mediated by oxytocin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lisa Bales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Early experiences can alter adaptive emotional responses necessary for social behavior as well as physiological reactivity in the face of challenge. In the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster, manipulations in early life or hormonal treatments specifically targeted at the neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP, have long-lasting, often sexually-dimorphic, consequences for social behavior. Here we examine the hypothesis that behavioral changes associated with differential early experience, in this case handling the family during the first week of life, may be mediated by changes in OT or AVP or their brain receptors. Four early treatment groups were used, differing only in the amount of manipulation received during the first week of life. MAN1 animals were handled once on post-natal day 1; MAN1 treatment produces a pattern of behavior usually considered typical of this species, against which other groups were compared. MAN 1-7 animals were handled once a day for post-natal days 1-7, MAN 7 animals were handled once on post-natal day 7, and MAN0 animals received no handling during the first week of life. When tested following weaning, males in groups that had received manipulation during the first few days of life (MAN1 and MAN1-7 displayed higher alloparenting than other groups. Neuroendocrine measures, including OT receptor binding and OT and AVP immunoreactivity, varied by early treatment. In brain areas including the nucleus accumbens, bed nucleus of stria terminalis and lateral septum, MAN0 females showed increased OT receptor binding. MAN1 animals also displayed higher numbers of immunoreactive OT cell bodies in the supraoptic nucleus. Taken together these findings support the broader hypothesis that experiences in the first few days of life, mediated in part by sexually-dimorphic changes in neuropeptides, especially in the receptor for OT, may have adaptive consequences for sociality and emotion regulation.

  7. Visions of normality? Early experiences of radiographic reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Pauline E-mail: pauline.reeves@whnt.nhs.uk

    2004-08-01

    This article reflects on my early [student] experiences in learning to undertake radiographic reporting and uses critical incidents to highlight two areas of error during this period. These errors include perceptual (optical illusions and, in particular, the Mach band effect) and lack of subject specific knowledge (specifically anatomical knowledge--especially of normal anatomical variants). These two errors are analysed in the wider context of radiological error and the difficulty in reaching consensus even between experienced reporters.

  8. Visions of normality? Early experiences of radiographic reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Pauline

    2004-01-01

    This article reflects on my early [student] experiences in learning to undertake radiographic reporting and uses critical incidents to highlight two areas of error during this period. These errors include perceptual (optical illusions and, in particular, the Mach band effect) and lack of subject specific knowledge (specifically anatomical knowledge--especially of normal anatomical variants). These two errors are analysed in the wider context of radiological error and the difficulty in reaching consensus even between experienced reporters

  9. Mitochondrial Epigenetic Changes Link to Increased Diabetes Risk and Early-Stage Prediabetes Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Louise D.; Linarelli, Leah E.; Brooke, Joseph; Smith, Cayleen; Wall, Sarah S.; Greenawald, Mark H.; Seidel, Richard W.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Almeida, Fabio A.; Cheng, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by mitochondrial derangement and oxidative stress. With no known cure for T2D, it is critical to identify mitochondrial biomarkers for early diagnosis of prediabetes and disease prevention. Here we examined 87 participants on the diagnosis power of fasting glucose (FG) and hemoglobin A1c levels and investigated their interactions with mitochondrial DNA methylation. FG and A1c led to discordant diagnostic results irrespective of increased body mass index (BMI), underscoring the need of new biomarkers for prediabetes diagnosis. Mitochondrial DNA methylation levels were not correlated with late-stage (impaired FG or A1c) but significantly with early-stage (impaired insulin sensitivity) events. Quartiles of BMI suggested that mitochondrial DNA methylation increased drastically from Q1 (20 40, morbidly obese). A significant change was also observed from Q1 to Q2 in HOMA insulin sensitivity but not in A1c or FG. Thus, mitochondrial epigenetic changes link to increased diabetes risk and the indicator of early-stage prediabetes. Further larger-scale studies to examine the potential of mitochondrial epigenetic marker in prediabetes diagnosis will be of critical importance for T2D prevention. PMID:27298712

  10. The Use of Concrete Experiences in Early Childhood Mathematics Instruction.

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    Baroody, Arthur J

    2017-01-01

    Addressed are four key issues regarding concrete instruction: What is concrete? What is a worthwhile concrete experience? How can concrete experiences be used effectively in early childhood mathematics instruction? Is there evidence such experiences work? I argue that concrete experiences are those that build on what is familiar to a child and can involve objects, verbal analogies, or virtual images. The use of manipulatives or computer games, for instance, does not in itself guarantee an educational experience. Such experiences are worthwhile if they target and further learning (e.g., help children extend their informal knowledge or use their informal knowledge to understand and learn formal knowledge). A crucial guideline for the effective use of concrete experience is Dewey's principle of interaction-external factors (e.g., instructional activities) need to mesh with internal factors (readiness, interest). Cognitive views of concrete materials, such as the cognitive alignment perspective and dual-representation hypothesis, provide useful guidance about external factors but do not adequately take into account internal factors and their interaction with external factors. Research on the effectiveness of concrete experience is inconclusive because it frequently overlooks internal factors. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Polymers and Cross-Linking: A CORE Experiment to Help Students Think on the Submicroscopic Level

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    Bruce, Mitchell R. M.; Bruce, Alice E.; Avargil, Shirly; Amar, Francois G.; Wemyss, Thomas M.; Flood, Virginia J.

    2016-01-01

    The Polymers and Cross-Linking experiment is presented via a new three phase learning cycle: CORE (Chemical Observations, Representations, Experimentation), which is designed to model productive chemical inquiry and to promote a deeper understanding about the chemistry operating at the submicroscopic level. The experiment is built on two familiar…

  12. Contributions to early HIV diagnosis among patients linked to care vary by testing venue

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    Trott Alexander T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Early HIV diagnosis reduces transmission and improves health outcomes; screening in non-traditional settings is increasingly advocated. We compared test venues by the number of new diagnoses successfully linked to the regional HIV treatment center and disease stage at diagnosis. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using structured chart review of newly diagnosed HIV patients successfully referred to the region's only HIV treatment center from 1998 to 2003. Demographics, testing indication, risk profile, and initial CD4 count were recorded. Results There were 277 newly diagnosed patients meeting study criteria. Mean age was 33 years, 77% were male, and 46% were African-American. Median CD4 at diagnosis was 324. Diagnoses were earlier via partner testing at the HIV treatment center (N = 8, median CD4 648, p = 0.008 and with universal screening by the blood bank, military, and insurance companies (N = 13, median CD4 483, p = 0.05 than at other venues. Targeted testing by health care and public health entities based on patient request, risk profile, or patient condition lead to later diagnosis. Conclusion Test venues varied by the number of new diagnoses made and the stage of illness at diagnosis. To improve the rate of early diagnosis, scarce resources should be allocated to maximize the number of new diagnoses at screening venues where diagnoses are more likely to be early or alter testing strategies at test venues where diagnoses are traditionally made late. Efforts to improve early diagnosis should be coordinated longitudinally on a regional basis according to this conceptual paradigm.

  13. Early trauma, attachment experiences and comorbidities in schizophrenia

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    Thalita Gabínio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate attachment patterns in subjects with schizophrenia and their relationships to early traumatic events, psychotic symptoms and comorbidities. Methods Twenty patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5 underwent retrospective symptom assessment and careful assessment of the number and manner of childhood caregiver changes. The Diagnostic Interview for Psychosis and Affective Disorders (DI-PAD was used to assess symptoms related to schizophrenia (positive and negative symptoms, depression and mania. Anxiety disorder comorbidities were assessed by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS, Yale-Brown Obsessions and Compulsions Scale (Y-BOCS and Panic and Schizophrenia Interview (PaSI. Experience in Close Relationships – Relationship Structures (ECR-RS and Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF were used to assess attachment patterns and traumatic history, respectively. Results Moderate and significant correlations between attachment patterns and early trauma showed that greater severity of anxious attachment was predicted by a higher frequency of total early traumas (Spearman ρ = 0.446, p = 0.04, mainly general traumas (ρ = 0.526, p = 0.017; including parental illness and separation, as well as natural disaster and serious accidents. Among the correlations between early trauma and comorbid symptoms, panic attacks occurring before the onset of schizophrenia showed significant and positive correlations with ETISR-SF total scores and the sexual trauma subscale. Conclusion Children with an unstable early emotional life are more vulnerable to the development of psychopathology, such as panic anxiety symptoms. Traumatic events may also predict later schizophrenia.

  14. Emotional suppression explains the link between early life stress and plasma oxytocin.

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    Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Opacka-Juffry, Jolanta; Gross, James J

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) has been found to be associated with lower concentrations of plasma oxytocin (OT) in adulthood. It is not yet clear, however, what mechanisms underlie this association. The goal of the present study was to test the role of emotional suppression as an intervening variable between ELS in childhood and plasma OT. In a nonclinical sample of 90 men, ELS, emotional suppression, and plasma OT were assessed. Emotional suppression was positively associated with ELS (r = 0.37, p emotion regulation strategy - was not correlated with ELS or plasma OT concentrations. Cross-sectional regression analyses revealed that the ELS explained variance in plasma OT via emotional suppression. Moderation analyses revealed that the combination of high ELS and high emotional suppression was associated with the lowest concentrations of plasma oxytocin. These findings are consistent with the view that emotional suppression may be one pathway linking ELS and OT.

  15. Links between sex-typed time use in middle childhood and gender development in early adolescence.

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    McHale, Susan M; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Whiteman, Shawn; Crouter, Ann C

    2004-09-01

    The authors studied sex-typing in the kinds (e.g., sports, handicrafts) and social contexts (same- vs. other-sex companions) of children's free time activities, and the links between sex-typed activities and gender development over 2 years. Participants were 200 White, working- and middle-class children (103 girls, 97 boys; mean age = 10.86 years). In annual home interviews, children rated their self-esteem, gender role attitudes and sex-typed personality qualities, academic interests, and school grades. During 7 nightly phone interviews each year, children reported on their activities. Boys were more sex-typed than girls in their peer activities, and children were least sex-typed in their activities with siblings. Sex-typed activities in middle childhood predicted individual differences in gender development in early adolescence. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  16. Preliminary Experiments for the Assessment of VW-Band Links for Space-Earth Communications

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    Nessel, James A.; Acosta, Roberto J.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2013-01-01

    Since September 2012, NASA Glenn Research Center has deployed a microwave profiling radiometer at White Sands, NM, to estimate atmospheric propagation effects on communications links in the V and W bands (71-86GHz). Estimates of attenuation statistics in the millimeter wave due to gaseous and cloud components of the atmosphere show good agreement with current ITU-R models, but fail to predict link performance in the presence of moderate to heavy rain rates, due to the inherent limitations of passive radiometry. Herein, we discuss the preliminary results of these measurements and describe a design for a terrestrial link experiment to validaterefine existing rain attenuation models in the VW-bands.

  17. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

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    Katriina Tiira

    Full Text Available Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264 in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002 and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001 during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001 and separation anxiety (p = 0.007 was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  18. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

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    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  19. Modification of visual function by early visual experience.

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    Blakemore, C

    1976-07-01

    Physiological experiments, involving recording from the visual cortex in young kittens and monkeys, have given new insight into human developmental disorders. In the visual cortex of normal cats and monkeys most neurones are selectively sensitive to the orientation of moving edges and they receive very similar signals from both eyes. Even in very young kittens without visual experience, most neurones are binocularly driven and a small proportion of them are genuinely orientation selective. There is no passive maturation of the system in the absence of visual experience, but even very brief exposure to patterned images produces rapid emergence of the adult organization. These results are compared to observations on humans who have "recovered" from early blindness. Covering one eye in a kitten or a monkey, during a sensitive period early in life, produces a virtually complete loss of input from that eye in the cortex. These results can be correlated with the production of "stimulus deprivation amblyopia" in infants who have had one eye patched. Induction of a strabismus causes a loss of binocularity in the visual cortex, and in humans it leads to a loss of stereoscopic vision and binocular fusion. Exposing kittens to lines of one orientation modifies the preferred orientations of cortical cells and there is an analogous "meridional amblyopia" in astigmatic humans. The existence of a sensitive period in human vision is discussed, as well as the possibility of designing remedial and preventive treatments for human developmental disorders.

  20. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

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    Smith Paige Hall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have

  1. Multigenerational links between mothers' experiences of autonomy in childhood and preschoolers' respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Variations by maltreatment status.

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    Noll, Laura K; Clark, Caron A C; Skowron, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Despite burgeoning evidence linking early exposure to child maltreatment (CM) to deficits in self-regulation, the pathways to strong regulatory development in these children are not well understood, and significant heterogeneity is observed in their outcomes. Experiences of autonomy may play a key role in transmitting self-regulatory capacity across generations and help explain individual differences in maltreatment outcomes. In this study, we investigated multigenerational associations between Generation 1 (G1)-Generation 2 (G2) mothers' early experience of warmth and autonomy in relation to their own mothers and their Generation 3 (G3) children's autonomic physiological regulation in CM (n = 85) and non-CM (n = 128) families. We found that G2 mothers who recalled greater autonomy in their childhood relationship with their G1 mothers had preschool-age G3 children with higher respiratory sinus arrhythmia at baseline when alone while engaged in individual challenge tasks, during social exchanges with their mother in joint challenge tasks, and during the portions of the strange situation procedure when the mother was present. Although no clear mediators of this association emerged, multigenerational links among G1-G2 relations, maternal representations of her child, child behavior, and child respiratory sinus arrhythmia differed by maltreatment status, thus possibly representing important targets for future research and intervention.

  2. Early childhood experiences shaping vulnerability to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

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    Barbara Barcaccia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature, inflated responsibility/sensitivity to guilt play a pivotal role in both the genesis and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. They may be learned in childhood and adolescence, through particular experiences and parental rearing styles, involving criticism, excessively high standards, and social moralization. Preliminary data on the role of dysfunctional beliefs in the development/maintenance of OCD also show that non-affected family members of OC individuals score higher than controls in domains concerning responsibility, suggesting it might represent a candidate endophenotype for the disorder. Compulsive conducts, that far from being mechanical reactions are instead clearly goal-oriented, may be triggered by the need of preventing responsibility/guilt. Therefore, useful psychological interventions aimed at not only reappraising meanings associated with the specific early experiences connected to hyper-sensitivity to guilt, but also at developing a more general compassionate and forgiving stance towards oneself, may prove particularly effective.

  3. Implementing Business Process Redesign: early lessons from the Australian experience

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    Marianne Broadbent

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Business Process Redesign (BPR is a change management approach aimed at achieving quantum improvements in business performance. Industry interest levels in BPR are high as a direct result of current difficulties in the global economic climate and tight business conditions. Integral to BPR is the availability of new stable technologies which both stimulate and enable process changes. This paper highlights the experiences of a number of Australian firms which have implemented BPR. A ten step framework for BPR is presented together with a series of caveats. BPR is a difficult, messy and often non-linear activity which challenges many of the ways organisations operate. Information Technology plays a pivotal role in BPR as both an enabler and disenabler for change. Lessons emerging from early Australian experiences with BPR focus on the role of executive sponsorship, consultants, measurements, education and training, technology and people involved in the change process.

  4. Social Costs for Wannabes: Moderating Effects of Popularity and Gender on the Links between Popularity Goals and Negative Peer Experiences.

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    Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Shoulberg, Erin K; McQuade, Julia D; Murray-Close, Dianna

    2018-02-05

    Youth in early adolescence are highly concerned with being popular in the peer group, but the desire to be popular can have maladaptive consequences for individuals. In fact, qualitative work suggests that youth with high popularity goals who are nonetheless unpopular have negative experiences with their peers. However, little quantitative work has examined this possibility. The purpose of the current study was to examine if popularity goals were linked with physical (e.g., being hit) and relational (e.g., being excluded) victimization and peer rejection, particularly for individuals who strived for popularity but were viewed by their peers as unpopular. Late elementary and early middle school participants (N = 205; 54% female) completed self-reports of popularity goals and peer nominations of popularity and peer rejection. Teachers reported on students' experiences of relational and physical victimization. Peer nominated popularity and gender were moderators of the association between popularity goals and negative peer experiences. Consistent with hypotheses, girls who were unpopular but wanted to be popular were more likely to experience peer rejection and relational victimization. Unexpectedly, boys who were unpopular but did not desire to be popular were more likely to be rejected and relationally victimized. The findings suggest that intervention and prevention programs may benefit from addressing the social status goals of low status youth in a gender-specific manner.

  5. Bullying Mediates Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood and Psychotic Experiences in Early Adolescence.

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    Hennig, Timo; Jaya, Edo S; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-09-01

    Although a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be linked to psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in later life, the developmental trajectories that could explain this association are unknown. Using a sample from the prospective population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 8247), we hypothesized that the previously reported association of ADHD combined subtype in childhood and psychotic experiences in early adolescence is mediated by traumatic events and by involvement in bullying. Moreover, we expected this mediation to be specific to ADHD and tested this by comparison with specific phobia. Children with ADHD combined subtype at age 7 were more often involved in bullying at age 10 (OR 3.635, 95% CI 1.973-6.697) and had more psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 3.362, 95% CI 1.781-6.348). Moreover, children who were involved in bullying had more psychotic experiences (2.005, 95% CI 1.684-2.388). Bullying was a significant mediator between ADHD and psychotic experiences accounting for 41%-50% of the effect. Traumatic events from birth to age 11 were also significantly associated with ADHD combined subtype and psychotic experiences; however, there was no evidence of mediation. Specific phobia was significantly associated with psychotic experiences, but not with bullying. To conclude, bullying is a relevant translating mechanism from ADHD in childhood to psychotic experiences in early adolescence. Interventions that eliminate bullying in children with ADHD could potentially reduce the risk of having psychotic experiences in later life by up to 50%. Clinicians should thus screen for bullying in routine assessments of children with ADHD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Influence of Early Life Experience on Visceral Pain

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    Isabella M. Fuentes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is the most reported and troublesome symptom of nearly all functional disorders affecting the genitourinary and gastrointestinal organs. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS, vulvodynia, and/or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS; collectively termed chronic pelvic pain syndromes report pain severe enough to impact quality of life and often suffer from symptoms of or are diagnosed with more than one of these syndromes. This increased comorbidity between chronic pelvic pain syndromes, and with pain disorders of disparate body regions, as well as with mood disorders, can be influenced by disruptions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which regulates the response to stress and influences the perception of pain. Experiencing trauma, neglect, or abuse in early life can permanently affect the functioning of the HPA axis. As such, a significant proportion of patients suffering from comorbid chronic pelvic pain syndromes report a history of early life stress or trauma. Here we will report on how these early life experiences influence chronic pelvic pain in patients. We will also discuss various rodent models that have been developed to study this phenomenon to understand the mechanisms underlying HPA axis dysfunction, as well as potential underlying mechanisms connecting these syndromes to one another.

  7. Language experience enhances early cortical pitch-dependent responses

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    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Vijayaraghavan, Venkatakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Pitch processing at cortical and subcortical stages of processing is shaped by language experience. We recently demonstrated that specific components of the cortical pitch response (CPR) index the more rapidly-changing portions of the high rising Tone 2 of Mandarin Chinese, in addition to marking pitch onset and sound offset. In this study, we examine how language experience (Mandarin vs. English) shapes the processing of different temporal attributes of pitch reflected in the CPR components using stimuli representative of within-category variants of Tone 2. Results showed that the magnitude of CPR components (Na-Pb and Pb-Nb) and the correlation between these two components and pitch acceleration were stronger for the Chinese listeners compared to English listeners for stimuli that fell within the range of Tone 2 citation forms. Discriminant function analysis revealed that the Na-Pb component was more than twice as important as Pb-Nb in grouping listeners by language affiliation. In addition, a stronger stimulus-dependent, rightward asymmetry was observed for the Chinese group at the temporal, but not frontal, electrode sites. This finding may reflect selective recruitment of experience-dependent, pitch-specific mechanisms in right auditory cortex to extract more complex, time-varying pitch patterns. Taken together, these findings suggest that long-term language experience shapes early sensory level processing of pitch in the auditory cortex, and that the sensitivity of the CPR may vary depending on the relative linguistic importance of specific temporal attributes of dynamic pitch. PMID:25506127

  8. Experience is Instrumental in Tuning a Link Between Language and Cognition: Evidence from 6- to 7- Month-Old Infants' Object Categorization.

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    Perszyk, Danielle R; Waxman, Sandra R

    2017-04-19

    At birth, infants not only prefer listening to human vocalizations, but also have begun to link these vocalizations to cognition: For infants as young as three months of age, listening to human language supports object categorization, a core cognitive capacity. This precocious link is initially broad: At 3 and 4 months, vocalizations of both humans and nonhuman primates support categorization. But by 6 months, infants have narrowed the link: Only human vocalizations support object categorization. Here we ask what guides infants as they tune their initially broad link to a more precise one, engaged only by the vocalizations of our species. Across three studies, we use a novel exposure paradigm to examine the effects of experience. We document that merely exposing infants to nonhuman primate vocalizations enables infants to preserve the early-established link between this signal and categorization. In contrast, exposing infants to backward speech - a signal that fails to support categorization at any age - offers no such advantage. Our findings reveal the power of early experience as infants specify which signals, from an initially broad set, they will continue to link to cognition.

  9. Episodic memory and future thinking during early childhood: Linking the past and future.

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    Cuevas, Kimberly; Rajan, Vinaya; Morasch, Katherine C; Bell, Martha Ann

    2015-07-01

    Despite extensive examination of episodic memory and future thinking development, little is known about the concurrent emergence of these capacities during early childhood. In Experiment 1, 3-year-olds participated in an episodic memory hiding task ("what, when, where" [WWW] components) with an episodic future thinking component. In Experiment 2, a group of 4-year-olds (including children from Experiment 1) participated in the same task (different objects and locations), providing the first longitudinal investigation of episodic memory and future thinking. Although children exhibited age-related improvements in recall, recognition, and binding of the WWW episodic memory components, there were no age-related changes in episodic future thinking. At both ages, WWW episodic memory performance was higher than future thinking performance, and episodic future thinking and WWW memory components were unrelated. These findings suggest that the WWW components of episodic memory are potentially less fragile than the future components when assessed in a cognitively demanding task. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Characteristics of Early Work Experiences and Their Association with Future Employment

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    McDonnall, Michele Capella; O'Mally, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Early work experiences are a key predictor of future employment for transition-age youths with visual impairments. We investigated how specific characteristics of early work experiences influence future employment and whether the receipt of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits is associated with early work experiences among…

  11. Changes in corneal sensitivity following cross-linking for progressive early-stage keratoconus

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    Anelise de Medeiros Lago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate changes in corneal sensitivity following corneal cross-linking (CXL in patients with progressive earlier stage keratoconus. Methods: Thirty-eight eyes of 19 patients (11 women, 8 men were included in a prospective, nonrandomized clinical study. The mean patient age was 22 years (range, 18-26 years. Inclusion criteria were early stage bilateral progressive keratoconus, a transparent cornea, and a thickness of ≥440 µm in the thinnest area of the cornea. Using the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, central corneal sensitivity was measured before surgery, 7 days after surgery, and once a month thereafter until recovery of baseline preoperative levels. Central corneal sensitivity >40 mm was considered normal. Results: Corneal sensitivity gradually returned to preoperative levels in all treated eyes. The mean central corneal sensitivity was 52.2, 24.0, 38.2, 42.5, 50.0, and 52.5 mm before surgery, 7 days after surgery, and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 months after surgery, respectively. Normal levels of corneal sensation, but not baseline (preoperative levels, were observed 2 months after surgery. The preoperative levels were observed 3 months after surgery. Conclusions: Our results suggest that central corneal sensitivity can be decreased for as long as 3 months after CXL for progressive earlier stage keratoconus.

  12. Tuned by experience: How orientation probability modulates early perceptual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabar, Syaheed B; Filipowicz, Alex; Anderson, Britt

    2017-09-01

    Probable stimuli are more often and more quickly detected. While stimulus probability is known to affect decision-making, it can also be explained as a perceptual phenomenon. Using spatial gratings, we have previously shown that probable orientations are also more precisely estimated, even while participants remained naive to the manipulation. We conducted an electrophysiological study to investigate the effect that probability has on perception and visual-evoked potentials. In line with previous studies on oddballs and stimulus prevalence, low-probability orientations were associated with a greater late positive 'P300' component which might be related to either surprise or decision-making. However, the early 'C1' component, thought to reflect V1 processing, was dampened for high-probability orientations while later P1 and N1 components were unaffected. Exploratory analyses revealed a participant-level correlation between C1 and P300 amplitudes, suggesting a link between perceptual processing and decision-making. We discuss how these probability effects could be indicative of sharpening of neurons preferring the probable orientations, due either to perceptual learning, or to feature-based attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Data link air traffic control and flight deck environments: Experiment in flight crew performance

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    Lozito, Sandy; Mcgann, Alison; Corker, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an experiment undertaken in a full mission simulation environment to investigate the performance impact of, and human/system response to, data-linked Air Traffic Control (ATC) and automated flight deck operations. Subjects were twenty pilots (ten crews) from a major United States air carrier. Crews flew the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), a generic 'glass cockpit' simulator at NASA Ames. The method of data link used was similar to the data link implementation plans for a next-generation aircraft, and included the capability to review ATC messages and directly enter ATC clearance information into the aircraft systems. Each crew flew experimental scenarios, in which data reflecting communication timing, errors and clarifications, and procedures were collected. Results for errors and clarifications revealed an interaction between communication modality (voice v. data link) and communication type (air/ground v. intracrew). Results also revealed that voice crews initiated ATC contact significantly more than data link crews. It was also found that data link crews performed significantly more extraneous activities during the communication task than voice crews. Descriptive data from the use of the review menu indicate the pilot-not-flying accessing the review menu most often, and also suggest diffulty in accessing the target message within the review menu structure. The overall impact of communication modality upon air/ground communication and crew procedures is discussed.

  14. Somatosensory Representations Link the Perception of Emotional Expressions and Sensory Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragel, Philip A; LaBar, Kevin S

    2016-01-01

    Studies of human emotion perception have linked a distributed set of brain regions to the recognition of emotion in facial, vocal, and body expressions. In particular, lesions to somatosensory cortex in the right hemisphere have been shown to impair recognition of facial and vocal expressions of emotion. Although these findings suggest that somatosensory cortex represents body states associated with distinct emotions, such as a furrowed brow or gaping jaw, functional evidence directly linking somatosensory activity and subjective experience during emotion perception is critically lacking. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate decoding techniques, we show that perceiving vocal and facial expressions of emotion yields hemodynamic activity in right somatosensory cortex that discriminates among emotion categories, exhibits somatotopic organization, and tracks self-reported sensory experience. The findings both support embodied accounts of emotion and provide mechanistic insight into how emotional expressions are capable of biasing subjective experience in those who perceive them.

  15. The contribution of genetics and early rearing experiences to hierarchical personality dimensions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D.; Freeman, Hani D.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, Five Factor Model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily- and neurobiologically-based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially-housed, captive chimpanzees residing in two independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, while personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution. PMID:25915132

  16. Endocrine and metabolic mechanisms linking postpartum glucose with early embryonic and foetal development in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, M C; Butler, S T; Garverick, H A

    2014-05-01

    Milk and milk solids production per cow is increasing annually in dairy systems. Peak milk production is in early lactation when the uterus and ovary are recovering from the previous pregnancy. The competing processes of milk production and restoration of reproductive function can be at odds, particularly if unique homeorhetic mechanisms that typify early lactation become imbalanced and cows experience metabolic disease. Homeorhesis leads to an increase in the synthesis of glucose that is irreversibly lost to milk lactose. Irreversible loss of glucose during lactation can invoke an endocrine and metabolic state that impinges upon postpartum uterine health, oestrous cyclicity and subsequent establishment of pregnancy. The first 30 days postpartum may be most critical in terms of the impact that metabolites and metabolic hormones have on reproduction. Depressed immune function caused in part by the postpartum metabolic profile leads to a failure in uterine involution and uterine disease. Oestrous cyclicity (interval to first ovulation and subsequent periodicity) is affected by the same hormones and metabolites that control postpartum immune function. Slower growth of the embryo or foetus perhaps explained by the unique metabolic profile during lactation may predispose cows to pregnancy loss. Understanding homeorhetic mechanisms that involve glucose and collectively affect postpartum uterine health, oestrous cyclicity and the establishment of pregnancy should lead to methods to improve postpartum fertility in dairy cows.

  17. Promoting early detection of melanoma during the mammography experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Rzepecki, BS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Invasive melanoma, a lethal form of skin cancer, is the seventh most common cancer in women. Factors such as a history of indoor tanning or sunburn and a personal or family history of skin cancer increase a woman’s risk of developing a melanoma. Objective: Because the majority of melanomas occur in patients age 40 years or older, which is the age that is recommended for women to begin screening mammograms, the mammogram experience could be used to promote early detection of melanoma by introducing skin self-examinations (SSE to a population of women who are already invested in preventive health. Methods: This was a pilot and feasibility study that was designed to promote the early detection of melanoma among women who undergo a mammogram at the Lynn Sage Breast Center at the Northwestern Medicine/Prentice Women’s Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. The study was conducted in three phases: development of the materials, delivery of the program, and assessment of the program effectiveness. Results: Eighty six percent of women with scheduled mammogram appointments participated in the study (n = 560. Among these women, 68% noticed the SSE information in the changing rooms, 78% thought the information applied to them, and 68% identified with at least one of the risk factors for melanoma. Twenty percent of the patients checked their skin in the changing room, 13% noticed a concerning mole, and 60% of those women who noted a concerning lesion stated their intent to see a dermatologist for further evaluation. Conclusion: A large proportion of the women in our study had risk factors for developing a melanoma and noticed the SSE information in the screening center. Placing an intervention to encourage methods for the early detection of melanoma in an outpatient mammography environment is an effective strategy to increase awareness in a large proportion of at-risk women. Keywords: melanoma, skin self-examination, skin cancer screening

  18. Early experiences building a software quality prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agresti, W. W.; Evanco, W. M.; Smith, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    Early experiences building a software quality prediction model are discussed. The overall research objective is to establish a capability to project a software system's quality from an analysis of its design. The technical approach is to build multivariate models for estimating reliability and maintainability. Data from 21 Ada subsystems were analyzed to test hypotheses about various design structures leading to failure-prone or unmaintainable systems. Current design variables highlight the interconnectivity and visibility of compilation units. Other model variables provide for the effects of reusability and software changes. Reported results are preliminary because additional project data is being obtained and new hypotheses are being developed and tested. Current multivariate regression models are encouraging, explaining 60 to 80 percent of the variation in error density of the subsystems.

  19. Early MIMD experience on the CRAY X-MP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Clifford E.; Stevens, K. G.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes some early experience with converting four physics simulation programs to the CRAY X-MP, a current Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data (MIMD) computer consisting of two processors each with an architecture similar to that of the CRAY-1. As a multi-processor, the CRAY X-MP together with the high speed Solid-state Storage Device (SSD) in an ideal machine upon which to study MIMD algorithms for solving the equations of mathematical physics because it is fast enough to run real problems. The computer programs used in this study are all FORTRAN versions of original production codes. They range in sophistication from a one-dimensional numerical simulation of collisionless plasma to a two-dimensional hydrodynamics code with heat flow to a couple of three-dimensional fluid dynamics codes with varying degrees of viscous modeling. Early research with a dual processor configuration has shown speed-ups ranging from 1.55 to 1.98. It has been observed that a few simple extensions to FORTRAN allow a typical programmer to achieve a remarkable level of efficiency. These extensions involve the concept of memory local to a concurrent subprogram and memory common to all concurrent subprograms.

  20. Understanding the Authoritative Parenting-Early Adolescent Tobacco Use Link; The Mediating Role of Peer Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk-Robinette, Stacey L.; Fletcher, Anne C.; Wright, Kristie

    2002-01-01

    Studied the link between authoritative parenting style and early adolescent tobacco use through the self-reports of 156 eighth graders and independent reports on tobacco use from their friends. Results show that high levels of authoritative parenting are associated with lower levels of tobacco use among target adolescents. (SLD)

  1. Snow, Ice, & Satellites: An Early Career Researcher's Experience with Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, A.; Scambos, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    As a doctoral student, I was lucky enough to be able to experiment with a variety of communication and outreach activities (classroom visits, museum events, science festivals, blogging, social media, etc.) to build communication skills and learn how to talk about my science without writing a journal article. More importantly, the wide range of experience helped me identify what worked for me. My favorite way to share my science now? Twitter. To many, Twitter is a frivolous platform for sharing snippets 140 characters or less. To me, however, it is how I can connect directly with the elusive "wider public" and share my science. Specifically, I use satellite imagery (mostly Landsat 8) to study glaciers around the world. I look at long-term change related to climate, and I also investigate new, innovative ways to use satellite imagery to better understand glaciers and ice sheets. Luckily for me, my research is very visual. Whether fieldwork snapshots or satellite data, images make for great, shareable, accessible tweets. In this presentation, I propose to share my experience of tweeting as an early career researcher. I will include successful strategies (e.g. particular #hashtags, creating new content, using story-telling, timely tweets), as well as some not-so-successful attempts. I will also talk about how I built my Twitter network. In addition to anecdotes, I will include evaluation of my Twitter activity using available metrics and analytics (e.g. followers, favorites, re-tweets, Klout score, etc.). While misunderstood by many in the scientific community, Twitter is a platform increasingly being adopted by researchers. Used correctly, it can be a great tool for connecting directly with an interested, non-technical audience eager to learn about your research. With my experiences and evaluation, I will show how both scientists and the networks that they join and create can benefit by using Twitter as a platform for science communication.

  2. Ethnic Group Differences in Early Head Start Parents Parenting Beliefs and Practices and Links to Children's Early Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keels, Micere

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study were used to examine the extent to which several factors mediate between- and within-ethnic-group differences in parenting beliefs and behaviors, and children's early cognitive development (analysis sample of 1198 families). The findings indicate that Hispanic-, European-, and…

  3. The Timing of Middle-Childhood Peer Rejection and Friendship: Linking Early Behavior to Early-Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Sara; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Borge, Anne I. H.

    2007-01-01

    This study used a sample of 551 children surveyed yearly from ages 6 to 13 to examine the longitudinal associations among early behavior, middle-childhood peer rejection and friendedness, and early-adolescent depressive symptoms, loneliness, and delinquency. The study tested a sequential mediation hypothesis in which (a) behavior problems in the…

  4. Preliminary Experiments for the Assessment of V/W-band Links for Space-Earth Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James A.; Acosta, Roberto J.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2013-01-01

    Since September 2012, NASA Glenn Research Center has deployed a microwave profiling radiometer at White Sands, NM, to estimate atmospheric propagation effects on communications links in the V and W bands (71-86GHz). Estimates of attenuation statistics in the millimeter wave due to gaseous and cloud components of the atmosphere show good agreement with current ITU-R models, but fail to predict link performance in the presence of moderate to heavy rain rates, due to the inherent limitations of passive radiometry. Herein, we discuss the preliminary results of these measurements and describe a design for a terrestrial link experiment to validate/refine existing rain attenuation models in the V/Wbands.

  5. The role of emotions in game experience: linking emotions, game experience and return intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Yassim, Mazia Seyed

    2011-01-01

    The focus of many marketing studies is to understand the needs and anticipations of consumers and how they can be provided with positive experiences. In their efforts to understand the consumer, consumer behaviour researchers generally adopt a cognitive perspective, which propagates a rational, information processing approach to consumer behaviour (O’Shaughnessy and O’Shaughnessy, 2003). However, a unitary theory of consumption behaviour is undesirable because this restricts the way in which ...

  6. Perceived social pressure not to experience negative emotion is linked to selective attention for negative information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Brock; Pe, Madeline Lee; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Social norms and values may be important predictors of how people engage with and regulate their negative emotional experiences. Previous research has shown that social expectancies (the perceived social pressure not to feel negative emotion (NE)) exacerbate feelings of sadness. In the current research, we examined whether social expectancies may be linked to how people process emotional information. Using a modified classical flanker task involving emotional rather than non-emotional stimuli, we found that, for those who experienced low levels of NE, social expectancies were linked to the selective avoidance of negative emotional information. Those who experienced high levels of NE did not show a selective avoidance of negative emotional information. The findings suggest that, for people who experience many NEs, social expectancies may lead to discrepancies between how they think they ought to feel and the kind of emotional information they pay attention to.

  7. Factors Linking Childhood Experiences to Adult Romantic Relationships among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Landor, Antoinette M.; Bryant, Chalandra M.; Beach, Steven R.H.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that a high quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emo...

  8. Global Equity Gauge Alliance: reflections on early experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, David; Bambas, Lexi; Acurio, David; Baya, Banza; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Grisurapong, Siriwan; Liu, Yuanli; Ngom, Pierre; Ngulube, Thabale J; Ntuli, Antoinette; Sanders, David; Vega, Jeanette; Shukla, Abhay; Braveman, Paula A

    2003-09-01

    The paper traces the evolution and working of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA) and its efforts to promote health equity. GEGA places health equity squarely within a larger framework of social justice, linking findings on socioeconomic and health inequalities with differentials in power, wealth, and prestige in society. The Alliance's 11 country-level partners, called Equity Gauges, share a common action-based vision and framework called the Equity Gauge Strategy. An Equity Gauge seeks to reduce health inequities through three broad spheres of action, referred to as the 'pillars' of the Equity Gauge Strategy, which define a set of interconnected and overlapping actions. Measuring and tracking the inequalities and interpreting their ethical import are pursued through the Assessment and Monitoring pillar. This information provides an evidence base that can be used in strategic ways for influencing policy-makers through actions in the Advocacy pillar and for supporting grassroots groups and civil society through actions in the Community Empowerment pillar. The paper provides examples of strategies for promoting pro-equity policy and social change and reviews experiences and lessons, both in terms of technical success of interventions and in relation to the conceptual development and refinement of the Equity Gauge Strategy and overall direction of the Alliance. To become most effective in furthering health equity at both national and global levels, the Alliance must now reach out to and involve a wider range of organizations, groups, and actors at both national and international levels. Sustainability of this promising experiment depends, in part, on adequate resources but also on the ability to attract and develop talented leadership.

  9. Links between white matter microstructure and cortisol reactivity to stress in early childhood: Evidence for moderation by parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon I. Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (measured via cortisol reactivity may be a biological marker of risk for depression and anxiety, possibly even early in development. However, the structural neural correlates of early cortisol reactivity are not well known, although these would potentially inform broader models of mechanisms of risk, especially if the early environment further shapes these relationships. Therefore, we examined links between white matter architecture and young girls' cortisol reactivity and whether early caregiving moderated these links. We recruited 45 6-year-old girls based on whether they had previously shown high or low cortisol reactivity to a stress task at age 3. White matter integrity was assessed by calculating fractional anisotropy (FA of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Parenting styles were measured via a standardized parent–child interaction task. Significant associations were found between FA in white matter regions adjacent to the left thalamus, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus (all ps < .001. Further, positive early caregiving moderated the effect of high cortisol reactivity on white matter FA (all ps ≤ .05, with high stress reactive girls who received greater parent positive affect showing white matter structure more similar to that of low stress reactive girls. Results show associations between white matter integrity of various limbic regions of the brain and early cortisol reactivity to stress and provide preliminary support for the notion that parenting may moderate associations.

  10. Effects of early dental office visits on dental caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, Heather; Rozier, R Gary; Preisser, John S; Stearns, Sally C; Lee, Jessica Y

    2014-10-01

    We determined the association between timing of a first dentist office visit before age 5 years and dental disease in kindergarten. We used North Carolina Medicaid claims (1999-2006) linked to state oral health surveillance data to compare caries experience for kindergarten students (2005-2006) who had a visit before age 60 months (n=11,394) to derive overall exposure effects from a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model. We repeated the analysis separately for children who had preventive and tertiary visits. Children who had a visit at age 37 to 48 and 49 to 60 months had significantly less disease than children with a visit by age 24 months (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.81, 0.95; IRR=0.75; 95% CI=0.69, 0.82, respectively). Disease status did not differ between children who had a tertiary visit by age 24 months and other children. Medicaid-enrolled children in our study followed an urgent care type of utilization, and access to dental care was limited. Children at high risk for dental disease should be given priority for a preventive dental visit before age 3 years.

  11. Early clinical experience: do students learn what we expect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    2011-07-01

    Early clinical experience is thought to contribute to the professional development of medical students, but little is known about the kind of learning processes that actually take place. Learning in practice is highly informal and may be difficult to direct by predefined learning outcomes. Learning in medical practice includes a socialisation process in which some learning outcomes may be valued, but others neglected or discouraged. This study describes students' learning goals (prior to a Year 1 nursing attachment) and learning outcomes (after the attachment) in relation to institutional educational goals, and evaluates associations between learning outcomes, student characteristics and place of attachment. A questionnaire containing open-ended questions about learning goals and learning outcomes was administered to all Year 1 medical students (n = 347) before and directly after a 4-week nursing attachment in either a hospital or a nursing home. Two confirmatory focus group interviews were conducted and data were analysed using qualitative and quantitative content analyses. Students' learning goals corresponded with educational goals with a main emphasis on communication and empathy. Other learning goals included gaining insight into the organisation of health care and learning to deal with emotions. Self-reported learning outcomes were the same, but students additionally mentioned reflection on professional behaviour and their own future development. Women and younger students mentioned communication and empathy more often than men and older students. Individual learning goals, with the exception of communicating and empathising with patients, did not predict learning outcomes. Students' learning goals closely match educational goals, which are adequately met in early nursing attachments in both hospitals and nursing homes. Learning to deal with emotions was under-represented as a learning goal and learning outcome, which may indicate that emotional aspects

  12. Gamete donors' reasons for, and expectations and experiences of, registration with a voluntary donor linking register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Eric; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Frith, Lucy; van den Akker, Olga

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports on a study of the views and experiences of 21 sperm donors and five egg donors registered with UK DonorLink (UKDL), a voluntary DNA-based contact register established to facilitate contact between adults who wish to identify and locate others to whom they are genetically related following donor conception. Specifically, the paper examines donors' reasons for searching for, or making information about themselves available to donor-conceived offspring. Their expectations of registration with UKDL, experiences of being registered and finally, the experiences of those who had contacted donor-conceived offspring and other genetic relatives are investigated. While most respondents reported largely positive experiences of registration, the study found significant issues relating to concerns about donation, DNA testing, possible linking with offspring and expectations of any relationship that might be established with offspring that have implications for support, mediation and counselling. Research that puts the experiences, perceptions and interests of gamete donors as the central focus of study is a relatively recent phenomenon. This study contributes to this debate and highlights directions for future research in this area.

  13. The Leading Edge of Early Childhood Education: Linking Science to Policy for a New Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K., Ed.; Jones, Stephanie M., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    "The Leading Edge of Early Childhood Education" aims to support the effort to simultaneously scale up and improve the quality of early childhood education by bringing together relevant insights from emerging research to provide guidance for this critical, fledgling field. It reflects the growing recognition that early childhood…

  14. Family Involvement in Early Intervention Service Planning: Links to Parental Satisfaction and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Tierney K.; You, Hyun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The mediating role of parental satisfaction in the relation between family involvement in early intervention service planning and parental self-efficacy was explored. Participants included families of children with disability or delay involved in early intervention (n = 2586). Data were examined upon entry into early intervention (T1) and at…

  15. Experiences from site-specific landslide early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, C.; Bazin, S.; Blikra, L. H.; Derron, M.-H.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2013-10-01

    Landslide early warning systems (EWSs) have to be implemented in areas with large risk for populations or infrastructures when classical structural remediation measures cannot be set up. This paper aims to gather experiences of existing landslide EWSs, with a special focus on practical requirements (e.g., alarm threshold values have to take into account the smallest detectable signal levels of deployed sensors before being established) and specific issues when dealing with system implementations. Within the framework of the SafeLand European project, a questionnaire was sent to about one-hundred institutions in charge of landslide management. Finally, we interpreted answers from experts belonging to 14 operational units related to 23 monitored landslides. Although no standard requirements exist for designing and operating EWSs, this review highlights some key elements, such as the importance of pre-investigation work, the redundancy and robustness of monitoring systems, the establishment of different scenarios adapted to gradual increasing of alert levels, and the necessity of confidence and trust between local populations and scientists. Moreover, it also confirms the need to improve our capabilities for failure forecasting, monitoring techniques and integration of water processes into landslide conceptual models.

  16. Early Experience with the StopLoss Jones Tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, Laura; Pearson, Andrew R

    2015-06-01

    Extrusion is the most common reason for failure after Jones tube placement. The StopLoss Jones tube (SLJT) is a new innovation in Jones tubes that incorporates a flexible silicone internal flange to resist extrusion. We present our early experience of using this new tube and associated introducer system. We retrospectively analysed the case notes of a single surgeon consecutive series of patients having SLJT placement from November 2011 to November 2013. 29 SLJTs were placed in 25 eyes of 19 patients. Tube follow-up ranged from 1-25 months (mean 10 months) with a total of 291 tube-months. The indications for SLJT placement were: previous LJT complications (52%), failed canalicular-DCR surgery (31%), primary placement for inoperable canalicular occlusion (14%) and patent non-functioning DCR (3%). Tube length ranged from 10-16 mm. The tube introducer system was simple and effective and there were no intra-operative complications. The tube extrusion rate was 0%. Complications occurred in 5 tubes: 1 was too long, and 4 others (14%) developed conjunctival overgrowth/medial tube migration. Patient satisfaction with the tube was: 86% fully satisfied, 10% was moderately satisfied, 3% not satisfied. The overall final surgical success rate at last follow-up was 92%. In this short follow-up initial study the SLJT is simple to use and has a high rate of success and patient satisfaction. The addition of the internal silicone flange appears to prevent the previously common problem of extrusion.

  17. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracranial Tumors : Early Experience with Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Chang Ok; Chung, Sang Sup; Chu, Sung Sil; Kim, Young Soo; Yoon, Do Heum; Kim, Sun Ho; Loh, John Juhn; Kim, Gwi Eon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-06-15

    Between August 1988 and December 1991, 24 patients with intracranial tumors were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery(RS) using a 10 MV linear accelerator at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine. There were 5 meningiomas, 3 craniopharyngiomas, 9 glial tumors, 2 solitary metastases, 2 acoustic neurinomas, 2 pineal tumors, and 1 non-Hodgkin Iymphoma. Ten patients were treated as primary treatment after diagnosis with stereotactic biopsy or neuroimaging study. Nine patients underwent RS for post-op. residual tumors and three patients as a salvage treatment for recurrence after external irradiation. Two patients received RS as a boost followed by fractionated conventional radiotherapy. Among sixteen patients who were followed more than 6 months with neuroimage, seven patients (2 meningiomas, 4 benign glial tumors, one non-Hodgkin lymphoma) showed complete response on neuroimage after RS and nine patients showed decreased tumor size. There was no acute treatment related side reaction. Late complications include three patients with symptomatic peritumoral braid edema and one craniopharyngioma with optic chiasmal injury. Through this early experience, we conclude that stereotactically directed single high doses of irradiation to the small intracranial tumors is effective for tumor control. However, in order to define the role of radiosurgery in the management of intracranial tumors, we should get the long-term results available to demonstrate the benefits versus potential complications of this therapeutic modality.

  18. Radiofrequency Ablation Treatment for Renal Cell Carcinoma: Early Clinical Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Hoon; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Cho, Jin Han; Oh, Jong Young; Nam, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Hee Jin; Kim, Su Yeon; Kang, Myong Jin; Choi, Sun Seob; Sung, Gyung Tak [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    To evaluate the early clinical experience associated with radiofrequency (RF) ablation in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The RF ablation treatment was performed on 17 tumors from 16 patients (mean age, 60.5 years; range, 43 73 years) with RCC. The treatment indications were localized, solid renal mass, comorbidities, high operation risk, and refusal to perform surgery. All tumors were treated by a percutaneous CT (n = 10), followed by an US-guided (n = 2), laparoscopy-assisted US (n = 2), and an open (n = 2) RF ablation. Furthermore, patients underwent a follow- up CT at one day, one week, one month, three and six months, and then every six months from the onset of treatment. We evaluated the technical success, technical effectiveness, ablation zone, benign periablation enhancement, irregular peripheral enhancement, and complications. All 17 exophytic tumors (mean size, 2.2 cm; range, 1.1 5.0 cm) were completely ablated. Technical success and effectiveness was achieved in all cases and the mean follow-up period was 23.8 months (range, 17 33 months). A local recurrence was not detected in any of the cases; however, five patients developed complications as a result of treatment, including hematuria (n = 2), mild thermal injury of the psoas muscle (n = 1), mild hydronephrosis (n = 1), and fistula formation (n = 1). The RF ablation is an alternative treatment for exophytic RCCs and represents a promising treatment for some patients with small RCCs.

  19. Radiofrequency Ablation Treatment for Renal Cell Carcinoma: Early Clinical Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Hoon; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Cho, Jin Han; Oh, Jong Young; Nam, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Hee Jin; Kim, Su Yeon; Kang, Myong Jin; Choi, Sun Seob; Sung, Gyung Tak

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the early clinical experience associated with radiofrequency (RF) ablation in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The RF ablation treatment was performed on 17 tumors from 16 patients (mean age, 60.5 years; range, 43 73 years) with RCC. The treatment indications were localized, solid renal mass, comorbidities, high operation risk, and refusal to perform surgery. All tumors were treated by a percutaneous CT (n = 10), followed by an US-guided (n = 2), laparoscopy-assisted US (n = 2), and an open (n = 2) RF ablation. Furthermore, patients underwent a follow- up CT at one day, one week, one month, three and six months, and then every six months from the onset of treatment. We evaluated the technical success, technical effectiveness, ablation zone, benign periablation enhancement, irregular peripheral enhancement, and complications. All 17 exophytic tumors (mean size, 2.2 cm; range, 1.1 5.0 cm) were completely ablated. Technical success and effectiveness was achieved in all cases and the mean follow-up period was 23.8 months (range, 17 33 months). A local recurrence was not detected in any of the cases; however, five patients developed complications as a result of treatment, including hematuria (n = 2), mild thermal injury of the psoas muscle (n = 1), mild hydronephrosis (n = 1), and fistula formation (n = 1). The RF ablation is an alternative treatment for exophytic RCCs and represents a promising treatment for some patients with small RCCs

  20. Early experience with titanium elastic nails in a trauma unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shah, M H

    2012-02-03

    The Titanium Elastic Nail (TEN) offers a number of potential advantages over traditional ways of treating long bone fractures particularly in the paediatric population. These advantages include earlier mobilisation and shorter hospital stay and less risk of loss of fracture position. These advantages are most apparent and significant when treating femoral fractures in children where the length of hospital stay is reduced from several weeks to a typical period of 5 to 8 days. We have reviewed our early experience of using these implants over the past 2 years. Patients were assessed clinically and radiologically. 13 patients were treated using the TEN during this period. There were 2 femoral fractures, 4 humeral fractures, 1 tibial and 6 forearm fractures treated using the Titanium Elastic Nail. All fractures united during the study period. However 1 humeral fracture required a secondary bone grafting and plating for delayed union and 1 fracture lost position during follow-up. Insertion point pain was a problem in 4 patients but this resolved after nail removal in all. There was 1 superficial wound infection which resolved with antibiotics and 1 superficial wound infection of an open fracture wound which resolved following nail removal and antibiotics. There were no cases of deep infection. There were no limb length discrepancy or rotational or angular malalignment problems. Biomechanical principles and technical aspects of this type of fixation are discussed.

  1. Maternal Employment Stability in Early Childhood: Links with Child Behavior and Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated links between maternal employment and children's wellbeing, less research has considered whether the stability of maternal employment is linked with child outcomes. Using unique employment calendar data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,011), an urban birth cohort study of largely…

  2. Links between white matter microstructure and cortisol reactivity to stress in early childhood: evidence for moderation by parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Haroon I; Joanisse, Marc F; Mackrell, Sarah M; Kryski, Katie R; Smith, Heather J; Singh, Shiva M; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2014-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (measured via cortisol reactivity) may be a biological marker of risk for depression and anxiety, possibly even early in development. However, the structural neural correlates of early cortisol reactivity are not well known, although these would potentially inform broader models of mechanisms of risk, especially if the early environment further shapes these relationships. Therefore, we examined links between white matter architecture and young girls' cortisol reactivity and whether early caregiving moderated these links. We recruited 45 6-year-old girls based on whether they had previously shown high or low cortisol reactivity to a stress task at age 3. White matter integrity was assessed by calculating fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Parenting styles were measured via a standardized parent-child interaction task. Significant associations were found between FA in white matter regions adjacent to the left thalamus, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus (all ps parent positive affect showing white matter structure more similar to that of low stress reactive girls. Results show associations between white matter integrity of various limbic regions of the brain and early cortisol reactivity to stress and provide preliminary support for the notion that parenting may moderate associations.

  3. Linking Social Anxiety with Social Competence in Early Adolescence: Physiological and Coping Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeppler, Alexander K; Erath, Stephen A

    2017-02-01

    Despite relatively universal feelings of discomfort in social situations, there is considerable evidence for diversity in the social behaviors and peer experiences of socially anxious youth. However, to date, very little research has been conducted with the aim of identifying factors that differentiate socially anxious youth who are more socially competent from those who are less socially competent. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining whether physiological and cognitive coping responses to social stress moderate the association between social anxiety and social competence. Participants were a community sample of 123 fifth and sixth graders (Mage = 12.03). Social anxiety was measured globally and in the context of a lab-based peer evaluation situation, and social competence was assessed via teacher-reports. Physiological (i.e., skin conductance level reactivity, SCLR, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity, RSAR) and coping (i.e., disengaged) responses to social stressors were also assessed. Results indicated that SCLR and disengaged coping with peer victimization moderated associations linking global and context-specific social anxiety with social competence, such that social anxiety was associated with lower social competence at lower levels of SCLR and higher levels of disengaged coping with peer victimization. Thus, whether socially anxious preadolescents exhibit more or less competent social behavior may depend, in part, on how they respond to peer-evaluative stress. Inflexible physiological responses and disengaged coping responses may undermine social competence, whereas engaged responses may counteract socially anxious preadolescents' tendency to withdraw from social interactions or focus primarily on threat cues.

  4. 'Poppets and parcels': the links between staff experience of work and acutely ill older peoples' experience of hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maben, Jill; Adams, Mary; Peccei, Riccardo; Murrells, Trevor; Robert, Glenn

    2012-06-01

    Few empirical studies have directly examined the relationship between staff experiences of providing healthcare and patient experience. Present concerns over the care of older people in UK acute hospitals - and the reported attitudes of staff in such settings - highlight an important area of study. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES. To examine the links between staff experience of work and patient experience of care in a 'Medicine for Older People' (MfOP) service in England. A mixed methods case study undertaken over 8 months incorporating a 149-item staff survey (66/192 - 34% response rate), a 48-item patient survey (26/111 - 23%), 18 staff interviews, 18 patient and carer interviews and 41 hours of non-participant observation. Variation in patient experience is significantly influenced by staff work experiences. A high-demand/low-control work environment, poor staffing, ward leadership and co-worker relationships can each add to the inherent difficulties staff face when caring for acutely ill older people. Staff seek to alleviate the impact of such difficulties by finding personal satisfaction from caring for 'the poppets'; those patients they enjoy caring for and for whom they feel able to 'make a difference'. Other patients - noting dehumanising aspects of their care - felt like 'parcels'. Patients are aware of being seen by staff as 'difficult' or 'demanding' and seek to manage their relationships with nursing staff accordingly. The work experiences of staff in a MfOP service impacted directly on patient care experience. Poor ward and patient care climates often lead staff to seek job satisfaction through caring for 'poppets', leaving less favoured - and often more complex patients - to receive less personalised care. Implications for practice. Investment in staff well-being and ward climate is essential for the consistent delivery of high-quality care for older people in acute settings. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Early experience with transfemoral endovascular aneurysm management (TEAM) in the treatment of aortic aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balm, R.; Eikelboom, B. C.; May, J.; Bell, P. R.; Swedenborg, J.; Collin, J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the early experience with transfemoral endovascular aortic aneurysm management using the Endovascular Grafting System. DESIGN: Multi-centre prospective evaluation of the implantation procedure and early results (median follow-up 153 days). SETTING: Department of Surgery,

  6. Longitudinal links between work experiences and marital satisfaction in african american dual-earner couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoran; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C; Jones, Damon E

    2017-12-01

    This study assessed associations between both work demands (pressure, hours) and work resources (self-direction) and marital satisfaction in a sample of 164 African American dual-earner couples who were interviewed annually across 3 years. Grounded in the work-home resources and family systems frameworks, results from longitudinal actor-partner interdependence models (APIM) revealed main effects of spouses' work experiences on their own marital satisfaction, but these effects were qualified by the interactive effects of spouses' and partners' work experiences. Some interactive effects were consistent with an amplifying pattern, for example that, beyond the main effects of actor self-direction, marital satisfaction was highest when both spouses experienced high work self-direction. Other effects were consistent with a comparative pattern, such that shorter work hours were linked to lower marital satisfaction only when partners worked longer hours. Gender moderation also was evident in findings that wives' work pressure was negatively linked to marital satisfaction only when their husbands reported high pressure, but husbands' work pressure was negatively linked to marital satisfaction only when their wives reported low pressure. This study advances understanding of work-marriage linkages in African American couples, an understudied group with a distinctive connection to the labor force. Analyses demonstrate what can be learned from investigating the couple as a unit and illustrate how family systems concepts can be addressed via APIM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Midlife managerial experience is linked to late life hippocampal morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, C; Gates, N; Fiatarone Singh, M; Saigal, N; Wilson, G C; Meiklejohn, J; Sachdev, P; Brodaty, H; Wen, W; Singh, N; Baune, B T; Baker, M; Foroughi, N; Wang, Y; Valenzuela, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    An active cognitive lifestyle has been suggested to have a protective role in the long-term maintenance of cognition. Amongst healthy older adults, more managerial or supervisory experiences in midlife are linked to a slower hippocampal atrophy rate in late life. Yet whether similar links exist in individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is not known, nor whether these differences have any functional implications. 68 volunteers from the Sydney SMART Trial, diagnosed with non-amnestic MCI, were divided into high and low managerial experience (HME/LME) during their working life. All participants underwent neuropsychological testing, structural and resting-state functional MRI. Group comparisons were performed on hippocampal volume, morphology, hippocampal seed-based functional connectivity, memory and executive function and self-ratings of memory proficiency. HME was linked to better memory function (p = 0.024), mediated by larger hippocampal volume (p = 0.025). More specifically, deformation analysis found HME had relatively more volume in the CA1 sub-region of the hippocampus (p < 0.05). Paradoxically, this group rated their memory proficiency worse (p = 0.004), a result correlated with diminished functional connectivity between the right hippocampus and right prefrontal cortex (p < 0.001). Finally, hierarchical regression modelling substantiated this double dissociation.

  8. Model experiments on the sensitization of polyethylene cross-linking of oligobutadienes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brede, O.; Beckert, D.; Hoesselbarth, B.; Specht, W.; Tannert, F.; Wunsch, K.

    1988-01-01

    In presence of ≥ 1 % of 1,2-oligobutadiene the efficiency of the radiation-induced cross-linking of polyethylene was found to be increased in comparison to the pure matrix. Model experiments with solutions of the sensitizer in long chain n-alkanes showed that after addition of alkyl radicals onto the oligobutadiene (reaction with the vinyl groups) the sensitizer forms an own network which is grafted by the alkyl groups. In comparison to this grafting reaction proceeding with G of about 5 the vinyl consumption happened with about the threefold of it indicating a short (intra- and intermolecular) vinyl reaction chain. Pulse radiolysis measurements in solutions of the 1,2-oligobutadiene in n-hexadecane and in molten PE blends resulted in the observation of radical transients of the cross-linking reaction. (author)

  9. Female-partnered and single women's contact motivations and experiences with donor-linked families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, A E; Scheib, J E

    2015-06-01

    What are female-partnered and single mothers' motivations and experiences at one donor insemination (DI) program with regard to contacting other families who share the same sperm donor? By and large, women reported seeking contact to obtain (i) support for their children and/or themselves, and (ii) information about shared traits and medical problems, ultimately describing a range of contact experiences, both positive (e.g. special bond created) and negative (e.g. uncomfortable encounters). There is a growing phenomenon of donor insemination families-parents and/or offspring-seeking others who share their donor (i.e. are 'donor-linked'). There is limited understanding about parental motivations and experiences-especially in the presence of a second parent-due to the methodological constraints of previous quantitative studies. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 50 donor insemination mothers (14 single, 36 female-partnered). Participants were recruited by email invitation to parent members of a family-matching service at one donor insemination program in the USA. The criterion for inclusion was having matched to at least one donor-linked family. Among the 50 mothers interviewed, all had at least one child conceived via donor insemination, who was between ages 0 and 15 years at first contact. Families matched with a median of three donor-linked families (range 1-10). Interview data were analyzed through qualitative (i.e. thematic) analysis. Overarching themes emerged of seeking contact to obtain (i) support and (ii) information about children's shared physical and psychological traits. Some wanted to increase their child's family network, through adding a sibling, but more often as extended family. Data, from partnered parents especially, revealed the challenges of balancing the boundaries of family formed without the genetic link with the perceived benefits of exploring the child's donor origins. Interviews focused on openness and information

  10. Linking product design to consumer behavior: the moderating role of consumption experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilal NG

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Naeem Gul Gilal,1 Jing Zhang,1 Faheem Gul Gilal2 1School of Management, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; 2Donlinks School of Economics and Management, University of Science and Technology, Beijing, China Background: Previous investigations of product design broadly link aesthetic, functional, and symbolic designs to sales growth, high turnover, and market share. However, the effect of product design dimensions on consumer willingness-to-buy (WTB and word-of-mouth (WOM is virtually ignored by consumer researchers. Similarly, whether the consumption experience can differentiate the effect of the three product design dimensions on WTB and WOM is completely unknown. Using categorization theory as a lens, our study aims to explore the effect of product design dimensions on consumer WTB and WOM directly and indirectly through the moderation of the consumption experience.Methods: A convenience sample of (n=357 Chinese and (n=277 Korean shoppers was utilized to test the hypotheses in the fashion apparel industry.Results: Our results showed that the aesthetic design was more prominent in capturing consumer WTB for both Chinese and Koreans. Similarly, the aesthetic design was more salient in enhancing WOM for Chinese, whereas the symbolic design was more promising in terms of improving WOM for Koreans. Further, our moderation results demonstrated that the consumption experience could differentiate the effects of the three product design dimensions on consumer WTB and WOM for Chinese. By contrast, the consumption experience could only interact with the aesthetic design to improve WOM for South Koreans.Conclusion: To the best of authors’ knowledge, the present study is one of the initial attempts to link three product design dimensions with consumer WTB and WOM in the fashion apparel context and explored whether consumption experience competes or complement with three product design dimensions to shape consumer WTB and WOM for

  11. Quantitative Raman characterization of cross-linked collagen thin films as a model system for diagnosing early osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Durney, Krista M.; Fomovsky, Gregory; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Vukelic, Sinisa

    2016-03-01

    The onset of osteoarthritis (OA)in articular cartilage is characterized by degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Specifically, breakage of cross-links between collagen fibrils in the articular cartilage leads to loss of structural integrity of the bulk tissue. Since there are no broadly accepted, non-invasive, label-free tools for diagnosing OA at its early stage, Raman spectroscopyis therefore proposed in this work as a novel, non-destructive diagnostic tool. In this study, collagen thin films were employed to act as a simplified model system of the cartilage collagen extracellular matrix. Cross-link formation was controlled via exposure to glutaraldehyde (GA), by varying exposure time and concentration levels, and Raman spectral information was collected to quantitatively characterize the cross-link assignments imparted to the collagen thin films during treatment. A novel, quantitative method was developed to analyze the Raman signal obtained from collagen thin films. Segments of Raman signal were decomposed and modeled as the sum of individual bands, providing an optimization function for subsequent curve fitting against experimental findings. Relative changes in the concentration of the GA-induced pyridinium cross-links were extracted from the model, as a function of the exposure to GA. Spatially resolved characterization enabled construction of spectral maps of the collagen thin films, which provided detailed information about the variation of cross-link formation at various locations on the specimen. Results showed that Raman spectral data correlate with glutaraldehyde treatment and therefore may be used as a proxy by which to measure loss of collagen cross-links in vivo. This study proposes a promising system of identifying onset of OA and may enable early intervention treatments that may serve to slow or prevent osteoarthritis progression.

  12. Evaluating the Link between Self-Esteem and Temperament in Mexican Origin Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age = 10.4). Findings show that (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem exhibit higher levels of Effortful Control but, contrary to findings in adult samples, do not differ from low self-esteem adolescents in…

  13. A mixed methods analysis of experiences and expectations among early-career medical oncologists in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W K Tim; Kirby, Emma; Broom, Alex; Sibbritt, David; Francis, Kay; Karapetis, Christos S; Karikios, Deme; Harrup, Rosemary; Lwin, Zarnie

    2018-01-26

    A viable and sustainable medical oncology profession is integral for meeting the increasing demand for quality cancer care. The aim of this study was to explore the workforce-related experiences, perceptions and career expectations of early-career medical oncologists in Australia. A mixed-methods design, including a survey (n  =  170) and nested qualitative semistructured interviews (n  =  14) with early-career medical oncologists. Recruitment was through the Medical Oncology Group of Australia. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed and for the survey results, logistic regression modeling was conducted. Early-career medical oncologists experienced uncertainty regarding their future employment opportunities. The competitive job market has made them cautious about securing a preferred job leading to a perceived need to improve their qualifications through higher degree training and research activities. The following themes and trends were identified from the qualitative and quantitative analyses: age, career stage and associated early-career uncertainty; locale, professional competition and training preferences; participation in research and evolving professional expectations; and workload and career development opportunities as linked to career uncertainty. Perceived diminished employment opportunities in the medical oncology profession, and shifting expectations to be "more qualified," have increased uncertainty among junior medical oncologists in terms of their future career prospects. Structural factors relating to adequate funding of medical oncology positions may facilitate or inhibit progressive change in the workforce and its sustainability. Workforce planning and strategies informed by findings from this study will be necessary in ensuring that both the needs of cancer patients and of medical oncologists are met. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Linking product design to consumer behavior: the moderating role of consumption experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilal, Naeem Gul; Zhang, Jing; Gilal, Faheem Gul

    2018-01-01

    Previous investigations of product design broadly link aesthetic, functional, and symbolic designs to sales growth, high turnover, and market share. However, the effect of product design dimensions on consumer willingness-to-buy (WTB) and word-of-mouth (WOM) is virtually ignored by consumer researchers. Similarly, whether the consumption experience can differentiate the effect of the three product design dimensions on WTB and WOM is completely unknown. Using categorization theory as a lens, our study aims to explore the effect of product design dimensions on consumer WTB and WOM directly and indirectly through the moderation of the consumption experience. A convenience sample of (n=357) Chinese and (n=277) Korean shoppers was utilized to test the hypotheses in the fashion apparel industry. Our results showed that the aesthetic design was more prominent in capturing consumer WTB for both Chinese and Koreans. Similarly, the aesthetic design was more salient in enhancing WOM for Chinese, whereas the symbolic design was more promising in terms of improving WOM for Koreans. Further, our moderation results demonstrated that the consumption experience could differentiate the effects of the three product design dimensions on consumer WTB and WOM for Chinese. By contrast, the consumption experience could only interact with the aesthetic design to improve WOM for South Koreans. To the best of authors' knowledge, the present study is one of the initial attempts to link three product design dimensions with consumer WTB and WOM in the fashion apparel context and explored whether consumption experience competes or complement with three product design dimensions to shape consumer WTB and WOM for Chinese and Koreans.

  15. Linked Data for Fighting Global Hunger:Experiences in setting standards for Agricultural Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas; Keizer, Johannes

    FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, has the global goal to defeat hunger and eliminate poverty. One of its core functions is the generation, dissemination and application of information and knowledge. Since 2000, the Agricultural InformationManagement Standards (AIMS) activity in FAO's Knowledge Exchange and Capacity Building Division has promoted the use of Semantic Web standards to improve information sharing within a global network of research institutes and related partner organizations. The strategy emphasizes the use of simple descriptive metadata, thesauri, and ontologies for integrating access to information from a wide range of sources for both scientific and non-expert audiences. An early adopter of Semantic Web technology, the AIMS strategy is evolving to help information providers in nineteen language areas use modern Linked Data methods to improve the quality of life in developing rural areas, home to seventy percent of the world's poor and hungry people.

  16. Evaluating the Link between Self-Esteem and Temperament in Mexican Origin Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age=10.4). Self-esteem was assessed using child reports on the Self-Description Questionnaire II—Short (SDQII-S; Marsh et al., 2005) and temperament was assessed using child and mother reports on the revised Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire (Ellis & Rothbart, 2001). Findings show that: (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem show higher levels o...

  17. Early experiences mediate distinct adult gene expression and reproductive programs in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Maria C.; Nichitean, Alexandra M.; Dorus, Steve; Hall, Sarah E.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental stress during early development in animals can have profound effects on adult phenotypes via programmed changes in gene expression. Using the nematode C. elegans, we demonstrated previously that adults retain a cellular memory of their developmental experience that is manifested by differences in gene expression and life history traits; however, the sophistication of this system in response to different environmental stresses, and how it dictates phenotypic plasticity in adults that contribute to increased fitness in response to distinct environmental challenges, was unknown. Using transcriptional profiling, we show here that C. elegans adults indeed retain distinct cellular memories of different environmental conditions. We identified approximately 500 genes in adults that entered dauer due to starvation that exhibit significant opposite (“seesaw”) transcriptional phenotypes compared to adults that entered dauer due to crowding, and are distinct from animals that bypassed dauer. Moreover, we show that two-thirds of the genes in the genome experience a 2-fold or greater seesaw trend in gene expression, and based upon the direction of change, are enriched in large, tightly linked regions on different chromosomes. Importantly, these transcriptional programs correspond to significant changes in brood size depending on the experienced stress. In addition, we demonstrate that while the observed seesaw gene expression changes occur in both somatic and germline tissue, only starvation-induced changes require a functional GLP-4 protein necessary for germline development, and both programs require the Argonaute CSR-1. Thus, our results suggest that signaling between the soma and the germ line can generate phenotypic plasticity as a result of early environmental experience, and likely contribute to increased fitness in adverse conditions and the evolution of the C. elegans genome. PMID:29447162

  18. Early experiences mediate distinct adult gene expression and reproductive programs in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Ow

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stress during early development in animals can have profound effects on adult phenotypes via programmed changes in gene expression. Using the nematode C. elegans, we demonstrated previously that adults retain a cellular memory of their developmental experience that is manifested by differences in gene expression and life history traits; however, the sophistication of this system in response to different environmental stresses, and how it dictates phenotypic plasticity in adults that contribute to increased fitness in response to distinct environmental challenges, was unknown. Using transcriptional profiling, we show here that C. elegans adults indeed retain distinct cellular memories of different environmental conditions. We identified approximately 500 genes in adults that entered dauer due to starvation that exhibit significant opposite ("seesaw" transcriptional phenotypes compared to adults that entered dauer due to crowding, and are distinct from animals that bypassed dauer. Moreover, we show that two-thirds of the genes in the genome experience a 2-fold or greater seesaw trend in gene expression, and based upon the direction of change, are enriched in large, tightly linked regions on different chromosomes. Importantly, these transcriptional programs correspond to significant changes in brood size depending on the experienced stress. In addition, we demonstrate that while the observed seesaw gene expression changes occur in both somatic and germline tissue, only starvation-induced changes require a functional GLP-4 protein necessary for germline development, and both programs require the Argonaute CSR-1. Thus, our results suggest that signaling between the soma and the germ line can generate phenotypic plasticity as a result of early environmental experience, and likely contribute to increased fitness in adverse conditions and the evolution of the C. elegans genome.

  19. Is epigenetics an important link between early life events and adult disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic mechanisms provide one potential explanation for how environmental influences in early life cause long-term changes in chronic disease susceptibility. Whereas epigenetic dysregulation is increasingly implicated in various rare developmental syndromes and cancer, the role of epigenetics in...

  20. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the associatio...

  1. Development of FPGA-based High Speed Serial Links for High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Perrella, Sabrina; Giordano, Raffaele; Izzo, Vincenzo

    Ricerca Simple Search Advanced Search Ultime accessioni Browse Browse by Author Browse by Subject Browse by Year Browse by Type Browse by Accessibilità del full-text Informazioni Policy About FAQ Contatti Perrella, Sabrina (2016) Development of FPGA-based High-Speed serial links for High Energy Physics Experiments. [Tesi di dottorato] [img] Text Perrella_Sabrina_28.pdf Download (59MB) | Preview [error in script] [error in script] Item Type: Tesi di dottorato Lingua: English Title: Development of FPGA-based High-Speed serial links for High Energy Physics Experiments Creators: Creators\tEmail Perrella, Sabrina\tsa.perrella@gmail.com Date: 31 March 2016 Number of Pages: 113 Institution: Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II Department: Fisica Scuola di dottorato: Scienze fisiche Dottorato: Fisica fondamentale ed applicata Ciclo di dottorato: 28 Coordinatore del Corso di dottorato: nome\temail Velotta, Raffaele\tvelotta@na.infn.it Tutor: nome\temail Alviggi, Mariagrazia\tUNSPECIFIED Giordano, ...

  2. Linking the pharmacological content of ecstasy tablets to the subjective experiences of drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Tibor M; Koeter, Maarten W; Niesink, Raymond J M; van den Brink, Wim

    2012-04-01

    Most studies on the subjective effects of ecstasy are based on the assumption that the substance that was taken is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). However, many tablets sold as ecstasy contain other substances and MDMA in varying doses. So far, few attempts have been made to take this into account while assessing subjective effects. This study aims to link the pharmacological content of tablets sold as ecstasy to the subjective experiences reported by ecstasy users. Self-reported effects on ecstasy tablets were available from 5,786 drug users who handed in their tablets for chemical analysis at the Drug Information and Monitoring System (DIMS) in the Netherlands. Logistic regression was employed to link the pharmacological content of ecstasy tablets to the self-reported subjective effects and compare effects with MDMA to other substances present. MDMA showed a strong association with desirable subjective effects, unparalleled by any other psychoactive substance. However, the association of MDMA was dose-dependent, with higher doses (>120 mg/tablet) likely to evoke more adverse effects. The novel psychostimulants mephedrone and p-fluoroamphetamine were considered relatively desirable, whereas meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and p-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) were strongly associated with adverse subjective effects. Also, 3,4-methylene-dioxyamphetamine (MDA) and benzylpiperazine (BZP) were not appreciated as replacement for MDMA. Linking the pharmacological content of ecstasy sold on the street to subjective experiences contributes to a better understanding of the wide range of subjective effects ascribed to ecstasy and provides a strong rationale for the prolonged endurance of MDMA as the key ingredient of the ecstasy market.

  3. Linking Early Life Stages: The First Step towards Lifecourse Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abstract is the overview of a workshop proposed for inclusion in 2015 Society of Toxicology annual meeting program. The workshop will introduce the audience to lifecourse theory and speakers will provide examples of using PBPK models to link exposures and outcomes resulting ...

  4. Interactive Links between Relational Aggression, Theory of Mind, and Moral Disengagement among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Voulgaridou, Ioanna; Mandrali, Marianna; Parousidou, Chrysoula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible interactive links between theory of mind (ToM), moral disengagement and relational aggression, using a moderated mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator, in a sample of 120 Greek preadolescents. Results indicated that relational aggression was significantly positively associated with moral…

  5. Developmental Links Between Children's Working Memory and their Social Relations with Teachers and Peers in the Early School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Amber; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the developmental links between children's working memory development and their relations with teachers and peers across 2 years of kindergarten and early elementary school. Kindergarten and first grade children, N = 1109, 50% boys, were followed across 2 school-years. Children were assessed across 3 waves, in the fall and spring of the first school-year (within school-year), and finally in the spring of the second school-year. Working memory was assessed using a visuo-spatial working memory task. The developmental links between working memory and child-reported teacher-child relationship quality (warmth and conflict) and peer-nominated likeability and friendedness were assessed using autoregressive cross-lagged models. Lower working memory scores were related to increases in teacher-child conflict and decreases in teacher-child warmth one school-year later, in addition to decreases in likeability by peers within the same school-year. Conversely, teacher-child conflict was negatively associated with the development of working memory across the studied period. Path estimates between working memory and social relational factors were similar for boys and girls. Findings show developmental links between working memory and social-relational factors and vice versa. These results suggest that children's working memory development can be fostered through pro-social relations with teachers in early elementary school children.

  6. Source-space EEG neurofeedback links subjective experience with brain activity during effortless awareness meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; Houlihan, Sean D; Pal, Prasanta; Sacchet, Matthew D; McFarlane-Blake, Cinque; Patel, Payal R; Sullivan, John S; Ossadtchi, Alex; Druker, Susan; Bauer, Clemens; Brewer, Judson A

    2017-05-01

    Meditation is increasingly showing beneficial effects for psychiatric disorders. However, learning to meditate is not straightforward as there are no easily discernible outward signs of performance and thus no direct feedback is possible. As meditation has been found to correlate with posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) activity, we tested whether source-space EEG neurofeedback from the PCC followed the subjective experience of effortless awareness (a major component of meditation), and whether participants could volitionally control the signal. Sixteen novice meditators and sixteen experienced meditators participated in the study. Novice meditators were briefly trained to perform a basic meditation practice to induce the subjective experience of effortless awareness in a progressively more challenging neurofeedback test-battery. Experienced meditators performed a self-selected meditation practice to induce this state in the same test-battery. Neurofeedback was provided based on gamma-band (40-57Hz) PCC activity extracted using a beamformer algorithm. Associations between PCC activity and the subjective experience of effortless awareness were assessed by verbal probes. Both groups reported that decreased PCC activity corresponded with effortless awareness (Pneurofeedback to link an objective measure of brain activity with the subjective experience of effortless awareness, and suggest potential utility of this paradigm as a tool for meditation training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounce of Prevention Fund.

    Recent research has provided great insight into the impact of early experience on brain development. It is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring…

  8. How does a neuron know to modulate its epigenetic machinery in response to early-life environment/experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley A Karsten

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently re-programmed via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-life programming: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early life experience on corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting re-wiring of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other stress-related disorders.

  9. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    simple empirical models [Versace et al., 2003] based on correlation between some features of rainfall records (cumulated height, duration, season etc.) and the correspondent observed landslides. Laboratory experiments on instrumented small scale slope models represent an effective way to provide data sets [Eckersley, 1990; Wang and Sassa, 2001] useful for building up more complex models of landslide triggering prediction. At the Geotechnical Laboratory of C.I.R.I.AM. an instrumented flume to investigate on the mechanics of landslides in unsaturated deposits of granular soils is available [Olivares et al. 2003; Damiano, 2004; Olivares et al., 2007]. In the flume a model slope is reconstituted by a moist-tamping technique and subjected to an artificial uniform rainfall since failure happens. The state of stress and strain of the slope is monitored during the entire test starting from the infiltration process since the early post-failure stage: the monitoring system is constituted by several mini-tensiometers placed at different locations and depths, to measure suction, mini-transducers to measure positive pore pressures, laser sensors, to measure settlements of the ground surface, and high definition video-cameras to obtain, through a software (PIV) appositely dedicated, the overall horizontal displacement field. Besides, TDR sensors, used with an innovative technique [Greco, 2006], allow to reconstruct the water content profile of soil along the entire thickness of the investigated deposit and to monitor its continuous changes during infiltration. In this paper a series of laboratory tests carried out on model slopes in granular pyroclastic soils taken in the mountainous area north-eastern of Napoli, are presented. The experimental results demonstrate the completeness of information provided by the various sensors installed. In particular, very useful information is given by the coupled measurements of soil water content by TDR and suction by tensiometers. Knowledge of

  10. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  11. Identifying Early Links between Temperament, Short-Term and Working Memory in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visu-Petra, Laura; Cheie, Lavinia; Câmpan, Maria; Scutelnicu, Ioana; Benga, Oana

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate early interrelationships between temperament, short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM), while also relating them to incipient anxious traits in a sample of 4-7-year-olds. Preschoolers were evaluated using verbal and visuospatial STM and WM tasks, while parental reports were used to assess children's…

  12. Toward an Integrated Gender-Linked Model of Aggression Subtypes in Early and Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.

    2010-01-01

    An integrative model is proposed for understanding the development of physical and relational aggression in early and middle childhood. The central goal was to posit a new theoretical framework that expands on existing social-cognitive and gender schema models (i.e., Social Information-Processing Model of Children's Adjustment [N. R. Crick & K. A.…

  13. Parents' Marital Distress, Divorce, and Remarriage: Links with Daughters' Early Family Formation Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used data from the Add Health study to estimate the effects of parents' marital status and relationship distress on daughters' early family formation transitions. Outcomes included traditional transitions (marriage and marital births) and nontraditional transitions (cohabitation and nonmarital births). Relationship distress among…

  14. Size Matters: The Link between Staff Size and Perceived Organizational Support in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Dora; Lee, Moosung; Teng, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between staff size and perceived organizational support (POS) in early childhood education (ECE) organizations. Design/methodology/approach: A territory-wide questionnaire survey was designed to investigate the perceptions of preschool teachers in Hong Kong on four dimensions of…

  15. Observed Gossip Moderates the Link between Anxious Withdrawal and Friendship Quality in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzer, Melissa M.; McDonald, Kristina L.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Schulz, Annie

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated whether gossip between best friends moderated the relation between anxious withdrawal and friendship quality in early adolescence, using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model ("APIM," Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) approach. Participants (n = 256) were 5th and 6th grade young adolescents (actors) and their best friends…

  16. Early Steps to School Success (ESSS): Examining Pathways Linking Home Visiting and Language Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iruka, Iheoma U.; Brown, Deborah; Jerald, Judith; Blitch, Kimberly

    2018-01-01

    Background: Improving the home environment and parenting practices to support children's early development and learning is a key focus of many. Home visiting is one potential strategy to improve the home environment and parenting; however, more data about current programmatic efforts is needed, especially for children with multiple risks living in…

  17. A Review of Reminiscing in Early Childhood Settings and Links to Sustained Shared Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Dave; Pino-Pasternak, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The importance of parent-child reminiscing for young children's social and cognitive development has been well established, but despite the increasing numbers of children attending formal early childhood settings such as nurseries and preschools, there has been surprisingly little research exploring educator-child reminiscing in these contexts.…

  18. Early life experience : neuroendocrine adaptations to maternal absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enthoven, Leo

    2007-01-01

    An adverse early life event is considered a risk factor for stress-related psychiatric disorders in genetically predisposed individuals, probably because of its lasting effect on susceptibility to stress. The objective of this thesis research was to examine in the mouse CD1 strain the immediate and

  19. Social Experiences in Infancy and Early Childhood Co-Sleeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Marie J.; Fukumizu, Michio; Troese, Marcia; Sallinen, Bethany A.; Gilles, Allyson A.

    2007-01-01

    Infancy and early childhood sleep-wake behaviours from current and retrospective parental reports were used to explore the relationship between sleeping arrangements and parent-child nighttime interactions at both time points. Children (N = 45) from educated, middle-class families, mostly breastfed in infancy, composed a convenience sample that…

  20. early experience of operative treatment of pelvic and acetabular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review early post-operative results of pelvic and acetabular fracture intern al fixation. Design: ... 600 needing operative treatment annually. ... Infection was controlled with debridement and antibiotics. All the patients in the study returned to their work except one who has yet to do so 5 months after his injury.

  1. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Factors Linking Childhood Experiences to Adult Romantic Relationships among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Landor, Antoinette M.; Bryant, Chalandra M.; Beach, Steven R.H.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that a high quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24730381

  3. Assessment of Preschool Early Literacy Skills: Linking Children's Educational Needs with Empirically Supported Instructional Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Nicholas P; Lerner, Matthew D

    2011-05-01

    The importance of the preschool period for becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children's development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary school. Although there are now a number of empirically supported instructional activities for helping children who are at -risk of later reading difficulties acquire these early literacy skills, limitations in instructional time and opportunities in most preschool settings requires the use of valid assessment procedures to ensure that instructional resources are utilized efficiently. In this paper, we discuss the degree to which informal, diagnostic, screening, and progress-monitoring assessments of preschool early literacy skills can inform instructional decisions by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to assessment.

  4. Early-onset heroin use and its link to conduct disorder: Clinical and management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhit Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood substance abuse and delinquency often progress to harder substances and antisocial personality disorder and carries deleterious consequences for self, family and community at large. Early management of such cases poses several clinical and management challenges, as highlighted in the present case. The treatment seeking for this sub-population is very low in spite of community surveys showing a worrisome pattern of substance use among younger population. Further, very few specialty clinics and trained manpower exist in the country to manage early onset substance use. Whether conduct disorder be cause or consequence for drug use is debatable, in view of shared risk factors. The present case helps to understand need for comprehensive assessment for identifying risk factors and comorbid conditions. Only pharmacological management does not help, psychosocial management must be delivered. Several prevention strategies may also help if these risk factors are identified before progression to illicit substance use disorder.

  5. Vascular Cognitive Impairment Linked to Brain Endothelium Inflammation in Early Stages of Heart Failure in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, Mateusz G; Sternak, Magdalena; Mohaissen, Tasnim; Kaczor, Dawid; Wierońska, Joanna M; Malinowska, Monika; Czaban, Iwona; Byk, Katarzyna; Lyngsø, Kristina S; Przyborowski, Kamil; Hansen, Pernille B L; Wilczyński, Grzegorz; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2018-03-26

    Although advanced heart failure (HF) is a clinically documented risk factor for vascular cognitive impairment, the occurrence and pathomechanisms of vascular cognitive impairment in early stages of HF are equivocal. Here, we characterize vascular cognitive impairment in the early stages of HF development and assess whether cerebral hypoperfusion or prothrombotic conditions are involved. Tgαq*44 mice with slowly developing isolated HF triggered by cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of G-αq*44 protein were studied before the end-stage HF, at the ages of 3, 6, and 10 months: before left ventricle dysfunction; at the stage of early left ventricle diastolic dysfunction (with preserved ejection fraction); and left ventricle diastolic/systolic dysfunction, respectively. In 6- to 10-month-old but not in 3-month-old Tgαq*44 mice, behavioral and cognitive impairment was identified with compromised blood-brain barrier permeability, most significantly in brain cortex, that was associated with myelin sheet loss and changes in astrocytes and microglia. Brain endothelial cells displayed increased E-selectin immunoreactivity, which was accompanied by increased amyloid-β 1-42 accumulation in piriform cortex and increased cortical oxidative stress (8-OHdG immunoreactivity). Resting cerebral blood flow measured by magnetic resonance imaging in vivo was preserved, but ex vivo NO-dependent cortical arteriole flow regulation was impaired. Platelet hyperreactivity was present in 3- to 10-month-old Tgαq*44 mice, but it was not associated with increased platelet-dependent thrombogenicity. We report for the first time that vascular cognitive impairment is already present in the early stage of HF development, even before left ventricle systolic dysfunction. The underlying pathomechanism, independent of brain hypoperfusion, involves preceding platelet hyperreactivity and brain endothelium inflammatory activation. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  6. Epigenetic Matters: The Link between Early Nutrition, Microbiome, and Long-term Health Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Indrio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications are among the most important mechanisms by which environmental factors can influence early cellular differentiation and create new phenotypic traits during pregnancy and within the neonatal period without altering the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. A number of antenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal and neonatal nutrition, pollutant exposure, and the composition of microbiota, contribute to the establishment of epigenetic changes that can not only modulate the individual adaptation to the environment but also have an influence on lifelong health and disease by modifying inflammatory molecular pathways and the immune response. Postnatal intestinal colonization, in turn determined by maternal flora, mode of delivery, early skin-to-skin contact and neonatal diet, leads to specific epigenetic signatures that can affect the barrier properties of gut mucosa and their protective role against later insults, thus potentially predisposing to the development of late-onset inflammatory diseases. The aim of this review is to outline the epigenetic mechanisms of programming and development acting within early-life stages and to examine in detail the role of maternal and neonatal nutrition, microbiota composition, and other environmental factors in determining epigenetic changes and their short- and long-term effects.

  7. Epigenetic Matters: The Link between Early Nutrition, Microbiome, and Long-term Health Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrio, Flavia; Martini, Silvia; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Corvaglia, Luigi; Cristofori, Fernanda; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Neu, Josef; Rautava, Samuli; Russo Spena, Giovanna; Raimondi, Francesco; Loverro, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications are among the most important mechanisms by which environmental factors can influence early cellular differentiation and create new phenotypic traits during pregnancy and within the neonatal period without altering the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. A number of antenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal and neonatal nutrition, pollutant exposure, and the composition of microbiota, contribute to the establishment of epigenetic changes that can not only modulate the individual adaptation to the environment but also have an influence on lifelong health and disease by modifying inflammatory molecular pathways and the immune response. Postnatal intestinal colonization, in turn determined by maternal flora, mode of delivery, early skin-to-skin contact and neonatal diet, leads to specific epigenetic signatures that can affect the barrier properties of gut mucosa and their protective role against later insults, thus potentially predisposing to the development of late-onset inflammatory diseases. The aim of this review is to outline the epigenetic mechanisms of programming and development acting within early-life stages and to examine in detail the role of maternal and neonatal nutrition, microbiota composition, and other environmental factors in determining epigenetic changes and their short- and long-term effects. PMID:28879172

  8. Maternal and paternal parenting styles: unique and combined links to adolescent and early adult delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H; Smeenk, Wilma

    2011-10-01

    The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and mothers were linked to delinquency. A significant parenting style by sex interaction was found: neglectful parenting was related to higher levels of delinquency in males and permissive parenting was linked to delinquency in females. A long term relationship was found between fathers' neglectful parenting style and delinquency in males. Furthermore, results revealed that levels of delinquency were the lowest in families with at least one authoritative parent and highest in families with two neglectful parents, indicating that the level of delinquency was dependent on the combination of mother's and father's parenting styles. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype moderates the longitudinal impact of early caregiving on externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Zoë H; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Smyke, Anna T; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Drury, Stacy S

    2015-02-01

    We examined caregiver report of externalizing behavior from 12 to 54 months of age in 102 children randomized to care as usual in institutions or to newly created high-quality foster care. At baseline no differences by group or genotype in externalizing were found. However, changes in externalizing from baseline to 42 months of age were moderated by the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region genotype and intervention group, where the slope for short-short (S/S) individuals differed as a function of intervention group. The slope for individuals carrying the long allele did not significantly differ between groups. At 54 months of age, S/S children in the foster care group had the lowest levels of externalizing behavior, while children with the S/S genotype in the care as usual group demonstrated the highest rates of externalizing behavior. No intervention group differences were found in externalizing behavior among children who carried the long allele. These findings, within a randomized controlled trial of foster care compared to continued care as usual, indicate that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region genotype moderates the relation between early caregiving environments to predict externalizing behavior in children exposed to early institutional care in a manner most consistent with differential susceptibility.

  10. Spatial patterns of goose grubbing suggest elevated grubbing in dry habitats linked to early snowmelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åshild Ø. Pedersen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The western Palaearctic tundra is a breeding habitat for large populations of European geese. After their arrival in spring, pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus forage extensively on below-ground plant parts, using a feeding technique called grubbing that has substantial impact on the tundra vegetation. Previous studies have shown a high frequency of grubbing in lowland fen vegetation. In the present study, we examined the occurrence of grubbing in other habitat types on Spitsbergen, in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. Goose grubbing was surveyed along 19 altitudinal transects, going from the valley bottom to altitudes dominated by scree. Grubbing was more frequent in the wet habitat type at low altitudes compared to the drier habitat type at higher altitudes. For the dry habitat type, a higher frequency of grubbing was found in study plots with a south-east facing exposure where snowmelt is expected to be early. This suggests that pink-footed geese primarily use dry vegetation types for grubbing when they are snow-free in early spring and the availability of snow-free patches of the preferred wet vegetation types in the lowlands is limited. Dry vegetation types have poorer recovery rates from disturbance than wet ones. Sites with early snowmelt and dry vegetation types may therefore be at greater risk of long-term habitat degradation. We conclude that the high growth rate of the Svalbard-breeding pink-footed goose population suggests that increasing impacts of grubbing can be expected and argue that a responsible monitoring of the effects on the tundra ecosystem is crucial.

  11. Adverse Childhood Experiences Are Linked to Age of Onset and Reading Recognition in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Shaw

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAdverse childhood experiences (ACEs exert a psychological and physiological toll that increases risk of chronic conditions, poorer social functioning, and cognitive impairment in adulthood.ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between childhood adversity and clinical disease features in multiple sclerosis (MS.MethodsSixty-seven participants with MS completed the ACE assessment and neuropsychological assessments as part of a larger clinical trial of cognitive remediation.ResultsAdverse childhood experience scores, a measure of exposure to adverse events in childhood, significantly predicted age of MS onset (r = –0.30, p = 0.04. ACEs were also linked to reading recognition (a proxy for premorbid IQ (r = –0.25, p = 0.04. ACE scores were not related to age, current disability, or current level of cognitive impairment measured by the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT.ConclusionChildhood adversity may increase the likelihood of earlier age of onset and poorer estimated premorbid IQ in MS.

  12. Early experience with 'new federalism' in health insurance regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, K; Tapay, N; Hadley, E; Specht, J

    2000-01-01

    The authors monitored the implementation of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) from 1997 to 1999. Regulators in all states and relevant federal agencies were interviewed and applicable laws and regulations studied. The authors found that HIPAA changed legal protections for consumers' health coverage in several ways. They examine how the process of regulating such coverage was affected at the state and federal levels and under an emerging partnership of the two. Despite some early implementation challenges, HIPAA's successes have been significant, although limited by the law's incremental nature.

  13. Experiences from constructing command and control simulations using a tactical data link standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, DC

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Most operational command and control systems use a tactical data link to communicate. The need to integrate simulated systems with operational systems and other simulated systems resulted in the utilization of tactical data link for the integration...

  14. Soluble IgM links apoptosis to complement activation in early alcoholic liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smathers, Rebecca L; Chiang, Dian J; McMullen, Megan R; Feldstein, Ariel E; Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; Nagy, Laura E

    2016-04-01

    Ethanol feeding in mice activates complement via C1q binding to apoptotic cells in the liver; complement contributes to ethanol-induced inflammation and injury. Despite the critical role of C1q in ethanol-induced injury, the mechanism by which ethanol activates C1q remains poorly understood. Secretory IgM (sIgM), traditionally considered to act as an anti-microbial, also has critical housekeeping functions, facilitating clearance of apoptotic cells, at least in part through activation of C1q. Therefore, we hypothesized that (1) ethanol-induced apoptosis in the liver recruits sIgM, facilitating the activation of C1q and complement and (2) C1INH (C1 esterase inhibitor), which inhibits C1 functional activity, prevents complement activation and decreases ethanol-induced liver injury. Female C57BL/6 wild-type, C1qa(-/-), BID(-/-) and sIgM(-/-) mice were fed ethanol containing liquid diets or pair-fed control diets. C1INH or vehicle was given via tail vein injection to ethanol- or pair-fed wild-type mice at 24 and 48h prior to euthanasia. Ethanol exposure increased apoptosis in the liver, as well as the accumulation of IgM in the liver. In the early stages of ethanol feeding, C1q co-localized with IgM in the peri-sinusoidal space of the liver and accumulation of IgM and C3b was dependent on ethanol-induced BID-dependent apoptosis. sIgM(-/-) mice were protected from both ethanol-induced activation of complement and early ethanol-induced liver injury when compared to wild-type mice. Treatment with C1INH also decreased hepatic C3b deposition and ethanol-induced injury. These data indicate that sIgM contributes to activation of complement and ethanol-induced increases in inflammatory cytokine expression and hepatocyte injury in the early stages of ethanol-induced liver injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Memory-experience gap in early adolescents' happiness reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); M. Tadic (Maja); H. Braam (Huub); K. van Vliet (Katja)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractStudies among adult populations show that estimates of how happy one has felt in the past tend to be more positive than average happiness as assessed using time sampling techniques. This ‘memory-experience gap’ is attributed to cognitive biases, among which fading affect bias. In this

  16. Early breastfeeding experiences influence parental self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunseler, F.C.; Hankel, M.A.; Balm, K.E.; Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.

    2012-01-01

    Parental self-efficacy (PSE) is defined as "the expectation caregivers hold about their ability to parent successfully" (Jones & Prinz, 2005, p. 342). According to Bandura (1977), self-efficacy is based on four sources, including ‘performance accomplishments’: if successful experiences are repeated

  17. Some Early Optics: Classical and Medieval. Experiment No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devons, Samuel

    Information related to the history of optics with emphasis on the classical and medieval periods is presented. Notes are included on experiments dealing with refraction at a plane interface between two media; refraction by transparent spheres; light, color, and reflection by transparent spheres. (Author/SA)

  18. A dinosaur missing-link? Chilesaurus and the early evolution of ornithischian dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Matthew G; Barrett, Paul M

    2017-08-01

    The enigmatic dinosaur taxon Chilesaurus diegosuarezi was originally described as a tetanuran theropod, but this species possesses a highly unusual combination of features that could provide evidence of alternative phylogenetic positions within the clade. In order to test the relationships of Chilesaurus , we added it to a new dataset of early dinosaurs and other dinosauromorphs. Our analyses recover Chilesaurus in a novel position, as the earliest diverging member of Ornithischia, rather than a tetanuran theropod. The basal position of Chilesaurus within the clade and its suite of anatomical characters suggest that it might represent a 'transitional' taxon, bridging the morphological gap between Theropoda and Ornithischia, thereby offering potential insights into the earliest stages of ornithischian evolution, which were previously obscure. For example, our results suggest that pubic retroversion occurred prior to some of the craniodental and postcranial modifications that previously diagnosed the clade (e.g. the presence of a predentary bone and ossified tendons). © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Genetic Testing Confirmed the Early Diagnosis of X-Linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets in a 7-Month-Old Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Siong Poon BSc

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations in the p hosphate regulating gene with h omologies to e ndopeptidases on the X -chromosome ( PHEX have been causally associated with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR. The early diagnosis of XLHR in infants is challenging when it is based solely on clinical features and biochemical findings. We report a 7-month-old boy with a family history of hypophosphatemic rickets., who demonstrated early clinical evidence of rickets, although serial biochemical findings could not definitively confirm rickets. A sequencing assay targeting the PHEX gene was first performed on the mother’s DNA to screen for mutations in the 5′UTR, 22 coding exons, and the exon-intron junctions. Targeted mutation analysis and mRNA studies were subsequently performed on the boys’ DNA to investigate the pathogenicity of the identified mutation. Genetic screening of the PHEX gene revealed a novel mutation, c.1080-2A>C, at the splice acceptor site in intron 9. The detection of an aberrant mRNA transcript with skipped (loss of exon 10 establishes its pathogenicity and confirms the diagnosis of XLHR in this infant. Genetic testing of the PHEX gene resulted in early diagnosis of XLHR, thus enabling initiation of therapy and prevention of progressive rachitic changes in the infant.

  20. PERIPHERAL IMMUNE SYSTEM SUPPRESSION IN EARLY ABSTINENT ALCOHOL DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS: LINKS TO STRESS AND CUE-RELATED CRAVING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Helen C; Milivojevic, Verica; Angarita, Gustavo A; Stowe, Raymond; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    Background Peripheral immune system cytokines may play an integral role in underlying sensitized stress response and alcohol craving during early withdrawal. To date, the nature of these immune changes during early abstinence have not been examined. Methods Thirty-nine early abstinent, treatment-seeking alcohol dependent individuals and 46 socially drinking controls were exposed to three guided imageries: stress, alcohol cue and neutral. These were presented randomly across consecutive days. Plasma measures of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were collected at baseline, immediately after imagery and at various recovery time-points. Ratings of alcohol craving, negative mood and anxiety were also obtained at the same time-points. Results The alcohol group demonstrated decreased basal IL-10 compared with controls particularly following exposure to alcohol cue. They also showed a dampened TNFα and TNFR1 response to stress and cue, respectively, and a generalized suppression of IL-6. In the alcohol group, these immune system adaptations occurred alongside significant elevations in anxiety, negative mood and alcohol craving. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that broad immuno-suppression is still observed in alcohol dependent individuals after three weeks of abstinence and may be linked to motivation for alcohol. PMID:28675117

  1. Early-Late Heterobimetallic Complexes Linked by Phosphinoamide Ligands. Tuning Redox Potentials and Small Molecule Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Christine M. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Recent attention in the chemical community has been focused on the energy efficient and environmentally benign conversion of abundant small molecules (CO2, H2O, etc.) to useful liquid fuels. This project addresses these goals by examining fundamental aspects of catalyst design to ultimately access small molecule activation processes under mild conditions. Specifically, Thomas and coworkers have targetted heterobimetallic complexes that feature metal centers with vastly different electronic properties, dictated both by their respective positions on the periodic table and their coordination environment. Unlike homobimetallic complexes featuring identical or similar metals, the bonds between metals in early/late heterobimetallics are more polarized, with the more electron-rich late metal center donating electron density to the more electron-deficient early metal center. While metal-metal bonds pose an interesting strategy for storing redox equivalents and stabilizing reactive metal fragments, the polar character of metal-metal bonds in heterobimetallic complexes renders these molecules ideally poised to react with small molecule substrates via cleavage of energy-rich single and double bonds. In addition, metal-metal interactions have been shown to dramatically affect redox potentials and promote multielectron redox activity, suggesting that metal-metal interactions may provide a mechanism to tune redox potentials and access substrate reduction/activation at mild overpotentials. This research project has provided a better fundamental understanding of how interactions between transition metals can be used as a strategy to promote and/or control chemical transformations related to the clean production of fuels. While this project focused on the study of homogeneous systems, it is anticipated that the broad conclusions drawn from these investigations will be applicable to heterogeneous catalysis as well, particularly on heterogeneous processes that occur at interfaces in

  2. Some early results from the ATS-6 radio beacon experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.; Fritz, R.B.; Grubb, R.N.; Jones, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    The multifrequency satellite radio beacon enables the measurement of the columnar electron content of the ionosphere and plasmasphere along the ray path and its spatial and temporal structure. Measurements include modulation phase, Faraday rotation, and amplitude. The characteristics of the beacon transmitter and its design are presented together with the design of the Boulder receiver and antennas and the calibration procedures. A shape factor F is defined which depends on the electron density and geomagnetic field distributions. It is found that F varies by about 30 percent from day to night. It is shown that the ratio of the plasmaspheric content to total content varies from about 0.08 during the day to about 0.35 at night. Other examples which are presented to illustrate the uses of the radio beacon include sunrise effects, solar flare enhancements of total content, and the ionospheric storms of early July 1974

  3. Early experiences with big data at an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halamka, John D

    2014-07-01

    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), an academic health care institution affiliated with Harvard University, has been an early adopter of electronic applications since the 1970s. Various departments of the medical center and the physician practice groups affiliated with it have implemented electronic health records, filmless imaging, and networked medical devices to such an extent that data storage at BIDMC now amounts to three petabytes and continues to grow at a rate of 25 percent a year. Initially, the greatest technical challenge was the cost and complexity of data storage. However, today the major focus is on transforming raw data into information, knowledge, and wisdom. This article discusses the data growth, increasing importance of analytics, and changing user requirements that have shaped the management of big data at BIDMC. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Disruption of a Plasmodium falciparum gene linked to male sexual development causes early arrest in gametocytogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Tetsuya; Mu, Jianbing; Hayton, Karen; Liu, Anna; Duan, Junhui; Nkrumah, Louis; Joy, Deirdre A; Fidock, David A; Fujioka, Hisashi; Vaidya, Akhil B; Wellems, Thomas E; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2005-11-15

    A male gametocyte defect in the Plasmodium falciparum Dd2 parasite was previously discovered through the observation that all progeny clones in a Dd2 x HB3 genetic cross were the result of fertilization events between Dd2 female and HB3 male gametes. A determinant linked to the defect in Dd2 was subsequently mapped to an 800-kb segment on chromosome 12. Here, we report further mapping of the determinant to an 82-kb region and the identification of a candidate gene, P. falciparum male development gene 1 (pfmdv-1), that is expressed at a lower level in Dd2 compared with the wild-type normal male gametocyte-producing ancestor W2. Pfmdv-1 protein is sexual-stage specific and is located on the gametocyte plasma membrane, parasitophorous vacuole membrane, and the membranes of cleft-like structures within the erythrocyte. Disruption of pfmdv-1 results in a dramatic reduction in mature gametocytes, especially functional male gametocytes, with the majority of sexually committed parasites developmentally arrested at stage I. The pfmdv-1-knockout parasites show disturbed membrane structures, particularly multimembrane vesicles/tubes that likely derive from deformed cleft-like structures. Mosquito infectivity of the knockout parasites was also greatly reduced but not completely lost. The results suggest that pfmdv-1 plays a key role in gametocyte membrane formation and integrity.

  5. Hemispheric differences in processing of vocalizations depend on early experience

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Mimi L.; Vicario, David S.

    2010-01-01

    An intriguing phenomenon in the neurobiology of language is lateralization: the dominant role of one hemisphere in a particular function. Lateralization is not exclusive to language because lateral differences are observed in other sensory modalities, behaviors, and animal species. Despite much scientific attention, the function of lateralization, its possible dependence on experience, and the functional implications of such dependence have yet to be clearly determined. We have explored the r...

  6. Federal Financial Incentives to Induce Early Experience Producing Unconventional Liquid Fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Camm, Frank; Bartis, James T; Bushman, Charles J

    2008-01-01

    ... that is likely to ensure that early CTL production experience occurs cost effectively. Such a relationship yields investor and government behavior that, in turn, generates a set of cash flows to and from...

  7. Federal Financial Incentives to Induce Early Experience Producing Unconventional Liquid Fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Camm, Frank; Bartis, James T; Bushman, Charles J

    2008-01-01

    This technical report explains an analytic way to design and assess packages of financial incentives that the government can use to cost effectively promote early experience with coal-to-liquids (CTL...

  8. Enhancing Research and Practice in Early Childhood through Formative and Design Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…

  9. Negative body experience in women with early childhood trauma : Associations with trauma severity and dissociation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Wilhelmina; Hoek, Maike; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Schoevers, Robert A.; van Busschbach, Jooske T.

    2017-01-01

    Background:A crucial but often overlooked impact of early life exposure to trauma is its farreaching effect on a person's relationship with their body. Several domains of body experience may be negatively influenced or damaged as a result of early childhood trauma. Objective: The aim of this study

  10. Reflective Processes: A Qualitative Study Exploring Early Learning Student Teacher Mentoring Experiences in Student Teaching Practicums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis explored mentoring in early learning teacher preparation programs. This study explored the reflective processes embedded in the work between student teachers and their mentors during early learning student teacher experiences at Washington State community and technical colleges. Schon's (1987a) concepts of…

  11. Contemporary flowstone development links early hominin bearing cave deposits in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Robyn; Kramers, Jan D.; Hancox, Philip John; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Woodhead, Jon D.

    2011-06-01

    The Cradle of Humankind cave sites in South Africa preserve fossil evidence of four early hominin taxa: Australopithecus africanus, Australopithecus sediba, Paranthropus robustus and early Homo. In order to integrate this record into a pan-African scenario of human evolutionary history it is critical to have reliable dates and temporal ranges for the southern African hominins. In the past a lack of precise and accurate chronological data has prevented the evaluation of the temporal relationships between the various sites. Here we report new uranium-lead (U-Pb) radiometric ages obtained from sheets of calcium carbonate flowstone inter-bedded between clastic cave sediments at the site of Swartkrans, providing bracketing ages for the fossiliferous deposits. The fossil bearing units of Swartkrans, specifically the Hanging Remnant and Lower Bank of Member 1, are underlain by flowstone layers dated to 2.25 ± 0.05 Ma and 2.25 ± 0.08 Ma and capped by layers of 1.8 ± 0.01 Ma and 1.7 ± 0.07 Ma. The age bracket of the Member 1 deposits is therefore between 2.31 and 1.64 Ma. However, by combining the U-Pb with biostratigraphic data we suggest that this can be narrowed down to between 1.9 and 1.8 Ma. These data can be compared with other recently dated sites and a radiometrically dated U-Pb age sequence formed: Sterkfontein Member 4, Swartkrans Member 1, Malapa, and Cooper's D. From this new U-Pb dataset, a pattern of contemporary flowstone development emerges, with different caves recording the same flowstone-forming event. Specifically overlapping flowstone formation takes place at Swartkrans and Sterkfontein at ~ 2.29 Ma and ~ 1.77 Ma, and at Sterkfontein and Malapa at ˜ 2.02 Ma. This suggests a regional control over the nature and timing of speleothem development in cave deposits and these flowstone layers could assist in future correlation, both internal to specific deposits and regionally between sites.

  12. Maternal hemodynamics early in labor: a possible link with obstetric risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valensise, H; Tiralongo, G M; Pisani, I; Farsetti, D; Lo Presti, D; Gagliardi, G; Basile, M R; Novelli, G P; Vasapollo, B

    2018-04-01

    To determine if hemodynamic assessment in 'low-risk' pregnant women at term with an appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) fetus can improve the identification of patients who will suffer maternal or fetal/neonatal complications during labor. This was a prospective observational study of 77 women with low-risk term pregnancy and AGA fetus, in the early stages of labor. Hemodynamic indices were obtained using the UltraSonic Cardiac Output Monitor (USCOM ® ) system. Patients were followed until the end of labor to identify fetal/neonatal and maternal outcomes, and those which developed complications of labor were compared with those delivering without complications. Eleven (14.3%) patients had a complication during labor: in seven there was fetal distress and in four there were maternal complications (postpartum hemorrhage and/or uterine atony). Patients who developed complications during labor had lower cardiac output (5.6 ± 1.0 vs 6.7 ± 1.3 L/min, P = 0.01) and cardiac index (3.1 ± 0.6 vs 3.5 ± 0.7 L/min/m 2 , P = 0.04), and higher total vascular resistance (1195.3 ± 205.3 vs 1017.8 ± 225.6 dynes × s/cm 5 , P = 0.017) early in labor, compared with those who did not develop complications. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis to determine cut-offs showed cardiac output ≤ 5.8 L/min (sensitivity, 81.8%; specificity, 69.7%), cardiac index ≤ 2.9 L/min/m 2 (sensitivity, 63.6%; specificity, 76.9%) and total vascular resistance > 1069 dynes × s/cm 5 (sensitivity, 81.8%; specificity, 63.6%) to best predict maternal or fetal/neonatal complications. The study of maternal cardiovascular adaptation at the end of pregnancy could help to identify low-risk patients who may develop complications during labor. In particular, low cardiac output and high total vascular resistance are apparently associated with higher risk of fetal distress or maternal complications. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley

  13. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAYA TEZEL, Fulya; TUTAREL KIŞLAK, Şennur; BOYSAN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. Methods A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Conclusion Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas. PMID:28360715

  14. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya Tezel, Fulya; Tutarel Kişlak, Şennur; Boysan, Murat

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas.

  15. The Missing Link: Early Methane ("T") Dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett; Geballe; Fan; Schneider; Gunn; Lupton; Knapp; Strauss; McDaniel; Golimowski; Henry; Peng; Tsvetanov; Uomoto; Zheng; Hill; Ramsey; Anderson; Annis; Bahcall; Brinkmann; Chen; Csabai; Fukugita; Hennessy; Hindsley; Ivezic; Lamb; Munn; Pier; Schlegel; Smith; Stoughton; Thakar; York

    2000-06-10

    We report the discovery of three cool brown dwarfs that fall in the effective temperature gap between the latest L dwarfs currently known, with no methane absorption bands in the 1-2.5 µm range, and the previously known methane (T) dwarfs, whose spectra are dominated by methane and water. The newly discovered objects were detected as very red objects in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data and have JHK colors between the red L dwarfs and the blue Gl 229B-like T dwarfs. They show both CO and CH(4) absorption in their near-infrared spectra in addition to H(2)O, with weaker CH(4) absorption features in the H and K bands than those in all other methane dwarfs reported to date. Due to the presence of CH(4) in these bands, we propose that these objects are early T dwarfs. The three form part of the brown dwarf spectral sequence and fill in the large gap in the overall spectral sequence from the hottest main-sequence stars to the coolest methane dwarfs currently known.

  16. Amygdala volume linked to individual differences in mental state inference in early childhood and adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rice

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of the amygdala in mental state inference in a sample of adults and in a sample of children aged 4 and 6 years. This period in early childhood represents a time when mentalizing abilities undergo dramatic changes. Both children and adults inferred mental states from pictures of others’ eyes, and children also inferred the mental states of others from stories (e.g., a false belief task. We also collected structural MRI data from these participants, to determine whether larger amygdala volumes (controlling for age and total gray matter volume were related to better face-based and story-based mentalizing. For children, larger amygdala volumes were related to better face-based, but not story-based, mentalizing. In contrast, in adults, amygdala volume was not related to face-based mentalizing. We next divided the face-based items into two subscales: cognitive (e.g., thinking, not believing versus affective (e.g., friendly, kind items. For children, performance on cognitive items was positively correlated with amygdala volume, but for adults, only performance on affective items was positively correlated with amygdala volume. These results indicate that the amygdala's role in mentalizing may be specific to face-based tasks and that the nature of its involvement may change over development.

  17. Compositional development of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus microbiota is linked with crying and fussing in early infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pärtty

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to establish whether there is an interconnection between the compositional development of the gut microbiota and the amount of fussing and crying in early infancy. METHODS: Behavioral patterns of 89 infants during the 7(th and 12(th week of life were recorded in parental diaries. Total distress was defined as the sum of daily amounts of crying and fussing. Infants' gut microbiota profiles were investigated by several molecular assays during the first six months of life. RESULTS: The median (range duration of total distress among the infants was 106 (0-478 minutes a day during the 7(th and 58 (0-448 minutes a day during the 12(th week. The proportion of Bifidobacterium counts to total bacterial counts was inversely associated with the amount of crying and fussing during the first 3 months of life (p = 0.03, although the number of Bifidobacterium breve was positively associated with total distress (p = 0.02. The frequency of Lactobacillus spp. at the age of 3 weeks was inversely associated with total infant distress during the 7(th week of life (p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus appear to protect against crying and fussing. Identification of specific strains with optimal protective properties would benefit at-risk infants.

  18. Memory-experience gap in early adolescents' happiness reports

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut; Tadic, Maja; Braam, Huub; Vliet, Katja

    2014-01-01

    textabstractStudies among adult populations show that estimates of how happy one has felt in the past tend to be more positive than average happiness as assessed using time sampling techniques. This ‘memory-experience gap’ is attributed to cognitive biases, among which fading affect bias. In this paper we report a study among 352 pupils of a secondary school in the Netherlands. These youngsters reported subsequently: 1) how happy they had felt yesterday, 2) how happy they had felt during the ...

  19. Radial artery approach for coronary intervention - early experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, H.; Hadi, A.; Fahim, M.; Gul, A.M.; Irfan, M.; Khan, S.B.; Hafizullah, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To see the clinical outcome of patients undergoing Transradial Coronary Angioplasty with stable Angina. Methodology: This was a single center observational study with prospective data collection of 338 patients who underwent transradial coronary angioplasty from September 2009 to August 2011, at Post Graduate Medical Institute, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Patients of both genders and all ages who had transradial coronary angioplasty for chronic stable angina were included in the study. Patients were clinically examined in out patients department on first month of hospital discharge and clinical outcome data was recorded. Results: A total of 338 patients were included in the study. Male were 58.8% and 41.2% were female with mean age of 52+-7 years. All the patients had coronary intervention through right radial artery. Baseline characteristics of the patients were; 48.2% diabetic, 43.2% hypertensive, 30.5% smokers, dyslipidemia was 45.7% and mean values of serum creatinine and Hemoglobin were 1.1+-0.3 and 11.5+-1.5, respectively. The frequency of various complications were as follow; hematoma 1.3%, nausea and vomiting 2.2%, pain in hand 11.2%, re admission to hospital for chest pain 6.5%, need for revascularization 2.2%, hand ischemia 1.8%, minor bleeding 0.9%, no major bleeding and 1.9% mortality. Conclusion: The radial artery approach for coronary intervention is useful with low degree of access site vascular complications and an early mobilization. (author)

  20. Radial artery approach for coronary intervention - early experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, H; Hadi, A; Fahim, M; Gul, A M; Irfan, M; Khan, S B; Hafizullah, M [Lady Reading Hospital and Khyber Medical University, Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Cardiology

    2012-01-15

    Objective: To see the clinical outcome of patients undergoing Transradial Coronary Angioplasty with stable Angina. Methodology: This was a single center observational study with prospective data collection of 338 patients who underwent transradial coronary angioplasty from September 2009 to August 2011, at Post Graduate Medical Institute, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Patients of both genders and all ages who had transradial coronary angioplasty for chronic stable angina were included in the study. Patients were clinically examined in out patients department on first month of hospital discharge and clinical outcome data was recorded. Results: A total of 338 patients were included in the study. Male were 58.8% and 41.2% were female with mean age of 52+-7 years. All the patients had coronary intervention through right radial artery. Baseline characteristics of the patients were; 48.2% diabetic, 43.2% hypertensive, 30.5% smokers, dyslipidemia was 45.7% and mean values of serum creatinine and Hemoglobin were 1.1+-0.3 and 11.5+-1.5, respectively. The frequency of various complications were as follow; hematoma 1.3%, nausea and vomiting 2.2%, pain in hand 11.2%, re admission to hospital for chest pain 6.5%, need for revascularization 2.2%, hand ischemia 1.8%, minor bleeding 0.9%, no major bleeding and 1.9% mortality. Conclusion: The radial artery approach for coronary intervention is useful with low degree of access site vascular complications and an early mobilization. (author)

  1. Links between operating experience feedback of industrial accidents and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eury, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1992, the bureau for analysis of industrial risks and pollutions (BARPI) collects, analyzes and publishes information on industrial accidents. The ARIA database lists over 40.000 accidents or incidents, most of which occurred in French classified facilities (ICPE). Events occurring in nuclear facilities are rarely reported in ARIA because they are reported in other databases. This paper describes the process of selection, characterization and review of these accidents, as well as the following consultation with industry trade groups. It is essential to publicize widely the lessons learned from analyzing industrial accidents. To this end, a web site (www.aria.developpement-durable.gouv.fr) gives free access to the accidents summaries, detailed sheets, studies, etc. to professionals and the general public. In addition, the accidents descriptions and characteristics serve as inputs to new regulation projects or risk analyses. Finally, the question of the links between operating experience feedback of industrial accidents and nuclear safety is explored: if the rigorous and well-documented methods of experience feedback in the nuclear field certainly set an example for other activities, nuclear safety can also benefit from inputs coming from the vast diversity of accidents arisen into industrial facilities because of common grounds. Among these common grounds we can find: -) the fuel cycle facilities use many chemicals and chemical processes that are also used by chemical industries; -) the problems resulting from the ageing of equipment affect both heavy and nuclear industries; -) the risk of hydrogen explosion; -) the risk of ammonia, ammonia is a gas used by nuclear power plants as an ingredient in the onsite production of mono-chloramine and ammonia is involved in numerous accidents in the industry: at least 900 entries can be found in the ARIA database. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  2. Associations between maternal experiences of racism and early child health and development: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Yvonne; Becares, Laia; Nazroo, James

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that experienced racism might help explain observed ethnic inequalities in early child health and development. There are few studies outside the US context and none that consider mothers' experiences of racism in relation to a range of early childhood health and developmental markers. The authors used cross-sectional data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study on 2136 mothers and their 5-year-old children from ethnic minority groups. Measures of racism tapped two dimensions of mothers' experience: perceived frequency of racist attacks in residential area and interpersonal racism. Markers of child health and development were obesity; socioemotional difficulties; cognitive: verbal, non-verbal and spatial ability test scores. There was a suggestion that the mothers' experience of interpersonal racism was associated with an increased risk of obesity ('received insults' OR=1.47; 'treated unfairly' OR=1.57; 'disrespectful treatment by shop staff' OR=1.55), but all CIs crossed 1.0, and size estimates were attenuated on further statistical adjustment. Perception of racism in the residential area was associated with socioemotional difficulties (fully adjusted coefficient=1.40, SE=0.47) and spatial abilities (fully adjusted coefficient=-1.99, SE=0.93) but not with verbal or non-verbal ability scores. Maternal experiences of racist insults were associated with non-verbal ability scores (fully adjusted coefficient=-1.70, SE=0.88). The results suggest that mothers' experienced racism is linked to markers of early child health and development. Interventions that aim to improve early child development and address ethnic health inequalities need to incorporate approaches to tackling racism at all levels of society.

  3. The Gravity Probe B experiment and early results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conklin, John W [Stanford University (United States)], E-mail: johnwc@stanford.edu

    2008-11-01

    The NASA Gravity Probe B orbiting gyroscope test of General Relativity, launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on 20 April, 2004 tests two consequences of Einstein's theory: 1) the predicted 6.6 arcs/yr geodetic effect due to the motion of the gyroscope through the curved space-time around the Earth; 2) the predicted 0.039 arcs/yr frame-dragging effect due to the rotating Earth. The mission required the development of many technologies that did not exist when experiment was conceived in 1960. Cryogenic gyroscopes with drift-rates 7 orders of magnitude better than the best inertial navigation gyroscopes, a < 1 marcs star tracking telescope, and other essential technologies were developed as a result of an intensive collaboration between Stanford physicists and engineers, NASA and industry. Gravity Probe B collected science data from August 27, 2004 through September 29, 2005. Analysis of the data began during the mission and is on-going. This paper describes the main features and challenges of the experiment and presents the preliminary results to date.

  4. The Gravity Probe B experiment and early results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, John W

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Gravity Probe B orbiting gyroscope test of General Relativity, launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on 20 April, 2004 tests two consequences of Einstein's theory: 1) the predicted 6.6 arcs/yr geodetic effect due to the motion of the gyroscope through the curved space-time around the Earth; 2) the predicted 0.039 arcs/yr frame-dragging effect due to the rotating Earth. The mission required the development of many technologies that did not exist when experiment was conceived in 1960. Cryogenic gyroscopes with drift-rates 7 orders of magnitude better than the best inertial navigation gyroscopes, a < 1 marcs star tracking telescope, and other essential technologies were developed as a result of an intensive collaboration between Stanford physicists and engineers, NASA and industry. Gravity Probe B collected science data from August 27, 2004 through September 29, 2005. Analysis of the data began during the mission and is on-going. This paper describes the main features and challenges of the experiment and presents the preliminary results to date.

  5. Emotional non-acceptance links early life stress and blunted cortisol reactivity to social threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cărnuţă, Mihai; Crişan, Liviu G; Vulturar, Romana; Opre, Adrian; Miu, Andrei C

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) has been recently associated with blunted cortisol reactivity and emotion dysregulation, but no study until now examined whether these characteristics are related. The main goal of this study was to examine the potential mediator role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between ELS and cortisol reactivity to social threat. Only women who were free of psychiatric and endocrine disorders, had regular menstrual cycle and did not use oral contraceptives were selected for this study (N=62). After filling in ELS and multidimensional emotion dysregulation measures, participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test during which cortisol and autonomic responses were assessed. Most participants (85.5%) reported one or more major stressful events (i.e., physical abuse, sexual abuse, major parental conflicts, death of a family or close friend, severe illness) experienced before age 17. ELS was negatively associated with cortisol reactivity and positively associated with skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity, but it did not influence heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. In addition, ELS was positively related to emotional non-acceptance (i.e., a tendency to develop secondary emotional responses to one's negative emotions), and the latter was negatively related to cortisol responses and positively related to SCL responses. Bootstrapping analyses indicated that emotional non-acceptance was a significant mediator in the relationships between ELS and both cortisol and SCL responses. Emotional non-acceptance is thus one of the psychological mechanisms underlying blunted cortisol and increased sympathetic reactivity in young healthy volunteers with a history of ELS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early experience of endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, T.; Yousuf, K.; Karim, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is prevalent affecting up to 16% of the population aged 55 years or older. Endovascular intervention for the treatment of limb ischemia has become the first line therapy but in Pakistan it is in embryonic stage due to dearth of trained persons and dedicated centres. This study was conducted to evaluate procedural success and early outcome of endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular disease. Methods: A prospective single arm multicentre study was conducted at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease and National Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan from January 2013 to June 2014. A total of 25 patients were enrolled in the study that underwent endovascular treatment. Out of 25 patients 23 (92%) had critical limb ischemia (CLI) as per TASC II classification (A to D) and 2 (8%) had carotid lesion with history of TIA. Patients of acute limb ischemia and stroke were excluded. Ankle brachial index (ABI) was classified as normal (0.9-1.3), mild (0.7-0.9), moderate (0.4-0.69), severe (<0.4). Outcome was taken as immediate success and symptoms, amputation of limb among CLI patients and incidence of stroke in patients with carotid artery lesion at end of six months. Results: Among aortoiliac, femoropopliteal and tibioperoneal lesions, tibioperoneal lesions at six months were found to be more symptomatic 6 (86%) and amputation 4 (57%). Two carotid lesions at follow up were asymptomatic without stroke. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular lesions, i.e., aortoiliac, femoropopliteal tibioperoneal and carotid lesions were satisfactory in immediate outcome. Tibioperoneal lesions were more symptomatic and limb amputation at six months. (author)

  7. New designs of LMJ targets for early ignition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerouin, C; Bonnefille, M; Dattolo, E; Fremerye, P; Galmiche, D; Gauthier, P; Giorla, J; Laffite, S; Liberatore, S; Loiseau, P; Malinie, G; Masse, L; Poggi, F; Seytor, P

    2008-01-01

    The LMJ experimental plans include the attempt of ignition and burn of an ICF capsule with 40 laser quads, delivering up to 1.4MJ and 380TW. New targets needing reduced laser energy with only a small decrease in robustness are then designed for this purpose. A first strategy is to use scaled-down cylindrical hohlraums and capsules, taking advantage of our better understanding of the problem, set on theoretical modelling, simulations and experiments. Another strategy is to work specifically on the coupling efficiency parameter, i.e. the ratio of the energy absorbed by the capsule to the laser energy, which is with parametric instabilities a crucial drawback of indirect drive. An alternative design is proposed, made up of the nominal 60 quads capsule, named A1040, in a rugby-shaped hohlraum. Robustness evaluations of these different targets are in progress

  8. New designs of LMJ targets for early ignition experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerouin, C; Bonnefille, M; Dattolo, E; Fremerye, P; Galmiche, D; Gauthier, P; Giorla, J; Laffite, S; Liberatore, S; Loiseau, P; Malinie, G; Masse, L; Poggi, F; Seytor, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DAM-Ile de France, BP 12 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)], E-mail: catherine.cherfils@cea.fr

    2008-05-15

    The LMJ experimental plans include the attempt of ignition and burn of an ICF capsule with 40 laser quads, delivering up to 1.4MJ and 380TW. New targets needing reduced laser energy with only a small decrease in robustness are then designed for this purpose. A first strategy is to use scaled-down cylindrical hohlraums and capsules, taking advantage of our better understanding of the problem, set on theoretical modelling, simulations and experiments. Another strategy is to work specifically on the coupling efficiency parameter, i.e. the ratio of the energy absorbed by the capsule to the laser energy, which is with parametric instabilities a crucial drawback of indirect drive. An alternative design is proposed, made up of the nominal 60 quads capsule, named A1040, in a rugby-shaped hohlraum. Robustness evaluations of these different targets are in progress.

  9. Heterologous microarray experiments allow the identification of the early events associated with potato tuber cold sweetening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitulli Federico

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its discovery more than 100 years ago, potato (Solanum tuberosum tuber cold-induced sweetening (CIS has been extensively investigated. Several carbohydrate-associated genes would seem to be involved in the process. However, many uncertainties still exist, as the relative contribution of each gene to the process is often unclear, possibly as the consequence of the heterogeneity of experimental systems. Some enzymes associated with CIS, such as β-amylases and invertases, have still to be identified at a sequence level. In addition, little is known about the early events that trigger CIS and on the involvement/association with CIS of genes different from carbohydrate-associated genes. Many of these uncertainties could be resolved by profiling experiments, but no GeneChip is available for the potato, and the production of the potato cDNA spotted array (TIGR has recently been discontinued. In order to obtain an overall picture of early transcriptional events associated with CIS, we investigated whether the commercially-available tomato Affymetrix GeneChip could be used to identify which potato cold-responsive gene family members should be further studied in detail by Real-Time (RT-PCR (qPCR. Results A tomato-potato Global Match File was generated for the interpretation of various aspects of the heterologous dataset, including the retrieval of best matching potato counterparts and annotation, and the establishment of a core set of highly homologous genes. Several cold-responsive genes were identified, and their expression pattern was studied in detail by qPCR over 26 days. We detected biphasic behaviour of mRNA accumulation for carbohydrate-associated genes and our combined GeneChip-qPCR data identified, at a sequence level, enzymatic activities such as β-amylases and invertases previously reported as being involved in CIS. The GeneChip data also unveiled important processes accompanying CIS, such as the induction of redox

  10. Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear.

  11. Assessing the effectiveness of Australian early childhood education and care experiences: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collette Tayler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, 61.5 % of children aged 3–4 attend Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC programs. Children’s experiences within these programs vary widely and impact directly on educational wellbeing and social development. Research has shown that higher quality programs enhance children’s learning and developmental outcomes, foster social participation and have long-lasting effects on their productivity as adults. Quality matters, yet we do not know what components of ECEC result in a quality program. Effective Early Educational Experiences (E4Kids is a 5-year longitudinal study designed to identify and assess the impact of mainstream ECEC programs and program components on children’s learning, development, social inclusion and well-being. E4Kids sets out to measure quality ECEC; identify components that add value and positively impact children’s outcomes; evaluate the effects of child, family, community and environment characteristics on programs; and provide evidence on how best to invest in ECEC. Methods/design E4Kids follows a sample of 2,494 children who have experienced a variety of approved care programs (long day care, kindergarten, family day care and occasional care, as well as 157 children who have not accessed such programs. Children are tracked to the first point of National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN testing at Year 3. The study presents a multi-level design in which ECEC programs were sampled from two states – Queensland and Victoria – then randomly sampled from two greater metropolitan regions and two regional and remote locations. Parents, centre directors, educators and carers complete questionnaires to provide information on demographics and children’s progress. Data collected also include the make-up and organisation of ECEC programs and schools children attended. The quality of adult-child interactions is directly assessed using the Classroom Assessment

  12. Assessing the effectiveness of Australian early childhood education and care experiences: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayler, Collette; Cloney, Daniel; Adams, Ray; Ishimine, Karin; Thorpe, Karen; Nguyen, Thi Kim Cuc

    2016-04-21

    In Australia, 61.5 % of children aged 3-4 attend Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) programs. Children's experiences within these programs vary widely and impact directly on educational wellbeing and social development. Research has shown that higher quality programs enhance children's learning and developmental outcomes, foster social participation and have long-lasting effects on their productivity as adults. Quality matters, yet we do not know what components of ECEC result in a quality program. Effective Early Educational Experiences (E4Kids) is a 5-year longitudinal study designed to identify and assess the impact of mainstream ECEC programs and program components on children's learning, development, social inclusion and well-being. E4Kids sets out to measure quality ECEC; identify components that add value and positively impact children's outcomes; evaluate the effects of child, family, community and environment characteristics on programs; and provide evidence on how best to invest in ECEC. E4Kids follows a sample of 2,494 children who have experienced a variety of approved care programs (long day care, kindergarten, family day care and occasional care), as well as 157 children who have not accessed such programs. Children are tracked to the first point of National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) testing at Year 3. The study presents a multi-level design in which ECEC programs were sampled from two states - Queensland and Victoria - then randomly sampled from two greater metropolitan regions and two regional and remote locations. Parents, centre directors, educators and carers complete questionnaires to provide information on demographics and children's progress. Data collected also include the make-up and organisation of ECEC programs and schools children attended. The quality of adult-child interactions is directly assessed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) and direct testing of children's cognitive abilities

  13. A prototype sensor system for the early detection of microbially linked spoilage in stored wheat grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H.; Ratcliffe, N. M.; Sivanand, P. S.; Spencer-Phillips, P. T. N.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors based on composites of metal oxides were fabricated and tested extensively under high-humidity and high-flow conditions with exposure to vapours reported to increase in the headspace of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) colonized by fungi. The sensors that exhibited high sensitivity to target vapours combined with high stability were selected for inclusion into a four-sensor array prototype system. A sampling protocol aligned to parallel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and human olfactory assessment studies was established for use with the sensor system. The sensor system was utilized to assess irradiated wheat samples that had been conditioned to 25% moisture content and inoculated with pathogens known to cause spoilage of grain in storage. These included the fungi Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium vulpinum, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus and the actinomycete, Streptomyces griseus. The sensor system successfully tracked the progress of the infections from a very early stage and the results were compared with human olfactory assessment panels run concurrently. A series of dilution studies were undertaken using previously infected grain mixed with sound grain, to improve the sensitivity and maximize the differentiation of the sensor system. An optimum set of conditions including incubation temperature, incubation time, sampling time, and flow rate were ascertained utilizing this method. The sensor system differentiated samples of sound grain from samples of sound grain with 1% (w/w) fungus infected grain added. Following laboratory trials, the prototype sensor system was evaluated in a commercial wheat grain intake facility. Thresholds calculated from laboratory tests were used to differentiate between sound and infected samples (classified by intake laboratory technicians) collected routinely from trucks delivering grain for use in food manufacture. All samples identified as having

  14. Robotic Inguinal Hernia Repair: Technique and Early Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcerito, Massimo; Changchien, Eric; Bernal, Oscar; Konkoly-Thege, Adam; Moon, John

    2016-10-01

    Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair has been shown to have multiple advantages compared with open repair such as less postoperative pain and earlier resume of daily activities with a comparable recurrence rate. We speculate robotic inguinal hernia repair may yield equivalent benefits, while providing the surgeon added dexterity. One hundred consecutive robotic inguinal hernia repairs with mesh were performed with a mean age of 56 years (25-96). Fifty-six unilateral hernias and 22 bilateral hernias were repaired amongst 62 males and 16 females. Polypropylene mesh was used for reconstruction. All but, two patients were completed robotically. Mean operative time was 52 minutes per hernia repair (45-67). Five patients were admitted overnight based on their advanced age. Regular diet was resumed immediately. Postoperative pain was minimal and regular activity was achieved after an average of four days. One patient recurred after three months in our earlier experience and he was repaired robotically. Mean follow-up time was 12 months. These data, compared with laparoscopic approach, suggest similar recurrence rates and postoperative pain. We believe comparative studies with laparoscopic approach need to be performed to assess the role robotic surgery has in the treatment of inguinal hernia repair.

  15. Early Results and Spaceflight Implications of the SWAB Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial monitoring of spacecraft environments provides key information in the assessment of infectious disease risk to the crew. Monitoring aboard the Mir space station and International Space Station (ISS) has provided a tremendous informational baseline to aid in determining the types and concentrations of microorganisms during a mission. Still, current microbial monitoring hardware utilizes culture-based methodology which may not detect many medically significant organisms, such as Legionella pneumophila. We hypothesize that evaluation of the ISS environment using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. To achieve this goal, a spaceflight experiment, operationally designated as SWAB, was designed to evaluate the DNA from environmental samples collected from ISS and vehicles destined for ISS. Results from initial samples indicate that the sample collection and return procedures were successful. Analysis of these samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and targeted PCR primers for fungal contaminants is underway. The current results of SWAB and their implication for in-flight molecular analysis of environmental samples will be discussed.

  16. Sex determination using free fetal DNA in early pregnancy: With the approach to sex linked recessive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Monfaredan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prenatal diagnosis is testing for detection of diseases or conditions in a fetus or embryo before it is born. Most of prenatal diagnostic (PD techniques are invasive and done in late stages of pregnancy. Using fetal DNA in maternal blood for fetal sex determination in early pregnancy might help in management of X-linked genetic diseases. This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of sex determination using fetal DNA in maternal blood at 8-12 weeks of gestation. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 30 pregnant women at 8-12 weeks of gestation were enrolled. The sex-determining region Y (SRY gene expression with the internal control (IC glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH was investigated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR using specific primers and probes. Results: Accuracy of sex determination with SRY gene expression in 8-12 weeks of pregnancy were 85%, 85%, 90% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: It seems that fetal sex determining using fetal DNA in maternal blood is a reliable method for early stage of pregnancy.

  17. Early Intervention Experiences of Families of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Qualitative Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygas Coogle, Christan; Guerette, Amy R.; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain an understanding of the unique experiences of families who have a young child at risk for or identified with an autism spectrum disorder and their experiences with early intervention. Thirty-nine parents of children with or at risk for an autism spectrum disorder receiving Part C services in a state in the…

  18. The impact of midlife educational, work, health and family experiences on men's early retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, M.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Kalmijn, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. In empirical studies on predictors of retirement, midlife experiences have often remained implicit or been neglected. This study aims to improve our understanding of retirement by examining the impact of midlife educational, work, health, and family experiences on early retirement

  19. A Comparison of Premenarcheal Expectations and Postmenarcheal Experiences in Chinese Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Lee, Antoinette Marie

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined Chinese early adolescents' expectations and experiences of their first menstruation. It included 952 participants, 476 premenarcheal and 476 postmenarcheal girls matched by age and by grade level. Results showed that compared to experiences of postmenarcheal girls, premenarcheal girls anticipated more negative emotional…

  20. Indicators for early assessment of palliative care in lung cancer patients: a population study using linked health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Maria; O'Brien, Katie M; Lucey, Michael; Clough-Gorr, Kerri; Hannigan, Ailish

    2018-02-26

    Analysing linked, routinely collected data may be useful to identify characteristics of patients with suspected lung cancer who could benefit from early assessment for palliative care. The aim of this study was to compare characteristics of newly diagnosed lung cancer patients dying within 30 days of diagnosis (short term survivors) with those surviving more than 30 days. To identify indicators for early palliative care assessment we distinguished between characteristics available at diagnosis (age, gender, smoking status, marital status, comorbid disease, admission type, tumour stage and histology) from those available post diagnosis. A second aim was to examine the association between receiving any tumour-directed treatment, place of death and survival time. A retrospective observational population based study comparing lung cancer patients who died within 30 days of diagnosis (short term survivors) with those who survived longer using Chi-squared tests and logistic regression. Incident lung cancer (ICD-03:C34) patients diagnosed 2005-2012 inclusive who died before 01-01-2014 (n = 14,228) were identified from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland linked to death certificate data and acute hospital episode data. One in five newly diagnosed lung cancer patients died within 30 days of diagnosis. After adjusting for stage and histology, death within 30 days was higher in patients who were aged 80 years or older (adjusted OR 2.46; 95%CI 2.05-3.96; p < 0.001), patients with emergency admissions at diagnosis (adjusted OR 2.96; 95%CI 2.61-3.37; p < 0.001) and patients with any comorbidities at diagnosis (adjusted OR 1.32 95%CI 1.15-1.52; p < 0.001). Overall, 75% of those who died within 30 days died in hospital compared to 43% of longer term survivors. We have shown a high proportion of lung cancer patients who die within 30 days of diagnosis are older, have comorbidities and are admitted through the emergency department. These characteristics

  1. Revisiting the Link between Poverty and Child Labor: The Ghanaian Experience. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Verner, Dorte

    The link between poverty and child labor has been regarded as a well established fact, but recent research has questioned the validity of this link. Starting from the premise that child labor is not necessarily harmful, this paper analyzes the determinants of harmful child labor, viewed as labor that directly conflicts with children's human…

  2. Utilizing Mechanistic Cross-Linking Technology to Study Protein-Protein Interactions: An Experiment Designed for an Undergraduate Biochemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzel, Kara; Beld, Joris; Burkart, Michael D.; Charkoudian, Louise K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, mechanistic cross-linking probes have been used to study protein-protein interactions in natural product biosynthetic pathways. This approach is highly interdisciplinary, combining elements of protein biochemistry, organic chemistry, and computational docking. Herein, we described the development of an experiment to engage…

  3. Supervised Agricultural Experience Programmes (SAEP) and Work Linked Education (WLE): Panacea for Empowering Youths and Preventing Joblessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiwole, Remigius O.

    2015-01-01

    Youths from Nigerian schools and tertiary institutions are usually unemployable after schooling because they are not empowered with the required saleable skills to earn them a job or with which to establish as entrepreneurs. This paper examines the relevance of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programme (SAEP) and Work Linked Education (WLE) as…

  4. Behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early social experiences: the case of the honeybee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés eArenas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping future behavior. Behavioral and neural long-term changes after early sensory and associative experiences have been recently reported in the honeybee. This invertebrate is an excellent model for assessing the role of precocious experiences on later behavior due to its extraordinarily tuned division of labor based on age polyethism. These studies are mainly focused on the role and importance of experiences occurred during the first days of the adult lifespan, their impact on foraging decisions and their contribution to coordinate food gathering. Odor-rewarded experiences during the first days of honeybee adulthood alter the responsiveness to sucrose, making young hive bees more sensitive to assess gustatory features about the nectar brought back to the hive and affecting the dynamic of the food transfers and the propagation of food-related information within the colony as well. Early olfactory experiences lead to stable and long-term associative memories that can be successfully recalled after many days, even at foraging ages. Also they improve memorizing of new associative learning events later in life. The establishment of early memories promotes stable reorganization of the olfactory circuits inducing structural and functional changes in the antennal lobe. Early rewarded experiences have relevant consequences at the social level too, biasing dance and trophallaxis partner choice and affecting recruitment. Here, we revised recent results in bees´ physiology, behavior and sociobiology to depict how the early experiences affect their cognition abilities and neural-related circuits.

  5. Mothers' experience of caring for a child with early onset scoliosis: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Bonnie; Sinclair, Peter M; Maguire, Jane

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to identify and describe the experience of parents of children diagnosed with early onset scoliosis living in Australia. Chronic childhood disease has a major impact on health-related quality of life. Caring for a child with a chronic illness is well documented but the specific experiences of parents who care for children with early onset scoliosis, a rare but devastating illness, has not been explored. Numerous studies have described the interrelated psychological, financial, social, physical and logistical factors that impact the experience of the caregiver role with various diseases, but in the case of early onset scoliosis, limited studies have been conducted about the parental experience. A qualitative descriptive design was used. A snowball sampling technique assisted in the recruitment. Parents invited to the study included mothers, fathers and guardians. Data were collected through semistructured interviews and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Data collection complied with the Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research guidelines. Twelve mothers of children with early onset scoliosis were interviewed, as only mothers consented to participate. Four major themes emerged: emotional rollercoaster ride, a lack of resources, money talks and pervasive burden. Factors that impacted on the participants' ability to confront, manage and endure caring for a child with early onset scoliosis emerged from the data. The findings suggest there are multiple factors that influence the experience of mothers' caring for a child with early onset scoliosis. The recognition and appropriate management of these factors by healthcare professionals have the potential to improve the quality of life of parents who care for a child with early onset scoliosis. Healthcare professionals have first-line contact with parents of children with early onset scoliosis and are well placed to provide parents with evidence-based education

  6. Applications of Emerging Parallel Optical Link Technology to High Energy Physics Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Prosser, A.; Winchell, M.

    2011-01-01

    Modern particle detectors depend upon optical fiber links to deliver event data to upstream trigger and data processing systems. Future detector systems can benefit from the development of dense arrangements of high speed optical links emerging from the telecommunications and storage area network market segments. These links support data transfers in each direction at rates up to 120 Gbps in packages that minimize or even eliminate edge connector requirements. Emerging products include a class of devices known as optical engines which permit assembly of the optical transceivers in close proximity to the electrical interfaces of ASICs and FPGAs which handle the data in parallel electrical format. Such assemblies will reduce required printed circuit board area and minimize electromagnetic interference and susceptibility. We will present test results of some of these parallel components and report on the development of pluggable FPGA Mezzanine Cards equipped with optical engines to provide to collaborators on the Versatile Link Common Project for the HI-LHC at CERN.

  7. Malaria early warning tool: linking inter-annual climate and malaria variability in northern Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason; Tahani, Lloyd; Bobogare, Albino; Bugoro, Hugo; Otto, Francis; Fafale, George; Hiriasa, David; Kazazic, Adna; Beard, Grant; Amjadali, Amanda; Jeanne, Isabelle

    2017-11-21

    Malaria control remains a significant challenge in the Solomon Islands. Despite progress made by local malaria control agencies over the past decade, case rates remain high in some areas of the country. Studies from around the world have confirmed important links between climate and malaria transmission. This study focuses on understanding the links between malaria and climate in Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, with a view towards developing a climate-based monitoring and early warning for periods of enhanced malaria transmission. Climate records were sourced from the Solomon Islands meteorological service (SIMS) and historical malaria case records were sourced from the National Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP). A declining trend in malaria cases over the last decade associated with improved malaria control was adjusted for. A stepwise regression was performed between climate variables and climate-associated malaria transmission (CMT) at different lag intervals to determine where significant relationships existed. The suitability of these results for use in a three-tiered categorical warning system was then assessed using a Mann-Whitney U test. Of the climate variables considered, only rainfall had a consistently significant relationship with malaria in North Guadalcanal. Optimal lag intervals were determined for prediction using R 2 skill scores. A highly significant negative correlation (R = - 0.86, R 2  = 0.74, p malaria transmission periods in January-June. Cross-validation emphasized the suitability of this relationship for forecasting purposes [Formula: see text]  as did Mann-Whitney U test results showing that rainfall below or above specific thresholds was significantly associated with above or below normal malaria transmission, respectively. This study demonstrated that rainfall provides the best predictor of malaria transmission in North Guadalcanal. This relationship is thought to be underpinned by the unique hydrological conditions

  8. Preparing beginning reading teachers: An experimental comparison of initial early literacy field experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lake, Vickie E.; Greulich, Luana; Folsom, Jessica S.; Guidry, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This randomized-control trial examined the learning of preservice teachers taking an initial Early Literacy course in an early childhood education program and of the kindergarten or first grade students they tutored in their field experience. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of two tutoring programs: Book Buddies and Tutor Assisted Intensive Learning Strategies (TAILS), which provided identical meaning-focused instruction (shared book reading), but differed ...

  9. Linking the microscopic view of chemistry to real-life experiences: Intertextuality in a high-school science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai

    2003-11-01

    Chemistry learning involves establishing conceptual relationships among macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic representations. Employing the notion of intertextuality to conceptualize these relationships, this study investigates how class members interactionally construct meanings of chemical representations by connecting them to real-life experiences and how the teachers' content knowledge shapes their ways to coconstruct intertextual links with students. Multiple sources of data were collected over 7 weeks with a participation of 25 eleventh graders, an experienced teacher, and a student teacher. An examination of classroom discourse shows that the intertextual links between the microscopic view of chemistry and students' real-life experiences could be initiated by students and instigated by the teachers. The teachers applied several discursive strategies to scaffold students building meaningful links based on their prior knowledge and experiences. Additionally, the experienced teacher with stronger content knowledge tended to present links in both dialogic and monologic discourses. Yet, the relatively limited content knowledge did not necessarily constrain the student teacher's interactions with students. The findings of this study provide a backdrop for further research to explore how chemistry is learned and taught in a class through the social constructivist lens.

  10. A line code with quick-resynchronization capability and low latency for the optical data links of LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, B; He, M; Chen, J; Guo, D; Hou, S; Teng, P-K; Li, X; Liu, C; Xiang, A C; Ye, J; Gong, D; Liu, T; You, Y

    2014-01-01

    We propose a line code that has fast resynchronization capability and low latency. Both the encoder and decoder have been implemented in FPGAs. The encoder has also been implemented in an ASIC. The latency of the whole optical link (not including the optical fiber) is estimated to be less than 73.9 ns. In the case of radiation-induced link synchronization loss, the decoder can recover the synchronization in 25 ns. The line code will be used in the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter Phase-I trigger upgrade and can also be potentially used in other LHC experiments

  11. Exploring links between genotypes, phenotypes, and clinical predictors of response to early intensive behavioural intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsamma eEapen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is amongst the most familial of psychiatric disorders. Twin and family studies have demonstrated a monozygotic concordance rate of 70–90%, dizygotic concordance of around 10% and more than a 20-fold increase in risk for first-degree relatives. Despite major advances in the genetics of autism, the relationship between different aspects of the behavioural and cognitive phenotype and their underlying genetic liability is still unclear. This is complicated by the heterogeneity of autism, which exists at both genetic and phenotypic levels. Given this heterogeneity, one method to find homogeneous entities and link these with specific genotypes would be to pursue endophenotypes. Evidence from neuroimaging, eye tracking and electrophysiology studies supports the hypothesis that, building on genetic vulnerability, ASD emerges from a developmental cascade in which a deficit in attention to social stimuli leads to impaired interactions with primary caregivers. This results in abnormal development of the neurocircuitry responsible for social cognition, which in turn adversely affects later behavioural and functional domains dependent on these early processes, such as language development. Such a model begets a heterogeneous clinical phenotype, and is also supported by studies demonstrating better clinical outcomes with earlier treatment. Treatment response following intensive early behavioural intervention in ASD is also distinctly variable; however, relatively little is known about specific elements of the clinical phenotype that may predict response to current behavioural treatments. This paper overviews the literature regarding genotypes, phenotypes and predictors of response to behavioural intervention in ASD and presents suggestions for future research to explore linkages between these that would enable better identification of, and increased treatment efficacy for, ASD.

  12. Trajectories of Early Childhood Developmental Skills and Early Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: Findings from the ALSPAC UK Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Mohajer A; Lingam, Raghu; Zammit, Stanley; Salvi, Giovanni; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test - II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12. Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10-1.92, p = 0.044) and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03-1.22, p = 0.010) is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09-1.97, p = 0.012). Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study's strengths, limitations, and clinical implications.

  13. Trajectories of Early Childhood Developmental Skills and Early Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: Findings from the ALSPAC UK Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohajer A. Hameed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs in early adolescence.Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test – II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12.Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10–1.92, p = 0.044 and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03–1.22, p = 0.010 is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09–1.97, p = 0.012.Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study’s strengths, limitations, and clinical implications.

  14. Trajectories of Early Childhood Developmental Skills and Early Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: Findings from the ALSPAC UK Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Mohajer A.; Lingam, Raghu; Zammit, Stanley; Salvi, Giovanni; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test – II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12. Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10–1.92, p = 0.044) and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03–1.22, p = 0.010) is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09–1.97, p = 0.012). Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study’s strengths, limitations, and clinical implications. PMID:29375433

  15. Effects of Cyberbullying Experience and Cyberbullying Tendency on School Violence in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Miyoung

    2017-01-01

    Background: School violence in early adolescence, whose frequency and status have recently changed significantly. Objective: This study attempts to detect the cyber bullying inclination of youth in early adolescence when aggressiveness reaches its peak, to identify school violence, and to develop a school violence prevention program. Method: This study was a survey research, investigating participants who were 470 middle school students in South Korea. For the analysis, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA and hierarchical regression analysis. Results: It is suggested that the school violence victimization experience and cyber bullying infliction experience has an influence in the school violence infliction. And the cyber bullying victimization experience and school violence victimization experience variables exert effects. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that school nurses who are connecting to the community-school-home should take an active part in the development of school violence mediation education program, considering the cultural characteristics of the country. PMID:29081871

  16. Linking global scenarios to national assessments: Experiences from the Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda L. Langner; Peter J. Ince

    2012-01-01

    The Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment provides a nationally consistent analysis of the status and trends of the Nation's renewable forest resources. A global scenario approach was taken for the 2010 RPA Assessment to provide a shared world view of potential futures. The RPA Assessment scenarios were linked to the global scenarios and climate projections used...

  17. The Integrated Library System of the 1990s: The OhioLINK Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Carol Pitts

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of integrated library systems focuses on the development of the Ohio Library and Information Network (OhioLINK). Capabilities of eight existing systems are described, including catalog creation and maintenance; the online public access catalog (OPAC); circulation, interlibrary loan, and document delivery; acquisitions and serials…

  18. Labour onset and early labour. An exploration of first-time mothers’ and midwives’ experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Eri, Tine Schauer

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is about how women experience waiting for the onset of labour, and how first-time mothers and midwives communicate during the early phases of labour. Most women in Norway give birth in public hospitals, which is the context used for this study, with the experiences explored within a scientific tradition of lifeworld research. Seventeen women and 18 midwives participated in the study. The empirical material stems from diaries, observations of admissions and in-...

  19. Linking soil permeability and soil aggregate stability with root development: a pots experiment (preliminary results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Chiara; Graf, Frank; Gerber, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying and monitoring the contribution of vegetation to the stability of the slopes is a key issue for implementing effective soil bioengineering measures. This topic is being widely investigated both from the hydrological and mechanical point of view. Nevertheless, due to the high variability of the biological components, we are still far from a comprehensive understanding of the role of plants in slope stabilization, especially if the different succession phases and the temporal development of vegetation is considered. Graf et al., 2014, found within the scope of aggregate stability investigations that the root length per soil volume of alder specimen grown for 20 weeks under laboratory conditions is comparable to the one of 20 years old vegetation in the field. This means that already relatively short time scales can provide meaningful information at least for the first stage of colonization of soil bioengineering measures, which is also the most critical. In the present study we analyzed the effect of root growth on two soil properties critical to evaluate the performance of vegetation in restoring and re-stabilizing slopes: permeability and soil aggregate stability. We set up a laboratory experiment in order to work under controlled conditions and limit as much as possible the natural variability. Alnus incana was selected as the study species as it is widely used in restoration projects in the Alps, also because of its capacity to fix nitrogen and its symbiosis with both ecto and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. After the first month of growth in germination pots, we planted one specimen each in big quasi cylindrical pots of 34 cm diameter and 35 cm height. The pots were filled with the soil fraction smaller than 10 mm coming from an oven dried moraine collected in a subalpine landslide area (Hexenrübi catchment, central Switzerland). The targeted dry unit weight was 16 kN/m3. The plants have been maintained at a daily temperature of 25°C and relative

  20. ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE LARGE-SCALE BIOSPHERE–ATMOSPHERE EXPERIMENT IN AMAZONIA: EARLY RESULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Keller; A. Alencar; G. P. Asner; B. Braswell; M. Bustamente; E. Davidson; T. Feldpausch; E. Fern ndes; M. Goulden; P. Kabat; B. Kruijt; F. Luizao; S. Miller; D. Markewitz; A. D. Nobre; C. A. Nobre; N. Priante Filho; H. Rocha; P. Silva Dias; C von Randow; G. L. Vourlitis

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Amazon region. Early...

  1. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  2. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  3. Early life experiences affect the adaptive capacity of rearing hens during infectious challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, I.; Napel, ten J.; Kemp, B.; Schipper, H.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether pre- and early postnatal experiences of rearing hens contribute to the ability to cope with infectious challenges at an older age. In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 352 Lohmann Brown chicks were exposed to either suboptimal or optimized incubation plus hatch

  4. The Impact of Discrimination on the Early Schooling Experiences of Children from Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Jennifer Keys

    2015-01-01

    How the young children of immigrants experience their early school years may in large part determine their academic future and negatively affect their emotional, social, and mental development. Children benefit from a positive, supportive learning environment where their contributions are valued; many from immigrant families, however, experience…

  5. Early Experiences with Family Conflict: Implications for Arguments with a Close Friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carla; Dunn, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Examined associations between children's early experiences in family disputes and later conflict management with close friends. Found that argument used by mothers and siblings that considered children's needs was positively associated with children's later constructive argument and resolution techniques. Mothers' use of argument predicted…

  6. Sexual Dysfunctions: Relationship to Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Family Experiences in a Nonclinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated 202 female university students for early familial experience and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in relation to adult sexual disorders: (1) victims of multiple CSA more frequently reported sexual desire disorders; and (2) single-incident victims and nonvictims reported no significantly different rates of sexual dysfunction.…

  7. DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyf, Moshe; Bick, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological data provide evidence that early life experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the…

  8. Creating Socionas : Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the

  9. Marijuana Experiences, Voting Behaviors, and Early Perspectives Regarding Marijuana Legalization among College Students from 2 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students' (1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, (2) voting behaviors, and (3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. Participants: College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May and September 2013. Methods: Participants…

  10. Relationships between early alcohol experiences, drinker self-schema, drinking and smoking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F

    2018-02-23

    Drinking and smoking commonly co-occur in undergraduate students. Although an identity as a drinker is a known predictor of alcohol use and alcohol problems, and early evidence suggests that it also predicts smoking, the role of these behaviors in the development of an identity as a drinker is unknown. In this study, we conceptualized a drinker identity as an enduring memory structure referred to as a self-schema, and conducted a preliminary investigation of the relationships between early drinking experiences, drinker self-schema, and alcohol and tobacco use in undergraduate students. Three-hundred thirty undergraduates who reported current alcohol and tobacco use were recruited for an on-line survey study. Frequency of alcohol and tobacco use in the past 30 days, drinker self-schema, and early experiences with alcohol were measured. Structural equation modeling showed parental alcohol problems were associated with early onset of drinking. Early onset of drinking and high school friends' drinking were associated with more alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in high school. Alcohol problems during high school were associated with high drinker self-schema scores, which were associated with high frequency of alcohol and tobacco use during college. The indirect effects through the drinker self-schema were significant. Though cross-sectional, this preliminary examination supports theoretical predictions that early alcohol experiences may contribute to development of the drinker self-schema, which as expected, was positively associated with alcohol and tobacco use in college. Longitudinal studies that track the unfolding of drinking behavior and the contextual factors that are associated with it on the development of the self-drinker schema are essential to confirm the theoretical model. If supported, implications for intervention at different developmental stages to prevent early onset of drinking, limit adolescent alcohol use, and modify the development of a

  11. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Racquel E; Lee, Clara N; Gopal, Satish; Reeve, Bryce B; Weiner, Bryan J; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-01-01

    In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women's preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment. To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women's preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare. We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs. Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants' responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes, comprehension of choice tasks, and women's abilities to make trade-offs. Applying a discrete choice experiment for breast cancer early detection was feasible with appropriate tailoring for a low-income, low-literacy African setting.

  12. Chinese characters reveal impacts of prior experience on very early stages of perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stollhoff Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual perception is strongly determined by accumulated experience with the world, which has been shown for shape, color, and position perception, in the field of visuomotor learning, and in neural computation. In addition, visual perception is tuned to statistics of natural scenes. Such prior experience is modulated by neuronal top-down control the temporal properties of which had been subject to recent studies. Here, we deal with these temporal properties and address the question how early in time accumulated past experience can modulate visual perception. Results We performed stimulus discrimination experiments and compared a group of Chinese participants with a German control group. The perception of our briefly presented visual objects (targets was disturbed by masking stimuli which appeared in close spatiotemporal proximity. These masking stimuli were either intact or scrambled Chinese characters and did not overlap with the targets. In contrast to German controls, Chinese participants show substantial performance differences for real versus scrambled Chinese characters if these masking stimuli were presented as early as less than 100 milliseconds after the onset of the target. For Chinese observers, it even occured that meaningful masking stimuli enhanced target identification if they were shown at least 100 milliseconds after target onset while the same stimuli impaired recognition if presented in close temporal proximity to the target. The latter finding challenges interpretations of our data that solely rely on stimulus contours or geometric properties and emphasizes the impact of prior experience on the very early temporal dynamics of the visual system. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that prior experience which had been accummulated long before the experiments can modulate the time course of perception intriguingly early, namely already immediately after the perceptual onset of a visual event. This modulation

  13. Sociodemographic differences in women’s experience of early labour care: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jane; Redshaw, Maggie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore women’s experiences of early labour care focusing on sociodemographic differences, and to examine the effect of antenatal education, using mixed methods. Setting England, 2014. Participants Women who completed postal questionnaires about their experience of maternity care, including questions about antenatal education, early labour and sociodemographic factors, included space for free-text comments. Outcome measures Worries about labour, contact with midwives in early labour and subsequent care. Methods This study was based on secondary analysis of a national maternity survey carried out in England in 2014. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression; qualitative data were analysed using a thematic content analytic approach. Results Completed questionnaires were received from 4578 women (47% response rate). There were significant differences by sociodemographic factors, particularly ethnicity, in women’s worries about early labour. Compared with white women, women from black or minority ethnic groups had an adjusted OR of 1.93 (95% CI 1.56 to 2.39) of feeling worried about not knowing when labour would start. Among women who contacted a midwife at the start of labour, 84% perceived their advice as appropriate, more in older and multiparous women. Overall, 64% of women were asked to come to the hospital at this time, more in multiparous women (adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.96). Those who did not have access to antenatal education experienced greater worry about early labour. Five themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: ‘Differentiating between early and active labour’, ‘Staff attitudes’, ‘Not being allowed…’, ‘Previous labours’ and ‘Perceived consequences for women’. Conclusion These findings reinforce the importance of providing reassurance to women in early labour, taking care that women do not feel neglected or dismissed. In particular, primiparous and

  14. DNA methylome changes by estradiol benzoate and bisphenol A links early-life environmental exposures to prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Ana; Zhang, Xiang; Cheung, Yuk-Yin; Tang, Wan-Yee; Chen, Jing; Ye, Shu-Hua; Medvedovic, Mario; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Prins, Gail S; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2016-09-01

    Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 17β-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB) and bisphenol A (BPA), increases susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) in rodent models. Here, we used the methylated-CpG island recovery assay (MIRA)-assisted genomic tiling and CpG island arrays to identify treatment-associated methylome changes in the postnatal day (PND)90 dorsal prostate tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats neonatally (PND1, 3, and 5) treated with 25 µg/pup or 2,500 µg EB/kg body weight (BW) or 0.1 µg BPA/pup or 10 µg BPA/kg BW. We identified 111 EB-associated and 86 BPA-associated genes, with 20 in common, that have significant differentially methylated regions. Pathway analysis revealed cancer as the top common disease pathway. Bisulfite sequencing validated the differential methylation patterns observed by array analysis in 15 identified candidate genes. The methylation status of 7 (Pitx3, Wnt10b, Paqr4, Sox2, Chst14, Tpd52, Creb3l4) of these 15 genes exhibited an inverse correlation with gene expression in tissue samples. Cell-based assays, using 5-aza-cytidine-treated normal (NbE-1) and cancerous (AIT) rat prostate cells, added evidence of DNA methylation-mediated gene expression of 6 genes (exception: Paqr4). Functional connectivity of these genes was linked to embryonic stem cell pluripotency. Furthermore, clustering analyses using the dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that expression of this set of 7 genes was associated with recurrence-free survival of PCa patients. In conclusion, our study reveals that gene-specific promoter methylation changes, resulting from early-life EDC exposure in the rat, may serve as predictive epigenetic biomarkers of PCa recurrence, and raises the possibility that such exposure may impact human disease.

  15. Coherence in consciousness: paralimbic gamma synchrony of self-reference links conscious experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans C; Gross, Joachim; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2010-01-01

    . In minimal self-reference subjective experiences are self-aware in the weak sense that there is something it feels like for the subject to experience something. In autonoetic consciousness, consciousness emerges, by definition, by retrieval of memories of personally experienced events (episodic memory...

  16. Experience from three years of local capacity development for tsunami early warning in Indonesia: challenges, lessons and the way ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, H.; Hoppe, M.; Vidiarina, H. D.; Usdianto, B.

    2010-07-01

    Five years after the 2004 tsunami, a lot has been achieved to make communities in Indonesia better prepared for tsunamis. This achievement is primarily linked to the development of the Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (InaTEWS). However, many challenges remain. This paper describes the experience with local capacity development for tsunami early warning (TEW) in Indonesia, based on the activities of a pilot project. TEW in Indonesia is still new to disaster management institutions and the public, as is the paradigm of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). The technology components of InaTEWS will soon be fully operational. The major challenge for the system is the establishment of clear institutional arrangements and capacities at national and local levels that support the development of public and institutional response capability at the local level. Due to a lack of information and national guidance, most local actors have a limited understanding of InaTEWS and DRR, and often show little political will and priority to engage in TEW. The often-limited capacity of local governments is contrasted by strong engagement of civil society organisations that opt for early warning based on natural warning signs rather than technology-based early warning. Bringing together the various actors, developing capacities in a multi-stakeholder cooperation for an effective warning system are key challenges for the end-to-end approach of InaTEWS. The development of local response capability needs to receive the same commitment as the development of the system's technology components. Public understanding of and trust in the system comes with knowledge and awareness on the part of the end users of the system and convincing performance on the part of the public service provider. Both sides need to be strengthened. This requires the integration of TEW into DRR, clear institutional arrangements, national guidance and intensive support for capacity development at local levels as well as

  17. Dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among early adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syudo Yamasaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peer victimization increases the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms among clinical and general populations, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Dissociation, which is related to peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences, has been demonstrated as a significant mediator in the relation between childhood victimization and hallucinatory experience among adult patients with psychosis. However, no studies have examined the mediating effect of dissociation in a general early adolescent population. We examined whether dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among 10-year-old adolescents using a population-based cross-sectional survey of early adolescents and their main parent (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey; N = 4478. We examined the mediating effect of dissociation, as well as external locus of control and depressive symptoms, on the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences using path analysis. The model assuming mediation effects indicated good model fit (comparative fit index = .999; root mean square error of approximation = .015. The mediation effect between peer victimization and hallucination via dissociation (standardized indirect effect = .038, p < .001 was statistically significant, whereas the mediation effects of depressive symptoms (standardized indirect effect = −.0066, p = 0.318 and external locus of control (standardized indirect effect = .0024, p = 0.321 were not significant. These results suggest that dissociation is a mediator in the relation between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences in early adolescence. For appropriate intervention strategies, assessing dissociation and peer victimization as they affect hallucinatory experiences is necessary.

  18. Does early-life family income influence later dental pain experience? A prospective 14-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Z; Peres, M A; Liu, P; Mejia, G C; Armfield, J M; Peres, K G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early-life family income and dental pain experience from childhood to early adulthood. Data came from a 14-year prospective study (1991/1992-2005/2006) carried out in South Australia, which included children and adolescents aged 4-17 years (N = 9875) at baseline. The outcome was dental pain experience obtained at baseline, 14 years later in adulthood and at a middle point of time. The main explanatory variable was early-life family income collected at baseline. The prevalence of dental pain was 22.8% at baseline, 19.3% at 'middle time' and 39.3% at follow up. The proportion of people classified as 'poor' at baseline was 27.7%. Being poor early in life was significantly associated with dental pain at 14-year follow up (odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-1.66). Early-life relative poverty is associated with more frequent dental pain across the 14-year follow up and may be a key exposure variable for later dental conditions. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Early Life Experience and Gut Microbiome: The Brain-Gut-Microbiota Signaling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Henderson, Wendy A; Graf, Joerg; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2015-10-01

    Over the past decades, advances in neonatal care have led to substantial increases in survival among preterm infants. With these gains, recent concerns have focused on increases in neurodevelopment morbidity related to the interplay between stressful early life experiences and the immature neuroimmune systems. This interplay between these complex mechanisms is often described as the brain-gut signaling system. The role of the gut microbiome and the brain-gut signaling system have been found to be remarkably related to both short- and long-term stress and health. Recent evidence supports that microbial species, ligands, and/or products within the developing intestine play a key role in early programming of the central nervous system and regulation of the intestinal innate immunity. The purpose of this state-of-the-science review is to explore the supporting evidence demonstrating the importance of the brain-gut-microbiota axis in regulation of early life experience. We also discuss the role of gut microbiome in modulating stress and pain responses in high-risk infants. A conceptual framework has been developed to illustrate the regulation mechanisms involved in early life experience. The science in this area is just beginning to be uncovered; having a fundamental understanding of these relationships will be important as new discoveries continue to change our thinking, leading potentially to changes in practice and targeted interventions.

  20. Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi eNishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

  1. The hELENa project - I. Stellar populations of early-type galaxies linked with local environment and galaxy mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybilska, A.; Lisker, T.; Kuntschner, H.; Vazdekis, A.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Janz, J.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first in a series of papers in The role of Environment in shaping Low-mass Early-type Nearby galaxies (hELENa) project. In this paper, we combine our sample of 20 low-mass early types (dEs) with 258 massive early types (ETGs) from the ATLAS3D survey - all observed with the SAURON

  2. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohler RE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Racquel E Kohler,1 Clara N Lee,2 Satish Gopal,3 Bryce B Reeve,1 Bryan J Weiner,1 Stephanie B Wheeler11Department of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, 2Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3UNC Project-Malawi, Tidziwe Center, Lilongwe, MalawiBackground: In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women’s preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment.Objective: To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women’s preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare.Methods: We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs.Results: Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants’ responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes

  3. Linking Publications to Instruments, Field Campaigns, Sites and Working Groups: The ARM Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyan, D.; Cialella, A. T.; Gregory, L.; Lazar, K.; Liang, M.; Ma, L.; Tilp, A.; Wagener, R.

    2017-12-01

    For the past 25 years, the ARM Climate Research Facility - a US Department of Energy scientific user facility - has been collecting atmospheric data in different climatic regimes using both in situ and remote instrumentation. Configuration of the facility's components has been designed to improve the understanding and representation, in climate and earth system models, of clouds and aerosols. Placing a premium on long-term continuous data collection resulted in terabytes of data having been collected, stored, and made accessible to any interested person. All data is accessible via the ARM.gov website and the ARM Data Discovery Tool. A team of metadata professionals assign appropriate tags to help facilitate searching the databases for desired data. The knowledge organization tools and concepts are used to create connections between data, instruments, field campaigns, sites, and measurements are familiar to informatics professionals. Ontology, taxonomy, classification, and thesauri are among the customized concepts put into practice for ARM's purposes. In addition to the multitude of data available, there have been approximately 3,000 journal articles that utilize ARM data. These have been linked to specific ARM web pages. Searches of the complete ARM publication database can be done using a separate interface. This presentation describes how ARM data is linked to instruments, sites, field campaigns, and publications through the application of standard knowledge organization tools and concepts.

  4. A Conceptual Flash Flood Early Warning System for Africa, Based on Terrestrial Microwave Links and Flash Flood Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost C. B. Hoedjes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual flash flood early warning system for developing countries is described. The system uses rainfall intensity data from terrestrial microwave communication links and the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellite, i.e., two systems that are already in place and operational. Flash flood early warnings are based on a combination of the Flash Flood Guidance method and a hydrological model. The system will be maintained and operated through a public-private partnership, which includes a mobile telephone operator, a national meteorological service and an emergency relief service. The mobile telephone operator acts as both the supplier of raw input data and the disseminator of early warnings. The early warning system could significantly reduce the number of fatalities due to flash floods, improve the efficiency of disaster risk reduction efforts and play an important role in strengthening the resilience to climate change of developing countries in Africa. This paper describes the system that is currently being developed for Kenya.

  5. The link between response time and preference, variance and processing heterogeneity in stated choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Danny; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2018-01-01

    In this article we utilize the time respondents require to answer a self-administered online stated preference survey. While the effects of response time have been previously explored, this article proposes a different approach that explicitly recognizes the highly equivocal relationship between ...... between response time and utility coefficients, error variance and processing strategies. Our results thus emphasize the importance of considering response time when modeling stated choice data....... response time and respondents' choices. In particular, we attempt to disentangle preference, variance and processing heterogeneity and explore whether response time helps to explain these three types of heterogeneity. For this, we divide the data (ordered by response time) into approximately equal......-sized subsets, and then derive different class membership probabilities for each subset. We estimate a large number of candidate models and subsequently conduct a frequentist-based model averaging approach using information criteria to derive weights of evidence for each model. Our findings show a clear link...

  6. Large scale commissioning and operational experience with tier-2 to tier-2 data transfer links in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, J; Magini, N

    2011-01-01

    Tier-2 to Tier-2 data transfers have been identified as a necessary extension of the CMS computing model. The Debugging Data Transfers (DDT) Task Force in CMS was charged with commissioning Tier-2 to Tier-2 PhEDEx transfer links beginning in late 2009, originally to serve the needs of physics analysis groups for the transfer of their results between the storage elements of the Tier-2 sites associated with the groups. PhEDEx is the data transfer middleware of the CMS experiment. For analysis jobs using CRAB, the CMS Remote Analysis Builder, the challenges of remote stage out of job output at the end of the analysis jobs led to the introduction of a local fallback stage out, and will eventually require the asynchronous transfer of user data over essentially all of the Tier-2 to Tier-2 network using the same PhEDEx infrastructure. In addition, direct file sharing of physics and Monte Carlo simulated data between Tier-2 sites can relieve the operational load of the Tier-1 sites in the original CMS Computing Model, and already represents an important component of CMS PhEDEx data transfer volume. The experience, challenges and methods used to debug and commission the thousands of data transfers links between CMS Tier-2 sites world-wide are explained and summarized. The resulting operational experience with Tier-2 to Tier-2 transfers is also presented.

  7. Early adverse experience and substance addiction: dopamine, oxytocin, and glucocorticoid pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohye; Kwok, Stephanie; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; Strathearn, Lane

    2016-01-01

    Substance addiction may follow a chronic, relapsing course and critically undermine the physical and psychological well-being of the affected individual and the social units of which the individual is a member. Despite the public health burden associated with substance addiction, treatment options remain suboptimal, with relapses often seen. The present review synthesizes growing insights from animal and human research to shed light upon developmental and neurobiological pathways that may increase susceptibility to addiction. We examine the dopamine system, the oxytocin system, and the glucocorticoid system, as they are particularly relevant to substance addiction. Our aim is to delineate how early adverse experience may induce long-lasting alterations in each of these systems at molecular, neuroendocrine, and behavioral levels and ultimately lead to heightened vulnerability to substance addiction. We further discuss how substance addiction in adulthood may increase the risk of suboptimal caregiving for the next generation, perpetuating the intergenerational cycle of early adverse experiences and addiction. PMID:27508337

  8. Links between Family Gender Socialization Experiences in Childhood and Gendered Occupational Attainment in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katie M; Crouter, Ann C; McHale, Susan M

    2015-10-01

    Gendered occupational segregation remains prevalent across the world. Although research has examined factors contributing to the low number of women in male-typed occupations - namely science, technology, engineering, and math - little longitudinal research has examined the role of childhood experiences in both young women's and men's later gendered occupational attainment. This study addressed this gap in the literature by examining family gender socialization experiences in middle childhood - namely parents' attitudes and work and family life - as contributors to the gender typicality of occupational attainment in young adulthood. Using data collected from mothers, fathers, and children over approximately 15 years, the results revealed that the associations between childhood socialization experiences (∼10 years old) and occupational attainment (∼26 years old) depended on the sex of the child. For sons but not daughters, mothers' more traditional attitudes towards women's roles predicted attaining more gender-typed occupations. In addition, spending more time with fathers in childhood predicted daughters attaining less and sons acquiring more gender-typed occupations in young adulthood. Overall, evidence supports the idea that childhood socialization experiences help to shape individuals' career attainment and thus contribute to gender segregation in the labor market.

  9. Promoting University and Industry Links at the Regional Level: Comparing China's Reform and International Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po, Yang; Cai, Yuzhuo; Lyytinen, Anu; Hölttä, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to learn from international experiences in order to facilitating China's ongoing regional university transformation with an ultimate goal to enhance the role of university in regional economic development and innovation. In so doing, this paper compares major models of universities of applied sciences (UAS) around the world from…

  10. What Is the Link Between Hallucinations, Dreams, and Hypnagogic-Hypnopompic Experiences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waters, Flavie; Blom, Jan Dirk; Thien Thanh Dang-Vu,; Cheyne, Allan J.; Alderson-Day, Ben; Woodruff, Peter; Collerton, Daniel

    By definition, hallucinations occur only in the full waking state. Yet similarities to sleep-related experiences such as hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations, dreams and parasomnias, have been noted since antiquity. These observations have prompted researchers to suggest a common aetiology for

  11. What Is the Link Between Hallucinations, Dreams, and Hypnagogic–Hypnopompic Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Flavie; Blom, Jan Dirk; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Cheyne, Allan J.; Alderson-Day, Ben; Woodruff, Peter; Collerton, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    By definition, hallucinations occur only in the full waking state. Yet similarities to sleep-related experiences such as hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations, dreams and parasomnias, have been noted since antiquity. These observations have prompted researchers to suggest a common aetiology for these phenomena based on the neurobiology of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. With our recent understanding of hallucinations in different population groups and at the neurobiological, cognitive and interpersonal levels, it is now possible to draw comparisons between the 2 sets of experiences as never before. In the current article, we make detailed comparisons between sleep-related experiences and hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia and eye disease, at the levels of phenomenology (content, sensory modalities involved, perceptual attributes) and of brain function (brain activations, resting-state networks, neurotransmitter action). Findings show that sleep-related experiences share considerable overlap with hallucinations at the level of subjective descriptions and underlying brain mechanisms. Key differences remain however: (1) Sleep-related perceptions are immersive and largely cut off from reality, whereas hallucinations are discrete and overlaid on veridical perceptions; and (2) Sleep-related perceptions involve only a subset of neural networks implicated in hallucinations, reflecting perceptual signals processed in a functionally and cognitively closed-loop circuit. In summary, both phenomena are non-veridical perceptions that share some phenomenological and neural similarities, but insufficient evidence exists to fully support the notion that the majority of hallucinations depend on REM processes or REM intrusions into waking consciousness. PMID:27358492

  12. Linking Reform-Oriented Experiences to Teacher Identity: The Case of an Elementary Mathematics Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Novice teachers often have difficulty transferring what they learn in teacher education programs to classroom practice. This is especially true for elementary school teachers who are expected to teach mathematics with reform-oriented methods. The purpose of this longitudinal case study was to examine the experience of one novice elementary school…

  13. INEQUITY ISSUES AND MOTHERS' PREGNANCY, DELIVERY AND EARLY-AGE SURVIVAL EXPERIENCES IN ENDE DISTRICT, INDONESIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardosi, Jerico Franciscus; Parr, Nick; Muhidin, Salut

    2015-11-01

    Indonesia's infant mortality rates are among the highest in South-East Asia, and there are substantial variations between its sub-national regions. This qualitative study aims to explore early mortality-related health service provision and gender inequity issues based on mothers' pregnancy, delivery and early-age survival experience in Ende district, Nusa Tenggara Timur province. Thirty-two mothers aged 18-45 years with at least one birth in the previous five years were interviewed in depth in May 2013. The results show most mothers have little knowledge about the danger signs for a child's illness. Mothers with early-age deaths generally did not know the cause of death. Very few mothers had received adequate information on maternal and child health during their antenatal and postnatal visits to the health facility. Some mothers expressed a preference for using a traditional birth attendant, because of their ready availability and the more extensive range of support services they provide, compared with local midwives. Unprofessional attitudes displayed by midwives were reported by several mothers. As elsewhere in Indonesia, the power of health decision-making lies with the husband. Policies aimed at elevating mothers' roles in health care decision-making are discussed as measures that would help to improve early-age survival outcomes. Widening the public health insurance distribution, especially among poorer mothers, and equalizing the geographical distribution of midwives and health facilities are recommended to tackle geographical inequities and to increase early-age survival in Ende district.

  14. Children with disorders of sex development: A qualitative study of early parental experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crissman Halley P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical research on psychological aspects of disorders of sex development (DSD has focused on psychosexual differentiation with relatively little attention directed toward parents' experiences of early clinical management and their influence on patient and family psychosocial adaptation. Objectives To characterize parental experiences in the early clinical care of children born with DSD. Study Design Content analysis of interviews with parents (n = 41 of 28 children, newborn to 6 years, with DSD. Results Four major domains emerged as salient to parents: (1 the gender assignment process, (2 decisions regarding genital surgery, (3 disclosing information about their child's DSD, and (4 interacting with healthcare providers. Findings suggested discordance between scientific and parental understandings of the determinants of "sex" and "gender." Parents' expectations regarding the benefits of genital surgery appear largely met; however, parents still had concerns about their child's future physical, social and sexual development. Two areas experienced by many parents as particularly stressful were: (1 uncertainties regarding diagnosis and optimal management, and (2 conflicts between maintaining privacy versus disclosing the condition to access social support. Conclusions Parents' experiences and gaps in understanding can be used to inform the clinical care of patients with DSD and their families. Improving communication between parents and providers (and between parents and their support providers throughout the early clinical management process may be important in decreasing stress and improving outcomes for families of children with DSD.

  15. Early childhood experiences, parenting and the process of drug dependency among young people in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlashari, Jila; Demirkol, Apo; Salsali, Mahvash; Rafiey, Hassan; Jahanbani, Jahanfar

    2012-06-01

    Substance abuse has become a major public health problem in Iran. The process of developing an addiction is complex and multifaceted. Early childhood experiences are thought to be one of the important determinants of addictive behaviour. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the early childhood experiences, especially the experiences within the immediate family, of current substance-using young adults in Iran. The study is qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young men and women who were either in treatment for their addiction or were active drug users at the time of the interviews. Moreover, four interviews have been conducted with family members of participants. The majority of the participants experienced traumatic events during childhood and came from dysfunctional families. There appears to be a significant disconnect between these individuals and their families. An obedience-instilling parenting style and parents' knowledge and attitude toward drug using and prevention were also identified as important determinants of substance use. The results of this research point out the need for early interventions for at-risk families as well as at-risk individuals. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Evaluation of operating experience for early recognition of deteriorating safety performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmerhagen, I.A.; Berg, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most difficult challenges facing nuclear power plants is to recognize the early signs of degrading safety performance before regulatory requirements are imposed or serious incidents or accidents occur. Today, the nuclear industry is striving for collecting more information on occurrences that could improve the operational safety performance. To achieve this, the reporting threshold has been lowered from incidents to anomalies with minor or no impact to safety. Industry experience (also outside nuclear industry) has shown that these are typical issues which should be considered when looking for such early warning signs. Therefore, it is important that nuclear power plant operators have the capability to trend, analyse and recognize early warning signs of deteriorating performance. It is necessary that plant operators are sensitive to these warning signs which may not be immediately evident. Reviewing operating experience is one of the main tasks for plant operators in their daily activities. Therefore, self assessment should be at the centre of any operational safety performance programme. One way of applying a self assessment program is through the following four basic elements: operational data, events, safety basis, and related experience. This approach will be described in the paper in more details. (authors)

  17. Excessive Leucine-mTORC1-Signalling of Cow Milk-Based Infant Formula: The Missing Link to Understand Early Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Melnik, Bodo C.

    2012-01-01

    Increased protein supply by feeding cow-milk-based infant formula in comparison to lower protein content of human milk is a well-recognized major risk factor of childhood obesity. However, there is yet no conclusive biochemical concept explaining the mechanisms of formula-induced childhood obesity. It is the intention of this article to provide the biochemical link between leucine-mediated signalling of mammalian milk proteins and adipogenesis as well as early adipogenic programming. Leucine ...

  18. First-time mothers' experiences of early labour in Italian maternity care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Giulia; Nespoli, Antonella; Fumagalli, Simona; Borrelli, Sara E

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to explore first-time mothers' experiences of early labour in Italian maternity care services when admitted to hospital or advised to return home after maternity triage assessment. The study was conducted in a second-level maternity hospital in northern Italy with an obstetric unit for both low- and high-risk women. The participants included 15 first-time mothers in good general health with spontaneous labour at term of a low-risk pregnancy who accessed maternity triage during early labour, and were either admitted to hospital or advised to return home. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological study was conducted. A face-to-face recorded semi-structured interview was conducted with each participant 48-72h after birth. Four key themes emerged from the interviews: (a) recognising signs of early labour; (b) coping with pain at home; (c) seeking reassurance from healthcare professionals; and (d) being admitted to hospital versus returning home. Uncertainty about the progression of labour and the need for reassurance were cited by women as the main reasons for hospital visit in early labour. An ambivalent feeling was reported by the participants when admitted to hospital in early labour. In fact, while the women felt reassured in the first instance, some women subsequently felt dissatisfied due to the absence of one-to-one dedicated care during early labour. When advised to return home, a number of women reported feelings of disappointment, anger, fear, discouragement and anxiety about not being admitted to hospital; however, some of these women reported a subsequent feeling of comfort due to being at home and putting in place the suggestions made by the midwives during the maternity triage assessment. The guidance provided by midwives during triage assessment seemed to be the key factor influencing women׳s satisfaction when advised either to return home or to stay at the hospital during early labour. During antenatal classes and clinics

  19. [Exploration of nursing art and aesthetic experiences: cross-disciplinary links and dialogues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Shuh-Jen

    2013-08-01

    Interdisciplinary understanding is crucial for readers today. This article integrates the ideas of four care-aesthetics-column writers in order to illustrate and discuss nursing art and aesthetic care experiences in a cross-disciplinary conversation. This article reflects critically on the art, culture, and nature of nursing in the five themes of: 1) the shape of nursing knowledge, "science" or "art"?; 2) the caring arts: passively regulative or consciously creative labor?; 3) busy hospital workers: a landscape of persons and objects or the creators of the scenery?; 4) nursing skills, arts, and the Tao; and 5) art liberation: is the nursing profession in need of a revolution or fundamental reform? This article utilizes diverse and occasionally contradictory points of view together with practical examples in order to encourage readers to interlink their disparate professional nursing skills and draw aesthetic knowledge from multiple sources and experiences.

  20. What Is the Link Between Hallucinations, Dreams, and Hypnagogic-Hypnopompic Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Flavie; Blom, Jan Dirk; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Cheyne, Allan J; Alderson-Day, Ben; Woodruff, Peter; Collerton, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    By definition, hallucinations occur only in the full waking state. Yet similarities to sleep-related experiences such as hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations, dreams and parasomnias, have been noted since antiquity. These observations have prompted researchers to suggest a common aetiology for these phenomena based on the neurobiology of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. With our recent understanding of hallucinations in different population groups and at the neurobiological, cognitive and interpersonal levels, it is now possible to draw comparisons between the 2 sets of experiences as never before. In the current article, we make detailed comparisons between sleep-related experiences and hallucinations in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and eye disease, at the levels of phenomenology (content, sensory modalities involved, perceptual attributes) and of brain function (brain activations, resting-state networks, neurotransmitter action). Findings show that sleep-related experiences share considerable overlap with hallucinations at the level of subjective descriptions and underlying brain mechanisms. Key differences remain however: (1) Sleep-related perceptions are immersive and largely cut off from reality, whereas hallucinations are discrete and overlaid on veridical perceptions; and (2) Sleep-related perceptions involve only a subset of neural networks implicated in hallucinations, reflecting perceptual signals processed in a functionally and cognitively closed-loop circuit. In summary, both phenomena are non-veridical perceptions that share some phenomenological and neural similarities, but insufficient evidence exists to fully support the notion that the majority of hallucinations depend on REM processes or REM intrusions into waking consciousness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. MarsSedEx III: linking Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and reduced gravity experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Kuhn, B.; Gartmann, A.

    2015-12-01

    Nikolaus J. Kuhn (1), Brigitte Kuhn (1), and Andres Gartmann (2) (1) University of Basel, Physical Geography, Environmental Sciences, Basel, Switzerland (nikolaus.kuhn@unibas.ch), (2) Meteorology, Climatology, Remote Sensing, Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Switzerland Experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx I and II reduced gravity experiments showed that using empirical models for sediment transport on Mars developed for Earth violates fluid dynamics. The error is caused by the interaction between runing water and sediment particles, which affect each other in a positive feedback loop. As a consequence, the actual flow conditions around a particle cannot be represented by drag coefficients derived on Earth. This study exmines the implications of such gravity effects on sediment movement on Mars, with special emphasis on the limits of sandstones and conglomerates formed on Earth as analogues for sedimentation on Mars. Furthermore, options for correctiong the errors using a combination of CFD and recent experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx III campaign are presented.

  2. Linking departmental priorities to knowledge management: the experiences of Santa Cruz County's Human Services Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Arley

    2012-01-01

    Federal welfare reform, local service collaborations, and the evolution of statewide information systems inspired agency interest in evidence-informed practice and knowledge sharing systems. Four agency leaders, including the Director, Deputy Director, Director of Planning and Evaluation, and Staff Development Program Manager championed the development of a learning organization based on knowledge management throughout the agency. Internal department restructuring helped to strengthen the Planning and Evaluation, Staff Development, and Personnel units, which have become central to supporting knowledge sharing activities. The Four Pillars of Knowledge framework was designed to capture agency directions in relationship to future knowledge management goals. Featuring People, Practice, Technology and Budget, the framework links the agency's services, mission and goals to the process of becoming a learning organization. Built through an iterative process, the framework was created by observing existing activities in each department rather than being designed from the top down. Knowledge management can help the department to fulfill its mission despite reduced resources. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  3. Recruitment of occipital cortex during sensory substitution training linked to subjective experience of seeing in people with blindness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ortiz

    Full Text Available Over three months of intensive training with a tactile stimulation device, 18 blind and 10 blindfolded seeing subjects improved in their ability to identify geometric figures by touch. Seven blind subjects spontaneously reported 'visual qualia', the subjective sensation of seeing flashes of light congruent with tactile stimuli. In the latter subjects tactile stimulation evoked activation of occipital cortex on electroencephalography (EEG. None of the blind subjects who failed to experience visual qualia, despite identical tactile stimulation training, showed EEG recruitment of occipital cortex. None of the blindfolded seeing humans reported visual-like sensations during tactile stimulation. These findings support the notion that the conscious experience of seeing is linked to the activation of occipital brain regions in people with blindness. Moreover, the findings indicate that provision of visual information can be achieved through non-visual sensory modalities which may help to minimize the disability of blind individuals, affording them some degree of object recognition and navigation aid.

  4. Recruitment of occipital cortex during sensory substitution training linked to subjective experience of seeing in people with blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Tomás; Poch, Joaquín; Santos, Juan M; Requena, Carmen; Martínez, Ana M; Ortiz-Terán, Laura; Turrero, Agustín; Barcia, Juan; Nogales, Ramón; Calvo, Agustín; Martínez, José M; Córdoba, José L; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Over three months of intensive training with a tactile stimulation device, 18 blind and 10 blindfolded seeing subjects improved in their ability to identify geometric figures by touch. Seven blind subjects spontaneously reported 'visual qualia', the subjective sensation of seeing flashes of light congruent with tactile stimuli. In the latter subjects tactile stimulation evoked activation of occipital cortex on electroencephalography (EEG). None of the blind subjects who failed to experience visual qualia, despite identical tactile stimulation training, showed EEG recruitment of occipital cortex. None of the blindfolded seeing humans reported visual-like sensations during tactile stimulation. These findings support the notion that the conscious experience of seeing is linked to the activation of occipital brain regions in people with blindness. Moreover, the findings indicate that provision of visual information can be achieved through non-visual sensory modalities which may help to minimize the disability of blind individuals, affording them some degree of object recognition and navigation aid.

  5. Linking Self-Regulation and Risk Proneness to Risky Sexual Behavior: Pathways through Peer Pressure and Early Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Lisa J.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Shen, Yuh-Ling

    2006-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulation in childhood, risk proneness in early adolescence, and risky sexual behavior in mid-adolescence were examined in a cohort of children (N=518) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The possible mediating role of two early adolescent variables (substance use and negative peer pressure) was also…

  6. The Devil Is in the Details: Linking Home Buyout Policy, Practice, and Experience After Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri Brokopp Binder

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Federal housing recovery policy bounds many of the decisions made by households after a disaster. Within this policy domain, home buyout programs are increasingly used to encourage residents to permanently relocate out of areas considered at risk for future hazards. While buyouts offer homeowners and governments potential benefits, research exploring the impacts of these policies is limited. In this paper, we present an in-depth examination of the community experience of buyouts, a perspective that is noticeably lacking in the literature. Using data from two mixed-method empirical studies, we explored the implications of buyout program design and implementation for Oakwood Beach, New York, a community offered a buyout after Hurricane Sandy. We found that  design decisions made at program conception significantly impacted participants’ experience of the buyout, including their understanding of program goals and their progression through the buyout and relocation process. We conclude with recommendations for future buyouts, including increased inclusion of affected communities in the process of and pre-event planning for recovery, along with recommendations for future research.

  7. Stress Sensitivity, Aberrant Salience, and Threat Anticipation in Early Psychosis: An Experience Sampling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininghaus, Ulrich; Kempton, Matthew J; Valmaggia, Lucia; Craig, Tom K J; Garety, Philippa; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; So, Suzanne H; Hubbard, Kathryn; Beards, Stephanie; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria; Fisher, Helen L; Mills, John G; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; McGuire, Philip; van Os, Jim; Murray, Robin M; Wykes, Til; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Morgan, Craig

    2016-05-01

    While contemporary models of psychosis have proposed a number of putative psychological mechanisms, how these impact on individuals to increase intensity of psychotic experiences in real life, outside the research laboratory, remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether elevated stress sensitivity, experiences of aberrant novelty and salience, and enhanced anticipation of threat contribute to the development of psychotic experiences in daily life. We used the experience sampling method (ESM) to assess stress, negative affect, aberrant salience, threat anticipation, and psychotic experiences in 51 individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 46 individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis, and 53 controls with no personal or family history of psychosis. Linear mixed models were used to account for the multilevel structure of ESM data. In all 3 groups, elevated stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and enhanced threat anticipation were associated with an increased intensity of psychotic experiences. However, elevated sensitivity to minor stressful events (χ(2)= 6.3,P= 0.044), activities (χ(2)= 6.7,P= 0.036), and areas (χ(2)= 9.4,P= 0.009) and enhanced threat anticipation (χ(2)= 9.3,P= 0.009) were associated with more intense psychotic experiences in FEP individuals than controls. Sensitivity to outsider status (χ(2)= 5.7,P= 0.058) and aberrantly salient experiences (χ(2)= 12.3,P= 0.002) were more strongly associated with psychotic experiences in ARMS individuals than controls. Our findings suggest that stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and threat anticipation are important psychological processes in the development of psychotic experiences in daily life in the early stages of the disorder. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  8. Stress Sensitivity, Aberrant Salience, and Threat Anticipation in Early Psychosis: An Experience Sampling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininghaus, Ulrich; Kempton, Matthew J.; Valmaggia, Lucia; Craig, Tom K. J.; Garety, Philippa; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; So, Suzanne H.; Hubbard, Kathryn; Beards, Stephanie; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria; Fisher, Helen L.; Mills, John G.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; McGuire, Philip; van Os, Jim; Murray, Robin M.; Wykes, Til; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Morgan, Craig

    2016-01-01

    While contemporary models of psychosis have proposed a number of putative psychological mechanisms, how these impact on individuals to increase intensity of psychotic experiences in real life, outside the research laboratory, remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether elevated stress sensitivity, experiences of aberrant novelty and salience, and enhanced anticipation of threat contribute to the development of psychotic experiences in daily life. We used the experience sampling method (ESM) to assess stress, negative affect, aberrant salience, threat anticipation, and psychotic experiences in 51 individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 46 individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis, and 53 controls with no personal or family history of psychosis. Linear mixed models were used to account for the multilevel structure of ESM data. In all 3 groups, elevated stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and enhanced threat anticipation were associated with an increased intensity of psychotic experiences. However, elevated sensitivity to minor stressful events (χ2 = 6.3, P = 0.044), activities (χ2 = 6.7, P = 0.036), and areas (χ2 = 9.4, P = 0.009) and enhanced threat anticipation (χ2 = 9.3, P = 0.009) were associated with more intense psychotic experiences in FEP individuals than controls. Sensitivity to outsider status (χ2 = 5.7, P = 0.058) and aberrantly salient experiences (χ2 = 12.3, P = 0.002) were more strongly associated with psychotic experiences in ARMS individuals than controls. Our findings suggest that stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and threat anticipation are important psychological processes in the development of psychotic experiences in daily life in the early stages of the disorder. PMID:26834027

  9. Linking the GLOBE Program With NASA and NSF Large-Scale Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmer, P. E.

    2005-12-01

    that will collaborate with the Geosciences Education assessment contractor and with the GLOBE Office's evaluation and assessment activities; and - Contact and discussions with the GLOBE Office regarding understandings of roles and responsibilities. The following link is a PDF document with full explanation of the GLOBE Program's new direction.

  10. Adiposity moderates links from early adversity and depressive symptoms to inflammatory reactivity to acute stress during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jessica J; Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R; Taylor, Shelley E; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2017-11-01

    Both early adversity and depression are associated with heightened inflammation. However, few studies have focused on inflammatory reactivity to psychosocial stress and examined adiposity as a potential moderator. Yet, repeated heightened inflammatory reactivity over time is thought to contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and adipose tissue is a key source of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether early adversity and depressive symptoms were related to stress-induced inflammation and whether these associations varied by total body and abdominal adiposity as measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in a sample of late adolescents. Participants reported on their early family environment and current depressive symptoms, had their height, weight, and WC assessed for adiposity markers, and provided blood samples for IL-6 assessment before and after a standardized laboratory stress task. No main effect of early adversity on IL-6 reactivity to acute stress was observed. However, significant interactions between early adversity and BMI and WC emerged. Greater exposure to early adversity was associated with greater IL-6 responses only among adolescents with higher BMI or WC. The same pattern of findings was observed for depressive symptoms. Additionally, moderated mediation analyses indicated that among adolescents with greater adiposity, early adversity indirectly influenced IL-6 reactivity via current depressive symptoms. These findings contribute to our understanding of vulnerability factors that may amplify the associations between early adversity and depressive symptoms and inflammation during relatively early stages of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of arthritis on the early employment experiences of young adults: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Arif

    2015-07-01

    Young adulthood is an important transitional life phase that can determine a person's career trajectory. To date, little research has examined the influence of arthritis on early work experiences. This literature review aims at examining the impact of arthritis on the early career phase of young adults and identifying the barriers to employment. Two independent reviewers searched bibliographic databases for arthritis conditions and a series of employment-related keywords and subject headings. Information on authors, publication year; study design, sample characteristics (e.g., number of participants, age, gender, arthritis type); work outcomes measured; and specific barriers to employment was recorded. Nine studies were uncovered in the review. All studies examined young people with juvenile arthritis (9 of 9 studies) and consisted of sample sizes with less then 150 participants (6 of 9 studies) who were primarily recruited from clinics (7 of 9 studies). All were cross-sectional designs. Employment status was primarily examined and ranged from 11% to 71%. Although not always statistically significant, young adults with arthritis were less likely to be employed when compared to their healthy peers. Greater disease severity, less educational attainment and being female were related to not participating in paid work. This review brings to light the paucity of studies examining the early employment experiences of young adults with arthritis. There is a need to expand research to contribute to recommendations for sustained and productive employment across the working life course. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The hELENa project - I. Stellar populations of early-type galaxies linked with local environment and galaxy mass

    OpenAIRE

    Sybilska, A.; Lisker, T.; Kuntschner, H.; Vazdekis, A.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Janz, J.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first in a series of papers in T$h$e role of $E$nvironment in shaping $L$ow-mass $E$arly-type $N$earby g$a$laxies (hELENa) project. In this paper we combine our sample of 20 low-mass early types (dEs) with 258 massive early types (ETGs) from the ATLAS$^{\\mathrm{3D}}$ survey - all observed with the SAURON integral field unit (IFU) - to investigate early-type galaxies' stellar population scaling relations and the dependence of the population properties on local environment, exten...

  13. Experiences and Motives of Australian Single Mothers by Choice Who Make Early Contact with their Child's Donor Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Fiona J; Dempsey, Deborah J

    2017-01-30

    An increasing number of Australian parents of donor-conceived children are making contact with their child's donor relatives prior to their child reaching the age of majority. This process, often referred to as 'donor linking', can be achieved in Australia through either formal or informal mechanisms. Formal mechanisms exist in three states, each of which has legislation enabling donor linking in certain circumstances. Donor linking may also be achieved through informal mechanisms, such as online donor registries, social media searches, direct-to-consumer genetic testing, and fertility clinics which act as intermediaries between donors and recipients. Drawing on qualitative interview data, this article explores the donor linking practices of twenty-five single women who conceived using donated gametes. The findings suggest that early contact with donors is extremely popular among single women and that, even when formal legislative mechanisms are available, informal linking remains common. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Coping Expectancies, Not Enhancement Expectancies, Mediate Trauma Experience Effects on Problem Alcohol Use: A Prospective Study From Early Childhood to Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Jennifer M; Steinberg, Davia B; Heitzeg, Mary M; Zucker, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between experiencing trauma and increased alcohol consumption has been well established. Exposure to childhood trauma has been linked to both early onset of drinking and problematic substance use. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. The results of early work suggested that drinking to relieve negative affect (i.e., drinking to cope) was driving this connection. However, the findings of more recent work suggest that drinking might be used to enhance positive affect as a way of addressing the aftereffects of early trauma. The current study looked at these two drinking expectancies as indirect pathways between the experience in early childhood of living in a home with parental violence and peak alcohol use in emerging adulthood. Participants were 1,064 children and their parents involved in a longitudinal community study of children at high risk for the development of alcoholism and a community contrast group of those at lower risk. Baseline assessment was at age 3-5 years, self-reports of internalizing behavior and drinking expectancies were obtained at age 12-14, and drinking measures were assessed at age 18-20. Results indicated that coping expectancy was a mediator of the relationship between early childhood trauma and later peak alcohol use, whereas enhancement expectancy was not. Children living in homes with parental violence were more likely to develop ineffective coping strategies, such as using alcohol to decrease negative affect. These results support the self-medication theory. They also demonstrate the long-term effects of early life experience on drinking behavior in early adulthood.

  15. Prompt Loss of Energetic Ions during Early Neutral Beam Injection in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Darrow, D.S.; Liu, D.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    Early neutral-beam injection is used in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to heat the electrons and slow current penetration which keeps q(0) elevated to avoid deleterious MHD activity and at the same time reduces Ohmic flux consumption, all of which aids long-pulse operation. However, the low plasma current (I p ∼ 0.5 MA) and electron density (n e ∼ 1 x 10 13 cm -3 ) attending early injection lead to elevated orbit and shine through losses. The inherent orbit losses are aggravated by large excursions in the outer gap width during current ramp-up. An investigation of this behavior using various energetic particle diagnostics on NSTX and TRANSP code analysis is presented

  16. Parents' early healthcare transition experiences with preterm and acutely ill infants: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, M; Orava, T; Bernardo, S; McPherson, A C; Church, P; Fehlings, D

    2017-11-01

    Parents undergo multiple transitions following the birth of an ill infant: their infant's illness-health trajectory, neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization and transfers from one healthcare setting to another, while also transitioning to parenthood. The objective of this review was to map and synthesize evidence on the experiences and needs of parents of preterm or ill infants as they transition within and between healthcare settings following birth. The scoping review followed Arskey and O'Malley's () framework, enhanced by Levac et al. (). Relevant studies were identified through a comprehensive search strategy of scientific and grey literature databases, online networks, Web of Science and citation lists of relevant articles. Inclusion criteria encompassed a focus on infants undergoing a healthcare transition, and the experiences and needs of parents during transition. Studies were appraised for design quality, and data relevant to parent experiences were extracted and underwent thematic analysis. A total of 7773 records were retrieved, 90 full texts reviewed and 11 articles synthesized that represented a total sample of 435 parents of preterm or ill infants. Parents reported on their experiences in response to their infant's transition within and between hospitals and across levels of neonatal intensive care unit, intermediate and community hospital care. Ten studies used qualitative research methods, while one employed quantitative survey methods. Four key themes were identified: that of parent distress throughout transition, parenting at a distance, sources of stress and sources of support. Parents' stress resulted from not being informed or involved in the transition decision, inadequate communication and perceived differences in cultures of care across healthcare settings. Opportunities to improve parents' early transition experiences include enhanced engagement, communication, information-sharing and shared decision-making between health care

  17. The role of food experiences during early childhood in food pleasure learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklaus, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Infants are born equipped to ingest nutrients, but have to learn what to eat. This must occur early, because the mode of feeding evolves dramatically, from "tube" feeding in utero to eating family foods. Eating habits established during early years contribute to the development of subsequent eating habits. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the most important early periods (between birth and 2 years, i.e. onset of food neophobia) for the development of eating habits and the drivers of this development. The role of pleasure in eating is central, especially during childhood when cognitive drivers of food choices may be less prominent than later in life. It is not easy to define and measure pleasure of eating in early childhood. However, it is possible to identify the characteristics of the eating experience which contribute to drive infant's eating and to shape preferences (food sensory properties; food rewarding properties; social context of eating). The learning processes involve repeated exposure (including to a variety of flavours), association with post-absorptive consequences and with contextual signals (including family members). The important early periods for learning food pleasure start being well identified. Beyond the first flavour discoveries during the prenatal and lactation periods (through the infant's exposure to flavours from foods of the mother's diet), the most important phase may be the beginning of complementary feeding. Infants discover the sensory (texture, taste and flavour) and nutritional properties (energy density) of the foods that will ultimately compose their adult diet; parents are still in charge of providing appropriate foods, timing, context for eating. Inter-individual differences in food pleasure learning, related to temperamental dimensions, or to sensory sensitivity also have to be taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Linking Early Childhood Education with Indigenous Education Using Gamification: The Case of Maintaining Cultural Value and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukala, Catherine Chinyere; Agabi, Ogar G.

    2017-01-01

    Cultural values and identities remain the bench mark for national identity, cohesion, patriotism and harmonious coexistence in any society. The introduction of western education into West Africa created a weak bridge between the indigenous education and the western education which needs to be properly linked using curriculum harmonisation. This…

  19. Early experience with human papillomavirus vaccine introduction in the United States, Canada and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Abigail; Markowitz, Lauri; Deeks, Shelley; Tam, Theresa; Irwin, Kathleen; Garland, Suzanne M; Schuchat, Anne

    2008-08-19

    Successful incorporation of a new vaccine into a nation's vaccination program requires addressing a number of issues, including: 1) establishing national recommendations; 2) assuring education of and acceptance by the public and medical community; 3) establishing and maintaining an appropriate infrastructure for vaccine delivery; 4) financing the vaccine and the program, in addition to political will. This article reviews the early experience with implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs. It focuses on the United States of America and Canada and provides a brief report on Australia, where introduction is underway.

  20. ATM QoS Experiments Using TCP Applications: Performance of TCP/IP Over ATM in a Variety of Errored Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Brian D.; Ivancic, William D.

    2001-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Quality of Service (QoS) experiments using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) were performed for various link delays. The link delay was set to emulate a Wide Area Network (WAN) and a Satellite Link. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate the ATM QoS requirements for applications that utilize advance TCP/IP protocols implemented with large windows and Selective ACKnowledgements (SACK). The effects of cell error, cell loss, and random bit errors on throughput were reported. The detailed test plan and test results are presented herein.

  1. Evaluating the Psychological Concomitants of Other-Sex Crush Experiences during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Etkin, Rebecca G.

    2016-01-01

    Very little empirical attention has been paid to other-sex crush experiences during adolescence. As a result, it is not known whether such experiences, which appear to be relatively common, impact psychological adjustment outcomes. This two-wave (3 month interval) longitudinal study of 268 young adolescents (48% girls; M age at Time 1 = 11.84 years) examined the psychological concomitants of other-sex crush experiences (having and being viewed by others as a crush). Anxious-withdrawal and gender were evaluated as moderators. Peer nomination measures at Time 1 assessed both types of crush experiences and mutual friendship involvement, and participants completed self-report measures of loneliness and depressive symptoms at Times 1 and 2. The results from regression analyses revealed significant associations between having an other-sex crush and depressive symptoms at Time 1, after accounting for the effects of mutual friendship. Two interaction effects also revealed that crush status was a risk factor for depressive symptoms at low levels of anxious-withdrawal but a protective factor at high levels. The findings provide the first empirical evidence that other-sex crush experiences are developmentally significant during early adolescence. PMID:26984754

  2. The early childhood sexual experiences and collusion in adult partner relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebska, Agnieszka; Beisert, Maria Janina; Roszyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research was verification of the hypothesis for the influence of negative sexual experiences in sexual development on the quality of partner relationships in the adult life. Special attention was given to the influence exercised by the level of erotization in the environment of the family of origin and to the experience of child sexual abuse. The quality of partner relationships was recognized using Jurg Willi's concept through the analysis of intensity of dysfunctions (collusions) in those relationships. The study was conducted on a population of 170 adults in partnerships. The surveyed group filled in the Questionnaire on Models of Sexual Upbringing in Families, the Couples Collusion Questionnaire and the Questionnaire on Sexual Abuse of Children. Positive interrelation has been confirmed between the level of erotization in the family of origin and the oral, anal and oedipal partner collusion in the procreative relationships of individuals. Such link has not been confirmed for narcissistic collusion. The interrelation between the sexually abusive experiences and the partner collusion has only been confirmed in masculine group within the oral collusion and the anal collusion. The findings largely support the assumption that there is a connection between the character of sexual experiences in childhood and functioning in adult partnership.

  3. Vitiligo linked to stigmatization in British South Asian women: a qualitative study of the experiences of living with vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A R; Clarke, S A; Newell, R J; Gawkrodger, D J

    2010-09-01

    Vitiligo is a visible condition that is more noticeable in darker-skinned people. Beliefs about illness have been linked to psychosocial adjustment. There is some evidence that such beliefs may be influenced by cultural factors. Surprisingly little is known about beliefs in relation to vitiligo. The study sought to explore in depth the ways in which British Asian women manage and adjust psychosocially to vitiligo, and the potential role of ethnicity and culture in this process. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with seven British women of South Asian decent and analysed using the qualitative method of template analysis. Participants described feeling visibly different and all had experienced stigmatization to some extent. Avoidance and concealment were commonplace. Experiences of stigmatization were often perceived to be associated with cultural values related to appearance, status, and myths linked to the cause of the condition. The findings of this study present a unique in-depth analysis of British South Asians living with vitiligo and suggest there is a need for further research to explore cultural associations of disfigurement and of adjustment to chronic skin conditions. Furthermore, they suggest that in addition to individual therapeutic interventions there may be a need for community interventions aimed at dispelling myths and raising awareness of sources of support and treatment. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Linking variations in sea spray aerosol particle hygroscopicity to composition during two microcosm experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Forestieri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which water uptake influences the light scattering ability of marine sea spray aerosol (SSA particles depends critically on SSA chemical composition. The organic fraction of SSA can increase during phytoplankton blooms, decreasing the salt content and therefore the hygroscopicity of the particles. In this study, subsaturated hygroscopic growth factors at 85 % relative humidity (GF(85 % of predominately submicron SSA particles were quantified during two induced phytoplankton blooms in marine aerosol reference tanks (MARTs. One MART was illuminated with fluorescent lights and the other was illuminated with sunlight, referred to as the "indoor" and "outdoor" MARTs, respectively. Optically weighted GF(85 % values for SSA particles were derived from measurements of light scattering and particle size distributions. The mean optically weighted SSA diameters were 530 and 570 nm for the indoor and outdoor MARTs, respectively. The GF(85 % measurements were made concurrently with online particle composition measurements, including bulk composition (using an Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and single particle (using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer measurement, and a variety of water-composition measurements. During both microcosm experiments, the observed optically weighted GF(85 % values were depressed substantially relative to pure inorganic sea salt by 5 to 15 %. There was also a time lag between GF(85 % depression and the peak chlorophyll a (Chl a concentrations by either 1 (indoor MART or 3-to-6 (outdoor MART days. The fraction of organic matter in the SSA particles generally increased after the Chl a peaked, also with a time lag, and ranged from about 0.25 to 0.5 by volume. The observed depression in the GF(85 % values (relative to pure sea salt is consistent with the large observed volume fractions of non-refractory organic matter (NR-OM comprising the SSA. The GF(85 % values

  5. Effects of Early Neglect Experience on Recognition and Processing of Facial Expressions: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Doretto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child neglect is highly prevalent and associated with a series of biological and social consequences. Early neglect may alter the recognition of emotional faces, but its precise impact remains unclear. We aim to review and analyze data from recent literature about recognition and processing of facial expressions in individuals with history of childhood neglect. Methods: We conducted a systematic review using PubMed, PsycINFO, ScIELO and EMBASE databases in the search of studies for the past 10 years. Results: In total, 14 studies were selected and critically reviewed. A heterogeneity was detected across methods and sample frames. Results were mixed across studies. Different forms of alterations to perception of facial expressions were found across 12 studies. There was alteration to the recognition and processing of both positive and negative emotions, but for emotional face processing there was predominance in alteration toward negative emotions. Conclusions: This is the first review to examine specifically the effects of early neglect experience as a prevalent condition of child maltreatment. The results of this review are inconclusive due to methodological diversity, implement of distinct instruments and differences in the composition of the samples. Despite these limitations, some studies support our hypothesis that individuals with history of early negligence may present alteration to the ability to perceive face expressions of emotions. The article brings relevant information that can help in the development of more effective therapeutic strategies to reduce the impact of neglect on the cognitive and emotional development of the child.

  6. Quantitative N-linked Glycoproteomics of Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury Reveals Early Remodeling in the Extracellular Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Benjamin L; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Edwards, Alistair V G

    2011-01-01

    , while dimethyl labeling confirmed 46 of these and revealed an additional 62 significant changes. These were mainly from predicted extracellular matrix and basement membrane proteins that are implicated in cardiac remodeling. Analysis of N-glycans released from myocardial proteins suggest...... that the observed changes were not due to significant alterations in N-glycan structures. Altered proteins included the collagen-laminin-integrin complexes and collagen assembly enzymes, cadherins, mast cell proteases, proliferation-associated secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, and microfibril......Extracellular and cell surface proteins are generally modified with N-linked glycans and glycopeptide enrichment is an attractive tool to analyze these proteins. The role of N-linked glycoproteins in cardiovascular disease, particularly ischemia and reperfusion injury, is poorly understood...

  7. Self-focused and other-focused resiliency: Plausible mechanisms linking early family adversity to health problems in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Sulamunn R M; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Heron, Kristin E; Vartanian, Lenny R; Smyth, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether self-focused and other-focused resiliency help explain how early family adversity relates to perceived stress, subjective health, and health behaviors in college women. Female students (N = 795) participated between October 2009 and May 2010. Participants completed self-report measures of early family adversity, self-focused (self-esteem, personal growth initiative) and other-focused (perceived social support, gratitude) resiliency, stress, subjective health, and health behaviors. Using structural equation modeling, self-focused resiliency associated with less stress, better subjective health, more sleep, less smoking, and less weekend alcohol consumption. Other-focused resiliency associated with more exercise, greater stress, and more weekend alcohol consumption. Early family adversity was indirectly related to all health outcomes, except smoking, via self-focused and other-focused resiliency. Self-focused and other-focused resiliency represent plausible mechanisms through which early family adversity relates to stress and health in college women. This highlights areas for future research in disease prevention and management.

  8. Brief Report: Linking Early Joint Attention and Play Abilities to Later Reports of Friendships for Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stephanny F.; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of early joint attention and play in children with autism on child- and parent-reported friendship quality 5 years later. Initially, children participated in developmental, joint attention, and play measures. At follow-up (age 8-9), parents and children completed the Friendship Qualities Scale (Bukowski et al. in…

  9. Working with Space and Shape in Early Childhood Education: Experiences in Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Luiza da Silva Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This report shows the experience of a work conducted with the Meli-Melo puzzle in two early childhood education classes at two different schools in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. With the work’s activities as a starting point, aspects related to space and shape, as well as quantities and measures, were approached. Children from two and a half to five years old participated in the playful activities, which had the following goals: to develop spatial and geometric skills, to allow measuring actions, to favor dialogue and to boost group work experience. There were several activities, like handling the pieces, assembling images freely or according with outlines and models, assembling three-dimensional figures, and the length game. The following questions were considered in the evaluation of the work: how was the children’s participation in large groups and small groups? How did children of different age groups engage in the different proposals? Which activities were easier or more difficult for each group? Which behaviors and conversations showed us new knowledge? The fulfillment of the planned activities showed that the children had several hypotheses regarding shapes and that they were able to identify similarities and differences, use geometry vocabulary, and discuss their thoughts, particularly when working in small groups, which favored the participation of nearly all children. We believe the work reported has allowed learnings and a contact with mathematics in early childhood education.

  10. Word learning in deaf children with cochlear implants: effects of early auditory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Derek M; Stewart, Jessica; Moberly, Aaron; Hollich, George; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2012-05-01

    Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word/novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this task at approximately 18 months of age and older. For deaf children, performance on this task was significantly correlated with early auditory experience: Children whose cochlear implants were switched on by 14 months of age or who had relatively more hearing before implantation demonstrated learning in this task, but later implanted profoundly deaf children did not. Performance on this task also correlated with later measures of vocabulary size. Taken together, these findings suggest that early auditory experience facilitates word learning and that the IPLP may be useful for identifying children who may be at high risk for poor vocabulary development. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. When early experiences build a wall to others' emotions: an electrophysiological and autonomic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ardizzi

    Full Text Available Facial expression of emotions is a powerful vehicle for communicating information about others' emotional states and it normally induces facial mimicry in the observers. The aim of this study was to investigate if early aversive experiences could interfere with emotion recognition, facial mimicry, and with the autonomic regulation of social behaviors. We conducted a facial emotion recognition task in a group of "street-boys" and in an age-matched control group. We recorded facial electromyography (EMG, a marker of facial mimicry, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, an index of the recruitment of autonomic system promoting social behaviors and predisposition, in response to the observation of facial expressions of emotions. Results showed an over-attribution of anger, and reduced EMG responses during the observation of both positive and negative expressions only among street-boys. Street-boys also showed lower RSA after observation of facial expressions and ineffective RSA suppression during presentation of non-threatening expressions. Our findings suggest that early aversive experiences alter not only emotion recognition but also facial mimicry of emotions. These deficits affect the autonomic regulation of social behaviors inducing lower social predisposition after the visualization of facial expressions and an ineffective recruitment of defensive behavior in response to non-threatening expressions.

  12. Globalising Early Childhood Teacher Education: A Study of Student Life Histories and Course Experience in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farell, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Globalisation in early childhood teacher education is examined in light of a study of the life histories and course experience of students in early childhood teacher education in Queensland, Australia. Contemporary teacher education is embedded in global economies, new technologies and marketisation, which, in turn, may contribute to students…

  13. Early Career Mathematics Teachers' General Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills: Do Teacher Education, Teaching Experience, and Working Conditions Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Johannes; Blömeke, Sigrid; Kaiser, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We examined several facets of general pedagogical knowledge and skills of early career mathematics teachers, asking how they are associated with characteristics of teacher education, teaching experience, and working conditions. Declarative general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) was assessed via a paper-and-pencil test, while early career teachers'…

  14. Healthy Foundations Study: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate biological embedding of early-life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Catherine, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; Jack, Susan M; Atkinson, Leslie; Kobor, Michael; Sheehan, Debbie; Tonmyr, Lil; Waddell, Charlotte; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2018-01-26

    Adverse early experiences are associated with long-lasting disruptions in physiology, development and health. These experiences may be 'biologically embedded' into molecular and genomic systems that determine later expressions of vulnerability. Most studies to date have not examined whether preventive interventions can potentially reverse biological embedding. The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) is an evidence-based intervention with demonstrated efficacy in improving prenatal health, parenting and child functioning. The Healthy Foundations Study is an innovative birth cohort which will evaluate the impact of the NFP on biological outcomes of mothers and their infants. Starting in 2013, up to 400 pregnant mothers and their newborns were recruited from the British Columbia Healthy Connections Project-a randomised controlled trial of the NFP, and will be followed to child aged 2 years. Women were recruited prior to 28 weeks' gestation and then individually randomised to receive existing services (comparison group) or NFP plus existing services (intervention group). Hair samples are collected from mothers at baseline and 2 months post partum to measure physiological stress. Saliva samples are collected from infants during all visits for analyses of stress and immune function. Buccal swabs are collected from infants at 2 and 24 months to assess DNA methylation. Biological samples will be related to child outcome measures at age 2 years. The study received ethical approval from seven research ethics boards. Findings from this study will be shared broadly with the research community through peer-reviewed publications, and conference presentations, as well as seminars with our policy partners and relevant healthcare providers. The outcomes of this study will provide all stakeholders with important information regarding how early adversity may lead to health and behavioural disparities and how these may be altered through early interventions. NCT01672060; Pre-results.

  15. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Early Colorectal Neoplasms: Clinical Experience in a Tertiary Medical Center in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yu Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD is a promising technique to treat early colorectal neoplasms by facilitating en bloc resection without size limitations. Although ESD for early gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasms has been popular in Japan, clinical experience with colorectal ESD has been rarely reported in Taiwan. Methods. From March 2006 to December 2011, 92 consecutive patients with early colorectal neoplasms resected by ESD at Tri-Service General Hospital were included. ESD was performed for colorectal epithelial neoplasms with a noninvasive pit pattern which had the following criteria: (1 lesions difficult to remove en bloc with a snare, such as laterally spreading tumors-nongranular type (LST-NG ≧20 mm and laterally spreading tumors-granular type (LST-G ≧30 mm; (2 lesions with fibrosis or which had recurred after endoscopic mucosal resection with a nonlifting sign. Results. The mean age of the patients was 66.3±12.9 years, and the male-female ratio was 1.8 : 1. The mean tumor size was 37.2±17.9 mm. The en bloc resection rate was 90.2% and the R0 resection rate was 89.1%. Perforations during ESD occurred in 11 patients (12.0% and all of them were effectively treated by endoscopic closure with hemoclips. No delayed perforation or postoperative bleeding was recorded. There were no procedure-related morbidities or mortalities. Conclusion. ESD is an effective method for en bloc resection of large early colorectal neoplasms and those with a nonlifting sign. An endoscopic technique to close perforations is essential for colorectal ESD.

  16. Experiences and Motives of Australian Single Mothers by Choice who make Early Contact with their Child’s Donor Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An increasing number of Australian parents of donor-conceived children are making contact with their child’s donor relatives prior to their child reaching the age of majority. This process, often referred to as ‘donor linking’, can be achieved in Australia through either formal or informal mechanisms. Formal mechanisms exist in three states, each of which has legislation enabling donor linking in certain circumstances. Donor linking may also be achieved through informal mechanisms, such as online donor registries, social media searches, direct-to-consumer genetic testing, and fertility clinics which act as intermediaries between donors and recipients. Drawing on qualitative interview data, this article explores the donor linking practices of twenty-five single women who conceived using donated gametes. The findings suggest that early contact with donors is extremely popular among single women and that, even when formal legislative mechanisms are available, informal linking remains common. PMID:28137771

  17. Chinese primiparous women's experiences of early motherhood: factors affecting maternal role competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Fei-Wan; Chan, Sally W C; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Chinese women's perceptions of maternal role competence and factors contributing to maternal role competence during early motherhood. Developing a sense of competence and satisfaction in the maternal role are considered critical components in maternal adaptation, which have a significant impact on parenting behaviours and the psychosocial development of the child. However, qualitative studies that address maternal role competence are limited in the Chinese population. This was an exploratory descriptive study. A purposive sample of 26 Chinese primiparous mothers participated in a childbirth psychoeducation programme and was interviewed at six weeks postpartum. Data were analysed using content analysis. Women perceived a competent mother as being able to make a commitment to caring for the physical and emotional well-being of child, while cultivating appropriate values for childhood. Personal knowledge and experience of infant care, success in breastfeeding, infant's well-being, availability of social support and contradictory information from various sources were major factors affecting maternal role competency. The findings highlight the importance of understanding Chinese cultural attitudes to childrearing and maternal role competence. New Chinese mothers need information on child care, positive experiences of infant care, social support and consistent information to enhance their maternal role competency. Recommendations are made for Chinese culturally specific guidelines and healthcare delivery interventions to enhance maternal role competence in early motherhood. Nursing and midwifery care should always take into account the cultural beliefs and enable adaptation of traditional postpartum practices. Providing consistent information and positive experience on parenting skills and infant behaviour as well as enhancing effective coping strategies could strengthen Chinese women's maternal role competency. © 2011 Blackwell

  18. Early illness experiences related to unexpected heart surgery: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ling; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2017-09-01

    Most studies on patients' experiences following emergency cardiac surgery focus on evaluation of patients after their discharge. Few studies have evaluated patients' experiences after being transferred from intensive care and before being discharged. This study aimed to describe patients' experiences in the early stages of recovery following emergency heart surgery. For this exploratory qualitative descriptive study, 13 patients were recruited from a medical centre in northern Taiwan. Participants had undergone emergency heart surgery and had resided in the cardiothoracic surgical ward for ≥6 days following transfer from the ICU; all expected to be discharged from the hospital within 3 days. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted in private after the patients had been transferred to the cardiothoracic surgical wards. Audiotaped interviews were transcribed and analysed using content analysis. Data analysis identified four themes, which represented different recovery stages: sudden and serious symptoms, nightmares and vivid dreams, physical and emotional disturbances, and establishing a new life after emergency surgery. A fifth theme, support for a new lifestyle, occurred between the four stages. Participants experienced symptoms of physical and psychological stress during the early recovery stages following emergency heart surgery. A lack of understanding of the process of recovery increased these difficulties; participants wanted and needed multidisciplinary care and education. Emergency heart surgery does not allow healthcare professionals to inform patients of what to expect post-surgery. Our findings suggest that rather than waiting until discharge to offer disease information and treatment plans, multidisciplinary care should be initiated as soon as possible to facilitate recovery. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early tracking would improve the operative experience of general surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stain, Steven C; Biester, Thomas W; Hanks, John B; Ashley, Stanley W; Valentine, R James; Bass, Barbara L; Buyske, Jo

    2010-09-01

    High surgical complexity and individual career goals has led most general surgery (GS) residents to pursue fellowship training, resulting in a shortage of surgeons who practice broad-based general surgery. We hypothesize that early tracking of residents would improve operative experience of residents planning to be general surgeons, and could foster greater interest and confidence in this career path. Surgical Operative Log data from GS and fellowship bound residents (FB) applying for the 2008 American Board of Surgery Qualifying Examination (QE) were used to construct a hypothetical training model with 6 months of early specialization (ESP) for FB residents in 4 specialties (cardiac, vascular, colorectal, pediatric); and presumed these cases would be available to GS residents within the same program. A total of 142 training programs had both FB residents (n = 237) and GS residents (n = 402), and represented 70% of all 2008 QE applicants. The mean numbers of operations by FB and GS residents were 1131 and 1091, respectively. There were a mean of 252 cases by FB residents in the chief year, theoretically making 126 cases available for each GS resident. In 9 defined categories, the hypothetical model would result in an increase in the 5-year operative experience of GS residents (mastectomy 6.5%; colectomy 22.8%; gastrectomy 23.4%; antireflux procedures 23.4%; pancreatic resection 37.4%; liver resection 29.3%; endocrine procedures 19.6%; trauma operations 13.3%; GI endoscopy 6.5%). The ESP model improves operative experience of GS residents, particularly for complex gastrointestinal procedures. The expansion of subspecialty ESP should be considered.

  20. Pottery use by early Holocene hunter-gatherers of the Korean peninsula closely linked with the exploitation of marine resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Shinya; Lucquin, Alexandre; Ahn, Jae-ho; Hwang, Chul-joo; Craig, Oliver E.

    2017-08-01

    The earliest pottery on the Korean peninsula dates to the early Holocene, notably later than other regions of East Asia, such as Japan, the Russian Far East and Southern China. To shed light on the function of such early Korean pottery and to understand the motivations for its adoption, organic residue analysis was conducted on pottery sherds and adhered surface deposit on the wall of pottery vessels (foodcrusts) excavated from the Sejuk shell midden (7.7-6.8ka calBP) on the southeastern coast and the Jukbyeon-ri site (7.9-6.9ka calBP) on the eastern coast of the Korean peninsula, that represents the earliest pottery assemblages with reliable radiocarbon dates. Through chemical and isotopic residue analysis, we conclude that the use of pottery at these sites was oriented towards marine resources, supported by lipid biomarkers typical of aquatic organisms and stable carbon isotope values that matched authentic marine reference fats. The findings contrast with other archaeological evidence, which shows that a wider range of available food resources were exploited. Therefore, we conclude pottery was used selectively for processing aquatic organisms perhaps including the rendering of aquatic oils for storage. Early pottery use in Korea is broadly similar to other prehistoric temperate hunter-gatherers, such as in Japan, northern Europe and northern America. However, it is also notable that elaborately decorated red burnished pottery excavated from isolated location at the Jukbyeon-ri site had a different usage pattern, which indicates that division of pottery use by vessel form was established even at this early stage.

  1. The hELENa project - I. Stellar populations of early-type galaxies linked with local environment and galaxy mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybilska, A.; Lisker, T.; Kuntschner, H.; Vazdekis, A.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Janz, J.

    2017-09-01

    We present the first in a series of papers in The role of Environment in shaping Low-mass Early-type Nearby galaxies (hELENa) project. In this paper, we combine our sample of 20 low-mass early types (dEs) with 258 massive early types (ETGs) from the ATLAS3D survey - all observed with the SAURON integral field unit - to investigate early-type galaxies' stellar population scaling relations and the dependence of the population properties on local environment, extended to the low-σ regime of dEs. The ages in our sample show more scatter at lower σ values, indicative of less massive galaxies being affected by the environment to a higher degree. The shape of the age-σ relations for cluster versus non-cluster galaxies suggests that cluster environment speeds up the placing of galaxies on the red sequence. While the scaling relations are tighter for cluster than for the field/group objects, we find no evidence for a difference in average population characteristics of the two samples. We investigate the properties of our sample in the Virgo cluster as a function of number density (rather than simple clustrocentric distance) and find that dE ages correlate with the local density such that galaxies in regions of lower density are younger, likely because they are later arrivals to the cluster or have experienced less pre-processing in groups, and consequently used up their gas reservoir more recently. Overall, dE properties correlate more strongly with density than those of massive ETGs, which was expected as less massive galaxies are more susceptible to external influences.

  2. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience.

  3. Early visual experience and the recognition of basic facial expressions: involvement of the middle temporal and inferior frontal gyri during haptic identification by the early blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko; Sasaki, Akihiro T.; Kochiyama, Takanori; Miyahara, Motohide; Lederman, Susan J.; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    Face perception is critical for social communication. Given its fundamental importance in the course of evolution, the innate neural mechanisms can anticipate the computations necessary for representing faces. However, the effect of visual deprivation on the formation of neural mechanisms that underlie face perception is largely unknown. We previously showed that sighted individuals can recognize basic facial expressions by haptics surprisingly well. Moreover, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the sighted subjects are involved in haptic and visual recognition of facial expressions. Here, we conducted both psychophysical and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to determine the nature of the neural representation that subserves the recognition of basic facial expressions in early blind individuals. In a psychophysical experiment, both early blind and sighted subjects haptically identified basic facial expressions at levels well above chance. In the subsequent fMRI experiment, both groups haptically identified facial expressions and shoe types (control). The sighted subjects then completed the same task visually. Within brain regions activated by the visual and haptic identification of facial expressions (relative to that of shoes) in the sighted group, corresponding haptic identification in the early blind activated regions in the inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri. These results suggest that the neural system that underlies the recognition of basic facial expressions develops supramodally even in the absence of early visual experience. PMID:23372547

  4. Developing Research-Ready Skills: Preparing Early Academic Students for Participation in Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlevoix, D. J.; Morris, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Engaging lower-division undergraduates in research experiences is a key but challenging aspect of guiding talented students into the geoscience research pipeline. UNAVCO conducted a summer internship program to prepare first and second year college students for participation in authentic, scientific research. Many students in their first two years of academic studies do not have the science content knowledge or sufficient math skills to conduct independent research. Students from groups historically underrepresented in the geosciences may face additional challenges in that they often have a less robust support structure to help them navigate the university environment and may be less aware of professional opportunities in the geosciences.UNAVCO, manager of NSF's geodetic facility, hosted four students during summer 2015 internship experience aimed to help them develop skills that will prepare them for research internships and skills that will help them advance professionally. Students spent eight weeks working with UNAVCO technical staff learning how to use equipment, prepare instrumentation for field campaigns, among other technical skills. Interns also participated in a suite of professional development activities including communications workshops, skills seminars, career circles, geology-focused field trips, and informal interactions with research interns and graduate student interns at UNAVCO. This presentation will outline the successes and challenges of engaging students early in their academic careers and outline the unique role such experiences can have in students' academic careers.

  5. Women's experiences of participating in the early external cephalic version 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Davis, Beth; Marion, Anya; Malott, Anne; Reitsma, Angela; Hutton, Eileen K

    2012-03-01

    The international, multicenter External Cephalic Version 2 (ECV2) Trial compared early external cephalic version at 34(0/7) to 35(6/7) weeks with that at greater than 37 weeks. A total of 1,543 women were randomized from 68 centers in 21 countries. The goal of this component of the trial was to understand women's views about participation in a research trial and timing of external cephalic version. A postpartum questionnaire was completed containing a 5-point Likert scale examining contact and availability of staff, choice of timing of external cephalic version, preference of randomization, convenience of participating, and overall satisfaction. Participants also completed two open-ended questions related to timing of external cephalic version and satisfaction with the trial. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used to analyze data. A total of 1,458 women completed the questionnaire, of whom 86 percent said "yes"-they would participate in the trial again. Themes influencing decisions about participating were perceptions of the external cephalic version experience, preferred mode of delivery, preferred timing of external cephalic version, and perceptions of the effectiveness of external cephalic version and of the trial environment. Many participants preferred the early timing of the procedure offered through the trial because of perceived advantages of a smaller baby being easier to turn and the opportunity for repeat procedures. Women were positive about their participation in the trial. Early external cephalic version was preferred over the traditional timing as it was perceived to afford both physiologic and practical advantages. © 2012, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Association of Adverse Childhood Experiences with Co-occurring Health Conditions in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Melissa A; Thompson, Lindsay A

    2018-01-01

    To understand how adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with co-occurring physical, mental and developmental problems during early childhood. A subsample of 19,957 children aged 2-5 years were selected from the 2011-2012 National Survey for Child Health. Outcomes included 18 health conditions organized in singular condition domains (physical, mental, and developmental), and combinations of condition domains (e.g., physical plus mental, mental plus developmental, etc.). Predictors included 8 ACEs (divorce of a parent, death of a parent, exposure to domestic violence, living with someone with a drug or alcohol abuse problem, household member with a mental illness, parent incarceration, neighborhood violence, discrimination). Multivariable logistic regression was performed controlling for demographic characteristics, having a personal doctor, health insurance coverage, and seeing a health care professional in the previous year. Experiencing 3 or more ACEs before the age of 5 years was associated with increased likelihood of nearly every co-occurring condition combination across 3 domains of health. Most notably, experiencing 3 or more ACEs was also associated with a 2-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 physical condition and ≥1 developmental condition, a 9-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 mental and ≥1 developmental condition, and a 7-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 physical, ≥1 mental, and ≥1 developmental condition. This study demonstrates that we can identify the health effects of adversity quite early in development and that management should include communication between both health care and early childhood education providers.

  7. Experiences integrating autonomous components and legacy systems into tsunami early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reißland, S.; Herrnkind, S.; Guenther, M.; Babeyko, A.; Comoglu, M.; Hammitzsch, M.

    2012-04-01

    Fostered by and embedded in the general development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) the evolution of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS) shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors, e.g. sea level stations for the detection of tsunami waves and GPS stations for the detection of ground displacements. Furthermore, the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources serving near real-time data not only includes sensors but also other components and systems offering services such as the delivery of feasible simulations used for forecasting in an imminent tsunami threat. In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) have been successfully incorporated. In the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC) new developments are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed TEWS. This talk will describe experiences made in GITEWS, DEWS and TRIDEC while integrating legacy stand-alone systems and newly developed special-purpose software components into TEWS using different software adapters and communication strategies to make the systems work together in a corporate infrastructure. The talk will also cover task management and data conversion between the different systems. Practical approaches and software solutions for the integration of sensors, e.g. providing seismic and sea level data, and utilisation of special

  8. Language development of internationally adopted children: Adverse early experiences outweigh the age of acquisition effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Hein, Sascha; Doyle, Niamh; Hart, Lesley; Macomber, Donna; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Tan, Mei; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2015-01-01

    We compared English language and cognitive skills between internationally adopted children (IA; mean age at adoption=2.24, SD=1.8) and their non-adopted peers from the US reared in biological families (BF) at two time points. We also examined the relationships between outcome measures and age at initial institutionalization, length of institutionalization, and age at adoption. On measures of general language, early literacy, and non-verbal IQ, the IA group performed significantly below their age-peers reared in biological families at both time points, but the group differences disappeared on receptive vocabulary and kindergarten concept knowledge at the second time point. Furthermore, the majority of children reached normative age expectations between 1 and 2 years post-adoption on all standardized measures. Although the age at adoption, age of institutionalization, length of institutionalization, and time in the adoptive family all demonstrated significant correlations with one or more outcome measures, the negative relationship between length of institutionalization and child outcomes remained most robust after controlling for the other variables. Results point to much flexibility and resilience in children's capacity for language acquisition as well as the potential primacy of length of institutionalization in explaining individual variation in IA children's outcomes. (1) Readers will be able to understand the importance of pre-adoption environment on language and early literacy development in internationally adopted children. (2) Readers will be able to compare the strength of the association between the length of institutionalization and language outcomes with the strength of the association between the latter and the age at adoption. (3) Readers will be able to understand that internationally adopted children are able to reach age expectations on expressive and receptive language measures despite adverse early experiences and a replacement of their first

  9. The interleukin-20 receptor axis in early rheumatoid arthritis: novel links between disease-associated autoantibodies and radiographic progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Greisen, Stinne Ravn; Nielsen, Morten Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is often characterized by the presence of rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, and bone erosions. Current therapies can compromise immunity, leading to risk of infection. The interleukin-20 receptor (IL-20R) axis comprising IL-19, IL-20...... the production of the IL-20R cytokines by monocytes/macrophages. Increased baseline plasma concentrations of IL-20 and IL-24 were associated with Sharp-van der Heijde score progression after 24 months (Spearman's rho = 0.19 and 0.26, both P ... by osteoclast precursors and in multinucleated osteoclasts. IL-20 and IL-24 increased the secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 by these cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that IL-20 and IL-24 link RA-associated autoantibodies with radiographic progression via the IL-22R1. Modulation of this axis...

  10. Early and Later Experience with One Younger Sibling Affects Face Processing Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Proietti, Valentina; Pisacane, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Available evidence indicates that experience with one face from a specific age group improves face-processing abilities if acquired within the first 3 years of life but not in adulthood. In the current study, we tested whether the effects of early experience endure at age 6 and whether the first 3 years of life are a sensitive period for the…

  11. Emotional learning, stress, and development: An ever-changing landscape shaped by early-life experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattwell, Siobhan S; Bath, Kevin G

    2017-09-01

    The capacity to learn to associate cues with negative outcomes is a highly adaptive process that appears to be conserved across species. However, when the cue is no longer a valid predictor of danger, but the emotional response persists, this can result in maladaptive behaviors, and in humans contribute to debilitating emotional disorders. Over the past several decades, work in neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, and biology have uncovered key processes underlying, and structures governing, emotional responding and learning, as well as identified disruptions in the structural and functional integrity of these brain regions in models of pathology. In this review, we highlight some of this elegant body of work as well as incorporate emerging findings from the field of developmental neurobiology to emphasize how development contributes to changes in the ability to learn and express emotional responses, and how early experiences, such as stress, shape the development and functioning of these circuits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of Occupancy Sensors in LED Parking Lot and Garage Applications: Early Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael; Royer, Michael P.; Sullivan, Greg P.

    2012-11-07

    Occupancy sensor systems are gaining traction as an effective technological approach to reducing energy use in exterior commercial lighting applications. Done correctly, occupancy sensors can substantially enhance the savings from an already efficient lighting system. However, this technology is confronted by several potential challenges and pitfalls that can leave a significant amount of the prospective savings on the table. This report describes anecdotal experiences from field installations of occupancy sensor controlled light-emitting diode (LED) lighting at two parking structures and two parking lots. The relative levels of success at these installations reflect a marked range of potential outcomes: from an additional 76% in energy savings to virtually no additional savings. Several issues that influenced savings were encountered in these early stage installations and are detailed in the report. Ultimately, care must be taken in the design, selection, and commissioning of a sensor-controlled lighting installation, else the only guaranteed result may be its cost.

  13. Early Career Summer Interdisciplinary Team Experiences and Student Persistence in STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid, A. C.; Pedone, V. A.; Horn, W.; Rich, H.

    2015-12-01

    STEPS (Students Targeting Engineering and Physical Science) is an NSF-funded program designed to increase the number of California State University Northridge students getting bachelor's degrees in the natural sciences, mathematics, engineering and computer science. The greatest loss of STEM majors occurs between sophomore and junior- years, so we designed Summer Interdisciplinary Team Experience (SITE) as an early career program for these students. Students work closely with a faculty mentor in teams of ten to investigate regionally relevant problems, many of which relate to sustainability efforts on campus or the community. The projects emphasize hands-on activities and team-based learning and decision making. We report data for five years of projects, qualitative assessment through entrance and exit surveys and student interviews, and in initial impact on retention of the participants.

  14. Helium experiments on Alcator C-Mod in support of ITER early operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, C. E.; Wolfe, S. M.; Reinke, M. L.; Hughes, J. W.; Lin, Y.; Wukitch, S. J.; Baek, S. G.; Bonoli, P. T.; Chilenski, M.; Diallo, A.; the Alcator C-Mod Team

    2018-05-01

    Helium majority experiments on Alcator C-Mod were performed to compare with deuterium discharges, and inform ITER early operations. ELMy H-modes were produced with a special plasma shape at B T  =  5.3 T, I P  =  0.9 MA, at q 95 ~ 3.8. The He fraction ranged over, n He,L/n L  =  0.2-0.4, with n D,L/n L  =  0.15-0.26, compared to D plasmas with n D,L/n L  =  0.85-0.97. The power to enter the H-mode in He was found to be greater than ~2 times that for D discharges, in the low density region  operation in ITER.

  15. Water-hammer experiences in the startup and early operation of the Shearon Harris plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1987-01-01

    During the startup testing and initial operation of any power plant, systems undergo planned transients to confirm their ability to respond as designed. In addition to planned testing, unplanned transients infrequently occur as equipment is initially used. Some of both the planned and unplanned transients result in water-hammer events. Several water-hammer events experienced during preoperational testing, power ascension testing, and early operation of the Shearon Harris nuclear power plant are presented. The cause, effect, and corrective actions undertaken to prevent recurrence for each event discussed are provided. In addition, examples of preventive measures taken, based on industry experience accrued at other plants, to prevent a similar occurrence at Shearon Harris are discussed

  16. The effect of early postpartum home visits by health visitors: a natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Væth, Michael; Kristensen, Ingeborg

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess if the absence of early home visits influenced the mothers’ breastfeeding duration and use of medical services. Design: Data from mothers who had given birth during a strike period were compared to data from a reference period with usual work practice. Sample: The study...... included 3834 newborn and 375 health visitors, 75 of whom worked during the strike period. Intervention: All families were offered non- standardized home visits after discharge in the reference period. During the strike, the service was based on individual risk assessment. Results: Overall, no difference....... The mothers’ needs for postnatal visits differed depending on parity: primiparae underlined uncertainty, multiparae underlined previous breastfeeding experience. Mothers had missed out on guidance on all areas of the health visitors’ service. Conclusion: Non-standardized home visits by health visitors were...

  17. Preparing culturally and linguistically diverse preservice Early Childhood teachers for field experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Miller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an action research project focussed on preparing culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD preservice early childhood teachers for field experience. A series of targeted workshops delivered over one semester was designed to support the students to develop intercultural competence in relation to knowledge, attitude, skills and behaviours that contribute to success on field placement. Findings indicate that short-term initiatives targeted specifically to students’ identified needs and strengths can help to build intercultural competence for both students and teacher educators. For the participants, access to communication strategies, opportunities for rehearsal of teaching practice, and peer and academic support contributed to shifts in attitude, and the development of skills and new knowledge. New learnings for the teacher educators included challenging assumptions about CALD students’ sense of community and belonging in the university context.

  18. MR imaging of recent non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage: early experience at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Paul D.; Wilkinson, Iain D.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using 3.0 T scanners in the clinical environment is in its infancy and is only available at a limited number of sites worldwide. There is great interest amongst radiologists about the perceived benefits of clinical imaging at 3.0 T; however, it remains to be seen whether the theoretical advantages will bring real gains. MRI in patients with non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is difficult, yet, these patients benefit from non-invasive angiography. Conventional catheter angiography (CCA) remains the reference standard for excluding/confirming the presence of intracranial vascular abnormalities, but MR angiography at 3.0 T may offer opportunities for significant changes in patient management. We present our experiences of using 3.0 T MR angiography in 27 patients with acute or early subacute ICH. (orig.)

  19. Early experiences with the multidose drug dispensing system – A matter of trust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekre, Liv Johanne; Melby, Line; Grimsmo, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study early experiences with multidose drug dispensing (MDD) among different groups of health personnel. Design Qualitative study based on focus-group interviews. Setting Primary health care, Trondheim, Norway. Main outcome The importance of trust in the technology and in collaborating partners is actualized in the early implementation of MDD. Results GPs, home-care nurses, pharmacists, and medical secretaries trusted the new MDD technology. The quality of the GPs’ medication records improved. However, health personnel, including the GPs themselves, would not always trust the medication records of the GPs. Checking the multidose bags arriving from the pharmacy was considered unnecessary in the written routines dealing with MDD. However, home-care nurses experienced errors and continued to manually check the bags. Nurses in the home-care service felt a loss of knowledge with regard to the patients’ medications and in turn experienced reduced ability to give medical information to patients and to observe the effects of the drugs. The home-care services’ routines for drug handling were not always trusted by the other groups of health personnel involved. Conclusion Health personnel faced some challenges during the implementation of the MDD system, but most of them remained confident in the new system. Building trust has to be a process that runs in parallel with the introduction of new technology and the establishment of new routines for improving the quality in handling of medicines and to facilitate better cooperation and communication. PMID:21323496

  20. Early literacy experiences constrain L1 and L2 reading procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeetee eBhide

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Computational models of reading posit that there are two pathways to word recognition, using sublexical phonology or morphological/orthographic information. They further theorize that everyone uses both pathways to some extent, but the division of labor between the pathways can vary. This review argues that the first language one was taught to read, and the instructional method by which one was taught, can have profound and long-lasting effects on how one reads, not only in one’s first language, but also in one’s second language. Readers who first learn a transparent orthography rely more heavily on the sublexical phonology pathway, and this seems relatively impervious to instruction. Readers who first learn a more opaque orthography rely more on morphological/orthographic information, but the degree to which they do so can be modulated by instructional method. Finally, readers who first learned to read a highly opaque morphosyllabic orthography use less sublexical phonology while reading in their second language than do other second language learners and this effect may be heightened if they were not also exposed to an orthography that codes for phonological units during early literacy acquisition. These effects of early literacy experiences on reading procedure are persistent despite increases in reading ability.

  1. Coping with the challenges of early disaster response: 24 years of field hospital experience after earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Elhanan; Abargel, Avi; Peleg, Kobi; Kreiss, Yitshak

    2013-10-01

    To propose strategies and recommendations for future planning and deployment of field hospitals after earthquakes by comparing the experience of 4 field hospitals deployed by The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Medical Corps in Armenia, Turkey, India and Haiti. Quantitative data regarding the earthquakes were collected from published sources; data regarding hospital activity were collected from IDF records; and qualitative information was obtained from structured interviews with key figures involved in the missions. The hospitals started operating between 89 and 262 hours after the earthquakes. Their sizes ranged from 25 to 72 beds, and their personnel numbered between 34 and 100. The number of patients treated varied from 1111 to 2400. The proportion of earthquake-related diagnoses ranged from 28% to 67% (P earthquakes, patient caseload and treatment requirements varied widely. The variables affecting the patient profile most significantly were time until deployment, total number of injured, availability of adjacent medical facilities, and possibility of evacuation from the disaster area. When deploying a field hospital in the early phase after an earthquake, a wide variability in patient caseload should be anticipated. Customization is difficult due to the paucity of information. Therefore, early deployment necessitates full logistic self-sufficiency and operational versatility. Also, collaboration with local and international medical teams can greatly enhance treatment capabilities.

  2. The Experiences of Israeli Early Childhood Educators Working With Children of Ethiopian Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Firstater

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study offers an in-depth examination of the experiences of early childhood educators, focusing on their work with Ethiopian immigrant children and their families. We aim to describe and analyze the teachers’ insider views vis-à-vis the challenges faced by these children and their parents in the Israeli preschool system. Using narrative methodology, the analysis of findings is based upon 20 stories written by 10 early childhood educators. It reveals that for these teachers, the chief struggle is their relationship with the parents of their Ethiopian pupils, one characterized by difficulties, frustrations, and burdens. The engagement with parents of Ethiopian children exhibited a range of possibilities: from the expression of patronizing, hierarchical viewpoints, to a search for ad hoc ways of coping with a persistent cultural gap, to the attainment of genuine, successful partnerships. Lack of sufficient knowledge and understanding of the unique cultural attributes of the Ethiopian community appears to be the basis for the teachers’ view of the parents as lacking faith in them and in the educational system as a whole. In addition, suggestions are made about implications for educational practice and for policies that might assist teachers in ameliorating these challenges via the development of, and professional training in, skills which help coping with the problems and dilemmas unique to the multicultural classroom.

  3. Preparing beginning reading teachers: An experimental comparison of initial early literacy field experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lake, Vickie E; Greulich, Luana; Folsom, Jessica S; Guidry, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This randomized-control trial examined the learning of preservice teachers taking an initial Early Literacy course in an early childhood education program and of the kindergarten or first grade students they tutored in their field experience. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of two tutoring programs: Book Buddies and Tutor Assisted Intensive Learning Strategies (TAILS), which provided identical meaning-focused instruction (shared book reading), but differed in the presentation of code-focused skills. TAILS used explicit, scripted lessons, and the Book Buddies required that code-focused instruction take place during shared book reading. Our research goal was to understand which tutoring program would be most effective in improving knowledge about reading, lead to broad and deep language and preparedness of the novice preservice teachers, and yield the most successful student reading outcomes. Findings indicate that all pre-service teachers demonstrated similar gains in knowledge, but preservice teachers in the TAILS program demonstrated broader and deeper application of knowledge and higher self-ratings of preparedness to teach reading. Students in both conditions made similar comprehension gains, but students tutored with TAILS showed significantly stronger decoding gains.

  4. Arab American women's lived experience with early-stage breast cancer diagnosis and surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Rana Fakhri; Lally, Robin M; Dickerson, Suzanne S

    2012-01-01

    Currently, limited literature addresses Arab American women's responses to the impact of breast cancer and its treatments. The objective of the study was to understand the experience of being diagnosed with and undergoing surgical treatment for early-stage breast cancer among Arab American women. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 10 Arab American women who were surgically treated for early-stage breast cancer in the United States was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using the Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Arab American women accepted breast cancer diagnosis as something in God's hands that they had no control over. Although they were content with God's will, the women believed that the diagnosis was a challenge that they should confront. The women confronted this challenge by accessing the healthcare system for treatment, putting trust in their physicians, participating when able in treatment decisions, using religious practices for coping, maintaining a positive attitude toward the diagnosis and the treatment, and seeking information. Arab American women's fatalistic beliefs did not prevent them from seeking care and desiring treatment information and options when diagnosed with breast cancer. It is important that healthcare providers encourage patients to express meanings they attribute to their illness to provide them with appropriate supportive interventions. They should also individually assess patients' decision-making preferences, invite them to participate in decision making, and provide them with tailored means necessary for such participation without making any assumptions based on patients' ethnic/cultural background.

  5. Does Early Decompressive Craniectomy Improve Outcome? Experience from an Active UK Recruiter Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. García Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The results of the recent DECRA study suggest that although craniectomy decreases ICP and ICU length of stay, it is also associated with worst outcomes. Our experience, illustrated by these two striking cases, supports that early decompressive craniectomy may significantly improve the outcome in selected patients. Case Reports. The first patient, a 20-year-old man who suffered severe brain contusion and subarachnoid haemorrhage after a fall downstairs, with refractory ICP of 35 mmHg, despite maximal medical therapy, eventually underwent decompressive craniectomy. After 18 days in intensive care, he was discharged for rehabilitation. The second patient, a 23-year-old man was found at the scene of a road accident with a GCS of 3 and fixed, dilated pupils who underwent extensive unilateral decompressive craniectomy for refractory intracranial hypertension. After three weeks of cooling, paralysis, and neuroprotection, he eventually left ICU for rehabilitation. Outcomes. Four months after leaving ICU, the first patient abseiled 40 m down the main building of St. Mary’s Hospital to raise money for the Trauma Unit. He has returned to part-time work. The second patient, was decannulated less than a month later and made a full cognitive recovery. A year later, with a titanium skull prosthesis, he is back to part-time work and to playing football. Conclusions. Despite the conclusions of the DECRA study, our experience of the use of early decompressive craniectomy has been associated with outstanding outcomes. We are currently actively recruiting patients into the RESCUEicp trial and have high hopes that it will clarify the role of the decompressive craniectomy in traumatic brain injury and whether it effectively improves outcomes.

  6. Women's experiences of three early miscarriage management options a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsay F; Frost, Julia; Levitas, Ruth; Bradley, Harriet; Garcia, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Background Miscarriage affects around one in six pregnancies. Much research has taken place identifying the consequences of this for parents but is mainly quantitative. Of the limited qualitative studies, none have explored women's experiences of the methods of miscarriage management received. Aim To assess the social and personal impact of different management methods (expectant, medical and surgical) on women's experience of first trimester miscarriage. Design of study Qualitative interviews using a topic guide with a purposive cohort of four categories of women (each management method plus non-participants) 6 months to 1 year after first trimester miscarriage. Focus groups with both research participants and health workers. Setting Women from three hospitals in the South West of England that participated in the Miscarriage Treatment (MIST) trial. Method Seventy-two interviews were undertaken between September 1999 and June 2000. There were also five focus groups (47 participants) and two feedback sessions (8 participants) with written feedback from 12 women. Interviews lasted 0.5–2.5 hours generating over 2000 A4 pages of transcripts. The transcripts were analysed for common themes, using standard proformas, which were filled in by individual team members and then discussed by the whole research team. Iterative readings in the light of new emerging issues ensured that new themes could be identified throughout the analytical process. All transcripts were then encoded for the identified themes using NUDIST. Results Common themes emerged across all management options although some were specific to just one or two management options. The five major themes arising out of the data analysis were: intervention; experiences of care; finality; the ‘baby’; and pain and bleeding. Conclusions Women's experiences and beliefs vary widely and their preferences need to be considered in their early miscarriage management. The three methods have different benefits and

  7. Women's experiences of three early miscarriage management options: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsay F; Frost, Julia; Levitas, Ruth; Bradley, Harriet; Garcia, Jo

    2006-03-01

    Miscarriage affects around one in six pregnancies. Much research has taken place identifying the consequences of this for parents but is mainly quantitative. Of the limited qualitative studies, none have explored women's experiences of the methods of miscarriage management received. To assess the social and personal impact of different management methods (expectant, medical and surgical) on women's experience of first trimester miscarriage. Qualitative interviews using a topic guide with a purposive cohort of four categories of women (each management method plus non-participants) 6 months to 1 year after first trimester miscarriage. Focus groups with both research participants and health workers. Women from three hospitals in the South West of England that participated in the Miscarriage Treatment (MIST) trial. Seventy-two interviews were undertaken between September 1999 and June 2000. There were also five focus groups (47 participants) and two feedback sessions (8 participants) with written feedback from 12 women. Interviews lasted 0.5-2.5 hours generating over 2000 A4 pages of transcripts. The transcripts were analysed for common themes, using standard proformas, which were filled in by individual team members and then discussed by the whole research team. Iterative readings in the light of new emerging issues ensured that new themes could be identified throughout the analytical process. All transcripts were then encoded for the identified themes using NUDIST. Common themes emerged across all management options although some were specific to just one or two management options. The five major themes arising out of the data analysis were: intervention; experiences of care; finality; the 'baby'; and pain and bleeding. Women's experiences and beliefs vary widely and their preferences need to be considered in their early miscarriage management. The three methods have different benefits and problems from the women's point of view. Competence and caring from

  8. Lifestyle patterns in early pregnancy linked to gestational diabetes mellitus diagnoses when using IADPSG criteria. The St Carlos gestational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gracia, Teresa; Duran, Alejandra; Fuentes, Manuel; Rubio, Miguel A; Runkle, Isabelle; Carrera, Evelyn F; Torrejón, María J; Bordiú, Elena; Valle, Laura Del; García de la Torre, Nuria; Bedia, Ana R; Montañez, Carmen; Familiar, Cristina; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L

    2016-06-01

    Early-pregnancy lifestyle (EPL) could influence the development of gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM), depending on the diagnostic criteria used. We studied EPL in 1750 pregnant women using Carpenter-Coustan criteria(CCc), and in 1526 with the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria(IADPSGc). GDM risk factors were assessed in women between 24 and 28 weeks of gestational age during two consecutive years. A semiquantitative frequent-food-consumption questionnaire was used to evaluate lifestyle during pregnancy. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess GDM risk with different lifestyle patterns. Using IADPSGc, the GDM ORs (95%CI) for intake/week were: nuts >3 times: 0.59 (0.39-0.91; p < 0.015), refined cereals ≤1 serving: 0.72(0.58-0.89; p < 0.003), juices <4 servings: 0.77 (0.62-0.95; p < 0.017), cookies and pastries <4 servings: 0.71(0.57-0.89; p < 0.003) as compared to opposite habits. No significant nutritional patterns were found to be significant using CCc. The OR (95%CI) for GDM with none of the four risk patterns as compared to having three-four risk factors was 0.21(0.07-0.62; p < 0.005), remaining significant after stratification by BMI, age, obstetric events, parity and family history. The multiple logistic regression model including nutritional categories and pregestational BMI, age, obstetric history, parity, personal/family history, had an area under the curve(AUC) of the receiver operating curve(ROC) for the probability to predict GDM of 0.66 (CI 95%: 0.63-0.69; p < 0.001). Our study is the first to identify four early-pregnancy nutritional patterns associated with the GDM when using IADPSGc. Adherence to a low-risk nutritional pattern from early pregnancy on could be an effective strategy for GDM prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanophase Iron Oxides as an Ultraviolet Sunscreen for Ancient Photosynthetic Microbes: A Possible Link Between Early Organisms, Banded-Iron Formations, and the Oxygenation of the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Rogoff, Dana A.

    2006-01-01

    We propose that nanophase iron oxide-bearing materials provided important niches for ancient photosynthetic microbes on the early Earth that ultimately led to the oxygenation of the Earth s atmosphere and the formation of iron oxide deposits. Atmospheric oxygen and ozone attenuate UV radiation on the Earth today providing substantial protection for photosynthetic organisms. With ultraviolet radiation fluxes likely to have been even higher on the early Earth than today, accessing solar radiation was particularly risky for early organisms. Yet, we know that photosynthesis arose then and played a critical role in subsequent evolution. Of primary importance was protection at approx.250-290 nm, where peak nucleic acid (approx.260 nm) and protein (approx.280 nm) absorptions occur. Nanophase ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide minerals absorb, and thus block, the lethal UV radiation, while transmitting light through much of the visible and near-infrared regions of interest to photosynthesis (400 to 1100 nm). Further, they were available in early environments, and are synthesized by many organisms. Based on ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide spectral properties, likely geologic processes, and the results of experiments with the photosynthetic organisms, Euglena sp. and Chlumydomonus reinhardtii, we propose a scenario where photosynthesis, and ultimately the oxygenation of the atmosphere, depended on the protection of early microbes by nanophase ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides. The results of this study are also applicable to other potentially habitable iron-bearing planetary bodies because of the evolutionary pressure to utilize solar radiation when available as an energy source.

  10. Revisiting the Marshmallow Test: A Conceptual Replication Investigating Links Between Early Delay of Gratification and Later Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tyler W; Duncan, Greg J; Quan, Haonan

    2018-05-01

    We replicated and extended Shoda, Mischel, and Peake's (1990) famous marshmallow study, which showed strong bivariate correlations between a child's ability to delay gratification just before entering school and both adolescent achievement and socioemotional behaviors. Concentrating on children whose mothers had not completed college, we found that an additional minute waited at age 4 predicted a gain of approximately one tenth of a standard deviation in achievement at age 15. But this bivariate correlation was only half the size of those reported in the original studies and was reduced by two thirds in the presence of controls for family background, early cognitive ability, and the home environment. Most of the variation in adolescent achievement came from being able to wait at least 20 s. Associations between delay time and measures of behavioral outcomes at age 15 were much smaller and rarely statistically significant.

  11. Large Scale Commissioning and Operational Experience with Tier-2 to Tier-2 Data Transfer Links in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Letts, James

    2010-01-01

    Tier-2 to Tier-2 data transfers have been identified as a necessary extension of the CMS computing model. The Debugging Data Transfers (DDT) Task Force in CMS was charged with commissioning Tier-2 to Tier-2 PhEDEx transfer links beginning in late 2009, originally to serve the needs of physics analysis groups for the transfer of their results between the storage elements of the Tier-2 sites associated with the groups. PhEDEx is the data transfer middleware of the CMS experiment. For analysis jobs using CRAB, the CMS Remote Analysis Builder, the challenges of remote stage out of job output at the end of the analysis jobs led to the introduction of a local fallback stage out, and will eventually require the asynchronous transfer of user data over essentially all of the Tier-2 to Tier-2 network using the same PhEDEx infrastructure. In addition, direct file sharing of physics and Monte Carlo simulated data between Tier-2 sites can relieve the operational load of the Tier-1 sites in the original CMS Computing Model...

  12. Do sleep problems mediate the link between adverse childhood experiences and delinquency in preadolescent children in foster care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, Erin P; Rubens, Sonia L; Brawner, Thomas W; Taussig, Heather N

    2018-02-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with multiple mental and physical health problems. Yet, mechanisms by which ACEs confer risk for specific problems are largely unknown. Children in foster care typically have multiple ACEs and high rates of negative sequelae, including delinquent behaviors. Mechanisms explaining this link have not been explored in this population. Impaired sleep has been identified as a potential mechanism by which ACEs lead to delinquency in adolescents, because inadequate sleep may lead to poor executive function and cognitive control - known risk factors for delinquency. Interviews were conducted with 516 maltreated children in foster care, ages 9-11 years, and their caregivers regarding child exposure to ACEs, sleep problems, engagement in delinquent acts, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and current psychotropic medication use. ACEs data were also obtained from child welfare case records. After controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, placement type (residential, kin, foster), length of time in placement, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and current psychotropic medication use, sleep partially mediated the association between ACEs and delinquency. Although delinquency is likely multiply determined in this population, improving sleep may be one important strategy to reduce delinquency. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. Early-Onset X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa in a Heterozygous Female Harboring an Intronic Donor Splice Site Mutation in the Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifera, Amde Selassie; Kay, Christine Nichols

    2015-01-01

    To report a heterozygous female presenting with an early-onset and severe form of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP). This is a case series presenting the clinical findings in a heterozygous female with XLRP and two of her family members. Fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, ocular coherence tomography, and visual perimetry are presented. The proband reported here is a heterozygous female who presented at the age of 8 years with an early onset and aggressive form of XLRP. The patient belongs to a four-generation family with a total of three affected females and four affected males. The patient was initially diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) at the age of 4 years. Genetic testing identified a heterozygous donor splice site mutation in intron 1 (IVS1 + 1G > A) of the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator gene. The father of the proband was diagnosed with RP when he was a young child. The sister of the proband, evaluated at the age of 6 years, showed macular pigmentary changes. Although carriers of XLRP are usually asymptomatic or have a mild disease of late onset, the proband presented here exhibited an early-onset, aggressive form of the disease. It is not clear why some carrier females manifest a severe phenotype. A better understanding of the genetic processes involved in the penetrance and expressivity of XLRP in heterozygous females could assist in providing the appropriate counseling to affected families.

  14. Developmental Trajectories of Social Skills during Early Childhood and Links to Parenting Practices in a Japanese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Okada, Kensuke; Hoshino, Takahiro; Anme, Tokie

    2015-01-01

    This study used data from a nationwide survey in Japan to model the developmental course of social skills during early childhood. The goals of this study were to identify longitudinal profiles of social skills between 2 and 5 years of age using a group-based trajectory approach, and to investigate whether and to what extent parenting practices at 2 years of age predicted developmental trajectories of social skills during the preschool period. A relatively large sample of boys and girls (N > 1,000) was assessed on three social skill dimensions (Cooperation, Self-control, and Assertion) at four time points (ages 2, 3, 4, and 5), and on four parenting practices (cognitive and emotional involvement, avoidance of restriction and punishment, social stimulation, and social support for parenting) at age 2. The results indicated that for each social skill dimension, group-based trajectory models identified three distinct trajectories: low, moderate, and high. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that parenting practice variables showed differential contributions to development of child social skills. Specifically, Cooperation and Assertion were promoted by cognitive and emotional involvement, Self-control by social stimulation, and Assertion by avoidance of restriction and punishment. Abundant social support for parenting was not associated with higher child social skills trajectories. We found heterogeneity in developmental profiles of social skills during the preschool ages, and we identified parenting practices that contributed to different patterns of social skills development. We discussed the implications of higher-quality parenting practices on the improvement of child social skills across early childhood.

  15. First-hand sensory experience plays a limited role in children's early understanding of seeing and hearing as sources of knowledge: evidence from typically hearing and deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ellyn; Pyers, Jennie

    2014-11-01

    One early-developing component of theory of mind is an understanding of the link between sensory perception and knowledge formation. We know little about the extent to which children's first-hand sensory experiences drive the development of this understanding, as most tasks capturing this early understanding target vision, with less attention paid to the other senses. In this study, 64 typically hearing children (Mage  = 4.0 years) and 21 orally educated deaf children (Mage  = 5.44 years) were asked to identify which of two informants knew the identity of a toy animal when each had differing perceptual access to the animal. In the 'seeing' condition, one informant saw the animal and the other did not; in the 'hearing' condition, one informant heard the animal and the other did not. For both hearing and deaf children, there was no difference between performance on hearing and seeing trials, but deaf children were delayed in both conditions. Further, within both the hearing and deaf groups, older children outperformed younger children on these tasks, indicating that there is a developmental progression. Taken together, the pattern of results suggests that experiences other than first-hand sensory experiences drive children's developing understanding that sensory perception is associated with knowledge. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Early Experience with a Brief, Multimodal, Multidisciplinary Treatment Program for Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ann; Whipple, Mary O.; Oh, Terry H.; Guderian, Janet A.; Barton, Debra L.; Luedtke, Connie A.

    2014-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a complex, heterogeneous disorder for which a multidisciplinary individualized approach is currently advocated. We executed a 1 week multidisciplinary fibromyalgia clinical program with 7 patients, based on our previous experience with our existing 1.5 day multidisciplinary fibromyalgia program that has demonstrated both short- and long-term benefits. The current expanded program was not designed as a clinical study, but rather as a clinical feasibility assessment and was multidisciplinary in nature, with cognitive behavioral therapy, activity pacing and graded exercise therapy as major components. We assessed changes in individual patients at 1 week and 3 months following the program utilizing validated self-report measures of pain, fatigue, and self-efficacy. All patients indicated at least small improvements in pain and physical symptoms both at 1 week and 3 months and all but one patient showed improvement in self-efficacy at 1 week and 3 months. Similar trends were observed for fatigue. Based on our early clinical experience, we conclude that the 1 week multidisciplinary fibromyalgia program is logistically feasible and has potential for clinical efficacy. Further research is needed and is planned to test the clinical efficacy of this program and compare it with other interventions. PMID:24315246

  17. Characteristics of the spouse caregiving experience: Comparison between early- and late-onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrziczny, Emilie; Berna, Guillaume; Ducharme, Francine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Pasquier, Florence; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-06-20

    To investigate the characteristics of the caregiving experience according to age at onset of dementia to adapt support programs. Fifty-seven spouse caregivers of persons with early-onset dementia (PEOD) and 93 spouse caregivers of persons with late-onset dementia (PLOD) participated. The characteristics of the caregiving experience were assessed using questionnaires. We compared the two groups according to age at onset of the disease using a multivariate test, Pillai's Trace test. The analysis showed that there were similarities and differences between the two groups of spouse caregivers. All spouse caregivers were confident in their caregiving role and fairly well prepared for future needs and reported mild depressive and anxious symptoms. However, they lacked informal support, had low confidence in requesting respite care and reported effects on their health. Compared to spouse caregivers of PLOD, spouse caregivers of PEOD had more severe perceptions of the cognitive disorders of persons with dementia (PWD) and had a better sense of preparedness and knowledge of services. Spouse caregivers of PLOD were more confident in their ability to control disturbing thoughts. The results suggest that programs should provide information on support networks to improve preparedness for spouse caregivers of PLOD as well as emphasizing positive coping strategies for caregivers of PEOD to maintain good-quality relationships with PWD, which influences the perception of the symptoms. For both groups, family relationships should be considered.

  18. Adoption barriers for electric vehicles: Experiences from early adopters in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, Iana; Campillo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles are considered as one of the most effective technologies for reducing current greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. Although in many countries, local and national governments have introduced incentives and subsidies to facilitate the electric vehicle market penetration, in Sweden, such benefits have been limited. Results from a survey carried out among private owners of electric vehicles are presented in this paper, including the analysis of the respondents socio-demographic characteristics, reasons for choosing an electric vehicle, charging locations and driving preferences, among others. The main results characterize current electric vehicle drivers as male, well-educated, with medium-high income; electric vehicles are used mainly for private purposes and charged at home during night time. Furthermore, the paper presents an analysis of the impact of large-scale penetration of electric vehicles on existing power distribution systems. The findings presented in this paper provide important insights for assuring a sustainable large-scale penetration of electric vehicles by learning from the experiences of early adopters of the technology and by analyzing the impact of different EV penetration scenarios on the power distribution grid. - Highlights: • A survey was conducted on EV owners' experience and characteristics. • Impact on the power system of large-scale EV adoption was analyzed. • Feedback from EV owners should be used to engage potential users. • Coordinated smart charging is needed to reduce power grid impact. • Coordinated smart charging is required to minimize disturbances on the power grid.

  19. Marijuana experiences, voting behaviors and early perspectives regarding marijuana legalization among college students from two states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Whitehill, Jennifer M; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students’ 1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, 2) voting behaviors, and 3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. PARTICIPANTS College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May–September 2013 METHODS Participants completed phone interviews assessing marijuana attitudes, intentions, behaviors, voting behaviors or intentions, and perceptions of the impact of legislation. RESULTS A total of 283 participants completed the interview (83.7% retention rate): 56.8% were female, 57.2% were from Wisconsin, and 74.6% were Caucasian. Almost half of Washington participants (46.3%) indicated that they voted for marijuana legalization. Participants most commonly responded that the legislation did not change their attitudes towards marijuana, though some participants discussed perceived safety of the product because legislation passed. CONCLUSIONS Findings indicate similarities in views and experiences among college students from states affected and unaffected by legalization; legalization may increase perceptions of safety. PMID:26182234

  20. Population Structure, Diversity and Trait Association Analysis in Rice (Oryza sativa L. Germplasm for Early Seedling Vigor (ESV Using Trait Linked SSR Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamalai Anandan

    Full Text Available Early seedling vigor (ESV is the essential trait for direct seeded rice to dominate and smother the weed growth. In this regard, 629 rice genotypes were studied for their morphological and physiological responses in the field under direct seeded aerobic situation on 14th, 28th and 56th days after sowing (DAS. It was determined that the early observations taken on 14th and 28th DAS were reliable estimators to study ESV as compared to 56th DAS. Further, 96 were selected from 629 genotypes by principal component (PCA and discriminate function analyses. The selected genotypes were subjected to decipher the pattern of genetic diversity in terms of both phenotypic and genotypic by using ESV QTL linked simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. To assess the genetic structure, model and distance based approaches were used. Genotyping of 96 rice lines using 39 polymorphic SSRs produced a total of 128 alleles with the phenotypic information content (PIC value of 0.24. The model based population structure approach grouped the accession into two distinct populations, whereas unrooted tree grouped the genotypes into three clusters. Both model based and structure based approach had clearly distinguished the early vigor genotypes from non-early vigor genotypes. Association analysis revealed that 16 and 10 SSRs showed significant association with ESV traits by general linear model (GLM and mixed linear model (MLM approaches respectively. Marker alleles on chromosome 2 were associated with shoot dry weight on 28 DAS, vigor index on 14 and 28 DAS. Improvement in the rate of seedling growth will be useful for identifying rice genotypes acquiescent to direct seeded conditions through marker-assisted selection.

  1. Cannabis use and psychotic-like experiences trajectories during early adolescence: the coevolution and potential mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Josiane; Afzali, Mohammad H; O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Conrod, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    The authors sought to model the different trajectories of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) during adolescence and to examine whether the longitudinal relationship between cannabis use and PLE is mediated by changes in cognitive development and/or change in anxiety or depression symptoms. A total of 2,566 youths were assessed every year for 4-years (from 13- to 16-years of age) on clinical, substance use and cognitive development outcomes. Latent class growth models identified three trajectories of PLE: low decreasing (83.9%), high decreasing (7.9%), and moderate increasing class (8.2%). We conducted logistic regressions to investigate whether baseline levels and growth in cannabis use were associated with PLE trajectory membership. Then, we examined the effects of potential mediators (growth in cognition and anxiety/depression) on the relationship between growth in cannabis use and PLE trajectory. A steeper growth in cannabis use from 13- to 16-years was associated with a higher likelihood of being assigned to the moderate increasing trajectory of PLE [odds ratio, 2.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-6.03], when controlling for cumulative cigarette use. Growth in depression symptoms, not anxiety or change in cognitive functioning, mediated the relationship between growth in cannabis use and the PLE moderate increasing group (indirect effect: 0.07; 95% CI, 0.03-0.11). Depression symptoms partially mediated the longitudinal link between cannabis use and PLE in adolescents, suggesting that there may be a preventative effect to be gained from targeting depression symptoms, in addition to attempting to prevent cannabis use in youth presenting increasing psychotic experiences. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. The experience of amnioinfusion for oligohydramnios during the early second trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tian-Lun; Hsu, Te-Yao; Tsai, Ching-Chang; Ou, Chia-Yu

    2007-12-01

    In the past, oligohydramnios occurring early during the secondary trimester was the reason to terminate the pregnancy because of poor prognosis. Even though amnioinfusion has been reported for improving the prognosis of the infant, it is still not frequently used because of unfavorable results. We present our experience with amnioinfusion for oligohydramnios with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes. A retrospective study was performed from July 2005 to December 2006 in our hospital. Amnioinfusions were performed in pregnant women found with oligohydramnios during their second trimesters. Chromosomal studies were recommended and performed under informed consent. Level II sonography was performed after each amnioinfusion. Magnetic resonance imaging was arranged for those with suggested urinary tract malformations. Seventeen cases were included in our study. No mother was exposed to drugs that have been associated with oligohydramnios. The women received one to six procedures of amnioinfusion separately with a total of 28 procedures. Only one procedure failed. No chromosomal anomalies were found. Fetal anomalies were found after amnioinfusion in five cases. One woman had preterm delivery within 1 week after amnioinfusion. In the four cases of oligohydramnios with rupture of membranes, one case had a healthy full-term baby delivered. In the 13 cases of oligohydramnios without rupture of membranes, there were two preterm infants delivered before 34 weeks of gestation, including pulmonary hypoplasia in one neonate, and three healthy babies delivered after 35 weeks of gestation. Amnioinfusion performed the first time might provide some benefits for those with early-onset oligohydramnios, such as to provide confirmation of rupture of membranes, detailed sonography examination and further counseling. We would recommend that this procedure be considered once for these cases.

  3. Laparoscopic single port surgery in children using Triport: our early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Ismael A Salas; Garcia, Isabella; Pimpalwar, Ashwin

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopy has become the gold standard technique for appendectomy and cholecystectomy. With the emergence of newer laparoscopic instruments which are roticulating and provide 7 degrees of freedom it is now possible to perform these operations through a single umbilical incision rather than the standard 3-4 incisions and thus lead to more desirable cosmetic results and less postoperative pain. The newer reticulating telescopes provide excellent exposure of the operating field and allow the operations to proceed routinely. Recently, ports [Triports (Olympus surgery)/SILS ports] especially designed for single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) have been developed. We herein describe our experience with laparoscopic single port appendectomies and cholecystectomies in children using the Triport. This is a retrospective cohort study of children who underwent single incision laparoscopic surgery between May 2009 and August 2010 at Texas Children's Hospital and Ben Taub General Hospital in Houston Texas by a single surgeon. Charts were reviewed for demographics, type of procedure, operative time, early or late complications, outcome and cosmetic results. Fifty-four patients underwent SILS. A total of 50 appendectomies (early or perforated) and 4 cholecystectomies were performed using this new minimally invasive approach. The average operative time for SILS/LESS appendectomy was 54 min with a range between 25 and 205 min, while operative time for SILS cholecystectomy was 156 min with a range of 75-196 min. Only small percentage (4%) of appendectomies (mostly complicated) were converted to standard laparoscopy, but none were converted to open procedure. All patients were followed up in the clinic after 3-4 weeks. No complications were noted and all patients had excellent cosmetic results. Parents were extremely satisfied with the cosmetic results. SILS/LESS is a safe, minimally invasive approach for appendectomy and cholecystectomy in children. This new approach is

  4. The State of Alaska's early experience with institutionalization of health impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Anderson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Many nations routinely include health impact assessments (HIA in public policy decisions. Institutionalization of HIA formally integrates health considerations into a governmental decision-making process. We describe an example of institutionalization in the United States through Alaska's early experience with institutionalization of HIA. Literature review . HIA arose from a series of health conferences in the 1970s that affirmed the importance of “health for all.” A number of key milestones eventually defined HIA as a unique field of impact assessment. There are several approaches to institutionalization, and one common approach in the United States is through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA. NEPA formed the basis for the earliest HIAs in Alaska. Program description . Early HIAs in Alaska led to conferences, working groups, a state guidance document and the institutionalization of a HIA program within the Department of Health and Social Services in 2010. A medical epidemiologist staffs the program, which utilizes contractors to meet rising demand for HIA. The HIA program has sustainable funding from the state budget and from the state's natural resource permitting process. The HIA document is the main deliverable, but the program performs other tasks, including fieldwork and technical reviews. The HIA program works closely with a host of collaborative partners. Conclusion . Alaska's institutionalized HIA program benefits from sustainable funding that promotes continuous quality improvement and involves the program in the entire life cycle of a development project. The program structure adapts well to variations in workflow and supports a host of quality control activities. Currently, the program focuses on HIAs for natural resource development projects.

  5. Renal Tumors: Technical Success and Early Clinical Experience with Radiofrequency Ablation of 18 Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwal, Rohan; Vladica, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and technical efficacy of image-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of small peripheral renal tumors and to report our early results with this treatment modality. Methods. Twenty-two RFA sessions for 18 tumors were performed in 11 patients with renal tumors. Indications included coexistent morbidity, high surgical or anesthetic risk, solitary kidney, and hereditary predisposition to renal cell carcinoma. Ten patients had CT-guided percutaneous RFA performed on an outpatient basis. One patient had open intraoperative ultrasound-guided RFA. Technical success was defined as elimination of areas that enhanced at imaging within the entire tumor. With the exception of one patient with renal insufficiency who required gadolinium-enhanced MRI, the remaining patients underwent contrast-enhanced CT for post-treatment follow-up assessment. Follow-up was performed after 2-4 weeks and then at 3, 6, 12 months, and every 12 months thereafter. Results. Fourteen (78%) of 18 tumors were successfully ablated with one session. Three of the remaining four tumors required two sessions for successful ablation. One tumor will require a third session for areas of persistent enhancement. Mean patient age was 72.82 ± 10.43 years. Mean tumor size was 1.95 ± 0.79 cm. Mean follow-up time was 10.91 months. All procedures were performed without any major complications. Conclusions. Our early experience with percutaneous image-guided radiofrequency ablation demonstrates it to be a feasible, safe, noninvasive, and effective treatment of small peripheral renal tumors

  6. STAR - Research Experiences at National Laboratory Facilities for Pre-Service and Early Career Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. M.; Rebar, B.; Buxner, S.

    2012-12-01

    The STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program provides pre-service and beginning teachers the opportunity to develop identity as both teachers and researchers early in their careers. Founded and implemented by the Center for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Education (CESaME) at California Polytechnic State University on behalf of the California State University (CSU) system, STAR provides cutting edge research experiences and career development for students affiliated with the CSU system. Over the past three summers, STAR has also partnered with the NSF Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program to include Noyce Scholars from across the country. Key experiences are one to three summers of paid research experience at federal research facilities associated with the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Anchoring beginning teachers in the research community enhances participant understanding of what it means to be both researchers and effective teachers. Since its inception in 2007, the STAR Program has partnered with 15 national lab facilities to provide 290 research experiences to 230 participants. Several of the 68 STAR Fellows participating in the program during Summer 2012 have submitted abstracts to the Fall AGU Meeting. Through continued partnership with the Noyce Scholar Program and contributions from outside funding sources, the CSU is committed to sustaining the STAR Program in its efforts to significantly impact teacher preparation. Evaluation results from the program continue to indicate program effectiveness in recruiting high quality science and math majors into the teaching profession and impacting their attitudes and beliefs towards the nature of science and teaching through inquiry. Additionally, surveys and interviews are being conducted of participants who are now teaching in the classroom as

  7. A review of myrmecophily in ant nest beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Paussinae): linking early observations with recent findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiselhardt, Stefanie F.; Peschke, Klaus; Nagel, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Myrmecophily provides various examples of how social structures can be overcome to exploit vast and well-protected resources. Ant nest beetles (Paussinae) are particularly well suited for ecological and evolutionary considerations in the context of association with ants because life habits within the subfamily range from free-living and predatory in basal taxa to obligatory myrmecophily in derived Paussini. Adult Paussini are accepted in the ant society, although parasitising the colony by preying on ant brood. Host species mainly belong to the ant families Myrmicinae and Formicinae, but at least several paussine genera are not host-specific. Morphological adaptations, such as special glands and associated tufts of hair (trichomes), characterise Paussini as typical myrmecophiles and lead to two different strategical types of body shape: while certain Paussini rely on the protective type with less exposed extremities, other genera access ant colonies using glandular secretions and trichomes (symphile type). We compare these adaptations with other taxonomic groups of insects by joining contemporary research and early sources and discuss the possibility of an attracting or appeasing effect of the secretion. Species that are ignored by their host ants might use chemical mimicry instead. Furthermore, vibrational signals may contribute to ant-beetle communication, and chemical signals have proven to play a role in host finding. The powerful defense chemistry of paussines as “bombardier beetles” is not used in contact with host ants. We attempt to trace the evolution of myrmecophily in paussines by reviewing important aspects of the association between paussine beetles and ants, i.e. morphological and potential chemical adaptations, life cycle, host specificity, alimentation, parasitism and sound production.

  8. Downregulation of immediate-early genes linking to suppression of neuronal plasticity in rats after 28-day exposure to glycidol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akane, Hirotoshi; Saito, Fumiyo; Shiraki, Ayako; Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Itahashi, Megu; Murakami, Tomoaki; Shibutani, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    We previously found that the 28-day oral toxicity study of glycidol at 200 mg/kg/day in rats resulted in axonopathy in both the central and peripheral nervous systems and aberrations in the late-stage of hippocampal neurogenesis targeting the process of neurite extension. To capture the neuronal parameters in response to glycidol toxicity, these animals were subjected to region-specific global gene expression profiling in four regions of cerebral and cerebellar architectures, followed by immunohistochemical analysis of selected gene products. Expression changes of genes related to axonogenesis and synaptic transmission were observed in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis at 200 mg/kg showing downregulation in most genes. In the corpus callosum, genes related to growth, survival and functions of glial cells fluctuated their expression. Immunohistochemically, neurons expressing gene products of immediate-early genes, i.e., Arc, Fos and Jun, decreased in their number in the dentate granule cell layer, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis. We also applied immunohistochemical analysis in rat offspring after developmental exposure to glycidol through maternal drinking water. The results revealed increases of Arc + neurons at 1000 ppm and Fos + neurons at ≥ 300 ppm in the dentate granule cell layer of offspring only at the adult stage. These results suggest that glycidol suppressed neuronal plasticity in the brain after 28-day exposure to young adult animals, in contrast to the operation of restoration mechanism to increase neuronal plasticity at the adult stage in response to aberrations in neurogenesis after developmental exposure. - Highlights: • Neuronal toxicity parameters after 28-day glycidol treatment were examined in rats. • Region-specific global gene expression profiling was conducted in brain regions. • Cortical tissues downregulated genes on axonogenesis and synaptic transmission. • Cortical tissues decreased

  9. Downregulation of immediate-early genes linking to suppression of neuronal plasticity in rats after 28-day exposure to glycidol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akane, Hirotoshi [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Saito, Fumiyo [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Shiraki, Ayako [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Imatanaka, Nobuya [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Itahashi, Megu [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Murakami, Tomoaki [Laboratory of Veterinary Toxicology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2014-09-01

    We previously found that the 28-day oral toxicity study of glycidol at 200 mg/kg/day in rats resulted in axonopathy in both the central and peripheral nervous systems and aberrations in the late-stage of hippocampal neurogenesis targeting the process of neurite extension. To capture the neuronal parameters in response to glycidol toxicity, these animals were subjected to region-specific global gene expression profiling in four regions of cerebral and cerebellar architectures, followed by immunohistochemical analysis of selected gene products. Expression changes of genes related to axonogenesis and synaptic transmission were observed in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis at 200 mg/kg showing downregulation in most genes. In the corpus callosum, genes related to growth, survival and functions of glial cells fluctuated their expression. Immunohistochemically, neurons expressing gene products of immediate-early genes, i.e., Arc, Fos and Jun, decreased in their number in the dentate granule cell layer, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis. We also applied immunohistochemical analysis in rat offspring after developmental exposure to glycidol through maternal drinking water. The results revealed increases of Arc{sup +} neurons at 1000 ppm and Fos{sup +} neurons at ≥ 300 ppm in the dentate granule cell layer of offspring only at the adult stage. These results suggest that glycidol suppressed neuronal plasticity in the brain after 28-day exposure to young adult animals, in contrast to the operation of restoration mechanism to increase neuronal plasticity at the adult stage in response to aberrations in neurogenesis after developmental exposure. - Highlights: • Neuronal toxicity parameters after 28-day glycidol treatment were examined in rats. • Region-specific global gene expression profiling was conducted in brain regions. • Cortical tissues downregulated genes on axonogenesis and synaptic transmission. • Cortical tissues

  10. The Linking Study: An Experiment to Strengthen Teachers' Engagement with Data on Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supovitz, Jonathan; Sirinides, Philip

    2018-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial of a teacher data-use intervention, the Linking Study tested the impacts of a cyclical and collaborative process that linked teachers' data on instructional practice with data on their students' learning. This article describes the theory of the intervention and its roots in the literature as a backdrop for an…

  11. An optimal painless treatment for early hemorrhoids; our experience in Government Medical College and Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, R; Gupta, S; Dalal, AK; Dalal, U; Attri, AK

    2013-01-01

    Objective - To evaluate the efficacy of Infrared Coagulation Therapy (IRC) for hemorrhoids. IRC is a painless, safe and successful procedure. Place and duration of study - Department of Surgery, Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector-32, Chandigarh, India, from August 2006 to October 2008. The choice of procedure depends on the patient's symptoms, the extent of the hemorrhoidal disease, and the experience of the surgeon along with the availability of the techniques/instruments. Materials and methods - This is a prospective study done from August 2006 to October 2008. Total number of 155 patients was included in the study. Infrared Coagulation Therapy (IRC) was performed through a special designed proctoscope. Patients excluded were with coagulopathy disorders, fissure in ano, and anal ulcers. Results - It is an outpatient Department (OPD), non-surgical, ambulatory, painless and bloodless procedure, without any hospital stay. Early recovery and minimal recurrence of hemorrhoids were noted without any morbidity or mortality. We have studied 155 patients, treated with IRC on OPD basis. Surgery was required in few patients in whom IRC failed or was contraindicated. Out of the total 155 patients, 127 came for follow up. After the 1st sitting of IRC therapy: out of 127; 43 patients got a total relief, mass shrinkage was of > 75% in 57 cases and 75% relief in 15 cases and >50 % relief in 11 patients. In the 3rd sitting out of 26/84 cases: 13 cases got a total relief and 13 cases refused to take the third sitting; however, in 7 cases the hemorrhoidal mass shrank up to 50% after the two sittings. These 14 were operated as there was no relief from bleeding after giving two sittings of IRC. Our opinion is that, in the above 14 cases, the patient might have not followed the instructions properly for dietary habits. Conclusion - IRC is a safe, simple and effective procedure for early hemorrhoids without any complications. IRC is nowadays the world’s leading office

  12. Personal strengths and traumatic experiences among institutionalized children given up at birth (Les Enfants de Duplessis--Duplessis' children): I: Early experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J Christopher; Sigal, John J; Boucher, Sophie; Paré, Nikolas; Ouimet, Marie Claude

    2005-12-01

    We examined childhood and early adult strengths and adverse experiences of a group of orphans given up at or near birth and raised in Quebec institutions into early adulthood. A follow-up interview of 81 adults (41 women, 40 men) at a mean age of 59.2 years included retrospective assessments of childhood experiences. Most participants reported multiple early adverse experiences, including, in descending order, unfair rules and excessive punishment, physical abuse, emotional neglect, witnessing violence, verbal abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and serious illness. Adverse experiences were mainly due to lay caretakers, not peers or nuns. Twelve childhood strengths, such as self-protectiveness and athletic talent, were scored at each of four age periods, yielding a median score equivalent to one strength at each period. Over half had significant childhood attachments, but of limited intimacy. Childhood variables correlated with their respective variables in later adulthood. Overall, these older adults reported a high prevalence of adverse or traumatic childhood experiences, counterbalanced by modest levels of individual strengths and attachment relationships. Institutionalization of children--if unavoidable--must build in effective safeguards against adverse experiences.

  13. Impact of service redesign on the socioeconomic inequity in revascularisation rates for patients with acute myocardial infarction: a natural experiment and electronic record-linked cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lloyd W; van Woerden, Hugo; Davies, Gareth R; Fone, David

    2016-10-24

    To investigate the impact of service redesign in the provision of revascularisation procedures on the historical socioeconomic inequity in revascularisation rates for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Natural experiment and retrospective cohort study using linked data sets in the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage databank. An increase in the capacity of revascularisation procedures and service redesign in the provision of revascularisation in late 2011 to early 2012. South Wales cardiac network, Census 2011 population 1 359 051 aged 35 years and over. 9128 participants admitted to an NHS hospital with a first AMI between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2013, with 6-months follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the time to revascularisation for deprivation quintiles, age, gender, comorbidities, rural-urban classification and revascularisation facilities of admitting hospital. In the preintervention period, there was a statistically significant decreased adjusted risk of revascularisation for participants in the most deprived quintile compared to the least deprived quintile (HR 0.80; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.92, p=0.002). In the postintervention period, the increase in revascularisation rates was statistically significant in all quintiles, and there was no longer any statistically significant difference in the adjusted revascularisation risk between the most and the least deprived quintile (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.20, pSocioeconomic inequity of access to revascularisation was no longer apparent following redesign of revascularisation services in the south Wales cardiac network, although inequity persisted for women and those aged 75+ years. Increasing the capacity of revascularisation did not differentially benefit participants from the least deprived areas. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Early Experience with Technology-Based Eye Care Services (TECS): A Novel Ophthalmologic Telemedicine Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maa, April Y; Wojciechowski, Barbara; Hunt, Kelly J; Dismuke, Clara; Shyu, Jason; Janjua, Rabeea; Lu, Xiaoqin; Medert, Charles M; Lynch, Mary G

    2017-04-01

    The aging population is at risk of common eye diseases, and routine eye examinations are recommended to prevent visual impairment. Unfortunately, patients are less likely to seek care as they age, which may be the result of significant travel and time burdens associated with going to an eye clinic in person. A new method of eye-care delivery that mitigates distance barriers and improves access was developed to improve screening for potentially blinding conditions. We present the quality data from the early experience (first 13 months) of Technology-Based Eye Care Services (TECS), a novel ophthalmologic telemedicine program. With TECS, a trained ophthalmology technician is stationed in a primary care clinic away from the main hospital. The ophthalmology technician follows a detailed protocol that collects information about the patient's eyes. The information then is interpreted remotely. Patients with possible abnormal findings are scheduled for a face-to-face examination in the eye clinic. Any patient with no known ocular disease who desires a routine eye screening examination is eligible. Technology-Based Eye Care Services was established in 5 primary care clinics in Georgia surrounding the Atlanta Veterans Affairs hospital. Four program operation metrics (patient satisfaction, eyeglass remakes, disease detection, and visit length) and 2 access-to-care metrics (appointment wait time and no-show rate) were tracked. Care was rendered to 2690 patients over the first 13 months of TECS. The program has been met with high patient satisfaction (4.95 of 5). Eyeglass remake rate was 0.59%. Abnormal findings were noted in 36.8% of patients and there was >90% agreement between the TECS reading and the face-to-face findings of the physician. TECS saved both patient (25% less) and physician time (50% less), and access to care substantially improved with 99% of patients seen within 14 days of contacting the eye clinic, with a TECS no-show rate of 5.2%. The early experience with

  15. A qualitative study exploring the experiences and emotional responses of female community continence link workers and female patients in relation to performing clean intermittent self-catheterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm, Dianne; Kane, Ros

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This paper represents a report of a study designed to explore the experiences of female community continence link nurses in relation to female catheterisation and their psychological and educational preparedness to teach it. The lived experiences and emotional responses of female patients learning to perform Clean Intermittent Self-Catheterisation (CISC) are also examined. Background: There is general consensus that CISC should be considered in preference to indwelling catheterisat...

  16. Early outbreak detection by linking health advice line calls to water distribution areas retrospectively demonstrated in a large waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Bjelkmar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the winter and spring of 2011 a large outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in Skellefteå municipality, Sweden. This study summarizes the outbreak investigation in terms of outbreak size, duration, clinical characteristics, possible source(s and the potential for earlier detection using calls to a health advice line. Methods The investigation included two epidemiological questionnaires and microbial analysis of samples from patients, water and other environmental sources. In addition, a retrospective study based on phone calls to a health advice line was performed by comparing patterns of phone calls between different water distribution areas. Results Our analyses showed that approximately 18,500 individuals were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Skellefteå in 2011. This makes it the second largest outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Europe to date. Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts of subtype IbA10G2 were found in patient and sewage samples, but not in raw water or in drinking water, and the initial contamination source could not be determined. The outbreak went unnoticed to authorities for several months. The analysis of the calls to the health advice line provides strong indications early in the outbreak that it was linked to a particular water treatment plant. Conclusions We conclude that an earlier detection of the outbreak by linking calls to a health advice line to water distribution areas could have limited the outbreak substantially.

  17. Developing Identities in the Workplace: Students' Experiences of Distance Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Alice

    2016-01-01

    In Aotearoa New Zealand, many early childhood teachers gain their teaching qualification via distance study while working in an early childhood centre. Early childhood teachers work in a team environment, and it is important to understand more about how distance students negotiate changes in their workplace practice as their professional knowledge…

  18. VA OpenNotes: exploring the experiences of early patient adopters with access to clinical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazi, Kim M; Turvey, Carolyn L; Klein, Dawn M; Hogan, Timothy P; Woods, Susan S

    2015-03-01

    To explore the experience of early patient adopters who accessed their clinical notes online using the Blue Button feature of the My HealtheVet portal. A web-based survey of VA patient portal users from June 22 to September 15, 2013. 33.5% of respondents knew that clinical notes could be viewed, and nearly one in four (23.5%) said that they had viewed their notes at least once. The majority of VA Notes users agreed that accessing their notes will help them to do a better job of taking medications as prescribed (80.1%) and be better prepared for clinic visits (88.6%). Nine out of 10 users agreed that use of visit notes will help them understand their conditions better (91.8%), and better remember the plan for their care (91.9%). In contrast, 87% disagreed that VA Notes will make them worry more, and 88.4% disagreed that access to VA Notes will be more confusing than helpful. Users who had either contacted their provider or healthcare team (11.9%) or planned to (13.5%) primarily wanted to learn more about a health issue, medication, or test results (53.7%). Initial assessment of the patient experience within the first 9 months of availability provides evidence that patients both value and benefit from online access to clinical notes. These findings are congruent with OpenNotes study findings on a broader scale. Additional outreach and education is needed to enhance patient awareness. Healthcare professionals should author notes keeping in mind the opportunity patient access presents for enhanced communication. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Important first encounter: Service user experience of pathways to care and early detection in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Simonsen, Erik

    2018-04-01

    Long duration of untreated psychosis is associated with poor clinical and functional outcomes. However, few systematic attempts have been made to reduce this delay and little is known of service users' experience of early detection efforts. We explored service users' experience of an early detection service and transition to specialized treatment service, including pathway to care, understanding of illness and barriers to adequate assessment and treatment. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 service users (median age 21, range 18-27, five males and five females) who were diagnosed with a first-episode non-affective psychosis and who were seen by an early detection team (TOP) and currently enrolled in a specialized early intervention service for this disorder (OPUS). Stigma and fear of the 'psychiatric system' were reported as significant barriers to help seeking, while family members were seen as a crucial support. Moreover, the impact of traumatic events on the experience and development of psychosis was highlighted. Finally, participants were relieved by the prospect of receiving help and the early detection team seemed to create a trusting relationship by offering a friendly, 'anti-stigmatized' space, where long-term symptomatology could be disclosed through accurate and validating questioning. Early detection services have two important functions. One is to make accurate assessments and referrals. The other is to instil hope and trust, and to facilitate further treatment by forming an early therapeutic alliance. The findings in this study provide important insights into the way in which early detection efforts and pathways to care are experienced by service users, with direct implications for improving psychiatric services. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Local drug delivery - the early Berlin experience: single drug administration versus sustained release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Ulrich; Scheller, Bruno; Rutsch, Wolfgang; Laule, Michael; Stangl, Verena

    2011-05-01

    Our initial investigations into restenosis inhibition by local drug delivery were prompted by reports on an improved outcome of coronary interventions, including a lower rate of target lesion revascularisation, when the intervention was performed with an ionic instead of non-ionic contrast medium. Although this was not confirmed in an animal study, the short exposure of the vessel wall to paclitaxel dissolved in contrast agent or coated on balloons proved to be efficacious. A study comparing three methods of local drug delivery to the coronary artery in pigs indicated the following order of efficacy in inhibiting neointimal proliferation: paclitaxel-coated balloons > sirolimus-eluting stents, sustained drug release > paclitaxel in contrast medium. Cell culture experiments confirmed that cell proliferation can be inhibited by very short exposure to the drug. Shorter exposure times require higher drug concentrations. Effective paclitaxel concentrations in porcine arteries are achieved when the drug is dissolved in contrast medium or coated on balloons. Paclitaxel is an exceptional drug in that it stays in the treated tissue for a long time. This may explain the long-lasting efficacy of paclitaxel-coated balloons, but does not disprove the hypothesis that the agent blocks a process initiating long-lasting excessive neointimal proliferation, which occurs early after vessel injury.

  1. Early Career Experiences of Pediatricians Pursuing or Not Pursuing Fellowship Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Bobbi J; Katakam, Shesha K; Frintner, Mary Pat; Cull, William L

    2015-10-01

    Choosing career paths can be difficult decisions for residents contemplating fellowship training. This study compares the experiences of early career pediatricians who did and did not pursue fellowships. We analyzed national, weighted data from pediatricians 8 to 10 years after residency (n = 842). Work environment, work-life balance, and satisfaction were compared for pediatricians who had pursued fellowship training (fellowship trained) and those who did not pursue fellowship training (generalist trained). Logistic and linear regression examined the independent effects of fellowship training while controlling for demographic differences. A total of 39% of the pediatricians (328/842) pursued fellowship training. The fellowship-trained group was less likely than the generalist-trained group to spend time in direct patient care and more likely to report learning opportunities in their work environment. This group was also more likely to report an income of ≥$150,000, although no difference was found when only full-time pediatricians were examined. Generalist-trained pediatricians were more likely to work hours per week, have flexibility with their schedules, and be satisfied with time spent with their own children. Pediatricians in both the fellowship-trained and generalist-trained groups generally found their work to be rewarding and were satisfied with their lives. Although residents need to consider important life and career differences when contemplating fellowship training and general care, pediatricians in both groups can achieve overall life and career satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Experiments and Research Programmes. Revisiting Vitalism/Non-Vitalism Debate in Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijoy MUKHERJEE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Debates in the philosophy of science typically take place around issues such as realism and theory change. Recently, the debate has been reformulated to bring in the role of experiments in the context of theory change. As regards realism, Ian Hacking’s contribution has been to introduce ‘intervention’ as the basis of realism. He also proposed, following Imre Lakatos, to replace the issue of truth with progress and rationality. In this context we examine the case of the vitalism — reductionism debate in biology inspired by the works of Indian physicist-turned-biologist Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858–1937, in the early twentieth century. Both camps had their characteristic hardcores. Vitalists led by John S. Burdon-Sanderson and Augustus D. Waller accepted religious metaphysics to support their research programme, which ultimately degenerated. Bose worked more with the ideals of science such as Occam’s razor, large-scale systematization of phenomena and novel prediction. I argue that his religious metaphysics, instead of acting as a protective shield, helped him to consolidate his position and allowed further problem shift resulting in a research programme that involved consciousness too. His research programme remains relevant even today.

  3. Antenatal Weight Management: Women’s Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Swift

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy sought to examine women’s self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+ were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10–27 weeks, with 41.5% (n=80 between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n=83 between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n=97 could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m2 did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m2. The majority of women (regardless of BMI did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  4. Early MIMD experience with a plasma physics simulation program on the CRAY X-MP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades, C.E. Jr.

    1986-02-01

    This paper describes some early experience with converting a plasma physics simulation program to the CRAY X-MP, a current multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) computer consisting of two processors with architecture similar to that of the CRAY-1. The computer program used in this study is an all Fortran version of SELF, a two species, one space, two velocity, electromagnetic, Newtonian, particle in cell, plasma simulation code. The approach to converting SELF to use both processors of the CRAY X-MP is described in some detail. The resulting multiprocessor version of SELF is nearly a factor of two faster in real time than the single processor version. The multiprocessor version obtains 58.2+-.1 seconds of central processor time in 30+-.5 seconds of real time. For comparison, the CRAY-1 execution time if 74.5 seconds. For SELF, which is mostly scalar coding, the CRAY X-MP is about 2.5 times faster overall than the CRAY-1

  5. Early experience using the da Vinci Surgical System for the treatment of mediastinal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Taira, Masahiro; Yoshida, Koichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Usuda, Jitsuo; Uchida, Osamu; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2011-10-01

    The da Vinci Surgical System has been used in only a few cases for treating mediastinal tumors in Japan. Recently, we used the da Vinci Surgical System for various types of anterior and middle mediastinal tumors in clinical practice. We report our early experience using the da Vinci Surgical System. Seven patients gave written informed consent to undergo robotic surgery for mediastinal tumor dissection using the da Vinci Surgical System. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of this system for the surgical treatment of mediastinal tumors. Two specialists in thoracic surgery who are certified to use the da Vinci S Surgical System and another specialist acted as an assistant performed the tumor dissection. We were able to access difficult-to-reach areas, such as the mediastinum, safely. All the resected tumors were classified as benign tumors histologically. The average da Vinci setting time was 14.0 min, the average working time was 55.7 min, and the average overall operating time was 125.9 min. The learning curve for the da Vinci setup and manipulation time was short. Robotic surgery enables mediastinal tumor dissection in certain cases more safely and easily than conventional video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and less invasively than open thoracotomy.

  6. Spacetime deformation effect on the early universe and the PTOLEMY experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Horvat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a fully-fledged formulation of gauge field theory deformed by the spacetime noncommutativity, we study its impact on relic neutrino direct detection, as proposed recently by the PTOLEMY experiment. The noncommutative background tends to influence the propagating neutrinos by providing them with a tree-level vector-like coupling to photons, enabling thus otherwise sterile right-handed (RH neutrinos to be thermally produced in the early universe. Such a new component in the universe's background radiation has been switched today to the almost fully active sea of non-relativistic neutrinos, exerting consequently some impact on the capture on tritium at PTOLEMY. The peculiarities of our nonperturbative approach tend to reflect in the cosmology as well, upon the appearances of the coupling temperature, above which RH neutrinos stay permanently decoupled from thermal environment. This entails the maximal scale of noncommutativity as well, being of order of 10−4MPl, above which there is no impact whatsoever on the capture rates at PTOLEMY. The latter represents an exceptional upper bound on the scale of noncommutativity coming from phenomenology.

  7. The effects of early experience on subsequent feeding responses in the Tegu, Tupinambis teguixin (Squamata : Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, F

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of early feeding experiences on subsequent responses to prey in the tegu, Tupinambis teguixin. Five-day old lizards were exposed to the odors of various prey and control substances on cotton-tipped applicators with the tongue-flick attack score (TFAS) chosen as the dependent variable. Each lizard was exposed to four stimuli: two controls (deionised water and cologne), and extracts from a mouse Mus musculus, and a lizard Ameiva ameiva, in a repeated measures, randomized block design, receiving one stimulus training session / day over a 40-day period. Tongue-flicks directed toward the applicator were counted over a 1 min period as well as the amount of time that elapsed from the first tongue flick to any bite that may have occurred. Live neonatal mice (but not A. ameiva), offered on a weekly basis, were used as a food source for tegus over a 10-month period. After 10 months, tegus were exposed to applicators containing control odors as well as those containing extracts from mice and lizards (A. ameiva). Mouse extracts elicited significantly higher TFAS as compared to those elicited by A. ameiva or control odors, suggesting that prey odors encountered in the environment shortly after hatching can influence prey preferences by these lizards later in life. These results also indicate that tegu lizards can learn to use specific odor cues associated with naturally occurring prey as releasers for subsequent hunting behaviors.

  8. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories.

  9. Big data managing in a landslide early warning system: experience from a ground-based interferometric radar application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Intrieri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A big challenge in terms or landslide risk mitigation is represented by increasing the resiliency of society exposed to the risk. Among the possible strategies with which to reach this goal, there is the implementation of early warning systems. This paper describes a procedure to improve early warning activities in areas affected by high landslide risk, such as those classified as critical infrastructures for their central role in society. This research is part of the project LEWIS (Landslides Early Warning Integrated System: An Integrated System for Landslide Monitoring, Early Warning and Risk Mitigation along Lifelines. LEWIS is composed of a susceptibility assessment methodology providing information for single points and areal monitoring systems, a data transmission network and a data collecting and processing center (DCPC, where readings from all monitoring systems and mathematical models converge and which sets the basis for warning and intervention activities. The aim of this paper is to show how logistic issues linked to advanced monitoring techniques, such as big data transfer and storing, can be dealt with compatibly with an early warning system. Therefore, we focus on the interaction between an areal monitoring tool (a ground-based interferometric radar and the DCPC. By converting complex data into ASCII strings and through appropriate data cropping and average, and by implementing an algorithm for line-of-sight correction, we managed to reduce the data daily output without compromising the capability for performing.

  10. Big data managing in a landslide early warning system: experience from a ground-based interferometric radar application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Bardi, Federica; Fanti, Riccardo; Gigli, Giovanni; Fidolini, Francesco; Casagli, Nicola; Costanzo, Sandra; Raffo, Antonio; Di Massa, Giuseppe; Capparelli, Giovanna; Versace, Pasquale

    2017-10-01

    A big challenge in terms or landslide risk mitigation is represented by increasing the resiliency of society exposed to the risk. Among the possible strategies with which to reach this goal, there is the implementation of early warning systems. This paper describes a procedure to improve early warning activities in areas affected by high landslide risk, such as those classified as critical infrastructures for their central role in society. This research is part of the project LEWIS (Landslides Early Warning Integrated System): An Integrated System for Landslide Monitoring, Early Warning and Risk Mitigation along Lifelines. LEWIS is composed of a susceptibility assessment methodology providing information for single points and areal monitoring systems, a data transmission network and a data collecting and processing center (DCPC), where readings from all monitoring systems and mathematical models converge and which sets the basis for warning and intervention activities. The aim of this paper is to show how logistic issues linked to advanced monitoring techniques, such as big data transfer and storing, can be dealt with compatibly with an early warning system. Therefore, we focus on the interaction between an areal monitoring tool (a ground-based interferometric radar) and the DCPC. By converting complex data into ASCII strings and through appropriate data cropping and average, and by implementing an algorithm for line-of-sight correction, we managed to reduce the data daily output without compromising the capability for performing.

  11. Exploring Early Angiosperm Fire Feedbacks using Coupled Experiments and Modelling Approaches to Estimate Cretaceous Palaeofire Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria

    2016-04-01

    Using the fossil record we are typically limited to exploring linkages between palaeoecological changes and palaeofire activity by assessing the abundance of charcoals preserved in sediments. However, it is the behaviour of fires that primarily governs their ecological effects. Therefore, the ability to estimate variations in aspects of palaeofire behaviour such as palaeofire intensity and rate of spread would be of key benefit toward understanding the coupled evolutionary history of ecosystems and fire. The Cretaceous Period saw major diversification in land plants. Previously, conifers (gymnosperms) and ferns (pteridophytes) dominated Earth's ecosystems until flowering plants (angiosperms) appear in the fossil record of the Early Cretaceous (~135Ma). We have created surface fire behaviour estimates for a variety of angiosperm invasion scenarios and explored the influence of Cretaceous superambient atmospheric oxygen levels on the fire behaviour occurring in these new Cretaceous ecosystems. These estimates are then used to explore the hypothesis that the early spread of the angiosperms was promoted by the novel fire regimes that they created. In order to achieve this we tested the flammability of Mesozoic analogue fuel types in controlled laboratory experiments using an iCone calorimeter, which measured the ignitability as well as the effective heat of combustion of the fuels. We then used the BehavePlus fire behaviour modelling system to scale up our laboratory results to the ecosystem scale. Our results suggest that fire-angiosperm feedbacks may have occurred in two phases: The first phase being a result of weedy angiosperms providing an additional easily ignitable fuel that enhanced both the seasonality and frequency of surface fires. In the second phase, the addition of shrubby understory fuels likely expanded the number of ecosystems experiencing more intense surface fires, resulting in enhanced mortality and suppressed post-fire recruitment of gymnosperms

  12. Romantic Relationship Patterns from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Family and Peer Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François

    2016-05-01

    The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence.

  13. Comfort in palliative sedation (Compas): a transdisciplinary mixed method study protocol for linking objective assessments to subjective experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Stefaan; Laureys, Steven; Poelaert, Jan; Bilsen, Johan; Theuns, Peter; Deschepper, Reginald

    2018-04-18

    In case of untreatable suffering at the end of life, palliative sedation may be chosen to assure comfort by reducing the patient's level of consciousness. An important question here is whether such sedated patients are completely free of pain. Because these patients cannot communicate anymore, caregivers have to rely on observation to assess the patient's comfort. Recently however, more sophisticated techniques from the neurosciences have shown that sometimes consciousness and pain are undetectable with these traditional behavioral methods. The aim of this study is to better understand how unconscious palliative sedated patients experience the last days of their life and to find out if they are really free of pain. In this study we will observe 40 patients starting with initiation of palliative sedation until death. Assessment of comfort based on behavioral observations will be related with the results from a NeuroSense monitor, an EEG-based monitor used for evaluation of the adequacy of anesthesia and sedation in the operating room and an ECG-based Analgesia Nociception Index (ANI) monitor, which informs about comfort or discomfort condition, based on the parasympathetic tone. An innovative and challenging aspect of this study is its qualitative approach; "objective" and "subjective" data will be linked to achieve a holistic understanding of the study topic. The following data will be collected: assessment of pain/comfort by the patients themselves (if possible) by scoring a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); brain function monitoring; monitoring of parasympathetic tone; caregivers' assessment (pain, awareness, communication); relatives' perception of the quality of the dying process; assessment by 2 trained investigators using observational scales; video and audio registration. Measuring pain and awareness in non-communicative dying patients is both technically and ethically challenging. ANI and EEG have shown to be promising technologies to detect pain that otherwise

  14. The Long-Run Impacts of Early Childhood Education: Evidence from a Failed Policy Experiment. NBER Working Paper No. 17085

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Smith, Justin D.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate short and long-term effects of early childhood education using variation created by a unique policy experiment in British Columbia, Canada. Our findings imply starting Kindergarten one year late substantially reduces the probability of repeating the third grade, and meaningfully increases in tenth grade math and reading scores.…

  15. Early Career Teachers' Perceptions and Experiences of Leadership Development: Balancing Structure and Agency in Contrasting School Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Joan; Pedder, David

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of a three-year, longitudinal study investigating early career teachers' (ECTs) experiences and perceptions of leadership development in English secondary schools, this paper highlights, from the perspectives of ECTs, some of the factors that support and facilitate leadership development during the first few years of the…

  16. The Influence of Income, Experience, and Academic Qualification on the Early Childhood Education Teachers' Creativity in Semarang, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Risky

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine: (1) the intercorrelation between income, experience, and academic qualification with the early childhood education teachers' teaching creativity; (2) to find out the dominant factors that affect the ability of teachers' Creativity in Semarang. This research uses an experimental design with four variables, including…

  17. Alternative Student Growth Measures for Teacher Evaluation: Implementation Experiences of Early-Adopting Districts. REL 2015-093

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Moira; English, Brittany; Angus, Megan Hague; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Alternative student growth measures for teacher evaluation: Implementation experiences of early-adopting districts: State requirements to include student achievement growth in teacher evaluations are prompting the development of alternative ways to measure growth in grades and subjects not covered by state assessments. These alternative growth…

  18. Teaching Experience and Expectations of Early-Career Academics in Mozambique: The Case of Universidade Eduardo Mondlane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossa, Eugénia Flora Rosa; Buque, Domingos Carlos; Fringe, Jorge Jaime dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explored how early-career academics (ECA) at the Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (UEM) acquire pedagogical knowledge, develop their teaching experience as well as examine their expectations regarding the teaching profession. A questionnaire, composed mostly of closed questions and one open-ended question, was applied to 71…

  19. Schools' Responses to Voucher Policy: Participation Decisions and Early Implementation Experiences in the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Megan J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the supply side of voucher programs, despite schools' central role in program effectiveness. Using survey and interview data on the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program (ICSP), I analyze schools' participation decisions and early implementation experiences to understand better how schools respond to program regulations. I find…

  20. Early mortality experience in a large military cohort and a comparison of mortality data sources

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    Smith Besa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete and accurate ascertainment of mortality is critically important in any longitudinal study. Tracking of mortality is particularly essential among US military members because of unique occupational exposures (e.g., worldwide deployments as well as combat experiences. Our study objectives were to describe the early mortality experience of Panel 1 of the Millennium Cohort, consisting of participants in a 21-year prospective study of US military service members, and to assess data sources used to ascertain mortality. Methods A population-based random sample (n = 256,400 of all US military service members on service rosters as of October 1, 2000, was selected for study recruitment. Among this original sample, 214,388 had valid mailing addresses, were not in the pilot study, and comprised the group referred to in this study as the invited sample. Panel 1 participants were enrolled from 2001 to 2003, represented all armed service branches, and included active-duty, Reserve, and National Guard members. Crude death rates, as well as age- and sex-adjusted overall and age-adjusted, category-specific death rates were calculated and compared for participants (n = 77,047 and non-participants (n = 137,341 based on data from the Social Security Administration Death Master File, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA files, and the Department of Defense Medical Mortality Registry, 2001-2006. Numbers of deaths identified by these three data sources, as well as the National Death Index, were compared for 2001-2004. Results There were 341 deaths among the participants for a crude death rate of 80.7 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 72.2,89.3 compared to 820 deaths and a crude death rate of 113.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: 105.4, 120.9 for non-participants. Age-adjusted, category-specific death rates highlighted consistently higher rates among study non-participants. Although there were advantages and

  1. Preferences for Early Intervention Mental Health Services: A Discrete-Choice Conjoint Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mackenzie P E; Christensen, Bruce K; Cunningham, Charles E; Furimsky, Ivana; Rimas, Heather; Wilson, Fiona; Jeffs, Lisa; Bieling, Peter J; Madsen, Victoria; Chen, Yvonne Y S; Mielko, Stephanie; Zipursky, Robert B

    2016-02-01

    Early intervention services (EISs) for mental illness may improve outcomes, although treatment engagement is often a problem. Incorporating patients' preferences in the design of interventions improves engagement. A discrete-choice conjoint experiment was conducted in Canada to identify EIS attributes that encourage treatment initiation. Sixteen four-level attributes were formalized into a conjoint survey, completed by patients, family members, and mental health professionals (N=562). Participants were asked which EIS option people with mental illness would contact. Latent-class analysis identified respondent classes characterized by shared preferences. Randomized first-choice simulations predicted which hypothetical options, based on attributes, would result in maximum utilization. Participants in the conventional-service class (N=241, 43%) predicted that individuals would contact traditional services (for example, hospital location and staffed by psychologists or psychiatrists). Membership was associated with being a patient or family member and being male. Participants in the convenient-service class (N=321, 57%) predicted that people would contact services promoting easy access (for example, self-referral and access from home). Membership was associated with being a professional. Both classes predicted that people would contact services that included short wait times, direct contact with professionals, patient autonomy, and psychological treatment information. The convenient-service class predicted that people would use an e-health model, whereas the conventional-service class predicted that people would use a primary care or clinic-hospital model. Provision of a range of services may maximize EIS use. Professionals may be more apt to adopt EISs in line with their beliefs regarding patient preferences. Considering several perspectives is important for service design.

  2. Operative technique and early experience for robotic-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (RALNU) using da Vinci Xi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwiche, Fadi; Swain, Sanjaya; Kallingal, George; Punnen, Sanoj; Manoharan, Murugesan; Parekh, Dipen J; Gonzalgo, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Robotic-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (RALNU) has been previously utilized for management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. The da Vinci Xi surgical system was released in April of 2014. We describe our operative technique and early experience for RALNU using the da Vinci Xi system highlighting unique features of this surgical platform. A total of 10 patients with a diagnosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma underwent RALNU using the da Vinci Xi system between April and November of 2014. A novel, oblique "in line" robotic trocar configuration was utilized to access the upper abdomen (nephrectomy portion) and pelvis (bladder cuff excision) without undocking. The port hopping feature of da Vinci Xi was utilized to facilitate optimal, multi-quadrant visualization during RALNU. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was successfully completed without open conversion in all 10 patients. Mean operative time was 184 min (range 140-300 min), mean estimated blood loss was 121 cc (range 60-300 cc), and mean hospital stay was 2.4 days. Final pathology demonstrated high grade urothelial carcinoma in all patients. Surgical margins were negative in all patients. No intra-operative complications were encountered. One patient developed a pulmonary embolus after being discharged. No patients required a blood transfusion. Mean patient follow-up was 130 days (range 15-210 days). The use of da Vinci Xi with a novel, oblique "in line" port configuration and camera port hopping technique allows for an efficient and reproducible method for RALNU without the need for repositioning the patient or the robot during surgery.

  3. Early multicentre experience of pre-pectoral implant based immediate breast reconstruction using Braxon®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafferbhoy, Sadaf; Chandarana, Mihir; Houlihan, Maria; Parmeshwar, Rishikesh; Narayanan, Sankaran; Soumian, Soni; Harries, Simon; Jones, Lucie; Clarke, Dayalan

    2017-12-01

    The last two decades have seen significant changes in surgical management of breast cancer. The offer of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) following mastectomy is currently standard practice. Skin sparing and nipple sparing mastectomy with implant-based IBR have emerged as oncologically safe treatment options. Prepectoral implant placement and complete coverage of implant with acellular dermal matrix (ADM) eliminates the need to detach the muscle from underlying chest wall in contrast to the subpectoral technique. We report short-term outcomes of a multicentre study from the United Kingdom (UK) using Braxon ® in women having an IBR. A prospective study was conducted from December 2015 to October 2016 and included all patients from three breast units in the UK who underwent a mastectomy and an implant-based IBR using Braxon ® . The demographic details, co-morbidities, operative details, immediate and delayed complications were recorded. Specific complications recorded were infection, seroma, unplanned readmission and loss of implant. A comparison was made with complications reported in the National Mastectomy and Reconstruction Audit. Seventy-eight IBRs were included in the analysis with a median follow-up of 9.98 months. Mean age of the cohort was 50 years with a mean body mass index of 25.7 kg/m 2 . Mean implant volume was 365 cc. The inpatient hospital stay was 1.48 days. About 23% of patients had a seroma, 30% had erythema requiring antibiotics and the explant rate was 10.2 percent. Bilateral reconstructions were significantly associated with implant loss and peri-operative complications on univariate analysis. Our early experience with this novel prepectoral technique using Braxon ® has shown it to be an effective technique with complication rates comparable to subpectoral IBR. The advantages of prepectoral implant-based IBR are quicker postoperative recovery and short post-operative hospital stay. Long-term studies are required to assess rippling, post

  4. Sustaining the Benefits of Early Childhood Education Experiences: A Research Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been increased recognition of the short- and long-term benefits of high-quality early childhood education programs, but the systems needed to sustain these benefits throughout early learning transitions (and beyond) have not yet been fully implemented. In this article, the author discusses the importance of early…

  5. Changes in the Phosphoproteome and Metabolome Link Early Signaling Events to Rearrangement of Photosynthesis and Central Metabolism in Salinity and Oxidative Stress Response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanmei; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    Salinity and oxidative stress are major factors affecting and limiting the productivity of agricultural crops. The molecular and biochemical processes governing the plant response to abiotic stress have often been researched in a reductionist manner. Here, we report a systemic approach combining metabolic labeling and phosphoproteomics to capture early signaling events with quantitative metabolome analysis and enzyme activity assays to determine the effects of salt and oxidative stress on plant physiology. K(+) and Na(+) transporters showed coordinated changes in their phosphorylation pattern, indicating the importance of dynamic ion homeostasis for adaptation to salt stress. Unique phosphorylation sites were found for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SNF1 kinase homolog10 and 11, indicating their central roles in the stress-regulated responses. Seven Sucrose Non-fermenting1-Related Protein Kinase2 kinases showed varying levels of phosphorylation at multiple serine/threonine residues in their kinase domain upon stress, showing temporally distinct modulation of the various isoforms. Salinity and oxidative stress also lead to changes in protein phosphorylation of proteins central to photosynthesis, in particular the kinase State Transition Protein7 required for state transition and light-harvesting II complex proteins. Furthermore, stress-induced changes of the phosphorylation of enzymes of central metabolism were observed. The phosphorylation patterns of these proteins were concurrent with changes in enzyme activity. This was reflected by altered levels of metabolites, such as the sugars sucrose and fructose, glycolysis intermediates, and amino acids. Together, our study provides evidence for a link between early signaling in the salt and oxidative stress response that regulates the state transition of photosynthesis and the rearrangement of primary metabolism. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Role of early experience in ant enslavement: a comparative analysis of a host and a non-host species

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    Sermage Claire

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ants use the odour of the colony to discriminate nestmates. In some species, this odour is learned during the first days following emergence, and thus early experience has a strong influence on nestmate discrimination. Slave-making ants are social parasites that capture brood of other ant species to increase the worker force of their colony. After emerging in the slave-maker nest, slave workers work as if they were in their own colony. We tested the hypothesis that early experience allows the deception of commonly enslaved species, while non-host species use a different mechanism, which does not involve learning. Results Pupae of a host species, Temnothorax unifasciatus, and a non-host species, T. parvulus, were allowed to emerge in the presence of workers of one of two slave-maker species, Chalepoxenus muellerianus or Myrmoxenus ravouxi. When T. unifasciatus was exposed to slave-makers for 10 days following emergence, they were more aggressive towards their own sisters and groomed the slave-maker more. T. parvulus gave a less clear result: while workers behaved more aggressively towards their sisters when exposed early to C. muellerianus workers, this was not the case when exposed early to M. ravouxi workers. Moreover, T. parvulus workers allogroomed conspecific nestmates less than T. unifasciatus. Allogrooming activity might be very important for the slave-makers because they are tended by their slaves. Conclusion Our findings show that early experience influences nestmate discrimination in the ant T. unifasciatus and can account for the successful enslavement of this species. However, the non-host species T. parvulus is less influenced by the early environment. This might help to explain why this species is never used by social parasites.

  7. Mid-dose rate intracavitary therapy for uterine cervix cancer with a Selectron; An early experience of Osaka University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, Teruki; Inoue, Takehiro; Sasaki, Shigeru; Ohtani, Masatoshi; Kozuka, Takahiro; Inoue, Toshihiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Hideya (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Murayama, Shigeyuki

    1993-05-01

    From May 1991 through September 1992, a total of 17 previously untreated patients with invasive uterine cervix cancer and with intact uterus were treated with mid-dose rate intracavitary therapy administered with a Selectron. Early primary tumor responses for all patients were complete. No acute or subacute radiation injury was observed except one patient with aplastic anemia who developed rectal ulcer. Two patients of Stage IIIb died from tumor because of local, paraaortic lymph node and distant metastases. Our early experience concluded that Selectron MDR can be used for cervix cancer patients as safely and effectively as our previously used high-dose rate machine. (author).

  8. Treatment of early breast cancer, a long-term follow-up study: the GOCS experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Julián; Zwenger, Ariel; Leone, José Pablo; Verdera, Palmira Perez; Vallejo, Carlos; Romero, Alberto; Perez, Juán; Machiavelli, Mario; Leone, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    Most cases of breast cancer are diagnosed at early stage of disease; therefore, treatment is oriented to increase the disease-free interval (DFI) and overall survival (OS). The prognosis, in comparison with other malignancies, has improved in the last decades as a result of mammographic screening. The aim of the study was to report the incidence of local and distant recurrence, DFI and OS in patients (pts) with stage I and stage II breast cancer over a period of 26 years divided into three groups. From January 1978 to December 2004, 927 women with early breast cancer (EBC) were included, 350 were stage I and 577 Stage II (AJCC 2002). Patients were divided according to the year of diagnosis into three periods of 10 years: Group A (1978-1987) 135 pts, Group B (1988-1997) 412 pts, and Group C (1998-2004) 380 pts. DFI was analyzed from the date of initial diagnosis to the date of local or distant recurrence. OS was estimated from the date of initial diagnosis to the last follow-up or date of death. Median age was 51 years (28-92). Conservative surgery was performed in 69% of pts, adjuvant radiation therapy in 78%, adjuvant chemotherapy in 29%, and adjuvant hormone therapy in 18%. The median follow-up was 8.4 years (0.3-30). The mean tumor size in Group A was 2.7 cm, in Group B 2.2 cm, and in Group C 1.94 cm (p = 0.0001). The percentage of pts with stage I increased from 13% in Group A to 38% in Group B and to 47% in Group C (p = 0.0001). Local recurrence was documented in 5% of all pts, whereas 28% developed metastatic disease. The DFI and OS showed a statistically significant difference among the three groups (p = 0.005). DFI rate at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years was 71%, 67%, 65%, 65%, and 64%, respectively. OS at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years was 82%, 62%, 49%, 39%, and 28%, respectively. Factors that had an effect in OS demonstrated by the multivariate regression analysis were: Tumor size, ER status, and nodal involvement (p < 0.001). Clinical outcomes in EBC in our

  9. Excessive Leucine-mTORC1-Signalling of Cow Milk-Based Infant Formula: The Missing Link to Understand Early Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2012-01-01

    Increased protein supply by feeding cow-milk-based infant formula in comparison to lower protein content of human milk is a well-recognized major risk factor of childhood obesity. However, there is yet no conclusive biochemical concept explaining the mechanisms of formula-induced childhood obesity. It is the intention of this article to provide the biochemical link between leucine-mediated signalling of mammalian milk proteins and adipogenesis as well as early adipogenic programming. Leucine has been identified as the predominant signal transducer of mammalian milk, which stimulates the nutrient-sensitive kinase mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Leucine thus functions as a maternal-neonatal relay for mTORC1-dependent neonatal β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion. The mTORC1 target S6K1 plays a pivotal role in stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into adipocytes and to induce insulin resistance. It is of most critical concern that infant formulas provide higher amounts of leucine in comparison to human milk. Exaggerated leucine-mediated mTORC1-S6K1 signalling induced by infant formulas may thus explain increased adipogenesis and generation of lifelong elevated adipocyte numbers. Attenuation of mTORC1 signalling of infant formula by leucine restriction to physiologic lower levels of human milk offers a great chance for the prevention of childhood obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  10. Paleoarchean bedrock lithologies across the Makhonjwa Mountains of South Africa and Swaziland linked to geochemical, magnetic and tectonic data reveal early plate tectonic genes flanking subduction margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten de Wit

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Makhonjwa Mountains, traditionally referred to as the Barberton Greenstone Belt, retain an iconic Paleoarchean archive against which numerical models of early earth geodynamics can be tested. We present new geologic and structural maps, geochemical plots, geo- and thermo-chronology, and geophysical data from seven silicic, mafic to ultramafic complexes separated by major shear systems across the southern Makhonjwa Mountains. All reveal signs of modern oceanic back-arc crust and subduction-related processes. We compare the rates of processes determined from this data and balance these against plate tectonic and plume related models. Robust rates of both horizontal and vertical tectonic processes derived from the Makhonjwa Mountain complexes are similar, well within an order of magnitude, to those encountered across modern oceanic and orogenic terrains flanking Western Pacific-like subduction zones. We conclude that plate tectonics and linked plate-boundary processes were well established by 3.2–3.6 Ga. Our work provides new constraints for modellers with rates of a ‘basket’ of processes against which to test Paleoarchean geodynamic models over a time period close to the length of the Phanerozoic. Keywords: Paleoarchean, Barberton Greenstone Belt, Onverwacht Suite, Geologic bedrock and structural maps, Geochemistry and geophysics, Plate tectonics

  11. Early clinical experience of radiotherapy of prostate cancer with volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli Mariacarla

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report about initial clinical experience in radiation treatment of carcinoma of prostate with volumetric modulated arcs with the RapidArc (RA technology. Methods Forty-five patients with a median age of 72 ± 3, affected by prostate carcinoma (T1c: 22 patients, T2a-b: 17 patients, T3a-b: 6 patients. N0: 43 patients, N1-Nx: 2 patients, all M0, with initial PSA of 10.0 ± 3.0 ng/mL, were treated with RapidArc in a feasibility study. All patients were treated with single arc using 6MV photons. Dose prescription ranged between 76 (7 patients and 78 Gy (38 patients in 2Gy/fraction. Plan quality was assessed by means of Dose Volume Histogram (DVH analysis. Technical parameters of arcs and pre-treatment quality assurance results (Gamma Agreement Index, GAI are reported to describe delivery features. Early toxicity was scored (according to the Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Effects scale, CTCAE, scale at the end of treatment together with biochemical outcome (PSA. Results From DVH data, target coverage was fulfilling planning objectives: V95% was in average higher than 98% and V107%~0.0% (D2%~104.0% in average. Homogeneity D5%-D95% ranged between 6.2 ± 1.0% to 6.7 ± 1.3%. For rectum, all planning objectives were largely met (e.g. V70Gy = 10.7 ± 5.5% against an objective of 2% = 79.4 ± 1.2Gy against an objective of 80.0Gy. Maximum dose to femurs was D2% = 36.7 ± 5.4Gy against an objective of 47Gy. Monitor Units resulted: MU/Gy = 239 ± 37. Average beam on time was 1.24 ± 0.0 minutes. Pre-treatment GAI resulted in 98.1 ± 1.1%. Clinical data were recorded as PSA at 6 weeks after RT, with median values of 0.4 ± 0.4 ng/mL. Concerning acute toxicity, no patient showed grade 2-3 rectal toxicity; 5/42 (12% patients experienced grade 2 dysuria; 18/41 (44% patients preserved complete or partial erectile function. Conclusion RapidArc proved to be a safe, qualitative and advantageous treatment modality for prostate cancer.

  12. Only fixation for cervical spondylosis: Report of early results with a preliminary experience with 6 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The author reports early post-operative outcome and preliminary experience with an alternative form of treatment of cervical degenerative or spondylotic disease leading to spinal canal stenosis that involves fixation-arthrodesis of the affected spinal segment using one or two (double insurance transarticular screws for each joint. Materials and Methods: During the period of months from March 2013 to July 2013, six patients having cervical spondylotic cord compression were treated with transarticular method of screw fixation of the involved segments. The operation involved section of the spinous process at its base, opening up of the facet joint, denuding of articular cartilage, placement of intraarticular cavity bone graft chips and insertion of either a single or two transarticular screws at each level. The fixation was done in four levels in four patients and at two levels in two patients. Japanese Orthopedic Association score, visual analog scale (neck pain and Odom′s criteria were used to monitor the clinical status of the patients before and after the surgery and at follow-up. Results: Immediate post-operative and a relatively short-term post-operative outcome was remarkably gratifying. During the average period of follow-up of 6 months (range: 3-8 months; there was varying degree of recovery of symptoms. The procedure resulted in firm stabilization and fixation of the spinal segment and provided a ground for arthrodesis. No patient worsened after treatment. During the period of follow-up, all patients showed remarkable and progressive recovery in symptoms. Conclusions: Vertical instability and telescoping, listhesis or overriding of the facets on physical activity seems to be the defining phenomenon in pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic disease. The clinical outcome in our patients suggest that only fixation of the spinal segment can be a rationale form of treatment. Transarticular method of treatment is a simple, safe and

  13. 2013 Early Life History Experiment Data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  14. 2012 Early Life History Experiment Data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  15. Water hammer experiences in the startup and early operation of the Shearon Harris plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    During the course of preoperational testing and early operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, several water hammer events have occurred. A description of the events and corrective/preventive measures taken are discussed

  16. Early nerve repair in traumatic brachial plexus injuries in adults: treatment algorithm and first experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondaag, Willem; van Driest, Finn Y; Groen, Justus L; Malessy, Martijn J A

    2018-01-26

    OBJECTIVE The object of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of early nerve repair within 2 weeks following adult traumatic brachial plexus injury (ATBPI). METHODS From 2009 onwards, the authors have strived to repair as early as possible extended C-5 to C-8 or T-1 lesions or complete loss of C-5 to C-6 or C-7 function in patients in whom there was clinical and radiological suspicion of root avulsion. Among a group of 36 patients surgically treated in the period between 2009 and 2011, surgical findings in those who had undergone treatment within 2 weeks after trauma were retrospectively compared with results in those who had undergone delayed treatment. The result of biceps muscle reanimation was the primary outcome measure. RESULTS Five of the 36 patients were referred within 2 weeks after trauma and were eligible for early surgery. Nerve ruptures and/or avulsions were found in all early cases of surgery. The advantages of early surgery are as follows: no scar formation, easy anatomical identification, and gap length reduction. Disadvantages include less-clear demarcation of vital nerve tissue and unfamiliarity with the interpretation of frozen-section examination findings. All 5 early-treatment patients recovered a biceps force rated Medical Research Council grade 4. CONCLUSIONS Preliminary results of nerve repair within 2 weeks of ATBPI are encouraging, and the benefits outweigh the drawbacks. The authors propose a decision algorithm to select patients eligible for early surgery. Referral standards for patients with ATBPI must be adapted to enable early surgery.

  17. Patterns of Early Rejection in Renal Retransplantation: A Single-Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that kidney retransplant patients had high rates of early acute rejection due to previous sensitization. In addition to the acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR that has received widespread attention, the early acute T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR may be another important issue in renal retransplantation. In the current single-center retrospective study, we included 33 retransplant patients and 90 first transplant patients with similar protocols of induction and maintenance therapy. Analysis focused particularly on the incidence and patterns of early acute rejection episodes, as well as one-year graft and patient survival. Excellent short-term clinical outcomes were obtained in both groups, with one-year graft and patient survival rates of 93.9%/100% in the retransplant group and 92.2%/95.6% in the first transplant group. Impressively, with our strict immunological selection and desensitization criteria, the retransplant patients had a very low incidence of early acute ABMR (6.1%, which was similar to that in the first transplant patients (4.4%. However, a much higher rate of early acute TCMR was observed in the retransplant group than in the first transplant group (30.3% versus 5.6%, P<0.001. Acute TCMR that develops early after retransplantation should be monitored in order to obtain better transplant outcomes.

  18. The experience of breaks in psychotherapy with children who suffered massive early trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte

    with birth and foster parents. Principles were worked out for transparent, theoretically informed sampling of session material and other information. Disconfirming case analysis and a relational mapping chart worked out to allow for time-sequenced exploration. A subsequent study assessed the scope of results...... by a comparable investigation of summer vacation breaks in student-therapist`s supervised, concluded therapies. Findings highlighted 1) links between breaks and the eruption of hostile parental and sibling figures in mind; 2) links between the emotional quality of sibling and parental figures; 3) differences...

  19. Exploring revictimization process among Turkish women: The role of early maladaptive schemas on the link between child abuse and partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Sinem; Gençöz, Tülin

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the current study is to explore the revictimization process between child abuse and neglect (CAN), and intimate partner violence (IPV) based on the schema theory perspective. For this aim, 222 married women recruited in four central cities of Turkey participated in the study. Results indicated that early negative CAN experiences increased the risk of being exposed to later IPV. Specifically, emotional abuse and sexual abuse in the childhood predicted the four subtypes of IPV, which are physical, psychological, and sexual violence, and injury, while physical abuse only associated with physical violence. To explore the mediational role of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) on this association, first, five schema domains were tested via Parallel Multiple Mediation Model. Results indicated that only Disconnection/Rejection (D/R) schema domains mediated the association between CAN and IPV. Second, to determine the particular mediational roles of each schema, eighteen EMS were tested as mediators, and results showed that Emotional Deprivation Schema and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness Schema mediated the association between CAN and IPV. These findings provided an empirical support for the crucial roles of EMSs on the effect of revictimization process. Clinical implications were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Phyllis C; Bussière, Luc F; Webber, C Elizabeth; Poole, Joyce H; Moss, Cynthia J

    2013-04-23

    Growth from conception to reproductive onset in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) provides insights into phenotypic plasticity, individual adaptive plastic responses and facultative maternal investment. Using growth for 867 and life histories for 2652 elephants over 40 years, we demonstrate that maternal inexperience plus drought in early life result in reduced growth rates for sons and higher mortality for both sexes. Slow growth during early lactation was associated with smaller adult size, later age at first reproduction, reduced lifetime survival and consequently limited reproductive output. These enduring effects of trading slow early growth against immediate survival were apparent over the very long term; delayed downstream consequences were unexpected for a species with a maximum longevity of 70+ years and unpredictable environmental experiences.

  1. Minding experience: An exploration of the concept of "experience" in the early French anthropology of Durkheim, Lévy-Bruhl, and Lévi-Strauss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, C Jason

    2003-01-01

    In line with the growing concern with the unexamined reliance upon the concept of "experience" in anthropology, this article explores in some detail the various usages and definitions of the concept in the work of three of early French anthropology's most influential theorists: Emile Durkheim (1858-1918), Lucien Lévy-Bruhl (1857-1939), and Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-). With its important influence on both British and American anthropology, the early French anthropological tradition, as epitomized in the writings of these three thinkers, has indeed played a pivotal role in shaping many current taken-for-granted understandings of the concept of experience in the discipline of anthropology as a whole. In the process of exploring how experience is viewed by these three scholars, this paper will thus take some initial steps toward the historical contextualization of many of the unquestioned assumptions underpinning current understandings of experience in the discipline of anthropology and the social sciences more generally. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pros and cons of vertical integration between clinical medicine and basic science within a problem-based undergraduate medical curriculum: examples and experiences from Linköping, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, L O; Brynhildsen, J; Behrbohm Fallsberg, M; Rundquist, I; Hammar, M

    2002-05-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL), combined with early patient contact, multiprofessional education and emphasis on development of communications skills, has become the basis for the medical curriculum at the Faculty of Health Sciences in Linköping (FHS), Sweden, which was started in 1986. Important elements in the curriculum are vertical integration, i.e. integration between the clinical and basic science parts of the curriculum and horizontal integration between different subject areas. This article discusses the importance of vertical integration in an undergraduate medical curriculum, according to experiences from the Faculty of Health Sciences in Linköping, and also give examples on how it has been implemented during the latest 15 years. Results and views put forward in published articles concerning vertical integration within undergraduate medical education are discussed in relation to the experiences in Linköping. Vertical integration between basic sciences and clinical medicine in a PBL setting has been found to stimulate profound rather than superficial learning, and thereby stimulates better understanding of important biomedical principles. Integration probably leads to better retention of knowledge and the ability to apply basic science principles in the appropriate clinical context. Integration throughout the whole curriculum entails a lot of time and work in respect of planning, organization and execution. The teachers have to be deeply involved and enthusiastic and have to cooperate over departmental borders, which may produce positive spin-off effects in teaching and research but also conflicts that have to be resolved. The authors believe vertical integration supports PBL and stimulates deep and lifelong learning.

  3. Experiments of 10 Gbit/sec quantum stream cipher applicable to optical Ethernet and optical satellite link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Osamu; Ohhata, Kenichi; Honda, Makoto; Akutsu, Shigeto; Doi, Yoshifumi; Harasawa, Katsuyoshi; Yamashita, Kiichi

    2009-08-01

    The security issue for the next generation optical network which realizes Cloud Computing System Service with data center" is urgent problem. In such a network, the encryption by physical layer which provide super security and small delay should be employed. It must provide, however, very high speed encryption because the basic link is operated at 2.5 Gbit/sec or 10 Gbit/sec. The quantum stream cipher by Yuen-2000 protocol (Y-00) is a completely new type random cipher so called Gauss-Yuen random cipher, which can break the Shannon limit for the symmetric key cipher. We develop such a cipher which has good balance of the security, speed and cost performance. In SPIE conference on quantum communication and quantum imaging V, we reported a demonstration of 2.5 Gbit/sec system for the commercial link and proposed how to improve it to 10 Gbit/sec. This paper reports a demonstration of the Y-00 cipher system which works at 10 Gbit/sec. A transmission test in a laboratory is tried to get the basic data on what parameters are important to operate in the real commercial networks. In addition, we give some theoretical results on the security. It is clarified that the necessary condition to break the Shannon limit requires indeed the quantum phenomenon, and that the full information theoretically secure system is available in the satellite link application.

  4. Exploring early twenty-first century developed forest camping experiences and meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry A. Garst; Daniel R. Williams; Joseph W. Roggenbuck

    2010-01-01

    This study examines experiences and associated meanings of 38 family groups participating in developed camping. The analysis is guided by discursive social psychology in which expressed meanings reflect interpretive frames campers use to explain experiences. Key elements of camping experience include nature, social interaction, and comfort/convenience. The most common...

  5. [The community-oriented experience of early intervention services in Taipei City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Feng-Ying

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of early intervention. The purpose of early intervention in Taipei City is to help child development, promote parenting skills, and reduce educational and social costs. In order to meet these goals, parenting groups and Taipei City Council have made great efforts to make early intervention work in Taipei City. In April 1995, Taipei City Government started planning and setting up the service network. To date, Taipei City has set up one reporting and referral center?, ?six community resources centers, 22 medical assessment and intervention clinics, 12 child development centers, one early intervention training center, three non-profit foundations and more than 300 inclusion schools, such as kindergartens and day care centers. With parent participation, professional devotion and Taipei City Government's commitment, the number of assisted children has increased from 98 to 2,523 /year. By the end of 2006, Taipei had already funded 25,277 children. We estimate Taipei City early intervention services to have affected at least 75,000 persons, including development-delayed and disabled children, their parents?, ?grandparents and siblings. We found that early intervention services help the children to build up self esteem, grow their potential, learn how to socialize, and receive an education, while the most important aim is to help them to reduce their level of disability or to prevent them from getting worse. At the same time, their families get support and a diverse range of services. An integrated early intervention program should include children, families, and multidisciplinary professionals. The system should therefore be more "family-centered" and "community-oriented" to provide appropriate services to children and families through a positive and aggressive attitude.

  6. Different early rearing experiences have long-term effects on cortical organization in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogart, Stephanie L; Bennett, Allyson J; Schapiro, Steve

    2014-01-01

    -reared chimpanzees have greater global white-to-grey matter volume, more cortical folding and thinner grey matter within the cortical folds than nursery-reared animals. The findings reported here are the first to demonstrate that differences in early rearing conditions have significant consequences on brain......Consequences of rearing history in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been explored in relation to behavioral abnormalities and cognition; however, little is known about the effects of rearing conditions on anatomical brain development. Human studies have revealed that experiences of maltreatment...... and neglect during infancy and childhood can have detrimental effects on brain development and cognition. In this study, we evaluated the effects of early rearing experience on brain morphology in 92 captive chimpanzees (ages 11-43) who were either reared by their mothers (n = 46) or in a nursery (n = 46...

  7. Background experiences, time allocation, time on teaching and perceived support of early-career college science faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagendorf, Kenneth S.

    The purposes of this research were to create an inventory of the research, teaching and service background experiences of and to document the time allocation and time spent on teaching by early-career college science faculty members. This project is presented as three distinct papers. Thirty early-career faculty in the science disciplines from sixteen different institutions in their first year of employment participated in this study. For the first two papers, a new survey was developed asking participants to choose which experiences they had acquired prior to taking their current faculty position and asking them to document their time allocation and time spent on teaching activities in an average work week. In addition, a third component documents the support early-career college faculty in the sciences are receiving from the perspective of faculty members and their respective department chairpersons and identifies areas of disagreement between these two different groups. Twenty early-career college science faculty and their respective department chairpersons completed a newly-designed survey regarding the support offered to new faculty. The survey addressed the areas of feedback on performance, clarity of tenure requirements, mentoring, support for teaching and scholarship and balancing faculty life. This dissertation presents the results from these surveys, accounting for different demographic variables such as science discipline, gender and institutional category.

  8. Putting experience curves in context : links to and between technology development, market diffusion, learning mechanisms and systems innovation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, M.; Suurs, R.; Verbong, G.P.J.; Schaeffer, G.J.; Sark, W. van; Faaij, A. xx

    2010-01-01

    As far as the experience curve approach goes, the focus is mainly on quantifying the cost reductions of the technological artefact (e.g. a wind turbine or biomass power plant) due to technological development. However, the experience curve by itself offers no explanation why costs should decline in

  9. Positive and negative early life experiences differentially modulate long term survival and amyloid protein levels in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesuis, S.L.; Maurin, H.; Borghgraef, P.; Lucassen, P.J.; Van Leuven, F.; Krugers, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Stress has been implicated as a risk factor for the severity and progression of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Early life experiences determine stress responsivity in later life, and modulate age-dependent cognitive decline. Therefore, we examined whether early life experiences influence AD

  10. 'Do I care?' Young adults' recalled experiences of early adolescent overweight and obesity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E; Sweeting, H; Wright, C

    2013-02-01

    Individual behaviour change to reduce obesity requires awareness of, and concern about, weight. This paper therefore describes how young adults, known to have been overweight or obese during early adolescence, recalled early adolescent weight-related awareness and concerns. Associations between recalled concerns and weight-, health- and peer-related survey responses collected during adolescence are also examined. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with young adults; data compared with responses to self-report questionnaires obtained in adolescence. A total of 35 participants, purposively sub-sampled at age 24 from a longitudinal study of a school year cohort, previously surveyed at ages 11, 13 and 15. Physical measures during previous surveys allowed identification of participants with a body mass index (BMI) indicative of overweight or obesity (based on British 1990 growth reference) during early adolescence. Overall, 26 had been obese, of whom 11 had BMI99.6th centile, whereas 9 had been overweight (BMI=95th-97.9th centile). Qualitative interview responses describing teenage life, with prompts for school-, social- and health-related concerns. Early adolescent self-report questionnaire data on weight-worries, self-esteem, friends and victimisation (closed questions). Most, but not all recalled having been aware of their overweight. None referred to themselves as having been obese. None recalled weight-related health worries. Recollection of early adolescent obesity varied from major concerns impacting on much of an individual's life to almost no concern, with little relation to actual severity of overweight. Recalled concerns were not clearly patterned by gender, but young adult males recalling concerns had previously reported more worries about weight, lower self-esteem, fewer friends and more victimisation in early adolescence; no such pattern was seen among females. The popular image of the unhappy overweight teenager was not borne out. Many obese

  11. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  13. Early experience with percutaneous cryoablation of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujak, Jennifer L.; Liu, Patrick T. [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Johnson, Geoffrey B.; Callstrom, Matthew R. [Mayo Clinic Rochester, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Surgical resection, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are all accepted as standard treatments for extra-abdominal desmoid (EAD) tumors, but their effectiveness has been limited by frequent local recurrence. The purpose of this article is to describe our early experiences with using percutaneous cryoablation for local control of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors in five patients whose tumors had failed to respond to standard therapy. In a retrospective search of our institution's radiology database for patients who had undergone percutaneous cryoablation for treatment of EAD tumors between June 2004 and July 2007, we identified five patients (three female and two male). No patients were excluded from this review. Three of these patients had been referred for cryoablation for local tumor control, and two had been referred for palliation of inoperable tumors. The age range of the patients at the time of cryoablation was 9-41 years. The treated EAD tumors were located in the neck, shoulders and trunk and ranged in size from 3.0 cm to 10.0 cm. Medical records were reviewed for short-term and long-term follow-up, and patients were contacted for additional follow-up. Patients were asked to rate their pain as absent, mild, moderate or severe, and to compare it with their levels before cryoablation, describing it as improved, unchanged or worsened. Radiology records were reviewed to follow the size of the EAD tumors before and after cryotherapy. For the three patients referred for local control of EAD tumors, complete tumor coverage with the ablation zones was achieved. Two of these patients, with masses 3.0 cm and 4.9 cm in diameter, reported complete absence of pain at both short-term and long-term follow-up at 13 months and 49 months. Their tumors had completely resolved on long-term imaging follow-up at 19 months and 43 months. The third patient, with a 6.1 cm mass, reported improved mild pain at 6 months, and imaging showed a moderate decrease of tumor size. For the

  14. Early life adverse experiences and the effect on parenting stress and schizotypal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Hugill, Melanie; Fletcher, Ian; Berry, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    A robust amount of research indicates that childhood adverse experiences can have a detrimental impact on later relational experiences and mental health as an adult. Adverse childhood experiences, such as childhood sexual abuse (CSA), or other interpersonal traumas can affect the formation of secure attachments to caregivers. These insecure attachment styles persist into adulthood, affecting all subsequent relationships including that between parent and child. This thesis firstly examines the...

  15. Challenging nurse student selection policy: Using a lifeworld approach to explore the link between care experience and student values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Janet; Tait, Desiree; White, Sara; Tait, Michael

    2017-10-01

    This study uses a lifeworld perspective to explore beginning students' values about nursing. Internationally, increasing care demand, a focus on targets and evidence of dehumanized care cultures have resulted in scrutiny of practitioner values. In England, selection policy dictates that prospective nursing students demonstrate person-centred values and care work experience. However, there is limited recent evidence exploring values at programme commencement or the effect of care experience on values. Mixed method study. A total of 161 undergraduate nursing students were recruited in 2013 from one English university. Thematic content analysis and frequency distribution to reveal descriptive statistics were used. Statistical analysis indicated that most of the values identified in student responses were not significantly affected by paid care experience. Five themes were identified: How I want care to be; Making a difference; The value of learning; Perceived characteristics of a nurse; and Respecting our humanity. Students readily drew on their experience of living to identify person-centred values about nursing.

  16. Early musical training is linked to gray matter structure in the ventral premotor cortex and auditory-motor rhythm synchronization performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jennifer Anne; Zatorre, Robert J; Penhune, Virginia B

    2014-04-01

    Evidence in animals and humans indicates that there are sensitive periods during development, times when experience or stimulation has a greater influence on behavior and brain structure. Sensitive periods are the result of an interaction between maturational processes and experience-dependent plasticity mechanisms. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that adult musicians who begin training before the age of 7 show enhancements in behavior and white matter structure compared with those who begin later. Plastic changes in white matter and gray matter are hypothesized to co-occur; therefore, the current study investigated possible differences in gray matter structure between early-trained (ET; 7) musicians, matched for years of experience. Gray matter structure was assessed using voxel-wise analysis techniques (optimized voxel-based morphometry, traditional voxel-based morphometry, and deformation-based morphometry) and surface-based measures (cortical thickness, surface area and mean curvature). Deformation-based morphometry analyses identified group differences between ET and LT musicians in right ventral premotor cortex (vPMC), which correlated with performance on an auditory motor synchronization task and with age of onset of musical training. In addition, cortical surface area in vPMC was greater for ET musicians. These results are consistent with evidence that premotor cortex shows greatest maturational change between the ages of 6-9 years and that this region is important for integrating auditory and motor information. We propose that the auditory and motor interactions required by musical practice drive plasticity in vPMC and that this plasticity is greatest when maturation is near its peak.

  17. Outcome of Early Post-traumatic Seizure: An Experience in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the frequency, causes, risk factors and outcome following early posttraumatic seizure. Methods: A retrospective analysis of age, sex, mechanism of injury, type and onset of unprovoked seizure occurring within one week of injury, admission coma score, and Glasgow outcome score in patients with ...

  18. The Republic of the Refugees : Early Modern Migrations and the Dutch Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.H.

    This essay surveys the wave of new literature on early modern migration and assesses its impact on the Dutch golden age. From the late sixteenth century, the Netherlands developed into an international hub of religious refugees, displaced minorities, and labour migrants. While migration to the Dutch

  19. Nurses' experience of using an application to support new parents after early discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe Danbjørg, Dorthe; Wagner, Lis; Rønde Kristensen, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    and information to postnatal mothers who are discharged early and their families. Design. Participatory design. An app with a chat, a knowledgebase, and automated messages was tried out between hospital and parents at home. Settings. The intervention took place on a postnatal ward with approximately 1,000 births...... that connects the homes of the new parents with the hospital....

  20. The Experience of Amnioinfusion for Oligohydramnios During the Early Second Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Lun Hsu

    2007-12-01

    Conclusion: Amnioinfusion performed the first time might provide some benefits for those with early-onset oligohydramnios, such as to provide confirmation of rupture of membranes, detailed sonography examination and further counseling. We would recommend that this procedure be considered once for these cases.

  1. Early Adolescent Family Experiences and Perceived Social Support in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayman, Mathew D.; Turner, R. Jay; Cislo, Andrew M.; Eliassen, A. Henry

    2011-01-01

    Although the protective role of social support is well established in the health literature, antecedents of perceived social support are not well understood. Research on family experiential factors during early adolescence, an important psychosocial developmental period in the life course, represents a promising line of inquiry. Using a sample of…

  2. Future of Early Intervention with Infants and Toddlers for Whom Typical Experiences Are Not Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for infants and toddlers began with high hopes, but became mired in overspecialization, bureaucracy, and turf guarding. Nevertheless, two important advances in the field have been (a) a recognition that the child's natural caregivers are in the best position to be the intervention agents and, concomitantly, (b) a rethinking…

  3. Documentation and Analysis of Children's Experience: An Ongoing Collegial Activity for Early Childhood Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchio, Mariacristina; Giovannini, Donatella; Mayer, Susanna; Musatti, Tullia

    2012-01-01

    Systematic documentation and analysis of educational practice can be a powerful tool for continuous support to the professionalism of early childhood education practitioners. This paper discusses data from a three-year action-research initiative carried out by a research agency in collaboration with a network of Italian municipal "nido"…

  4. Parent-child relationships and dyadic friendship experiences as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n=182; M age=12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were

  5. Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…

  6. Beyond the Black-White Test Score Gap: Latinos' Early School Experiences and Literacy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Enilda A.; Stoll, Laurie Cooper

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort are used to analyze the factors that lead to the reading readiness of children who participate in nonparental care the year prior to kindergarten (N = 4,550), with a specific focus on Latino children (N = 800). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis demonstrates that reading…

  7. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  8. Early versus late tracheostomy in pediatric intensive care unit: does it matter? A 6-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizza, Alessandro; Picconi, Enzo; Piastra, Marco; Genovese, Orazio; Biasucci, Daniele G; Conti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the clinical data of children who underwent tracheostomy during their stay in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), in order to describe the relationship between the timing of tracheostomy, the length of PICU stay and the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This is a retrospective cohort study that collects all patients undergoing tracheostomy during their PICU stay over a six-year period. Data collection included PICU length of stay, days of intubation, days of mechanical ventilation, primary indication for tracheostomy, information about VAP and decannulations. The early tracheostomy group was defined as patients who had ten or fewer days of continuous ventilation, whereas the late tracheostomy group had more than ten days of continuous ventilation. A significant decrease in the rate of VAP incidence was noticed in the early tracheostomy group vs. late group (P=0.004, OR=0.39, 95% CI: 0.18-0.85). No differences were observed about decannulation, need of long-term ventilation and death rate. Significant decreases of days of mechanical ventilation and PICU stay were found in subgroup of patients who underwent early tracheostomy and were decannulated within 18 months. No standard timing for tracheostomy placement has been established in the pediatric population. Early tracheostomy can shorten the days of ventilation and hospitalization in PICU and reduce the incidence of VAP, but further studies are needed to identify patient categories in which it can be of benefit.

  9. A Phenomenological Study: Teachers' Experiences of Using Digital Storytelling in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel-Arslan, Pelin; Yildirim, Soner; Robin, Bernard Ross

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how early childhood education (ECE) teachers incorporated digital storytelling in their classrooms and the challenges and successes that they faced in the process. After the teachers attended a digital storytelling workshop, in-depth phenomenological interview, observation and focus group interviews were used to collect…

  10. Laboratory experiments cannot be utilized to justify the action of early streamer emission terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerra, Marley; Cooray, Vernon

    2008-01-01

    The early emission of streamers in laboratory long air gaps under switching impulses has been observed to reduce the time of initiation of leader positive discharges. This fact has been arbitrarily extrapolated by the manufacturers of early streamer emission devices to the case of upward connecting leaders initiated under natural lightning conditions, in support of those non-conventional terminals that claim to perform better than Franklin lightning rods. In order to discuss the physical basis and validity of these claims, a self-consistent model based on the physics of leader discharges is used to simulate the performance of lightning rods in the laboratory and under natural lightning conditions. It is theoretically shown that the initiation of early streamers can indeed lead to the early initiation of self-propagating positive leaders in laboratory long air gaps under switching voltages. However, this is not the case for positive connecting leaders initiated from the same lightning rod under the influence of the electric field produced by a downward moving stepped leader. The time evolution of the development of positive leaders under natural conditions is different from the case in the laboratory, where the leader inception condition is closely dependent upon the initiation of the first streamer burst. Our study shows that the claimed similarity between the performance of lightning rods under switching electric fields applied in the laboratory and under the electric field produced by a descending stepped leader is not justified. Thus, the use of existing laboratory results to validate the performance of the early streamer lightning rods under natural conditions is not justified

  11. Safety of Early Carotid Artery Stenting after Systemic Thrombolysis: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Sallustio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients with acute ischemic stroke due to internal carotid artery (ICA disease are at high risk of early stroke recurrence. A combination of IV thrombolysis and early carotid artery stenting (CAS may result in more effective secondary stroke prevention. Objective. We tested safety and durability of early CAS following IV thrombolysis in stroke patients with residual stenosis in the symptomatic ICA. Methods. Of consecutive patients treated with IV rtPA, those with residual ICA stenosis ≥70% or 24 hours. The protocol included pre-rtPA MRI and MR angiography, and post-rtPA carotid ultrasound and CT angiography. Stroke severity was assessed by the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS. Three- and twelve-month stent patency was assessed by ultrasound. Twelve-month functional outcome was assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS. Results. Of 145 consecutive IV rtPA-treated patients, 6 (4% underwent early CAS. Median age was 76 (range 67–78 years, median NIHSS at stroke onset was 12 (range 9–16 and 7 (range 7-8 before CAS. Median onset-to-CAS time was 48 (range 30–94 hours. A single self-expandable stent was implanted to cover the entire lesion in all patients. The procedure was uneventful in all patients. After 12 months, all patients had stent patency, and the functional outcome was favourable (mRS ≤ 2 in all but 1 patient experiencing a recurrent stroke for new-onset atrial fibrillation. Conclusion. This small case series of a single centre suggests that early CAS may be considered a safe alternative to CEA after IV rtPA administration in selected patients at high risk of stroke recurrence.

  12. Postural and Object-Oriented Experiences Advance Early Reaching, Object Exploration, and Means-End Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Michele A.; Galloway, James C.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of 3 weeks of social (control), postural, or object-oriented experiences on 9- to 21-week-old infants' (N = 42) reaching, exploration, and means-end behaviors were assessed. Coders recorded object contacts, mouthing, fingering, attention, and affect from video. Postural and object-oriented experiences advanced reaching, haptic…

  13. Measuring Choice to Participate in Optional Science Learning Experiences during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Li; Schunn, Christian; Bathgate, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Cumulatively, participation in optional science learning experiences in school, after school, at home, and in the community may have a large impact on student interest in and knowledge of science. Therefore, interventions can have large long-term effects if they change student choice preferences for such optional science learning experiences. To…

  14. The daily of an school of early childhood education: sharing experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Souza Broering

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Assuming the difficulty of talking about the experience and want to say without a model, this report presents the experience lived and shared by professionals, children and families of the "Creche Municipal Nossa Senhora Aparecida" known as nursery school "Pantanal".

  15. Linking learning contexts: The relationship between students’ civic and political experiences and their self-regulation in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eMalafaia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the relationship between self-regulation strategies and youth civic and political experiences, assuming that out-of-school learning can foster metacognition. The study is based on a sample of 732 Portuguese students from grades 8 and 11. Results show that the quality of civic and political participation experiences, together with academic self-efficacy, are significant predictors of young people’s self-regulation, particularly regarding cognitive and metacognitive strategies (elaboration and critical thinking. Such effects surpass even the weight of family cultural and school variables, such as the sense of school belonging. There-fore, we argue that the pedagogical value of non-formal civic and political experiences is re-lated to learning in formal pedagogical contexts. This is because civic and political participa-tion with high developmental quality can stimulate higher-order cognitive engagement and, thus, contribute to the development of learning strategies that promote academic success.

  16. Linking Learning Contexts: The Relationship between Students’ Civic and Political Experiences and Their Self-Regulation in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafaia, Carla; Teixeira, Pedro M.; Neves, Tiago; Menezes, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between self-regulation strategies and youth civic and political experiences, assuming that out-of-school learning can foster metacognition. The study is based on a sample of 732 Portuguese students from grades 8 and 11. Results show that the quality of civic and political participation experiences, together with academic self-efficacy, are significant predictors of young people’s self-regulation, particularly regarding cognitive and metacognitive strategies (elaboration and critical thinking). Such effects surpass even the weight of family cultural and school variables, such as the sense of school belonging. Therefore, we argue that the pedagogical value of non-formal civic and political experiences is related to learning in formal pedagogical contexts. This is because civic and political participation with high developmental quality can stimulate higher-order cognitive engagement and, thus, contribute to the development of learning strategies that promote academic success. PMID:27199812

  17. The H2 + + He proton transfer reaction: quantum reactive differential cross sections to be linked with future velocity mapping experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Vera, Mario; Wester, Roland; Gianturco, Francesco Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We construct the velocity map images of the proton transfer reaction between helium and molecular hydrogen ion {{{H}}}2+. We perform simulations of imaging experiments at one representative total collision energy taking into account the inherent aberrations of the velocity mapping in order to explore the feasibility of direct comparisons between theory and future experiments planned in our laboratory. The asymptotic angular distributions of the fragments in a 3D velocity space is determined from the quantum state-to-state differential reactive cross sections and reaction probabilities which are computed by using the time-independent coupled channel hyperspherical coordinate method. The calculations employ an earlier ab initio potential energy surface computed at the FCI/cc-pVQZ level of theory. The present simulations indicate that the planned experiments would be selective enough to differentiate between product distributions resulting from different initial internal states of the reactants.

  18. Linking Learning Contexts: The Relationship between Students' Civic and Political Experiences and Their Self-Regulation in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafaia, Carla; Teixeira, Pedro M; Neves, Tiago; Menezes, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between self-regulation strategies and youth civic and political experiences, assuming that out-of-school learning can foster metacognition. The study is based on a sample of 732 Portuguese students from grades 8 and 11. Results show that the quality of civic and political participation experiences, together with academic self-efficacy, are significant predictors of young people's self-regulation, particularly regarding cognitive and metacognitive strategies (elaboration and critical thinking). Such effects surpass even the weight of family cultural and school variables, such as the sense of school belonging. Therefore, we argue that the pedagogical value of non-formal civic and political experiences is related to learning in formal pedagogical contexts. This is because civic and political participation with high developmental quality can stimulate higher-order cognitive engagement and, thus, contribute to the development of learning strategies that promote academic success.

  19. Early experience with open heart surgery in a pioneer private hospital in West Africa: the Biket medical centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakpoya, Uvie Ufuoma; Adenle, Adebisi David; Adenekan, Anthony Taiwo

    2017-01-01

    More than forty years after the first open heart surgery in Nigeria, all open heart surgeries were carried out in government-owned hospitals before the introduction of such surgeries in 2013 at Biket Medical Centre, a privately owned hospital in Osogbo, South-western Nigeria. The aim of this paper is to review our initial experience with open heart surgery in this private hospital. All patients who underwent open heart surgery between August 2013 and January 2014 were included in this prospective study. The medical records of the patients were examined and data on age, sex, diagnosis, type of surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass details, complications and length of hospital stay were extracted and the data was analysed using SPSS version 16. Eighteen patients comprising of 12 males and 6 females with ages ranging between 8 months and 52 years (mean= of 15.7 +/- 15 years) were studied. Pericardial patch closure of isolated ventricular septal defect was done in 7 patients (38.9%) while total correction of isolated tetralogy of Fallot was carried out in 5 patients (27.8%). Two patients had mitral valve repair for rheumatic mitral regurgitation. Sixty day mortality was 0%. Safe conduct of open heart surgery in the private hospital setting is feasible in Nigeria. It may be our only guarantee of hitch free and sustainable cardiac surgery.

  20. Linking Soil Physical Parameters Along a Density Gradient in a Loess-Soil Long-Term Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eden, Marie; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    It is important to understand the impact of texture and organic carbon (OC) on soil structure development. Only few studies investigated this for silt-dominated soils. In this study, soil physical properties were determined on samples from a controlled experiment (Static Fertilization Experiment...... hydraulic conductivity. The management resulted in a distinct gradient in OC. A bulk density gradient developed from differences in amount of clay not complexed with OC. This gradient in bulk density mainly affected content of pores larger than 3 [mu]m. The air-connected porosity measured by a pycnometer...

  1. Sensitivity to cocaine in adult mice is due to interplay between genetic makeup, early environment and later experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Segni, Matteo; Andolina, Diego; Coassin, Alessandra; Accoto, Alessandra; Luchetti, Alessandra; Pascucci, Tiziana; Luzi, Carla; Lizzi, Anna Rita; D'Amato, Francesca R; Ventura, Rossella

    2017-10-01

    Although early aversive postnatal events are known to increase the risk to develop psychiatric disorders later in life, rarely they determine alone the nature and outcome of the psychopathology, indicating that interaction with genetic factors is crucial for expression of psychopathologies in adulthood. Moreover, it has been suggested that early life experiences could have negative consequences or confer adaptive value in different individuals. Here we suggest that resilience or vulnerability to adult cocaine sensitivity depends on a "triple interaction" between genetic makeup x early environment x later experience. We have recently showed that Repeated Cross Fostering (RCF; RCF pups were fostered by four adoptive mothers from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 4. Pups were left with the last adoptive mother until weaning) experienced by pups affected the response to a negative experience in adulthood in opposite direction in two genotypes leading DBA2/J, but not C57BL/6J mice, toward an "anhedonia-like" phenotype. Here we investigate whether exposure to a rewarding stimulus, instead of a negative one, in adulthood induces an opposite behavioral outcome. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the long-lasting effects of RCF on cocaine sensitivity in C57 and DBA female mice by evaluating conditioned place preference induced by different cocaine doses and catecholamine prefrontal-accumbal response to cocaine using a "dual probe" in vivo microdialysis procedure. Moreover, cocaine-induced c-Fos activity was assessed in different brain regions involved in processing of rewarding stimuli. Finally, cocaine-induced spine changes were evaluated in the prefrontal-accumbal system. RCF experience strongly affected the behavioral, neurochemical and morphological responses to cocaine in adulthood in opposite direction in the two genotypes increasing and reducing, respectively, the sensitivity to cocaine in C57 and DBA mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early experience with a 7.5-MHz vaginal scanner in the female pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bree, R.L.; Edwards, M.G.; Chan, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    A 7.5-MHz vaginal US probe with a 112 0 sector transducer has been utilized for preliminary evaluation of the usefulness of vaginal scanning in the gynecologic and obstetric patient. The normal uterus and ovaries can be imaged in sagittal and coronal planes. Infertility patients being evaluated for ovarian follicle number and size are easily scanned. Patients with early pregnancy can be evaluated for fetal viability as early as 5 weeks' menstrual age. Four-millimeter crown-rump lengths with fetal heart activity have been observed for which correlative transabdominal scanning did not demonstrate a fetus. Small tubal pregnancies and small amounts of pelvic fluid have also been identified. Vaginal scanning should become an integral part of routine gynecologic and obstetric US

  3. Early Adverse Caregiving Experiences and Preschoolers' Current Attachment Affect Brain Responses during Facial Familiarity Processing: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungl, Melanie T; Bovenschen, Ina; Spangler, Gottfried

    2017-01-01

    When being placed into more benign environments like foster care, children from adverse rearing backgrounds are capable of forming attachment relationships to new caregivers within the first year of placement, while certain problematic social behaviors appear to be more persistent. Assuming that early averse experiences shape neural circuits underlying social behavior, neurophysiological studies on individual differences in early social-information processing have great informative value. More precisely, ERP studies have repeatedly shown face processing to be sensitive to experience especially regarding the caregiving background. However, studies on effects of early adverse caregiving experiences are restricted to children with a history of institutionalization. Also, no study has investigated effects of attachment security as a marker of the quality of the caregiver-child relationship. Thus, the current study asks how adverse caregiving experiences and attachment security to (new) caregivers affect early- and mid-latency ERPs sensitive to facial familiarity processing. Therefore, pre-school aged foster children during their second year within the foster home were compared to an age matched control group. Attachment was assessed using the AQS and neurophysiological data was collected during a passive viewing task presenting (foster) mother and stranger faces. Foster children were comparable to the control group with regard to attachment security. On a neurophysiological level, however, the foster group showed dampened N170 amplitudes for both face types. In both foster and control children, dampened N170 amplitudes were also found for stranger as compared to (foster) mother faces, and, for insecurely attached children as compared to securely attached children. This neural pattern may be viewed as a result of poorer social interactions earlier in life. Still, there was no effect on P1 amplitudes. Indicating heightened attentional processing, Nc amplitude responses

  4. Early Adverse Caregiving Experiences and Preschoolers' Current Attachment Affect Brain Responses during Facial Familiarity Processing: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie T. Kungl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When being placed into more benign environments like foster care, children from adverse rearing backgrounds are capable of forming attachment relationships to new caregivers within the first year of placement, while certain problematic social behaviors appear to be more persistent. Assuming that early averse experiences shape neural circuits underlying social behavior, neurophysiological studies on individual differences in early social-information processing have great informative value. More precisely, ERP studies have repeatedly shown face processing to be sensitive to experience especially regarding the caregiving background. However, studies on effects of early adverse caregiving experiences are restricted to children with a history of institutionalization. Also, no study has investigated effects of attachment security as a marker of the quality of the caregiver-child relationship. Thus, the current study asks how adverse caregiving experiences and attachment security to (new caregivers affect early- and mid-latency ERPs sensitive to facial familiarity processing. Therefore, pre-school aged foster children during their second year within the foster home were compared to an age matched control group. Attachment was assessed using the AQS and neurophysiological data was collected during a passive viewing task presenting (foster mother and stranger faces. Foster children were comparable to the control group with regard to attachment security. On a neurophysiological level, however, the foster group showed dampened N170 amplitudes for both face types. In both foster and control children, dampened N170 amplitudes were also found for stranger as compared to (foster mother faces, and, for insecurely attached children as compared to securely attached children. This neural pattern may be viewed as a result of poorer social interactions earlier in life. Still, there was no effect on P1 amplitudes. Indicating heightened attentional processing, Nc

  5. Early Adverse Caregiving Experiences and Preschoolers' Current Attachment Affect Brain Responses during Facial Familiarity Processing: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungl, Melanie T.; Bovenschen, Ina; Spangler, Gottfried

    2017-01-01

    When being placed into more benign environments like foster care, children from adverse rearing backgrounds are capable of forming attachment relationships to new caregivers within the first year of placement, while certain problematic social behaviors appear to be more persistent. Assuming that early averse experiences shape neural circuits underlying social behavior, neurophysiological studies on individual differences in early social-information processing have great informative value. More precisely, ERP studies have repeatedly shown face processing to be sensitive to experience especially regarding the caregiving background. However, studies on effects of early adverse caregiving experiences are restricted to children with a history of institutionalization. Also, no study has investigated effects of attachment security as a marker of the quality of the caregiver-child relationship. Thus, the current study asks how adverse caregiving experiences and attachment security to (new) caregivers affect early- and mid-latency ERPs sensitive to facial familiarity processing. Therefore, pre-school aged foster children during their second year within the foster home were compared to an age matched control group. Attachment was assessed using the AQS and neurophysiological data was collected during a passive viewing task presenting (foster) mother and stranger faces. Foster children were comparable to the control group with regard to attachment security. On a neurophysiological level, however, the foster group showed dampened N170 amplitudes for both face types. In both foster and control children, dampened N170 amplitudes were also found for stranger as compared to (foster) mother faces, and, for insecurely attached children as compared to securely attached children. This neural pattern may be viewed as a result of poorer social interactions earlier in life. Still, there was no effect on P1 amplitudes. Indicating heightened attentional processing, Nc amplitude responses

  6. Lived Experiences of Sex Life Difficulties in Men and Women with Early RA - The Swedish TIRA Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östlund, Gunnel; Björk, Mathilda; Valtersson, Eva; Sverker, Annette

    2015-12-01

    Men and women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience restrictions in everyday life, in spite of the development of new medications. Recent research has described in detail how participation limitations are experienced in everyday life from a patient perspective. However, knowledge of how sex and intimate relationships are affected is still scarce. The aim of the present study was to explore sex life experiences in relation to sexual function and sexual relationships in men and women with early RA. The study formed part of TIRA-2 (the Swedish acronym for the prospective multicentre early arthritis project). The data collection included 45 interviews with 21 men and 24 women, aged 20-63, which were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The critical incident technique was used to collect data, and content analysis to categorize the results. Half the participants stated that RA affected their sex life. The general descriptions formed five categories: sex life and tiredness; sex life and ageing; emotional consequences of impaired sexual function; facilitators of sexual function and sexual relationships; and strain on the sexual relationship. Sex life is affected in early RA, in spite of new effective treatment strategies. New strategies of communication, assessment and self-managing interventions concerning the sex lives of patients with RA need to be implemented by a multidisciplinary healthcare team. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. ADULT STATUS OF CHILDREN WITH CONTRASTING EARLY LIFE EXPERIENCES, A FOLLOW-UP STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SKEELS, HAROLD M.

    TO STUDY EFFECTS OF EARLY INTERVENTION ON CHILDREN, AN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP OF 13 SUBJECTS (AGED 7 TO 30 MONTHS, IQ 35 TO 89) WAS TRANSFERRED FROM AN ORPHANAGE TO THE INTENSE STIMULATION OF A MOTHER SURROGATE AT AN INSTITUTION FOR THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. A CONTRAST GROUP OF 12 SUBJECTS (AGED 11.9 TO 21.8 MONTHS, IQ 50 TO 103) REMAINED AT THE…

  8. The iDuo Bi-compartmental Knee Replacement: Our Early Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jemmett

    2016-12-01

    Our early results suggest that the iDuo knee is a good option for those with isolated bi-compartmental disease and outcome scores are comparable with those reported for the BKA. This bi-compartmental design may bridge the gap between the uni-compartmental and total knee replacement. The choice between monolithic or modular designs remains in debate. We will continue to use this prosthesis for a carefully selected group of patients.

  9. Girls’ challenging social experiences in early adolescence predict neural response to rewards and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melynda D. Casement

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence.

  10. Twenty-years of lung transplantation in Taiwan: Effects of cumulative institutional experience on early outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Mao Yang

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Although the results were undesirable in the first decade of the transplant program, the cumulative institutional experience led to significantly improved outcomes in the second decade of the transplant program.

  11. Three-dimensional ultrasound. Early personal experience with a dedicated unit and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarani, F.; Isolato, G.; Capello, S.; Bianchi, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    The authors report our preliminary clinical experience with three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) in abdominal and small parts imaging, comparing the yield of 3D versus 2D US and the through a literature review [it

  12. Meaning in meaninglessness: The propensity to perceive meaningful patterns in coincident events and randomly arranged stimuli is linked to enhanced attention in early sensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominger, Christian; Schulter, Günter; Fink, Andreas; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Papousek, Ilona

    2018-05-01

    Perception of objectively independent events or stimuli as being significantly connected and the associated proneness to perceive meaningful patterns constitute part of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, which are associated with altered attentional processes in lateralized speech perception. Since perceiving meaningful patterns is to some extent already prevalent in the general population, the aim of the study was to investigate whether the propensity to experience meaningful patterns in co-occurring events and random stimuli may be associated with similar altered attentional processes in lateralized speech perception. Self-reported and behavioral indicators of the perception of meaningful patterns were assessed in non-clinical individuals, along with EEG auditory evoked potentials during the performance of an attention related lateralized speech perception task (Dichotic Listening Test). A greater propensity to perceive meaningful patterns was associated with higher N1 amplitudes of the evoked potentials to the onset of the dichotically presented consonant-vowel syllables, indicating enhanced automatic attention in early sensory processing. The study suggests that more basic mechanisms in how people associate events may play a greater role in the cognitive biases that are manifest in personality expressions such as positive schizotypy, rather than that positive schizotypy moderates these cognitive biases directly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining negative effects of early life experiences on reproductive and sexual health among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Karishma K; Silverman, Jay G; Bojorquez, Ietza; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2015-02-01

    To explore experiences during childhood and adolescence that influenced reproductive and sexual health among women who had entered the sex industry in adolescence. A qualitative study was conducted using information provided by 25 female sex workers (FSWs) from Tijuana, Mexico, who reported entering the sex industry when younger than 18 years. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants between January 31, 2011, and July 8, 2011. Four interrelated themes that shaped health experiences-early sexual abuse, early illicit drug use, ongoing violence, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health care-were identified. Participants reporting these experiences were at risk of unintended teenaged pregnancy, spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and untreated sexually transmitted infections. Programs and policies that address social, structural, and individual vulnerabilities during adolescence and adulthood are required to promote reproductive and sexual health among FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Daily Diary Approach to Understanding Cyberbullying Experiences Among Latino Adolescents: Links with Emotional, Physical and School Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    With the growing use of electronic communication devices among adolescents, bullying encounters are no longer limited to the school grounds and cyberbullying is becoming increasingly more common. The current study examines how daily cyberbullying experiences among Latino adolescents are associated with their emotional and physical well-being as well as their school adjustment. High school students (N = 136) from predominately Latino backgrounds (88%) completed a baseline questionnaire and dai...

  15. The Role of Senior High School Experiences in Shaping a Life Project Linked to Higher Education for Students With Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Cruz-Vadillo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to approach the school experiences of 13 students with disabilities. It corresponds to a cross, synchronous and non experimental study, whose scope is mainly descriptive. The data collection was carried out through a semi-structured interview and transcribed from audio recordings to make a category analysis. The main results showed that in the case of students who were born with disabilities, the fact that an institution was inclusive turned out essential for them to have adequate transit through the educational system and thus become apt for higher education. The combination disability-inclusion-right to education-higher education is what this paper aimed to weave, trying to follow as thread or anchor, the previous school experiences of students with disabilities. We recognize that an adequate, inclusive, positive experience besides a subjective construction of the body and disability by family members, become important conditions to access schooling. Education is a right, therefore it can not be seen as an act of charity; it should be required as a quality practice.

  16. Psychotic experiences are linked to cannabis use in adolescents in the community because of common underlying environmental risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sania; Zavos, Helena M.S.; McGuire, Philip; Cardno, Alastair G.; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis users are more likely to have psychotic experiences (PEs). The degree to which these associations are driven by genetic or environmental influences in adolescence is unknown. This study estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to the relationship between cannabis use and PEs. Specific PEs were measured in a community-based twin sample (4830 16-year-old pairs) using self-reports and parent-reports. Adolescents reported on ever using cannabis. Multivariate liability threshold structural equation model-fitting was conducted. Cannabis use was significantly correlated with PEs. Modest heritability (37%), common environmental influences (55%) and unique environment (8%) were found for cannabis use. For PEs, modest heritability (27–54%), unique environmental influences (E=12–50%) and little common environmental influences (11–20%), with the exception of parent-rated Negative Symptoms (42%), were reported. Environmental influences explained all of the covariation between cannabis use and paranoia, cognitive disorganization and parent-rated negative symptoms (bivariate common environment=69–100%, bivariate unique environment=28–31%), whilst the relationship between cannabis use and hallucinations indicated familial influences. Cannabis use explains 2–5% of variance in positive, cognitive, and negative PEs. Cannabis use and psychotic experience co-occur due to environmental factors. Focus on specific environments may reveal why adolescent cannabis use and psychotic experiences tend to ‘travel together’. PMID:25912376

  17. Learning From Experience: Improving Early Tracheal Extubation Success After Congenital Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Peter D; Staudt, Anna M; Sebastian, Roby; Corridore, Marco; Tumin, Dmitry; Simsic, Janet; Galantowicz, Mark; Naguib, Aymen; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-07-01

    The many advantages of early tracheal extubation following congenital cardiac surgery in young infants and children are now widely recognized. Benefits include avoiding the morbidity associated with prolonged intubation and the consequences of sedation and positive pressure ventilation in the setting of altered cardiopulmonary physiology. Our practice of tracheal extubation of young infants in the operating room following cardiac surgery has evolved and new challenges in the arena of postoperative sedation and pain management have appeared. Review our institutional outcomes associated with early tracheal extubation following congenital cardiac surgery. Inclusion criteria included all children less than 1 year old who underwent congenital cardiac surgery between October 1, 2010, and October 24, 2013. A total of 416 patients less than 1 year old were included. Of the 416 patients, 234 underwent tracheal extubation in the operating room (56%) with 25 requiring reintubation (10.7%), either immediately or following admission to the cardiothoracic ICU. Of the 25 patients extubated in the operating room who required reintubation, 22 failed within 24 hours of cardiothoracic ICU admission; 10 failures were directly related to narcotic doses that resulted in respiratory depression. As a result of this review, we have instituted changes in our cardiothoracic ICU postoperative care plans. We have developed a neonatal delirium score, and have adopted the "Kangaroo Care" approach that was first popularized in neonatal ICUs. This provision allows for the early parental holding of infants following admission to the cardiothoracic ICU and allows for appropriately selected parents to sleep in the same beds alongside their postoperative children.

  18. The impact of early repeated pain experiences on stress responsiveness and emotionality at maturity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Gayle G; Blakely, Wendy P; Kim, Miyong

    2005-01-01

    The intensive care necessary for premature newborns is characterized by multiple procedures, many of which are painful. Given emerging evidence that such early pain during this time of high brain plasticity may affect long-term neurodevelopmental and social-emotional functioning, this study explored the impact of early repeated pain on emotionality and stress responsivity at maturity. From birth through postnatal day 7, Fischer 344 pups underwent either paw needle prick every day versus every other day or daily paw touch, or were left unperturbed. Each paw received the designated perturbation once per day. At maturity, some animals underwent emotionality testing: either a 4-day series of open field exposures or a single elevated plus-maze (EPM) exposure. The paw prick groups exhibited less open field habituation and occupied the EPM open arms more. Two weeks later, all animals were either subjected to forced swim or not. At 1h post-swim, animals underwent either blood withdrawal for plasma corticosterone (CS) levels and ex vivo natural killer cell activity (NKCA) or were injected intravenously with radiolabeled NK-sensitive syngeneic MADB106 tumor cells and assessed for lung tumor retention. Sex was a major factor in the manifestation of perturbation-related differences in the biologic outcomes. Whereas postnatal pain differentially affected baseline tumor retention between males and females, only males exhibited perturbation-related differences in swim stress-induced increases in tumor retention and CS. Finally, male-female differences were evident in CS, NKCA, and tumor responses to swim stress. These findings suggest that early pain affects neurodevelopmental function in the mature organism; however, these relationships are complicated by sex differences, the postnatal pain schedule, and the outcome measured.

  19. Evaluation of early and late complications in patients with congenital lobar emphysema: A 12 year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazem Masood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE is characterised by over distension of one lobe and pressure on the adjacent lobe and mediastinum. In this study, we review the pathological results of our paediatric patients with CLE, highlighting the early and late complications that occurred in these patients. Patients and Methods: In a prospective study from 1996 to 2008, we evaluated 30 patients with CLE diagnosis. Variables collected included sex, age at the time of diagnosis, radiological diagnostic method, type of treatment, pathological analysis, surgical findings and early postoperative complications. Parents were asked to refer to our clinic for follow-up and evaluation of late complications. Results: Thirty patients and males accounted for majority of the study population (n = 20, 67%. The mean age of male and female patients (at admission was 7.2 ± 2.3 and 4.7 ± 1.2 months respectively (P = not significant. The main diagnostic method was chest x-ray (CXR in all patients. Abnormal bronchial cartilage was found in 71% of patients. The most affected lobe was left upper lobe (50%. Associated anomalies were seen in four patients. Early postoperative periodhadtwo cases of pneumothoraces. At six month follow up, five (25% males and four females (40% had delayed weight gain. Permanent oxygen dependency was seen in two patients. Twenty- six patients underwent thoracotomy. Mortality rate was 13%. Base deficit at the time of admission was greater in those patients who eventually died, (-8.6 ± 1.2 versus -3.1 ± 0.4 (P = 0.0003. There were two deaths in the bilobar involvement group and two in the unilobar involvement group (P = 0.07, near significant. Conclusion: This study confirms that the number of affected lobes and base deficit at the time of admission were associated with significantly increased mortality.

  20. Intelligence in early adulthood and subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged men: the Vietnam Experience Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J; Fowkes, F Gerald; Batty, G David

    2012-07-01

    People with higher intelligence in early life have a lower subsequent risk of coronary heart disease events, but the explanation for these observations is unclear. To examine whether intelligence in early adulthood is associated with risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in mid-life, as indicated by the ankle brachial index (ABI), and investigate its potential mediating role in the association between intelligence and mortality. Participants were 4286 male US veterans whose intelligence was measured on enlistment into military service at a mean age of 20.4 years and whose ABI was measured by Doppler as part of a detailed medical examination at a mean age of 38.3 years. Higher intelligence in early adulthood was associated with a higher ABI in mid-life. For an SD increase in intelligence, after adjusting for age, ABI (× 10) rose by 0.05 (0.02, 0.07), and the OR (95% CI) for having a low ABI (≤ 0.90) was 0.84 (0.72 to 0.98). Further adjustment for smoking, serum cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose concentrations, blood pressure, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, body mass index, alcohol intake, education and measures of socioeconomic position had little or no attenuating effect on these associations. Lower ABI was associated with increased mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease but it did not account for the associations between IQ and mortality from these causes. Men of lower intelligence may be more susceptible to atherogenesis, though this mechanism does not appear to explain their increased risk of earlier death.

  1. Making Sense with Manipulatives: Developing Mathematical Experiences for Early Childhood Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Furman, Cara E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is premised on the fact that math can be an important tool in helping people make sense of the world. Math offers a unique and particular lens, helping people to focus on a range of characteristics from shape and amount to the relationship between the general and the particular. To promote math as a tool for making sense, early childhood math instruction ought to teach it in a manner that helps children make sense of mathematical concepts. Specifically, I argue here that manipul...

  2. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomi S Asaridou

    Full Text Available We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch. We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel. We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly.

  3. Installation of a radioactive waste disposal facility. The necessity of building up durable links between the general public and radioactive waste. Feedback from experience in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, Annabelle; Farin, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    , it has been one of the principles on which Andra has built its project management schemes. Nonetheless, the fresh light brought to bear on the matter by nationwide discussions has its merits. The subject is now visible: the press, social networks, politicians and NGOs are going over the matter, and giving it widespread attention. Unbiased citizens have been called on to make their comments and provide guidance for the overall social and ethical approach to the subject. Some real links are being set up at last. The article will cover in greater detail the path followed by Andra over the last twenty years: its successes, its difficulties and its failures, concentrating of course on 2013, its preparation, which began early in 2012. The article will also present the Andra's further course of action and issues proposals to the State in order to meet the expectations that arose from the public discussion.

  4. Installation of a radioactive waste disposal facility. The necessity of building up durable links between the general public and radioactive waste. Feedback from experience in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comte, Annabelle; Farin, Sebastien [Andra, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2015-07-01

    , it has been one of the principles on which Andra has built its project management schemes. Nonetheless, the fresh light brought to bear on the matter by nationwide discussions has its merits. The subject is now visible: the press, social networks, politicians and NGOs are going over the matter, and giving it widespread attention. Unbiased citizens have been called on to make their comments and provide guidance for the overall social and ethical approach to the subject. Some real links are being set up at last. The article will cover in greater detail the path followed by Andra over the last twenty years: its successes, its difficulties and its failures, concentrating of course on 2013, its preparation, which began early in 2012. The article will also present the Andra's further course of action and issues proposals to the State in order to meet the expectations that arose from the public discussion.

  5. The relationship of maternal employment to early adolescent daily experience with and without parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, M H; Duckett, E

    1994-02-01

    This study examines how maternal work may shape pre- and young adolescents' daily life experience. According to the procedures of the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), 295 10-13-year-old children carried electronic pagers for 1 week and completed self-report forms in response to random signals sent every other hour. Their daily experience did not differ by maternal employment status, with the following exceptions: full-time maternal employment was associated with more time doing homework with mothers and less time in general leisure, while part-time employment was associated with more time doing sports with parents. Relative to those with nonemployed mothers, youth with part-time employed mothers reported more positive daily moods and higher self-esteem, while youth reported time with full-time employed mothers to be the friendliest. While children with employed mothers spent no less time with family, parents, friends, in class or alone, they spent more time alone with fathers.

  6. Lessons learned from early implementation of option B+: the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation experience in 11 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Mary Pat; Mattingly, Meghan; Giphart, Anja; van de Ven, Roland; Chouraya, Caspian; Walakira, Moses; Boon, Alexandre; Mikusova, Silvia; Simonds, R J

    2014-12-01

    "Option B+" is a World Health Organization-recommended approach to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission whereby all HIV-positive pregnant and lactating women initiate lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). This review of early Option B+ implementation experience is intended to inform Ministries of Health and others involved in implementing Option B+. This implementation science study analyzed data from 11 African countries supported by the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF) to describe early experience implementing Option B+. Data are from 4 sources: (1) national guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission and Option B+ implementation plans, (2) aggregated service delivery data between January 2013 and March 2014 from EGPAF-supported sites, (3) field visits to Option B+ implementation sites, and (4) relevant EGPAF research, quality improvement, and evaluation studies. Rapid adoption of Option B+ led to large increases in percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women accessing ART in antenatal care. By the end of 2013, most programs reached at least 50% of HIV-positive women in antenatal care with ART, even in countries using a phased approach to implementation. Scaling up Option B+ through integrating ART in maternal and child health settings has required expansion of the workforce, and task shifting to allow nurse-led ART initiation has created staffing pressure on lower-level cadres for counseling and community follow-up. Complex data collection needs may be impairing data quality. Early experiences with Option B+ implementation demonstrate promise. Continued program evaluation is needed, as is specific attention to counseling and support around initiation of lifetime ART in the context of pregnancy and lactation.

  7. A partnership model of early intervention in psychosis programme--a Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Lamidi Kola; Savage, Troy

    2009-08-01

    To describe how a new partnership model of early intervention in psychosis, early intervention in psychosis (EIP) programme delivery in Canada attracted the interest of the community and acquired government funding. The process by which a few individuals used a conceptual framework of integrated, collaborative, flexible and recovery focused principles to engage community partners and attract government funding is described. The establishment of a small EIP programme and its expansion to a regional programme serving an area of 20,000 square kilometers and a population of approximately 500,000 people were achieved. A programme specific logic prototype was developed. A synergy of public, private and academic services emerged with an infrastructure for ongoing cohesiveness and productivity. Annual clinic visits increased from 641 in 2002 to 1904 in 2007 and annual new patients enrollments grew from 46 to 128 within the same period. Staffing grew from an interdisciplinary staff of 1.5 full-time equivalent (FTE) to the current 10.0 FTE. A carefully orchestrated programme organization that is inclusive rather than exclusive can produce a balance of evidence-based best practices in client focused service, community mental health integration and academic productivity. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Decoding the future from past experience: learning shapes predictions in early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Caroline D B; Meeson, Alan; Welchman, Andrew E; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2015-05-01

    Learning the structure of the environment is critical for interpreting the current scene and predicting upcoming events. However, the brain mechanisms that support our ability to translate knowledge about scene statistics to sensory predictions remain largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that learning of temporal regularities shapes representations in early visual cortex that relate to our ability to predict sensory events. We tested the participants' ability to predict the orientation of a test stimulus after exposure to sequences of leftward- or rightward-oriented gratings. Using fMRI decoding, we identified brain patterns related to the observers' visual predictions rather than stimulus-driven activity. Decoding of predicted orientations following structured sequences was enhanced after training, while decoding of cued orientations following exposure to random sequences did not change. These predictive representations appear to be driven by the same large-scale neural populations that encode actual stimulus orientation and to be specific to the learned sequence structure. Thus our findings provide evidence that learning temporal structures supports our ability to predict future events by reactivating selective sensory representations as early as in primary visual cortex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Our experiences with the induction of opioids for early laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueta, Takayuki; Fukuzaki, Tsutomu; Onishi, Yoshiki; Sugamura, Mayumi; Miyagi, Morimichi; Nakagawa, Takashi; Takase, Hisamitsu

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy and chemo-radiotherapy are generally effective for early laryngeal cancer. However, the local pain due to the mucositis induced by the irradiation often prevents the completion of treatment. Since 2005, we have administrated an opioid to control a pain if necessary. We divided 40 early laryngeal cancer patients into 2 groups of 20 patients, and the influence of treatment with the opioid was investigated in the two groups. One group received the induction of the opioid, and patients were treated from 2008 to 2010. The others were treated before 2004 and did not receive the opioid. Both groups frequently used various painkillers, however, the time after the initiation of treatment when subjects began taking the painkiller was shorter for the after induction group than the before induction group. Ten percent of patients paused radiation treatment in the after induction group, and 70% had to temporarily stop treatment in the before induction group. Thus, the interruption of radiation was significantly less frequent in the after induction group than the before induction group. Our results indicate that the introduction of opioids for radiation patients improved the course of cancer treatment. (author)

  10. Nurses' experience of using an application to support new parents after early discharge: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe Danbjørg, Dorthe; Wagner, Lis; Rønde Kristensen, Bjarne; Clemensen, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background. A development towards earlier postnatal discharge presents a challenge to find new ways to provide information and support to families. A possibility is the use of telemedicine. Objective. To explore how using an app in nursing practice affects the nurses' ability to offer support and information to postnatal mothers who are discharged early and their families. Design. Participatory design. An app with a chat, a knowledgebase, and automated messages was tried out between hospital and parents at home. Settings. The intervention took place on a postnatal ward with approximately 1,000 births a year. Participants. At the onset of the intervention, 17 nurses, all women, were working on the ward. At the end of the intervention, 16 nurses were employed, all women. Methods. Participant observation and two focus group interviews. The data analysis was inspired by systematic text condensation. Results. The nurses on the postnatal ward consider that the use of the app gives families easier access to timely information and support. Conclusions. The app gives the nurses the possibility to offer support and information to the parents being early discharged. The app is experienced as a lifeline that connects the homes of the new parents with the hospital.

  11. Nurses’ Experience of Using an Application to Support New Parents after Early Discharge: An Intervention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe Boe Danbjørg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A development towards earlier postnatal discharge presents a challenge to find new ways to provide information and support to families. A possibility is the use of telemedicine. Objective. To explore how using an app in nursing practice affects the nurses’ ability to offer support and information to postnatal mothers who are discharged early and their families. Design. Participatory design. An app with a chat, a knowledgebase, and automated messages was tried out between hospital and parents at home. Settings. The intervention took place on a postnatal ward with approximately 1,000 births a year. Participants. At the onset of the intervention, 17 nurses, all women, were working on the ward. At the end of the intervention, 16 nurses were employed, all women. Methods. Participant observation and two focus group interviews. The data analysis was inspired by systematic text condensation. Results. The nurses on the postnatal ward consider that the use of the app gives families easier access to timely information and support. Conclusions. The app gives the nurses the possibility to offer support and information to the parents being early discharged. The app is experienced as a lifeline that connects the homes of the new parents with the hospital.

  12. Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: active and motivated students, strained facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Below, Bernhard; Hellquist, Gunilla; Rödjer, Stig; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Björkelund, Cecilia; Wahlqvist, Mats

    2008-12-02

    Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences.In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1-4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators.The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Sixty students (70%) and 15 facilitators (71%) completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. In this project, a new Early Professional Contact course was analysed from both student and facilitator

  13. Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: Active and motivated students, strained facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson Ronny

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences. In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1–4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators. The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Methods Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Results Sixty students (70% and 15 facilitators (71% completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. Conclusion In this project, a new Early

  14. Exploring the dynamic links between microbial ecology and redox state of the hyporheic zone: insight from flume experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M.; Cardenas, M. B.; Stegen, J.; Graham, E.; Cook, P. L. M.; Kessler, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) provides key ecosystem services such as heavy metal sequestration, nutrient uptake and consumption, and habitat for a diverse collection of ecologically and commercially important species. Microbes are responsible for many of the chemical transformations in the HZ. These microbe populations are intimately linked to redox conditions, and recent work has shown that redox conditions in the HZ can be highly dynamic. Here we investigate the dynamic coupling between surface flow conditions, hyporheic redox conditions, and the hyporheic microbiome. Our window into this world is a large experimental flume (5m x 0.7m x 0.3m), prepared and incubated in a way that is relatively common to hyporheic zone research, without a strong attempt to impose a specific microbial community structure. We use computer-controlled flow combined with sand bedforms within the flume to generate a pattern of oxic and anoxic sediment zones, from which we collected sediment and water samples. Dissolved oxygen was mapped with a large planar optode. The samples were analyzed for microbial community composition through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We compare the population structure between oxic and anoxic zones, showing that the presence of oxygen in the HZ is a strong predictor of microbial composition. Additionally, we compare both the oxic and anoxic community structure from the flume to those of samples taken from natural environments, showing both interesting similarities and differences. In the future, we plan to use time-series sampling to observe the response times of microbial communities subjected to dynamic surface channel flow and redox conditions. This work will yield greater understanding of the role that dynamic rivers play in microbe-provided ecosystem services.

  15. Experiences of early labour management from perspectives of women, labour companions and health professionals: A systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beake Rm Ma Research Associate, Sarah; Chang Ba MPhil PhD Lecturer, Yan-Shing; Cheyne Rm Rgn MSc PhD Professor Of Midwifery, Helen; Spiby MPhil Rn Rm Professor Of Midwifery, Helen; Sandall Rm MSc PhD Professor Of Social Science And Women's Health, Jane; Bick, Debra

    2018-02-01

    to examine evidence of women's, labour companions' and health professionals' experiences of management of early labour to consider how this could be enhanced to better reflect women's needs. a systematic review of qualitative evidence. women in early labour with term, low risk singleton pregnancies, not booked for a planned caesarean birth or post-dates induction of labour, their labour companions, and health professionals responsible for early labour care (e.g. midwives, nurse-midwives, obstetricians, family doctors). Studies from high and middle income country settings were considered. 21 publications were included from the UK, Ireland, Scandinavia, USA, Italy and New Zealand. Key findings included the impact of communication with health professionals (most usually midwives) on women's decision making; women wanting to be listened to by sympathetic midwives who could reassure that symptoms and signs of early labour were 'normal' and offer clear advice on what to do. Antenatal preparation which included realistic information on what to expect when labour commenced was important and appreciated by women and labour companions. Views of the optimal place for women to remain and allow early labour to progress differed and the perceived benefit of support and help offered by labour companions varied. Some were supportive and helped women to relax, while others were anxious and encouraged women to seek early admission to the planned place of birth. Web-based sources of information are increasingly used by women, with mixed views of the value of information accessed. women, labour companions and health professionals find early labour difficult to manage well, with women unsure of how decisions about admission to their planned place of birth are taken. It is unclear why women are effectively left to manage this aspect of their labour with minimal guidance or support. Tailoring management to meet individual needs, with provision of effective communication could reassure

  16. Bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate - technical modifications and early clinical experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rassweiler, Jens; Schulze, Michael; Stock, Christian; Teber, Dogu; de la Rosette, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to update the current modifications of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) using bipolar high frequency current and to report on our first own clinical experience. Based on a Medline search covering the period from January 2000 to September 2006 and our

  17. Experiences That Predict Early Career Teacher Commitment to and Retention in High-Poverty Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipp, Joan L.; Geronime, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Correlation analysis was used to analyze what experiences before and during teacher preparation for 72 graduates of an urban teacher education program were associated with urban commitment, first job location, and retention in urban schools for 3 or more years. Binary logistic regression was then used to analyze whether urban K-12 schooling,…

  18. Ecological research in the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia: early results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, M.; Alencar, A.; Asner, G.P.; Braswell, B.; Bustamante, M.; Davidson, E.; Feldpausch, T.; Fernandes, E.; Goulden, M.; Kabat, P.; Kruijt, B.; Luizão, F.; Miller, S.; Markewitz, D.; Nobre, A.D.; Nobre, C.A.; Priante Filho, N.; Rocha, da H.; Silva Dias, P.; Randow, von C.; Vourlitis, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage,. nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes,

  19. Positive Childhood Experiences: Resilience and Recovery from Personality Disorder in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E.; Bender, Donna S.; Pagano, Maria E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Sanislow, Charles A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Daversa, Maria T.; Stout, Robert L.; Zanarini, Mary C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Gunderson, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective--Recent follow-along studies of personality disorders have shown significant improvement in psychopathology over time. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between positive childhood experiences related to resiliency and remission from personality disorder. Method--Five hundred twenty patients with…

  20. Spaceflight hardware for conducting plant growth experiments in space: the early years 1960-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Neichitailo, G. S.; Mashinski, A. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    The best strategy for supporting long-duration space missions is believed to be bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). An integral part of a BLSS is a chamber supporting the growth of higher plants that would provide food, water, and atmosphere regeneration for the human crew. Such a chamber will have to be a complete plant growth system, capable of providing lighting, water, and nutrients to plants in microgravity. Other capabilities include temperature, humidity, and atmospheric gas composition controls. Many spaceflight experiments to date have utilized incomplete growth systems (typically having a hydration system but lacking lighting) to study tropic and metabolic changes in germinating seedlings and young plants. American, European, and Russian scientists have also developed a number of small complete plant growth systems for use in spaceflight research. Currently we are entering a new era of experimentation and hardware development as a result of long-term spaceflight opportunities available on the International Space Station. This is already impacting development of plant growth hardware. To take full advantage of these new opportunities and construct innovative systems, we must understand the results of past spaceflight experiments and the basic capabilities of the diverse plant growth systems that were used to conduct these experiments. The objective of this paper is to describe the most influential pieces of plant growth hardware that have been used for the purpose of conducting scientific experiments during the first 40 years of research. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.