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Sample records for linking childhood cancer

  1. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    ... Watchdog Ratings Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates ...

  2. Childhood Cancer

    ... toxins. In children, a genetic condition, such as Down syndrome , can sometimes increase the risk of cancer. Kids who have had chemotherapy or radiation treatment for cancer are more likely to get cancer ...

  3. Danish Childhood Cancer Registry

    Schrøder, Henrik; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Wehner, Peder Skov

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The overall aim is to monitor the quality of childhood cancer care in Denmark; to register late effects of treatment; to analyze complications of permanent central venous catheters (CVCs); to study blood stream infections in children with cancer; and to study acute toxicity of high......-dose methotrexate infusions in children with leukemia. STUDY POPULATION: All children below 15 years of age at diagnosis living in Denmark diagnosed after January 1, 1985 according to the International Classification of Diseases 10, including diagnoses DC00-DD48. MAIN VARIABLES: Cancer type, extent of disease......, and outcome of antimicrobial chemotherapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Since 1985, 4,944 children below 15 years of age have been registered in the database. There has been no significant change in the incidence of childhood cancer in Denmark since 1985. The 5-year survival has increased significantly since 1985...

  4. Childhood cancer: Early warning signs

    World-wide there are more than 200 000 new cases of childhood cancer per year and more than 70% of these occur in the developing world. In the First World more than 70% of these children will become long-term survivors. For some childhood cancers 5-year survival rates approach 95% . In England only 0.5% of all ...

  5. Childhood cancer, Dounreay

    Kynoch, G.A.B.; Stewart, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Details of the findings of the Committee of the Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) on the incidence of childhood cancer in the Dounreay area in the United Kingdom are given in a written response to a parliamentary question. In the period 1985-91, four cases of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were observed in the 1 to 24 age group living within 25 km of the Dounreay Nuclear Establishment, compared to 1.4 expected cases. In the light of these results, which reinforce previous findings, the Committee concluded that the raised incidence of childhood leukemia in the area is a real phenomenon and is less likely to have risen by chance. COMARE also concluded that further epidemiological research in the area to try to determine causal mechanics was not a practicable way forward at present because of the small number of cases involved. This advice has been accepted by the UK Government, but further nationally based studies are being carried out. (UK)

  6. Childhood cancer in Aden, Yemen.

    Ba-Saddik, Iman Ali

    2013-12-01

    Cancer in children is increasingly recognized as a major and growing health problem in different developed and developing countries. In Yemen, it is still difficult to know the extent of cancer and its determinants among children. This study was conducted to determine the magnitude of childhood cancer in Aden and provide the preliminary baseline data by age and sex. Basic epidemiologic data was retrieved from all paediatric cancer Yemen, from 1997 to 2006. The results showed a total of 483 childhood cancers 5 years. An interesting comparison was the preponderance of non-Hodgkins's lymphoma over Hodgkin's disease (1.6:1) stronger in female (3:1) than male (1.25:1). Medulloblastoma was the most common CNS tumour followed by astrocytoma, an infrequent finding in childhood cancer. Osteosarcoma was the most frequent bone tumour (male:female ratio of 1.8:1). A female preponderance was noticed in chondrosarcoma that was not yet documented. The blastoma group was common in younger age group. Retinoblastoma and nephroblastoma predominated in female while neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma and soft tissue sarcomas in male. It is concluded that there is a lower frequency of childhood cancer in Aden when compared with developed countries. It may explained by the fact that a large number of childhood cancers remain undiagnosed due to limitations of diagnostic facilities or under registration. Central paediatric hospitals should be provided with essential diagnostic and therapeutic services that should be freely available to all children with cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood Cancer Survivors Are Living Longer

    New data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study suggest that refinements in pediatric cancer treatment over the last few decades have helped to extend the lifespans of many survivors of childhood cancer.

  8. Prenatal irradiation and childhood cancer

    Muirhead, C R [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK); Kneale, G W [Birmingham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Social Medicine

    1989-09-01

    This letter addresses a technical question in connection with the recent paper by Knox et al. In particular, it concerns a correction to the estimate of childhood cancer risk following obstetric radiography, based on the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC). One of us (CRM) enquired about the centring values for variables used in the analysis and particularly about the formulae used to calculate the higher order interactions of the radiation risk with birth year and age at diagnosis. These centring values and formulae are given in Table 1. This letter arises from that enquiry. (author).

  9. Domestic Radon Exposure and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Prospective Census-Based Cohort Study

    Hauri, D.; Spycher, B.; Huss, A.; Zimmermann, F.; Grotzer, M.; von der Weid, N.; Weber, D.; Spoerri, A.; Kuehni, C.E.; Röösli, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In contrast with established evidence linking high doses of ionizing radiation with childhood cancer, research on low-dose ionizing radiation and childhood cancer has produced inconsistent results.Objective: We investigated the association between domestic radon exposure and childhood

  10. HIV and childhood cancer

    defining cancers are Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and B-cell lymphomas. (including primary CNS ... shows a modest increase and the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma increases tenfold or more in the ..... Caselli D, Klersy C, de Martino M, et al. Human.

  11. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cance...

  12. Prenatal irradiation and childhood cancer

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Kneale, G.W.; Gilman, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates of the relative risk of childhood cancer, following irradiation during fetal life, are reported. They are based upon extended case-control investigations of childhood cancer deaths in England, Wales and Scotland between 1953 and 1979 comprising 14,759 geographically-matched and birth-date-matched case-control pairs. The estimates were calculated using Conditional Logistic Regression (Miettinen-Breslow) techniques. This method of risk-estimation limits the distortions caused by confounding factors or by biased selection of controls. Through analysing a range of reported exposures other than radiation, levels of general reporting and recording biases between cases and controls were also assessed. There was no evidence among cases or controls of any systematic reduction in the frequency of pregnancy x-rays between 1950 and 1979. During this period of time, about 7% of all childhood cancers, and 8% of those with onset between the ages of 4 and 7 years, were caused by x-ray examinations. The dose-response relationship was one death per 990 obstetric x-ray examinations; or 2,000 deaths per 10 4 man-Gy. (author)

  13. Childhood cancer among twins and higher order multiples

    Puumala, Susan E.; Carozza, Susan E.; Chow, Eric J.; Fox, Erin E.; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J.; McLaughlin, Colleen; Mueller, Beth A.; Reynolds, Peggy; Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G.

    2009-01-01

    Although several studies have found no change or a decreased risk of childhood cancer in twins, few have controlled for potential confounders such as birth weight. We examined the association of birth plurality and childhood cancer in pooled data from five U.S. states (California, Minnesota, New York, Texas, and Washington) using linked birth-cancer registry data. The data, excluding children with Down syndrome or who died before 28 days of life, included 17,672 cases diagnosed 1980–2004 at a...

  14. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    ... To address this issue, the Children’s Oncology Group ( COG ) has prepared a resource for physicians called “ Long- ... of American Medical Association; see the journal article ) Breast cancer risk in childhood cancer survivors without a history ...

  15. Suicide among childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia.

    Cižek Sajko, Mojca; Cižek, Niko; Jareb, Berta

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is one of the causes of late mortality among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of our study was to analyse the risk of suicide among childhood cancer survivors compared with that of the general population of Slovenia. This retrospective study included patients with childhood cancer registered at the Cancer Registry of Slovenia between 1978-2008, with an observation period of 1978-2010. Childhood cancer patients and control subjects from the general population of Slovenia were matched by sex, year and age at the beginning of follow-up and time of follow-up in years. Data on the general population of Slovenia were obtained from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. A total of 1647 patients were recorded in the Cancer Registry as having cancer during childhood, with 3 patients committing suicide. All three were male. Their age at diagnosis of cancer was 12, 13 and 2 years old; their age at suicide was 19, 32 and 28 years old. The mechanism of death was asphyxiation in all three deaths. The calculation of the expected number of suicides in the group of individuals with childhood cancer from the general Slovene population revealed the number of 3.16 persons. The comparison of the observed and expected probability showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the suicide rate between childhood cancer survivors and the general population of Slovenia. Copyright © 2012 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  16. Fertility in Female Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Bruin, de M.; Broeder, den E.; Berg, van den M.H.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both

  17. Male reproductive health after childhood cancer

    Lähteenmäki, P M; Arola, M; Suominen, J

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment.......Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment....

  18. Spirituality in childhood cancer care

    Lima NN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Marcial Moreno Moreira,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Health Sciences Postgraduate Program, ABC Region Medical School, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Public Health Postgraduate Program, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: To deal with the suffering caused by childhood cancer, patients and their families use different coping strategies, among which, spirituality appears a way of minimizing possible damage. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of spirituality in childhood cancer care, involving biopsychosocial aspects of the child, the family, and the health care team facing the disease. To accomplish this purpose, a nonsystematic review of literature of articles on national and international electronic databases (Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], PubMed, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS] was conducted using the search terms “spirituality,” “child psychology,” “child,” and “cancer,” as well as on other available resources. After the search, 20 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final sample. Our review showed that the relation between spirituality and health has lately become a subject of growing interest among researchers, as a positive influence of spirituality in the people's welfare was noted. Studies that were retrieved using the mentioned search strategy in electronic databases, independently assessed by the authors according to the systematic review, showed that spirituality emerges as a driving force that helps pediatric patients and their families in coping with cancer. Health care workers

  19. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda

    2011-01-01

    was diagnosed between 1965 and 1996 before they were 20 years of age. A sex-matched and age-matched population-based control cohort was used for comparison (n=45,449). Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from national registers and explored by discrete-time Cox regression analyses. Childhood cancer......Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer...... a nonsignificantly lower rate (RR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.58) than females (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68). The rates of separation were almost identical to those of controls. In conclusion, the rate of cohabitation was lower for all childhood cancer survivors than for the population-based controls, with the most...

  20. Childhood BMI growth trajectories and endometrial cancer risk

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Tilling, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we found that excess weight already in childhood has positive associations with endometrial cancer, however, associations with changes in body mass index (BMI) during childhood are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether growth in childhood BMI is associated with endometrial...... cancer and its sub-types. A cohort of 155,505 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register with measured weights and heights at the ages of 6 to 14 years and born 1930-89 formed the analytical population. BMI was transformed to age-specific z-scores. Using linear spline multilevel models......, each girl's BMI growth trajectory was estimated as the deviance from the average trajectory for three different growth periods (6.25-7.99, 8.0-10.99, 11.0-14.0 years). Via a link to health registers, 1020 endometrial cancer cases were identified, and Cox regressions were performed. A greater gain...

  1. Breast Cancer After Chest Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer

    Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Chou, Joanne F.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Malhotra, Jyoti; Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Mubdi, Nidha Z.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Stovall, Marilyn; Hammond, Sue; Smith, Susan A.; Henderson, Tara O.; Boice, John D.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Diller, Lisa R.; Bhatia, Smita; Kenney, Lisa B.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Begg, Colin B.; Robison, Leslie L.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The risk of breast cancer is high in women treated for a childhood cancer with chest irradiation. We sought to examine variations in risk resulting from irradiation field and radiation dose. Patients and Methods We evaluated cumulative breast cancer risk in 1,230 female childhood cancer survivors treated with chest irradiation who were participants in the CCSS (Childhood Cancer Survivor Study). Results Childhood cancer survivors treated with lower delivered doses of radiation (median, 14 Gy; range, 2 to 20 Gy) to a large volume (whole-lung field) had a high risk of breast cancer (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 43.6; 95% CI, 27.2 to 70.3), as did survivors treated with high doses of delivered radiation (median, 40 Gy) to the mantle field (SIR, 24.2; 95% CI, 20.7 to 28.3). The cumulative incidence of breast cancer by age 50 years was 30% (95% CI, 25 to 34), with a 35% incidence among Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (95% CI, 29 to 40). Breast cancer–specific mortality at 5 and 10 years was 12% (95% CI, 8 to 18) and 19% (95% CI, 13 to 25), respectively. Conclusion Among women treated for childhood cancer with chest radiation therapy, those treated with whole-lung irradiation have a greater risk of breast cancer than previously recognized, demonstrating the importance of radiation volume. Importantly, mortality associated with breast cancer after childhood cancer is substantial. PMID:24752044

  2. Site of childhood cancer care in the Netherlands.

    Reedijk, A M J; van der Heiden-van der Loo, M; Visser, O; Karim-Kos, H E; Lieverst, J A; de Ridder-Sluiter, J G; Coebergh, J W W; Kremer, L C; Pieters, R

    2017-12-01

    Due to the complexity of diagnosis and treatment, care for children and young adolescents with cancer preferably occurs in specialised paediatric oncology centres with potentially better cure rates and minimal late effects. This study assessed where children with cancer in the Netherlands were treated since 2004. All patients aged under 18 diagnosed with cancer between 2004 and 2013 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) and linked with the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) database. Associations between patient and tumour characteristics and site of care were tested statistically with logistic regression analyses. This population-based study of 6021 children diagnosed with cancer showed that 82% of them were treated in a paediatric oncology centre. Ninety-four percent of the patients under 10 years of age, 85% of the patients aged 10-14 and 48% of the patients aged 15-17 were treated in a paediatric oncology centre. All International Classification of Childhood Cancers (ICCC), 3rd edition, ICCC-3 categories, except embryonal tumours, were associated with a higher risk of treatment outside a paediatric oncology centre compared to leukaemia. Multivariable analyses by ICCC-3 category revealed that specific tumour types such as chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML), embryonal carcinomas, bone tumours other type than osteosarcoma, non-rhabdomyosarcomas, thyroid carcinomas, melanomas and skin carcinomas as well as lower-staged tumours were associated with treatment outside a paediatric oncology centre. The site of childhood cancer care in the Netherlands depends on the age of the cancer patient, type of tumour and stage at diagnosis. Collaboration between paediatric oncology centre(s), other academic units is needed to ensure most up-to-date paediatric cancer care for childhood cancer patients at the short and long term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Space-time interactions in childhood cancers

    Morris, V.

    1990-01-01

    During the last twenty five years, there have been sporadic published reports of cases of childhood leukaemia occurring in clusters. Renewed interest in the topic, following suggests that clusters may occur in the vicinity of nuclear establishments, has prompted this report of an investigation into 418 childhood cancer cases which occurred in the Midlands between 1953 and 1960. There was evidence among some age groups and diagnoses of an unexpectedly high number of close pairs of onsets, and some indication of similar patterns among births of children who later developed cancer. Measles appeared to occur more often in the 2-3 years before the onset of leukaemia in children who were later involved in close pairs than in their matched controls. It is concluded that common infectious diseases of childhood may play a minor role in the development of some cancers. Epidemics of these diseases may then be reflected on a greatly reduced scale in the subsequent distribution of cancer cases. (author)

  4. Childhood cancer and nuclear installations: a review

    Muirhead, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies of childhood cancer around nuclear installations have been conducted in recent years. This article reviews results from Great Britain and elsewhere. Geographical studies have indicated raised risks of childhood leukaemia around some British nuclear installations. However, environmental assessments suggest that the findings are unlikely to be due to radioactive releases from the sites. Case-control studies have allowed more detailed investigation of putative risk factors than is possible from geographical studies. In particular, a recent national study in Britain does not support the hypothesis raised by an earlier study in West Cumbria that paternal radiation exposure prior to conception may increase the risk of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in offspring. Other studies suggest that childhood leukaemia may have an infective basis, although there is still uncertainty about whether this would explain the findings around nuclear installations. The UK Childhood Cancer Study may provide more information on the causes of these diseases. (author)

  5. Childhood Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Childhood nasopharyngeal cancer treatment options include chemotherapy, external and internal radiation therapy, surgery, and immunotherapy (interferon). Learn more about the risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, and treatment of childhood nasopharyngeal cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  6. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Childhood liver cancer treatment options include surgery, watchful waiting, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, ablation therapy, and antiviral therapy. Learn more about newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood liver cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  7. Childhood Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Childhood thyroid cancer treatment usually includes surgery and may include radioactive iodine therapy, targeted therapy, and hormone replacement therapy. Learn more about the diagnosis and treatment of childhood thyroid cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  8. The Challenge of Childhood Cancer in Developing Countries

    user

    2016-05-12

    May 12, 2016 ... Abraham Haileamlak, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health ... children under the age of 15 years due to cancer. Childhood cancer is the second leading .... collaboration on childhood leukaemia. Int J. Hematol 2003 ...

  9. Childhood Cancer Genomics Gaps and Opportunities - Workshop Summary

    NCI convened a workshop of representative research teams that have been leaders in defining the genomic landscape of childhood cancers to discuss the influence of genomic discoveries on the future of childhood cancer research.

  10. Fertility in female childhood cancer survivors

    De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H

    2009-01-01

    chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have an adverse effect on ovarian function, ovarian reserve and uterine function, clinically leading to sub-fertility, infertility, premature menopause and/or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we will first address normal female fertility and methods to detect decreased...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors.......Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both...

  11. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors.

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda; Møller, Henrik; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-10-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer was diagnosed between 1965 and 1996 before they were 20 years of age. A sex-matched and age-matched population-based control cohort was used for comparison (n=45,449). Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from national registers and explored by discrete-time Cox regression analyses. Childhood cancer survivors had a reduced rate of cohabitation [rate ratio (RR) 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.83], owing to lower rates among survivors of both noncentral nervous system (CNS) tumors (RR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95) and CNS tumors (RR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.45-0.59). Male CNS tumor survivors had a nonsignificantly lower rate (RR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.58) than females (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68). The rates of separation were almost identical to those of controls. In conclusion, the rate of cohabitation was lower for all childhood cancer survivors than for the population-based controls, with the most pronounced reduction among survivors of CNS tumors. Mental deficits after cranial irradiation are likely to be the major risk factor.

  12. 75 FR 56455 - National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    2010-09-15

    ... Part V The President Proclamation 8556--National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2010... Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Each... children. During National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, we honor the young lives taken too soon and the...

  13. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  14. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Stratton, Kayla L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies

  15. Breast carcinoma after cancer therapy in childhood

    Li, F.P.; Corkery, J.; Vawter, G.; Fine, W.; Sallan, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    Among 910 survivors of childhood cancer, four developed infiltrating carcinoma of the breast and another had noninfiltrating breast tumor. Expected frequency was 0.3 cases of breast cancer in the series. The affected women developed breast carcinoma at ages 20, 25 and 38 years, and the men at ages 38 and 39 years, respectively. Each patient had received orthovoltage chest irradiation for treatment of Wilms' tumor or bone sarcoma between seven and 34 years previously, and estimated radiation dose to the breast exceeded 300 rad in each instance. Four patients also received diverse forms of chemotherapy. Survivors of childhood cancer have increased risk of developing breast cancer and should undergo periodic screening, particularly after breast tissue had been irradiated. Individualized radiotherapy planning can help exclude the breasts from treatment fields for some thoracic neoplasms

  16. Childhood cancer survivor cohorts in Europe

    Winther, Jeanette F.; Kenborg, Line; Byrne, Julianne; Hjorth, Lars; Kaatsch, Peter; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Auquier, Pascal; Michel, Gérard; de Vathaire, Florent; Haupt, Riccardo; Skinner, Roderick; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura M.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Reulen, Raoul C.; Grabow, Desiree; Ronckers, Cecile M.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Schindler, Matthias; Berbis, Julie; Holmqvist, Anna S.; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; de Fine Licht, Sofie; Bonnesen, Trine G.; Asdahl, Peter H.; Bautz, Andrea; Kristoffersen, Anja K.; Himmerslev, Liselotte; Hasle, Henrik; Olsen, Jørgen H.; Hawkins, Mike M.

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of multimodality therapy, the overall five-year survival rate from childhood cancer has improved considerably now exceeding 80% in developed European countries. This growing cohort of survivors, with many years of life ahead of them, has raised the necessity for knowledge concerning

  17. Neurocognitive Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer

    Butler, Robert W.; Haser, Jennifer K.

    2006-01-01

    We review research on the neuropsychological effects that central nervous system (CNS) cancer treatments have on the cognitive abilities of children and adolescents. The authors focus on the two most common malignancies of childhood: leukemias and brain tumors. The literature review is structured so as to separate out earlier studies, generally…

  18. Financial Burden in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Nipp, Ryan D; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Fair, Douglas; Rabin, Julia; Hyland, Kelly A; Kuhlthau, Karen; Perez, Giselle K; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Nathan, Paul C; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Leisenring, Wendy M; Park, Elyse R

    2017-10-20

    Purpose Survivors of childhood cancer may experience financial burden as a result of health care costs, particularly because these patients often require long-term medical care. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of financial burden and identify associations between a higher percentage of income spent on out-of-pocket medical costs (≥ 10% of annual income) and issues related to financial burden (jeopardizing care or changing lifestyle) among survivors of childhood cancer and a sibling comparison group. Methods Between May 2011 and April 2012, we surveyed an age-stratified, random sample of survivors of childhood cancer and a sibling comparison group who were enrolled in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Participants reported their household income, out-of-pocket medical costs, and issues related to financial burden (questions were adapted from national surveys on financial burden). Logistic regression identified associations between participant characteristics, a higher percentage of income spent on out-of-pocket medical costs, and financial burden, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Among 580 survivors of childhood cancer and 173 siblings, survivors of childhood cancer were more likely to have out-of-pocket medical costs ≥ 10% of annual income (10.0% v 2.9%; P report spending a higher percentage of their income on out-of-pocket medical costs, which may influence their health-seeking behavior and potentially affect health outcomes. Our findings highlight the need to address financial burden in this population with long-term health care needs.

  19. Prenatal x-ray and childhood cancer in twins

    Harvey, E.B.

    1983-01-01

    In order to evaluate the causal nature of the relationship between prenatal x-ray exposure and childhood cancer, a case control study was conducted in a population of over 32,000 twins born in the state of Connecticut from 1930-1969 and followed to age 15. Thirty-two incident cancer cases were identified by linking the Connecticut Twin and Tumor registries. Each case was matched with four controls on year of birth, sex, race, and survival. Prenatal x-ray information as well as reproductive, delivery and birth data were obtained from the hospital of birth, the physician providing prenatal care, private radiology groups and interviews with hospital staff. The case control study which obtained exposure information on selected subjects found an increased risk of childhood cancer from prenatal x-ray exposure. The risk associated with radiation exposure was elevated in the following subcategories: mother with history of pregnancy loss, a gravity greater than 1, under 30 years of age, and twins weighing five pounds or more at birth. The results, though based on small numbers, strengthen the association between prenatal x-ray exposure and childhood cancer

  20. Is impulsivity a link between childhood abuse and suicide?

    Braquehais, M Dolores; Oquendo, Maria A; Baca-García, Enrique; Sher, Leo

    2010-01-01

    Childhood abuse and neglect are known to affect psychological states through behavioral, emotional, and cognitive pathways. They increase the risk of having psychiatric diseases in adulthood and have been considered risk factors for suicidal behavior in all diagnostic categories. Early, prolonged, and severe trauma is also known to increase impulsivity, diminishing the capacity of the brain to inhibit negative actions and to control and modulate emotions. Many neurobiological studies hold that childhood maltreatment may lead to a persistent failure of the inhibitory processes ruled mainly by the frontal cortex over a fear-motivated hyperresponsive limbic system. Multiple neurotransmitters and hormones are involved in the stress response, but, to our knowledge, the two major biological consequences of the chronic exposure to trauma are the hypofunction of the serotonergic system and changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function. Some of these findings overlap with the neurobiological features of impulsivity and of suicidal behavior. Impulsivity has also been said to be both a consequence of trauma and a risk factor for the development of a pathological response to trauma. Thus, we suggest that impulsivity could be one of the links between childhood trauma and suicidal behavior. Prevention of childhood abuse could significantly reduce suicidal behavior in adolescents and adults, in part, through a decrease in the frequency of impulsive behaviors in the future. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Linking Medicare, Medicaid, and Cancer Registry Data...

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Linking Medicare, Medicaid, and Cancer Registry Data to Study the Burden of Cancers in West Virginia In the United States, the elderly carry an unequal burden of...

  2. Skin Cancer Surveillance Behaviors among Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Stapleton, Jerod L.; Tatum, Kristina L.; Devine, Katie A.; Stephens, Sue; Masterson, Margaret; Baig, Amna; Hudson, Shawna V.; Coups, Elliot J.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of developing skin cancer is elevated among childhood cancer survivors (CCS), particularly among those treated with radiation. This survey study examined the skin cancer surveillance behaviors of 94 CCS. Approximately 48% of CCS had ever conducted skin self-examination and 31% had ever received a physician skin examination. Rates of physician skin examination were 2.5 times higher among CCS treated with radiation compared to those without radiation. However, rates of skin self-examin...

  3. Reducing Parental Uncertainty Around Childhood Cancer: Implementation Decisions and Design Trade-Offs in Developing an Electronic Health Record-Linked Mobile App.

    Marsolo, Keith; Shuman, William; Nix, Jeremy; Morrison, Caroline F; Mullins, Larry L; Pai, Ahna Lh

    2017-06-26

    Parents of children newly diagnosed with cancer are confronted with multiple stressors that place them at risk for significant psychological distress. One strategy that has been shown to help reduce uncertainty is the provision of basic information; however, families of newly diagnosed cancer patients are often bombarded with educational material. Technology has the potential to help families manage their informational needs and move towards normalization. The aim of this study was to create a mobile app that pulls together data from both the electronic health record (EHR) and vetted external information resources to provide tailored information to parents of newly diagnosed children as one method to reduce the uncertainty around their child's illness. This app was developed to be used by families in a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed at decreasing uncertainty and the subsequent psychological distress. A 2-phase qualitative study was conducted to elicit the features and content of the mobile app based on the needs and experience of parents of children newly diagnosed with cancer and their providers. Example functions include the ability to view laboratory results, look up appointments, and to access educational material. Educational material was obtained from databases maintained by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) as well as from groups like the Children's Oncology Group (COG) and care teams within Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC). The use of EHR-based Web services was explored to allow data like laboratory results to be retrieved in real-time. The ethnographic design process resulted in a framework that divided the content of the mobile app into the following 4 sections: (1) information about the patient's current treatment and other data from the EHR; (2) educational background material; (3) a calendar to view upcoming appointments at their medical center; and (4) a section where

  4. Good News About Childhood Cancer

    ... includes: gene therapy, bone marrow transplant, chemotherapy, the biochemistry of normal and cancerous cells, radiation treatment, blood ... drugs that can be evaluated in clinical trials Projects designed to improve the health status of survivors ...

  5. International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium

    An alliance of several large-scale prospective cohort studies of children to pool data and biospecimens from individual cohorts to study various modifiable and genetic factors in relation to cancer risk

  6. Prenatal x-ray exposure and childhood cancer in twins

    Harvey, E.B.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Honeyman, M.; Flannery, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to investigate the relation between prenatal exposure to x-rays and childhood cancer, including leukemia, in over 32,000 twins born in Connecticut from 1930 to 1969. Twins as opposed to single births were chosen for study to reduce the likelihood of medical selection bias, since twins were often exposed to x-rays to diagnose the twin pregnancy or to determine fetal positioning before delivery and not because of medical conditions that may conceivably pre-dispose to cancer. Each of 31 incident cases of cancer, identified by linking the Connecticut twin and tumor registries, was matched with four twin controls according to sex, year of birth, and race. Records of hospitals, radiologists, and private physicians were searched for histories of x-ray exposure and other potentially important risk factors. Documented prenatal x-ray exposures were found for 39 per cent of the cases (12 of 31) and for 26 per cent of the controls (28 of 109). No other pregnancy, delivery, or maternal conditions were associated with cancer risk except low birth weight: 38 per cent of the cases as compared with 25 per cent of the controls weighed under 2.27 kg at birth. When birth weight was adjusted for, twins in whom leukemia or other childhood cancer developed were twice as likely to have been exposed to x-rays in utero as twins who were free of disease (relative risk, 2.4; 95 per cent confidence interval, 1.0 to 5.9). The results, though based on small numbers, provide further evidence that low-dose prenatal irradiation may increase the risk of childhood cancer

  7. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Thomas-Teinturier, Cecile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Hopital Bicetre, Bicetre (France); Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Veres, Cristina [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Pacquement, Helene [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Jackson, Angela [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Munzer, Martine; N' Guyen, Tan Dat [Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Bondiau, Pierre-Yves [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne [Centre Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Bridier, Andre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Schlumberger, Martin [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Vathaire, Florent de, E-mail: florent.devathaire@igr.fr [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  8. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Thomas-Teinturier, Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Veres, Cristina; Pacquement, Hélène; Jackson, Angela; Munzer, Martine; N'Guyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Bridier, André; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Schlumberger, Martin; Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vathaire, Florent de

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  9. Individual Prediction of Heart Failure Among Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Chow, Eric J.; Chen, Yan; Kremer, Leontien C.; Breslow, Norman E.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Border, William L.; Feijen, Elizabeth A. M.; Green, Daniel M.; Meacham, Lillian R.; Meeske, Kathleen A.; Mulrooney, Daniel A.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Sklar, Charles A.; Stovall, Marilyn; van der Pal, Helena J.; Weathers, Rita E.; Robison, Leslie L.; Yasui, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To create clinically useful models that incorporate readily available demographic and cancer treatment characteristics to predict individual risk of heart failure among 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Patients and Methods Survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) free of

  10. 78 FR 54737 - National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    2013-09-06

    ... National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every September, America renews our commitment to curing childhood cancer and offers our support... cancer each year, and it remains the leading cause of death by disease for American children under 15...

  11. 77 FR 55091 - National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    2012-09-06

    ... National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every year, thousands of children across America are diagnosed with cancer--an often life... September 2012 as National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month. I encourage all Americans to join me in...

  12. Skin Cancer Surveillance Behaviors Among Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Tatum, Kristina L; Devine, Katie A; Stephens, Sue; Masterson, Margaret; Baig, Amna; Hudson, Shawna V; Coups, Elliot J

    2016-03-01

    The risk of developing skin cancer is elevated among childhood cancer survivors (CCS), particularly among those treated with radiation. This survey study examined the skin cancer surveillance behaviors of 94 CCS. Approximately 48% of CCS had ever conducted skin self-examination (SSE) and 31% had ever received a physician skin examination. Rates of physician skin examination were 2.5 times higher among CCS treated with radiation compared to those without radiation. However, rates of SSEs did not differ based on treatment history. These findings highlight the need to promote skin cancer surveillance as an important aspect of CCS survivorship care. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Importance of updating family cancer history in childhood cancer survivors.

    Russo, Selena; Warby, Meera; Tucker, Katherine M; Wakefield, Claire E; Cohn, Richard J

    2017-10-01

    Estimates of the number of childhood cancers with a genetic basis range from 5-8.5% found in germline samples to 29% based on clinical criteria. Family history-taking practice is a fundamental first step in detecting at risk individuals and families. This study focused on Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS), a highly penetrant cancer syndrome. Reported family history in a cohort of 648 of cancer survivor cohort (CCS) was examined. Eligible CCS were: (i) aged up to 14 years at diagnosis; (ii) more than 5 years postdiagnosis; (iii) treated for a childhood cancer at the study hospitals in NSW, Australia; (iv) in remission for more than 3 years. CCS completed self-administered questionnaires. Medical records confirmed diagnosis and treatment-related information. Our findings reveal an increased cancer risk among sibling and relatives of CCS. 91% of siblings diagnosed with cancer were diagnosed under the age of 40 and about 30% diagnosed under the aged of 15 revealing a 5- (RR = 5.1; 95% CI, 3.3-7.9) and 44-fold (RR = 44.6; 95% CI, 18.4-108.3) increased risked of cancer compared with the Australian population, respectively. About 2% of CCS reported that they had been diagnosed with a genetic cancer syndrome. However, 11% of survivors described a family history pattern which met Chompret criteria for screening for TP53 mutations associated with LFS. Our data suggests that familial cancer predispositions may be initially overlooked. Aperiodic and accurate ascertainment of family cancer history of childhood cancer patients and survivors is therefore recommended.

  14. Drug Interactions in Childhood Cancer

    Haidar, Cyrine; Jeha, Sima

    2016-01-01

    Children with cancer are increasingly benefiting from novel therapeutic strategies and advances in supportive care, as reflected in improvements in both their survival and quality of life. However, the continuous emergence of new oncology drugs and supportive care agents has also increased the possibility of deleterious drug interactions and healthcare providers need to practice extreme caution when combining medications. In this review, we discuss the most common interactions of chemotherapeutic agents with supportive care drugs such as anticonvulsants, antiemetics, uric acid–lowering agents, acid suppressants, antimicrobials, and pain management medications in pediatric oncology patients. As chemotherapy agents interact not only with medications but also with foods and herbal supplements that patients receive during the course of their treatment, we also briefly review such interactions and provide recommendations to avoid unwanted and potentially fatal interactions in children with cancer. PMID:20869315

  15. Background radiation and childhood cancer mortality

    Sakka, Masatoshi

    1979-01-01

    Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancer estimated an ''extra'' cancer risk of 572 per million man-rad of juvenile cancer deaths under 10 years of age. In Hiroshima and Nagasaki 36.9 juvenile cancers were expected out of 64,490 man-rad of exposed mothers. Observed cancer was, however, only one. The discrepancy was explained partly by possible overlapping of confidence intervals of two samples and partly by excessive doses received by exposed fetuses in Japan. If A-bomb radiation sterilized preleukemic cells induced in fetuses, it must also killed those cells in irradiated adults. Leukemogenic efficiency in adults, about 2.10 -5 per rad, is not different either in A-bomb survivors or in irradiated patients. We examined a dose-effect relationship in childhood cancer mortality (0 - 4 yrs) in Miyagi Prefecture Japan. Ninety two cancers were detected out of 1,214,157 children from 1968 to 1975. They were allocated to 8 districts with different background levels. Population at risk was calculated every year for every district. About 4 deaths occurred every 10,000 man-rad, which is comparable with 572 per million man-rad in Oxford Survey. One out of one thousand infants died from severe malformation in every year when they received 9.8 rad in embryonic stage, the doubling dose is estimated as 20 rad. Clinical and biological significance of the statistical data must be examined in future. Fetal death decreased significantly from 110/1,000 in 1962 to 55/1,000 in 1975. Background radiation plays no role in fetal death in Miyagi Prefecture. (author)

  16. Childhood body mass index and risk of adult pancreatic cancer

    Nogueira, Leticia; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Gamborg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    incident pancreatic cancer cases from 1968-2012. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regressions. Results: During 8,207,015 person-years of follow-up, 1,268 pancreatic cancer cases were diagnosed. Childhood BMI z-scores at ages 7-13 years were......Background: Excess weight in adulthood is one of the few modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer, and height has associations as well. This leads to question whether body weight and height in childhood are associated with adult pancreatic cancer. Objective: To examine if childhood body mass...... from 7-13 years is positively and linearly associated with adult pancreatic cancer; the higher the BMI, the higher the risk. Excess childhood BMI may be indicative of processes initiated early in life that lead to this cancer. Prevention of childhood adiposity may decrease the burden of pancreatic...

  17. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  18. Reduced male fertility in childhood cancer survivors

    Sun Hee Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With advances in cancer treatment, more pediatric cancer patients have increased their life expectancy. Because cancer-related therapy causes various physical and psychological problems, many male survivors experience later problems with thyroid and sexual functions, and with growth. As outcomes have improved, more survivors need to maintain their reproductive function to maximize their long-term quality of life. Cancer and cancer-related treatment can impair fertility by damage to the testes, to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, or to the genitourinary organs. Prior radiation therapy to the testes, the use of alkylating agents, and central hypogonadism further impair fertility in male survivors of childhood cancer. Following any course of chemotherapy, peripubertal maturation, any testicular volume changes, and symptoms of androgen deficiency should be monitored systematically. If patients request fertility testing, spermatogenesis status can be evaluated either directly by semen analysis or indirectly by determination of the levels of testosterone/gonadotropins and by monitoring any changes in testicular volume. According to the patient's condition, semen cryopreservation, hormonal therapy, or assisted reproduction technologies should be provided.

  19. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in adult survivors of childhood cancer

    Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Previous research suggests that posttraurnatic stress disorder (PTSD) is present in survivors of childhood cancer. The aim of the current study was to explore posttraurnatic stress symptoms in a sample of young adult survivors of childhood cancer. In addition, the impact of demographic,

  20. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Childhood liver cancer has two major histologic subgroups: hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Less common histologies are undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver, infantile choriocarcinoma, and vascular liver tumors. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood liver cancers including tumor biology, presentation, prognosis, staging, and treatment in this summary for clinicians.

  1. No excess fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.; van den Bos, C.

    2003-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest that many survivors of childhood cancer experience fatigue as a long-term effect of their treatment. To investigate this issue further, we assessed the level of fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. We compared the results with a group of young adults with no

  2. Childhood height increases the risk of prostate cancer mortality

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2015-01-01

    cancers. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: 630 men had prostate cancer recorded as the underlying cause of death. Childhood height at age 13years was positively associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR]per z-score=1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.3......). Associations were significant at all other childhood ages. Growth analyses showed that height at age 13years had a stronger association with prostate cancer-specific mortality than height at age 7, suggesting the association at age 7 is largely mediated through later childhood height. The tallest boys at age...... 13years had a significantly worse survival, but only when restricted to a diagnosis at years of age (HRz-score of 1=1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.4). These associations were significant at all other childhood ages. Childhood BMI was not associated with prostate cancer mortality or survival. CONCLUSION...

  3. Changes in nutritional status in childhood cancer patients : A prospective cohort study

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Sulkers, Esther; Kamps, Willem A.; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Tamminga, Rienk Y. J.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Under- and overnutrition are linked to adverse outcomes during and after childhood cancer treatment. Therefore, understanding the timing of weight loss and weight gain and their contributory factors is essential for improving outcomes. We aimed to determine in which period of

  4. PMS2 mutations in childhood cancer.

    De Vos, Michel; Hayward, Bruce E; Charlton, Ruth; Taylor, Graham R; Glaser, Adam W; Picton, Susan; Cole, Trevor R; Maher, Eamonn R; McKeown, Carole M E; Mann, Jill R; Yates, John R; Baralle, Diana; Rankin, Julia; Bonthron, David T; Sheridan, Eamonn

    2006-03-01

    Until recently, the PMS2 DNA mismatch repair gene has only rarely been implicated as a cancer susceptibility locus. New studies have shown, however, that earlier analyses of this gene have had technical limitations and also that the genetic behavior of mutant PMS2 alleles is unusual, in that, unlike MLH1 or MSH2 mutations, PMS2 mutations show low heterozygote penetrance. As a result, a dominantly inherited cancer predisposition has not been a feature reported in families with PMS2 mutations. Such families have instead been ascertained through childhood-onset cancers in homozygotes or through apparently sporadic colorectal cancer in heterozygotes. We present further information on the phenotype associated with homozygous PMS2 deficiency in 13 patients from six families of Pakistani origin living in the United Kingdom. This syndrome is characterized by café-au-lait skin pigmentation and a characteristic tumor spectrum, including leukemias, lymphomas, cerebral malignancies (such as supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, astrocytomas, and glioblastomas), and colorectal neoplasia with an onset in early adult life. We present evidence for a founder effect in five families, all of which carried the same R802-->X mutation (i.e., arginine-802 to stop) in PMS2. This cancer syndrome can be mistaken for neurofibromatosis type 1, with important management implications including the risk of the disorder occurring in siblings and the likelihood of tumor development in affected individuals.

  5. Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials

    Adamson, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

  6. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    Jiravova, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty Hospital Motol, Uk, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  7. Nutritional interventions for survivors of childhood cancer.

    Cohen, Jennifer E; Wakefield, Claire E; Cohn, Richard J

    2016-08-22

    Childhood cancer survivors are at a higher risk of developing health conditions such as osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease than their peers. Health-promoting behaviour, such as consuming a healthy diet, could lessen the impact of these chronic issues, yet the prevalence rate of health-protecting behaviour amongst survivors of childhood cancer is similar to that of the general population. Targeted nutritional interventions may prevent or reduce the incidence of these chronic diseases. The primary aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of a range of nutritional interventions designed to improve the nutritional intake of childhood cancer survivors, as compared to a control group of childhood cancer survivors who did not receive the intervention. Secondary objectives were to assess metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, measures of weight and body fat distribution, behavioural change, changes in knowledge regarding disease risk and nutritional intake, participants' views of the intervention, measures of health status and quality of life, measures of harm associated with the process or outcomes of the intervention, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention We searched the electronic databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2013, Issue 3), MEDLINE/PubMed (from 1945 to April 2013), and Embase/Ovid (from 1980 to April 2013). We ran the search again in August 2015; we have not yet fully assessed these results, but we have identified one ongoing trial. We conducted additional searching of ongoing trial registers - the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number register and the National Institutes of Health register (both screened in the first half of 2013) - reference lists of relevant articles and reviews, and conference proceedings of the International Society for Paediatric Oncology and the International Conference on Long-Term Complications of Treatment of Children and Adolescents for Cancer (both 2008 to

  8. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    Tseytlin, G Ja; Konovalova, M V; Vashura, A Yu; Anisimova, A V; Godina, E Z; Khomyakova, I A; Nikolaev, D V; Starunova, O A; Rudnev, S G

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition – 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  9. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    Mahmoud, H.; Schell, M.; Pui, C.H. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 (27.9-135.9), 23.0 (9.8-54.1), 15.1 (7.1-32.2), and 7.4 (3.2-17.0), respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones.

  10. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    Mahmoud, H.; Schell, M.; Pui, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 [27.9-135.9], 23.0 [9.8-54.1], 15.1 [7.1-32.2], and 7.4 [3.2-17.0], respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones

  11. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  12. Editorial: Childhood Cancer in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Parkin, Donald Maxwell; Stefan, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of incidence rates of childhood cancer in Africa is difficult. The study 'Cancer of Childhood in sub Saharan Africa' [Stefan C, Bray F, Ferlay J, Parkin DM and Liu B (2017) Cancer of Childhood in sub-Saharan Africa ecancer 11 (755)] brings together results from 16 population-based registries which, as members of the African Cancer Registry Network (AFCRN), have been evaluated as achieving adequate coverage of their target population. The cancers are classified according to the third revision of the International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC-3) and recorded rates in Africa are compared with those in childhood populations in the UK, France, and the USA. It is clear that, in many centres, lack of adequate diagnostic and treatment facilities, leads to under-diagnosis (and enumeration) of leukaemias and brain cancers. However, for several childhood cancers, incidence rates in Africa are higher than those in high income countries. This applies to infection-related cancers such as Kaposi sarcoma, Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, and also to two common embryonal cancers-retinoblastoma and nephroblastoma. These (and other) observations are unlikely to be artefact, and are of considerable interest when considering possible aetiological factors, including ethnic differences in risk (and hence genetic/familial antecedents). The data reported are the most extensive so far available on the incidence of cancer in sub Saharan Africa, and clearly indicate the need for more resources to be devoted to cancer registration, especially in the childhood age range, as part of an overall programme to improve the availability of diagnosis and treatment of this group of cancers, many of which have-potentially-an excellent prognosis.

  13. Overview of childhood cancers at a regional cancer centre in North-East India.

    Hazarika, Munlima; Krishnatreya, Manigreeva; Bhuyan, Cidananda; Saikia, Bhargab Jyoti; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Nandy, Pintu; Hazarika, Monalisha; Roy, Partha Sarathi

    2014-01-01

    Childhood cancers are relatively uncommon in comparison to adult cancers. There is no literature available to shed light on clinic-pathological types and patterns of care for childhood cancers in our population in North-East India. In this analysis we therefore tried to determine the common childhood cancers diagnosed in our institute, clinical profile of the patients, types of treatment and compliance, and median survival estimates. Leukemia was most common, followed by retinoblastoma, central nervous system tumours and lymphomas. Ascertaining the clinic-pathological profile of childhood cancers in our population is essential for allocation and management of resources for this small but important group of patients.

  14. Clarifying the link between childhood abuse history and psychopathic traits in adult criminal offenders

    Dargis, Monika; Newman, Joseph; Koenigs, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of externalizing characteristics and disorders, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, the precise relationships between particular types of childhood maltreatment and subsequent antisocial and psychopathic traits remain unclear. Using a large sample of incarcerated adult male criminal offenders (n = 183), the current study confirmed that severity of overall childhood maltreatment was linked to severity of both psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Moreover, this relationship was particularly strong for physical abuse and the antisocial facet of psychopathy. Sexual abuse history was uniquely related to juvenile conduct disorder severity, rather than adult psychopathy or antisocial behaviors. Additionally, there was a significantly stronger relationship between childhood maltreatment and juvenile conduct disorder than between childhood maltreatment and ASPD or psychopathy. These findings bolster and clarify the link between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior later in life. PMID:26389621

  15. Assessment of Fundamental Movement Skills in Childhood Cancer Patients.

    Naumann, Fiona L; Hunt, Mitchell; Hunt, Mitchel; Ali, Dulfikar; Wakefield, Claire E; Moultrie, Kevin; Cohn, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    The improved treatment protocols and subsequent improved survival rates among childhood cancer patients have shifted the focus toward the long-term consequences arising from cancer treatment. Children who have completed cancer treatment are at a greater risk of delayed development, diminished functioning, disability, compromised fundamental movement skill (FMS) attainment, and long-term chronic health conditions. The aim of the study was to compare FMS of childhood cancer patients with an aged matched healthy reference group. Pediatric cancer patients aged 5-8 years (n = 26; median age 6.91 years), who completed cancer treatment (<5 years) at the Sydney Children's Hospital, were assessed performing seven key FMS: sprint, side gallop, vertical jump, catch, over-arm throw, kick, and leap. Results were compared to the reference group (n = 430; 6.56 years). Childhood cancer patients scored significantly lower on three out of seven FMS tests when compared to the reference group. These results equated to a significantly lower overall score for FMS. This study highlighted the significant deficits in FMS within pediatric patients having completed cancer treatment. In order to reduce the occurrence of significant FMS deficits in this population, FMS interventions may be warranted to assist in recovery from childhood cancer, prevent late effects, and improve the quality of life in survivors of childhood cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Childhood cancers in families with and without Lynch syndrome.

    Heath, John A; Reece, Jeanette C; Buchanan, Daniel D; Casey, Graham; Durno, Carol A; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W; Newcomb, Polly A; Potter, John D; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Le Marchand, Loïc; Lindor, Noralane M; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A; Win, Aung Ko

    2015-12-01

    Inheritance of a germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes or the EPCAM gene is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, and other adult malignancies (Lynch syndrome). The risk of childhood cancers in Lynch syndrome families, however, is not well studied. Using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry, we compared the proportion of childhood cancers (diagnosed before 18 years of age) in the first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of 781 probands with a pathogenic mutation in one of the MMR genes; MLH1 (n = 275), MSH2 (n = 342), MSH6 (n = 99), or PMS2 (n = 55) or in EPCAM (n = 10) (Lynch syndrome families), with that of 5073 probands with MMR-deficient colorectal cancer (non-Lynch syndrome families). There was no evidence of a difference in the proportion of relatives with a childhood cancer between Lynch syndrome families (41/17,230; 0.24%) and non-Lynch syndrome families (179/94,302; 0.19%; p = 0.19). Incidence rate of all childhood cancers was estimated to be 147 (95% CI 107-206) per million population per year in Lynch syndrome families and 115 (95% CI 99.1-134) per million population per year in non-Lynch syndrome families. There was no evidence for a significant increase in the risk of all childhood cancers, hematologic cancers, brain and central nervous system cancers, Lynch syndrome-associated cancers, or other cancers in Lynch syndrome families compared with non-Lynch syndrome families. Larger studies, however, are required to more accurately define the risk of specific individual childhood cancers in Lynch syndrome families.

  17. Tobacco Use Among Siblings of Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Buchbinder, David; Oeffinger, Kevin; Franco-Villalobos, Conrado; Yasui, Yutaka; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Casillas, Jacqueline; Ford, Jennifer; Krull, Kevin R.; Leisenring, Wendy; Recklitis, Christopher; Robison, Leslie L.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Lown, E. Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Having a brother or sister with childhood cancer may influence health behaviors during adulthood. The aim of this study was to compare tobacco use in siblings of survivors with peers and to identify factors associated with sibling tobacco use. Procedures A retrospective cohort study was conducted using adult siblings (N=1,974) of 5+ year cancer survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) and participants (N=24,105, weighted to match CCSS) in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Self-reported tobacco use, sociodemographic, and cancer-related risk factors were analyzed. Results Siblings were equally likely to have ever smoked compared to their peers, (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.93–1.12). Siblings were less likely to be current smokers (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.73–0.94), but more likely to be former smokers (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.08–1.35). Siblings with low education were more likely to ever smoke (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.15–2.00) and be current smokers (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.24–2.26) compared to their peers. Among siblings, risk factors for current tobacco use included: low income Siblings of survivors take up smoking at similar rates to their peers, but are more likely to quit. Efforts are needed to address disparities by providing greater psychosocial support and education for the lowest socio-economic status families facing childhood cancer. PMID:26305712

  18. Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ)

    ... information. Trouble learning to read, write, or do math. Trouble coordinating movement between the eyes, hands, and ... experience. In general, childhood cancer survivors show low levels of PTSD, depending in part on the coping ...

  19. Hypothyroidism after Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Inskip, Peter D; Veiga, Lene H S; Brenner, Alina V; Sigurdson, Alice J; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Chow, Eric J; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Leisenring, Wendy; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Sklar, Charles A; Lubin, Jay H

    2018-05-15

    While thyroid cancer risks from exposure to ionizing radiation early in life are well characterized quantitatively, the association of radiation with nonmalignant, functional thyroid disorders has been less studied. Here, we report on a risk analysis study of hypothyroidism with radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis among survivors of childhood cancer. Utilizing data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a cohort of 14,364 five-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed at 26 hospitals in the U.S. and Canada between 1970 and 1986 and followed through 2009, the occurrence of hypothyroidism was ascertained among 12,015 survivors through serial questionnaires. Radiation doses to the thyroid gland and pituitary gland were estimated from radiotherapy records. Binary outcome regression was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios for hypothyroidism at five years from diagnosis of childhood cancer and Poisson regression to model incidence rate ratios (RR) after the first five years. A total of 1,193 cases of hypothyroidism were observed, 777 (65%) of which occurred five or more years after cancer diagnosis. The cumulative proportion affected with hypothyroidism (prevalence at five years after cancer diagnosis plus incidence through 30 years after cancer diagnosis) was highest among five-year survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (32.3%; 95% CI: 29.5-34.9) and cancers of the central nervous system (17.7%; 95% CI: 15.2-20.4). The incidence rate was significantly associated with radiation dose to the thyroid and pituitary. The joint association of hypothyroidism with thyroid and pituitary dose was sub-additive for pituitary doses greater than 16 Gy. In particular, a very strong thyroid radiation dose dependence at low-to-moderate pituitary/hypothalamic doses was diminished at high pituitary doses. Radiation-related risks were higher in males than females and inversely associated with age at exposure and time since exposure but remained elevated

  20. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Lung cancer Lung cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... cancer, childhood Additional NIH Resources (3 links) National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Overview National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Prevention ...

  1. Early Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J; Must, Aviva

    2017-06-01

    Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible.

  2. Links Between Contexts and Middle to Late Childhood Social-Emotional Development.

    Duong, Jeffrey; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2017-12-01

    Guided by the social-emotional learning (SEL) framework, we studied developmental trajectory patterns of five key competency outcomes spanning middle through late childhood: altruism, empathy, self-efficacy, aggression, and hyperactivity. We then assessed their links to middle childhood home, parental, and community contexts. Data from the Institute of Education Sciences' Social and Character Development Program, which comprised nearly 2,400 elementary school students who were followed from Grades 3 through 5, were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. Three trajectory groups emerged for each outcome, which were linked to childhood contexts. Positive parenting was associated with a lower likelihood of following a negative empathy trajectory among children. Neighborhood intergenerational closure promoted a stable self-efficacy trajectory. Residing in a high-risk community was linked to increasing normative beliefs about aggression. These findings suggest an important role of contexts in influencing childhood social-emotional development in the later elementary school years. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  3. Radiation-associated breast cancer and gonadal hormone exposure: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Chou, Joanne F.; Sklar, Charles A.; Barnea, Dana; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Neglia, Joseph P.; Turcotte, Lucie; Howell, Rebecca M.; Henderson, Tara O.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Robison, Leslie L.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between hormone exposure and breast cancer risk in women treated with chest radiotherapy for childhood cancer is uncertain. Participants included 1108 females from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who were diagnosed with childhood cancer 1970-1986, treated with chest

  4. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Langeveld, N E; Grootenhuis, M A; Voûte, P A; de Haan, R J

    2004-06-01

    Previous research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is present in survivors of childhood cancer. The aim of the current study was to explore posttraumatic stress symptoms in a sample of young adult survivors of childhood cancer. In addition, the impact of demographic, medical and treatment factors on survivors' posttraumatic stress symptoms was studied. Participants were 500 long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The median age at follow-up was 24 years (age range, 16- 49 years, 47% female). To assess symptoms of posttraumatic stress, all participants completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), a self-report instrument consisting of two subscales, intrusion and avoidance. Twelve percent of this sample of adult survivors of childhood cancer had scores in the severe range, indicating they are unable to cope with the impact of their disease and need professional help. Twenty percent of the female survivors had scores in the severe range as compared with 6% of the male survivors. Linear regression models revealed that being female, unemployed, a lower educational level, type of diagnosis and severe late effects/health problems were associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms. The results indicate that, although the proportion of survivors reporting symptoms is well within the proportions found in the general population, a substantial subset of survivors report symptoms of posttraumatic stress. This finding supports the outcomes reported previously that diagnosis and treatment for childhood cancer may have significant long-term effects, which are manifested in symptoms of posttraumatic stress. The investigated factors could explain posttraumatic stress symptoms only to a limited extent. Further research exploring symptoms of posttraumatic stress in childhood cancer survivors in more detail is clearly warranted. From a clinical perspective, health care providers must pay attention to these symptoms during evaluations in the follow-up clinic. Early

  5. Does the cortisol awakening response link childhood adversity to adult BMI?

    Miller, Kelly F; Arbel, Reout; Shapiro, Lauren S; Han, Sohyun C; Margolin, Gayla

    2018-04-26

    Childhood adversity is a risk factor for the development of obesity in adulthood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, which has been associated separately with both adverse childhood experiences and obesity, has been posited as a mechanism by which stressful experiences influence body mass index (BMI); however, this mechanism has not yet been tested longitudinally. The present study uses multireporter, longitudinal data across three time points to test whether the adolescent cortisol awakening response (CAR), an index of diurnal HPA activity, mediates the association between adversity in childhood and BMI in adulthood. Eighty-two youth, mothers, and fathers reported on adverse childhood experiences from middle childhood to late adolescence. During adolescence, youth provided saliva samples three times each morning across three days, which were assayed for cortisol to calculate CAR. During early adulthood, youth reported height and weight to calculate BMI. Greater adversity predicted flatter CAR and higher young adult BMI. Flatter CAR partially mediated the association between childhood adversity and young adult BMI. Stress-related alterations to HPA activity account in part for the childhood adversity-adult obesity link. Findings are consistent with theoretical models implicating HPA alterations as linking childhood adversity to metabolic and behavioral determinants of BMI in adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Childhood Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Childhood thyroid cancer usually presents as a thyroid mass with or without painless cervical adenopathy. It may occur as part of a tumor predisposition syndrome such as multiple endocrine neoplasia or DICER1 syndrome. Get detailed information about the risk factors, histopathology, molecular features, presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  7. Family Adjustment to Childhood Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Long, Kristin A.; Marsland, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review integrates qualitative and quantitative research findings regarding family changes in the context of childhood cancer. Twenty-eight quantitative, 42 qualitative, and one mixed-method studies were reviewed. Included studies focused on family functioning, marital quality, and/or parenting in the context of pediatric cancer,…

  8. Recurrent Childhood Animal Cruelty and Its Link to Recurrent Adult Interpersonal Violence.

    Trentham, Caleb E; Hensley, Christopher; Policastro, Christina

    2018-06-01

    In the early 1960s, researchers began to examine the potential link between childhood animal cruelty and future interpersonal violence. Findings since then have been inconsistent in establishing a relationship between the two. This may be due to researchers failing to measure the recurrency of childhood animal abuse and the recurrency of later violent acts committed in adulthood. The current study, using data from 257 inmates at a medium-security prison in a Southern state, is a replication of research conducted by Tallichet and Hensley, and Hensley, Tallichet, and Dutkiewicz, which examined this recurrency issue. The only statistically significant predictor of recurrent adult interpersonal violence in this study was recurrent childhood animal cruelty. Inmates who engaged in recurrent childhood animal cruelty were more likely to commit recurrent adult interpersonal violence. Respondents' race, education, and childhood residence were not significant predictors of the outcome variable.

  9. Childhood maltreatment and its link to borderline personality disorder features in children: A systematic review approach.

    Ibrahim, Jeyda; Cosgrave, Nicola; Woolgar, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder has repeatedly been associated with a history of maltreatment in childhood; however, research on maltreatment and its link to borderline features in children is limited. The aim of this review is to synthesise the existing data on the association between maltreatment and borderline features in childhood. In total, 10 studies were included in this systematic review. Studies indicated that children with borderline features were more likely to have a history of maltreatment, and that children who had been maltreated were more likely to present with borderline features. Other risk factors such as cognitive and executive functioning deficits, parental dysfunction and genetic vulnerability were also identified across studies. This review adds to the literature by highlighting maltreatment as a risk factor for borderline features in childhood. Longitudinal research is required to establish the link between childhood borderline features and adult borderline features. Implications for early identification, prevention and intervention services are discussed.

  10. Exercise echocardiography in asymptomatic survivors of childhood cancer treated with anthracyclines

    Sieswerda, Elske; Kremer, Leontien C M; Vidmar, Suzanna

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise echocardiography reveals abnormalities in asymptomatic childhood cancer survivors who previously have been treated with anthracyclines. We determined the added value of monitoring childhood cancer survivors with exercise echocardiography compared to monitoring with resting ec...

  11. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease: links and prevention strategies

    Nadeau, Kristen J.; Maahs, David M.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Eckel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and impact CVD risk. In addition, obesity and other CVD risk factors tend to persist over time. However, whether childhood obesity causes adult CVD directly, or does so by persisting as adult obesity, or both, is less clear. Regardless, sufficient data exist to warrant early implementation of both obesity prevention and treatment in youth and adults. In this Review, we examine the evidence supporting the impact of childhood obesity on adult obesity, surrogate markers of CVD, components of the metabolic syndrome, and the development of CVD. We also evaluate how obesity treatment strategies can improve risk factors and, ultimately, adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:21670745

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Childhood Period Nasopharynx Cancer

    Aktas, Elif; Sahin, Burcu; Ciledag, Nazan; Arda, Kemal Niyazi; Caglar, Emrah; Ilhan, Inci Ergurhan

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a rarely seen tumor in childhood. It is mostly detected late as the clinical features are similar to other childhood tumors which affect the nasopharynx and adenoidal hypertrophy. Therefore, the radiological features of childhood tumors of the nasopharynx must be well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of MR imaging features of childhood nasopharynx cancer. The study included 10 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients under the age of 18 years who presented at hospital between February 2008 and March 2014 and who had tissue diagnosis and MRI of the nasopharynx region. The MRI scans were evaluated by two radiologists. Loco-regional spread, asymmetry, signal intensity of the tumors, and lymph nodes were evaluated. In all the patients there was a mass which narrowed the nasopharynx. In all cases, unilateral mastoid opacification was observed. In 9 cases (90%), parapharyngeal extension was found. In 8 cases (80%), the mass showed an extension into the nasal cavity or oropharynx. In 5 cases (50%), there was an involvement of the skull base. In 3 patients (30%), an extension to the masticator space and pterygopalatine fossa was found. There were enlarged cervical lymph nodes bilaterally in 10 cases (100%). In 4 cases (40%), a lateral retropharyngeal lymph node was detected. Childhood nasopharyngeal cancers are often diagnosed at an advanced stage. MR imaging can be helpful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of childhood nasopharynx cancer from other diseases of the nasopharynx

  13. Pathways Linking Childhood SES and Adult Health Behaviors and Psychological Resources in Black and White Men.

    Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Cundiff, Jenny M; Jakubowski, Karen P; Pardini, Dustin A; Matthews, Karen A

    2018-03-13

    Exposure to low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood predicts increased morbidity and mortality. However, little prospective evidence is available to test pathways linking low childhood SES to adult health. In the current study, indirect effects through positive parenting in adolescence and adult SES were tested in the association between childhood SES and adult health behaviors and psychological resources. Men (n = 305; 53% Black) were followed longitudinally from ages 7 to 32. SES was measured annually in childhood (ages 7-9) and again in adulthood (age 32) using the Hollingshead index. Parenting was assessed annually (ages 13-16) using caregivers' and boys' self-report of supervision, communication, and expectations for their son's future. Health behaviors (cigarette and alcohol use, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity) and psychological resources (optimism, purpose in life, self-mastery, and self-esteem) were assessed in adulthood (age 32). Structural equation modeling showed that higher childhood SES was associated with more positive parenting in adolescence and higher adult SES. Higher childhood SES was indirectly associated with healthier behaviors and higher psychological resources in adulthood through pathways involving positive parenting during adolescence and SES in adulthood. Findings were consistent in both racial groups. Positive parenting in adolescence was an important pathway in understanding associations among childhood SES and health behaviors and psychological resources in adulthood. Low childhood SES was prospectively associated with healthier behaviors and greater psychological resources in part through more positive parenting in adolescence.

  14. Adversity in childhood linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood.

    Egerton, Alice; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Howes, Oliver D; Day, Fern; Chaddock, Christopher A; Allen, Paul; Winton-Brown, Toby T; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Chilcott, Jack; Lappin, Julia M; Murray, Robin M; McGuire, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Childhood adversity increases the risk of psychosis in adulthood. Theoretical and animal models suggest that this effect may be mediated by increased striatal dopamine neurotransmission. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between adversity in childhood and striatal dopamine function in early adulthood. Secondary objectives were to compare exposure to childhood adversity and striatal dopamine function in young people at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis and healthy volunteers. Sixty-seven young adults, comprising 47 individuals at UHR for psychosis and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited from the same geographic area and were matched for age, gender and substance use. Presynaptic dopamine function in the associative striatum was assessed using 18F-DOPA positron emission tomography. Childhood adversity was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse questionnaire. Within the sample as a whole, both severe physical or sexual abuse (T63=2.92; P=0.005), and unstable family arrangements (T57=2.80; P=0.007) in childhood were associated with elevated dopamine function in the associative striatum in adulthood. Comparison of the UHR and volunteer subgroups revealed similar incidence of childhood adverse experiences, and there was no significant group difference in dopamine function. This study provides evidence that childhood adversity is linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Interrelated Processes toward Quality of Life in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Grounded Theory

    Tsonis, Miranda; McDougall, Janette; Mandich, Angela; Irwin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Past research has not adequately addressed the quality of life (QOL) of survivors of childhood cancer. The purpose of this study was to understand how QOL is experienced for individuals who have survived childhood cancer. Specific research questions included: (a) How do childhood cancer survivors define the concept of QOL and (b) What processes do…

  16. Delivery by Cesarean Section and risk of childhood cancer

    Momen, Natalie; Olsen, Jørn; Gissler, Mika

    -2006) and a randomly selected sample of 90% of children born in Finland (1987-2007) (N=7,029,843). Children were followed-up from birth, until the first of the following: date of cancer diagnosis, death, emigration, end of 15th year or end of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to obtain hazard...... was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.99, 1.11) for all cancer diagnoses. No significant associations were seen for elective or emergent CS. Elevated risks were seen for some cancer subtypes (for example testis) but none reached statistical significance. Conclusions The results...... suggest CS does not influence overall childhood cancer risk. We did not see any difference between the two types of CS. Additionally it was not strongly associated with any specific childhood cancer, but power was limited for some types. Considering the high CS rates, even a small increase in risk...

  17. Supplemental folic acid in pregnancy and childhood cancer risk

    Mortensen, Jan Helge Seglem; Øyen, Nina; Fomina, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Background:We investigated the association between supplemental folic acid in pregnancy and childhood cancer in a nation-wide study of 687 406 live births in Norway, 1999-2010, and 799 children diagnosed later with cancer.Methods:Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) compared cancer risk in children...... by approximated periconceptional folic acid levels (folic acid tablets and multivitamins (0.6 mg), only folic acid (0.4 mg), only multivitamins (0.2 mg)) and cancer risk in unexposed.Results:Any folic acid levels were not associated with leukemia (e.g., high-level folic acid HR 1.25; 95% CI 0.89-1.76, P Trend 0.......90).Conclusions:Folic acid supplementation was not associated with risk of major childhood cancers....

  18. Further statement on the incidence of childhood cancer in Wales

    1999-01-01

    In March 1999 the Welsh Office asked COMARE to examine two unpublished studies. The first by Busby et al of ''Green Audit'' concluded that there was a significant excess of childhood leukaemia in North Wales associated with residential proximity to the coast. The second study, carried out by Steward et al of the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit (WCISU), did not support this conclusion. We were asked to advise as to whether we considered that there was a real raised incidence of childhood leukaemia near the coast of North Wales and whether further study was required. To do this we initially organised a comparison of the figures quoted by both the Green Audit and WCISU with the database held by the Childhood Cancer Research Group (CCRG) in Oxford. This group maintains the National Registry of Childhood Tumours (NRCT), data for which are supplied from a variety of sources including cancer registries but also directly from medical cancer specialists as well as from death certificates. As a consequence this provides an independent check on much of the data on childhood cancer held by cancer registries in Great Britain and is clinically validated. After carrying out the independent check on the number of cases of childhood leukaemia in these Welsh counties it was immediately apparent that the data held by Green Audit, on which the analysis by Busby et al was based, were incorrect. These data were received from the Welsh Cancer Registry (WCR) in 1995. A further data set was received from WCR in 1996 but was not used in the analysis by Busby et al. In June 1999 we issued a statement to the Welsh Office. In that statement we noted that Dr Busby and his colleagues appeared to have used erroneous data in their study. On the basis of the Steward et al data, COMARE also stated that we found no evidence to support the contention that there is an increased incidence of childhood leukaemia or other childhood cancers amongst the Welsh population living close to the

  19. The experience of fatherhood following childhood cancer survival.

    Agnew, Francis; Higgins, Aiveen; Casey, Maureen; McCarthy, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    This study explored the experience of becoming a father following childhood cancer survival. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five fathers and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three superordinate themes emerged: 'moving away from and revisiting the experience of cancer', 'making sense of fortune and loss following a life-threatening illness' and 'valuing the opportunity to be a father'. The transition to fatherhood brought unique and specific challenges to fathers. Nevertheless, all appeared to have positively adjusted to this transition. Findings recommended providing information and support to childhood survivors who wish to or who are about to become fathers.

  20. Do pregnancy characteristics contribute to rising childhood cancer incidence rates in the United States?

    Kehm, Rebecca D; Osypuk, Theresa L; Poynter, Jenny N; Vock, David M; Spector, Logan G

    2018-03-01

    Since 1975, childhood cancer incidence rates have gradually increased in the United States; however, few studies have conducted analyses across time to unpack this temporal rise. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that increasing cancer incidence rates are due to secular trends in pregnancy characteristics that are established risk factors for childhood cancer incidence including older maternal age, higher birthweight, and lower birth order. We also considered temporal trends in sociodemographic characteristics including race/ethnicity and poverty. We conducted a time series county-level ecologic analysis using linked population-based data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries (1975-2013), birth data from the National Center for Health Statistics (1970-2013), and sociodemographic data from the US Census (1970-2010). We estimated unadjusted and adjusted average annual percent changes (AAPCs) in incidence of combined (all diagnoses) and individual types of cancer among children, ages 0-4 years, from Poisson mixed models. There was a statistically significant unadjusted temporal rise in incidence of combined childhood cancers (AAPC = 0.71%; 95% CI = 0.55-0.86), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (0.78%; 0.49-1.07), acute myeloid leukemia (1.86%; 1.13-2.59), central nervous system tumors (1.31%; 0.94-1.67), and hepatoblastoma (2.70%; 1.68-3.72). Adjustment for county-level maternal age reduced estimated AAPCs between 8% (hepatoblastoma) and 55% (combined). However, adjustment for other county characteristics did not attenuate AAPCs, and AAPCs remained significantly above 0% in models fully adjusted for county-level characteristics. Although rising maternal age may account for some of the increase in childhood cancer incidence over time, other factors, not considered in this analysis, may also contribute to temporal trends. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Suboptimal Vitamin D levels among adult survivors of childhood cancers

    Denise A. Rokitka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Vitamin D plays an important role in many bodily systems, with increasing evidence suggesting its importance for the prevention of chronic diseases and cancer. The identification of vitamin D levels in childhood cancer survivors becomes, therefore, particularly relevant, given that optimizing levels may contribute to the prevention of secondary malignancies and chronic diseases.Methods: A cross - sectional analysis of serum 25 - hydroxyvitamin D levels among adult survivors of childhood cancers living in New York State and surrounding areas (n = 139 was performed. Independent variables included gender, race/ethnicity, cancer site, year of diagnosis, past medical and surgical history, prior radiation therapy; prior chemotherapy, age at diagnosis, age at last clinic visit, year of last clinic visit, height, weight, body mass index, and vitamin D supplementation.Results: Overall, 34% of survivors were vitamin D deficient (< 20 ng/ml, 39% were classified as insufficient (20 - 29 ng/ml and 27% (≥ 30 ng/ml were classified as having sufficient levels. Despite vitamin D supplementation among 41 patients, 68.3% continued to have insufficient or deficient levels. Participants with a BMI > 25 demonstrated lower levels of vitamin D (p < 0.05. Vitamin D levels did not vary by age group, race, ethnicity, diagnosis, or years since diagnosis.Conclusion: Given the growing awareness of the role of vitamin D and the documented late effects of treatment for childhood cancers, the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency within the childhood cancer survivor population is of concern. Vitamin D represents an important target for surveillance and intervention to help improve long - term outcomes of childhood cancer survivors.

  2. Trajectories of social isolation in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Howard, A Fuchsia; Tan de Bibiana, Jason; Smillie, Kirsten; Goddard, Karen; Pritchard, Sheila; Olson, Rob; Kazanjian, Arminee

    2014-03-01

    Long-term childhood cancer survivors may be at increased risk for poor social outcomes as a result of their cancer treatment, as well as physical and psychological health problems. Yet, important challenges, namely social isolation, are not well understood. Moreover, survivors' perspectives of social isolation as well as the ways in which this might evolve through young adulthood have yet to be investigated. The purpose of this research was to describe the trajectories of social isolation experienced by adult survivors of a childhood cancer. Data from 30 in-depth interviews with survivors (9 to 38 years after diagnosis, currently 22 to 43 years of age, 60 % women) were analyzed using qualitative, constant comparative methods. Experiences of social isolation evolved over time as survivors grew through childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Eleven survivors never experienced social isolation after their cancer treatment, nor to the present day. Social isolation among 19 survivors followed one of three trajectories; (1) diminishing social isolation: it got somewhat better, (2) persistent social isolation: it never got better or (3) delayed social isolation: it hit me later on. Knowledge of when social isolation begins and how it evolves over time for different survivors is an important consideration for the development of interventions that prevent or mitigate this challenge. Assessing and addressing social outcomes, including isolation, might promote comprehensive long-term follow-up care for childhood cancer survivors.

  3. Relationship between cancer-related traumatic stress and family milestone achievement in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Tillery, Rachel; Beal, Sarah J; Thompson, Aimee N; Pai, Ahna L H

    2018-06-01

    Late physical and emotional effects of cancer treatment pose a burden for adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer, including family milestone achievement. This brief report examined links between ongoing cancer-related post-traumatic stress symptoms (CR-PTSS) and family milestone achievement. Survivors (n = 51; M age  = 24.73, SD = 8.20) completed CR-PTSS and family formation questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, univariate parameter-constraints, and correlation analyses examined relations among study variables. Ongoing intrusive thoughts and hyperarousal were negatively linked to family identity development and family achievement. Findings from the present study provide support that ongoing CR-PTSS may be a barrier to family formation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Increased risk of antidepressant use in childhood cancer survivors

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, J.F.; Cederkvist, L

    2015-01-01

    to the National Prescription Drug Database, which worldwide is the oldest nationwide registry of prescription medication. Hazard ratios (HRs) for antidepressant use were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on sex, with population comparisons as referents. RESULTS: Overall, childhood cancer......AIM: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of both somatic and mental late effects, but large population-based studies of depression are lacking. METHODS: Risk of antidepressant use was evaluated in a population-based cohort of 5452 Danish children treated for cancer in 1975-2009 by linkage....... Increased HRs of 30-50% were seen for survivors of cancers of all main groups (haematological malignancies, central nervous system (CNS) and solid tumors); the highest risk was among children treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1). Our data suggested that the risk...

  5. Trajectories of social isolation in adult survivors of childhood cancer

    Howard, A. Fuchsia; Tan de Bibiana, Jason; Smillie, Kirsten; Goddard, Karen; Pritchard, Sheila; Olson, Rob; Kazanjian, Arminee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Long-term childhood cancer survivors may be at increased risk for poor social outcomes as a result of their cancer treatment, as well as physical and psychological health problems. Yet, important challenges, namely social isolation, are not well understood. Moreover, survivors' perspectives of social isolation as well as the ways in which this might evolve through young adulthood have yet to be investigated. The purpose of this research was to describe the trajectories of social isola...

  6. Parental knowledge of fertility in male childhood cancer survivors

    van den Berg, Henk; Langeveld, Nelia E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In childhood, cancer survivors fertility is a major point of concern. In boys, only semen analysis and impregnation confirm fertility. Since parents constitute a major source of information for children, we investigated recall and assumptions on their child's fertility. PROCEDURE: One

  7. Endocrine disorders in childhood cancer survivors: More answers, more questions

    Clement, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of pediatric malignancies has advanced substantially over the past several decades, resulting in a rapidly growing group of long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Improved survival leads to an increasing number of individuals who may be at increased risk of substantial morbidity and

  8. Evaluation of a patient information website for childhood cancer survivors

    Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Versluys, A. Birgitta; Braam, Katja I.; Mud, Minke S.; van der Pal, Heleen J.; Caron, Huib N.; Jaspers, Monique W.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are in need of specialized information about late effects of treatment. In the current study, we assessed the perceived usability and satisfaction with the content of a national website with information on late effects and analyzed possible determinants related to

  9. Quality of life of childhood cancer survivors: handicaps and benefits

    Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.; Vlčková, I.; Jelínek, Martin; Tóthová, K.; Pilát, M.; Slezáčková, Alena; Sobotková, Veronika; Bartošová, Kateřina; Hrstková, H.; Štěrba, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2011), s. 112-125 ISSN 0009-062X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : childhood cancer survivors * quality of life * psycho-oncology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.087, year: 2011

  10. Risk of subsequent gastrointestinal cancer among childhood cancer survivors : A systematic review

    Teepen, Jop C.; de Vroom, Suzanne L.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Tissing, Wim J.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Ronckers, Cecile M.

    Background: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at increased risk of developing subsequent malignant neoplasms, including gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. We performed a systematic review to summarize all available literature on the risk of, risk factors for, and outcome after subsequent GI cancer

  11. Exploring the Possible Link between Childhood and Adolescent Bestiality and Interpersonal Violence

    Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E.; Singer, Stephen D.

    2006-01-01

    Bestiality is a serious although less frequently occurring form of animal cruelty that may be linked to subsequent aggression against humans. This investigation examines whether a perpetrator's race, childhood residence, education, commission of a personal crime, and the number of personal crimes committed affects acts of bestiality committed…

  12. Metabolic syndrome induced by anticancer treatment in childhood cancer survivors.

    Chueh, Hee Won; Yoo, Jae Ho

    2017-06-01

    The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology.

  13. Folic acid, one-carbon metabolism & childhood cancer

    Nirmalya Roy Moulik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Folate has been studied in relation to many diseases, especially cancer. Although it has been postulated to exert a dual effect on development of cancer, its role remains to be clearly defined. Its effect on cancer is the result of gene-nutrient interaction between the genes in folate metabolic pathway and dietary folate availability; mutations in genes of folate metabolism have been shown to alter individual susceptibility to certain childhood cancers as well as response to cancer chemotherapy. Although mandatory fortification of food items with folate has been initiated in some countries, many countries are yet to adopt this due to concerns about undesired adverse effects of high folate levels on health, especially cancer. However, initial reports suggest that folate fortification has led to reduction in incidence of certain childhood cancers such as neuroblastoma, wilms tumour and leukaemias. Despite studies showing folate depletion during antifolate chemotherapy and higher toxicity of chemotherapy in folate-depleted individuals, folate supplementation during cancer chemotherapy is not routinely recommended. Studies investigating the precise effect of folate supplementation during chemotherapy on both short- and long-term outcomes of cancer are needed to arrive at a consensus guideline.

  14. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  15. A DRD1 polymorphism predisposes to lung cancer among those exposed to secondhand smoke during childhood.

    Robles, Ana I; Yang, Ping; Jen, Jin; McClary, Andrew C; Calhoun, Kara; Bowman, Elise D; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Greathouse, K Leigh; Wang, Yi; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Deng, Bo; Schwartz, Ann G; Ryan, Bríd M

    2014-12-01

    Lung cancer has a familial component which suggests a genetic contribution to its etiology. Given the strong evidence linking smoking with lung cancer, we studied miRNA-related loci in genes associated with smoking behavior. CHRNA, CHRNB gene families, CYP2A6, and DRD1 (dopamine receptor D1) were mined for SNPs that fell within the seed region of miRNA binding sites and then tested for associations with risk in a three-stage validation approach. A 3'UTR (untranslated region) SNP in DRD1 was associated with a lower risk of lung cancer among individuals exposed to secondhand smoke during childhood [OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60-0.79; P secondhand smoke and heterogeneity between individuals in regard to their susceptibility to the effects of secondhand smoke, our data show an interaction between an SNP in the 3'UTR of DRD1 and exposure to secondhand smoke during childhood. Further work is needed to explore the mechanistic underpinnings of this SNP and the nature of the interaction between DRD1 and exposure to secondhand smoke during childhood. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Positive and negative outcomes of childhood cancer: is there a connection between posttraumatic stress and growth in childhood cancer survivors?

    Koutná, Veronika; Blatný, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-15 E-ISSN 2375-1924 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : posttraumatic stress * posttraumatic growth * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) http://journals.ke-i.org/index.php/mra/article/view/1665/1635

  17. Positive and negative outcomes of childhood cancer: is there a connection between posttraumatic stress and growth in childhood cancer survivors?

    Koutná, Veronika; Blatný, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-15 E-ISSN 2375-1924 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : posttraumatic stress * posttraumatic growth * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) http://journals.ke-i.org/index. php /mra/article/view/1665/1635

  18. Primary thyroid cancer after a first tumour in childhood (the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study): a nested case-control study

    Sigurdson, Alice J.; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Mertens, Ann C.; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A.; Liu, Yan; Berkow, Roger L.; Hammond, Sue; Neglia, Joseph P.; Meadows, Anna T.; Sklar, Charles A.; Robison, Leslie L.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    Survivors of malignant disease in childhood who have had radiotherapy to the head, neck, or upper thorax have an increased risk of subsequent primary thyroid cancer, but the magnitude of risk over the therapeutic dose range has not been well established. We aimed to quantify the long-term risk of

  19. Late endocrine effects of cancer and cancer therapies in survivors of childhood malignancies.

    Marques, Pedro; Van Huellen, Hans; Fitzpatrick, Ailbhe; Druce, Maralyn

    2016-03-01

    The development of several cancer treatment modalities including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy has improved the survival rates of childhood cancers over recent decades, leading to an increase in the population of childhood cancer survivors. Detailed epidemiological studies have demonstrated that childhood cancer survivors frequently develop medical complications months or years after cancer treatment. Endocrine complications are common in survivors, particularly those exposed to radiotherapy, total body irradiation and alkylating agents, and may involve dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axes, gonads, thyroid gland, bone and body composition as well as metabolic abnormalities. Early identification and proper management of these disorders can significantly improve the quality of life and reduce the morbidity and potentially mortality in this population. Multidisciplinary teams, expert physicians and the development of healthcare structures are key elements for improving the screening, surveillance, cost effectiveness and overall management of endocrine late effects of cancer therapies in childhood cancer survivors. The aim of the present review was to discuss the most important and common late endocrine effects of childhood cancer treatment.

  20. Portrayal of childhood cancer in English language magazines in North America: 1970-2001.

    Clarke, Juanne

    2005-01-01

    This article is a content and discourse analysis of the portrayal of childhood cancer in English language magazines in North America. In a unique specification of published research on the media portrayal of disease, magazines were divided into three market or audience groupings called (1) science, (2) news/special interest, and (3) other (women/teen/parenting/health). The predominate frames or discoursesin these three groups were compared and differences were found amongst them and discussed in the article. Considerable evidence suggests that people with cancer are stigmatized. In the analyzed media focused on children, those with cancer are highly idealized and stereotyped. On the one hand, this can be thought of as a very positive portrayal of children in this situation. Children are described as if they possess heroic and idealized character traits, appearances, social characteristics, and personalities. Possible links between this idealized, polarized, and biased portrayal of children with cancer and their documented experiences of stigma are discussed.

  1. [A childhood and adolescence cancer survivors' association: Les Aguerris].

    Ly, Kai Yan; Vélius, Élodie; Pitot, Maxime; Rivieri, Lionel; Dupont, Morvan

    2015-01-01

    In France, we can estimate that 50,000 adults are childhood or adolescence cancer survivors. Not all of them will experience late effects but they should be informed about their previous disease and should get a detailed summary of treatment information including a personal plan for late effects screening. They also should have access to appropriate follow-up care including detection and treatment of late effects and provision of support and advice. From a follow-up clinic experience, the need of a survivor association has emerged and "Les Aguerris" has been created with several objectives: to improve the quality of life of survivors providing them information about the possible physical, social and psychological consequences of childhood cancer, to raise awareness of public authorities and other actors on questions regarding the need of long-term follow-up of the patients in dedicated clinics, to support researches about late effects of cancer and treatments and to create a network of adult survivors of childhood cancer in relation with other European survivors or parents associations. This paper describes the activities of the association to fulfill its objectives and the annual national meetings they are organizing. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Offspring of patients treated for cancer in childhood

    Li, F.P.; Fine, W.; Jaffe, N.; Holmes, G.E.; Holmes, F.F.

    1979-01-01

    Genetic effects of cancer in childhood were examined among offspring of patients enrolled in the tumor registries of the Sidney Farber Cancer Institute and the Kansas University Medical Center. For 146 patients, 84 women and 62 men, 293 pregnancies were reported after cessation of treatment of diverse neoplasms. The outcomes of 286 completed pregnancies were as follows: 242 live births (1 set of twins), 1 stillbirth, 25 spontaneous abortions, and 19 therapeutic abortions. Seven live-born infants died during the first 2 years of life, a frequency in accord with expectation. Two offspring have developed cancer. One girl and her father had bilateral hereditary retinoblastoma. A second girl developed acute myelocytic leukemia; her mother had received radiotherapy during childhood for a brain tumor. Compared with their cousins and with published figures for the general population, the study progeny had no excess of congenital anomalles or other diseases. Chromosome and immunoglobulin studies of a few offspring did not reveal damage from preconception exposure to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Findings indicated that large collaborative studies are needed to monitor the offspring of childhood cancer survivors for inherited traits associated with the parental tumors and for mutagenic effects of therapy, particularly intense multimodality treatments

  3. Ovarian and Uterine Functions in Female Survivors of Childhood Cancers.

    Oktem, Ozgur; Kim, Samuel S; Selek, Ugur; Schatmann, Glenn; Urman, Bulent

    2018-02-01

    Adult survivors of childhood cancers are more prone to developing poor reproductive and obstetrical outcomes than their siblings and the general population as a result of previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation during childhood. Chemotherapy drugs exert cytotoxic effects systemically and therefore can damage the ovaries, leading to infertility, premature ovarian failure, and, to a lesser extent, spontaneous abortions. They have very limited or no deleterious effects on the uterus that can be recognized clinically. By contrast, radiation is detrimental to both the ovaries and the uterus, thereby causing a greater magnitude of adverse effects on the female reproductive function. These include infertility, premature ovarian failure, miscarriage, fetal growth restrictions, perinatal deaths, preterm births, delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants, preeclampsia, and abnormal placentation. Regrettably, the majority of these adverse outcomes arise from radiation-induced uterine injury and are reported at higher incidence in the adult survivors of childhood cancers who were exposed to uterine radiation during childhood in the form of pelvic, spinal, or total-body irradiation. Recent findings of long-term follow-up studies evaluating reproductive performance of female survivors provided some reassurance to female cancer survivors by documenting that pregnancy and live birth rates were not significantly compromised in survivors, including those who had been treated with alkylating agents and had not received pelvic, cranial, and total-body irradiation. We aimed in this narrative review article to provide an update on the impact of chemotherapy and radiation on the ovarian and uterine function in female survivors of childhood cancer. Adult survivors of childhood cancers are more prone to developing a number of poor reproductive and obstetrical outcomes than their siblings and the general population as a result of previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation

  4. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: A prospective cohort study

    D.W. Brown (David); R.F. Anda (Robert); V.J. Felitti (Vincent); V.J. Edwards (Valerie); A.M. Malarcher (Ann Marie); J.B. Croft (Janet); W.H. Giles (Wayne)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Strong relationships between exposure to childhood traumatic stressors and smoking behaviours inspire the question whether these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer during adulthood. Methods. Baseline survey data on health

  5. Radiation therapy in the management of childhood cancer

    Kun, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two decades, multimodality treatment regimens have produced significant improvement in survival rates for most types of childhood cancer. The role of radiation therapy has been critically evaluated in prospective clinical trials that established the importance of irradiation in assuring local and regional control of disease central to ultimate survival. Indications for cranial and craniospinal irradiation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia are reviewed, as is difficult technical factors important for successful management. The role of radiation therapy in neuroblastoma and Wilms tumor is reviewed in the context of tumor biology and increasing data from multi-institutional trials. Interactions of irradiation with surgery and chemotherapy are stressed in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. Current results in the more common central nervous tumors of childhood are presented, including the central role of radiation therapy in medulloblastoma, astrocytoma, and craniopharyngioma. Concerns regarding late effects of radiation therapy are balanced with the importance of achieving disease control

  6. Predicting Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancers from incoming data

    Thomas, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Data on childhood thyroid cancers contracted in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia's Bryansk and Kaluga regions have been analysed under the working hypothesis that the excess cancers have been caused by iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout. It is postulated that the variation in latency period between different individuals is most likely to conform to either a normal or a normal logarithmic distribution. Optimal values of the mean and geometric mean latency period, together with their associated standard deviations, have been found using Belarus data. Both resulting distributions predict significant incidence of childhood thyroid cancer much earlier than ten years after the accident, a length of time widely understood in the past to be the approximate minimum for the development of a radiation-induced, solid tumour. The two distributions incorporating these optimal values have been tested against independent data from the Ukraine and Russian and each distribution has passed the statistical tests to date. Predictions are given for the annual incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in each country and for the total number of excess cases over all years. Tolerances are assigned to the latter figure. (Author)

  7. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management.

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K

    2015-09-01

    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors' nutritional intake as well as how survivors' nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Breast Cancer Risk in Childhood Cancer Survivors Without a History of Chest Radiotherapy: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Chou, Joanne F.; Bradbury, Angela R.; Neglia, Joseph Phillip; Dang, Chau T.; Onel, Kenan; Novetsky Friedman, Danielle; Bhatia, Smita; Strong, Louise C.; Stovall, Marilyn; Kenney, Lisa B.; Barnea, Dana; Lorenzi, Elena; Hammond, Sue; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Robison, Leslie L.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Diller, Lisa R.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the breast cancer risk among childhood cancer survivors who did not receive chest radiotherapy. We sought to determine the magnitude of risk and associated risk factors for breast cancer among these women. Patients and Methods We evaluated cumulative breast cancer risk in 3,768 female childhood cancer survivors without a history of chest radiotherapy who were participants in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Results With median follow up of 25.5 years (range, 8 to 39 years), 47 women developed breast cancer at a median age of 38.0 years (range, 22 to 47 years) and median of 24.0 years (range, 10 to 34 years) from primary cancer to breast cancer. A four-fold increased breast cancer risk (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 4.0; 95% CI, 3.0 to 5.3) was observed when compared with the general population. Risk was highest among sarcoma and leukemia survivors (SIR = 5.3; 95% CI, 3.6 to 7.8 and SIR = 4.1; 95% CI, 2.4 to 6.9, respectively). By the age of 45 years, the cumulative incidence of breast cancer in sarcoma and leukemia survivors was 5.8% (95% CI, 3.7 to 8.4) and 6.3% (95% CI, 3.0 to 11.3), respectively. No other primary cancer diagnosis was associated with an elevated risk. Alkylators and anthracyclines were associated with an increased breast cancer risk in a dose-dependent manner (P values from test for trend were both < .01). Conclusions Women not exposed to chest radiotherapy who survive childhood sarcoma or leukemia have an increased risk of breast cancer at a young age. The data suggest high-dose alkylator and anthracycline chemotherapy increase the risk of breast cancer. This may suggest a possible underlying gene-environment interaction that warrants further study. PMID:26700127

  9. Adverse Childhood Experiences Are Linked to Age of Onset and Reading Recognition in Multiple Sclerosis

    Michael T. Shaw

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAdverse childhood experiences (ACEs exert a psychological and physiological toll that increases risk of chronic conditions, poorer social functioning, and cognitive impairment in adulthood.ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between childhood adversity and clinical disease features in multiple sclerosis (MS.MethodsSixty-seven participants with MS completed the ACE assessment and neuropsychological assessments as part of a larger clinical trial of cognitive remediation.ResultsAdverse childhood experience scores, a measure of exposure to adverse events in childhood, significantly predicted age of MS onset (r = –0.30, p = 0.04. ACEs were also linked to reading recognition (a proxy for premorbid IQ (r = –0.25, p = 0.04. ACE scores were not related to age, current disability, or current level of cognitive impairment measured by the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT.ConclusionChildhood adversity may increase the likelihood of earlier age of onset and poorer estimated premorbid IQ in MS.

  10. Cerebrovascular Diseases in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Role of the Radiation Dose to Willis Circle Arteries

    El-Fayech, Chiraz; Haddy, Nadia; Allodji, Rodrigue Sètchéou; Veres, Cristina; Diop, Fara; Kahlouche, Amar; Llanas, Damien; Jackson, Angela; Rubino, Carole; Guibout, Catherine [Inserm U1018, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); University of Paris XI, Villejuif (France); Pacquement, Hélène [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Oberlin, Odile [Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Thomas-Teinturier, Cécile [Inserm U1018, Villejuif (France); Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre (France); Scarabin, Pierre-Yves [Inserm U1018, Villejuif (France); Chavaudra, Jean; Lefkopoulos, Dimitry [Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Giroud, Maurice; Bejot, Yannick [Registre Dijonnais des accidents vasculaires cérébraux, Dijon (France); Bernier, Valérie [Centre Alexis Vautrin, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Carrie, Christian [Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France); and others

    2017-02-01

    Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of radiation dose received to the circle of Willis (WC) during radiation therapy (RT) and of potential dose-response modifiers on the risk of stroke after treatment of childhood cancer. Methods: We evaluated the risk factors for stroke in a cohort of 3172 5-year survivors of childhood cancer who were followed up for a median time of 26 years. Radiation doses to the WC and brain structures were estimated for each of the 2202 children who received RT. Results: Fifty-four patients experienced a confirmed stroke; 39 were ischemic. Patients not receiving RT had a stroke risk similar to that of the general population, whereas those who received RT had an 8.5-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.3-11.0). The excess of incidence of stroke increased yearly. The dose of radiation to the WC, rather than to other brain structures, was found to be the best predictor of stroke. The relative risk was 15.7 (95% CI: 4.9-50.2) for doses of 40 Gy or more. At 45 years of age, the cumulative stroke incidence was 11.3% (95% CI: 7.1%-17.7%) in patients who received 10 Gy or more to the WC, compared with 1% expected from general population data. Radiation doses received to the heart and neck also increased the risk. Surgery for childhood brain cancer was linked to hemorrhagic strokes in these patients. Conclusion: The WC should be considered as a major organ at risk during RT for childhood brain cancers. The incidence of radiation-induced ischemic stroke strongly increases with long-term follow-up.

  11. Cerebrovascular Diseases in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Role of the Radiation Dose to Willis Circle Arteries

    El-Fayech, Chiraz; Haddy, Nadia; Allodji, Rodrigue Sètchéou; Veres, Cristina; Diop, Fara; Kahlouche, Amar; Llanas, Damien; Jackson, Angela; Rubino, Carole; Guibout, Catherine; Pacquement, Hélène; Oberlin, Odile; Thomas-Teinturier, Cécile; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Chavaudra, Jean; Lefkopoulos, Dimitry; Giroud, Maurice; Bejot, Yannick; Bernier, Valérie; Carrie, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of radiation dose received to the circle of Willis (WC) during radiation therapy (RT) and of potential dose-response modifiers on the risk of stroke after treatment of childhood cancer. Methods: We evaluated the risk factors for stroke in a cohort of 3172 5-year survivors of childhood cancer who were followed up for a median time of 26 years. Radiation doses to the WC and brain structures were estimated for each of the 2202 children who received RT. Results: Fifty-four patients experienced a confirmed stroke; 39 were ischemic. Patients not receiving RT had a stroke risk similar to that of the general population, whereas those who received RT had an 8.5-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.3-11.0). The excess of incidence of stroke increased yearly. The dose of radiation to the WC, rather than to other brain structures, was found to be the best predictor of stroke. The relative risk was 15.7 (95% CI: 4.9-50.2) for doses of 40 Gy or more. At 45 years of age, the cumulative stroke incidence was 11.3% (95% CI: 7.1%-17.7%) in patients who received 10 Gy or more to the WC, compared with 1% expected from general population data. Radiation doses received to the heart and neck also increased the risk. Surgery for childhood brain cancer was linked to hemorrhagic strokes in these patients. Conclusion: The WC should be considered as a major organ at risk during RT for childhood brain cancers. The incidence of radiation-induced ischemic stroke strongly increases with long-term follow-up.

  12. Late somatic sequelae after treatment of childhood cancer in Slovenia

    Erman Nuša

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This is a long-term follow-up clinical study of adolescents and adults, survivors of childhood cancer. We evaluate and analyze the late somatic sequelae of childhood cancer treatment. Many such studies are susceptible to a strong selection bias, i.e., they employ a limited non-systematic sample of patients, based on a clinical hospital that provided the cancer treatment or performed the follow-up. To address the issue of selection bias, we perform here an analysis of late sequelae on a systematic database of the entire population of the children treated for cancer in Slovenia. Due to the specifics of cancer treatment procedures in Slovenia, they have all been treated and followed-up in the same clinic. Methods The data are based on the centralized registry of cancer patients in Slovenia and present a controlled and homogeneous collection. Late sequelae are evaluated following a modified CTCAE, i.e., the National Cancer Institute’s Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. We use survival analysis method to estimate the incidence of and risk for late sequelae, where the time variable is measured in years from the diagnosis date, while we follow the event of incidence of late sequelae scored other than none. Survival analysis is performed using KaplanMeier estimator and Cox regression model. Results The incidence of mild, moderate, or severe late sequelae of childhood cancer treatment significantly decreased from 75% in the group of patients diagnosed before 1975 to 55% for those diagnosed after 1995. The Cox regression analysis of the risk factors for the incidence of late sequelae identifies three significant factors: treatment modalities, age at diagnosis, and primary diagnosis. Conclusions The change of treatment modalities in terms of replacement of surgery and radiotherapy with chemotherapy is the main reason for the decrease of the incidence and the risk for late sequelae of childhood cancer treatment

  13. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for cancers in childhood

    Leseur, J.; Le Prise, E.; Leseur, J.; Carrie, C.; Beneyton, V.; Bernier, V.; Beneyton, V.; Mahee, M.A.; Supiot, S.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 40-50% of children with cancer will be irradiated during their treatment. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (I.M.R.T.) by linear accelerator or helical tomo-therapy improves dose distribution in target volumes and normal tissue sparing. This technology could be particularly useful for pediatric patients to achieve an optimal dose distribution in complex volumes close to critical structures. The use of I.M.R.T. can increase the volume of tissue receiving low-dose radiation, and consequently carcinogenicity in childhood population with a good overall survival and long period of life expectancy. This review will present the current and potential I.M.R.T. indications for cancers in childhood, and discuss the benefits and problems of this technology aiming to define recommendations in the use of I.M.R.T. and specific doses constraints in Pediatrics. (authors)

  14. Linking Temperamental Shyness and Social Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescence: Moderating Influences of Sex and Age.

    Tsui, Tiffany Y L; Lahat, Ayelet; Schmidt, Louis A

    2017-10-01

    Although childhood shyness has been linked to social anxiety problems, the factors playing a role in this association have gone largely unexplored. Here we examined the potential moderating roles of sex and age on this relation in a sample of 119 (75 girls) children (10-12 years) and adolescents (14-16 years). As predicted, shyness was positively associated with social anxiety symptoms. Sex, but not age, served as a moderating factor in linking shyness and social anxiety. Specifically, shyness was more strongly associated with social anxiety symptoms among girls than boys. These results suggest the importance of considering sex differences when examining the relation between shyness and social anxiety in childhood and adolescence.

  15. Reproductive Late Effects in Female Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Gnaneswaran, Shivany; Deans, Rebecca; Cohn, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood cancer treatments can cause female reproductive late effects. Radiation to the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is associated with altered menarche, miscarriage, and implantation failure. Patients who receive chemotherapy and/or ovarian radiation are at risk of premature ovarian failure; the risk increases with increasing radiation dose, alkylating agent score, combination therapy, and older age at treatment. Ovarian reserve may be assessed using antimullerian hormone assay and u...

  16. Individual Prediction of Heart Failure Among Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Chow, Eric J.; Chen, Yan; Kremer, Leontien C.; Breslow, Norman E.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Border, William L.; Feijen, Elizabeth A.M.; Green, Daniel M.; Meacham, Lillian R.; Meeske, Kathleen A.; Mulrooney, Daniel A.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Sklar, Charles A.; Stovall, Marilyn; van der Pal, Helena J.; Weathers, Rita E.; Robison, Leslie L.; Yasui, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To create clinically useful models that incorporate readily available demographic and cancer treatment characteristics to predict individual risk of heart failure among 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Patients and Methods Survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) free of significant cardiovascular disease 5 years after cancer diagnosis (n = 13,060) were observed through age 40 years for the development of heart failure (ie, requiring medications or heart transplantation or leading to death). Siblings (n = 4,023) established the baseline population risk. An additional 3,421 survivors from Emma Children's Hospital (Amsterdam, the Netherlands), the National Wilms Tumor Study, and the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study were used to validate the CCSS prediction models. Results Heart failure occurred in 285 CCSS participants. Risk scores based on selected exposures (sex, age at cancer diagnosis, and anthracycline and chest radiotherapy doses) achieved an area under the curve of 0.74 and concordance statistic of 0.76 at or through age 40 years. Validation cohort estimates ranged from 0.68 to 0.82. Risk scores were collapsed to form statistically distinct low-, moderate-, and high-risk groups, corresponding to cumulative incidences of heart failure at age 40 years of 0.5% (95% CI, 0.2% to 0.8%), 2.4% (95% CI, 1.8% to 3.0%), and 11.7% (95% CI, 8.8% to 14.5%), respectively. In comparison, siblings had a cumulative incidence of 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1% to 0.5%). Conclusion Using information available to clinicians soon after completion of childhood cancer therapy, individual risk for subsequent heart failure can be predicted with reasonable accuracy and discrimination. These validated models provide a framework on which to base future screening strategies and interventions. PMID:25287823

  17. Hospital contact for mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings in Denmark

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, Jeanette; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are known to be at risk for long-term physical and mental effects. However, little is known about how cancers can affect mental health in the siblings of these patients. We aimed to assess the long-term risks of mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer...... and their siblings....

  18. Bleomycin-associated Lung Toxicity in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Zorzi, Alexandra P; Yang, Connie L; Dell, Sharon; Nathan, Paul C

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary disease is a significant morbidity among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to characterize the pulmonary dysfunction experienced by childhood cancer survivors treated with bleomycin. A cross-sectional analysis of pulmonary function testing (PFT) in survivors treated with bleomycin was preformed. The most recent posttherapy PFT was assessed. Spirometry and lung volumes were categorized as normal, restrictive, obstructive, or mixed. Diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) was categorized as normal or abnormal. PFT data of 143 survivors was analyzed. PFTs were performed a median of 2.3 years (interquartile range, 1.4 to 4.9) from completion of therapy. Spirometry was abnormal in 58 (41%), only 5 (9%) had respiratory symptoms. Forty-two (70%) had obstructive, 11 (18%) restrictive, and 5 (9%) mixed ventilatory defects. The majority of abnormalities were mild (91%). DLCO was abnormal in 27. Reductions were mild in 96%. Patients with a history of relapse were more likely to develop abnormalities in spirometry and/or DLCO (odds ratio=5.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-19.4, P=0.01; odds ratio=3.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-11.9, P=0.03). Asymptomatic abnormalities of PFT are common among childhood cancer survivors treated with bleomycin and associated with a history of relapse. Research studying the risk for clinical progression of this dysfunction is warranted.

  19. Molecular profiling of childhood cancer: Biomarkers and novel therapies.

    Saletta, Federica; Wadham, Carol; Ziegler, David S; Marshall, Glenn M; Haber, Michelle; McCowage, Geoffrey; Norris, Murray D; Byrne, Jennifer A

    2014-06-01

    Technological advances including high-throughput sequencing have identified numerous tumor-specific genetic changes in pediatric and adolescent cancers that can be exploited as targets for novel therapies. This review provides a detailed overview of recent advances in the application of target-specific therapies for childhood cancers, either as single agents or in combination with other therapies. The review summarizes preclinical evidence on which clinical trials are based, early phase clinical trial results, and the incorporation of predictive biomarkers into clinical practice, according to cancer type. There is growing evidence that molecularly targeted therapies can valuably add to the arsenal available for treating childhood cancers, particularly when used in combination with other therapies. Nonetheless the introduction of molecularly targeted agents into practice remains challenging, due to the use of unselected populations in some clinical trials, inadequate methods to evaluate efficacy, and the need for improved preclinical models to both evaluate dosing and safety of combination therapies. The increasing recognition of the heterogeneity of molecular causes of cancer favors the continued development of molecularly targeted agents, and their transfer to pediatric and adolescent populations.

  20. Familial Investigations of Childhood Cancer Predisposition

    2018-01-03

    Acute Leukemia; Adenomatous Polyposis; Adrenocortical Carcinoma; AML; BAP1 Tumor Predisposition Syndrome; Carney Complex; Choroid Plexus Carcinoma; Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; DICER1 Syndrome; Dyskeratosis Congenita; Emberger Syndrome; Familial Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Fanconi Anemia; Familial Cancer; Familial Wilms Tumor; Familial Neuroblastoma; GIST; Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer; Hereditary Paraganglioma-Pheochromocytoma Syndrome; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Juvenile Polyposis; Li-Fraumeni Syndrome; Lynch Syndrome; MDS; Melanoma Syndrome; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2; Neuroblastoma; Neurofibromatosis Type 1; Neurofibromatosis Type II; Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome; Non Hodgkin Lymphoma; Noonan Syndrome and Other Rasopathy; Overgrowth Syndromes; Pancreatic Cancer; Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome; Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma; PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome; Retinoblastoma; Rhabdoid Tumor Predisposition Syndrome; Rhabdomyosarcoma; Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome; Tuberous Sclerosis; Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

  1. HER2 Genetic Link to Breast Cancer

    When researchers discovered the HER2 gene's importance to breast cancer growth, this led to the development of trastuzumab and other treatments that have improved survival for women with HER2-positive breast cancer.

  2. The Linked CENTURY Study: linking three decades of clinical and public health data to examine disparities in childhood obesity.

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Gillman, Matthew W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kleinman, Ken P; Mariotti, Megan; Taveras, Elsie M

    2016-03-09

    Despite the need to identify the causes of disparities in childhood obesity, the existing epidemiologic studies of early life risk factors have several limitations. We report on the construction of the Linked CENTURY database, incorporating CENTURY (Collecting Electronic Nutrition Trajectory Data Using Records of Youth) Study data with birth certificates; and discuss the potential implications of combining clinical and public health data sources in examining the etiology of disparities in childhood obesity. We linked the existing CENTURY Study, a database of 269,959 singleton children from birth to age 18 years with measured heights and weights, with each child's Massachusetts birth certificate, which captures information on their mothers' pregnancy history and detailed socio-demographic information of both mothers and fathers. Overall, 74.2 % were matched, resulting in 200,343 children in the Linked CENTURY Study with 1,580,597 well child visits. Among this cohort, 94.0 % (188,334) of children have some father information available on the birth certificate and 60.9 % (121,917) of children have at least one other sibling in the dataset. Using maternal race/ethnicity from the birth certificate as an indicator of children's race/ethnicity, 75.7 % of children were white, 11.6 % black, 4.6 % Hispanic, and 5.7 % Asian. Based on socio-demographic information from the birth certificate, 20.0 % of mothers were non-US born, 5.9 % smoked during pregnancy, 76.3 % initiated breastfeeding, and 11.0 % of mothers had their delivery paid for by public health insurance. Using clinical data from the CENTURY Study, 22.7 % of children had a weight-for-length ≥ 95(th) percentile between 1 and 24 months and 12.0 % of children had a body mass index ≥ 95(th) percentile at ages 5 and 17 years. By linking routinely-collected data sources, it is possible to address research questions that could not be answered with either source alone. Linkage between a clinical

  3. GH replacement therapy and second neoplasms in adult survivors of childhood cancer: a retrospective study from a single institution.

    Brignardello, E; Felicetti, F; Castiglione, A; Fortunati, N; Matarazzo, P; Biasin, E; Sacerdote, C; Ricardi, U; Fagioli, F; Corrias, A; Arvat, E

    2015-02-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is the most common endocrine late effect observed in childhood cancer survivors (CCS) previously submitted to cranial irradiation. Radiation therapy can also increase the risk of second neoplasms (SNs). Since in previous studies GH replacement therapy was associated with increased incidence of neoplasia, we explored the association between SNs and GH replacement therapy in a cohort of CCS with GHD. Within the clinical cohort of CCS referred to the Transition Unit for Childhood Cancer Survivors of Turin between November 2001 and December 2012, we considered all patients who developed GHD as a consequence of cancer therapies. GHD was always diagnosed in childhood. To evaluate the quality of data, our cohort was linked to the Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont. GHD was diagnosed in 49 out of 310 CCS included in our clinical cohort. At least one SN was diagnosed in 14 patients, meningioma and basal cell carcinoma being the most common SNs. The cumulative incidence of SNs was similar in GH-treated and -untreated patients (8 SNs out of 26 GH-treated and 6 out of 23 GH-untreated patients; p = 0.331). Age, sex and paediatric cancer type had no impact on SNs development. In our CCS, GH replacement therapy does not seem to increase the risk of SNs. Anyway, independently from replacement therapy, in these patients we observed an elevated risk of SNs, possibly related to previous radiation therapy, which suggests the need of a close long-term follow-up.

  4. Domestic Radon and Childhood Cancer in Denmark

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.

    2008-01-01

    : We identified 2400 incident cases of leukemia, central nervous system tumor, and malignant lymphoma diagnosed in children between 1968 and 1994 in the Danish Cancer Registry. Control children (n = 6697) were selected from the Danish Central Population Registry. Radon levels in residences of children...

  5. Aspects of mental health dysfunction among survivors of childhood cancer.

    Fidler, Miranda M; Ziff, Oliver J; Wang, Sarra; Cave, Joshua; Janardhanan, Pradeep; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Mehta, Susan; Jenkinson, Helen; Frobisher, Clare; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2015-09-29

    Some previous studies have reported that survivors of childhood cancer are at an increased risk of developing long-term mental health morbidity, whilst others have reported that this is not the case. Therefore, we analysed 5-year survivors of childhood cancer using the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) to determine the risks of aspects of long-term mental health dysfunction. Within the BCCSS, 10 488 survivors completed a questionnaire that ascertained mental health-related information via 10 questions from the Short Form-36 survey. Internal analyses were conducted using multivariable logistic regression to determine risk factors for mental health dysfunction. External analyses were undertaken using direct standardisation to compare mental health dysfunction in survivors with UK norms. This study has shown that overall, childhood cancer survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of mental health dysfunction for 6/10 questions analysed compared to UK norms. Central nervous system (CNS) and bone sarcoma survivors reported the greatest dysfunction, compared to expected, with significant excess dysfunction in 10 and 6 questions, respectively; the excess ranged from 4.4-22.3% in CNS survivors and 6.9-15.9% in bone sarcoma survivors. Compared to expected, excess mental health dysfunction increased with attained age; this increase was greatest for reporting 'limitations in social activities due to health', where the excess rose from 4.5% to 12.8% in those aged 16-24 and 45+, respectively. Within the internal analyses, higher levels of educational attainment and socio-economic classification were protective against mental health dysfunction. Based upon the findings of this large population-based study, childhood cancer survivors report significantly higher levels of mental health dysfunction than those in the general population, where deficits were observed particularly among CNS and bone sarcoma survivors. Limitations were also observed to increase

  6. School attendance in childhood cancer survivors and their siblings.

    French, Amy E; Tsangaris, Elena; Barrera, Maru; Guger, Sharon; Brown, Robert; Urbach, Stacey; Stephens, Derek; Nathan, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    To investigate school absenteeism among childhood cancer survivors and their siblings and examine factors related to absenteeism in survivors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among consecutive cancer survivors attending a large pediatric cancer survivor clinic. Absenteeism rates were obtained for survivors and their closest in age sibling from school report cards. Absenteeism was compared with a population control group of 167752 students using 1-sample t tests. The Child Vulnerability Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and Behavior Assessment System for Children were administered to survivors. Univariate and multiple regression analyses assessed variables associated with days absent. One hundred thirty-one survivors (median age at assessment: 13.4 years, range 8.0-19.2; median age at diagnosis: 9.4 years, range 4.3-17.3) and 77 siblings (median age at assessment: 13 years, age range 7-18) participated. Survivors and siblings missed significantly more school days than the population control group (mean ± SD: 9.6 ± 9.2 and 9.9 ± 9.8 vs 5.0 ± 5.6 days, respectively, P sibling pairs (N = 77), there was no difference in absenteeism (9.6 ± 9.2 vs 9.9 ± 9.8 days, P = .85). Absenteeism in survivors was significantly associated with a low Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Physical Health Summary Score (P = .01). Parents' perception of their child's vulnerability and emotional and social functioning were not associated with absenteeism. Childhood cancer survivors and siblings miss more school than the general population. The only predictor of absenteeism in survivors is poor physical quality of health. More research should be devoted to school attendance and other outcomes in siblings of childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood body mass index and the risk of prostate cancer in adult men

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI...... to the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 3355 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Body mass index during childhood was positively associated with adult prostate cancer. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1...

  8. Thyroid Cancer after Childhood Exposure to External Radiation: An Updated Pooled Analysis of 12 Studies

    Veiga, Lene H. S.; Holmberg, Erik; Anderson, Harald; Pottern, Linda; Sadetzki, Siegal; Adams, M. Jacob; Sakata, Ritsu; Schneider, Arthur B.; Inskip, Peter; Bhatti, Parveen; Johansson, Robert; Neta, Gila; Shore, Roy; de Vathaire, Florent; Damber, Lena; Kleinerman, Ruth; Hawkins, Michael M.; Tucker, Margaret; Lundell, Marie; Lubin, Jay H.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have causally linked external thyroid radiation exposure in childhood with thyroid cancer. In 1995, investigators conducted relative risk analyses of pooled data from seven epidemiologic studies. Doses were mostly 50 Gy. We pooled data from 12 studies of thyroid cancer patients who were exposed to radiation in childhood (ages <20 years), more than doubling the data, including 1,070 (927 exposed) thyroid cancers and 5.3 million (3.4 million exposed) person-years. Relative risks increased supralinearly through 2–4 Gy, leveled off between 10–30 Gy and declined thereafter, remaining significantly elevated above 50 Gy. There was a significant relative risk trend for doses <0.10 Gy (P < 0.01), with no departure from linearity (P = 0.36). We observed radiogenic effects for both papillary and nonpapillary tumors. Estimates of excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) were homogeneous by sex (P = 0.35) and number of radiation treatments (P = 0.84) and increased with decreasing age at the time of exposure. The ERR/Gy estimate was significant within ten years of radiation exposure, 2.76 (95% CI, 0.94–4.98), based on 42 exposed cases, and remained elevated 50 years and more after exposure. Finally, exposure to chemotherapy was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, with results supporting a nonsynergistic (additive) association with radiation. PMID:27128740

  9. Gender differences in the link between childhood socioeconomic conditions and heart attack risk in adulthood.

    Hamil-Luker, Jenifer; O'Rand, Angela M

    2007-02-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is predictive of disease risk in later life, with those from the most disadvantaged backgrounds more likely to experience poor adult-health outcomes. Most of these studies, however are based on middle-aged male populations and pay insufficient attention to the pathways between childhood risks and specific adult disorders. This article examines gender differences in the link between childhood SES and heart attack risk trajectories and the mechanisms by which early environments affect future disease risk. By using methods that model both latent and path-specific influences, we identify heterogeneity in early life conditions and human, social, and health capital in adulthood that contribute to diverse heart attack risk trajectories between and among men and women as they age into their 60s and 70s. We find that key risk factors for heart attack operate differently for men and women. For men, childhood SES does not differentiate those at low, increasing, and high risk for heart attack. In contrast, women who grew up without a father and/or under adverse economic conditions are the most likely to experience elevated risk for heart attack, even after we adjust for the unequal distribution of working and living conditions, social relationships, access to health care, and adult lifestyle behaviors that influence health outcomes.

  10. Cancer and autoimmunity: Harnessing longitudinal cohorts to probe the link.

    Egiziano, Giordano; Bernatsky, Sasha; Shah, Ami A

    2016-02-01

    In many autoimmune rheumatic diseases, there is an increased risk of cancer compared to the general population. While reasons for this increased risk have not been elucidated, it has been hypothesized that the link between cancer and autoimmunity may be bidirectional. For instance, chronic inflammation and damage from the rheumatic disease or its therapies may trigger malignant transformation; conversely, antitumor immune responses targeting cancers may become cross-reactive resulting in autoimmunity. In rare rheumatic diseases, longitudinal observational studies can play a critical role in studying these complex relationships, thereby enabling investigators to quantify the extent of cancer risk, identify unique clinical phenotypes associated with cancer, investigate the biological link between these conditions, and define optimal strategies for screening and treatment of the underlying cancer. In this review, we discuss recent data on cancer in the rheumatic diseases and suggest a research agenda to address several gaps in our current knowledge base. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Wisconsin’s Environmental Public Health Tracking Network: Information Systems Design for Childhood Cancer Surveillance

    Hanrahan, Lawrence P.; Anderson, Henry A.; Busby, Brian; Bekkedal, Marni; Sieger, Thomas; Stephenson, Laura; Knobeloch, Lynda; Werner, Mark; Imm, Pamela; Olson, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    In this article we describe the development of an information system for environmental childhood cancer surveillance. The Wisconsin Cancer Registry annually receives more than 25,000 incident case reports. Approximately 269 cases per year involve children. Over time, there has been considerable community interest in understanding the role the environment plays as a cause of these cancer cases. Wisconsin’s Public Health Information Network (WI-PHIN) is a robust web portal integrating both Health Alert Network and National Electronic Disease Surveillance System components. WI-PHIN is the information technology platform for all public health surveillance programs. Functions include the secure, automated exchange of cancer case data between public health–based and hospital-based cancer registrars; web-based supplemental data entry for environmental exposure confirmation and hypothesis testing; automated data analysis, visualization, and exposure–outcome record linkage; directories of public health and clinical personnel for role-based access control of sensitive surveillance information; public health information dissemination and alerting; and information technology security and critical infrastructure protection. For hypothesis generation, cancer case data are sent electronically to WI-PHIN and populate the integrated data repository. Environmental data are linked and the exposure–disease relationships are explored using statistical tools for ecologic exposure risk assessment. For hypothesis testing, case–control interviews collect exposure histories, including parental employment and residential histories. This information technology approach can thus serve as the basis for building a comprehensive system to assess environmental cancer etiology. PMID:15471739

  12. Surviving a childhood cancer: impact on education and employment.

    Maule, Milena; Zugna, Daniela; Migliore, Enrica; Alessi, Daniela; Merletti, Franco; Onorati, Roberta; Zengarini, Nicolás; Costa, Giuseppe; Spadea, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    Long-term consequences of childhood cancer encompass adverse psychosocial effects that may severely limit the opportunity to live a satisfying and productive life. We assessed the social integration of adults cured of a cancer in their first 14 years of life by record linkage between the population-based Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont and the Turin Longitudinal Study. We compared education and employment outcomes within the cohort of survivors and between the cohort of survivors and their peers in the general population through logistic regression. Individuals cured of a childhood tumour have a higher risk of not obtaining educational qualifications [odds ratio (OR) 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.40-1.11) for compulsory school, OR 0.81 (0.61-1.07) for higher education] or employment, OR 0.66 (0.45-0.98), than the general population. This problem is particularly severe for individuals cured of a central nervous system neoplasm: OR 0.56 (0.31-1.01) for higher education and OR 0.28 (0.13-0.58) for employment. Within-cohort comparisons show that men are less likely to obtain educational goals than women, OR 0.72 (0.40-1.29), but more likely to be employed, OR 2.18 (0.90-5.28); parental education (university qualifications) is positively associated with the success of the child's education, OR 9.54 (2.60-35.02), but not with their employment status, OR 1.02 (0.21-4.85). Strategies should be put in place to mitigate the risk of adverse psychosocial effects from the beginning of treatment to cure and beyond to offer those suffering a cancer at a young age the possibility of full integration into society.

  13. Predictors of marriage and divorce in adult survivors of childhood cancers: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Janson, Christopher; Leisenring, Wendy; Cox, Cheryl; Termuhlen, Amanda M; Mertens, Ann C; Whitton, John A; Goodman, Pamela; Zeltzer, Lonnie; Robison, Leslie L; Krull, Kevin R; Kadan-Lottick, Nina S

    2009-10-01

    Adult survivors of childhood cancer can have altered social functioning. We sought to identify factors that predict marriage and divorce outcomes in this growing population. This was a retrospective cohort study of 8,928 > or = 5-year adult survivors of childhood malignancy and 2,879 random sibling controls participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Marital status, current health, psychological status, and neurocognitive functioning were determined from surveys and validated instruments. Survivors were more likely to be never-married than siblings [relative risk (RR), 1.21; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.15-1.26] and the U.S. population (RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.21-1.29), after adjusting for age, gender, and race. Patients with central nervous system tumors were at greatest risk of not marrying (RR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.41-1.59). Married survivors divorced at frequencies similar to controls. In multivariable regression analysis, nonmarriage was most associated with cranial radiation (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.31 for > 2,400 centigray). In analysis of neurobehavioral functioning, nonmarriage was associated with worse task efficiency (RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.20-1.35), but not with emotional distress, or problems with emotional regulation, memory, or organization. Physical conditions predictive of nonmarriage included short stature (RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.20-1.34) and poor physical function (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.18). Structural equation modeling suggested that cranial radiation influenced marriage status through short stature, cognitive problems, and poor physical function. Childhood cancer survivors married at lower frequencies compared with peers. Patients with central nervous system tumors, cranial radiation, impaired processing efficiency, and short stature were more likely to never marry. Divorce patterns in survivors were similar to peers.

  14. [Parasites and cancer: is there a causal link?

    Cheeseman, Kevin; Certad, Gabriela; Weitzman, Jonathan B

    2016-10-01

    Over 20 % of cancers have infectious origins, including well-known examples of microbes such as viruses (HPV, EBV) and bacteria (H. pylori). The contribution of intracellular eukaryotic parasites to cancer etiology is largely unexplored. Epidemiological and clinical reports indicate that eukaryotic protozoan, such as intracellular apicomplexan that cause diseases of medical or economic importance, can be linked to various cancers: Theileria and Cryptosporidium induce host cell transformation while Plasmodium was linked epidemiologically to the "African lymphoma belt" over fifty years ago. These intracellular eukaryotic parasites hijack cellular pathways to manipulate the host cell epigenome, cellular machinery, signaling pathways and epigenetic programs and marks, such as methylation and acetylation, for their own benefit. In doing so, they tinker with the same pathways as those deregulated during cancer onset. Here we discuss how epidemiological evidence linking eukaryotic intracellular parasites to cancer onset are further strengthened by recent mechanistic studies in three apicomplexan parasites. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  15. Beyond the bench and the bedside: economic and health systems dimensions of global childhood cancer outcomes.

    Denburg, Avram E; Knaul, Felicia M; Atun, Rifat; Frazier, Lindsay A; Barr, Ronald D

    2014-03-01

    Globally, the number of new cases of childhood cancer continues to rise, with a widening gulf in outcomes across countries, despite the availability of effective cure options for many pediatric cancers. Economic forces and health system realities are deeply embedded in the foundation of disparities in global childhood cancer outcomes. A truly global effort to close the childhood cancer divide therefore requires systemic solutions. Analysis of the economic and health system dimensions of childhood cancer outcomes is essential to progress in childhood cancer survival around the globe. The conceptual power of this approach is significant. It provides insight into how and where pediatric oncology entwines with broader political and economic conditions, and highlights the mutual benefit derived from systems-oriented solutions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Nuclear installations and childhood cancer in the U.K

    Goldsmith, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The report in November 1983 of a cluster of childhood leukemia cases in the vicinity of the Sellafield (Windscale) nuclear facility on the west coast of England has led to a substantial effort to study possible excess cancer in the vicinity of British nuclear installations. Although some additional excesses were found, the causal relationship with radionuclides was thought unlikely because the estimated doses were below those established as causal of increase in human leukemia. Since 1956, we have known that diagnostic x-rays during pregnancy are associated with increased risks from childhood cancer, especially leukemia. Gardner et al. showed that excess cases near Sellafield were in children born there, and no excess occurred among in-migrants. Roman et al. showed that significant elevations in leukemia among children living near three nuclear installations in the Midlands were only at 0-5 y, suggesting that the relevant exposure was prenatal. We identify and discuss a set of epidemiological, dosage estimation, and modeling problems relevant to interpretation of such data. We conclude that: (1) a red bone marrow-based model for brief, high-level exposures of adults associated with myelogenous leukemia is inappropriate for evaluating the impact of internal emitters, relatively continuous exposures in perinatal periods in association with acute lymphatic leukemia; (2) incidence of mortality rates of childhood leukemia should be evaluated in the vicinity of nuclear installations in many countries; and (3) in contrast to nuclear reprocessing and nuclear weapons installations, there is little evidence of excess childhood leukemia among residents in areas adjacent to nuclear power installations in the U.K

  17. Does cognitive ability buffer the link between childhood disadvantage and adult health?

    Bridger, Emma; Daly, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Individual differences in childhood cognitive ability have been neglected in the study of how early life psychosocial factors may buffer the long-term health consequences of social disadvantage. In this study, we drew on rich data from two large British cohorts to test whether high levels of cognitive ability may protect children from experiencing the physical and mental health consequences of early life socioeconomic disadvantage. Participants from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS; N = 11,522) were followed from birth to age 42, and those from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS; N = 13,213) were followed from birth to age 50. Childhood social disadvantage was indexed using 6 indicators gauging parental education, occupational prestige, and housing characteristics (i.e., housing tenure and home crowding). Standardized assessments of cognitive ability were completed at ages 10 (BCS) and 11 (NCDS) years. Psychological distress, self-rated health, and all-cause mortality were examined from early adulthood to midlife in both cohorts. Early social disadvantage predicted elevated levels of psychological distress and lower levels of self-rated health in both cohorts and higher mortality risk in the NCDS. Childhood cognitive ability moderated each of these relationships such that the link between early life social disadvantage and poor health in adulthood was markedly stronger at low (-1 SD) compared to high (+1 SD) levels of childhood cognitive ability. This study provides evidence that high childhood cognitive ability is associated with a decrease in the strength of socioeconomic status-driven health inequalities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Mental health insurance access and utilization among childhood cancer survivors: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study.

    Perez, Giselle K; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Recklitis, Christopher; Krull, Kevin R; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Nathan, Paul C; Rabin, Julia; Armstrong, Gregory T; Leisenring, Wendy; Robison, Leslie L; Park, Elyse R

    2018-04-15

    To describe and compare the prevalence of mental health access, preference, and use among pediatric cancer survivors and their siblings. To identify factors associated with mental health access and use among survivors. Six hundred ninety-eight survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (median age = 39.4; median years from diagnosis = 30.8) and 210 siblings (median age = 40.4) were surveyed. Outcomes included having mental health insurance coverage, delaying care due to cost, perceived value of mental health benefits, and visiting a mental health provider in the past year. There were no differences in mental health access, preferences, and use between survivors and siblings (p > 0.05). Among respondents with a history of distress, most reported not having seen a mental health provider in the past year (80.9% survivors vs. 77.1% siblings; p = 0.60). Uninsured survivors were more likely to defer mental health services due to cost (24.6 vs. 8.4%; p mental health coverage. Most childhood cancer survivors value having mental healthcare benefits; however, coverage and use of mental health services remain suboptimal. The most vulnerable of survivors, specifically the uninsured and those with a history of distress, are at risk of experiencing challenges accessing mental health care. Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for experiencing high levels of daily life stress that is compounded by treatment-related sequelae. Integrative, system-based approaches that incorporate financial programs with patient education about insurance benefits can help reduce some of the financial barriers survivors face.

  19. Risk Factors Associated With Secondary Sarcomas in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Henderson, Tara O.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Stovall, Marilyn; Constine, Louis S.; Olive, Aliza; Smith, Susan A.; Mertens, Ann; Meadows, Anna; Neglia, Joseph P.; Hammond, Sue; Whitton, John; Inskip, Peter D.; Robison, Leslie L.; Diller, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors have an increased risk of secondary sarcomas. To better identify those at risk, the relationship between therapeutic dose of chemotherapy and radiation and secondary sarcoma should be quantified. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested case-control study of secondary sarcomas (105 cases, 422 matched controls) in a cohort of 14,372 childhood cancer survivors. Radiation dose at the second malignant neoplasm (SMN) site and use of chemotherapy were estimated from detailed review of medical records. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Excess odds ratio (EOR) was modeled as a function of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and host factors. Results: Sarcomas occurred a median of 11.8 years (range, 5.3–31.3 years) from original diagnosis. Any exposure to radiation was associated with increased risk of secondary sarcoma (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.8–9.5). A dose–response relation was observed, with elevated risks at doses between 10 and 29.9 Gy (OR = 15.6, 95% CI = 4.5–53.9), 30–49.9 Gy (OR = 16.0, 95% CI 3.8–67.8) and >50 Gy (OR = 114.1, 95% CI 13.5–964.8). Anthracycline exposure was associated with sarcoma risk (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.6–7.7) adjusting for radiation dose, other chemotherapy, and primary cancer. Adjusting for treatment, survivors with a first diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 10.7, 95% CI = 3.1–37.4) or primary sarcoma (OR = 8.4, 95% CI = 3.2–22.3) were more likely to develop a sarcoma. Conclusions: Of the risk factors evaluated, radiation exposure was the most important for secondary sarcoma development in childhood cancer survivors; anthracycline chemotherapy exposure was also associated with increased risk.

  20. Leukemia after therapy with alkylating agents for childhood cancer

    Tucker, M.A.; Meadows, A.T.; Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The risk of leukemia was evaluated in 9,170 2-or-more-year survivors of childhood cancer in the 13 institutions of the Late Effects Study Group. Secondary leukemia occurred in 22 nonreferred individuals compared to 1.52 expected, based on general population rates [relative risk (RR) = 14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 9-22]. The influence of therapy for the first cancer on subsequent leukemia risk was determined by a case-control study conducted on 25 cases and 90 matched controls. Treatment with alkylating agents was associated with a significantly elevated risk of leukemia (RR = 4.8; 95% CI, 1.2-18.9). A strong dose-response relationship was also observed between leukemia risk and total dose of alkylating agents, estimated by an alkylator score. The RR of leukemia reached 23 in the highest dose category. Radiation therapy, however, did not increase risk. Although doxorubicin was also identified as a possible risk factor, the excess risk of leukemia following treatment for childhood cancer appears almost entirely due to alkylating agents

  1. A Population-Based Study of Childhood Cancer Survivors’ Body Mass Index

    Warner, E. L.; Fluchel, M.; Sweeney, C.; Smith, K. R.; Kirchhoff, A. C.; Fluchel, M.; Wright, J.

    2014-01-01

    Population-based studies are needed to estimate the prevalence of underweight or overweight/obese childhood cancer survivors. Procedure. Adult survivors (diagnosed ≤20 years) were identified from the linked Utah Cancer Registry and Utah Population Database. We included survivors currently aged ≥20 years and ≥5 years from diagnosis (N=1060), and a comparison cohort selected on birth year and sex (N=5410). BMI was calculated from driver license data available from 2000 to 2010. Multivariable generalized linear regression models were used to calculate prevalence relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of BMI outcomes for survivors and the comparison cohort. Results. Average time since diagnosis was 18.5 years (SD=7.8), and mean age at BMI for both groups was 30.5 (survivors SD-= 7.7, comparison SD=8.0). Considering all diagnoses, survivors were not at higher risk for being underweight or overweight/obese than the comparison. Male central nervous system tumor survivors were overweight (RR=1.12, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.23) more often than the comparison. Female survivors, who were diagnosed at age 10 and under, had a 10% higher risk of being obese than survivors diagnosed at ages 16-20 (P<0.05). Conclusion. While certain groups of childhood cancer survivors are at risk for being overweight/obese, in general they do not differ from population estimates.

  2. Clarifying perspectives: Ethics case reflection sessions in childhood cancer care.

    Bartholdson, Cecilia; Lützén, Kim; Blomgren, Klas; Pergert, Pernilla

    2016-06-01

    Childhood cancer care involves many ethical concerns. Deciding on treatment levels and providing care that infringes on the child's growing autonomy are known ethical concerns that involve the whole professional team around the child's care. The purpose of this study was to explore healthcare professionals' experiences of participating in ethics case reflection sessions in childhood cancer care. Data collection by observations, individual interviews, and individual encounters. Data analysis were conducted following grounded theory methodology. Healthcare professionals working at a publicly funded children's hospital in Sweden participated in ethics case reflection sessions in which ethical issues concerning clinical cases were reflected on. The children's and their parents' integrity was preserved through measures taken to protect patient identity during ethics case reflection sessions. The study was approved by a regional ethical review board. Consolidating care by clarifying perspectives emerged. Consolidating care entails striving for common care goals and creating a shared view of care and the ethical concern in the specific case. The inter-professional perspectives on the ethical aspects of care are clarified by the participants' articulated views on the case. Different approaches for deliberating ethics are used during the sessions including raising values and making sense, leading to unifying interactions. The findings indicate that ethical concerns could be eased by implementing ethics case reflection sessions. Conflicting perspectives can be turned into unifying interactions in the healthcare professional team with the common aim to achieve good pediatric care. Ethics case reflection sessions is valuable as it permits the discussion of values in healthcare-related issues in childhood cancer care. Clarifying perspectives, on the ethical concerns, enables healthcare professionals to reflect on the most reasonable and ethically defensible care for the child

  3. Low levels of energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors: Implications for obesity prevention

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (medi...

  4. The perceived influence of childhood cancer on the parents' relationship.

    Wiener, L; Battles, H; Zadeh, S; Pelletier, W; Arruda-Colli, M N F; Muriel, Anna C

    2017-12-01

    When a child is diagnosed with cancer, parents are faced with many practical and emotional challenges that can significantly affect their relationship. This study explores how having a child with cancer affects the quality of the parents' relationship, categorizes time points and events during the child's treatment when the relationship becomes most stressed and/or strengthened, identifies factors that help couples remain emotionally engaged throughout their child's cancer treatment, and assesses parental interest in a counseling intervention. This is a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted via a semistructured self-administered questionnaire that included the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale. One hundred ninety-two parents of children diagnosed between the ages of 1 and 21 participated. Forty percent felt their relationship moved in a negative direction. Diagnosis and relapse of disease were cited as the most individually stressful time points in the disease trajectory, with hospitalizations and relapse being most stressful on the relationship. Participants felt most emotionally connected at diagnosis and least emotionally connected at the start and end of treatment. The majority of couples indicated interest in counseling to address ways to support their relationship. Soon after diagnosis and during treatment was reported as the preferred time to offer these interventions. This study identified specific events and parent behaviors that strain the couples' relationship during the childhood cancer trajectory. This information can inform the development of a couple's intervention. Prospective research is needed to better understand how childhood cancer affects caregivers' partnerships through survivorship and beyond. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The Risk of Cataract among Survivors of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Chodick, Gabriel; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Sklar, Charles A.; Leisenring, Wendy; Mertens, Ann C.; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita E.; Veiga, Lene H. S.; Robison, Leslie L.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    With therapeutic successes and improved survival after a cancer diagnosis in childhood, increasing numbers of cancer survivors are at risk of subsequent treatment-related morbidities, including cataracts. While it is well known that the lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the human body, the risks associated with radiation doses less than 2 Gy are less understood, as are the long- and short-term cataract risks from exposure to ionizing radiation at a young age. In this study, we followed 13,902 five-year survivors of childhood cancer in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort an average of 21.4 years from the date of first cancer diagnosis. For patients receiving radiotherapy, lens dose (mean: 2.2 Gy; range: 0–66 Gy) was estimated based on radiotherapy records. We used unconditional multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate prevalence of self-reported cataract in relationship to cumulative radiation dose both at five years after the initial cancer diagnosis and at the end of follow-up. We modeled the radiation effect in terms of the excess odds ratio (EOR) per Gy. We also analyzed cataract incidence starting from five years after initial cancer diagnosis to the end of follow-up using Cox regression. A total of 483 (3.5%) cataract cases were identified, including 200 (1.4%) diagnosed during the first five years of follow-up. In a multivariable logistic regression model, cataract prevalence at the end of follow-up was positively associated with lens dose in a manner consistent with a linear dose-response relationship (EOR per Gy = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.65–1.20). The odds ratio for doses between 0.5 and 1.5 Gy was elevated significantly relative to doses <0.5 Gy (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3–3.7). The results from this study indicate a strong association between ocular exposure to ionizing radiation and long-term risk of pre-senile cataract. The risk of cataract increased with increasing exposure, beginning at lens doses as low as 0

  6. Body mass index in childhood and adult risk of primary liver cancer

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Gamborg, Michael; Holst, Claus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Childhood overweight increases the risk of early development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which may predispose to carcinogenesis. We investigated if childhood body size during school ages was associated with the risk of primary liver cancer in adults. METHODS: A cohort......-specific reference. Information on liver cancer was obtained from the National Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of liver cancer were estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: During 6,963,105 person-years of follow-up, 438 cases of primary liver cancer were recorded. The hazard ratio...... hepatitis, alcohol-related disorders, and biliary cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: Higher BMI in childhood increases the risk of primary liver cancer in adults. In view of the high case fatality of primary liver cancer, this result adds to the future negative health outcomes of the epidemic of childhood overweight...

  7. Impact of childhood cancer on parents' relationships: an integrative review.

    da Silva, Fernanda Machado; Jacob, Eufemia; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira

    2010-09-01

    The diagnosis of cancer and the treatment decisions associated with it may cause uncertainty, stress, and anxiety among parents. Emotional tensions can affect parents' relationships during the trajectory of the child's cancer illness. We conducted an integrative review to examine the evidence related to the effects of childhood cancer on parents' relationships. An integrative literature search of studies published between 1997 and 2009 was conducted in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Psychology Information (PsycINFO), PubMed, Scopus, CUIDEN, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature (LILACS). The key words used were neoplasms, child, marriage, spouses, family relations, and nursing. Articles were reviewed if the (a) topic addressed parents' relationships during childhood cancer; (b) participants were mothers, fathers, or both; (c) design was either qualitative or quantitative; (d) language was English, Portuguese, or Spanish; (e) date of publication was between January 1997 and October 2009; and (f) abstract was available. Fourteen articles met the search criteria and were reviewed using Cooper's framework for integrative reviews. Four themes emerged: (a) changes in the parents' relationship during the trajectory of the child's illness; (b) difficulty in communication between couples; (c) gender differences in parental stress and coping; and (d) role changes. Findings revealed positive and negative changes in parents' relationships, communication, stress, and roles. Nurses need to assess the impact of cancer diagnosis and treatments on parent relationships, offer support and encouragement, and allow expression of feelings. Future research is needed to develop and test interventions that increase parents' potentials and strengthen relationships during the challenging trajectory of their children's cancer and treatment. The multiple sources of stress and uncertainty associated with a child's cancer diagnosis and

  8. [Endocrine consequences in young adult survivors of childhood cancer treatment].

    Leroy, C; Cortet-Rudelli, C; Desailloud, R

    2015-10-01

    Endocrine complications (particularly gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary and metabolic) of childhood cancer treatments are common in young adults. Gonadal damage may be the result of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Fertility preservation must be systematically proposed before initiation of gonadotoxic treatment if only the child is eligible. Hypothalamic-pituitary deficiency is common after brain or total-body irradiation, the somatotropic axis is the most sensitive to irradiation. Pituitary deficiency screening must be repeated since this endocrine consequence can occur many years after treatment. Hormone replacement must be prudent particularly in case of treatment with growth hormone or steroids. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular damage resulting from cancer treatments contribute to the increase of morbidity and mortality in this population and should be screened routinely even if the patient is asymptomatic. The multidisciplinary management of these adults must be organized and the role of the endocrinologist is now well established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Childhood cancer after low-level intrauterine exposure to radiation

    Wakeford, Richard [BNFL, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: R.Wakeford@bnfl.com; Little, Mark P. [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-01

    Case-control studies of childhood cancer and foetal exposure to diagnostic x-rays suggest that doses as small as 10 mSv increase the risk of cancer to a detectable extent. A comparison of the risk coefficient derived from the largest such study with that obtained from the Japanese atomic bomb survivors irradiated in utero (average dose, {approx}300 mGy) shows that, once all sources of uncertainty are taken into account, these risk estimates are not incompatible. The absence of a discernible variation in the risk per unit dose over this dose range is consistent with a linear dose-response. However, uncertainties are such that definitive conclusions on the shape of the dose-response at low doses cannot be drawn from this epidemiological evidence alone. Nonetheless, the evidence does suggest that the risk is not zero at doses of the order of 10 mSv. (author)

  10. Treating childhood cancer in Rwanda: the nephroblastoma example.

    Kanyamuhunga, Aimable; Tuyisenge, Lisine; Stefan, Daniela Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) or nephroblastoma is the commonest childhood cancer in Rwanda. Nephroblastoma is regarded as one of the successes of pediatric oncology with long-term survival approaching 90%. The Objectives to evaluate the feasibility of treating childhood cancer using the nephroblastoma example and to calculate its cost of treatment in Rwanda. Prospective study over a 2 year period: 01 Jan 2010- 31 December 2011. A questionnaire was completed by all participants in the study and the following variables were collected at Kigali University Teaching Hospital: age at diagnosis, gender, transport cost, cost of investigations, staging, treatment and outcome, cost of hospitalization, type of medical, surgical, radiological interventions and their costs, number of admissions per patient and factors related to non compliance to treatment. All patients had a confirmed diagnosis on histopathology examination. The cost for treatment was calculated for early and late stage and was expressed in USA dollars. Analysis was done with SPSS 16.0. There were 25 patients diagnosed and treated for WT during the study period. Almost half of the patients 14/25 (56%) had advanced disease, seven children (28%) had stage IV, seven children stage III, six patients (24%) with stage II, while the remaining five (20%) had stage I with high risk tumor. The direct cost of management ranged from1,831.2 USD for early disease to 2,418.7 USD for advanced disease. The cost of transport, investigations and drugs were recorded as main contributing factors to the feasibility and cost of the treatment in 80% of the responses, followed by late presentation (56%) and poor compliance to treatment. Most challenges are related to unaffordable treatment and late presentation. The management of WT is feasible in Rwandan setting but efforts should be made in order to improve awareness of childhood cancer, early diagnosis and access to care. The government of Rwanda is committed to improve cancer care in the

  11. Implementing a Childhood Cancer Outcomes Surveillance System Within a Population-Based Cancer Registry

    Oscar Ramirez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Approximately 80% of cases of childhood cancer occur in low- and middle-income countries and are associated with high mortality rates. Assessing outcomes is essential for designing effective strategies to improve outcomes equally worldwide. We implemented a real-time surveillance system, VIGICANCER, embedded in a population-based cancer registry (PBCR to assess childhood cancer outcomes. Methods: VIGICANCER was established in 2009 as an integral part of Cali’s PBCR to collect real-time data on outcomes of patients (age < 19 years with a new diagnosis of cancer treated in pediatric oncology units in Cali, Colombia. Baseline and follow-up data (death, relapse, treatment abandonment, second neoplasms were collected from medical records, hospital discharge logs, pathology reports, death certificates, and the National Public Health Insurance database. A quality assurance process was implemented for the system. Results: From 2009 to 2013, data from 1,242 patients were included in VIGICANCER: 32% of patients were younger than 5 years, 55% were male, and 15% were Afro-descendants. International Classification of Childhood Cancer group I diagnoses predominated in all age groups except children younger than 1 year old, in whom CNS tumors predominated. Five-year overall survival for all cancers was 51.7% (95% CI, 47.9% to 55.4% for children (< 15 years, and 39.4% (95% CI, 29.8% to 50.5% for adolescents (15 to 18.9 years. Five-year overall survival for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was 55.6% (95% CI, 48.5% to 62.2%. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the feasibility of implementing a real-time childhood cancer outcomes surveillance system embedded in a PBCR that can guide interventions to improve clinical outcomes in low- and middle-income countries.

  12. Current lifestyle of young adults treated for cancer in childhood.

    Evans, S E; Radford, M

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48 patients and 38 sibling controls were interviewed. This took the form of a structured lifestyle questionnaire, a self esteem questionnaire (Oxford Psychologists Press), and an unstructured interview. Fifty five per cent of patients achieved five or more A-C grades at 'O' level/GCSE compared with 62% of siblings and a national average of 30%. Despite that these patients were significantly less likely to go on to higher education than their siblings. The two groups were equally employable and earning similar salaries. There were three cases of known employer prejudice. A slightly higher percentage of patients than siblings had their driving licence. Seventeen patients felt their appearance had changed and eight felt that they had a residual physical mobility problem. Both groups were socially active and equally likely to partake in competitive sports. There was no overall difference in the self esteem of the two groups. In general the survivors of childhood cancer were coping well in their young adult life and achieving the same lifestyle goals as their siblings. However, significant problems have been identified.

  13. Longitudinal links between childhood peer acceptance and the neural correlates of sharing.

    Will, Geert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A; van Lier, Pol A C; Güroğlu, Berna

    2018-01-01

    Childhood peer acceptance is associated with high levels of prosocial behavior and advanced perspective taking skills. Yet, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these associations have not been studied. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural correlates of sharing decisions in a group of adolescents who had a stable accepted status (n = 27) and a group who had a chronic rejected status (n = 19) across six elementary school grades. Both groups of adolescents played three allocation games in which they could share money with strangers with varying costs and profits to them and the other person. Stably accepted adolescents were more likely to share their money with unknown others than chronically rejected adolescents when sharing was not costly. Neuroimaging analyses showed that stably accepted adolescents, compared to chronically rejected adolescents, exhibited higher levels of activation in the temporo-parietal junction, posterior superior temporal sulcus, temporal pole, pre-supplementary motor area, and anterior insula during costly sharing decisions. These findings demonstrate that stable peer acceptance across childhood is associated with heightened activity in brain regions previously linked to perspective taking and the detection of social norm violations during adolescence, and thereby provide insight into processes underlying the widely established links between peer acceptance and prosocial behavior. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Treatment-associated subsequent neoplasms among long-term survivors of childhood cancer: the experience of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Robison, Leslie L.

    2009-01-01

    With improvements in survival among individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer there is an increasing recognition of the risk of long-term adverse effects of therapy. Second neoplasms represent one of the more serious late effects of treatment and are associated with a substantial level of morbidity and mortality. Survivors of childhood cancers, because of their potential longevity, are at particular risk for this adverse outcome. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a large cohort consisting of adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed and treated between 1970 and 1986. The CCSS has provided important data to quantify radiation-associated risk for subsequent cancers including neoplasms of the breast, thyroid and central nervous system. (orig.)

  15. Treatment-associated subsequent neoplasms among long-term survivors of childhood cancer: the experience of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Robison, Leslie L. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2009-02-15

    With improvements in survival among individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer there is an increasing recognition of the risk of long-term adverse effects of therapy. Second neoplasms represent one of the more serious late effects of treatment and are associated with a substantial level of morbidity and mortality. Survivors of childhood cancers, because of their potential longevity, are at particular risk for this adverse outcome. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a large cohort consisting of adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed and treated between 1970 and 1986. The CCSS has provided important data to quantify radiation-associated risk for subsequent cancers including neoplasms of the breast, thyroid and central nervous system. (orig.)

  16. Linking Gut Microbiota to Colorectal Cancer

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical data produce mounting evidence that the microbiota is strongly associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Dysbiosis may change the course of carcinogenesis as microbial actions seem to impact genetic and epigenetic alterations leading to dysplasia, clonal expansion...... and malignant transformation. Initiation and promotion of colorectal cancer may result from direct bacterial actions, bacterial metabolites and inflammatory pathways. Newer aspects of microbiota and colorectal cancer include quorum sensing, biofilm formation, sidedness and effects/countereffects of microbiota...... and probiotics on chemotherapy. In the future, targeting the microbiota will probably be a powerful weapon in the battle against CRC as gut microbiology, genomics and metabolomics promise to uncover important linkages between microbiota and intestinal health....

  17. Neuropsychological sequelae of childhood cancer in long-term survivors

    Copeland, D.R.; Fletcher, J.M.; Pfefferbaum-Levine, B.; Jaffe, N.; Ried, H.; Maor, M.

    1985-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of various cancer treatments on neuropsychological functioning, 74 long-term survivors of childhood cancer were examined. A comprehensive battery of tests was administered to two CNS treatment groups (irradiated and nonirradiated leukemia and lymphoma patients) and a control group (solid tumor and Hodgkin disease patients receiving no CNS treatment). The CNS-irradiated group obtained lower scores than the other two groups, with significant differences in visual-motor and fine motor skills, spatial memory, and arithmetic achievement resulting in significant differences in IQ scores (VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ). The results are discussed in relation to: (1) the effects of CNS irradiation on cognitive development; (2) the specificity of these effects; and (3) the relationship of age at diagnosis to treatment effects. It is concluded that although there is a general lowering of scores after CNS irradiation, the effect is most pronounced for nonlanguage skills. Age at diagnosis was less important than the type of treatment, with CNS irradiation reducing performance regardless of when cancer was diagnosed. There were indications that children with any type of cancer diagnosed before age 5 years are more likely to have some cognitive difficulties

  18. Nuclear installations and childhood cancer in the UK

    Goldsmith, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Data on cancer incidence and mortality near nuclear installations in England and Wales have been published, covering the period 1959-1980. Several age classes and a number of cancer sites have been included. Systematic analysis has so far been limited to cancer mortality. This suggests that childhood leukemia is unusually frequent near some types of installations and the excess is greater for years 0-9 than for later ages. In the earlier decade, 1959-1969, there was questionable consistency of incidence reporting. This report uses the incidence and mortality data only for the period 1971-1980; leukemia and non-leukemia cancer data for those 0-9 years are analyzed, and consistency of incidence reporting is evaluated by comparing incidence and mortality. For comparison with reported data for grouped local authority areas (LAAs) near to 21 different installations, 2 sources of expected incidence are used. The first is based on regional data, and the second is based on a group of LAAs similar in location, urban/rural character and population size. The results of this study confirm Cook-Mozaffari et al.'s findings by mortality analysis for the group of installations involved in non-power producing nuclear technology. This study sheds no light on the possible basis for the association, which remains to be clarified. Initial steps have been taken by Gardner et al. using case-referent methods. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Non-syndromic posterior lenticonus a cause of childhood cataract: evidence for X-linked inheritance.

    Russell-Eggitt, I M

    2000-12-01

    When an X-linked pedigree of posterior lenticonus with cataract was identified further evidence for X-linked inheritance of this condition was sought. Forty-three cases of posterior lenticonus were identified from a database of 354 children with cataract. Two children with the X-linked syndromes of Lowe and Nance-Horan and 3 children with Fanconi syndrome have been excluded from further analysis. None of the children was deaf. None of the non-syndromic cases had microcornea. There were 38 cases of non-syndromic posterior lenticonus (approximately 11%). There were 15 children from 13 pedigrees and 23 apparently sporadic cases. Of the 106 cases on the database with unilateral cataract 15 had posterior lenticonus (approximately 14%). Eleven of 13 pedigrees were compatible with X-linked inheritance or autosomal dominant inheritance with variable expression. However, in 2 pedigrees there was father to son transmission. Posterior lenticonus is a common cause of unilateral infantile cataract, but is thought to be a rare cause of bilateral cataracts. This study suggests that posterior lenticonus is responsible for a significant proportion of childhood cataracts (approximately 14% of unilateral and approximately 9% of bilateral cases). Posterior lenticonus is generally thought to occur as a sporadic condition. This study demonstrates that there is a family history of early-onset cataract in a significant number of bilateral cases (approximately 58%).

  20. Birth order and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Pooled Analysis from Five U.S. States

    Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G.; Mueller, Beth A.; Carozza, Susan E.; Chow, Eric J.; Fox, Erin E.; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J.; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E.; Ross, Julie A.; Reynolds, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas, and Washington. We included 17,672 cases less than 15 years of age who were...

  1. Employment status and occupational level of adult survivors of childhood cancer in Great Britain: The British childhood cancer survivor study.

    Frobisher, Clare; Lancashire, Emma R; Jenkinson, Helen; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2017-06-15

    The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) provides the first detailed investigation of employment and occupation to be undertaken in a large population-based cohort. Previous studies have been limited by design issues such as using small numbers of survivors with specific diagnoses, and involved limited assessment of employment status and occupational level. The BCCSS includes 17,981 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Employment status and occupational level were ascertained by questionnaire from eligible survivors (n = 14,836). Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with employment and occupation, and to compare survivors to their demographic peers in the general population. Employment status was available for 10,257 survivors. Gender, current age, cancer type, radiotherapy, age at diagnosis and epilepsy were consistently associated with being: employed; unable to work; in managerial or non-manual occupations. Overall, survivors were less likely to be working than expected (OR (99% CI): 0.89 (0.81-0.98)), and this deficit was greatest for irradiated CNS neoplasm survivors (0.34 (0.28-0.41)). Compared to the general population, survivors were fivefold more likely to be unable to work due to illness/disability; the excess was 15-fold among CNS neoplasm survivors treated with radiotherapy. Overall survivors were less likely to be in managerial occupations than expected (0.85 (0.77-0.94)). However, bone sarcoma survivors were more likely to be in these occupations than expected (1.37 (1.01-1.85)) and also similarly for non-manual occupations (1.90 (1.37-2.62)). Survivors of retinoblastoma (1.55 (1.20-2.01)) and 'other' neoplasm group (1.62 (1.30-2.03)) were also more likely to be in non-manual occupations than expected. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  2. Higher occurrence of childhood cancer in families with germline mutations in BRCA2, MMR and CDKN2A genes

    Magnusson, S.; Borg, A.; Kristoffersson, U.

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of hereditary factors for development of childhood tumors is limited to some few known syndromes associated with predominance of tumors in childhood. Occurrence of childhood tumors in hereditary cancer syndromes such as BRCA1/2 associated breast and ovarian cancer, DNA-mismatch r......-mismatch repair (MMR) genes associated hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer and CDKN2A associated familial malignant melanoma are very little studied. Herein we report the prevalence of childhood tumors (diagnosed...

  3. The UK Childhood Cancer Study: Maternal occupational exposures and childhood leukaemia and lymphoma

    McKinney, P. A.; Raji, O. Y.; Van Tongeren, M.; Feltbower, R. G.

    2008-01-01

    Risks of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma were investigated for specific work-related exposures of mothers in the UK Childhood Cancer Study. Interviews with parents of 1881 leukaemia and lymphoma cases (0-14 years) and 3742 controls collected job histories recording exposure to eight specific agents. Exposure was (1) self-reported and (2) reviewed, based mainly on exposure probability and exposure level. Completeness, consistency and sufficiency evaluated data quality. Of all job exposures which were self-reported as exposed, 33% cases and 34% controls remained classified as exposed after review, with the remainder designated as partially exposed or unexposed. No review of underreporting of exposure was made. Data quality was 'good' for 26% of cases and 24% of controls. For self-reported exposure, significant risks of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were observed for solvents and petrol in all time windows. For reviewed exposure, solvents remained significant for ALL during pregnancy and post-natality. Restricting analyses to good-quality information removed all significant results. Refinement of exposure assessment revealed misclassification of self-reported exposures and data quality influenced risk assessment. Maternal exposure to solvents should further be investigated. These findings must invoke caution in the interpretation of risks reliant on self-reported occupational data. (authors)

  4. Chronic Inflammation Links Cancer and Parkinson’s disease

    Zhiming eLi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of genetic studies suggest that the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD and cancer share common genes, pathways, and mechanisms. Despite a disruption in a wide range of similar biological processes, the end result is very different: uncontrolled proliferation and early neurodegeneration. Thus, the links between the molecular mechanisms that cause PD and cancer remain to be elucidated. We propose that chronic inflammation in neurons and tumors contributes to a microenvironment that favors the accumulation of DNA mutations and facilitates disease formation. This article appraises the key role of microglia, establishes the genetic role of COX2 and CARD15 in PD and cancer, and discusses prevention and treatment with this new perspective in mind. We examine the evidence that chronic inflammation is an important link between cancer and PD.

  5. Family information needs at childhood cancer treatment completion.

    Wakefield, Claire E; Butow, Phyllis; Fleming, Catharine A K; Daniel, Gunar; Cohn, Richard J

    2012-04-01

    Despite the recognized importance of information provision across the cancer trajectory, little research has investigated family information needs recently after childhood cancer. This mixed-methods, multiperspective, study explored the information needs of families of childhood cancer survivors in the first year post-treatment. In total, 112 semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 19 survivors (mean age 16.2 years, off treatment for ≤36 months), 44 mothers, 34 fathers, and 15 siblings. Interviews were analyzed inductively, line-by-line, using the framework of Miles and Huberman. Emergent themes were cross-tabulated by sample characteristics using QSR NVivo8. Participant views were mixed regarding the need for a "finishing treatment review" with their oncologist (the primary information source for most families); however, many mothers (29/44) and fathers (17/34) and most siblings (14/15) reported receiving insufficient information post-treatment. Information regarding fertility and how to prepare for likely post-treatment challenges were the most cited unmet needs. Online support was ranked highest by survivors (mean score: 7/2/10) and siblings (7.4/10), whilst parents preferred an information booklet (often due to concerns about accessing accurate and relevant information from the Internet). While many participants reported feelings of isolation/loneliness, many were reluctant to attend face-to-face support groups/seminars. Family members of survivors may experience the most acute unmet needs for information about fertility and in preparation for post-treatment challenges. However, provision of the correct amount of information at the right time for each family member during a highly stressful period remains clinically challenging. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Genetic evidence linking lung cancer and COPD: a new perspective

    Crapo JD

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Robert P Young1,4, Raewyn J Hopkins1, Gregory D Gamble1, Carol Etzel2, Randa El-Zein2, James D Crapo31Department of Medicine and School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Department of Epidemiology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA; 4Synergenz Biosciences Ltd, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: Epidemiological studies indicate that tobacco smoke exposure accounts for nearly 90% of cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer. However, genetic factors may explain why 10%–30% of smokers develop these complications. This perspective reviews the evidence suggesting that COPD is closely linked to susceptibility to lung cancer and outlines the potential relevance of this observation. Epidemiological studies show that COPD is the single most important risk factor for lung cancer among smokers and predates lung cancer in up to 80% of cases. Genome-wide association studies of lung cancer, lung function, and COPD have identified a number of overlapping “susceptibility” loci. With stringent phenotyping, it has recently been shown that several of these overlapping loci are independently associated with both COPD and lung cancer. These loci implicate genes underlying pulmonary inflammation and apoptotic processes mediated by the bronchial epithelium, and link COPD with lung cancer at a molecular genetic level. It is currently possible to derive risk models for lung cancer that incorporate lung cancer-specific genetic variants, recently identified “COPD-related” genetic variants, and clinical variables. Early studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphism-based risk stratification of smokers might help better target novel prevention and early diagnostic strategies in lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, association study, single nucleotide polymorphism, risk model

  7. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans.

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Factors Linking Childhood Experiences to Adult Romantic Relationships among African Americans

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Landor, Antoinette M.; Bryant, Chalandra M.; Beach, Steven R.H.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that a high quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24730381

  9. Screening for thyroid cancer in survivors of childhood and young adult cancer treated with neck radiation.

    Tonorezos, Emily S; Barnea, Dana; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Chou, Joanne F; Sklar, Charles A; Elkin, Elena B; Wong, Richard J; Li, Duan; Tuttle, R Michael; Korenstein, Deborah; Wolden, Suzanne L; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2017-06-01

    The optimal method of screening for thyroid cancer in survivors of childhood and young adult cancer exposed to neck radiation remains controversial. Outcome data for a physical exam-based screening approach are lacking. We conducted a retrospective review of adult survivors of childhood and young adult cancer with a history of neck radiation followed in the Adult Long-Term Follow-Up Clinic at Memorial Sloan Kettering between November 2005 and August 2014. Eligible patients underwent a physical exam of the thyroid and were followed for at least 1 year afterwards. Ineligible patients were those with prior diagnosis of benign or malignant thyroid nodules. During a median follow-up of 3.1 years (range 0-9.4 years), 106 ultrasounds and 2277 physical exams were performed among 585 patients. Forty survivors had an abnormal thyroid physical exam median of 21 years from radiotherapy; 50% of those with an abnormal exam were survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma, 60% had radiation at ages 10-19, and 53% were female. Ultimately, 24 underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA). Surgery revealed papillary carcinoma in seven survivors; six are currently free of disease and one with active disease is undergoing watchful waiting. Among those with one or more annual visits, representing 1732 person-years of follow-up, no cases of thyroid cancer were diagnosed within a year of normal physical exam. These findings support the application of annual physical exam without routine ultrasound for thyroid cancer screening among survivors with a history of neck radiation. Survivors with a history of neck radiation may not require routine thyroid ultrasound for thyroid cancer screening. Among adult survivors of childhood and young adult cancer with a history of radiation therapy to the neck, annual physical exam is an acceptable thyroid cancer screening strategy.

  10. INFLAMMATION AND NEURONAL PLASTICITY: A LINK BETWEEN CHILDHOOD TRAUMA AND DEPRESSION PATHOGENESIS

    Annamaria eCattaneo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in understanding and characterizing the role of inflammation in major depressive disorder. Several evidences linked inflammation to major depression, including the presence of elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, together with other mediators of inflammation both in the blood and in the brain of depressed patients.However, whether depression itself acts in an immunomodulatory fashion or whether other factors related to depression result in these immunological effects remains an open question. Regardless, major depression is often the result of the exposure to stressful events early in life, which may also act through the modulation of inflammatory responses. Indeed, subjects with a history of childhood trauma show high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increased risk to develop psychopathologies later in life. Moreover, depressed patients with a history of childhood trauma are also less responsive to antidepressant therapies, suggesting that increased inflammation or altered activation of the immune system may also be relevant for the response to antidepressant therapies. This review will provide an overview on the potential role of the inflammatory/immune system and stress related biomarkers to aid diagnosis, predict treatment response, enhance treatment matching, and prevent the onset or relapse of major depression. We will also discuss the role of early life adverse events in increasing the vulnerability to depression development by acting on the inflammatory and stress-related system. Finally, we will discuss the putative biological mechanisms underlying the transmission, from one generation to the next, of the stress signatures and thus, of the increased vulnerability for psychopathologies induced by childhood trauma events.

  11. Impairments that Influence Physical Function among Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Carmen L. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children treated for cancer are at increased risk of developing chronic health conditions, some of which may manifest during or soon after treatment while others emerge many years after therapy. These health problems may limit physical performance and functional capacity, interfering with participation in work, social, and recreational activities. In this review, we discuss treatment-induced impairments in the endocrine, musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiopulmonary systems and their influence on mobility and physical function. We found that cranial radiation at a young age was associated with a broad range of chronic conditions including obesity, short stature, low bone mineral density and neuromotor impairments. Anthracyclines and chest radiation are associated with both short and long-term cardiotoxicity. Although numerous chronic conditions are documented among individuals treated for childhood cancer, the impact of these conditions on mobility and function are not well characterized, with most studies limited to survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors. Moving forward, further research assessing the impact of chronic conditions on participation in work and social activities is required. Moreover, interventions to prevent or ameliorate the loss of physical function among children treated for cancer are likely to become an important area of survivorship research.

  12. Epidemiological bases and molecular mechanisms linking obesity, diabetes, and cancer.

    Gutiérrez-Salmerón, María; Chocarro-Calvo, Ana; García-Martínez, José Manuel; de la Vieja, Antonio; García-Jiménez, Custodia

    2017-02-01

    The association between diabetes and cancer was hypothesized almost one century ago. Today, a vast number of epidemiological studies support that obese and diabetic populations are more likely to experience tissue-specific cancers, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Obesity, diabetes, and cancer share many hormonal, immune, and metabolic changes that may account for the relationship between diabetes and cancer. In addition, antidiabetic treatments may have an impact on the occurrence and course of some cancers. Moreover, some anticancer treatments may induce diabetes. These observations aroused a great controversy because of the ethical implications and the associated commercial interests. We report an epidemiological update from a mechanistic perspective that suggests the existence of many common and differential individual mechanisms linking obesity and type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus to certain cancers. The challenge today is to identify the molecular links responsible for this association. Classification of cancers by their molecular signatures may facilitate future mechanistic and epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Links between sex-typed time use in middle childhood and gender development in early adolescence.

    McHale, Susan M; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Whiteman, Shawn; Crouter, Ann C

    2004-09-01

    The authors studied sex-typing in the kinds (e.g., sports, handicrafts) and social contexts (same- vs. other-sex companions) of children's free time activities, and the links between sex-typed activities and gender development over 2 years. Participants were 200 White, working- and middle-class children (103 girls, 97 boys; mean age = 10.86 years). In annual home interviews, children rated their self-esteem, gender role attitudes and sex-typed personality qualities, academic interests, and school grades. During 7 nightly phone interviews each year, children reported on their activities. Boys were more sex-typed than girls in their peer activities, and children were least sex-typed in their activities with siblings. Sex-typed activities in middle childhood predicted individual differences in gender development in early adolescence. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  14. Links between Childhood and Adult Social Circumstances and Obesity and Hypertension in the Mexican Population

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Teruel, Graciela M.; Thomas, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study examines links between early life circumstances and adult socioeconomic status and obesity and hypertension in the adult Mexican population. Methods We use data from the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS) collected in 2002 for people aged 20 or older (N=14, 280). Results We found that men with low education and women with more education have significantly lower obesity. Women with higher education also have significantly less hypertension. Obesity triples the likelihood of hypertension among both men and women. Better childhood experiences are associated with less hypertension among women, but more hypertension among men in rural areas. Discussion Recent changes in income, nutrition, and infection in Mexico may be responsible for the observed high prevalence of overweight and obesity and the extremely high odds of hypertension among obese young adults. PMID:21948773

  15. Childhood cancer and environmental integrity: a commentary and a proposal

    Carlo Modonesi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Improvements in the health standards of developed and developing societies depend primarily on the relationships between economy and environment. Recent long-term changes in the chemical composition of man-made environments may be linked to changes in the biology of human beings. Here we argue that children are at the greatest risk of being affected by the dangerous effects of these changes, with particular reference to cancer. The concept of cancer risk must be extended to new contexts. Considering the increasing rates of chemical pollution and its spreading in the environment, we illustrate a proposal aiming to protect the human health, in an intra- and intergenerational perspective. A surveillance system of occupational and residential exposures should be implemented to prevent cancer risk in embryos and children.

  16. Childhood cancer and environmental integrity: a commentary and a proposal.

    Modonesi, Carlo; Oddone, Enrico; Panizza, Celestino; Gatta, Gemma

    2017-04-10

    Improvements in the health standards of developed and developing societies depend primarily on the relationships between economy and environment. Recent long-term changes in the chemical composition of man-made environments may be linked to changes in the biology of human beings. Here we argue that children are at the greatest risk of being affected by the dangerous effects of these changes, with particular reference to cancer. The concept of cancer risk must be extended to new contexts. Considering the increasing rates of chemical pollution and its spreading in the environment, we illustrate a proposal aiming to protect the human health, in an intra- and intergenerational perspective. A surveillance system of occupational and residential exposures should be implemented to prevent cancer risk in embryos and children.

  17. Longitudinal Links between Executive Function, Anger, and Aggression in Middle Childhood

    Rohlf, Helena L.; Holl, Anna K.; Kirsch, Fabian; Krahé, Barbara; Elsner, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that executive function (EF) is negatively associated with aggressive behavior in childhood. However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies that have examined the effect of deficits in EF on aggression over time and taken into account different forms and functions of aggression at the same time. Furthermore, only few studies have analyzed the role of underlying variables that may explain the association between EF and aggression. The present study examined the prospective paths between EF and different forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression. The habitual experience of anger was examined as a potential underlying mechanism of the link between EF and aggression, because the tendency to get angry easily has been found to be both a consequence of deficits in EF and a predictor of aggression. The study included 1,652 children (between 6 and 11 years old at the first time point), who were followed over three time points (T1, T2, and T3) covering 3 years. At T1, a latent factor of EF comprised measures of planning, rated via teacher reports, as well as inhibition, set shifting, and working-memory updating, assessed experimentally. Habitual anger experience was assessed via parent reports at T1 and T2. The forms and functions of aggression were measured via teacher reports at all three time points. Structural equation modeling revealed that EF at T1 predicted physical, relational, and reactive aggression at T3, but was unrelated to proactive aggression at T3. Furthermore, EF at T1 was indirectly linked to physical aggression at T3, mediated through habitual anger experience at T2. The results indicate that deficits in EF influence the later occurrence of aggression in middle childhood, and the tendency to get angry easily mediates this relation. PMID:29535615

  18. Longitudinal Links between Executive Function, Anger, and Aggression in Middle Childhood

    Helena L. Rohlf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has indicated that executive function (EF is negatively associated with aggressive behavior in childhood. However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies that have examined the effect of deficits in EF on aggression over time and taken into account different forms and functions of aggression at the same time. Furthermore, only few studies have analyzed the role of underlying variables that may explain the association between EF and aggression. The present study examined the prospective paths between EF and different forms (physical and relational and functions (reactive and proactive of aggression. The habitual experience of anger was examined as a potential underlying mechanism of the link between EF and aggression, because the tendency to get angry easily has been found to be both a consequence of deficits in EF and a predictor of aggression. The study included 1,652 children (between 6 and 11 years old at the first time point, who were followed over three time points (T1, T2, and T3 covering 3 years. At T1, a latent factor of EF comprised measures of planning, rated via teacher reports, as well as inhibition, set shifting, and working-memory updating, assessed experimentally. Habitual anger experience was assessed via parent reports at T1 and T2. The forms and functions of aggression were measured via teacher reports at all three time points. Structural equation modeling revealed that EF at T1 predicted physical, relational, and reactive aggression at T3, but was unrelated to proactive aggression at T3. Furthermore, EF at T1 was indirectly linked to physical aggression at T3, mediated through habitual anger experience at T2. The results indicate that deficits in EF influence the later occurrence of aggression in middle childhood, and the tendency to get angry easily mediates this relation.

  19. Life after cancer: how does public stigma increase psychological distress of childhood cancer survivors?

    Kim, Min Ah; Yi, Jaehee

    2014-12-01

    Public stigma is a major source of stress for cancer survivors. However, factors that buffer or exacerbate the negative effects of public stigma on psychological distress have not been elucidated. This study examined how perceived public stigma affects psychological distress as mediated by cancer disclosure, internalized reactions to stigma, and social support availability. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in South Korea. The study sample was 223 adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed before the age of 19 and currently between 15 and 39 years old. Psychological distress was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Structural equation modeling was used with 1000 bootstrap samples. The goodness of model fit was acceptable. Public stigma perceived by cancer survivors influenced psychological distress via cancer disclosure, internalized shame, and social support availability. Higher levels of perceived public stigma predicted higher levels of internalized shame and self-blame and lower levels of social support availability, which subsequently increased psychological distress. Higher levels of perceived public stigma predicted lower levels of disclosure about cancer history and experiences. Cancer disclosure indirectly ameliorated psychological distress by reducing internalized shame. This study offers evidence that cognitive and social factors play important roles in mediating the effects of perceived public stigma on psychological distress in Korean cancer survivors. A greater understanding of factors that influence psychological distress may help psychosocial oncology service providers to identify childhood cancer survivors in need of psychosocial services and provide them with appropriate resources and interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adult survivors of childhood cancers' identity disclosures in the workplace.

    Martinez, Larry R; Hebl, Michelle R

    2016-04-01

    Recent medical advances have resulted in unprecedented increases in the number and vitality of employed adult survivors. These survivors must make decisions about whether or not to disclose their identities to others. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics that are related to cancer survivorship disclosure in workplace settings (perceived organizational support, centrality of survivorship to one's self-concept, and the degree to which family and friends know about one's survivor status) and an important organizational consequence: intentions to leave one's job. A total of 151 adult survivors of childhood cancer completed an online survey. Extent of disclosure of one's identity as a cancer survivor was negatively associated with turnover intentions. Furthermore, organizational support, identity centrality, and disclosure outside of work were all related to disclosure in the workplace. Relative weight analysis revealed that disclosure outside of work was the most strongly related to disclosure at work. Finally, there were indirect relations such that disclosure mediated the relations among organizational support, identity centrality, and disclosure outside of work and turnover intentions. Survivors who were more open about their cancer survivor status at work had fewer intentions to leave their organizations. Importantly, although some antecedents to disclosure were personal characteristics, organizations can also encourage identity disclosure demonstrating that they are related to of work retention. While disclosure in the workplace is a complex decision to make, the relationship with work retention may reflect that disclosure is more likely to occur in an existing positive work environment or that disclosure itself may contribute to a positive work environment where employees tend to remain. The specific factors that trigger both disclosure and retention require further study although they are clearly related.

  1. Evaluation of the nutrition screening tool for childhood cancer (SCAN).

    Murphy, Alexia J; White, Melinda; Viani, Karina; Mosby, Terezie T

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition is a serious concern for children with cancer and nutrition screening may offer a simple alternative to nutrition assessment for identifying children with cancer who are at risk of malnutrition. The present paper aimed to evaluate the nutrition screening tool for childhood cancer (SCAN). SCAN was developed after an extensive review of currently available tools and published screening recommendation, consideration of pediatric oncology nutrition guidelines, piloting questions, and consulting with members of International Pediatric Oncology Nutrition Group. In Study 1, the accuracy and validity of SCAN against pediatric subjective global nutrition assessment (pediatric SGNA) was determined. In Study 2, subjects were classified as 'at risk of malnutrition' and 'not at risk of malnutrition' according to SCAN and measures of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition were compared between the groups. The validation of SCAN against pediatric SGNA showed SCAN had 'excellent' accuracy (0.90, 95% CI 0.78-1.00; p malnutrition' and 'not at risk of malnutrition' according to SCAN, the 'at risk of malnutrition' group had significantly lower values for weight Z score (p = 0.001), BMI Z score (p = 0.001) and fat mass index (FMI) (p = 0.04), than the 'not at risk of malnutrition' group. This study shows that SCAN is a simple, quick and valid tool which can be used to identify children with cancer who are at risk of malnutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical implications of malnutrition in childhood cancer patients-infections and mortality

    Loeffen, E. A. H.; Brinksma, A.; Miedema, K. G. E.; de Bock, G. H.; Tissing, W. J. E.

    In childhood cancer patients, malnutrition has been proposed to increase infection rates and reduce survival. We investigated whether malnutrition at diagnosis and during treatment and weight loss during treatment are prognostic factors for infection rates and survival, within a heterogeneous

  3. Specifying Links between Executive Functioning and Theory of Mind during Middle Childhood: Cognitive Flexibility Predicts Social Understanding

    Bock, Allison M.; Gallaway, Kristin C.; Hund, Alycia M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the development of and links between executive functioning and theory of mind during middle childhood. One hundred four 7- to 12-year-old children completed a battery of age-appropriate tasks measuring working memory, inhibition, flexibility, theory of mind, and vocabulary. As expected, spatial working…

  4. Middle Childhood Support-Seeking Behavior during Stress: Links with Self-Reported Attachment and Future Depressive Symptoms

    Dujardin, Adinda; Santens, Tara; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea; Bosmans, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether children's more anxious and avoidant attachment is linked to decreased support-seeking behavior toward their mother during stress in middle childhood, and whether children's decreased support-seeking behavior enhances the impact of experiencing life events on the increase of depressive symptoms 18 months later.…

  5. Childhood cancer in the surroundings of German nuclear power plants: report of an ongoing epidemiological study

    Schulze-Rath, R.; Kaatsch, P.; Schmiedel, S.; Spix, C.; Blettner, M.

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies could not show an association between ionising radiation of nuclear power stations in routine operation and the incidence of childhood cancer, yet. The following report presents a case control study conducted by the German Childhood Cancer Registry since autumn 2003. All children in the study region, who were diagnosed with cancer between 1980 and 2003 at an age below five are included. In the first part of the study we investigate whether children with cancer (cases) lived closer to the respective nuclear power stations compared to random children without cancer (controls). In the second part, for a subgroup of cases and controls we conduct computer assisted telephone interviews regarding confounders possibly associated with the exposure of ionising radiation and childhood cancer. Results are expected by the end of 2006. (orig.)

  6. Genome-wide association and longitudinal analyses reveal genetic loci linking pubertal height growth, pubertal timing and childhood adiposity

    Cousminer, Diana L.; Berry, Diane J.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Ang, Wei; Thiering, Elisabeth; Byrne, Enda M.; Taal, H. Rob; Huikari, Ville; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Marinelli, Marcella; Holst, Claus; Leinonen, Jaakko T.; Perry, John R. B.; Surakka, Ida; Pietilainen, Olli; Kettunen, Johannes; Anttila, Verneri; Kaakinen, Marika; Sovio, Ulla; Pouta, Anneli; Das, Shikta; Lagou, Vasiliki; Power, Chris; Prokopenko, Inga; Evans, David M.; Kemp, John P.; St Pourcain, Beate; Ring, Susan; Palotie, Aarno; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Lehtimaki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S.; Kahonen, Mika; Warrington, Nicole M.; Lye, Stephen J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Flexeder, Claudia; Montgomery, Grant W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hofman, Albert; Hakonarson, Hakon; Guxens, Monica; Bartels, Meike; Salomaa, Veikko; Koppelman, Gerard H.

    2013-01-01

    The pubertal height growth spurt is a distinctive feature of childhood growth reflecting both the central onset of puberty and local growth factors. Although little is known about the underlying genetics, growth variability during puberty correlates with adult risks for hormone-dependent cancer and

  7. Risk of second bone sarcoma following childhood cancer: role of radiation therapy treatment

    Schwartz, Boris; Benadjaoud, Mohamed Amine; Clero, Enora; Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Teinturier, Cecile; Oberlin, Odile; Veres, Cristina; Pacquement, Helene; Munzer, Martine; Tan Dat N'Guyen; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne

    2014-01-01

    International audience; : Bone sarcoma as a second malignancy is rare but highly fatal. The present knowledge about radiation-absorbed organ dose-response is insufficient to predict the risks induced by radiation therapy techniques. The objective of the present study was to assess the treatment-induced risk for bone sarcoma following a childhood cancer and particularly the related risk of radiotherapy. Therefore, a retrospective cohort of 4,171 survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated be...

  8. Second malignant neoplasms after childhood cancer: a report of three cases of osteogenic sarcoma

    Ironside, J.A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The rising incidence of second malignant neoplasms after childhood cancer, whilst due in part to increasing numbers of survivors, is also thought to be related to increasingly more intensive combined modality treatment schedules. Three illustrative cases are reported in which radiation therapy in childhood for the first cancer is thought to have been a significant aetiological factor in the pathogenesis of the second malignancy (which in all three patients was an osteogenic sarcoma). (author)

  9. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen...... therapy. Furthermore, risk factors such as prostate inflammation and metabolic disruption have key roles in the development of both diseases. Despite these commonalities, BPH and prostate cancer exhibit important differences in terms of histology and localization. Although large-scale epidemiological...... studies have shown that men with BPH have an increased risk of prostate cancer and prostate-cancer-related mortality, it remains unclear whether this association reflects a causal link, shared risk factors or pathophysiological mechanisms, or detection bias upon statistical analysis. Establishing BPH...

  10. Childhood cancer survivors' school (re)entry: Australian parents' perceptions.

    McLoone, J K; Wakefield, C E; Cohn, R J

    2013-07-01

    Starting or returning to school after intense medical treatment can be academically and socially challenging for childhood cancer survivors. This study aimed to evaluate the school (re)entry experience of children who had recently completed cancer treatment. Forty-two semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore parents' perceptions of their child's (re)entry to school after completing treatment (23 mothers, 19 fathers, parent mean age 39.5 years; child mean age 7.76 years). Interviews were analysed using the framework of Miles and Huberman and emergent themes were organised using QSR NVivo8. Parents closely monitored their child's school (re)entry and fostered close relationships with their child's teacher to ensure swift communication of concerns should they arise. The most commonly reported difficulty related to aspects of peer socialisation; survivors either displayed a limited understanding of social rules such as turn taking, or related more to older children or teachers relative to their peers. Additionally, parents placed a strong emphasis on their child's overall personal development, above academic achievement alone. Improved parent, clinician and teacher awareness of the importance of continued peer socialisation during the treatment period is recommended in order to limit the ongoing ramifications this may have on school (re)entry post-treatment completion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Autosomal-recessive and X-linked forms of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy in childhood.

    Ouvrier, Robert; Geevasingha, Nimeshan; Ryan, Monique M

    2007-08-01

    The hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSNs, Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies) are the most common degenerative disorders of the peripheral nervous system. In recent years a dramatic expansion has occurred in our understanding of the molecular basis and cell biology of the recessively inherited demyelinating and axonal neuropathies, with delineation of a number of new neuropathies. Mutations in some genes cause a wide variety of clinical, neurophysiologic, and pathologic phenotypes, rendering diagnosis difficult. The X-linked forms of HMSN represent at least 10%-15% of all HMSNs and have an expanded disease spectrum including demyelinating, intermediate, and axonal neuropathies, transient central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, mental retardation, and hearing loss. This review presents an overview of the recessive and X-linked forms of HMSN observed in childhood, with particular reference to disease phenotype and neurophysiologic and pathologic abnormalities suggestive of specific diagnoses. These findings can be used by the clinician to formulate a differential diagnosis and guide targeted genetic testing.

  12. Biological motion perception links diverse facets of theory of mind during middle childhood.

    Rice, Katherine; Anderson, Laura C; Velnoskey, Kayla; Thompson, James C; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Two cornerstones of social development--social perception and theory of mind--undergo brain and behavioral changes during middle childhood, but the link between these developing domains is unclear. One theoretical perspective argues that these skills represent domain-specific areas of social development, whereas other perspectives suggest that both skills may reflect a more integrated social system. Given recent evidence from adults that these superficially different domains may be related, the current study examined the developmental relation between these social processes in 52 children aged 7 to 12 years. Controlling for age and IQ, social perception (perception of biological motion in noise) was significantly correlated with two measures of theory of mind: one in which children made mental state inferences based on photographs of the eye region of the face and another in which children made mental state inferences based on stories. Social perception, however, was not correlated with children's ability to make physical inferences from stories about people. Furthermore, the mental state inference tasks were not correlated with each other, suggesting a role for social perception in linking various facets of theory of mind. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reprint of "Biological motion perception links diverse facets of theory of mind during middle childhood".

    Rice, Katherine; Anderson, Laura C; Velnoskey, Kayla; Thompson, James C; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    Two cornerstones of social development-social perception and theory of mind-undergo brain and behavioral changes during middle childhood, but the link between these developing domains is unclear. One theoretical perspective argues that these skills represent domain-specific areas of social development, whereas other perspectives suggest that both skills may reflect a more integrated social system. Given recent evidence from adults that these superficially different domains may be related, the current study examined the developmental relation between these social processes in 52 children aged 7 to 12years. Controlling for age and IQ, social perception (perception of biological motion in noise) was significantly correlated with two measures of theory of mind: one in which children made mental state inferences based on photographs of the eye region of the face and another in which children made mental state inferences based on stories. Social perception, however, was not correlated with children's ability to make physical inferences from stories about people. Furthermore, the mental state inference tasks were not correlated with each other, suggesting a role for social perception in linking various facets of theory of mind. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Social Networking Site Usage Among Childhood Cancer Survivors - A Potential Tool for Research Recruitment?

    Seltzer, Erica D.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Mensah, Edward K.; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors’ reported use of SNS such as facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Methods Sixty White, Black and Hispanic, adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18 – 48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study (CHLS), participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Results Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80% were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. Conclusions and implications for cancer survivors The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research. PMID:24532046

  15. Information model design health service childhood cancer for parents and caregivers

    Ramli, Syazwani; Muda, Zurina

    2015-05-01

    Most Malaysians do not realize that they are suffer from a chronic disease until the disease is confirmed to be at a critical stage. This is because lack of awareness among Malaysians about a chronic disease especially in a childhood cancer. Based on report of the National Cancer Council (MAKNA),11 million adults and children suffered with cancer and 6 million of them die in a worldwide. Lack of public exposure to this disease leads to health problems to their children. Information model design health service childhood cancer for p arents and caregivers using an android application medium can be used by a doctor to deliver an information of cancer to the parents and caregivers. The development of this information model design health service childhood cancer for parents and caregivers are using an integration of health promotion theory, spiral model and lean model to form a new model that can be used as a model design content of health service. The method using in this study are by an interview technique and questionnaires along the study was conducted. Hopefully the production of this information model design health service childhood cancer for parents and caregivers using an android apps as a medium can help parents, caregivers and public to know more about information of childhood cancer and at the same time can gain an awareness among them and this app also can be used as a medium for doctors to deliver an information to the parents and caregivers.

  16. Epigenetic: a molecular link between testicular cancer and environmental exposures?

    Aurelie eVega

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, studies in rodents have highlighted links between in utero and/or neonatal exposures to molecules that alter endocrine functions and the development of genital tract abnormalities, such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and impaired spermatogenesis. Most of these molecules, called endocrine disrupters (EDs exert estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities. These data led to the hypothesis of the Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome which postulates that these disorders are one clinical entity and are linked by epidemiological and pathophysiological relations. Futhermore, infertility has been stated as a risk factor for testicular cancer. The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past decades. Most of testicular germ cell cancers develop through a pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS from fetal germ cells (primordial germ cell or gonocyte. During their development, fetal germ cells undergo epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, several lines of evidence have shown that gene regulation through epigenetic mechanisms (DNA and histone modifications plays an important role in normal development as well as in various diseases, including testicular cancer.Here we will review chromatin modifications which can affect testicular physiology leading to the development of testicular cancer; and highlight potential molecular pathways involved in these alterations in the context of environmental exposures.

  17. Radiotherapy and subsequent thyroid cancer in German childhood cancer survivors: a nested case–control study

    Finke, Isabelle; Scholz-Kreisel, Peter; Hennewig, Ulrike; Blettner, Maria; Spix, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is associated with a risk of subsequent neoplasms (SN) in childhood cancer survivors. It has been shown that children’s thyroid glands are especially susceptible. The aim is to quantify the risk of a second neck neoplasm after primary cancer radiotherapy with emphasis on thyroid cancer. We performed a nested case–control study: 29 individuals, diagnosed with a solid SN in the neck region, including 17 with thyroid cancer, in 1980–2002 and 57 matched controls with single neoplasms were selected from the database of the German Childhood Cancer Registry. We investigated the risk associated with radiotherapy exposure given per body region, adjusted for chemotherapy. 16/17 (94.1 %) thyroid SN cases, 9/12 (75 %) other neck SN cases and 34/57 (59.6 %) controls received radiotherapy, with median doses of 27.8, 25 and 24 Gy, respectively. Radiotherapy exposure to the neck region increased the risk of the other neck SNs by 4.2 % (OR = 1.042/Gy (95 %-CI 0.980-1.109)) and of thyroid SN by 5.1 % (OR = 1.051/Gy (95 %-CI 0.984-1.123)), and radiotherapy to the neck or spine region increased the thyroid risk by 6.6 % (OR = 1.066/Gy (95 %-CI 1.010-1.125)). Chemotherapy was not a confounder. Exposure to other body regions was not associated with increased risk. Radiotherapy in the neck or spine region increases the risk of thyroid cancer, while neck exposure increases the risk of any other solid SN to a similar extent. Other studies showed a decreasing risk of subsequent thyroid cancer for very high doses; we cannot confirm this

  18. The Oxford survey of childhood cancers. A description of the largest and longest continuing national study of childhood cancers in Britain

    Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.; Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.

    1989-06-01

    The OSCC was initiated by Alice Stewart and David Hewitt of the University of Oxford to investigate the annual peak of leukaemia mortality in the 3rd and 4th years of life which had been noted by the latter (Hewitt, 1955). Of particular interest was the possibility that this was the result of an antenatal event related to medical innovations of the time, e.g. radiology and antibiotics. Since its inception the OSCC has produced over 200 publications relating to aetiology of childhood cancer. Some of the more important findings include the identification of factors which exert an independent effect on childhood cancer risk. First born children are at greatest risk of childhood cancer, particularly leukaemia, than children of higher birth rank. Children whose parents are in social class I have the highest risk of childhood cancers of all social classes (Kneale and Steward, 1976). Children with Down's Syndrome have a risk of developing leukaemia which is about 20 times that of normal children (Stewart et al, 1958). A major finding of the OSCC was that children who have been irradiated in utero by abdominal x-ray examination of their mother during pregnancy have a significantly increased risk of developing cancer

  19. Social networking site usage among childhood cancer survivors--a potential tool for research recruitment?

    Seltzer, Erica D; Stolley, Melinda R; Mensah, Edward K; Sharp, Lisa K

    2014-09-01

    The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors' reported use of SNS such as Facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Sixty White, Black, and Hispanic adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18-48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study, participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80 % were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research.

  20. Exploration of life experiences of positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Kim, Yoonjung

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore experiences of positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors, from their perspective. Fifteen long-term survivors of childhood cancer provided descriptions of their experiences. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and the analysis was based on Giorgi's phenomenological research method. The analysis of positive growth experienced by long-term childhood cancer survivors revealed three themes: self-directed life, normalcy in life, and inner maturity. Long-term survivors defined positive growth as a successful transition to a self-satisfactory life based on motivation acquired through their cancer experience and on subjective goal-setting, as well as becoming cancer-free and living a normal life within society. They seemed to have acquired optimistic, flexible, active attitudes toward life while demonstrating profound gratefulness and consideration of people around them, as well as prudent approaches to health. The findings of this study verified that long-term survivors of childhood cancer have grown positively due to their negative past experience. We expect these findings to contribute to the development of programs that promote positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regression models for linking patterns of growth to a later outcome: infant growth and childhood overweight

    Andrew K. Wills

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regression models are widely used to link serial measures of anthropometric size or changes in size to a later outcome. Different parameterisations of these models enable one to target different questions about the effect of growth, however, their interpretation can be challenging. Our objective was to formulate and classify several sets of parameterisations by their underlying growth pattern contrast, and to discuss their utility using an expository example. Methods We describe and classify five sets of model parameterisations in accordance with their underlying growth pattern contrast (conditional growth; being bigger v being smaller; becoming bigger and staying bigger; growing faster v being bigger; becoming and staying bigger versus being bigger. The contrasts are estimated by including different sets of repeated measures of size and changes in size in a regression model. We illustrate these models in the setting of linking infant growth (measured on 6 occasions: birth, 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months in weight-for-height-for-age z-scores to later childhood overweight at 8y using complete cases from the Norwegian Childhood Growth study (n = 900. Results In our expository example, conditional growth during all periods, becoming bigger in any interval and staying bigger through infancy, and being bigger from birth were all associated with higher odds of later overweight. The highest odds of later overweight occurred for individuals who experienced high conditional growth or became bigger in the 3 to 6 month period and stayed bigger, and those who were bigger from birth to 24 months. Comparisons between periods and between growth patterns require large sample sizes and need to consider how to scale associations to make comparisons fair; with respect to the latter, we show one approach. Conclusion Studies interested in detrimental growth patterns may gain extra insight from reporting several sets of growth pattern

  2. Memories of Parent Behaviors and Adult Attachment in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Keim, Madelaine C; Guthrie, Lory; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2017-03-01

    Childhood cancer is stressful for the entire family. Preoccupation and anxiety surrounding the child's illness may result in parents of children with cancer being overprotective or less emotionally responsive toward their children. Such parenting in response to a negative life event like childhood cancer may cause survivors to be more insecurely attached than healthy peers, which could have downstream effects on survivors' romantic relationships later in life. Therefore, we examined survivors' perspectives on parent behaviors, adult attachment, and marital status among adult survivors of childhood cancer relative to controls. One hundred forty-nine young adult survivors and 149 matched controls (M age  = 28, range 20-40) indicated their relationship status (single vs. partnered) and completed standardized questionnaires assessing memories of upbringing (warmth, overprotection, rejection) and adult attachment (avoidance, anxiety). Adult survivors of childhood cancer remembered mothers and fathers as emotionally warmer (d = 0.53/0.30), and mothers as less rejecting than controls (d = 0.30). Adult attachment was overall similar between survivors and controls, but partnered survivors reported particularly low attachment-related anxiety. Childhood cancer was related to higher mother and father warmth, which were associated with lower attachment-related avoidance and in turn with a greater likelihood of being in a relationship. Adult childhood cancer survivors did not remember their parents as overprotective, but reported more positive parenting relative to controls; and similar adult attachment and relationship status. The results were unexpected, but offer novel insights for future prospective studies, which are necessary to better understand psychosocial late effects of childhood cancer.

  3. Childhood and adult cancer in twins: evidence from the Utah genealogy.

    Neale, Rachel E; Mineau, Geraldine; Whiteman, David C; Brownbill, Pat A; Murphy, Michael F G

    2005-05-01

    Evidence suggests that the in utero environment may contribute to subsequent development of cancers in childhood and adulthood. Raised levels of estrogen during pregnancy may be the primary in utero etiologic factor. Mothers of twins have higher estrogen levels during pregnancy than mothers of singletons, therefore, assessment of cancer risk in twins may be informative. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of cancer among twin and singleton newborns selected from the Utah Population Database, matched on birth year and sex. Cancer diagnoses were determined by linkage with the Utah state cancer register. Relative rates of all cancers in childhood and in adulthood in twins compared with singletons, and for specific cancers including testicular, breast and melanoma, were calculated using Poisson regression. Twin (35,271) and singleton (74,199) births were identified, among whom there were 336 and 691 cancer diagnoses, respectively. The relative risk (RR) of childhood cancer in twins compared with singletons was 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-1.24] and of adult cancer was 1.06 (0.92-1.22). We found nonsignificant increases in risk among adult twins for cancers of the breast, prostate, testis, lymphatic system, thyroid, and large bowel. The largest departures from unity were for testicular cancer (RR 1.47; 95% CI, 0.73-2.95) and melanoma (RR 0.67; 95% CI, 0.42-1.06). These results are consistent with the body of evidence suggesting that twins have a reduced risk of cancer in childhood. Although there is no overall differential in adult cancer risk, these data support the hypothesis that the in utero environment may play an important role in specific cancers.

  4. Linking Childhood Maltreatment to Substance Use in College Students: The Mediating Role of Self-Worth Contingencies.

    Kim, Jungmeen; Williams, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the link between childhood maltreatment and substance use focusing on examining contingencies of self-worth (CSW) as mediators among college students (N = 513). Structural equation modeling indicated that childhood sexual abuse among females was related to lower God's love CSW, which in turn was related to higher levels of cigarette, marijuana, and other illicit drug use, supporting the mediational role of God's love CSW. Correlational analyses demonstrated that, for both male and female students, external contingency of appearance was related to higher substance use, whereas internal contingencies of God's love and virtue were related to lower substance use. The findings highlight the protective role of internal CSW in substance use among females with childhood sexual abuse.

  5. Shared Care of Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Telemedicine Feasibility Study.

    Costello, Aimee G; Nugent, Bethany D; Conover, Noelle; Moore, Amanda; Dempsey, Kathleen; Tersak, Jean M

    2017-12-01

    With an increasing number of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), determining the best model of survivorship transition care is becoming a growing priority. Shared care between pediatric oncology and adult primary care is often necessary, making survivorship a time of transition, but effective standard models are lacking. We sought to provide a more integrated approach to transition using telemedicine. Recruited primary care provider/CCS dyads were instructed to log-in to a password-protected virtual meeting room using telemedicine equipment at the time or a regularly scheduled office visit. Dyads were joined by a pediatric survivorship clinic team member who conducted the telemedicine portion of the transition visit, which consisted of the review of an individualized treatment summary and care plan. Postquestionnaires were developed to evaluate key points such as fund of knowledge, satisfaction with the visit, and effectiveness of this electronic tool. There were 19 transition visits conducted, 13 of which used the telemedicine equipment as planned. Those that did not use the equipment were primarily unable to due to technical difficulties. Postquestionnaires were overall positive, confirming increased knowledge, comfort and abilities, and patient satisfaction in survivorship care. Negative comments were primarily related to equipment difficulties. A gap still remains in helping CCSs transition from oncology to primary care and this pilot study offered insights into how we might better bridge that gap through the use of telemedicine. Further research is needed to refine the transition process for CCSs, including evaluation and testing models for standard of care.

  6. Childhood maltreatment, psychological resources, and depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer.

    Kuhlman, Kate Ryan; Boyle, Chloe C; Irwin, Michael R; Ganz, Patricia A; Crespi, Catherine M; Asher, Arash; Petersen, Laura; Bower, Julienne E

    2017-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with elevated risk for depression across the human lifespan. Identifying the pathways through which childhood maltreatment relates to depressive symptoms may elucidate intervention targets that have the potential to reduce the lifelong negative health sequelae of maltreatment exposure. In this cross-sectional study, 271 women with early-stage breast cancer were assessed after their diagnosis but before the start of adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy, radiation, endocrine therapy). Participants completed measures of childhood maltreatment exposure, psychological resources (optimism, mastery, self-esteem, mindfulness), and depressive symptoms. Using multiple mediation analyses, we examined which psychological resources uniquely mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms. Exposure to maltreatment during childhood was robustly associated with lower psychological resources and elevated depressive symptoms. Further, lower optimism and mindfulness mediated the association between childhood maltreatment and elevated depressive symptoms. These results support existing theory that childhood maltreatment is associated with lower psychological resources, which partially explains elevated depressive symptoms in a sample of women facing breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. These findings warrant replication in populations facing other major life events and highlight the need for additional studies examining childhood maltreatment as a moderator of treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The origins of cognitive vulnerability in early childhood: mechanisms linking early attachment to later depression.

    Morley, Tara E; Moran, Greg

    2011-11-01

    This paper examines the theory and research linking attachment relationships to cognitive vulnerability to depression and assesses evidence that early attachment experiences contribute to the development of these cognitive processes. Most research in this area has involved adult participants using self-report measures of both attachment and depressive vulnerabilities and thus cannot convincingly speak to the existence of such a developmental pathway. Several studies, however, have followed individuals from infancy and examined the emergence of self-esteem and responses to failure throughout childhood and adolescence. These studies suggest that early experiences in non-secure attachment relationships place an individual at-risk for developing a cognitive framework that increases their vulnerability to depression following stressful life events. The paper concludes with a discussion of how future research might best explore specific mechanisms through which distinct attachment relationships may lead to divergent developmental pathways sharing the common outcome of cognitive processes that place individuals at risk for depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parents of childhood X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: high risk for depression and neurosis.

    Kuratsubo, Izumi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Kondo, Naomi

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mental health in parents of patients with the childhood cerebral form of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (CCALD) and to investigate factors relating to psychological problems in order to improve clinical management and quality of life. Sixteen fathers and 21 mothers of patients with CCALD completed a battery of psychological examinations including the Beck Depression Inventory second edition (BDI-II), the General Health Questionnaire 60 (GHQ60), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Three fathers and 11 mothers showed high scores on the BDI-II, suggesting that they were in a depressive state. Depression in the mothers was serious as compared with previous reports. Six fathers and 11 mothers were considered to be in a state of neurosis, according to the results of the GHQ60. Four fathers and 8 mothers showed high levels of anxiety on the STAI. Health and social status of the mothers correlated with their mental health, and younger mothers with young patients tended to be more depressed. Thus, parents of patients with CCALD have a high risk of depression and neurosis. Understanding the mental state of these parents and improvements in the social support system including mental counseling, home nursing care, supports in workplace and community are necessary to prevent and treat psychological problems. Especially, early intervention for mental health problems should be provided for younger mothers with few years since the child's diagnosis.

  9. Linking Adverse Childhood Effects and Attachment: A Theory of Etiology for Sexual Offending.

    Grady, Melissa D; Levenson, Jill S; Bolder, Tess

    2016-01-25

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem affecting significant portions of the population. Unfortunately, an agreed upon theory of etiology remains elusive leading to challenges in developing effective prevention and treatment interventions. Recently, there is a growing body of literature examining the role of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the development of sexually violent behavior. This research has begun to explore the rates of various types of child maltreatments and family dysfunction in individuals who have been convicted of a sexual crime. These empirical inquiries have been primarily descriptive in nature and have not yet provided a cohesive theoretical model as to why the presence of ACEs might contribute to sexually abusive behavior. This article suggests that attachment theory offers an explanatory link between early adversity and sexually abusive behavior in adulthood. We first summarize important attachment theory concepts, then integrate them with research in the area of developmental psychopathology and ACEs, and finally propose a model by which attachment can be used as an explanatory theory for subsequent sexualized coping and sexually abusive behaviors. Finally, this article explores the implications for practice, policy, and research using this explanatory theory as a framework for understanding sexual violence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Childhood animal cruelty, bestiality, and the link to adult interpersonal violence.

    Holoyda, Brian J; Newman, William J

    2016-01-01

    Animal cruelty has been a concern of the legal and psychiatric communities for many years. Beginning in the early 1800s, state legislatures in the United States established laws to protect the basic safety and security of animals in their jurisdictions. Legislatures have differed in opinion on the animals to receive protection under the law and have instituted differing penalties for infractions of anti-cruelty measures. In the 1960s, the psychiatric community took notice of childhood animal cruelty as a potential risk factor for violent acts against humans. Since that time there has been increasing evidence that children who engage in animal cruelty may be at increased risk of interpersonal offenses in adulthood. Less is known about children and adults who engage in bestiality and the potential risk that these individuals may pose for interpersonal sexual or nonsexual violent acts. We review the legal status of animal cruelty in the United States, summarize the history of psychiatric interest in and research of animal cruelty, describe current knowledge regarding the link between animal cruelty and violence, and propose a novel classification scheme for individuals who engage in bestiality to assist forensic psychiatric examiners in determining the risk that such behavior poses for future interpersonal offending. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical implications of malnutrition in childhood cancer patients--infections and mortality.

    Loeffen, E A H; Brinksma, A; Miedema, K G E; de Bock, G H; Tissing, W J E

    2015-01-01

    In childhood cancer patients, malnutrition has been proposed to increase infection rates and reduce survival. We investigated whether malnutrition at diagnosis and during treatment and weight loss during treatment are prognostic factors for infection rates and survival, within a heterogeneous childhood cancer population. From two previous studies, all children ≤18 years of age diagnosed with cancer between October 2004 and October 2011 were included in this study. Data regarding BMI, infections, and survival were retrieved. Patients with a BMI z-score lower than -2.0 were classified as malnourished. Weight loss more than 5% was considered relevant. Two hundred sixty-nine childhood cancer patients were included in this study. At diagnosis, 5.2% of all patients were malnourished. These patients showed worse survival than those who were well nourished (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.52-8.70, p = 0.004). Malnourishment at 3 months after diagnosis (3.3% of all patients) also showed worse survival (HR = 6.34, 95% CI = 2.42-16.65, p childhood cancer patients. In addition, we found for the first time that weight loss during treatment is associated with increased presence of febrile neutropenic episodes with bacteremia. This underlines the importance of optimal feeding designs in childhood cancer patients.

  12. Memories of Parent Behaviors and Adult Attachment in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Keim, Madelaine C; Guthrie, Lory; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A

    PURPOSE: Childhood cancer is stressful for the entire family. Preoccupation and anxiety surrounding the child's illness may result in parents of children with cancer being overprotective or less emotionally responsive toward their children. Such parenting in response to a negative life event like

  13. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Bihrmann, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight, child...

  14. Identification of Genetic Susceptibility to Childhood Cancer through Analysis of Genes in Parallel

    Plon, Sharon E.; Wheeler, David A.; Strong, Louise C.; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Pirics, Michael; Meng, Qingchang; Cheung, Hannah C.; Begin, Phyllis R.; Muzny, Donna M.; Lewis, Lora; Biegel, Jaclyn A.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical cancer genetic susceptibility analysis typically proceeds sequentially beginning with the most likely causative gene. The process is time consuming and the yield is low particularly for families with unusual patterns of cancer. We determined the results of in parallel mutation analysis of a large cancer-associated gene panel. We performed deletion analysis and sequenced the coding regions of 45 genes (8 oncogenes and 37 tumor suppressor or DNA repair genes) in 48 childhood cancer patients who also (1) were diagnosed with a second malignancy under age 30, (2) have a sibling diagnosed with cancer under age 30 and/or (3) have a major congenital anomaly or developmental delay. Deleterious mutations were identified in 6 of 48 (13%) families, 4 of which met the sibling criteria. Mutations were identified in genes previously implicated in both dominant and recessive childhood syndromes including SMARCB1, PMS2, and TP53. No pathogenic deletions were identified. This approach has provided efficient identification of childhood cancer susceptibility mutations and will have greater utility as additional cancer susceptibility genes are identified. Integrating parallel analysis of large gene panels into clinical testing will speed results and increase diagnostic yield. The failure to detect mutations in 87% of families highlights that a number of childhood cancer susceptibility genes remain to be discovered. PMID:21356188

  15. Childhood body mass index and height and risk of histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer

    Aarestrup, J.; Gamborg, M.; Ulrich, L. G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer risk factors include adult obesity and taller stature, but the influence of size earlier in life is incompletely understood. We examined whether childhood body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and height were associated with histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer...

  16. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis

    Knijnenburg, S. L.; Raemaekers, S.; van den Berg, H.; van Dijk, I. W. E. M.; Lieverst, J. A.; van der Pal, H. J.; Jaspers, M. W. M.; Caron, H. N.; Kremer, L. C.; van Santen, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of

  17. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  18. Socio-economic Status Plays Important Roles in Childhood Cancer Treatment Outcome in Indonesia

    Mostert, S.; Gunawan, S.; Wolters, E.; van de Ven, P.M.; Sitaresmi, M.N.; van Dongen, J.; Veerman, A.J.P.; Mantik, M.F.J.; Kaspers, G.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The influence of parental socio-economic status on childhood cancer treatment outcome in low-income countries has not been sufficiently investigated. Our study examined this influence and explored parental experiences during cancer treatment of their children in an Indonesian academic

  19. Childhood leukaemia in Europe after Chernobyl: Five year follow-up of cancer registry populations

    Parkin, D.M.; Black, R.J.; Kramarova, E.; Clayton, D.

    1997-01-01

    The European Childhood Leukaemia-Lymphoma Incidence Study (ECLIS) aims to monitor trends in the incidence of these diseases in European populations in relation to estimated exposures to radioactive material released at the time of the Chernobyl accident. Thirty-six cancer registries in 23 countries are collaborating in ECLIS, coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 3 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Childhood leukaemia in Europe after Chernobyl: Five year follow-up of cancer registry populations

    Parkin, D M; Black, R J; Kramarova, E [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); Clayton, D [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    The European Childhood Leukaemia-Lymphoma Incidence Study (ECLIS) aims to monitor trends in the incidence of these diseases in European populations in relation to estimated exposures to radioactive material released at the time of the Chernobyl accident. Thirty-six cancer registries in 23 countries are collaborating in ECLIS, coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 3 figs, 3 tabs.

  1. Medical assessment of adverse health outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    Geenen, Maud M.; Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; van den Bos, Cor; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Heinen, Richard C.; Jaspers, Monique W. M.; Koning, Caro C. E.; Oldenburger, Foppe; Langeveld, Nelia E.; Hart, Augustinus A. M.; Bakker, Piet J. M.; Caron, Huib N.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Improved survival of children with cancer has been accompanied by multiple treatment-related complications. However, most studies in survivors of childhood cancer focused on only 1 late effect. OBJECTIVE: To assess the total burden of adverse health outcomes (clinical or subclinical

  2. Reproductive status in adult male long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    Tromp, K.; Claessens, J. J. M.; Knijnenburg, S. L.; van der Pal, H. J. H.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Caron, H. N.; Beerendonk, C. C. M.; Kremer, L. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the long-term effects of cancer therapies on reproductive status in adult male childhood cancer survivors, evaluated the treatment-related risk factors for hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and assessed the association between the FSH levels and the later need for assisted

  3. Reproductive status in adult male long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    Tromp, K.; Claessens, J.J.M.; Knijnenburg, S.L.; Pal, H.J. van der; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Caron, H.N.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Kremer, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the long-term effects of cancer therapies on reproductive status in adult male childhood cancer survivors, evaluated the treatment-related risk factors for hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and assessed the association between the FSH levels and the later need for

  4. Quality of life, self-esteem and worries in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.; van den Bos, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed quality of life, self-esteem and worries in young adult survivors of childhood cancer compared to a group of young adults with no history of cancer. The impact of demographic, medical and treatment factors and self-esteem on survivors' quality of life and worries was studied.

  5. Breast Cancer Following Spinal Irradiation for a Childhood Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Malhotra, Jyoti; Chou, Joanne F.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Robison, Leslie L.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary It has been suggested that pediatric patients treated with spinal irradiation may have an elevated risk of breast cancer. Among a cohort of 363 long-term survivors of a pediatric central nervous system tumor or leukemia treated with spinal irradiation, there was little evidence of an increased breast cancer risk. PMID:26391961

  6. Association of childhood trauma with fatigue, depression, stress, and inflammation in breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

    Han, Tatiana J; Felger, Jennifer C; Lee, Anna; Mister, Donna; Miller, Andrew H; Torres, Mylin A

    2016-02-01

    This pilot study examined whether breast cancer patients with childhood trauma exhibit increased fatigue, depression, and stress in association with inflammation as a result of whole breast radiotherapy (RT). Twenty breast cancer patients were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal study of fatigue, depression, and perceived stress prior to RT, week 6 of RT, and 6 weeks post-RT. Six weeks after RT, subjects completed the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ). Patients were also administered the multidimensional fatigue inventory, inventory of depressive symptomatology-self-reported, and perceived stress scale at all three time-points and underwent blood sampling prior to RT for gene expression and inflammatory markers previously associated with childhood trauma and behavioral symptoms in breast cancer patients. Eight subjects (40%) had past childhood trauma (CTQ+). Compared to CTQ- patients, CTQ+ patients had significantly higher fatigue, depression, and stress scores before, during, and after RT (p fatigue, and stress scores in CTQ+ but not CTQ- patients. Childhood trauma was prevalent and was associated with increased symptoms of fatigue, depression, and stress irrespective of RT. Increased symptoms in CTQ+ patients were also associated with baseline inflammatory markers. Treatments targeting childhood trauma and related inflammation may improve symptoms in breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The risk of childhood cancer from intrauterine and preconceptional exposure to ionizing radiation

    Wakeford, R.

    1995-01-01

    The findings of studies investigating whether exposures to ionizing radiation before birth, either pre- or post-conception, increase the risk of childhood cancer have provoked much scientific controversy. An epidemiological association between the abdominal exposure or pregnant women to diagnostic X-rays and childhood cancer was first reported in the 1950s, while an association between the recorded dose of radiation received occupationally by fathers before the conception of their offspring and childhood leukemia was reported only recently in 1990. The scientific interpretation of these particular statistical associations is by no means straightforward, but the latest analyses of intrauterine irradiation and childhood cancer indicate that a causal inference is likely. Scientific committees have adopted risk coefficients for the intrauterine exposure of somatic tissues, which for childhood leukemia are comparable to those accepted for exposure in infancy, although questions remain about the level of risk of childhood solid tumors imparted by exposure to radiation in utero and shortly after birth. In contrast, the association has been found to be restricted to children born in one village, it does not extend to cancers other than leukemia, and it is markedly inconsistent with the established body of knowledge on radiation-induced hereditary disease. A causal interpretation of this association has effectively been abandoned by scientific authorities. 84 refs., 1 tab

  8. The burden of childhood cancer in Mexico: Implications for low- and middle-income countries.

    Rivera-Luna, Roberto; Zapata-Tarres, Marta; Shalkow-Klincovstein, Jaime; Velasco-Hidalgo, Liliana; Olaya-Vargas, Alberto; Finkelstein-Mizrahi, Nicole; Cárdenas-Cardós, Rocío; Aguilar-Ortiz, Marco R

    2017-06-01

    In Mexico, childhood cancer incidence and mortality have increased in the last decade. Through government actions since 2005, the Popular Medical Insurance (PMI) program for childhood cancer was created. The objective of PMI was to offer early cancer diagnosis, standardized treatment regimens, and numerous pediatric oncology residency programs. It has also accredited 55 national hospitals for the care of these children. Current problems still present under the PMI include shortage of pediatric oncologists and nurses and high rate of abandonment of treatment. Our aim is to describe the current scenario of childhood cancer care in Mexico, especially from the perspective of the PMI and how it has impacted human resources, infrastructure, and medical education. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Adversity in childhood linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood

    Egerton, A.; Valmaggia, L. R.; Howes, O. D.; Day, F.; Chaddock, C. A.; Allen, P.; Winton-Brown, T. T.; Bloomfield, M. A. P.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Chilcott, J.; Lappin, J. M.; Murray, R. M.; McGuire, P.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adversity increases the risk of psychosis in adulthood. Theoretical and animal models suggest that this effect may be mediated by increased striatal dopamine neurotransmission. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between adversity in childhood and striatal dopamine function in early adulthood. Secondary objectives were to compare exposure to childhood adversity and striatal dopamine function in young people at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis and he...

  10. A link between maternal malnutrition and depletion of glutathione in the developing lens: a possible explanation for idiopathic childhood cataract?

    Kumar, Deepa; Lim, Julie C; Donaldson, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    Lens cataract is the leading cause of blindness in developing countries. While cataract is primarily a disease of old age and is relatively rare in children, accounting for only four per cent of global blindness, childhood cataract is responsible for a third of the economic cost of blindness. While many of the causes of cataract in children are known, over half of childhood cataracts are idiopathic with no known cause. The incidence of idiopathic cataract is highest in developing countries and studies have discovered that low birth weight is a risk factor in the development of idiopathic childhood cataract. As low birth weight is a reflection of poor foetal growth, it is possible that maternal malnutrition, which is endemic in some developing countries, results in the altered physiology of the foetal lens. We have conducted a review of the literature that provides evidence for a link between maternal malnutrition, low birth weight and the development of childhood cataract. Using our accumulated knowledge on the pathways that deliver nutrients to the adult lens, we propose a cellular mechanism, by which oxidative stress caused by maternal malnutrition affects the development of antioxidant defence pathways in the embryonic lens, leading to an accelerated onset of nuclear cataract in childhood. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  11. The role of depression and dissociation in the link between childhood sexual abuse and later parental practices.

    Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Cyr, Mireille; Pauzé, Robert; McDuff, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Research has yielded contradictory results on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and later parental functioning. This study was undertaken to specify the link between childhood sexual abuse and maternal parenting, while taking into account mothers' childhood physical and emotional traumas and current depressive and dissociative symptoms. Data were collected through self-report measures completed by 93 French-speaking Canadian mothers of children aged 6 to 11 years referred to Youth Protection Services. Parental behaviors examined included involvement with the child, use of positive reinforcement, lack of monitoring and supervision of the child, inconsistency in applying discipline, and use of corporal punishment. Mothers' perception of the quality of the relationship with her child was also assessed. In addition, history of abuse and neglect, depression and dissociation were respectively measured with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Simplified, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The short-form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale was used to control for respondent bias aimed at minimizing their problems. Mothers' current depressive symptoms were not found to predict any of the parental dimensions measured. Results from multiple hierarchical regressions pointed to dissociative symptoms as the key predictor of parental practices and attitudes. More specifically, dissociative symptoms predicted the use of positive reinforcement, lack of monitoring and supervision of the child, inconsistency in applying discipline, and use of corporal punishment. Dissociation also mediated the association between childhood maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse and neglect) and inconsistency in applying discipline. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  12. The prognosis of osteosarcoma occurring as second malignancy of childhood cancers may be favorable: experience of two cancer centers in Japan.

    Yonemoto, Tsukasa; Hosono, Ako; Iwata, Shintaro; Kamoda, Hiroto; Hagiwara, Yoko; Fujiwara, Tomohiro; Kawai, Akira; Ishii, Takeshi

    2015-06-01

    Osteosarcoma as second malignancy of childhood cancers rarely occurs, and its clinical characteristics are unclear. Patients with osteosarcoma occurring as second malignancy of childhood cancers were retrospectively surveyed. Of 323 patients with osteosarcoma registered in the database, 10 (3.1%) had a past history of childhood cancers. The mean age at the onset of the first childhood cancer was 2.7 years, and the diagnosis of the first childhood cancer was adrenocortical carcinoma, malignant teratoma, ovarian carcinoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma in 1 patient each, and retinoblastoma in 5 patients. Osteosarcoma as second malignancy occurred 14.6 years after the first childhood cancer on average. Seven patients were alive and 3 died. In 1 patient, the cause of death was related to a complication of treatment for the first childhood cancer. Except for this patient, 7 (77.8%) of 9 patients survived with no disease (mean follow-up period: 10.9 years). Attention should be paid to complications of treatment for the first childhood cancer in the treatment for osteosarcoma occurring as second malignancy. The prognosis of osteosarcoma as second malignancy of childhood cancers may be more favorable than that of conventional osteosarcoma.

  13. Childhood cancer mortality in relation to the St Lucie nuclear power station

    Boice, John D Jr; Mumma, Michael T; Blot, William J; Heath, Clark W Jr

    2005-01-01

    An unusual county-wide excess of childhood cancers of brain and other nervous tissue in the late 1990s in St Lucie County, Florida, prompted the Florida Department of Health to conduct a case-control study within the county assessing residential chemical exposures. No clear associations were found, but claims were then made that the release of radioactive substances such as strontium 90 from the St Lucie nuclear power station, which began operating in 1976, might have played a role. To test the plausibility of this hypothesis, we extended by 17 years a previous study of county mortality conducted by the National Cancer Institute. Rates of total cancer, leukaemia and cancer of brain and other nervous tissue in children and across all ages in St Lucie County were evaluated with respect to the years before and after the nuclear power station began operation and contrasted with rates in two similar counties in Florida (Polk and Volusia). Over the prolonged period 1950-2000, no unusual patterns of childhood cancer mortality were found for St Lucie County as a whole. In particular, no unusual patterns of childhood cancer mortality were seen in relation to the start-up of the St Lucie nuclear power station in 1976. Further, there were no significant differences in mortality between the study and comparison counties for any cancer in the time period after the power station was in operation. Relative rates for all childhood cancers and for childhood leukaemia were higher before the nuclear facility began operating than after, while rates of brain and other nervous tissue cancer were slightly lower in St Lucie County than in the two comparison counties for both time periods. Although definitive conclusions cannot be drawn from descriptive studies, these data provide no support for the hypothesis that the operation of the St Lucie nuclear power station has adversely affected the cancer mortality experience of county residents

  14. The cost and cost-effectiveness of childhood cancer treatment in El Salvador, Central America: A report from the Childhood Cancer 2030 Network.

    Fuentes-Alabi, Soad; Bhakta, Nickhill; Vasquez, Roberto Franklin; Gupta, Sumit; Horton, Susan E

    2018-01-15

    Although previous studies have examined the cost of treating individual childhood cancers in low-income and middle-income countries, to the authors' knowledge none has examined the overall cost and cost-effectiveness of operating a childhood cancer treatment center. Herein, the authors examined the cost and sources of financing of a pediatric cancer unit in Hospital Nacional de Ninos Benjamin Bloom in El Salvador, and make estimates of cost-effectiveness. Administrative data regarding costs and volumes of inputs were obtained for 2016 for the pediatric cancer unit. Similar cost and volume data were obtained for shared medical services provided centrally (eg, blood bank). Costs of central nonmedical support services (eg, utilities) were obtained from hospital data and attributed by inpatient share. Administrative data also were used for sources of financing. Cost-effectiveness was estimated based on the number of new patients diagnosed annually and survival rates. The pediatric cancer unit cost $5.2 million to operate in 2016 (treating 90 outpatients per day and experiencing 1385 inpatient stays per year). Approximately three-quarters of the cost (74.7%) was attributed to 4 items: personnel (21.6%), pathological diagnosis (11.5%), pharmacy (chemotherapy, supportive care medications, and nutrition; 31.8%), and blood products (9.8%). Funding sources included government (52.5%), charitable foundations (44.2%), and a social security contribution scheme (3.4%). Based on 181 new patients per year and a 5-year survival rate of 48.5%, the cost per disability-adjusted life-year averted was $1624, which is under the threshold considered to be very cost effective. Treating childhood cancer in a specialized unit in low-income and middle-income countries can be done cost-effectively. Strong support from charitable foundations aids with affordability. Cancer 2018;124:391-7. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  15. Screening for psychological late effects in childhood, adolescent and young adult cancer survivors: a systematic review.

    Michel, Gisela; Vetsch, Janine

    2015-07-01

    In the past years, increasing evidence showed that many childhood cancer survivors suffer from psychological distress long after treatment ended. However, psychosocial issues are often neglected during follow-up care. Including screening for psychological distress before follow-up appointments might help addressing the topic in survivors who need support. Our aim was to systematically review the available evidence on screening for psychological distress in childhood cancer survivors. We found eight studies that investigated different screening tools for their utility in detecting psychological distress in childhood cancer survivors. The Brief Symptom Inventory-18 with an adapted cutoff score for childhood cancer survivors, and the newly developed short form of the Beck Depression Index were both shown to be of a potential benefit as brief screening tools in follow-up care. We identified promising screening tools to be used to detect psychological distress in childhood cancer survivors. However, there is still a lack of studies addressing applicability and effectiveness when screening is routinely implemented into follow-up care. To improve quality of follow-up care, and identify and treat survivors with psychological distress, screening tools should now be implemented and their adequacy further tested in day-to-day clinic life.

  16. Childhood Cancer Incidence in India Betweem 2012 and 2014: Report of a Population-based Cancer Registry.

    Das, Suman; Paul, Dilip Kumar; Anshu, Kumar; Bhakta, Subhajit

    2017-12-15

    To provide an overview of childhood cancer incidence in India between 2012-2014. Secondary data analysis on age-adjusted rates of cancer incidence for children (0-14 years) were collected from the report of the National Cancer Registry Programme in the year 2016. Age-adjusted rates of childhood cancer incidence ranged from 18.5 per million in the state of Nagaland to 235.3 per million in Delhi for boys. The rates were 11.4 per million in East Khasi Hill district and 152.3 per million in Delhi for girls. Leukemia was the most predominant cancer for both boys and girls. Lymphoma was the second most common cancer in boys, and brain tumors in girls. Childhood cancer incidence is increasing in India compared to population-based cancer registry survey of 2009-2011. Cancers are mostly affecting 0-4 years age group, and there is a rising trend of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  17. A Worldwide Collaboration to Harmonize Guidelines for the Long-Term Follow-Up of Childhood and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: A Report From the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group

    Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Mulder, Renée L.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Bhatia, Smita; Landier, Wendy; Levitt, Gill; Constine, Louis S.; Wallace, W. Hamish; Caron, Huib N.; Armenian, Saro H.; Skinner, Roderick; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood and young adult cancer survivors should receive optimum care to reduce the consequences of late effects and improve quality of life. We can facilitate achieving this goal by international collaboration in guideline development. In 2010, the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer

  18. The Leading Edge of Early Childhood Education: Linking Science to Policy for a New Generation

    Lesaux, Nonie K., Ed.; Jones, Stephanie M., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    "The Leading Edge of Early Childhood Education" aims to support the effort to simultaneously scale up and improve the quality of early childhood education by bringing together relevant insights from emerging research to provide guidance for this critical, fledgling field. It reflects the growing recognition that early childhood…

  19. Patterns of Internet-based health information seeking in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Claridy, Mechelle D; Hudson, Melissa M; Caplan, Lee; Mitby, Pauline A; Leisenring, Wendy; Smith, Selina A; Robison, Leslie L; Mertens, Ann C

    2018-05-01

    To assess where, when, and why survivors of childhood cancer seek health information. Data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort (n = 1386) and Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 2385) were analyzed to determine the health information seeking strategies of childhood cancer survivors. Descriptive frequencies, χ 2 analyses, t-tests, and multivariable logistic regression models were used. To seek health-related information for themselves, 54% (n = 742) of the childhood survivors reported using the Internet in the past 12 months, compared to 45% of the general population (adjusted OR: 2.76; 95% CI: 2.40-3.19). Childhood cancer survivors who used the Internet for health information were more likely to be female, between the ages of 18-34, have received some college education or be a college graduate, and report being in poor health. Although survivors were less likely than the general population to trust health information from the Internet (P < 0.01), they indicated that they would like a secure website that uses information from their medical records to provide individualized health-related information. The use of the Internet to access health information among the childhood cancer survivors was over 50%. Information on late effects was a high priority for most survivors, as was their interest in websites related to late effects and a website on patient information tailored to personal situations. Identification of factors associated with searching the Internet for cancer information may provide direction for development of effective cancer communication interventions for this at-risk population. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Study Findings Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types ...

  1. No damaging effect of chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy on the thyroid axis in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    van Santen, Hanneke M.; Vulsma, Thomas; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Blumer, Regje M. E.; Heinen, Richard; Jaspers, Monique W. M.; Geenen, Maud M.; Offringa, Martin O.; de Vijlder, Jan J. M.; van den Bos, Cor

    2003-01-01

    Late effects of treatment for childhood cancer on the thyroid axis are ascribed predominantly to radiotherapy. Whether chemotherapy has an additional detrimental effect is still unclear. Our aim was to evaluate this effect in young adult survivors of a broad spectrum of childhood cancers. The

  2. Childhood cancer in the cinema: how the celluloid mirror reflects psychosocial care.

    Pavisic, Jovana; Chilton, Julie; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa L; Martin, Andrés

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the childhood cancer experience in commercially produced, readily available films that include a character with childhood cancer, with a particular focus on psychosocial care. We reviewed 29 films, using quantitative and qualitative content analysis, to identify the medical and psychosocial characteristics of the cinematic childhood cancer experience. We rated psychosocial support on a 5-point scale (0 to 4) based on the availability and efficacy of support characters in the categories of nonprofessional internal (eg, parent), nonprofessional external (eg, friend), professional medical (eg, oncologist), and professional psychosocial (eg, social worker) supports. Film depicts an unrealistic, bleak picture of childhood cancer, with a 66% mortality rate among the 35 characters evaluated. Psychosocial supports portrayed in film are generally limited to resources already available to families before the cancer diagnosis: mean ratings across films were 2.4 for both nonprofessional, 1.6 for professional medical, and 0.3 for professional psychosocial supports (Kruskal-Wallis χ3=43.1051, Plandscape. Film generally depicts images of an isolated family courageously battling cancer alone with limited support from a treatment team solely dedicated to medical care. Commercially available films minimize the importance of the psychosocial dimension of care, which can perpetuate stigma around psychosocial needs and interventions. These films can be used to encourage discussion about how to optimize psychosocial care in pediatric oncology so that such care is not abandoned in actual practice as it is, for entertainment purposes, on the screen.

  3. Bone mineral density deficits in childhood cancer survivors: Pathophysiology, prevalence, screening, and management

    Min Jae Kang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As chemotherapy and other sophisticated treatment strategies evolve and the number of survivors of long-term childhood cancer grows, the long-term complications of treatment and the cancer itself are becoming ever more important. One of the most important but often neglected complications is osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture during and after cancer treatment. Acquisition of optimal peak bone mass and strength during childhood and adolescence is critical to preventing osteoporosis later in life. However, most childhood cancer patients have multiple risk factors for bone mineral loss. Cancer itself, malnutrition, decreased physical activity during treatment, chemotherapeutic agents such as steroids, and radiotherapy cause bone mineral deficit. Furthermore, complications such as growth hormone deficiency and musculoskeletal deformity have negative effects on bone metabolism. Low bone mineral density is associated with fractures, skeletal deformity, pain, and substantial financial burden not only for childhood cancer survivors but also for public health care systems. Thus, it is important to monitor bone health in these patients and minimize their risk of developing osteoporosis and fragility fractures later in life.

  4. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer in the Danish birth cohort of 1973-2010.

    Schüz, Joachim; Luta, George; Erdmann, Friederike; Ferro, Gilles; Bautz, Andrea; Simony, Sofie Bay; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Lightfoot, Tracy; Winther, Jeanette Falck

    2015-11-01

    Many studies have investigated the possible association between birth order and risk of childhood cancer, although the evidence to date has been inconsistent. Birth order has been used as a marker for various in utero or childhood exposures and is relatively straightforward to assess. Data were obtained on all children born in Denmark between 1973 and 2010, involving almost 2.5 million births and about 5,700 newly diagnosed childhood cancers before the age of 20 years. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression models. We failed to observe associations between birth order and risk of any childhood cancer subtype, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia; all rate ratios were close to one. Further analyses stratified by birth cohort (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) also failed to show any associations. Considering stillbirths and/or controlling for birth weight and parental age in the analyses had no effect on the results. Analyses by years of birth (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) did not show any changes in the overall pattern of no association. In this large cohort of all children born in Denmark over an almost 40-year period, we did not observe an association between birth order and the risk of childhood cancer.

  5. Epigenetic: a molecular link between testicular cancer and environmental exposures.

    Vega, Aurelie; Baptissart, Marine; Caira, Françoise; Brugnon, Florence; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Volle, David H

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, studies in rodents have highlighted links between in utero and/or neonatal exposures to molecules that alter endocrine functions and the development of genital tract abnormalities, such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and impaired spermatogenesis. Most of these molecules, called endocrine disrupters exert estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities. These data led to the hypothesis of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome which postulates that these disorders are one clinical entity and are linked by epidemiological and pathophysiological relations. Furthermore, infertility has been stated as a risk factor for testicular cancer (TC). The incidence of TC has been increasing over the past decade. Most of testicular germ cell cancers develop through a pre-invasive carcinoma in situ from fetal germ cells (primordial germ cell or gonocyte). During their development, fetal germ cells undergo epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, several lines of evidence have shown that gene regulation through epigenetic mechanisms (DNA and histone modifications) plays an important role in normal development as well as in various diseases, including TC. Here we will review chromatin modifications which can affect testicular physiology leading to the development of TC; and highlight potential molecular pathways involved in these alterations in the context of environmental exposures.

  6. Mental health-care utilization in survivors of childhood cancer and siblings: the Swiss childhood cancer survivor study.

    Gianinazzi, Micol E; Rueegg, Corina S; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Niggli, Felix K; Kuehni, Claudia E; Michel, Gisela

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to (1) describe the utilization of mental health-care in survivors and siblings, the association with severity of distress, and visits to other professionals in distressed survivors not utilizing mental health-care; and (2) identify factors associated with utilization of mental health-care in distressed survivors. Within the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent postal questionnaires to all participants aged siblings could indicate if they utilized mental health-care in the past year. Psychological distress was assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18). Participants with scores T ≥ 57 on two of three scales or the Global Severity Index were considered distressed. We included 1,602 survivors and 703 siblings. Overall, 160 (10 %) and 53 (8 %), utilized mental health-care and 203 (14 %) and 127 (14 %) were considered distressed. Among these, 69 (34 %) survivors and 20 (24 %) siblings had utilized mental health-care. Participants with higher distress were more likely to utilize mental health-care. Distressed survivors not utilizing mental health-care were more likely to see a medical specialist than nondistressed. In the multivariable regression, factors associated with utilizing mental health-care were higher psychological distress and reporting late effects. Our results underline the importance of developing interventional programs and implementing psychological screening in follow-up of survivors. It is also important to systematically address siblings' needs. In follow-up, patients at risk should be informed about existing possibilities or advised to visit mental health professionals.

  7. The effect of health insurance on childhood cancer survival in the United States.

    Lee, Jong Min; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ojha, Rohit P; Johnson, Kimberly J

    2017-12-15

    The effect of health insurance on childhood cancer survival has not been well studied. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data, this study was designed to assess the association between health insurance status and childhood cancer survival. Data on cancers diagnosed among children less than 15 years old from 2007 to 2009 were obtained from the SEER 18 registries. The effect of health insurance at diagnosis on 5-year childhood cancer mortality was estimated with marginal survival probabilities, restricted mean survival times, and Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression analyses, which were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and county-level poverty. Among 8219 childhood cancer cases, the mean survival time was 1.32 months shorter (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.31 to 1.66) after 5 years for uninsured children (n = 131) versus those with private insurance (n = 4297), whereas the mean survival time was 0.62 months shorter (95% CI, -1.46 to 0.22) for children with Medicaid at diagnosis (n = 2838). In Cox PH models, children who were uninsured had a 1.26-fold higher risk of cancer death (95% CI, 0.84-1.90) than those who were privately insured at diagnosis. The risk for those with Medicaid was similar to the risk for those with private insurance at diagnosis (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.93-1.21). Overall, the results suggest that cancer survival is largely similar for children with Medicaid and those with private insurance at diagnosis. Slightly inferior survival was observed for those who were uninsured in comparison with those with private insurance at diagnosis. The latter result is based on a small number of uninsured children and should be interpreted cautiously. Further study is needed to confirm and clarify the reasons for these patterns. Cancer 2017;123:4878-85. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  8. Childhood Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in children. Get comprehensive information about the risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnostic and staging evaluation, prognosis, and treatment of childhood nasopharyngeal carcinoma in this summary for clinicians.

  9. Effects of childhood trauma exposure and cortisol levels on cognitive functioning among breast cancer survivors.

    Kamen, Charles; Scheiber, Caroline; Janelsins, Michelle; Jo, Booil; Shen, Hanyang; Palesh, Oxana

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive functioning difficultiesin breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are common, but not all women experience these impairments. Exposure to childhood trauma may impair cognitive functioning following chemotherapy, and these impairments may be mediated by dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and cortisol slope. This study evaluated the association between childhood trauma exposure, cortisol, and cognition in a sample of breast cancer survivors. 56 women completed measures of trauma exposure (the Traumatic Events Survey), salivary cortisol, and self-reported cognitive functioning (the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Cognitive). We examined correlations between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive functioning, then used linear regression to control for factors associated with cognition (age, education, time since chemotherapy, depression, anxiety, and insomnia), and the MacArthur approach to test whether cortisol levels mediated the relationship between trauma and cognitive functioning. 57.1% of the sample had experienced at least one traumatic event in childhood, with 19.6% of the sample witnessing a serious injury, 17.9% experiencing physical abuse, and 14.3% experiencing sexual abuse. Childhood trauma exposure and cognitive functioning were moderately associated (r=-0.29). This association remained even when controlling for other factors associated with cognition; the final model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive functioning. The association between childhood trauma and cognitive functioning was mediated by steeper cortisol slope (partial r=0.35, p=0.02). Childhood trauma exposure is associated with self-reported cognitive functioning among breast cancer survivors and is mediated by cortisol dysregulation. Trauma should be considered, among other factors, in programs aiming to address cognition in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Longitudinal links between childhood peer acceptance and the neural correlates of sharing

    Will, G.-J. (Geert-Jan); E.A. Crone (Eveline); P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); Güroğlu, B. (Berna)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractChildhood peer acceptance is associated with high levels of prosocial behavior and advanced perspective taking skills. Yet, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these associations have not been studied. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural correlates

  11. Treatment of Childhood Head and Neck Cancer - Patient Version

    Find diagnosis, staging, and treatment information for these head and neck cancers: hypopharynx, larynx, lip and oral cavity, neck cancer with occult primary, nasopharynx, oropharynx, paranasal sinus and nasal cavity, and salivary gland cancer.

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer ... to Z List of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer ...

  13. Molecular alterations in childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident and low-dose radiation risk

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-01-01

    The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of radiation carcinogenesis has been used for evaluating the risk from radiation exposure. While the epidemiological studies have supported the LNT model at doses above 100 mGy, more uncertainties are still existed in the LNT model at low doses below 100 mGy. Thus, it is urged to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation carcinogenesis. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, significant amount of childhood thyroid cancer has emerged in the children living in the contaminated area. As the incidence of sporadic childhood thyroid cancer is very low, it is quite evident that those cancer cases have been induced by radiation exposure caused mainly by the intake of contaminated foods, such as milk. Because genetic alterations in childhood thyroid cancers have extensively been studied, it should provide a unique chance to understand the molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. In a current review, molecular signatures obtained from the molecular studies of childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident have been overviewed, and new roles of radiation exposure in thyroid carcinogenesis will be discussed. (author)

  14. Cancer-related inflammation, the seventh hallmark of cancer: links to genetic instability.

    Colotta, Francesco; Allavena, Paola; Sica, Antonio; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto

    2009-07-01

    Inflammatory conditions in selected organs increase the risk of cancer. An inflammatory component is present also in the microenvironment of tumors that are not epidemiologically related to inflammation. Recent studies have begun to unravel molecular pathways linking inflammation and cancer. In the tumor microenvironment, smoldering inflammation contributes to proliferation and survival of malignant cells, angiogenesis, metastasis, subversion of adaptive immunity, reduced response to hormones and chemotherapeutic agents. Recent data suggest that an additional mechanism involved in cancer-related inflammation (CRI) is induction of genetic instability by inflammatory mediators, leading to accumulation of random genetic alterations in cancer cells. In a seminal contribution, Hanahan and Weinberg [(2000) Cell, 100, 57-70] identified the six hallmarks of cancer. We surmise that CRI represents the seventh hallmark.

  15. During stress, heart rate variability moderates the impact of childhood adversity in women with breast cancer.

    Tell, Dina; Mathews, Herbert L; Burr, Robert L; Witek Janusek, Linda

    2018-03-01

    Childhood adversity has long-lasting neuro-biological effects that can manifest as exaggerated stress responsivity to environmental challenge. These manifestations include a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis as well as increased levels of inflammatory mediators in response to stress. In this investigation, vagal parasympathetic activity was assessed for its capacity to moderate the relationship between childhood adversity and stress responsivity (cortisol and inflammation) during an acute laboratory challenge (Trier Social Stress Test-TSST). Thirty women recently diagnosed with breast cancer underwent the TSST during which their heart rate was recorded and saliva samples collected for measurement of cortisol and the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-6. Vagal activity during the TSST was calculated as the high-frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability (HRV). Vagal activity during the TSST moderated the effect of childhood adversity on both the cortisol and the IL-6 response. Women who had lower vagal stress-reactivity during the TSST and reported greater childhood adversity showed a larger rise in cortisol and IL-6 when compared to women with lower childhood adversity. The findings demonstrate that women with exposure to childhood adversity and low vagal stress-reactivity (reduced parasympathetic activity) exhibit an elevated stress response characterized by greater cortisol and proinflammatory cytokine release. Inflammatory burden and HPA dysregulation subsequent to stress may impair cancer control.

  16. Loosening the link between childhood poverty and adolescent smoking and obesity: the protective effects of social capital.

    Evans, Gary W; Kutcher, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive, lifelong inequalities in physical health begin in early childhood and are driven, in part, by social gradients in risk factors such as smoking and obesity. Yet not all low-income children have elevated physical-health risks as adults. The relation between income-to-needs ratio at age 9 and smoking prevalence and body fat (body mass index) at age 17 was examined in a sample of 196 rural adolescents. Income-to-needs ratio is the U.S. federal government's defined index of household income as a proportion of the poverty line. This is the first study to show that links between childhood poverty and subsequent physical-health outcomes can be loosened. At-risk youth in communities with a relatively rich array of social capital did not smoke more or have greater excess body fat compared with their more affluent counterparts.

  17. Childhood cancer survival in Switzerland (1976-2013): Time-trends and predictors.

    Schindler, Matthias; Belle, Fabiën N; Grotzer, Michael A; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2017-01-01

    Population-based studies on childhood cancer survival are key to monitor progress against cancer and to detect potential differences between regions and other subgroups in the population. We investigated time trends and factors associated with childhood cancer survival on a national level in Switzerland, from 1976 to 2013. We extracted data from the population-based Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry of 5,776 children (age 0-14 years) diagnosed with cancer from 1985 to 2014 in Switzerland. We calculated age-adjusted 5-year survival, defined the annual reduction in risk of death (ARR), and explored associations of survival with clinical and demographic factors. Overall, 5-year survival improved significantly, from 64% in 1976-1983 to 88% in 2004-2013. ARR over the whole period was 4% for all diagnostic groups, greatest for Hodgkin lymphomas (8%), ependymomas (6%), Burkitt's lymphomas (6%) and germ cell tumours (6%). Children treated in hospitals without specialised paediatric cancer centre for leukaemia (HR 12.9), lymphoma (HR 5.0) and neuroblastoma (HR 3.7) were at higher risk of death. In French-speaking Switzerland, risk of death was lower for lymphoma (HR 0.6), CNS tumours (HR 0.7) and neuroblastoma (HR 0.5). Children with migration background had a higher risk of death from all tumours except bone tumours. Childhood cancer survival significantly improved from 1976 to 2013, but there is room for further improvement. Survival rates varied by type of clinical treatment, language region and nationality. All paediatric cancer patients should be referred to a specialised paediatric cancer centre. Further research is needed to intervene and completely eliminate inequalities in survival. © 2016 UICC.

  18. Recommendations for breast cancer surveillance for female survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer given chest radiation: a report from the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group

    Mulder, Renée L.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Bhatia, Smita; Landier, Wendy; Levitt, Gill; Constine, Louis S.; Wallace, W. Hamish; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Henderson, Tara O.; Dwyer, Mary; Skinner, Roderick; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Female survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult (CAYA) cancer who were given radiation to fields that include breast tissue (ie, chest radiation) have an increased risk of breast cancer. Clinical practice guidelines are essential to ensure that these individuals receive optimum care and

  19. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer: a pooled analysis from five US States.

    Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G; Mueller, Beth A; Carozza, Susan E; Chow, Eric J; Fox, Erin E; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E; Ross, Julie A; Reynolds, Peggy

    2011-06-01

    The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas and Washington. We included 17,672 cases confidence intervals using logistic regression, adjusted for sex, birth year, maternal race, maternal age, multiple birth, gestational age and birth weight. Overall, we found an inverse relationship between childhood cancer risk and birth order. For children in the fourth or higher birth order category compared to first-born children, the adjusted OR was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.93) for all cancers combined. When we examined risks by cancer type, a decreasing risk with increasing birth order was seen in the central nervous system tumors, neuroblastoma, bilateral retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma. We observed increased risks with increasing birth order for acute myeloid leukemia but a slight decrease in risk for acute lymphoid leukemia. These risk estimates were based on a very large sample size, which allowed us to examine rare cancer types with greater statistical power than in most previous studies, however the biologic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  20. Will Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Childhood Alter the Risk of Developing Gastric Cancer?

    Billy Bourke

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori has been classified as a group 1 carcinogen for gastric cancer. It is estimated that there is between a two- and sixfold increase in the risk of developing gastric cancer among infected patients. Among different populations, the risk of H pylori-infected individuals developing gastric cancer varies greatly. However, on a worldwide scale, gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Therefore, H pylori eradication could help prevent up to three to four million gastric cancer deaths per year. H pylori is usually acquired in childhood. Because infected children have not harboured the organism for long enough to have developed precancerous lesions, childhood is theoretically an attractive time for H pylori eradication and, thus, could help prevent gastric cancer later in life. However, as H pylori prevalence and the incidence of gastric cancer are falling rapidly in developed nations, widespread population screening programs aimed at the eradication of H pylori in these countries would be enormously expensive. Therefore, except in groups with a high risk for development of gastric cancer (eg, Japanese or those with a strong positive family history of gastric cancer, a population-based test-and-treat policy is not justified.

  1. The landscape of genomic alterations across childhood cancers

    Gröbner, Susanne N; Worst, Barbara C; Weischenfeldt, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Pan-cancer analyses that examine commonalities and differences among various cancer types have emerged as a powerful way to obtain novel insights into cancer biology. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of genetic alterations in a pan-cancer cohort including 961 tumours from children, adoles...

  2. Effect of socioeconomic position on survival after childhood cancer in Denmark

    Simony, Sofie B; Lund, Lasse W; Erdmann, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    (numbers. For hematological cancers, no significant associations were observed. For CNS tumors, better survival was seen with parents living together (HR 0.70, CI 0.51–0.97). For non-CNS solid tumors, survival...... were associated with survival after childhood cancer. Material and methods In a nationwide cohort of 3797 children diagnosed with cancer [hematological cancer, central nervous system (CNS) tumors, non-CNS solid tumors] before age 20 between 1990 and 2009 we identified parents and siblings and obtained...

  3. Pneumonia diagnosis in childhood and incidence of leukaemia, lymphoma and brain cancer

    Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2017-01-01

    of pneumonia was a clinical marker of the three most common childhood cancers. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, hospital diagnoses, 1994-2013. METHODS: Using national health registries, we compared the observed incidence of leukaemia, lymphoma and brain cancer among 83 935 children...... with a hospital-based pneumonia diagnosis with that expected among children in the general population. We calculated absolute cancer risks and standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) as a measure of relative risk. RESULTS: The cancer SIRs were substantially increased during the first 6 months of follow-up; lymphoid...

  4. Challenges Evaluating Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Mohrmann, Caroline; Armer, Jane; Hayashi, Robert J

    Children treated for cancer are exposed to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents with known toxicity to the peripheral nervous system. The side effect of peripheral neuropathy can cause changes in sensation, function, and even cause pain. Although peripheral neuropathy is recognized by pediatric oncology nurses as an important and significant side effect, measuring neuropathy can be quite complex for clinical care and research efforts. With more children surviving a cancer diagnosis today, this issue is increasingly important for childhood cancer survivors. This article has reviewed existing literature examining peripheral neuropathy in childhood cancer survivors with particular interest paid to measurement tools available and needs for future research. It is important for nurses to choose appropriate measures for clinical care and research methods in order to have an impact on patients experiencing this condition.

  5. Links between Family Gender Socialization Experiences in Childhood and Gendered Occupational Attainment in Young Adulthood.

    Lawson, Katie M; Crouter, Ann C; McHale, Susan M

    2015-10-01

    Gendered occupational segregation remains prevalent across the world. Although research has examined factors contributing to the low number of women in male-typed occupations - namely science, technology, engineering, and math - little longitudinal research has examined the role of childhood experiences in both young women's and men's later gendered occupational attainment. This study addressed this gap in the literature by examining family gender socialization experiences in middle childhood - namely parents' attitudes and work and family life - as contributors to the gender typicality of occupational attainment in young adulthood. Using data collected from mothers, fathers, and children over approximately 15 years, the results revealed that the associations between childhood socialization experiences (∼10 years old) and occupational attainment (∼26 years old) depended on the sex of the child. For sons but not daughters, mothers' more traditional attitudes towards women's roles predicted attaining more gender-typed occupations. In addition, spending more time with fathers in childhood predicted daughters attaining less and sons acquiring more gender-typed occupations in young adulthood. Overall, evidence supports the idea that childhood socialization experiences help to shape individuals' career attainment and thus contribute to gender segregation in the labor market.

  6. Familial aggregation of childhood and adult cancer in the Utah genealogy.

    Neale, Rachel E; Stiller, Charles A; Bunch, Kathryn J; Milne, Elizabeth; Mineau, Geraldine P; Murphy, Michael F G

    2013-12-15

    A small proportion of childhood cancer is attributable to known hereditary syndromes, but whether there is any familial component to the remainder remains uncertain. We explored familial aggregation of cancer in a population-based case-control study using genealogical record linkage and designed to overcome limitations of previous studies. Subjects were selected from the Utah Population Database. We compared risk of cancer in adult first-degree relatives of children who were diagnosed with cancer with the risk in relatives of children who had not had a cancer diagnosed. We identified 1,894 childhood cancer cases and 3,788 controls; 7,467 relatives of cases and 14,498 relatives of controls were included in the analysis. Relatives of children with cancer had a higher risk of cancer in adulthood than relatives of children without cancer [odds ratio (OR) 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.56]; this was restricted to mothers and siblings and was not evident in fathers. Familial aggregation appeared stronger among relatives of cases diagnosed before 5 years of age (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.13-1.95) than among relatives of cases who were older when diagnosed (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.98-1.51). These findings provide evidence of a generalized excess of cancer in the mothers and siblings of children with cancer. The tendency for risk to be higher in the relatives of children who were younger at cancer diagnosis should be investigated in other large data sets. The excesses of thyroid cancer in parents of children with cancer and of any cancer in relatives of children with leukemia merit further investigation. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  7. Novel PMS2 Pseudogenes Can Conceal Recessive Mutations Causing a Distinctive Childhood Cancer Syndrome

    De Vos, Michel; Hayward, Bruce E.; Picton, Susan; Sheridan, Eamonn; Bonthron, David T.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated a family with an autosomal recessive syndrome of café-au-lait patches and childhood malignancy, notably supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor. There was no cancer predisposition in heterozygotes; nor was there bowel cancer in any individual. However, autozygosity mapping indicated linkage to a region of 7p22 surrounding the PMS2 mismatch-repair gene. Sequencing of genomic PCR products initially failed to identify a PMS2 mutation. Genome searches then revealed a previo...

  8. The role of IL6 in liver cancer linked to metabolic liver disease ...

    The role of IL6 in liver cancer linked to metabolic liver disease. Liver cancer is highly fatal, it has very few treatment options, and it is one of the few cancers whose incidence is rising worldwide. One poorly understood risk factor for liver cancer is obesity/metabolic disease (such as diabetes and fatty liver disease).

  9. Congenital Malformations among the Offspring of Danish Survivors of Childhood Cancer and their Siblings-Interim Results

    Binks, K.; Boice, J. D.; Winther, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Survival is now the norm for children treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy for childhood cancers. These children are now living to have children of their own. A Danish study of adverse health outcomes in the offspring of childhood cancer survivors and the offspring of the cancer survivor's sibling is ongoing. The cumulative probability of congenital malformation is non significantly higher amongst the offspring of cancer survivors than amongst the offspring of cancer survivor's siblings; and non significantly higher amongst the offspring of cancer survivors who received radiotherapy treatment compared with those who did not. future analyses will incorporate radiation dose to the uterus and gonads of cancer survivors. To date, studies of childhood cancer survivors offspring have not indicated and excess of congenial malformation. (Author) 7 refs

  10. Relationship of socio-economic status and childhood cancer: an in ...

    2017-11-30

    Nov 30, 2017 ... Social and economic factors are known to affect health and well-being in several ... -seeking attitudes in childhood cancer; this usually re- sults in late ..... reported in guardians of 5.0% in Kenya and 19% in. Uganda.20 This ...

  11. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    van Santen, HM; Geskus, Ronald B; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J H; Caron, Hubert N; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights.

  12. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    van Santen, Hanneke M.; Geskus, Ronald B.; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Caron, Hubert N.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights. The goal of

  13. A coding variant in RARG confers susceptibility to anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer

    Aminkeng, Folefac; Bhavsar, Amit P.; Visscher, Henk; Rassekh, Shahrad R.; Li, Yuling; Lee, Jong W.; Brunham, Liam R.; Caron, Huib N.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Kremer, Leontien C.; van der Pal, Helena J.; Amstutz, Ursula; Rieder, Michael J.; Bernstein, Daniel; Carleton, Bruce C.; Hayden, Michael R.; Ross, Colin J. D.; MacLeod, Stuart; Smith, Anne; Hildebrand, Claudette; Ghannadan, Reza; Miao, Fudan; Higginson, Michelle; Massah, Nasim; Borrie, Adrienne; Hughes, Shevaun; Shaw, Kaitlyn; Dhoot, Satvir; Kowalec, Kaarina; Stortz, Jessica; Bendyshe-Walton, Tessa; Waltrip, Duncan; Bader, Rachel; Nijssen-Jordan, Cheri; Johnson, David; Verbeek, Linda; Kaczowka, Rick; Stevenson, Patti; Zhuwaki, Carnation; Grundy, Paul; Stobart, Kent; Wilson, Bev; Desai, Sunil; Spavor, Maria; Churcher, Linda; Chow, Terence; Hall, Kevin; Honcharik, Nick; Israels, Sara; Chan, Shanna

    2015-01-01

    Anthracyclines are used in over 50% of childhood cancer treatment protocols, but their clinical usefulness is limited by anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (ACT) manifesting as asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction and congestive heart failure in up to 57% and 16% of patients, respectively. Candidate

  14. Childhood and adolescent energy restriction and subsequent colorectal cancer risk: Results from The Netherlands cohort study

    Hughes, L.A.E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. d; Bruïne, A.P. de; Engeland, M. van; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Energy restriction during childhood and adolescence is suggested to lower colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We investigated this in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Methods: Information on diet and other risk factors was collected by a baseline questionnaire in 1986 when cohort members were

  15. Applicability and evaluation of a psychosocial intervention program for childhood cancer patients

    van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Braam, Katja I.; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Takken, Tim; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Streng, Isabelle C.; Bierings, Marc; Merks, Johannes H.; Eibrink, Marry; Veening, Margreet A.; Huisman, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the applicability of a psychosocial intervention in childhood cancer patients. This individualized structured psychosocial program to enhance social-emotional functioning and coping with disease-related effects includes six sessions for children and two

  16. Body composition and bone density during and after childhood cancer therapy : The flip side of therapy

    den Hoed, M.A.H.

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, there are approximately 8000 childhood cancer survivors, and this population of survivors is expanding due to improved therapy. However, therapy has a consequent flip side, namely their inherent side effects. Approximately 75% of the CCS will develop one or more severe chronic

  17. Changes in body composition after childhood cancer treatment : Impact on future health status - A review

    Brouwer, C. A. J.; Gietema, J. A.; Kamps, W. A.; de Vries, E. G. E.; Postma, A.

    Purpose: To describe data on changes in body composition in childhood cancer survivors. Underlying mechanisms in development of obesity are addressed, in order to discuss intervention strategies. Methods: A systematic literature search was undertaken with a number of search terms. Results: Female

  18. Malnutrition in childhood cancer patients : A review on its prevalence and possible causes

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Huizinga, Gea; Sulkers, Esther; Kamps, Willem; Roodbol, Petrie; Tissing, Wim

    Purpose: To perform a systematic literature review for critical evaluation of prevalence and factors contributing to malnutrition in childhood cancer. Methods: A systematic search resulting in 46 suitable articles. Results: Due to lack of uniform criteria and adequate studies, the prevalence rates

  19. Representation of Illness and Self-identity in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Blažková, T.; Koutná, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.; Jelínek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, JUL (2015), s. 348-348 ISSN 1057-9249. [World Congress of Psycho -Oncology. 28.07.2015-01.08.2015, Washington, DC] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : representation of illness * self-identity * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psycho logy

  20. Exercise recommendations for childhood cancer survivors exposed to cardiotoxic therapies: an institutional clinical practice initiative.

    Okada, Maki; Meeske, Kathleen A; Menteer, Jondavid; Freyer, David R

    2012-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors who have received treatment with anthracyclines are at risk for developing cardiomyopathy in dose-dependent fashion. Historically, restrictions on certain types of physical activity that were intended to preserve cardiac function have been recommended, based on a mixture of evidence-based and consensus-based recommendations. In the LIFE Cancer Survivorship & Transition Program at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, the authors reevaluated their recommendations for exercise in survivors who were exposed to anthracyclines, with or without irradiation in proximity to the myocardium. The primary goal was to develop consistent, specific, practical, safe, and (where possible) evidence-based recommendations for at-risk survivors in the program. To accomplish this, the authors referred to current exercise guidelines for childhood cancer survivors, consulted recent literature for relevant populations, and obtained input from the program's pediatric cardiology consultant. The resulting risk-based exercise recommendations are designed to complement current published guidelines, maximize safe exercise, and help childhood cancer survivors return to a normal life that emphasizes overall wellness and physical activity. This article describes a single institution's experience in modifying exercise recommendations for at-risk childhood survivors and includes the methods, findings, and current institutional practice recommendations along with sample education materials.

  1. Representation of Illness and Self-identity in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Blažková, T.; Koutná, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.; Jelínek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, JUL (2015), s. 348-348 ISSN 1057-9249. [World Congress of Psycho-Oncology. 28.07.2015-01.08.2015, Washington, DC] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : representation of illness * self-identity * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  2. Follicle Stimulating Hormone is an accurate predictor of azoospermia in childhood cancer survivors.

    Thomas W Kelsey

    Full Text Available The accuracy of Follicle Stimulating Hormone as a predictor of azoospermia in adult survivors of childhood cancer is unclear, with conflicting results in the published literature. A systematic review and post hoc analysis of combined data (n = 367 were performed on all published studies containing extractable data on both serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone concentration and semen concentration in survivors of childhood cancer. PubMed and Medline databases were searched up to March 2017 by two blind investigators. Articles were included if they contained both serum FSH concentration and semen concentration, used World Health Organisation certified methods for semen analysis, and the study participants were all childhood cancer survivors. There was no evidence for either publication bias or heterogeneity for the five studies. For the combined data (n = 367 the optimal Follicle Stimulating Hormone threshold was 10.4 IU/L with specificity 81% (95% CI 76%-86% and sensitivity 83% (95% CI 76%-89%. The AUC was 0.89 (95%CI 0.86-0.93. A range of threshold FSH values for the diagnosis of azoospermia with their associated sensitivities and specificities were calculated. This study provides strong supporting evidence for the use of serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone as a surrogate biomarker for azoospermia in adult males who have been treated for childhood cancer.

  3. Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress and Posttraumatic Growth in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Koutná, Veronika; Jelínek, Martin; Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2017), s. 1-11, č. článku 26. ISSN 2072-6694 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : posttraumatic stress * posttraumatic growth * benefit finding * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations)

  4. Health problems in childhood cancer survivors: Linkage studies and guideline development

    Font-Gonzalez, A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis comprises two parts. The first part of this thesis aims to increase the evidence on the burden of disease in childhood cancer survivors and to define high-risk groups of survivors by using medical record linkage studies. A two-step record linkage methodology between Dutch national

  5. Parental involvement in exercise and diet interventions for childhood cancer survivors: A systematic review

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at risk of becoming overweight or obese due to treatment effects and/or post-treatment behaviors. Parents are key agents influencing child diet and physical activity (PA), which are modifiable risk factors for obesity. A systematic literature review following the...

  6. Prevalence and predictors of risky and heavy alcohol consumption among adult siblings of childhood cancer survivors.

    Lown, E Anne; Mertens, Ann C; Korcha, Rachael A; Leisenring, Wendy; Hudson, Melissa M; Greenfield, Thomas K; Robison, Leslie L; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2013-05-01

    To describe alcohol consumption patterns and risk factors for risky and heavy alcohol use among siblings of childhood cancer survivors compared with survivors and national controls. Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from two national surveys was performed including a cohort of 3034 adult siblings of childhood cancer survivors (age 18-56 years) and 10,398 adult childhood cancer survivors, both from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, plus 5712 adult participants from the population-based National Alcohol Survey. Cancer-related experiences, self-reported current health, and mental health were examined in relation to alcohol consumption patterns including heavy and risky drinking. Adult siblings of childhood cancer survivors were more likely to be heavy drinkers (OR adj = 1.3; 1.0-1.6) and risky drinkers (OR adj = 1.3; 1.1-1.6) compared with controls from a national sample. Siblings were also more likely to drink at these two levels compared with survivors. Factors associated with heavy drinking among siblings included being 18-21 years old (OR adj = 2.9; 2.0-4.4), male (OR adj = 2.3; 1.7-3.0), having a high school education or less (OR adj = 2.4; 1.7-3.5), and drinking initiation at a young age (OR adj = 5.1; 2.5-10.3). Symptoms of depression, (OR adj = 2.1; 1.3-3.2), anxiety (OR adj = 1.9; 1.1-3.3), and global psychiatric distress (OR adj = 2.5; 1.5-4.3) were significantly associated with heavy alcohol use. Siblings of children with cancer are more likely to be risky and heavy drinkers as adults compared with childhood cancer survivors or national controls. Early initiation of drinking and symptoms of psychological distress should be identified during early adolescence and effective sibling-specific interventions should be developed and made available for siblings of children with cancer. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Changes in nutritional status in childhood cancer patients: a prospective cohort study.

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F; Sulkers, Esther; Kamps, Willem A; de Bont, Eveline S J M; Boot, Annemieke M; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Tamminga, Rienk Y J; Tissing, Wim J E

    2015-02-01

    Under- and overnutrition are linked to adverse outcomes during and after childhood cancer treatment. Therefore, understanding the timing of weight loss and weight gain and their contributory factors is essential for improving outcomes. We aimed to determine in which period of treatment changes in nutritional status occurred and which factors contributed to these changes. A prospective cohort study of 133 newly diagnosed cancer patients with hematological, solid, and brain malignancies was performed. Anthropometric data and related factors were assessed at 0, 3, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. Despite initial weight loss at the beginning of treatment in patients with hematological and solid malignancies, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass (FM) increased within 3 months with 0.13 SDS (P < 0.001) and 0.05 SDS (P = 0.021) respectively. Increase continued during the following months and resulted in a doubling of the number of overnourished patients. Fat free mass (FFM), which was already low at diagnosis, remained low. During the entire study period about 17% of the patients were undernourished on the basis of low FFM. Tube feeding and diminished activity level were related to increases in BMI and %FM respectively. No relationship was found between energy intake or corticosteroids and increase in BMI or %FM. BMI and FM increased during and after the period of intensive treatment, while FFM remained low. Improvement of nutritional status might be accomplished by increasing physical activity from the early phase of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Is there a link between cancer and cosmic rays?

    Astbury, A.

    2000-06-01

    Conventional wisdom on the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation predicts that only a very small percentage of human deaths from cancer can be attributed to cosmic rays. The intensity of the hadronic component of terrestrial cosmic rays, in particular neutrons, is well measured as a function of vertical threshold rigidity (M, in GeV/c). The crude death rates from malignant neoplasms for countries of the world and states of the US reveal a correlation with M. A close examination of eight US states with M ≤ 1.5 GeV/c over the period 1947-1997 shows systematic time variations with periodicities reminiscent of sunspot cycles (∼11 years). A very simple model linking the death rate from cancer to the count rate in a cosmic ray neutron monitor reproduces the gross features of the data. The evidence suggests that conventional wisdom could well be challenged. The situation may only be resolved by a series of detailed measurements of the genetic impact of hadronic cosmic rays on cells. (author)

  9. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: a prospective cohort study

    Edwards Valerie J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strong relationships between exposure to childhood traumatic stressors and smoking behaviours inspire the question whether these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer during adulthood. Methods Baseline survey data on health behaviours, health status and exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs were collected from 17,337 adults during 1995-1997. ACEs included abuse (emotional, physical, sexual, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation or divorce, or growing up in a household where members with mentally ill, substance abusers, or sent to prison. We used the ACE score (an integer count of the 8 categories of ACEs as a measure of cumulative exposure to traumatic stress during childhood. Two methods of case ascertainment were used to identify incident lung cancer through 2005 follow-up: 1 hospital discharge records and 2 mortality records obtained from the National Death Index. Results The ACE score showed a graded relationship to smoking behaviors. We identified 64 cases of lung cancer through hospital discharge records (age-standardized risk = 201 × 100,000-1 population and 111 cases of lung cancer through mortality records (age-standardized mortality rate = 31.1 × 100,000-1 person-years. The ACE score also showed a graded relationship to the incidence of lung cancer for cases identified through hospital discharge (P = 0.0004, mortality (P = 0.025, and both methods combined (P = 0.001. Compared to persons without ACEs, the risk of lung cancer for those with ≥ 6 ACEs was increased approximately 3-fold (hospital records: RR = 3.18, 95%CI = 0.71-14.15; mortality records: RR = 3.55, 95%CI = 1.25-10.09; hospital or mortality records: RR = 2.70, 95%CI = 0.94-7.72. After a priori consideration of a causal pathway (i.e., ACEs → smoking → lung cancer, risk ratios were attenuated toward the null, although not completely. For lung cancer identified through hospital

  10. Childhood Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Oral cavity cancer in children is usually lymphoma or sarcoma, but most tumors of the mouth are benign. Get information about the risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, and treatment of oral cavity cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  11. Toward an Integrated Gender-Linked Model of Aggression Subtypes in Early and Middle Childhood

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.

    2010-01-01

    An integrative model is proposed for understanding the development of physical and relational aggression in early and middle childhood. The central goal was to posit a new theoretical framework that expands on existing social-cognitive and gender schema models (i.e., Social Information-Processing Model of Children's Adjustment [N. R. Crick & K. A.…

  12. The Link between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Myocardial Infarction in a Population-Based Study

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…

  13. Size Matters: The Link between Staff Size and Perceived Organizational Support in Early Childhood Education

    Ho, Dora; Lee, Moosung; Teng, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between staff size and perceived organizational support (POS) in early childhood education (ECE) organizations. Design/methodology/approach: A territory-wide questionnaire survey was designed to investigate the perceptions of preschool teachers in Hong Kong on four dimensions of…

  14. Childhood and Adolescent Animal Cruelty Methods and Their Possible Link to Adult Violent Crimes

    Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Few researchers have investigated the potentially predictive power of childhood and adolescent animal cruelty methods as they are associated with subsequent interpersonal violence in adulthood. Based on a sample of 261 inmates at medium- and maximum-security prisons in a southern state, the present study examines the relationship between several…

  15. Childhood Animal Cruelty Methods and Their Link to Adult Interpersonal Violence

    Henderson, Brandy B.; Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has begun to establish a relationship between childhood acts of animal cruelty and later violence against humans. However, few studies have focused on the influence of animal cruelty methods on later interpersonal violence. In a replication of a study by Hensley and Tallichet (2009) and based on a sample of 180 inmates at medium-…

  16. Unsafe at Any Age: Linking Childhood and Adolescent Maltreatment to Delinquency and Crime

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study compares the effects of childhood maltreatment and adolescent maltreatment on delinquency and crime, including violent and nonviolent offending. Methods: Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a prospective investigation of 1,539 underprivileged, minority subjects. Results: Results confirmed that rates of…

  17. A Review of Reminiscing in Early Childhood Settings and Links to Sustained Shared Thinking

    Neale, Dave; Pino-Pasternak, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The importance of parent-child reminiscing for young children's social and cognitive development has been well established, but despite the increasing numbers of children attending formal early childhood settings such as nurseries and preschools, there has been surprisingly little research exploring educator-child reminiscing in these contexts.…

  18. Genetic Variation Linked to Lung Cancer Survival in White Smokers | Center for Cancer Research

    CCR investigators have discovered evidence that links lung cancer survival with genetic variations (called single nucleotide polymorphisms) in the MBL2 gene, a key player in innate immunity. The variations in the gene, which codes for a protein called the mannose-binding lectin, occur in its promoter region, where the RNA polymerase molecule binds to start transcription, and in the first exon that is responsible for the correct structure of MBL. The findings appear in the September 19, 2007, issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

  19. Socio-economic status plays important roles in childhood cancer treatment outcome in Indonesia.

    Mostert, Saskia; Gunawan, Stefanus; Wolters, Emma; van de Ven, Peter; Sitaresmi, Mei; Dongen, Josephine van; Veerman, Anjo; Mantik, Max; Kaspers, Gertjan

    2012-01-01

    The influence of parental socio-economic status on childhood cancer treatment outcome in low-income countries has not been sufficiently investigated. Our study examined this influence and explored parental experiences during cancer treatment of their children in an Indonesian academic hospital. Medical charts of 145 children diagnosed with cancer between 1999 and 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. From October 2011 until January 2012, 40 caretakers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Of all patients, 48% abandoned treatment, 34% experienced death, 9% had progressive/ relapsed disease, and 9% overall event-free survival. Prosperous patients had better treatment outcome than poor patients (Pfate or God (55%). Causes of cancer were thought to be destiny (35%) or God's punishment (23%). Alternative treatment could (18%) or might (50%) cure cancer. Most parents (95%) would like more information about cancer and treatment. More contact with doctors was desired (98%). Income decreased during treatment (55%). Parents lost employment (48% fathers, 10% mothers), most of whom stated this loss was caused by their child's cancer (84% fathers, 100% mothers). Loss of income led to financial difficulties (63%) and debts (55%). Treatment abandonment was most important reason for treatment failure. Treatment outcome was determined by parental socio-economic status. Childhood cancer survival could improve if financial constraints and provision of information and guidance are better addressed.

  20. Childhood cancer after prenatal exposure to diagnostic X-ray examinations in Britain

    Mole, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed data were provided by the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancer OSCC on deaths from childhood cancer in Britain after irradiation of the fetus during diagnostic radiology of the mother. In each age group at death, 0-5, 6-9 and 10-15 years, excess cancer deaths decreased suddenly for births in and after 1958. A major factor was concerted action initiated in 1956 to reduce radiation exposure of fetal gonads for fear of genetic hazards. Dose reduction was achieved during 1957 and early 1958 by reducing the rising rate of obstetric radiography and by virtually abandoning pelvimetry as that had been understood. In the 1970s the rate of X-raying increased again and so did cancer risk but not significantly. Direct evidence that diagnostic X-rays can cause childhood cancer is the similar excess rate per X-ray in twins and singleton births when X-raying rate is 5-6 times higher in twins. (author)

  1. Cancer treatment in childhood and testicular function: the importance of the somatic environment

    Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Hutka, Marsida

    2018-01-01

    Testicular function and future fertility may be affected by cancer treatment during childhood. Whilst survival of the germ (stem) cells is critical for ensuring the potential for fertility in these patients, the somatic cell populations also play a crucial role in providing a suitable environment to support germ cell maintenance and subsequent development. Regulation of the spermatogonial germ-stem cell niche involves many signalling pathways with hormonal influence from the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In this review, we describe the somatic cell populations that comprise the testicular germ-stem cell niche in humans and how they may be affected by cancer treatment during childhood. We also discuss the experimental models that may be utilized to manipulate the somatic environment and report the results of studies that investigate the potential role of somatic cells in the protection of the germ cells in the testis from cancer treatment. PMID:29351905

  2. Childhood adversity is linked to differential brain volumes in adolescents with alcohol use disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Brooks, Samantha J; Dalvie, Shareefa; Cuzen, Natalie L; Cardenas, Valerie; Fein, George; Stein, Dan J

    2014-06-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies link both alcohol use disorder (AUD) and early adversity to neurobiological differences in the adult brain. However, the association between AUD and childhood adversity and effects on the developing adolescent brain are less clear, due in part to the confound of psychiatric comorbidity. Here we examine early life adversity and its association with brain volume in a unique sample of 116 South African adolescents (aged 12-16) with AUD but without psychiatric comorbidity. Participants were 58 adolescents with DSM-IV alcohol dependence and with no other psychiatric comorbidities, and 58 age-, gender- and protocol-matched light/non-drinking controls (HC). Assessments included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). MR images were acquired on a 3T Siemens Magnetom Allegra scanner. Volumes of global and regional structures were estimated using SPM8 Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM), with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and regression analyses. In whole brain ANCOVA analyses, a main effect of group when examining the AUD effect after covarying out CTQ was observed on brain volume in bilateral superior temporal gyrus. Subsequent regression analyses to examine how childhood trauma scores are linked to brain volumes in the total cohort revealed a negative correlation in the left hippocampus and right precentral gyrus. Furthermore, bilateral (but most significantly left) hippocampal volume was negatively associated with sub-scores on the CTQ in the total cohort. These findings support our view that some alterations found in brain volumes in studies of adolescent AUD may reflect the impact of confounding factors such as psychiatric comorbidity rather than the effects of alcohol per se. In particular, early life adversity may influence the developing adolescent brain in specific brain regions, such as the hippocampus.

  3. Trends in incidence, survival and mortality of childhood and adolescent cancer in Austria, 1994-2011.

    Karim-Kos, Henrike E; Hackl, Monika; Mann, Georg; Urban, Christian; Woehrer, Adelheid; Slavc, Irene; Ladenstein, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    This is the first study on trends in cancer incidence, survival and mortality for children and adolescents in Austria. The aim was to assess to what extent progress against childhood and adolescent cancer has been made in Austria since the 1990s and to complement the childhood and adolescent cancer trends for Central Europe. All malignant neoplasms and non-malignant tumours of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in patients aged less than 20 years and diagnosed between 1994 and 2011 (N=5425) were derived from the Austrian National Cancer Registry (ANCR). Incidence and mortality trends were evaluated by the average annual percentage change (AAPC). Observed survival rates were calculated based on follow-up until December 31st 2013. Childhood cancer remained stable with 182 cases per million in 2011, but rose among girls by 1.4% (95% CI: .1, 3.6) annually due to an increase of non-malignant CNS tumours and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Adolescent cancer rose by 1.5% (95% CI: .4, 2.6) annually, from 182 cases per million in 1994-269 in 2011, especially leukaemia, CNS tumours (including non-malignant types) and epithelial tumours. Five-year survival improved by 5-7% reaching 86% for both groups (p<.05). Mortality declined by -2.4% (95% CI: -3.7, -1.2) and -2.0% (95% CI: -4.6, .5), respectively, especially for childhood leukaemia. Progress is demonstrated by improved survival and declined mortality most likely related to improved diagnostic techniques, more effective therapeutic regimes, supportive care and a central advisory function of experts in the Austrian paediatric oncology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Excessive Leucine-mTORC1-Signalling of Cow Milk-Based Infant Formula: The Missing Link to Understand Early Childhood Obesity

    Melnik, Bodo C.

    2012-01-01

    Increased protein supply by feeding cow-milk-based infant formula in comparison to lower protein content of human milk is a well-recognized major risk factor of childhood obesity. However, there is yet no conclusive biochemical concept explaining the mechanisms of formula-induced childhood obesity. It is the intention of this article to provide the biochemical link between leucine-mediated signalling of mammalian milk proteins and adipogenesis as well as early adipogenic programming. Leucine ...

  5. Childhood IQ and all-cause mortality before and after age 65: Prospective observational study linking the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 and the Midspan studies

    Hart, C.L.; Taylor, M.D.; Davey Smith, G.; Whalley, L.J.; Starr, J.M.; Hole, D.; Wilson, V.; Deary, I.J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate how childhood IQ related to all-cause mortality before and after age 65. DESIGN: The Midspan prospective cohort studies, followed-up for mortality for 25 years, were linked to individuals' childhood IQ from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932. METHODS: The Midspan studies collected data on risk factors for cardiorespiratory disease from a questionnaire and at a screening examination, and were conducted on adults in Scotland in the 1970s. An age 11 IQ f...

  6. Neurobehavioural and cognitive function is linked to childhood trauma in homeless adults.

    Pluck, Graham; Lee, Kwang-Hyuk; David, Rajan; Macleod, Diana C; Spence, Sean A; Parks, Randolph W

    2011-03-01

    To describe levels of traumatic childhood events in a sample of homeless individuals and to assess the contribution of traumatic events to neurobehavioural traits (measured with the Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale, FrSBe) and general cognitive function (IQ). A sample of 55 homeless adults was recruited from homeless services in the city of Sheffield, UK. All were interviewed to acquire substance misuse information, record experiences of childhood trauma, and assess cognitive and neurobehavioural traits. Experiences of abuse and neglect were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants also completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and the FrSBe, which was completed with respect to current behaviour and conduct prior to homelessness. Around three-quarters of the sample scored in the clinically significant range for current neurobehavioural impairment. They also reported high levels of impairment when rating retrospectively for the period before they were homeless. The mean group IQ was below average at 88. Abuse or neglect during their upbringing was reported by 89% of the sample. Emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect were all positively correlated with total FrSBe scores. Sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect were all negatively correlated with IQ. The associations between trauma and IQ and neurobehavioural traits appear generally unrelated to the presence of substance misuse in the sample. Our homeless sample displayed relatively low IQ with high levels of neurobehavioural impairment. Our evidence suggests that these neuropsychological factors may, in part, constitute a long-term consequence of childhood trauma. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Young men's suicidal behavior, depression, crime, and substance use risks linked to childhood teasing.

    Kerr, David C R; Gini, Gianluca; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2017-05-01

    The consequences in adulthood of bullying, teasing, and other peer victimization experiences in childhood rarely have been considered in prospective studies. Studies of peer victimization are mixed regarding whether negative outcomes are explained by pre-existing child vulnerabilities. Furthermore, replication of prior studies with broader definitions and other methods and demographic groups is needed. Based on mother, father, and teacher reports at ages 10-12 years, we classified American boys (n=206) from higher delinquency neighborhoods as perpetrators of teasing, victims, perpetrator-victims, or uninvolved (n=26, 35, 29, and 116, respectively). Family income, parent and child depressive symptoms, and child antisocial behavior served as controls. Boys were assessed to age 34 years for suicide-attempt history (including death) and adult (ages 20-32 years) suicidal ideation, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, patterned tobacco and illicit drug use, and arrest. Relative to uninvolved boys, means or odds were higher for: suicide attempt among perpetrator-victims; all three groups for depressive symptoms and clinically significant symptoms; arrest for perpetrators and perpetrator-victims; number of arrests and violent arrest among perpetrator-victims; and patterned tobacco use among perpetrators and perpetrator-victims. With childhood vulnerabilities controlled, however, odds remained higher only for suicide attempt among perpetrator-victims, and criminal arrest and patterned tobacco use among perpetrators. Overall, childhood involvement in teasing predicted serious adverse outcomes in adulthood, in some cases beyond childhood risks. Programs that prevent peer victimization and identify already involved individuals for additional services may have positive impacts on the diverse public health problems of suicide, crime, depression, and tobacco use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Finding the right balance : An evaluation of the adequacy of energy and protein intake in childhood cancer patients

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F; Sulkers, Esther; de Bont, Eveline S J M; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Tamminga, Rienk Y J; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Tissing, Wim J E

    Background & aims: Despite a widespread belief that adequate dietary intake is needed to maintain weight during childhood cancer treatment, conclusive data about adequacy of intake are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to assess the adequacy of energy and protein intake in a heterogeneous childhood

  9. Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents

    Hicks, N.; Zack, M.; Caldwell, G.G.; Fernbach, D.J.; Falletta, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affeOR). its his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR)) . infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit . 1.5; P . 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR . 2.73; P . 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations

  10. Systematic identification of core transcription factors mediating dysregulated links bridging inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer.

    Yun Xiao

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows a tight link between inflammation and cancer. However, comprehensive identification of pivotal transcription factors (i.e., core TFs mediating the dysregulated links remains challenging, mainly due to a lack of samples that can effectively reflect the connections between inflammation and tumorigenesis. Here, we constructed a series of TF-mediated regulatory networks from a large compendium of expression profiling of normal colonic tissues, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs and colorectal cancer (CRC, which contains 1201 samples in total, and then proposed a network-based approach to characterize potential links bridging inflammation and cancer. For this purpose, we computed significantly dysregulated relationships between inflammation and their linked cancer networks, and then 24 core TFs with their dysregulated genes were identified. Collectively, our approach provides us with quite important insight into inflammation-associated tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer, which could also be applied to identify functionally dysregulated relationships mediating the links between other different disease phenotypes.

  11. Herbicides and nitrates in groundwater of Maryland and childhood cancers: a geographic information systems approach.

    Thorpe, Nancy; Shirmohammadi, Adel

    2005-01-01

    This hypothesis-generating study explores spatial patterns of childhood cancers in Maryland and investigates their potential associations with herbicides and nitrates in groundwater. The Maryland Cancer Registry (MCR) provided data for bone and brain cancers, leukemia, and lymphoma, for ages 0-17, during the years 1992-1998. Cancer clusters and relative risks generated in the study indicate higher relative risk areas and potential clusters in several counties. Contingency table analysis indicates a potential association with several herbicides and nitrates. Cancer rates for the four types have a crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.10 (0.78-1.56) in relationship to atrazine, and an OR = 1.54 (1.14-2.07) for metolachlor. Potential association to mixtures of three compounds give an OR = 7.56 (4.16-13.73). A potential association is indicated between leukemia and nitrates, OR = 1.81 (1.35-2.42), and bone cancer with metolachlor, OR = 2.26 (0.97-5.24). These results give insight to generate a hypothesis of the potential association between exposure to these herbicides and nitrates and specific types of childhood cancer.

  12. Medical interventions for treating anthracycline-induced symptomatic and asymptomatic cardiotoxicity during and after treatment for childhood cancer

    Cheuka, Daniel K. L.; Sieswerda, Elske; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Postma, Aleida; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anthracyclines are frequently used chemotherapeutic agents for childhood cancer that can cause cardiotoxicity during and after treatment. Although several medical interventions in adults with symptomatic or asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction due to other causes are beneficial, it is not

  13. Determinants of ototoxicity in 451 platinum-treated Dutch survivors of childhood cancer : A DCOG late-effects study

    Clemens, Eva; de Vries, Andrica C.; Pluijm, Saskia F.; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette Am; Tissing, Wim J.; Loonen, Jacqueline J.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Bresters, Dorine; Versluys, Birgitta; Kremer, Leontien C.; van der Pal, Heleen J.; van Grotel, Martine; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2016-01-01

    Platinum-containing chemotherapeutics are efficacious for a variety of pediatric malignancies, nevertheless these drugs can induce ototoxicity. However, ototoxicity data on large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) who received platinum agents, but not cranial irradiation are scarce.

  14. Childhood Cancer Genomics (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Genomic findings have been useful in the identification of subsets of patients that have distinct biological features and clinical characteristics (such as prognosis) for some pediatric cancers. Learn about the genomic alterations associated with central nervous system, leukemia, lymphoma, liver, sarcoma, neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, melanoma, kidney, and thyroid cancers in children in this comprehensive summary for clinicians.

  15. Interleukin-1 may link helplessness-hopelessness with cancer progression: A proposed model

    Argaman, M; Gidron, Y; Ariad, S

    2005-01-01

    A model of the relations between psychological factors and cancer progression should include brain and systemic components and their link with critical cellular stages in cancer progression. We present a psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) model that links helplessness-hopelessness (HH) with cancer progression via interleukin-1β (IL-1β). IL-1β was elevated in the brain following exposure to inescapable shock, and HH was minimized by antagonizing cerebral IL-1β. Elevated cerebral IL-1β increased ca...

  16. Cardiac damage after treatment of childhood cancer: A long-term follow-up

    Velensek, Veronika; Mazic, Uros; Krzisnik, Ciril; Demšar, Damjan; Jazbec, Janez; Jereb, Berta

    2008-01-01

    With improved childhood cancer cure rate, long term sequelae are becoming an important factor of quality of life. Signs of cardiovascular disease are frequently found in long term survivors of cancer. Cardiac damage may be related to irradiation and chemotherapy. We have evaluated simultaneous influence of a series of independent variables on the late cardiac damage in childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia and identified groups at the highest risk. 211 long-term survivors of different childhood cancers, at least five years after treatment were included in the study. The evaluation included history, physical examination, electrocardiograpy, exercise testing and echocardiograpy. For analysis of risk factors, beside univariate analysis, multivariate classification tree analysis statistical method was used. Patients treated latest, from 1989–98 are at highest risk for any injury to the heart (73%). Among those treated earlier are at the highest risk those with Hodgkin's disease treated with irradiation above 30 Gy and those treated for sarcoma. Among specific forms of injury, patients treated with radiation to the heart area are at highest risk of injury to the valves. Patients treated with large doses of anthracyclines or concomitantly with anthracyclines and alkylating agents are at highest risk of systolic function defect and enlarged heart chambers. Those treated with anthracyclines are at highest risk of diastolic function defect. The time period of the patient's treatment is emerged as an important risk factor for injury of the heart

  17. Supplemental security income and social security disability insurance coverage among long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Kirchhoff, Anne C; Parsons, Helen M; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Leisenring, Wendy; Donelan, Karen; Warner, Echo L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Park, Elyse R

    2015-06-01

    Supplemental security income (SSI) and social security disability insurance (DI) are federal programs that provide disability benefits. We report on SSI/DI enrollment in a random sample of adult, long-term survivors of childhood cancer (n = 698) vs a comparison group without cancer (n = 210) from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who completed a health insurance survey. A total of 13.5% and 10.0% of survivors had ever been enrolled on SSI or DI, respectively, compared with 2.6% and 5.4% of the comparison group. Cranial radiation doses of 25 Gy or more were associated with a higher risk of current SSI (relative risk [RR] = 3.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.05 to 7.56) and DI (RR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.65 to 8.06) enrollment. Survivors with severe/life-threatening conditions were more often enrolled on SSI (RR = 3.77, 95% CI = 2.04 to 6.96) and DI (RR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.45 to 5.14) compared with those with mild/moderate or no health conditions. Further research is needed on disability-related financial challenges after childhood cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Molecular Mechanisms Linking Exercise to Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Hojman, Pernille; Gehl, Julie; Christensen, Jesper F.

    2018-01-01

    The benefits of exercise training for cancer patients are becoming increasingly evident. Physical exercise has been shown to reduce cancer incidence and inhibit tumor growth. Here we provide the status of the current molecular understanding of the effect of exercise on cancer. We propose...... that exercise has a role in controlling cancer progression through a direct effect on tumor-intrinsic factors, interplay with whole-body exercise effects, alleviation of cancer-related adverse events, and improvement of anti-cancer treatment efficacy. These findings have wide-ranging societal implications......, as this understanding may lead to changes in cancer treatment strategies. Hojman et al. discuss the role of exercise in controlling cancer progression through direct effects on tumor-intrinsic factors, interplay with whole-body exercise effects, alleviation of cancer-related adverse events, and improvement of cancer...

  19. Maternal Employment Stability in Early Childhood: Links with Child Behavior and Cognitive Skills

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated links between maternal employment and children's wellbeing, less research has considered whether the stability of maternal employment is linked with child outcomes. Using unique employment calendar data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,011), an urban birth cohort study of largely…

  20. Impact of childhood cancer on the mental health of parents.

    Dockerty, J D; Williams, S M; McGee, R; Skegg, D C

    2000-11-01

    When a child is diagnosed with cancer, the family experiences great stress and disruption to daily life. As part of a national study in New Zealand, we evaluated the mental health of mothers and fathers of children with cancer, making comparisons to parents of children from the general population. This was a cross-sectional study. All children diagnosed with cancer at ages 0-14 years in New Zealand during a defined period were ascertained from the national cancer registry and other databases. The population-based comparison children were selected using national birth records. Parents from both groups completed self-administered questionnaires containing the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and other measures. The analyses included 218 mothers and 179 fathers of children with cancer, and 266 mothers and 224 fathers of children in the comparison group. Multivariate regression was used to adjust for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, life events, and social support. Mothers and fathers of children with cancer had poorer GHQ-12 and mood rating scores than those of controls. The adjusted difference in the mean total GHQ-12 score (comparing mothers of children with cancer to mothers of controls) was 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.3-3.2). The 12 items of the GHQ were each scored 0-3, and the total score was the sum, so 2 points is a small difference. For fathers the difference was 1.5 (95% confidence interval 0.6-2.4). Some subgroups of cancer group parents had poorer emotional health scores than others, including those with poor social support and no paid employment and also those who were bereaved. We found statistically significant but small differences between the mental health of parents of children with cancer and controls. The small differences suggest that as a group the parents of children with cancer are relatively resilient. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Infertility, infertility treatment, and achievement of pregnancy in female survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort

    Barton, Sara E.; Najita, Julie S.; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita E.; Sklar, Charles A.; Robison, Leslie L.; Diller, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies have documented decreased pregnancy rates and early menopause in female cancer survivors; however, infertility rates and reproductive interventions have not been studied. This study investigates infertility and time to pregnancy among female childhood cancer survivors, and analyzes treatment characteristics associated with infertility and subsequent pregnancy. Methods The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) is a cohort study including five-year cancer survivors from 26 institutions who were infertility, medical treatment for infertility, the time to first pregnancy in survivors and siblings, and the risk of infertility in survivors by demographic, disease, and treatment variables were analyzed. Findings Survivors had an increased risk of clinical infertility (>1 year of attempts at conception without success) compared to siblings which was most pronounced at early reproductive ages (≤24 years Relative Risk (RR)=2·92, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1·18–7·20; 25–29 years RR=1·61, 95% CI 1·05–2·48; 30–39 years RR=1·37, 95% CI 1·11–1·69). Despite being equally likely to seek treatment for infertility, survivors were less likely to be prescribed medication for treatment of infertility (RR=0·57, 95% CI 0·46–0·70). Increasing doses of uterine radiation and alkylating agent chemotherapy were most strongly associated with infertility. Although survivors had an increased time to pregnancy interval (p=0·032), 64·2% (292/455) with infertility achieved a pregnancy. Interpretation A more comprehensive understanding of infertility after cancer is critical for counseling and decision-making regarding future attempts at conception as well as fertility preservation. PMID:23856401

  2. Childhood Obesity

    Trandafir, Laura Mihaela; Ioniuc, Ileana; Miron, Ingrith

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  3. Birth order and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Pooled Analysis from Five U.S. States

    Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G.; Mueller, Beth A.; Carozza, Susan E.; Chow, Eric J.; Fox, Erin E.; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J.; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E.; Ross, Julie A.; Reynolds, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas, and Washington. We included 17,672 cases less than 15 years of age who were diagnosed from1980-2004 and 57,966 randomly selected controls born 1970-2004, excluding children with Down syndrome. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression, adjusted for sex, birth year, maternal race, maternal age, multiple birth, gestational age, and birth weight. Overall, we found an inverse relationship between childhood cancer risk and birth order. For children in the fourth or higher birth order category compared to first-born children, the adjusted OR was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.93) for all cancers combined. When we examined risks by cancer type, a decreasing risk with increasing birth order was seen in the central nervous system (CNS) tumors, neuroblastoma, bilateral retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor, and rhabdomyosarcoma. We observed increased risks with increasing birth order for acute myeloid leukemia but a slight decrease in risk for acute lymphoid leukemia. These risk estimates were based on a very large sample size which allowed us to examine rare cancer types with greater statistical power than in most previous studies, however the biologic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. PMID:20715170

  4. Nutrition in adult and childhood cancer: role of carcinogens and anti-carcinogens.

    Mosby, Terezie T; Cosgrove, Maeve; Sarkardei, Samiramis; Platt, Karl L; Kaina, Bernd

    2012-10-01

    There is no doubt that diet is one of the main modifiable risk factors for many degenerative diseases, including cancer. More than 30% of adult cancers can be prevented or delayed by diet, being physically active and having a healthy body weight. Plant-based foods, including fruit, vegetables, and whole grains, a favorable omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio, and fish consumption have a protective effect against cancer. On the contrary, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, high intake of red and processed meat, high intake of sodium, alcohol consumption, a diet rich in refined carbohydrates, and a high intake of total fat may increase risk of cancer. Furthermore, calorie restriction and having a body/mass index on the lower end of the normal range can significantly decrease or delay the onset of cancers. Most studies were performed on adults and thus the role of diet in childhood cancer is less well-understood. In the past, diet was not considered to play any role in its etiology in children. However, nowadays there is a growing body of evidence that prolonged and frequent breastfeeding, the maternal diet during pregnancy and vitamin intake during pregnancy, may impart benefit for reduced cancer risk in children. Usually, decades of healthy dietary habits are needed to see significant difference in cancer risk. Therefore, diet choices and diet preparation starting early in life deserve more attention. Here we review data focusing on which dietary factors, including food-borne carcinogens, affect the onset of cancers in adults and stress out the potential role of diet in childhood cancer prevention.

  5. Does childhood cancer affect parental divorce rates? A population-based study.

    Syse, Astri; Loge, Jon H; Lyngstad, Torkild H

    2010-02-10

    PURPOSE Cancer in children may profoundly affect parents' personal relationships in terms of psychological stress and an increased care burden. This could hypothetically elevate divorce rates. Few studies on divorce occurrence exist, so the effect of childhood cancers on parental divorce rates was explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data on the entire Norwegian married population, age 17 to 69 years, with children age 0 to 20 years in 1974 to 2001 (N = 977,928 couples) were retrieved from the Cancer Registry, the Central Population Register, the Directorate of Taxes, and population censuses. Divorce rates for 4,590 couples who were parenting a child with cancer were compared with those of otherwise similar couples by discrete-time hazard regression models. Results Cancer in a child was not associated with an increased risk of parental divorce overall. An increased divorce rate was observed with Wilms tumor (odds ratio [OR], 1.52) but not with any of the other common childhood cancers. The child's age at diagnosis, time elapsed from diagnosis, and death from cancer did not influence divorce rates significantly. Increased divorce rates were observed for couples in whom the mothers had an education greater than high school level (OR, 1.16); the risk was particularly high shortly after diagnosis, for CNS cancers and Wilms tumors, for couples with children 0 to 9 years of age at diagnosis, and after a child's death. CONCLUSION This large, registry-based study shows that cancer in children is not associated with an increased parental divorce rate, except with Wilms tumors. Couples in whom the wife is highly educated appear to face increased divorce rates after a child's cancer, and this may warrant additional study.

  6. Classification tree analysis of second neoplasms in survivors of childhood cancer

    Jazbec, Janez; Todorovski, Ljupčo; Jereb, Berta

    2007-01-01

    Reports on childhood cancer survivors estimated cumulative probability of developing secondary neoplasms vary from 3,3% to 25% at 25 years from diagnosis, and the risk of developing another cancer to several times greater than in the general population. In our retrospective study, we have used the classification tree multivariate method on a group of 849 first cancer survivors, to identify childhood cancer patients with the greatest risk for development of secondary neoplasms. In observed group of patients, 34 develop secondary neoplasm after treatment of primary cancer. Analysis of parameters present at the treatment of first cancer, exposed two groups of patients at the special risk for secondary neoplasm. First are female patients treated for Hodgkin's disease at the age between 10 and 15 years, whose treatment included radiotherapy. Second group at special risk were male patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who were treated at the age between 4,6 and 6,6 years of age. The risk groups identified in our study are similar to the results of studies that used more conventional approaches. Usefulness of our approach in study of occurrence of second neoplasms should be confirmed in larger sample study, but user friendly presentation of results makes it attractive for further studies

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood ... A to Z List of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic ...

  8. Molecular profiling of childhood cancer: Biomarkers and novel therapies

    Federica Saletta

    2014-06-01

    General significance: The increasing recognition of the heterogeneity of molecular causes of cancer favors the continued development of molecularly targeted agents, and their transfer to pediatric and adolescent populations.

  9. Malnutrition in childhood cancer patients: a review on its prevalence and possible causes.

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Huizinga, Gea; Sulkers, Esther; Kamps, Willem; Roodbol, Petrie; Tissing, Wim

    2012-08-01

    To perform a systematic literature review for critical evaluation of prevalence and factors contributing to malnutrition in childhood cancer. A systematic search resulting in 46 suitable articles. Due to lack of uniform criteria and adequate studies, the prevalence rates of malnutrition can only be estimated. Based on strengths and weaknesses of included references, prevalence rates are estimated to be 0-10% for leukemia, 20-50% for neuroblastoma, and 0-30% for other malignancies. Whether energy deficiency or inflammation contributed to malnutrition could not be confirmed because the occurrence of energy deficit (low energy intake, increased metabolic rate) or inflammation (related to cachexia) was not convincing. Also, a relationship between these factors and malnutrition was not studied. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine which children are at risk of malnutrition, and to investigate the impact of energy deficiency and inflammation on the nutritional status and body composition of childhood cancer patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Systemic Antibiotic Use During Pregnancy and Childhood Cancer in the Offspring

    Momen, Natalie; Olsen, Jørn; Gissler, Mika

    to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for parity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and maternal age and maternal education at time of birth. Results About 39% of mothers redeemed prescriptions for systemic antibiotics during the exposure window......Background Research suggests the majority of women are prescribed at least one drug during pregnancy, and that there is an association between systemic antibiotics taken during pregnancy and childhood cancers. However, studies to date have been unable to consider timing and dosage, and provided...... inconclusive results. Methods A nested case-control design was used to study associations between use of systemic antibiotics during pregnancy and cancer in childhood. By means of the nationwide registers of Denmark we identified women who filled prescriptions from three months before conception up...

  11. Fearfulness moderates the link between childhood social withdrawal and adolescent reward response.

    Morgan, Judith K; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-06-01

    Withdrawal from peers during childhood may reflect disruptions in reward functioning that heighten vulnerability to affective disorders during adolescence. The association between socially withdrawn behavior and reward functioning may depend on traits that influence this withdrawal, such as fearfulness or unsociability. In a study of 129 boys, we evaluated how boys' fearfulness and sociability at age 5 and social withdrawal at school at ages 6 to 10 and during a summer camp at age 9/10 were associated with their neural response to reward at age 20. Greater social withdrawal during childhood was associated with heightened striatal and mPFC activation when anticipating rewards at age 20. Fearfulness moderated this effect to indicate that social withdrawal was associated with heightened reward-related response in the striatum for boys high on fearfulness. Altered striatal response associated with social withdrawal and fearfulness predicted greater likelihood to have a lifetime history of depression and social phobia at age 20. These findings add greater specificity to previous findings that children high in traits related to fear of novelty show altered reward responses, by identifying fearfulness (but not low levels of sociability) as a potential underlying mechanism that contributes to reward alterations in withdrawn children. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Impact of childhood cancer on maternal employment in Japan.

    Okada, Hiromi; Maru, Mitsue; Maeda, Rumi; Iwasaki, Fuminori; Nagasawa, Masayuki; Takahashi, Miyako

    2015-01-01

    Family members of children with cancer experience various long-term effects as a result of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, comprehensive and long-term support is needed. As the employment rate of women has increased in recent years, support for working mothers with children diagnosed with cancer is also required. We investigated the following issues and relevant changes that working mothers of children diagnosed with cancer must deal with: (1) work change, (2) stress, (3) social support, (4) work motivation, and (5) employment status after diagnosis. A cross-sectional exploratory study design was used. Data were collected from 62 mothers of children who were diagnosed with cancer using self-report questionnaires. Of the 32 mothers who worked at the time of diagnosis, 10 continued to work, 12 took an extended leave, and 10 quit working, and 70% lost motivation for work following diagnosis. Half of mothers who continued to work during treatment reported financial reasons. These findings indicate that mothers who quit work following diagnosis did not initially consider a long leave of absence. Even mothers who continued to work during treatment desired a long leave of absence to care for their children. Nurses should provide mothers with explanations of the prospects after the completion of cancer treatment and determine their expectations for their lifestyle and work during treatment. We recommend that nurses confirm mothers' willingness to take a long leave of absence from work and give relevant advice about seeking financial assistance.

  13. A hypothesis to explain childhood cancers near nuclear power plants

    Fairlie, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Over 60 epidemiological studies world-wide have examined cancer incidences in children near nuclear power plants (NPPs): most of them indicate leukemia increases. These include the 2008 KiKK study commissioned by the German Government which found relative risks (RR) of 1.6 in total cancers and 2.2 in leukemias among infants living within 5 km of all German NPPs. The KiKK study has retriggered the debate as to the cause(s) of these increased cancers. A suggested hypothesis is that the increased cancers arise from radiation exposures to pregnant women near NPPs. However any theory has to account for the >10,000 fold discrepancy between official dose estimates from NPP emissions and observed increased risks. An explanation may be that doses from spikes in NPP radionuclide emissions are significantly larger than those estimated by official models which are diluted through the use of annual averages. In addition, risks to embryos/fetuses are greater than those to adults and haematopoietic tissues appear more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. The product of possible increased doses and possible increased risks per dose may provide an explanation. - Highlights: • Over 60 studies worldwide on increased cancers near nuclear power plants (NPPs). • German government KiKK study provides very strong evidence. • Hypothesis proposes cancers arise in pregnant women near NPPs. • Nuclide spikes during refuelling could result in increased exposures. • Explanation offered for discrepancy between small dose estimates and large risks

  14. Linking tumor glycolysis and immune evasion in cancer: Emerging concepts and therapeutic opportunities.

    Ganapathy-Kanniappan, Shanmugasundaram

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic reprogramming and immune evasion are two hallmarks of cancer. Metabolic reprogramming is exemplified by cancer's propensity to utilize glucose at an exponential rate which in turn is linked with "aerobic glycolysis", popularly known as the "Warburg effect". Tumor glycolysis is pivotal for the efficient management of cellular bioenergetics and uninterrupted cancer growth. Mounting evidence suggests that tumor glycolysis also plays a key role in instigating immunosuppressive networks that are critical for cancer cells to escape immune surveillance ("immune evasion"). Recent data show that induction of cellular stress or metabolic dysregulation sensitize cancer cells to antitumor immune cells implying that metabolic reprogramming and immune evasion harmonize during cancer progression. However, the molecular link between these two hallmarks of cancer remains obscure. In this review the molecular intricacies of tumor glycolysis that facilitate immune evasion has been discussed in the light of recent research to explore immunotherapeutic potential of targeting cancer metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New immunotherapy approach leads to remission in patients with the most common type of childhood cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapy has emerged as a promising treatment for pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), the most common type of childhood cancer. B-ALL is characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts. In a trial led by Center for Cancer Research investigators, around 70 to 90 percent of patients whose B-ALL has relapsed or developed resistance to chemotherapy entered remission after CAR T-cell therapy targeting CD19. Read more…

  16. New genes linked to lung cancer susceptibility in Asian women

    An international group of scientists has identified three genes that predispose Asian women who have never smoked to lung cancer. The discovery of specific genetic variations, which have not previously been associated with lung cancer risk in other popul

  17. Kidney cancer progression linked to shifts in tumor metabolism

    Investigators in The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network have uncovered a connection between how tumor cells use energy from metabolic processes and the aggressiveness of the most common form of kidney cancer, clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  18. Follow-up care of young childhood cancer survivors: attendance and parental involvement.

    Vetsch, Janine; Rueegg, Corina S; Mader, Luzius; Bergstraesser, Eva; Rischewski, Johannes; Kuehni, Claudia E; Michel, Gisela

    2016-07-01

    Despite recommendations, only a proportion of long-term childhood cancer survivors attend follow-up care. We aimed to (1) describe the follow-up attendance of young survivors aged 11-17 years; (2) describe the parental involvement in follow-up, and (3) investigate predictors of follow-up attendance and parental involvement. As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a follow-up questionnaire was sent to parents of childhood cancer survivors aged 11-17 years. We assessed follow-up attendance of the child, parents' involvement in follow-up, illness perception (Brief IPQ), and sociodemographic data. Clinical data was available from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. Of 309 eligible parents, 189 responded (67 %; mean time since diagnosis 11.3 years, range 6.8-17.2) and 75 % (n = 141) reported that their child still attended follow-up. Of these, 83 % (n = 117) reported ≥1 visit per year and 17 % (n = 23) reported parents (92 %) reported being involved in follow-up (n = 130). In multivariable and Cox regression analyses, longer time since diagnosis (p = 0.025) and lower perceived treatment control (assessed by IPQ4: how much parents thought follow-up can help with late effects; p = 0.009) were associated with non-attendance. Parents' overall information needs was significantly associated with parental involvement in the multivariable model (p = 0.041). Educating survivors and their parents on the importance and effectiveness of follow-up care might increase attendance in the longer term.

  19. Social Support of Childhood Cancer Survivors and Heatlhy Children: Are There Any Differences?

    Koutná, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.; Jelínek, Martin; Blažková, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, Supplement s3 (2013), s. 234-235 ISSN 1099-1611. [IPOS World Congress of Psycho-Oncology /15./. 04.11.-0811.2013, Rotterdam] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : childhood cancer survivors * social support * social network Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1099-1611.2013.3394/abstract

  20. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management123

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or del...

  1. Health behaviour and posttraumatic growth in parents of childhood cancer survivors

    Slezáčková, Alena; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Kepák, T.; Vlčková, I.; Pilát, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2009), s. 366-367 ISSN 0887-0446. [Annual Conference of the European Health Psychology Society /23./. 23.09.2009-26.09.2009, Pisa] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : health behaviour * posttraumatic growth * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  2. The social and emotional context of childhood and adolescent animal cruelty: is there a link to adult interpersonal crimes?

    Tallichet, Suzanne E; Hensley, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    The link between early animal abuse and later violence toward humans may depend on how acts of animal cruelty are experienced by those whose behavior demonstrates this graduation. Unfortunately, the research investigating the social and emotional context for the youthful commission of animal cruelty as it escalates to adult interpersonal violence is relatively nonexistent. Using 112 cases from a larger sample of 261 inmates surveyed at both medium and maximum security prisons in a southern state, the present study examined the effects of age of onset and frequency of animal cruelty, the covertness of animal cruelty, the commission of animal cruelty within a group or in isolation, and empathy for the abused animals. Inmates who had covered up their childhood and adolescent animal cruelty were more likely to have been convicted of repeated acts of interpersonal violence, demonstrating that the role of empathy and individuals present during acts of animal cruelty were less important than concealing those acts.

  3. Psychological factors impacting transition from paediatric to adult care by childhood cancer survivors.

    Granek, Leeat; Nathan, Paul C; Rosenberg-Yunger, Zahava R S; D'Agostino, Norma; Amin, Leila; Barr, Ronald D; Greenberg, Mark L; Hodgson, David; Boydell, Katherine; Klassen, Anne F

    2012-09-01

    Childhood cancer survivors require life-long care focused on the specific late effects that may arise from their cancer and its treatment. In many centers, survivors are required to transition from follow-up care in a paediatric cancer center, to care provided in an adult care setting. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychological factors involved in this transition to adult care long-term follow-up clinics. Qualitative interviews were conducted with ten paediatric survivors still in paediatric care, as well as 28 adult survivors of whom 11 had transitioned successfully to adult care (attended three long-term follow-up (LTFU) appointments consecutively); ten who failed to transition (attended at least one LTFU appointment as an adult, but were inconsistent with subsequent attendance); and seven who had never transitioned (did not attend any LTFU care as an adult). Line-by-line coding was used to establish categories and themes. Constant comparison was used to examine relationships within and across codes and categories. Two overall categories and four subthemes were identified: (1) Identification with being a cancer survivor included the subthemes of 'cancer identity' and 'cancer a thing of the past' and; (2) Emotional components included the subthemes of 'fear and anxiety' and 'gratitude and gaining perspective'. The analysis revealed that the same factor could act as either a motivator or a hindrance to successful transition in different survivors (e.g., fear of recurrence of cancer might be a barrier or a facilitator depending on the survivor's life experience). Psychological factors are an important consideration when preparing cancer survivors for transition to adult long-term follow-up care. Identifying and addressing the individual psychological needs of childhood cancer survivors may improve the likelihood of their successful transition to adult care.

  4. Hospital contacts for endocrine disorders in Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS): a population-based cohort study

    de Fine Licht, Sofie; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern of endocrine disorders in long-term survivors of childhood cancer has not been investigated comprehensively. Here, we aimed to assess the lifetime risk of these disorders in Nordic survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: From the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finl...

  5. Clustering of health behaviours in adult survivors of childhood cancer and the general population.

    Rebholz, C E; Rueegg, C S; Michel, G; Ammann, R A; von der Weid, N X; Kuehni, C E; Spycher, B D

    2012-07-10

    Little is known about engagement in multiple health behaviours in childhood cancer survivors. Using latent class analysis, we identified health behaviour patterns in 835 adult survivors of childhood cancer (age 20-35 years) and 1670 age- and sex-matched controls from the general population. Behaviour groups were determined from replies to questions on smoking, drinking, cannabis use, sporting activities, diet, sun protection and skin examination. The model identified four health behaviour patterns: 'risk-avoidance', with a generally healthy behaviour; 'moderate drinking', with higher levels of sporting activities, but moderate alcohol-consumption; 'risk-taking', engaging in several risk behaviours; and 'smoking', smoking but not drinking. Similar proportions of survivors and controls fell into the 'risk-avoiding' (42% vs 44%) and the 'risk-taking' cluster (14% vs 12%), but more survivors were in the 'moderate drinking' (39% vs 28%) and fewer in the 'smoking' cluster (5% vs 16%). Determinants of health behaviour clusters were gender, migration background, income and therapy. A comparable proportion of childhood cancer survivors as in the general population engage in multiple health-compromising behaviours. Because of increased vulnerability of survivors, multiple risk behaviours should be addressed in targeted health interventions.

  6. The risk of childhood cancer from low doses of ionizing radiation received in utero

    Wakeford, R.; Doll, R.; Bithell, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Radiological protection is based upon the assumption that any additional exposure to ionising radiation leads to an increased risk of stochastic adverse health effects. The validity of this assumption is supported by the epidemiological association between childhood cancer and X-ray exposure of the fetus in utero for diagnostic purposes. Evidence for a direct causal interpretation of this association is compelling: the association has high statistical significance, it is consistent across many case-control studies carried out worldwide, and an appropriate dose-response relationship is indicated. Evidence against bias and confounding as alternative explanations is strong. Nonetheless, objections to causality have been raised. Four grounds for controversy are examined in detail, with the conclusion that they do not provide persuasive evidence against a cause and effect relationship. We conclude that acute doses of the order of 10 mGy received by the fetus in utero cause a subsequent increase in the risk of cancer in childhood, and that, in these circumstances, the excess absolute risk coefficient for childhood cancer incidence is 6-12% per Gy. (author)

  7. The Swiss ''CANUPIS'' study on childhood cancer in the vicinity of nuclear power stations

    Voelkle, Hansruedi

    2011-01-01

    A nationwide cohort study on leukaemia and any other childhood cancer in the vicinity of Swiss nuclear power stations (CANUPIS) was supported by the Krebsliga Schweiz and the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The results, covering the years 1985 to 2009 and including some 21 million person years, was published in July 2011. Three zones around nuclear installations were investigated: 0 to 5 km, 5 to 10 km and 10 to 15 km distance. The CANUPIS study found no evidence for a statistically significant increased cancer risk among 0 to 15 year old children living near Swiss nuclear power stations, compared to children living in other regions of the country. (orig.)

  8. Risk reduction for nonmelanoma skin cancer with childhood sunscreen use

    Stern, R.S.; Weinstein, M.C.; Baker, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the principle cause of basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, which are the most frequent tumors occurring in white residents of the United States. Using a mathematical model based on epidemiologic data, we quantified the potential benefits of using a sunscreen with a sun protective factor of 15 and estimate that regular use of such a sunscreen during the first 18 years of life would reduce the lifetime incidence of these tumors by 78%. Additional benefits of sunscreen use during childhood include reduced risk of sunburn, retarding the pace of skin aging, and possible reduction in melanoma risk. We recommend that pediatricians encourage sunscreen use and sun avoidance as a regular part of pediatric preventive health care

  9. Childhood cancer and factors related to prolonged diagnostic intervals

    Ahrensberg, J M; Olesen, F; Hansen, R P

    2013-01-01

    overleveringen til hospitalet var af betydning for hvor lang tid, der går fra lægesøgning til diagnose. Metode: Dansk populations-baseret studie. Data for 550 børn cancer diagnose (jan 2007-dec 2010) blev indsamlet vha spørgeskemaer til forældre (response-rate=69%) and praktiserende læger...... barnets symptomer som vage og ukarakteristiske i 25,4%; som alvorlige, men ikke cancer-relaterede i 50,0%; og som alarm symptom i 19,0% af tilfælde. Symptom tolkningen varierede med cancertype (p

  10. Energy restriction during childhood and early adulthood and ovarian cancer risk.

    Leo J Schouten

    Full Text Available Dietary energy restriction may protect against cancer. In parts of The Netherlands, mostly in larger cities, periods of chronically impaired nutrition and even severe famine (Hunger Winter 1944-1945 existed during the 1930s and World War II (1940-1945. We studied the association between energy restriction during childhood and early adulthood on the risk of ovarian cancer later in life. In 1986, the Netherlands Cohort Study was initiated. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other cancer risk factors was completed by 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. Follow-up for cancer was established by record linkage to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. After 16.3 years of follow-up, 364 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 2220 subcohort members (sampled from the total cohort directly after baseline with complete information confounders were available for case-cohort analyses. In multivariable analysis, ovarian cancer risk was lower for participants with an unemployed father during the 1930s (Hazard Ratio (HR, 0.70; 95% Confidence Interval (CI, 0.47-1.06 compared to participants with an employed father as well as for participants living in a city during World War II (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54-0.90 compared to participants living in the country-side. Residence in a Western City during the famine (Hunger Winter was not associated with a decreased risk. Our results show a relation between proxy variables for modest energy restriction over a longer period of time during childhood or early adulthood and a reduced ovarian cancer risk.

  11. Is there a link between BPH and prostate cancer?

    Chang, R T M; Kirby, Roger; Challacombe, B J

    2012-04-01

    BPH is one of the most common diseases of older men, with more than 70% of men over 70 years affected, and prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK. Prostate cancer generally presents in one of three ways: asymptomatic patients who are screened (usually by a PSA test); men with LUTS who are investigated and undergo prostate biopsy; or patients with symptoms of metastasis such as bone pain. Men can be reassured that the main cause of LUTS is BPH. Only a small proportion of men have LUTS that are directly attributable to prostate cancer. Digital rectal examination (DRE) gives an evaluation of prostate size, which is relevant in particular to BPH management, and along with PSA testing it is one of the only ways of differentiating clinically between BPH and prostate cancer. If a nodular abnormality is present there is around a 50% chance of a diagnosis of prostate cancer being made on biopsy. Raised levels of serum PSA may be suggestive of prostate cancer, but diagnosis requires histological confirmation in almost every case. A normal PSA, PSA density and DRE can give reasonable confidence with regards to excluding clinically significant prostate cancer. BPH is not a known risk factor for prostate cancer, although the two frequently coexist. Age is the strongest predictor of prostate cancer risk, along with family history. BPH is not considered to be a precursor of prostate cancer. It is likely that although BPH may not make prostate cancer more likely to occur, it may increase the chance of diagnosing an incidental cancer.

  12. Determinants & Sequelae of Altered Body Composition in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    K. Blijdorp (Karin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, approximately 600 children are diagnosed with cancer every year. Due to improvement of treatment, combining surgery, multi-agent chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, in addition to remarkable advances in supportive care, survival has increased substantially over the

  13. Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study

    Witvliet, M.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Cuijpers, P.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a randomized controlled trial to explore the link between having positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes in 758 children followed from kindergarten to the end of 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a universal

  14. Long-term population-based divorce rates among adult survivors of childhood cancer in Britain.

    Frobisher, Clare; Lancashire, Emma R; Winter, David L; Taylor, Aliki J; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2010-01-01

    Previously from the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) it was seen that adult survivors of childhood cancer were less likely to marry than the general population. The objectives of this study were to assess the number of childhood cancer survivors from the BCCSS who were currently divorced or separated, examine factors associated with marriage dissolution and compare survivor divorce rates to population rates. The BCCSS is a population-based cohort of 18,119 individuals diagnosed with cancer aged 0-14 years between 1940 and 1991, and survived at least 5 years. 14,539 were alive, aged 16 years or over and eligible to receive a questionnaire, which ascertained marital status. From 8,155 survivors, who were aged at least 20 years at questionnaire completion, the proportions currently divorced and divorced or separated were 13.5% and 18.1%, respectively. Only current age, educational attainment and age at marriage were associated with divorce, and for divorce and separation status only age at marriage (P divorced (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals (95% CI)): 0.94 (0.81-1.10)). However, the survivors overall (OR (95% CI): 0.82 (0.72-0.94)), and separately for those diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR (95% CI): 0.55 (0.34-0.89)) and leukaemia (OR (95% CI): 0.70 (0.52-0.95)), were less likely to be currently divorced or separated than the general population. It is reassuring that survivors do not experience more divorce than the general population, and that no cancer or treatment factors were shown to be associated with marriage dissolution. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination among Young Women Surviving Childhood Cancer

    Klosky, James L.; Favaro, Brianne; Peck, Kelly R.; Simmons, Jessica L.; Russell, Kathryn M.; Green, Daniel M.; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection and the cause of cervical and other cancers. Vaccination is available to protect against genital HPV and is recommended for individuals aged 9-26 years. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HPV vaccination among childhood cancer survivors and to identify factors associated with vaccine outcomes. Methods Young adult females with (n = 114; M age =21.18 years, SD =2.48) and without (n = 98; M age = 20.65 years, SD = 2.29) a childhood cancer history completed surveys querying HPV vaccination initiation/completion, as well as sociodemographic, medical, and health belief factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for vaccine outcomes. Results Among survivors, 38.6% (44/114) and 26.3% (30/114) initiated or completed vaccination compared to 44.9% (44/98) and 28.6% (28/98) among controls, respectively. In the combined survivor/control group, physician recommendation (OR = 11.24, 95% CI, 3.15 – 40.14), and familial HPV communication (OR = 7.28, 95% CI, 1.89 – 28.05) associated with vaccine initiation. Perceptions of vaccine benefit associated with vaccine completion (OR = 10.55, 95% CI, 1.59 – 69.92), whereas perceptions of HPV-related severity associated with non-completion (OR = 0.14, 95% CI, 0.03 – 0.71). Conclusion Despite their increased risk for HPV-related complication, a minority of childhood cancer survivors have initiated or completed HPV vaccination. Modifiable factors associating with vaccine outcomes were identified. Implications HPV vaccination is a useful tool for cancer prevention in survivorship, and interventions to increase vaccine uptake are warranted. PMID:26572902

  16. Thyroid Radiation Dose and Other Risk Factors of Thyroid Carcinoma Following Childhood Cancer.

    de Vathaire, Florent; Haddy, Nadia; Allodji, Rodrigue S; Hawkins, Mike; Guibout, Catherine; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Teinturier, Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Pacquement, Hélène; Diop, Fara; Kalhouche, Amar; Benadjaoud, Mohamedamine; Winter, David; Jackson, Angela; Bezin Mai-Quynh, Giao; Benabdennebi, Aymen; Llanas, Damien; Veres, Cristina; Munzer, Martine; Nguyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Deutsch, Eric; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Schlumberger, Martin; Diallo, Ibrahima; Rubino, Carole

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is a frequent complication of childhood cancer radiotherapy. The dose response to thyroid radiation dose is now well established, but the potential modifier effect of other factors requires additional investigation. This study aimed to investigate the role of potential modifiers of the dose response. We followed a cohort of 4338 5-year survivors of solid childhood cancer treated before 1986 over an average of 27 years. The dose received by the thyroid gland and some other anatomical sites during radiotherapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual conditions in which irradiation was delivered. Fifty-five patients developed thyroid carcinoma. The risk of thyroid carcinoma increased with a radiation dose to the thyroid of up to two tenths of Gy, then leveled off for higher doses. When taking into account the thyroid radiation dose, a surgical or radiological splenectomy (>20 Gy to the spleen) increased thyroid cancer risk (relative risk [RR] = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-4.0), high radiation doses (>5 Gy) to pituitary gland lowered this risk (RR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6). Patients who received nitrosourea chemotherapy had a 6.6-fold (95% CI, 2.5-15.7) higher risk than those who did not. The excess RR per Gy of radiation to the thyroid was 4.7 (95% CI, 1.7-22.6). It was 7.6 (95% CI, 1.6-33.3) if body mass index at time of interview was equal or higher than 25 kg/m(2), and 4.1 (95% CI, 0.9-17.7) if not (P for interaction = .1). Predicting thyroid cancer risk following childhood cancer radiation therapy probably requires the assessment of more than just the radiation dose to the thyroid. Chemotherapy, splenectomy, radiation dose to pituitary gland, and obesity also play a role.

  17. International incidence of childhood cancer, 2001-10: a population-based registry study.

    Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Colombet, Murielle; Ries, Lynn A G; Moreno, Florencia; Dolya, Anastasia; Bray, Freddie; Hesseling, Peter; Shin, Hee Young; Stiller, Charles A

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is a major cause of death in children worldwide, and the recorded incidence tends to increase with time. Internationally comparable data on childhood cancer incidence in the past two decades are scarce. This study aimed to provide internationally comparable local data on the incidence of childhood cancer to promote research of causes and implementation of childhood cancer control. This population-based registry study, devised by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in collaboration with the International Association of Cancer Registries, collected data on all malignancies and non-malignant neoplasms of the CNS diagnosed before age 20 years in populations covered by high-quality cancer registries with complete data for 2001-10. Incidence rates per million person-years for the 0-14 years and 0-19 years age groups were age-adjusted using the world standard population to provide age-standardised incidence rates (WSRs), using the age-specific incidence rates (ASR) for individual age groups (0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and 15-19 years). All rates were reported for 19 geographical areas or ethnicities by sex, age group, and cancer type. The regional WSRs for children aged 0-14 years were compared with comparable data obtained in the 1980s. Of 532 invited cancer registries, 153 registries from 62 countries, departments, and territories met quality standards, and contributed data for the entire decade of 2001-10. 385 509 incident cases in children aged 0-19 years occurring in 2·64 billion person-years were included. The overall WSR was 140·6 per million person-years in children aged 0-14 years (based on 284 649 cases), and the most common cancers were leukaemia (WSR 46·4), followed by CNS tumours (WSR 28·2), and lymphomas (WSR 15·2). In children aged 15-19 years (based on 100 860 cases), the ASR was 185·3 per million person-years, the most common being lymphomas (ASR 41·8) and the group of epithelial tumours and melanoma (ASR 39·5

  18. Linking the generation of DNA adducts to lung cancer.

    Ceppi, Marcello; Munnia, Armelle; Cellai, Filippo; Bruzzone, Marco; Peluso, Marco E M

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. DNA adducts are considered a reliable biomarker that reflects carcinogen exposure to tobacco smoke, but the central question is what is the relationship of DNA adducts and cancer? Therefore, we investigated this relationship by a meta-analysis of twenty-two studies with bronchial adducts for a total of 1091 subjects, 887 lung cancer cases and 204 apparently healthy individuals with no evidence of lung cancer. Our study shows that these adducts are significantly associated to increase lung cancer risk. The value of Mean Ratio lung-cancer (MR) of bronchial adducts resulting from the random effects model was 2.64, 95% C.I. 2.00-3.50, in overall lung cancer cases as compared to controls. The significant difference, with lung cancer patients having significant higher levels of bronchial adducts than controls, persisted after stratification for smoking habits. The MR lung-cancer value between lung cancer patients and controls for smokers was 2.03, 95% C.I. 1.42-2.91, for ex-smokers 3.27, 95% C.I. 1.49-7.18, and for non-smokers was 3.81, 95% C.I. 1.85-7.85. Next, we found that the generation of bronchial adducts is significantly related to inhalation exposure to tobacco smoke carcinogens confirming its association with volatile carcinogens. The MR smoking estimate of bronchial adducts resulting from meta-regression was 2.28, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) 1.10-4.73, in overall smokers in respect to non-smokers. The present work provides strengthening of the hypothesis that bronchial adducts are not simply relate to exposure, but are a cause of chemical-induced lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pesticides and brain cancer linked in orchard farmers of Kashmir.

    Bhat, Abdul Rashid; Wani, Muhammed Afzal; Kirmani, A R; Raina, T H

    2010-10-01

    -related patients. The significantcase/control odds ratio (OR) of 0.28, hospital control SCE OR of 1.1 and family control SCE OR of 1.5, points the finger of suspicion toward the link between pesticides and brain cancer.

  20. Multigenerational links between mothers' experiences of autonomy in childhood and preschoolers' respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Variations by maltreatment status.

    Noll, Laura K; Clark, Caron A C; Skowron, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Despite burgeoning evidence linking early exposure to child maltreatment (CM) to deficits in self-regulation, the pathways to strong regulatory development in these children are not well understood, and significant heterogeneity is observed in their outcomes. Experiences of autonomy may play a key role in transmitting self-regulatory capacity across generations and help explain individual differences in maltreatment outcomes. In this study, we investigated multigenerational associations between Generation 1 (G1)-Generation 2 (G2) mothers' early experience of warmth and autonomy in relation to their own mothers and their Generation 3 (G3) children's autonomic physiological regulation in CM (n = 85) and non-CM (n = 128) families. We found that G2 mothers who recalled greater autonomy in their childhood relationship with their G1 mothers had preschool-age G3 children with higher respiratory sinus arrhythmia at baseline when alone while engaged in individual challenge tasks, during social exchanges with their mother in joint challenge tasks, and during the portions of the strange situation procedure when the mother was present. Although no clear mediators of this association emerged, multigenerational links among G1-G2 relations, maternal representations of her child, child behavior, and child respiratory sinus arrhythmia differed by maltreatment status, thus possibly representing important targets for future research and intervention.

  1. Body issues, sexual satisfaction, and relationship status satisfaction in long-term childhood cancer survivors and healthy controls

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Fults, Marci; Olshefski, Randal S.; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    ObjectiveResearch on body image and sexual satisfaction after adult onset cancer has shown significant and lasting impairments regarding survivors' sexuality and romantic relationships. However, knowledge about these topics and their associations in adult survivors of childhood cancer is largely

  2. High-risk populations identified in Childhood Cancer Survivor Study investigations: implications for risk-based surveillance.

    Hudson, Melissa M; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Bowers, Daniel C; Sklar, Charles A; Green, Daniel M; Donaldson, Sarah S; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Neglia, Joseph P; Meadows, Anna T; Robison, Leslie L

    2009-05-10

    Childhood cancer survivors often experience complications related to cancer and its treatment that may adversely affect quality of life and increase the risk of premature death. The purpose of this manuscript is to review how data derived from Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) investigations have facilitated identification of childhood cancer survivor populations at high risk for specific organ toxicity and secondary carcinogenesis and how this has informed clinical screening practices. Articles previously published that used the resource of the CCSS to identify risk factors for specific organ toxicity and subsequent cancers were reviewed and results summarized. CCSS investigations have characterized specific groups to be at highest risk of morbidity related to endocrine and reproductive dysfunction, pulmonary toxicity, cerebrovascular injury, neurologic and neurosensory sequelae, and subsequent neoplasms. Factors influencing risk for specific outcomes related to the individual survivor (eg, sex, race/ethnicity, age at diagnosis, attained age), sociodemographic status (eg, education, household income, health insurance) and cancer history (eg, diagnosis, treatment, time from diagnosis) have been consistently identified. These CCSS investigations that clarify risk for treatment complications related to specific treatment modalities, cumulative dose exposures, and sociodemographic factors identify profiles of survivors at high risk for cancer-related morbidity who deserve heightened surveillance to optimize outcomes after treatment for childhood cancer.

  3. Parental reactions in childhood cancer: distress, risk and resilience

    Gudmundsdóttir, Eygló

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with cancer encounter an exceptionally difficult life experience. Acute and long-lasting distress adds to the initial traumatic experience of being told that a family member suffers from a potentially fatal illness. This thesis investigates the determinants of short and long-term psychological effects in parents in two Nordic sites with different routines for care and follow-up. A general aim was increased knowledge and understanding of parental reactions and psychosocial ...

  4. Results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition link vitamin B6 catabolism and lung cancer risk

    Zuo, Hui; Ueland, Per Magne; Midttun, Øivind; Vollset, Stein Emil; Tell, Grethe S.; Theofylaktopoulou, Despoina; Travis, Ruth C.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fournier, Agnès; Severi, Gianluca; Kvaskoff, Marina; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Turzanski-Fortner, Renée; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H.; Grankvist, Kjell; Johansson, Mikael; Agudo, Antonio; Garcia, Jose Ramon Quiros; Larranaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Chuang, Shu Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Ulvik, Arve

    2018-01-01

    Circulating pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) has been linked to lung cancer risk. The PAr index, defined as the ratio 4-pyridoxic acid/(pyridoxal + PLP), reflects increased vitamin B6 catabolism during inflammation. PAr has been defined as a marker of lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study, but

  5. Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Link Vitamin B6 Catabolism and Lung Cancer Risk.

    Zuo, Hui; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Vollset, Stein E; Tell, Grethe S; Theofylaktopoulou, Despoina; Travis, Ruth C; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Agnès; Severi, Gianluca; Kvaskoff, Marina; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M; Fortner, Renée T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Grankvist, Kjell; Johansson, Mikael; Agudo, Antonio; Garcia, Jose Ramon Quiros; Larranaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Ulvik, Arve

    2018-01-01

    Circulating pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) has been linked to lung cancer risk. The PAr index, defined as the ratio 4-pyridoxic acid/(pyridoxal + PLP), reflects increased vitamin B6 catabolism during inflammation. PAr has been defined as a marker of lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study, but

  6. Amygdala volume linked to individual differences in mental state inference in early childhood and adulthood

    Katherine Rice

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of the amygdala in mental state inference in a sample of adults and in a sample of children aged 4 and 6 years. This period in early childhood represents a time when mentalizing abilities undergo dramatic changes. Both children and adults inferred mental states from pictures of others’ eyes, and children also inferred the mental states of others from stories (e.g., a false belief task. We also collected structural MRI data from these participants, to determine whether larger amygdala volumes (controlling for age and total gray matter volume were related to better face-based and story-based mentalizing. For children, larger amygdala volumes were related to better face-based, but not story-based, mentalizing. In contrast, in adults, amygdala volume was not related to face-based mentalizing. We next divided the face-based items into two subscales: cognitive (e.g., thinking, not believing versus affective (e.g., friendly, kind items. For children, performance on cognitive items was positively correlated with amygdala volume, but for adults, only performance on affective items was positively correlated with amygdala volume. These results indicate that the amygdala's role in mentalizing may be specific to face-based tasks and that the nature of its involvement may change over development.

  7. Episodic memory and future thinking during early childhood: Linking the past and future.

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Rajan, Vinaya; Morasch, Katherine C; Bell, Martha Ann

    2015-07-01

    Despite extensive examination of episodic memory and future thinking development, little is known about the concurrent emergence of these capacities during early childhood. In Experiment 1, 3-year-olds participated in an episodic memory hiding task ("what, when, where" [WWW] components) with an episodic future thinking component. In Experiment 2, a group of 4-year-olds (including children from Experiment 1) participated in the same task (different objects and locations), providing the first longitudinal investigation of episodic memory and future thinking. Although children exhibited age-related improvements in recall, recognition, and binding of the WWW episodic memory components, there were no age-related changes in episodic future thinking. At both ages, WWW episodic memory performance was higher than future thinking performance, and episodic future thinking and WWW memory components were unrelated. These findings suggest that the WWW components of episodic memory are potentially less fragile than the future components when assessed in a cognitively demanding task. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Factors Linking Childhood Experiences to Adult Romantic Relationships among African Americans

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Landor, Antoinette M.; Bryant, Chalandra M.; Beach, Steven R.H.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that a high quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emo...

  9. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Mueller, Sabine, E-mail: muellers@neuropeds.ucsf.edu [Department of Neurology, Pediatrics and Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Fullerton, Heather J. [Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Goldsby, Robert E. [Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Packer, Roger J. [Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Sklar, Charles A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bowers, Daniel C. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas (United States); Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively.

  10. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Mueller, Sabine; Fullerton, Heather J.; Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy; Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Goldsby, Robert E.; Packer, Roger J.; Sklar, Charles A.; Bowers, Daniel C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively

  11. Estimating the effect of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage on oral cancer in India using marginal structural models.

    Krishna Rao, Sreevidya; Mejia, Gloria C; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye; Logan, Richard M; Kamath, Veena; Kulkarni, Muralidhar; Mittinty, Murthy N

    2015-07-01

    Early life socioeconomic disadvantage could affect adult health directly or indirectly. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies of the direct effect of early life socioeconomic conditions on oral cancer occurrence in adult life. We conducted a multicenter, hospital-based, case-control study in India between 2011 and 2012 on 180 histopathologically confirmed incident oral and/or oropharyngeal cancer cases, aged 18 years or more, and 272 controls that included hospital visitors, who were not diagnosed with any cancer in the same hospitals. Life-course data were collected on socioeconomic conditions, risk factors, and parental behavior through interview employing a life grid. The early life socioeconomic conditions measure was determined by occupation of the head of household in childhood. Adult socioeconomic measures included participant's education and current occupation of the head of household. Marginal structural models with stabilized inverse probability weights were used to estimate the controlled direct effects of early life socioeconomic conditions on oral cancer. The total effect model showed that those in the low socioeconomic conditions in the early years of childhood had 60% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.6 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 1.4, 1.9]) increased risk of oral cancer. From the marginal structural models, the estimated risk for developing oral cancer among those in low early life socioeconomic conditions was 50% (RR = 1.5 [95% CI = 1.4, 1.5]), 20% (RR = 1.2 [95% CI = 0.9, 1.7]), and 90% (RR = 1.9 [95% CI = 1.7, 2.2]) greater than those in the high socioeconomic conditions when controlled for smoking, chewing, and alcohol, respectively. When all the three mediators were controlled in a marginal structural model, the RR was 1.3 (95% CI = 1.0, 1.6). Early life low socioeconomic condition had a controlled direct effect on oral cancer when smoking, chewing tobacco, and alcohol were separately adjusted in marginal structural models.

  12. Protecting Family Interests: An Interview Study with Foreign-Born Parents Struggling On in Childhood Cancer Care

    Pernilla Pergert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweden's population is gradually changing to become more multiethnic and diverse and that applies also for recipients of health care, including childhood cancer care. A holistic view on the sick child in the context of its family has always been a cornerstone in childhood cancer care in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the experiences and main concern of foreign-born parents in the context of paediatric cancer care. Interviews were performed with eleven foreign-born parents and data were analysed using a classic grounded theory approach. Foreign-born parents often feel in a position of powerless dependence, but family interests are protected in their approaches to interaction with healthcare staff, through cooperation, contesting, and reluctant resigning. Healthcare staff need to listen to foreign-born parents and deal with their concerns seriously to prevent powerless-dependence and work for trustful cooperation in the common fight against childhood cancer.

  13. Nongenetic causes of childhood cancers: evidence from international variation, time trends, and risk factor studies

    Bunin, Greta R.

    2004-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and a variety of genetic conditions are thought to explain 5-10% of childhood cancers. Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in parts of Africa and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increase the risk of Burkitt's lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma, respectively. Other risk factors have not been conclusively identified. A review of the data on international variation in incidence, recent changes in incidence, and risk factors suggests that many childhood cancers are likely to have nongenetic causes. The pattern of international variation and associations with surrogates of infection suggest an infectious etiology for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, although no agent has been identified. The biologic plausibility is strong that maternal consumption of food containing DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors may increase the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, although the data are limited now. For brain tumors, cured meats, polyomaviruses, and farm exposures may have etiologic roles. Changes in the incidence and characteristics of children with hepatoblastoma as well as risk factor studies suggest a role for an exposure of very low birth weight babies. High birth weight, tea or coffee consumption, and certain paternal occupations have shown some consistency in their association with Wilms' tumor. For most of the other cancers, very few epidemiologic studies have been conducted, so it is not surprising that nongenetic risk factors have not been detected. The most important difference between the cancers for which there are good etiologic clues and those for which there are not may be the number of relevant studies

  14. Meningiomas after cranial radiotherapy for childhood cancer: a single institution experience.

    Felicetti, Francesco; Fortunati, Nicoletta; Garbossa, Diego; Biasin, Eleonora; Rudà, Roberta; Daniele, Dino; Arvat, Emanuela; Corrias, Andrea; Fagioli, Franca; Brignardello, Enrico

    2015-07-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT) are at risk of developing meningiomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative incidence of meningiomas in a cohort of CCS who previously underwent CRT. We considered all CCS who received CRT and were followed up at the "Transition Unit for Childhood Cancer Survivors" in Turin. Even though asymptomatic, they had at least one brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging performed at a minimum interval of 10 years after treatment for pediatric cancer. We identified 90 patients (median follow-up 24.6 years). Fifteen patients developed meningioma (median time from pediatric cancer, 22.5 years). In four patients, it was suspected on the basis of neurological symptoms (i.e., headache or seizures), whereas all other cases, including five giant meningiomas, were discovered in otherwise asymptomatic patients. Multiple meningiomas were discovered in four CCS. Ten patients underwent surgical resection. An atypical meningioma (grade II WHO) was reported in four patients. One patient with multiple meningiomas died for a rapid growth of the intracranial lesions. A second neoplasm (SN) other than meningioma was diagnosed in five out of the 15 patients with meningioma and in ten out of the 75 CCS without meningioma. Cox multivariate analysis showed that the occurrence of meningioma was associated with the development of other SNs, whereas age, sex, or CRT dose had no influence. CCS at risk of the development of meningioma deserve close clinical follow-up, especially those affected by other SNs.

  15. Characterization of genomic alterations in radiation-associated breast cancer among childhood cancer survivors, using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH arrays.

    Xiaohong R Yang

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed cohorts have been primarily descriptive; molecular events responsible for the development of radiation-associated breast cancer have not been elucidated. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH to characterize genome-wide copy number changes in breast tumors collected in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS. Array-CGH data were obtained from 32 cases who developed a second primary breast cancer following chest irradiation at early ages for the treatment of their first cancers, mostly Hodgkin lymphoma. The majority of these cases developed breast cancer before age 45 (91%, n = 29, had invasive ductal tumors (81%, n = 26, estrogen receptor (ER-positive staining (68%, n = 19 out of 28, and high proliferation as indicated by high Ki-67 staining (77%, n = 17 out of 22. Genomic regions with low-copy number gains and losses and high-level amplifications were similar to what has been reported in sporadic breast tumors, however, the frequency of amplifications of the 17q12 region containing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 was much higher among CCSS cases (38%, n = 12. Our findings suggest that second primary breast cancers in CCSS were enriched for an "amplifier" genomic subgroup with highly proliferative breast tumors. Future investigation in a larger irradiated cohort will be needed to confirm our findings.

  16. Fertility-related knowledge and reproductive goals in childhood cancer survivors: short communication.

    Lehmann, V; Keim, M C; Nahata, L; Shultz, E L; Klosky, J L; Tuinman, M A; Gerhardt, C A

    2017-11-01

    Do young adult survivors of childhood cancer know their fertility status, in the context of their parenthood goals and screening for gonadal functioning? While 80% of survivors (who were without children) wanted children in the future, most did not know their fertility status, and screening for gonadal functioning was underutilized. Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for infertility, but fertility counseling and assessment are underutilized. Separate studies indicated that survivors' fertility-related knowledge is poor and that they often wanted to have children. Yet, studies have not investigated the intersection of both issues, as well as potential distress if parenthood goals are not met. Young adult male and female survivors of childhood cancer (N = 149) completed cross-sectional surveys, and data for those without children (n = 105, 70.5%) are presented here. Participants were 20-40 years old (M = 26.5), diagnosed 5-33 years prior to study participation, and completed questionnaires online. Knowledge of fertility status, parenthood goals, and potential distress if survivors were unable to have children were assessed. Medical records were reviewed for hormone levels as indicators of screening for gonadal functioning. Most survivors (n = 81; 77.1%) did not know their fertility status, while over 80% (n = 89) wanted children (neither aspect varied by socio-demographic/cancer-specific factors). Two-thirds of survivors indicated they would be distressed if parenthood goals remained unfulfilled; especially female (versus male, t = 2.64; P = 0.01) or partnered (versus single, t = -3.45; P fertility status. Relevant risk factors may have not been identified owing to limited sample size and missing treatment information. The underutilization of screening for gonadal functioning needs further exploration in other pediatric centers. Most adult childhood cancer survivors want to become parents, but do not know their fertility status, which could cause significant

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Susceptibility Loci That Modify Radiation-Related Risk for Breast Cancer After Childhood Cancer.

    Morton, Lindsay M; Sampson, Joshua N; Armstrong, Gregory T; Chen, Ting-Huei; Hudson, Melissa M; Karlins, Eric; Dagnall, Casey L; Li, Shengchao Alfred; Wilson, Carmen L; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Liu, Wei; Kang, Guolian; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Henderson, Tara O; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Gibson, Todd M; Merino, Diana M; Wong, Jeannette R; Hammond, Sue; Neglia, Joseph P; Turcotte, Lucie M; Miller, Jeremy; Bowen, Laura; Wheeler, William A; Leisenring, Wendy M; Whitton, John A; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles; Hicks, Belynda D; Jones, Kristine; Machiela, Mitchell J; Vogt, Aurelie; Wang, Zhaoming; Yeager, Meredith; Neale, Geoffrey; Lear, Matthew; Strong, Louise C; Yasui, Yutaka; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita E; Smith, Susan A; Howell, Rebecca; Davies, Stella M; Radloff, Gretchen A; Onel, Kenan; Berrington de González, Amy; Inskip, Peter D; Rajaraman, Preetha; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Bhatia, Smita; Chanock, Stephen J; Tucker, Margaret A; Robison, Leslie L

    2017-11-01

    Childhood cancer survivors treated with chest-directed radiotherapy have substantially elevated risk for developing breast cancer. Although genetic susceptibility to breast cancer in the general population is well studied, large-scale evaluation of breast cancer susceptibility after chest-directed radiotherapy for childhood cancer is lacking. We conducted a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in female survivors of childhood cancer, pooling two cohorts with detailed treatment data and systematic, long-term follow-up: the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and St. Jude Lifetime Cohort. The study population comprised 207 survivors who developed breast cancer and 2774 who had not developed any subsequent neoplasm as of last follow-up. Genotyping and subsequent imputation yielded 16 958 466 high-quality variants for analysis. We tested associations in the overall population and in subgroups stratified by receipt of lower than 10 and 10 or higher gray breast radiation exposure. We report P values and pooled per-allele risk estimates from Cox proportional hazards regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among survivors who received 10 or higher gray breast radiation exposure, a locus on 1q41 was associated with subsequent breast cancer risk (rs4342822, nearest gene PROX1 , risk allele frequency in control subjects [RAF controls ] = 0.46, hazard ratio = 1.92, 95% confidence interval = 1.49 to 2.44, P = 7.09 × 10 -9 ). Two rare variants also showed potentially promising associations (breast radiation ≥10 gray: rs74949440, 11q23, TAGLN , RAF controls = 0.02, P = 5.84 × 10 -8 ; breast cancer risk after childhood cancer. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Decline in physical activity level in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort.

    Wilson, Carmen L; Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Nathan, Paul C; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Hudson, Melissa M; Castellino, Sharon M; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T; Brinkman, Tara M; Krull, Kevin R; Robison, Leslie L; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to identify demographic and health-related predictors of declining physical activity levels over a four-year period among participants in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Analyses included 7,287 ≥5-year childhood cancer survivors and 2,107 siblings who completed multiple follow-up questionnaires. Participants were classified as active if they met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for physical activity. Generalized linear models were used to compare participants whose physical activity levels declined from active to inactive over the study to those who remained active. In addition, selected chronic conditions (CTCAE v4.03 Grade 3 and 4) were evaluated as risk factors in an analysis limited to survivors only. The median age at last follow-up among survivors and siblings was 36 (range, 21-58) and 38 (range, 21-62) years, respectively. The rate of decline did not accelerate over time among survivors when compared with siblings. Factors that predicted declining activity included body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) [RR = 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19-1.46, P physical activity levels were associated with the presence of chronic musculoskeletal conditions (P = 0.034), but not with the presence of cardiac (P = 0.10), respiratory (P = 0.92), or neurologic conditions (P = 0.21). Interventions designed to maximize physical activity should target female, obese, and less educated survivors. Survivors with chronic musculoskeletal conditions should be monitored, counseled, and/or referred for physical therapy. Clinicians should be aware of low activity levels among subpopulations of childhood cancer survivors, which may heighten their risk for chronic illness. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Mediators Linking Childhood Adversities and Trauma to Suicidality in Individuals at Risk for Psychosis

    Stefanie J. Schmidt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Suicidality is highly prevalent in patients at clinical high risk (CHR for psychosis. Childhood adversities and trauma are generally predictive of suicidality. However, the differential effects of adversity/trauma-domains and CHR-criteria, i.e., ultra-high risk and basic symptom criteria, on suicidality remain unclear. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms and, thus, worthwhile targets for suicide-prevention are still poorly understood. Therefore, structural equation modeling was used to test theory-driven models in 73 CHR-patients. Mediators were psychological variables, i.e., beliefs about one’s own competencies as well as the controllability of events and coping styles. In addition, symptomatic variables (depressiveness, basic symptoms, attenuated psychotic symptoms were hypothesized to mediate the effect of psychological mediators on suicidality as the final outcome variable. Results showed two independent pathways. In the first pathway, emotional and sexual but not physical adversity/trauma was associated with suicidality, which was mediated by dysfunctional competence/control beliefs, a lack of positive coping-strategies and depressiveness. In the second pathway, cognitive basic symptoms but not attenuated psychotic symptoms mediated the relationship between trauma/adversity and suicidality. CHR-patients are, thus, particularly prone to suicidality if adversity/trauma is followed by the development of depressiveness. Regarding the second pathway, this is the first study showing that adversity/trauma led to suicidality through an increased risk for psychosis as indicated by cognitive basic symptoms. As insight is generally associated with suicidality, this may explain why self-experienced basic symptoms increase the risk for it. Consequently, these mediators should be monitored regularly and targeted by integrated interventions as early as possible to enhance resilience against suicidality.

  20. Controlling radiation exposure during interventional procedures in childhood cancer patients

    Racadio, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Many pediatric cancer patients undergo multiple diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures over the course of their illnesses and are therefore at high risk for radiation exposure. There are a variety of measures that radiologists can employ to reduce this risk. These include limiting the use of radiation whenever possible, using specific strategies to reduce radiation exposure during interventional procedures, using quality assurance programs to ensure compliance, and maintaining continuing staff radiation safety educational programs. Some of the diagnostic and therapeutic interventional radiologic procedures that are performed in pediatric oncology patients are discussed here, along with specific tips for managing radiation exposure. (orig.)

  1. Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: Possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerning. The linear no-threshold model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, but it is a model based on the concept that ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. As the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at the determination of molecular changes associated with thyroid cancers among children who suffered effects from the Chernobyl nuclear accident will be overviewed. We intend to discuss whether any radiation signatures are associated with radiation-induced childhood thyroid cancers. PMID:25483826

  2. Predicting Adverse Health Outcomes in Long-Term Survivors of a Childhood Cancer

    Chaya S. Moskowitz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of children and young adults diagnosed with invasive cancer will survive five or more years beyond their cancer diagnosis. This population has an increased risk for serious illness- and treatment-related morbidity and premature mortality. A number of these adverse health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease and some second primary neoplasms, either have modifiable risk factors or can be successfully treated if detected early. Absolute risk models that project a personalized risk of developing a health outcome can be useful in patient counseling, in designing intervention studies, in forming prevention strategies, and in deciding upon surveillance programs. Here, we review existing absolute risk prediction models that are directly applicable to survivors of a childhood cancer, discuss the concepts and interpretation of absolute risk models, and examine ways in which these models can be used applied in clinical practice and public health.

  3. Sustaining innovation and improvement in the treatment of childhood cancer: lessons from high-income countries.

    Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Pieters, Rob; Reaman, Gregory H; Hjorth, Lars; Downie, Peter; Calaminus, Gabriele; Naafs-Wilstra, Marianne C; Steliarova-Foucher, Eva

    2013-03-01

    Cancer in children and adolescents is rare and biologically very different from cancer in adults. It accounts for 1·4% of all cancers worldwide, although this proportion ranges from 0·5% in Europe to 4·8% in Africa, largely because of differences in age composition and life expectancy. In high-income countries, survival from childhood cancer has reached 80% through a continuous focus on the integration of clinical research into front-line care for nearly all children affected by malignant disease. However, further improvement must entail new biology-driven approaches, since optimisation of conventional treatments has in many cases reached its limits. In many instances, such approaches can only be achieved through international collaborative research, since rare cancers are being subdivided into increasingly smaller subgroups on the basis of their molecular characteristics. The long-term effect of anticancer treatment on quality of life must also be taken into account because more than one in 1000 adults in high-income countries are thought to be survivors of cancer in childhood or adolescence. The introduction of drugs that are less toxic and more targeted than those currently used necessitates a partnership between clinical and translational researchers, the pharmaceutical industry, drug regulators, and patients and their families. This therapeutic alliance will ensure that efforts are focused on the unmet clinical needs of young people with cancer. Most children with cancer live in low-income and middle-income countries, and these countries account for 94% of all deaths from cancer in people aged 0-14 years. The immediate priority for these children is to improve access to an affordable, best standard of care in each country. Every country should have a national cancer plan that recognises the unique demographic characteristics and care needs of young people with cancer. Centralisation of the complex components of treatment of these rare diseases is essential

  4. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in childhood and incidence of cancer in adulthood in never smokers in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Michaud, Dominique; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Romieu, Isabelle; Straif, Kurt; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H.; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger Torhild; Manjer, Jonas; Borgquist, Signe; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    The association between childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and adult cancer risk is controversial; we examined this relationship in never smokers within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Over an average of 10 years, 8,372 cases of

  5. A French national breast and thyroid cancer screening programme for survivors of childhood, adolescent and young adult (CAYA) cancers - DeNaCaPST programme.

    Demoor-Goldschmidt, Charlotte; Drui, Delphine; Doutriaux, Isabelle; Michel, Gérard; Auquier, Pascal; Dumas, Agnès; Berger, Claire; Bernier, Valérie; Bohrer, Sandrine; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Filhon, Bruno; Fresneau, Brice; Freycon, Claire; Stefan, Dinu; Helfre, Sylvie; Jackson, Angela; Kerr, Christine; Laprie, Anne; Leseur, Julie; Mahé, Marc-André; Oudot, Caroline; Pluchard, Claire; Proust, Stéphanie; Sudour-Bonnange, Hélène; Vigneron, Céline; Lassau, Nathalie; Schlumberger, Martin; Conter, Cécile Faure; de Vathaire, Florent

    2017-05-12

    Survival of childhood, adolescent and young adult (CAYA) cancers has increased with progress in the management of the treatments and has reached more than 80% at 5 years. Nevertheless, these survivors are at great risk of second cancers and non-malignant co-morbidities in later life. DeNaCaPST is a non-interventional study whose aim is to organize a national screening for thyroid cancer and breast cancer in survivors of CAYA cancers. It will study the compliance with international recommendations, with the aim, regarding a breast screening programme, of offering for every woman living in France, at equal risk, an equal screening. DeNaCaPST trial is coordinated by the INSERM 1018 unit in cooperation with the LEA (French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study for Leukaemia) study's coordinators, the long term follow up committee and the paediatric radiation committee of the SFCE (French Society of Childhood Cancers). A total of 35 centres spread across metropolitan France and la Reunion will participate. FCCSS (French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study), LEA and central registry will be interrogated to identify eligible patients. To participate, centers agreed to perform a complete "long-term follow-up consultations" according to good clinical practice and the guidelines of the SFCE (French Society of Children Cancers). As survival has greatly improved in childhood cancers, detection of therapy-related malignancies has become a priority even if new radiation techniques will lead to better protection for organs at risk. International guidelines have been put in place because of the evidence for increased lifetime risk of breast and thyroid cancer. DeNaCaPST is based on these international recommendations but it is important to recognize that they are based on expert consensus opinion and are supported by neither nonrandomized observational studies nor prospective randomized trials in this specific population. Over-diagnosis is a phenomenon inherent in any screening program and

  6. Effects of treatment on fertility in long-term survivors of childhood or adolescent cancer

    Byrne, J.; Mulvihill, J.J.; Myers, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    In a retrospective cohort study of survivors of cancer and of controls, we estimated the risk of infertility after treatment for cancer during childhood or adolescence. We interviewed 2283 long-term survivors of childhood or adolescent cancer diagnosed in the period from 1945 through 1975, who were identified at five cancer centers in the United States. Requirements for admission to the study were diagnosis before the age of 20, survival for at least five years, and attainment of the age of 21. In addition, 3270 controls selected from among the survivors' siblings were interviewed. Cox regression analysis showed that cancer survivors who married and were presumed to be at risk of pregnancy were less likely than their sibling controls to have ever begun a pregnancy (relative fertility, 0.85; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.78 to 0.92). Radiation therapy directed below the diaphragm depressed fertility in both sexes by about 25 percent. Chemotherapy with alkylating agents, with or without radiation to sites below the diaphragm, was associated with a fertility deficit of about 60 percent in the men. Among the women, there was no apparent effect of alkylating-agent therapy administered alone (relative fertility, 1.02) and only a moderate fertility deficit when alkylating-agent therapy was combined with radiation below the diaphragm (relative fertility, 0.81). Relative fertility in the survivors varied considerably according to sex, site of cancer, and type of treatment; these factors should be taken into consideration in counseling survivors about the long-term consequences of disease

  7. Male infertility in long-term survivors of pediatric cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Wasilewski-Masker, K; Seidel, K D; Leisenring, W; Mertens, A C; Shnorhavorian, M; Ritenour, C W; Stovall, M; Green, D M; Sklar, C A; Armstrong, G T; Robison, L L; Meacham, L R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of male infertility and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors. Methods Within the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, 1622 survivors and 274 siblings completed the Male Health Questionnaire. The analysis was restricted to survivors (938/1622; 57.8%) and siblings (174/274; 63.5%) who tried to become pregnant. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the prevalence of self-reported infertility were calculated using generalized linear models for demographic variables and treatment-related factors to account for correlation among survivors and siblings of the same family. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Among those who provided self-report data, the prevalence of infertility was 46.0% in survivors versus 17.5% in siblings (RR=2.64, 95% CI 1.88-3.70, p infertility, 37% had reported at least one pregnancy with a female partner that resulted in a live birth. In a multivariable analysis, risk factors for infertility included an alkylating agent dose score (AAD) ≥ 3 (RR= 2.13, 95% CI 1.69-2.68 for AAD ≥ 3 versus AADinfertility father their own children suggesting episodes of both fertility and infertility. This and the novel association of infertility with bleomycin warrant further investigation. Implications for Cancer Survivors Though infertility is common, male survivors reporting infertility often father their own children. Bleomycin may pose some fertility risk. PMID:24711092

  8. Eating difficulties and parental feeding strategies during and after childhood cancer treatment: The experiences of parents. : A systematic literature review.

    Philippe, Kaat

    2017-01-01

    Childhood cancer is a life-threatening disease with a profound impact on the family. Treatment side-effects and accompanied dietary difficulties are for example severe stressors, as appropriate nutrition is important for the treatment success and quality of life. In addition, (unhealthy) dietary patterns established in childhood tend to maintain in survivors. Parents are key players in feeding and establishing these pat-terns, though, systematic research on how parents experience these dietar...

  9. Quality of life, self-esteem and worries in young adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Langeveld, N E; Grootenhuis, M A; Voûte, P A; de Haan, R J; van den Bos, C

    2004-12-01

    This study assessed quality of life, self-esteem and worries in young adult survivors of childhood cancer compared to a group of young adults with no history of cancer. The impact of demographic, medical and treatment factors and self-esteem on survivors' quality of life and worries was studied. Participants were 400 long-term survivors (LTS) of childhood cancer (age range 16-49 years, 45% female) who had completed treatment an average of 16 years previously and 560 persons (age range 16-53 years, 55% female) with no history of cancer. All participants completed the MOS-24 (Medical Outcome Study Scale), a Worry questionnaire consisting of three scales (cancer-specific concerns, general health concerns, present and future concerns), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Small to moderate differences were found in mean MOS-24 scores between the LTS group and controls (range effect sizes -0.36-0.22). No significant difference was found in the mean self-esteem scores between LTS and controls. Female LTS had more cancer-specific concerns than male LTS. In several related areas of general health, self-image and dying, the LTS group reported less worries than controls, but LTS worried significantly more about their fertility, getting/changing a job and obtaining insurance's. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that female gender, unemployment, severe late effects/health problems and a low self-esteem were predictors of worse quality of life in survivors. In addition, age at follow-up, unemployment, years since completion of therapy and a low self-esteem were associated with a higher degree of survivors' worries. Quality of life and the level of self-esteem in LTS of childhood cancer is not different from their peers. Although many LTS worried not more or even less about health issues than their peers, they often are concerned about some present and future concerns. The investigated factors could explain poor quality of life and worries only to a limited extent

  10. Childhood thyroid cancer increased in areas around Chernobyl

    Paile, W.

    1996-01-01

    The population in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia who was exposed to the fallout from Chernobyl has suffered from many physical and mental health problems, which are not directly related to radiation. Instead, many health problems are linked to radiation protection countermeasures such as evacuation, food restrictions and other limitations of daily life. Fear for health consequences for people themselves or for their children has influenced mental well-being even in relatively clean areas. In comparison to these effects the direct health effects from radiation are not great. Of the rescue people who worked in the reactor on the night of the catastrophe, 30 died from acute radiation injury. Later on there has appeared around 600 cases of thyroid carcinoma in children. Other health effects which relate directly to radiation have not thus far been observed. (orig.) (1 fig.)

  11. Validation of questionnaire-reported hearing with medical records: A report from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Annette Weiss

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is a potential late effect after childhood cancer. Questionnaires are often used to assess hearing in large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors and it is important to know if they can provide valid measures of hearing loss. We therefore assessed agreement and validity of questionnaire-reported hearing in childhood cancer survivors using medical records as reference.In this validation study, we studied 361 survivors of childhood cancer from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS who had been diagnosed after 1989 and had been exposed to ototoxic cancer treatment. Questionnaire-reported hearing was compared to the information in medical records. Hearing loss was defined as ≥ grade 1 according to the SIOP Boston Ototoxicity Scale. We assessed agreement and validity of questionnaire-reported hearing overall and stratified by questionnaire respondents (survivor or parent, sociodemographic characteristics, time between follow-up and questionnaire and severity of hearing loss.Questionnaire reports agreed with medical records in 85% of respondents (kappa 0.62, normal hearing was correctly assessed in 92% of those with normal hearing (n = 249, and hearing loss was correctly assessed in 69% of those with hearing loss (n = 112. Sensitivity of the questionnaires was 92%, 74%, and 39% for assessment of severe, moderate and mild bilateral hearing loss; and 50%, 33% and 10% for severe, moderate and mild unilateral hearing loss, respectively. Results did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents, and survivor- and parent-reports were equally valid.Questionnaires are a useful tool to assess hearing in large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors, but underestimate mild and unilateral hearing loss. Further research should investigate whether the addition of questions with higher sensitivity for mild degrees of hearing loss could improve the results.

  12. Validation of questionnaire-reported hearing with medical records: A report from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Scheinemann, Katrin; Grotzer, Michael; Kompis, Martin; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Hearing loss is a potential late effect after childhood cancer. Questionnaires are often used to assess hearing in large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors and it is important to know if they can provide valid measures of hearing loss. We therefore assessed agreement and validity of questionnaire-reported hearing in childhood cancer survivors using medical records as reference. Procedure In this validation study, we studied 361 survivors of childhood cancer from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS) who had been diagnosed after 1989 and had been exposed to ototoxic cancer treatment. Questionnaire-reported hearing was compared to the information in medical records. Hearing loss was defined as ≥ grade 1 according to the SIOP Boston Ototoxicity Scale. We assessed agreement and validity of questionnaire-reported hearing overall and stratified by questionnaire respondents (survivor or parent), sociodemographic characteristics, time between follow-up and questionnaire and severity of hearing loss. Results Questionnaire reports agreed with medical records in 85% of respondents (kappa 0.62), normal hearing was correctly assessed in 92% of those with normal hearing (n = 249), and hearing loss was correctly assessed in 69% of those with hearing loss (n = 112). Sensitivity of the questionnaires was 92%, 74%, and 39% for assessment of severe, moderate and mild bilateral hearing loss; and 50%, 33% and 10% for severe, moderate and mild unilateral hearing loss, respectively. Results did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents, and survivor- and parent-reports were equally valid. Conclusions Questionnaires are a useful tool to assess hearing in large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors, but underestimate mild and unilateral hearing loss. Further research should investigate whether the addition of questions with higher sensitivity for mild degrees of hearing loss could improve the results. PMID:28333999

  13. Oral and dental late effects in survivors of childhood cancer: a Children’s Oncology Group report

    Migliorati, Cesar A.; Hudson, Melissa M.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Kaste, Sue C.; Ruble, Kathy; Guilcher, Gregory M. T.; Shah, Ami J.; Castellino, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multi-modality therapy has resulted in improved survival for childhood malignancies. The Children’s Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers provide practitioners with exposure- and risk-based recommendations for the surveillance and management of asymptomatic survivors who are at least 2 years from completion of therapy. This review outlines the pathophysiology and risks for oral and dental late effects in pediatric cancer survivors and the rationale for oral and dental screening recommended by the Children’s Oncology Group. Methods An English literature search for oral and dental complications of childhood cancer treatment was undertaken via MEDLINE and encompassed January 1975 to January 2013. Proposed guideline content based on the literature review was approved by a multi-disciplinary panel of survivorship experts and scored according to a modified version of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network “Categories of Consensus” system. Results The Children’s Oncology Group oral-dental pan el selected 85 relevant citations. Childhood cancer therapy may impact tooth development, salivary function, craniofacial development, and temporomandibular joint function placing some childhood cancer survivors at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Addition ally, head and neck radiation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation increase the risk of subsequent ma lignant neoplasms in the oral cavity. Survivors require routine dental care to evaluate for potential side effects and initiate early treatment. Conclusions Certain childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Early identification of oral and dental morbidity and early interventions can optimize health and quality of life. PMID:24781353

  14. The influence of antineoplastic treatment on the weight of survivors of childhood cancer

    Julia Ferrari Carneiro Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose: Obesity is a late effect in survivors of childhood cancer and correlates with chronic complications. Survivors of leukemia, brain tumors, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are more likely to develop obesity resulting from treatment modalities such as radiotherapy and glucocorticoids. This paper analyzes and integrates the current data available to health professionals in order to clarify strategies that can be used to treat and prevent obesity in childhood cancer survivors. Sources: This is a literature review from on scientifically reliable electronic databases. We selected articles published in the last five years and earlier articles of great scientific importance. Data synthesis: The mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of obesity in cancer survivors are not completely understood, but it is believed that damage to the hypothalamus and endocrine disorders such as insulin resistance, leptin resistance, and hormone deficiency may be involved. The body composition of this group includes a predominance of adipose tissue, especially in those undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant and total body irradiation. The use of body mass index in these patients may lead to an underestimation of individuals' risk for metabolic complications. Conclusion: Early identification of groups using accurate anthropometric assessments, interventional treatment, and/or preventative measures and counseling is essential to minimize the adverse effects of treatment. Physical activity and healthy eating to promote adequacy of weight in the whole population should be encouraged.

  15. Workplace experiences and turnover intention among adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Crom, Deborah B; Ness, Kirsten K; Martinez, Larry R; Hebl, Michelle R; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Brinkman, Tara M

    2018-03-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate workplace experiences and turnover intention (consideration of leaving or changing a job) and to examine factors associated with turnover intention among survivors. Adult survivors of childhood cancer with a history of employment (n = 289) completed measures of workplace experiences (n = 50, 18-29 years; n = 183, 30-44 years; n = 56; > 45 years of age at follow-up). Turnover intention was assessed using three items from the Job Satisfaction Scale. Responses were dichotomized as reflecting high vs. low turnover intention. Path analysis was used to estimate the influence of demographic characteristics, treatment exposures (cranial radiation therapy [CRT]), and workplace experiences on turnover intention. Thirty percent of survivors reported high turnover intention (95% CL, 25 to 36%). Exposure to CRT (P = 0.003), older attained age (P workplace discrimination (P = 0.008), and having lower continuance (P discrimination, mediated through job satisfaction, also influenced survivors' reported intent to leave their jobs. One third of adult survivors of childhood cancer report turnover intention, which is related to their cancer treatment, but more temporally proximal, workplace discrimination. Additional research is needed to understand the consequences of turnover intention among survivors. Survivors and their health care providers should be aware of legislative policies related to workplace discrimination (e.g., American with Disabilities Act) and related implications for job turnover.

  16. Pregnancy x-rays and childhood cancers: effects of exposure age and radiation dose

    Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.; Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Using data from the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers this paper examines the effect of foetal age and number of films used on the subsequent risk of childhood cancer associated with prenatal x-rays. X-rays early in pregnancy were taken for different reasons and required more films when compared with those taken in late pregnancy. Therefore, Mantel-Haenszel techniques were used to estimate the independent effects of (a) exposure age and (b) number of films. Age at exposure had a clearly significant effect; x-rays taken in the first trimester of pregnancy were 2.69 times as effective as x-rays taken in the third trimester. First trimester exposures were often the result of maternal illnesses, so these maternal illnesses were then included among the controlling factors. When this was done the first trimester x-rays were 2.73 times as effective as later exposures. First trimester x-rays were most strongly associated with the cancers which were diagnosed between 4 and 5 years of age. Although the number of films had no detectable effect upon relative risk calculated over all ages, multiple exposures were demonstrably associated with early age at diagnosis. (author)

  17. Reviewing and addressing the link between mass media and the increase in obesity among European children: The European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP) and The European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) consensus statement.

    Mazur, Artur; Caroli, Margherita; Radziewicz-Winnicki, Igor; Nowicka, Paulina; Weghuber, Daniel; Neubauer, David; Dembiński, Łukasz; Crawley, Francis P; White, Martin; Hadjipanayis, Adamos

    2018-04-01

    This study reviewed the link between social media and the growing epidemic of childhood obesity in Europe. A task force from the European Academy of Paediatrics and the European Childhood Obesity Group searched published literature and developed a consensus statement. It found that there was evidence of a strong link between obesity levels across European countries and childhood media exposure and that parents and society needed a better understanding of the influence of social media on dietary habits. Health policies in Europe must take account of the range of social media influences that promote the development of childhood obesity. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Assessment of the chemosensitizing activity of TAT-RasGAP317-326 in childhood cancers.

    Nadja Chevalier

    Full Text Available Although current anti-cancer protocols are reasonably effective, treatment-associated long-term side effects, induced by lack of specificity of the anti-cancer procedures, remain a challenging problem in pediatric oncology. TAT-RasGAP317-326 is a RasGAP-derived cell-permeable peptide that acts as a sensitizer to various anti-cancer treatments in adult tumor cells. In the present study, we assessed the effect of TAT-RasGAP317-326 in several childhood cancer cell lines. The RasGAP-derived peptide-induced cell death was analyzed in several neuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma and leukemia cell lines (as well as in normal lymphocytes. Cell death was evaluated using flow cytometry methods in the absence or in the presence of the peptide in combination with various genotoxins used in the clinics (4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin. All tested pediatric tumors, in response to at least one genotoxin, were sensitized by TAT-RasGAP317-326. The RasGAP-derived peptide did not increase cell death of normal lymphocytes, alone or in combination with the majority of the tested chemotherapies. Consequently, TAT-RasGAP317-326 may benefit children with tumors by increasing the efficacy of anti-cancer therapies notably by allowing reductions in anti-cancer drug dosage and the associated drug-induced side effects.

  19. Risk of second bone sarcoma following childhood cancer: role of radiation therapy treatment.

    Schwartz, Boris; Benadjaoud, Mohamed Amine; Cléro, Enora; Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Teinturier, Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Veres, Cristina; Pacquement, Hélène; Munzer, Martine; N'guyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Hawkins, Mike; Winter, David; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Chavaudra, Jean; Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima; Bénichou, Jacques; de Vathaire, Florent

    2014-05-01

    Bone sarcoma as a second malignancy is rare but highly fatal. The present knowledge about radiation-absorbed organ dose-response is insufficient to predict the risks induced by radiation therapy techniques. The objective of the present study was to assess the treatment-induced risk for bone sarcoma following a childhood cancer and particularly the related risk of radiotherapy. Therefore, a retrospective cohort of 4,171 survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated between 1942 and 1986 in France and Britain has been followed prospectively. We collected detailed information on treatments received during childhood cancer. Additionally, an innovative methodology has been developed to evaluate the dose-response relationship between bone sarcoma and radiation dose throughout this cohort. The median follow-up was 26 years, and 39 patients had developed bone sarcoma. It was found that the overall incidence was 45-fold higher [standardized incidence ratio 44.8, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 31.0-59.8] than expected from the general population, and the absolute excess risk was 35.1 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 24.0-47.1). The risk of bone sarcoma increased slowly up to a cumulative radiation organ absorbed dose of 15 Gy [hazard ratio (HR) = 8.2, 95 % CI 1.6-42.9] and then strongly increased for higher radiation doses (HR for 30 Gy or more 117.9, 95 % CI 36.5-380.6), compared with patients not treated with radiotherapy. A linear model with an excess relative risk per Gy of 1.77 (95 % CI 0.6213-5.935) provided a close fit to the data. These findings have important therapeutic implications: Lowering the radiation dose to the bones should reduce the incidence of secondary bone sarcomas. Other therapeutic solutions should be preferred to radiotherapy in bone sarcoma-sensitive areas.

  20. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated in a Tertiary Paediatric Oncology Centre.

    Lim, Jia Wei; Yeap, Frances Sh; Chan, Yiong Huak; Yeoh, Allen Ej; Quah, Thuan Chong; Tan, Poh Lin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction : One of the most feared complications of childhood cancer treatment is second malignant neoplasms (SMNs). This study evaluates the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of SMNs in a tertiary paediatric oncology centre in Singapore. Materials and Methods : A retrospective review was conducted on patients diagnosed with childhood cancer under age 21 and treated at the National University Hospital, Singapore, from January 1990 to 15 April 2012. Case records of patients with SMNs were reviewed. Results : We identified 1124 cases of childhood cancers with a median follow-up of 3.49 (0 to 24.06) years. The most common primary malignancies were leukaemia (47.1%), central nervous system tumours (11.7%) and lymphoma (9.8%). Fifteen cases developed SMNs, most commonly acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 7). Median interval between the first and second malignancy was 3.41 (0.24 to 18.30) years. Overall 20-year cumulative incidence of SMNs was 5.3% (95% CI, 0.2% to 10.4%). The 15-year cumulative incidence of SMNs following acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was 4.4% (95% CI, 0% to 8.9%), significantly lower than the risk after osteosarcoma of 14.2% (95% CI, 0.7% to 27.7%) within 5 years ( P <0.0005). Overall 5-year survival for SMNs was lower than that of primary malignancies. Conclusion : This study identified factors explaining the epidemiology of SMNs described, and found topoisomerase II inhibitor use to be a likely risk factor in our cohort. Modifications have already been made to our existing therapeutic protocols in osteosarcoma treatment. We also recognised the importance of other risk management strategies, including regular long-term surveillance and early intervention for detected SMNs, to improve outcomes of high risk patients.

  1. K63-Linked Ubiquitination in Kinase Activation and Cancer

    Wang, Guocan [Department of Cancer Biology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gao, Yuan [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Li, Liren [Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Jin, Guoxiang; Cai, Zhen [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Chao, Jui-I [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hui-Kuan, E-mail: hklin@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-01-31

    Ubiquitination has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in multiple biological functions, which include cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, innate immune response, and neuronal degeneration. Although the role of ubiquitination in targeting proteins for proteasome-dependent degradation have been extensively studied and well-characterized, the critical non-proteolytic functions of ubiquitination, such as protein trafficking and kinase activation, involved in cell survival and cancer development, just start to emerge, In this review, we will summarize recent progresses in elucidating the non-proteolytic function of ubiquitination signaling in protein kinase activation and its implications in human cancers. The advancement in the understanding of the novel functions of ubiquitination in signal transduction pathways downstream of growth factor receptors may provide novel paradigms for the treatment of human cancers.

  2. K63-Linked Ubiquitination in Kinase Activation and Cancer

    Wang, Guocan; Gao, Yuan; Li, Liren; Jin, Guoxiang; Cai, Zhen; Chao, Jui-I; Lin, Hui-Kuan

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitination has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in multiple biological functions, which include cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, innate immune response, and neuronal degeneration. Although the role of ubiquitination in targeting proteins for proteasome-dependent degradation have been extensively studied and well-characterized, the critical non-proteolytic functions of ubiquitination, such as protein trafficking and kinase activation, involved in cell survival and cancer development, just start to emerge, In this review, we will summarize recent progresses in elucidating the non-proteolytic function of ubiquitination signaling in protein kinase activation and its implications in human cancers. The advancement in the understanding of the novel functions of ubiquitination in signal transduction pathways downstream of growth factor receptors may provide novel paradigms for the treatment of human cancers.

  3. Viruses and oral cancer. Is there a link?

    Sand, Lars; Jalouli, Jamshid

    2014-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant tumour of the oral cavity. The aetiology of epithelial cancer of the head and neck is considered to be a multifactorial, sequential process. DNA viruses are found in many different cancers and are also capable of transforming cells to a malignant phenotype. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has been proposed as risk factors in OSCC development and HPV type 16 is the most important subtype. Other oncogenic virus species i.e., Epstein-Barr Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 have been proposed to be involved in oral carcinogenesis. However, no convincing evidence exist that they are an established risk factor in OSCC. Therefore more studies are needed in order to clarify the different aspects of virus involvement. Here, we review the existing literature on viral involvement in oral cancer. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Patients' and parents' views regarding supportive care in childhood cancer.

    Tenniglo, L J A; Loeffen, E A H; Kremer, L C M; Font-Gonzalez, A; Mulder, R L; Postma, A; Naafs-Wilstra, M C; Grootenhuis, M A; van de Wetering, M D; Tissing, W J E

    2017-10-01

    Intensive therapies in pediatric malignancies increased survival rates but also occurrence of treatment-related morbidities. Therefore, supportive care fulfills an increasingly important role. In planning development of guidelines with incorporation of shared decision making, we noticed that little is known about the needs and preferences of patients and their parents. Our goals were therefore to investigate (1) which supportive care topics patients and parents regard as most important and (2) the preferred role they wish to fulfill in decision making. This qualitative study consisted of three focus groups (two traditional, one online) with patients and parents of two Dutch pediatric oncology centers. Data were transcribed as simple verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Eleven adolescent patients and 18 parents shared detailed views on various aspects of supportive care. Themes of major importance were communication between patient and physician (commitment, accessibility, proactive attitude of physicians), well-timed provision of information, and the suitability and accessibility of psychosocial care. In contrast to prioritized supportive care topics by medical professionals, somatic issues (e.g., febrile neutropenia) were infrequently addressed. Patients and parents preferred to be actively involved in decision making in selected topics, such as choice of analgesics and anti-emetics, but not in, e.g., choice of antibiotics. Children with cancer and parents were provided a valuable insight into their views regarding supportive care and shared decision making. These results have important implications towards improving supportive care, both in selecting topics for guideline development and incorporating preferences of patients and parents herein.

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual ...

  6. Endocrinological analysis of 122 Japanese childhood cancer survivors in a single hospital

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Ohta, Hideaki; Hashii, Yoshiko; Tokimasa, Sadao; Namba, Noriyuki; Mushiake, Sotaro; Ozono, Keiichi; Hara, Junichi

    2008-01-01

    With recent improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, the number of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) has been increasing in Japan. The importance of quality of life during the lifetime of CCSs has now been recognized, and the late effects of cancer treatments are essential and important issues. In this study we analyzed the endocrinological abnormalities of CCSs by retrospectively evaluating 122 outpatients (62 males and 60 females) who had been referred from pediatric oncologists to our follow-up clinic among 151 CCSs attending our hospital more than two years after their cancer treatment. Follow-up duration varied from 2 to 30 (median 8.0) years. Their average age was 17.3 (range 4-36, median 17.0) years, and 38 patients (31.1%) reached adulthood. Endocrinological abnormalities were found in 82 (67%) of 122 survivors. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in 60 patients (49%). Thirty-nine patients (32%) were short or grew at a slower rate. Twenty-six patients (21%) showed thyroid dysfunction. Other abnormalities were as follows: obesity in 20 patients (16%), leanness in 10 (8%), central diabetes insipidus in 11 (9%) and adrenocortical dysfunction in 9 (7%). Low bone mineral density was observed in 41 (42%) of 98 patients evaluated. These endocrinological abnormalities were caused by the combined effects of cancer itself and various treatments (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation). Lifetime medical surveillance and continuous follow-up are necessary for CCSs, because treatment-related complications may occur during childhood and many years after the therapy as well. Endocrinologists should participate in long-term follow-up of these survivors in collaboration with pediatric oncologists. (author)

  7. Endocrinological analysis of 122 Japanese childhood cancer survivors in a single hospital.

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Ohta, Hideaki; Hashii, Yoshiko; Tokimasa, Sadao; Namba, Noriyuki; Mushiake, Sotaro; Hara, Junichi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2008-12-01

    With recent improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, the number of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) has been increasing in Japan. The importance of quality of life during the lifetime of CCSs has now been recognized, and the late effects of cancer treatments are essential and important issues. In this study we analyzed the endocrinological abnormalities of CCSs by retrospectively evaluating 122 outpatients (62 males and 60 females) who had been referred from pediatric oncologists to our follow-up clinic among 151 CCSs attending our hospital more than two years after their cancer treatment. Follow-up duration varied from 2 to 30 (median 8.0) years. Their average age was 17.3 (range 4-36, median 17.0) years, and 38 patients (31.1%) reached adulthood. Endocrinological abnormalities were found in 82 (67%) of 122 survivors. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in 60 patients (49%). Thirty-nine patients (32%) were short or grew at a slower rate. Twenty-six patients (21%) showed thyroid dysfunction. Other abnormalities were as follows: obesity in 20 patients (16%), leanness in 10 (8%), central diabetes insipidus in 11 (9%) and adrenocortical dysfunction in 9 (7%). Low bone mineral density was observed in 41 (42%) of 98 patients evaluated. These endocrinological abnormalities were caused by the combined effects of cancer itself and various treatments (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation). Lifetime medical surveillance and continuous follow-up are necessary for CCSs, because treatment-related complications may occur during childhood and many years after the therapy as well. Endocrinologists should participate in long-term follow-up of these survivors in collaboration with pediatric oncologists.

  8. Household income and risk-of-poverty of parents of long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Mader, Luzius; Roser, Katharina; Baenziger, Julia; Tinner, Eva Maria; Scheinemann, Katrin; Kuehni, Claudia Elisabeth; Michel, Gisela

    2017-08-01

    Taking care of children diagnosed with cancer affects parents' professional life and may place the family at risk-of-poverty. We aimed to (i) compare the household income and risk-of-poverty of parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) to parents of the general population, and (ii) identify sociodemographic and cancer-related factors associated with risk-of-poverty. As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent a questionnaire to parents of CCS aged 5-15 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis. Information on parents of the general population came from the Swiss Household Panel (parents with ≥1 child aged 5-15 years). Risk-of-poverty was defined as having a monthly household income of poverty. We included parents of 383 CCS and 769 control parent households. Parent-couples of CCS had a lower household income (P trend poverty (30.4% vs. 19.3%, P = 0.001) compared to control parent-couples. Household income and risk-of-poverty of single parents of CCS was similar to control single parents. Parents of CCS were at higher risk-of-poverty if they had only standard education (OR mother = 3.77 [where OR is odds ratio], confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-8.82; OR father = 8.59, CI: 4.16-17.72) and were from the German language region (OR = 1.99, CI: 1.13-3.50). We found no cancer-related risk factors. Parents of long-term CCS reported lower household income and higher risk-of-poverty than control parents. Support strategies may be developed to mitigate parents' risk-of-poverty in the long term, particularly among parents with lower education. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention.

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host's metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acids, and modulate inflammatory bioactive substances can lead to a better understanding of the beneficial role of dietary fiber. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the mechanisms via which dietary fiber protects against colon cancer.

  10. Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study.

    Witvliet, Miranda; van Lier, Pol A C; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the authors used a randomized controlled trial to explore the link between having positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes in 758 children followed from kindergarten to the end of 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a universal classroom-based preventive intervention, or a control condition. Children's acceptance by peers, their number of mutual friends, and their proximity to others were assessed annually through peer ratings. Externalizing behavior was annually rated by teachers. Reductions in children's externalizing behavior and improvements in positive peer relations were found among GBG children, as compared with control-group children. Reductions in externalizing behavior appeared to be partly mediated by the improvements in peer acceptance. This mediating role of peer acceptance was found for boys only. The results suggest that positive peer relations are not just markers, but they are environmental mediators of boys' externalizing behavior development. Implications for research and prevention are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Inflammation and neuronal plasticity: a link between childhood trauma and depression pathogenesis.

    Cattaneo, Annamaria; Macchi, Flavia; Plazzotta, Giona; Veronica, Begni; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella; Riva, Marco Andrea; Pariante, Carmine Maria

    2015-01-01

    During the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in understanding and characterizing the role of inflammation in major depressive disorder (MDD). Indeed, several are the evidences linking alterations in the inflammatory system to Major Depression, including the presence of elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, together with other mediators of inflammation. However, it is still not clear whether inflammation represents a cause or whether other factors related to depression result in these immunological effects. Regardless, exposure to early life stressful events, which represent a vulnerability factor for the development of psychiatric disorders, act through the modulation of inflammatory responses, but also of neuroplastic mechanisms over the entire life span. Indeed, early life stressful events can cause, possibly through epigenetic changes that persist over time, up to adulthood. Such alterations may concur to increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies. In this review we will discuss the role of inflammation and neuronal plasticity as relevant processes underlying depression development. Moreover, we will discuss the role of epigenetics in inducing alterations in inflammation-immune systems as well as dysfunction in neuronal plasticity, thus contributing to the long-lasting negative effects of stressful life events early in life and the consequent enhanced risk for depression. Finally we will provide an overview on the potential role of inflammatory system to aid diagnosis, predict treatment response, enhance treatment matching, and prevent the onset or relapse of Major Depression.

  12. Mobile phone base stations and early childhood cancers: case-control study.

    Elliott, Paul; Toledano, Mireille B; Bennett, J; Beale, L; de Hoogh, K; Best, N; Briggs, D J

    2010-06-22

    To investigate the risk of early childhood cancers associated with the mother's exposure to radiofrequency from and proximity to macrocell mobile phone base stations (masts) during pregnancy. Case-control study. Cancer registry and national birth register data in Great Britain. 1397 cases of cancer in children aged 0-4 from national cancer registry 1999-2001 and 5588 birth controls from national birth register, individually matched by sex and date of birth (four controls per case). Incidence of cancers of the brain and central nervous system, leukaemia, and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and all cancers combined, adjusted for small area measures of education level, socioeconomic deprivation, population density, and population mixing. Mean distance of registered address at birth from a macrocell base station, based on a national database of 76,890 base station antennas in 1996-2001, was similar for cases and controls (1107 (SD 1131) m v 1073 (SD 1130) m, P=0.31), as was total power output of base stations within 700 m of the address (2.89 (SD 5.9) kW v 3.00 (SD 6.0) kW, P=0.54) and modelled power density (-30.3 (SD 21.7) dBm v -29.7 (SD 21.5) dBm, P=0.41). For modelled power density at the address at birth, compared with the lowest exposure category the adjusted odds ratios were 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.18) in the intermediate and 1.02 (0.88 to 1.20) in the highest exposure category for all cancers (P=0.79 for trend), 0.97 (0.69 to 1.37) and 0.76 (0.51 to 1.12), respectively, for brain and central nervous system cancers (P=0.33 for trend), and 1.16 (0.90 to 1.48) and 1.03 (0.79 to 1.34) for leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (P=0.51 for trend). There is no association between risk of early childhood cancers and estimates of the mother's exposure to mobile phone base stations during pregnancy.

  13. Do sleep problems mediate the link between adverse childhood experiences and delinquency in preadolescent children in foster care?

    Hambrick, Erin P; Rubens, Sonia L; Brawner, Thomas W; Taussig, Heather N

    2018-02-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with multiple mental and physical health problems. Yet, mechanisms by which ACEs confer risk for specific problems are largely unknown. Children in foster care typically have multiple ACEs and high rates of negative sequelae, including delinquent behaviors. Mechanisms explaining this link have not been explored in this population. Impaired sleep has been identified as a potential mechanism by which ACEs lead to delinquency in adolescents, because inadequate sleep may lead to poor executive function and cognitive control - known risk factors for delinquency. Interviews were conducted with 516 maltreated children in foster care, ages 9-11 years, and their caregivers regarding child exposure to ACEs, sleep problems, engagement in delinquent acts, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and current psychotropic medication use. ACEs data were also obtained from child welfare case records. After controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, placement type (residential, kin, foster), length of time in placement, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and current psychotropic medication use, sleep partially mediated the association between ACEs and delinquency. Although delinquency is likely multiply determined in this population, improving sleep may be one important strategy to reduce delinquency. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Distinct gene expression profiles in ovarian cancer linked to Lynch syndrome

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Bartuma, Katarina; Dominguez-Valentin, Mev

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer linked to Lynch syndrome represents a rare subset that typically presents at young age as early-stage tumors with an overrepresentation of endometrioid and clear cell histologies. We investigated the molecular profiles of Lynch syndrome-associated and sporadic ovarian cancer...... with the aim to identify key discriminators and central tumorigenic mechanisms in hereditary ovarian cancer. Global gene expression profiling using whole-genome c-DNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension, and Ligation was applied to 48 histopathologically matched Lynch syndrome-associated and sporadic...... ovarian cancers. Lynch syndrome-associated and sporadic ovarian cancers differed by 349 significantly deregulated genes, including PTPRH, BIRC3, SHH and TNFRSF6B. The genes involved were predominantly linked to cell growth, proliferation, and cell-to-cell signaling and interaction. When stratified...

  15. Molecular Link between Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    William B. Grant

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as calcitriol, is a biologically active molecule required to maintain the physiological functions of several target tissues in the human body from conception to adulthood. Its molecular mode of action ranges from immediate nongenomic responses to longer term mechanisms that exert persistent genomic effects. The genomic mechanisms of vitamin D action rely on cross talk between 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 signaling pathways and that of other growth factors or hormones that collectively regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate a role for vitamin D (calcitriol in modulating cellular growth and development. Vitamin D (calcitriol acts as an antiproliferative agent in many tissues and significantly slows malignant cellular growth. Moreover, epidemiological studies have suggested that ultraviolet-B exposure can help reduce cancer risk and prevalence, indicating a potential role for vitamin D as a feasible agent to prevent cancer incidence and recurrence. With the preventive potential of this biologically active agent, we suggest that countries where cancer is on the rise—yet where sunlight and, hence, vitamin D may be easily acquired—adopt awareness, education and implementation strategies to increase supplementation with vitamin D in all age groups as a preventive measure to reduce cancer risk and prevalence.

  16. Mitochondrial Metabolism - Neglected Link of CancerTransformation and Treatment

    Pokorný, Jiří; Jandová, Anna; Nedbalová, M.; Jelínek, František; Cifra, Michal; Kučera, Ondřej; Havelka, Daniel; Vrba, J.; Vrba, J.; Čoček, A.; Kobilková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 2 (2012), s. 81-94 ISSN 1214-6994 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0649 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Electromagnetic fields * Cellular biophysics * Cancer Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation

  17. Linking geology and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behrooz, Behbod; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

  18. Linking geological and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria.

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Durant, James T; Morman, Suzette A; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E; Dooyema, Carrie A; Hageman, Philip L; Lowers, Heather A; Fernette, Gregory L; Meeker, Gregory P; Benzel, William M; Driscoll, Rhonda L; Berry, Cyrus J; Crock, James G; Goldstein, Harland L; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L; Tirima, Simba; Behbod, Behrooz; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-06-01

    In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

  19. Linking Geological and Health Sciences to Assess Childhood Lead Poisoning from Artisanal Gold Mining in Nigeria

    Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behbod, Behrooz; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally. PMID:23524139

  20. Analysis on the childhood and adolescent differentiated thyroid cancer: clinical features and radioiodine treatment

    Chen Zequan; Luo Quanyong; Chen Libo; Ding Yin; Yu Yongli; Lu Hankui; Zhu Ruisen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Children with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) frequently present with more extensive disease than adults. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical features of child-hood and adolescent DTC and evaluate the outcome and safety of radioiodine treatment. Methods: The records of 38 childhood and adolescent DTC cases, with 28 females and 10 males (mean age: 16.4 years) were reviewed. At diagnosis, all had metastatic lesions with 38 at regional lymph nodes, 15 at lung, 2 at brain and bone. Twenty-three had a total thyroidectomy, 7 had subtotal thyroidectomy, 5 had lobectomy, and 3 had other treatment. All received post-operative radioiodine therapy. All had follow-up for at least one year. Results: At the time of follow-up, all were survive (with a median follow-up of 5.13 years). Four-teen patients had no evidence of disease, 16 had partial remission, and 8 were stable disease. Conclusions: DTC of the thyroid in childhood and adolescent has high risks of residual/recurrence and metastasis. Post-thyroidectomy oral administration of radioiodine was an effective and safety adjuvant therapy for outcomes. (authors)

  1. Passion in breast cancer survivors: examining links to emotional well-being.

    Burke, Shaunna M; Sabiston, Catherine M; Vallerand, Robert J

    2012-11-01

    This study (1) identified the activities that breast cancer survivors report as passionate; (2) examined whether levels of passion differed based on the types of passionate activities reported and; (3) examined the association between harmonious and obsessive passion and emotional well-being. Early post-treatment breast cancer survivors (N = 177) reported passionate physical activities as most prevalent, and reported higher harmonious passion scores compared to women reporting relaxing and social leisure activities. Harmonious passion was associated with higher positive affect and lower cancer worry. Obsessive passion was linked to higher negative affect, cancer worry, and posttraumatic growth. Passion is important for enhanced well-being.

  2. Predicted cancer risks induced by computed tomography examinations during childhood, by a quantitative risk assessment approach.

    Journy, Neige; Ancelet, Sophie; Rehel, Jean-Luc; Mezzarobba, Myriam; Aubert, Bernard; Laurier, Dominique; Bernier, Marie-Odile

    2014-03-01

    The potential adverse effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation from computed tomography (CT) in pediatrics must be characterized in relation to their expected clinical benefits. Additional epidemiological data are, however, still awaited for providing a lifelong overview of potential cancer risks. This paper gives predictions of potential lifetime risks of cancer incidence that would be induced by CT examinations during childhood in French routine practices in pediatrics. Organ doses were estimated from standard radiological protocols in 15 hospitals. Excess risks of leukemia, brain/central nervous system, breast and thyroid cancers were predicted from dose-response models estimated in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors' dataset and studies of medical exposures. Uncertainty in predictions was quantified using Monte Carlo simulations. This approach predicts that 100,000 skull/brain scans in 5-year-old children would result in eight (90 % uncertainty interval (UI) 1-55) brain/CNS cancers and four (90 % UI 1-14) cases of leukemia and that 100,000 chest scans would lead to 31 (90 % UI 9-101) thyroid cancers, 55 (90 % UI 20-158) breast cancers, and one (90 % UI risks without exposure). Compared to background risks, radiation-induced risks would be low for individuals throughout life, but relative risks would be highest in the first decades of life. Heterogeneity in the radiological protocols across the hospitals implies that 5-10 % of CT examinations would be related to risks 1.4-3.6 times higher than those for the median doses. Overall excess relative risks in exposed populations would be 1-10 % depending on the site of cancer and the duration of follow-up. The results emphasize the potential risks of cancer specifically from standard CT examinations in pediatrics and underline the necessity of optimization of radiological protocols.

  3. Acute and long-term cytogenetic effects of treatment in childhood cancer

    Aronson, M.M.; Miller, R.C.; Hill, R.B.; Nichols, W.W.; Meadows, A.T.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of chromosomal aberrations in banded karyotypes and of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) was determined in the lymphocytes of survivors of childhood cancer as 2 parameters which are pertinent in assessing the genetic damage induced by chemotherapy. The proportion of cells with chromosome breakage or structural rearrangement-type aberration was 1 cell in 67 in a control group of 8 untreated cancer patients and 2 parents of cancer patients, 1 cell in 8 in 12 patients currently on therapy, and 1 cell in 50 in 17 patients sampled 6 months to 35 years post-treatment. The range of mean SCE levels per cell was 4.5-6.5 in the untreated cancer patients, 4.0-9.6 in non-cancer controls, 3.3-33.7 in patients on therapy, and 4.6-9.7 in post-therapy survivors. Considerable variability was observed between individuals with both SCE and breakage assays but therapy-induced increases in SCEs were not necessarily correlated with increased levels of aberrations arising from chromosomal breakage. (orig.)

  4. Male infertility in long-term survivors of pediatric cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study.

    Wasilewski-Masker, K; Seidel, K D; Leisenring, W; Mertens, A C; Shnorhavorian, M; Ritenour, C W; Stovall, M; Green, D M; Sklar, C A; Armstrong, G T; Robison, L L; Meacham, L R

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of male infertility and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors. Within the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, 1,622 survivors and 274 siblings completed the Male Health Questionnaire. The analysis was restricted to survivors (938/1,622; 57.8 %) and siblings (174/274; 63.5 %) who tried to become pregnant. Relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the prevalence of self-reported infertility were calculated using generalized linear models for demographic variables and treatment-related factors to account for correlation among survivors and siblings of the same family. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among those who provided self-report data, the prevalence of infertility was 46.0 % in survivors versus 17.5 % in siblings (RR = 2.64, 95 % CI 1.88-3.70, p infertility, 37 % had reported at least one pregnancy with a female partner that resulted in a live birth. In a multivariable analysis, risk factors for infertility included an alkylating agent dose (AAD) score ≥3 (RR = 2.13, 95 % CI 1.69-2.68 for AAD ≥3 versus AAD infertility father their own children, suggesting episodes of both fertility and infertility. This and the novel association of infertility with bleomycin warrant further investigation. Though infertility is common, male survivors reporting infertility often father their own children. Bleomycin may pose some fertility risk.

  5. The mediating roles of cancer-related rumination in the relationship between dispositional hope and psychological outcomes among childhood cancer survivors.

    Yuen, Ada N Y; Ho, Samuel M Y; Chan, Calais K Y

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of dispositional hope on psychopathology as well as self-perceived positive change in childhood cancer survivors through the potential mediation of cancer-related ruminations. A cross-sectional design was used, and a group of childhood cancer survivors (N = 89; mean age = 23.2 years; age range = 17.2-31.3 years) were studied. Dispositional hope level was measured by the Hope Scale; positive and negative cancer-related ruminations were assessed by the Chinese Cancer-related Rumination Scale; depression symptoms were measured by Beck Depression Inventory; and anxiety symptoms were measured by Beck Anxiety Inventory. Positive adjustment outcome of posttraumatic growth (PTG) was assessed by the Chinese Post-traumatic Growth Inventory. Multiple regressions were used to analyze the relationship between dispositional hope and the outcome variables of PTG, anxiety and depression and the potential mediators of positive and negative cancer-related rumination. Dispositional hope was positively related to PTG, and the correlation was specifically mediated by positive cancer-related rumination. Dispositional hope also correlated with lower levels of depression and anxiety, specifically mediated by negative cancer-related rumination. The present finding supported hope as a significant positive factor for childhood cancer survivors, which was associated with PTG and better psychological adjustment. The findings may inform development of therapeutic intervention programs aimed at increasing childhood cancer patients' hope levels, which may be correlated with more positive cancer-related thoughts and better adjustment. The present study, which examined survivors diagnosed at young age, may enrich existing studies on the effect of onset age and adjustment outcomes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials ...

  8. Employment Situation of Parents of Long-Term Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Luzius Mader

    Full Text Available Taking care of children diagnosed with cancer affects parents' professional life. The impact in the long-term however, is not clear. We aimed to compare the employment situation of parents of long-term childhood cancer survivors with control parents of the general population, and to identify clinical and socio-demographic factors associated with parental employment.As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent a questionnaire to parents of survivors aged 5-15 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis. Information on control parents of the general population came from the Swiss Health Survey (restricted to men and women with ≥1 child aged 5-15 years. Employment was categorized as not employed, part-time, and full-time employed. We used generalized ordered logistic regression to determine associations with clinical and socio-demographic factors. Clinical data was available from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry.We included 394 parent-couples of survivors and 3'341 control parents (1'731 mothers; 1'610 fathers. Mothers of survivors were more often not employed (29% versus 22%; ptrend = 0.007. However, no differences between mothers were found in multivariable analysis. Fathers of survivors were more often employed full-time (93% versus 87%; ptrend = 0.002, which remained significant in multivariable analysis. Among parents of survivors, mothers with tertiary education (OR = 2.40, CI:1.14-5.07 were more likely to be employed. Having a migration background (OR = 3.63, CI: 1.71-7.71 increased the likelihood of being full-time employed in mothers of survivors. Less likely to be employed were mothers of survivors diagnosed with lymphoma (OR = 0.31, CI:0.13-0.73 and >2 children (OR = 0.48, CI:0.30-0.75; and fathers of survivors who had had a relapse (OR = 0.13, CI:0.04-0.36.Employment situation of parents of long-term survivors reflected the more traditional parenting roles. Specific support for parents with low education

  9. Employment Situation of Parents of Long-Term Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Mader, Luzius; Rueegg, Corina S; Vetsch, Janine; Rischewski, Johannes; Ansari, Marc; Kuehni, Claudia E; Michel, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    Taking care of children diagnosed with cancer affects parents' professional life. The impact in the long-term however, is not clear. We aimed to compare the employment situation of parents of long-term childhood cancer survivors with control parents of the general population, and to identify clinical and socio-demographic factors associated with parental employment. As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent a questionnaire to parents of survivors aged 5-15 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis. Information on control parents of the general population came from the Swiss Health Survey (restricted to men and women with ≥1 child aged 5-15 years). Employment was categorized as not employed, part-time, and full-time employed. We used generalized ordered logistic regression to determine associations with clinical and socio-demographic factors. Clinical data was available from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. We included 394 parent-couples of survivors and 3'341 control parents (1'731 mothers; 1'610 fathers). Mothers of survivors were more often not employed (29% versus 22%; ptrend = 0.007). However, no differences between mothers were found in multivariable analysis. Fathers of survivors were more often employed full-time (93% versus 87%; ptrend = 0.002), which remained significant in multivariable analysis. Among parents of survivors, mothers with tertiary education (OR = 2.40, CI:1.14-5.07) were more likely to be employed. Having a migration background (OR = 3.63, CI: 1.71-7.71) increased the likelihood of being full-time employed in mothers of survivors. Less likely to be employed were mothers of survivors diagnosed with lymphoma (OR = 0.31, CI:0.13-0.73) and >2 children (OR = 0.48, CI:0.30-0.75); and fathers of survivors who had had a relapse (OR = 0.13, CI:0.04-0.36). Employment situation of parents of long-term survivors reflected the more traditional parenting roles. Specific support for parents with low education, additional

  10. Risk of a Second Kidney Carcinoma Following Childhood Cancer: Role of Chemotherapy and Radiation Dose to Kidneys.

    de Vathaire, Florent; Scwhartz, Boris; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Allodji, Rodrigue Sètchéou; Escudier, Bernard; Hawkins, Mike; Diallo, Ibrahima; Haddy, Nadia

    2015-11-01

    Kidney carcinoma is a rare second malignancy following childhood cancer. We sought to quantify risk and assess risk factors for kidney carcinoma following treatment for childhood cancer. We evaluated a cohort of 4,350 patients who were 5-year cancer survivors and had been treated for cancer as children in France and the United Kingdom. Patients were treated between 1943 and 1985, and were followed for an average of 27 years. Radiation dose to the kidneys during treatment was estimated with dedicated software, regardless of the site of childhood cancer. Kidney carcinoma developed in 13 patients. The cumulative incidence of kidney carcinoma was 0.62% (95% CI 0.27%-1.45%) at 40 years after diagnosis, which was 13.3-fold higher (95% CI 7.1-22.3) than in the general population. The absolute excess risk strongly increased with longer duration of followup (p kidney carcinoma was 5.7-fold higher (95% CI 1.4-14.7) if radiotherapy was not performed or less than 1 Gy had been absorbed by the kidney but 66.3-fold higher (95% CI 23.8-142.5) if the radiation dose to the kidneys was 10 to 19 Gy and 14.5-fold higher (95% CI 0.8-63.9) for larger radiation doses to the kidney. Treatment with chemotherapy increased the risk of kidney carcinoma (RR 5.1, 95% CI 1.1-22.7) but we were unable to identify a specific drug or drug category responsible for this effect. Moderate radiation dose to the kidneys during childhood cancer treatment increases the risk of a second kidney carcinoma. This incidence will be further increased when childhood cancer survivors reach old age. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pulmonary function abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    Miller, R.W.; Fusner, J.E.; Fink, R.J.; Murphy, T.M.; Getson, P.R.; Vojtova, J.A.; Reaman, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary function testing (PFT) was performed on 29 long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The patients, whose mean age was 11.7 years and whose mean age at diagnosis was 3.7 years, included 12 females and 17 males. Original diagnoses included 15 patients with leukemia and 14 individuals with solid tumors. Nine patients had received cyclophosphamide and 20 had received radiation therapy. Included in this latter group were five patients who had received radiation therapy to the thorax. Eight patients had acquired pneumonia during their treatment. Physical examination was normal in all the patients, and none had a history of acute or chronic pulmonary disease. PFT demonstrated an incidence of abnormalities in forced vital capacity (FVC) and/or total lung capacity (TLC) in 48% of the patients. Patients who were under 3 years of age at the time of diagnosis or who had received radiation to the thorax were more likely to demonstrate PFT abnormalities, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. The natural history of pulmonary function and subsequent respiratory disease in survivors of childhood cancer requires further definition

  12. Creating a Meeting Point of Understanding: Interpreters' Experiences in Swedish Childhood Cancer Care.

    Granhagen Jungner, Johanna; Tiselius, Elisabet; Lützén, Kim; Blomgren, Klas; Pergert, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Children and families with a foreign background and limited Swedish proficiency have to communicate through interpreters in childhood cancer care centers in Sweden. Interpreter-mediated events deal with many difficulties that potentially hinder the transfer of information. The purpose of our study was to explore interpreters' experiences of interpreting between health care staff and limited Swedish proficiency patients/families in childhood cancer care. Using purposive samples, we interviewed 11 interpreters individually. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Analyses of the data resulted in the main theme of creating a meeting point of understanding, constructed from 3 subthemes: balancing between cultures, bridging the gaps of knowledge, and balancing between compassion and professionalism. Our result shows that in order to create a sustainable meeting point of understanding, it is necessary to explain both the context and cultural differences. These results suggest that the responsibility for information transfer lies with both the health care profession and the interpreters. Tools have to be developed for both parties to contribute to creating the meeting point of understanding. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  13. Marriage, employment, and health insurance in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Crom, Deborah B; Lensing, Shelly Y; Rai, Shesh N; Snider, Mark A; Cash, Darlene K; Hudson, Melissa M

    2007-09-01

    Adult survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for disease- and therapy-related morbidity, which can adversely impact marriage and employment status, the ability to obtain health insurance, and access to health care. Our aim was to identify factors associated with survivors' attainment of these outcomes. We surveyed 1,437 childhood cancer survivors who were >18 years old and >10 years past diagnosis. We compared our cohort's data to normative data in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Surveys. Respondents were stratified by hematologic malignancies, central nervous system tumors, or other solid tumors and by whether they had received radiation therapy. Most respondents were survivors of hematologic malignancies (71%), white (91%), and working full-time (62%); 43% were married. Compared with age- and sex-adjusted national averages, only survivors of hematologic malignancies who received radiation were significantly less likely to be married (44 vs. 52%). Full-time employment among survivors was lower than national norms, except among survivors of hematologic malignancies who had not received radiation therapy. The rates of coverage of health insurance, especially public insurance, were higher in all diagnostic groups than in the general population. While difficulty obtaining health care was rarely reported, current unemployment and a lack of insurance were associated with difficulty in obtaining health care (P unmarried, unemployed, and uninsured experience difficulty accessing health care needed to address long-term health concerns.

  14. Recent estimates of the risk of childhood cancer following irradiation of the fetus

    Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.; Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    For children born during the period 1939-1979 the authors estimate that 7% of childhood cancers were caused by prenatal X-ray (Knox et al., 1987). The decline in relative risk from the high values of the 1940s to the lower values seen in the late 1960s is probably due to improvements in X-ray techniques and equipment, together with a decline in the number of films used per examination, which resulted in a reduction in dose per examination from a mean of 9 mGy to 3 mGy in 1960. The reason for apparent increase in relative risk in recent years is not clear. The finding that the dose response from terrestrial gamma radiation was three times as great as for prenatal X-ray may be due to exposures from TGR being received throughout pregnancy, including the more sensitive first trimester,. It is also likely that the outdoor TGR measurements used in the analysis are correlated with, and act as an indicator of, level of exposure due to other sources of natural radiation (e.g. indoor gamma and radon). The discrepancy between the findings from the atomic bomb survivors irradiated in utero and those of case/control studies of childhood cancer is discussed. (author)

  15. Translating Mechanism-Based Strategies to Break the Obesity-Cancer Link: A Narrative Review.

    Smith, Laura A; O'Flanagan, Ciara H; Bowers, Laura W; Allott, Emma H; Hursting, Stephen D

    2018-04-01

    Prevalence of obesity, an established risk factor for many cancers, has increased dramatically over the past 50 years in the United States and across the globe. Relative to normoweight cancer patients, obese cancer patients often have poorer prognoses, resistance to chemotherapies, and are more likely to develop distant metastases. Recent progress on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer connection suggests that obesity exerts pleomorphic effects on pathways related to tumor development and progression and, thus, there are multiple opportunities for primary prevention and treatment of obesity-related cancers. Obesity-associated alterations, including systemic metabolism, adipose inflammation, growth factor signaling, and angiogenesis, are emerging as primary drivers of obesity-associated cancer development and progression. These obesity-associated host factors interact with the intrinsic molecular characteristics of cancer cells, facilitating several of the hallmarks of cancer. Each is considered in the context of potential preventive and therapeutic strategies to reduce the burden of obesity-related cancers. In addition, this review focuses on emerging mechanisms behind the obesity-cancer link, as well as relevant dietary interventions, including calorie restriction, intermittent fasting, low-fat diet, and ketogenic diet, that are being implemented in preclinical and clinical trials, with the ultimate goal of reducing incidence and progression of obesity-related cancers. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional links to plausible mechanisms underlying pancreatic cancer: a conference report.

    Hine, R Jean; Srivastava, Sudhir; Milner, John A; Ross, Sharon A

    2003-11-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is one of most catastrophic and least understood of cancers. Evidence from clinical studies indicates that the development of pancreas cancer progresses over many years before symptoms appear. Most people with pancreatic cancer die within six months of diagnosis. The lack of early disease markers, the paucity of direct subject/patient interview data and limited availability of high quality biological samples have slowed progress toward identifying environmental and genetic disease risk factors. Much remains to be learned about the development of pancreatic cancer and about potential interventions for disease prevention. Epidemiological and mechanistic studies examining risk factors for pancreatic cancer supply little consistent or strong evidence to provide a cohesive prevention strategy for this cancer, but offer clues for future research concerning the prevention and early detection of this devastating disease. This Executive Summary provides background discussion on pancreatic cancer and summaries of each of the topics discussed at the workshop, including 1) Molecular aspects, 2) Dietary and other risk factors for pancreatic cancer, 3) The metabolic hypothesis for pancreatic cancer, 4) Preclinical studies on pancreatic cancer, 5) Methylation, 6) Oxidative stress and 7) Biomarker Profiling. This document also contains a compilation of recommendations for future research, concluding remarks, a list of speakers and participants attending the workshop, and a selection of key references to aid future research into nutritional links to mechanisms underlying pancreas cancer. The recommendations section suggests gaps in current knowledge and articulates future directions for this area of investigation.

  17. Impact of cancer support groups on childhood cancer treatment and abandonment in a private pediatric oncology centre

    Arathi Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze the impact of two cancer support groups in the treatment and abandonment of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of children with cancer funded and non-funded who were treated at Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital from 2010 to 2013. A total of 100 patients were funded, 57 by Ray of Light Foundation and 43 by Pediatric Lymphoma Project and 70 non-funded. Results: The total current survival of 80%, including those who have completed treatment and those currently undergoing treatment, is comparable in both the groups. Abandonment of treatment after initiating therapy was not seen in the financially supported group whereas abandonment of treatment after initiation was seen in one child in the non-funded group. Conclusions: Besides intensive treatment with good supportive care, financial support also has an important impact on compliance and abandonment in all socioeconomic strata of society. Financial support from private cancer support groups also has its impact beyond the patient and family, in reducing the burden on government institutions by non-governmental funding in private sector. Improvement in the delivery of pediatric oncology care in developing countries could be done by financial support from the private sector.

  18. Are BiTEs the "missing link" in cancer therapy?

    Suryadevara, Carter M; Gedeon, Patrick C; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Verla, Terence; Alvarez-Breckenridge, Christopher; Choi, Bryan D; Fecci, Peter E; Sampson, John H

    2015-06-01

    Conventional treatment for cancer routinely includes surgical resection and some combination of chemotherapy and radiation. These approaches are frequently accompanied by unintended and highly toxic collateral damage to healthy tissues, which are offset by only marginal prognostic improvements in patients with advanced cancers. This unfortunate balance has driven the development of novel therapies that aim to target tumors both safely and efficiently. Over the past decade, mounting evidence has supported the therapeutic utility of T-cell-centered cancer immunotherapy, which, in its various iterations, has been shown capable of eliciting highly precise and robust antitumor responses both in animal models and human trials. The identification of tumor-specific targets has further fueled a growing interest in T-cell therapies given their potential to circumvent the non-specific nature of traditional treatments. Of the several strategies geared toward achieving T-cell recognition of tumor, bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) represent a novel class of biologics that have garnered enthusiasm in recent years due to their versatility, specificity, safety, cost, and ease of production. Bispecific T-cell Engagers (BiTEs) are a subclass of bsAbs that are specific for CD3 on one arm and a tumor antigen on the second. As such, BiTEs function by recruiting and activating polyclonal populations of T-cells at tumor sites, and do so without the need for co-stimulation or conventional MHC recognition. Blinatumomab, a well-characterized BiTE, has emerged as a promising recombinant bscCD19×CD3 construct that has demonstrated remarkable antitumor activity in patients with B-cell malignancies. This clinical success has resulted in the rapid extension of BiTE technology against a greater repertoire of tumor antigens and the recent US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) accelerated approval of blinatumomab for the treatment of a rare form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this review

  19. Interleukin-1 may link helplessness-hopelessness with cancer progression: a proposed model.

    Argaman, Miriam; Gidron, Yori; Ariad, Shmuel

    2005-01-01

    A model of the relations between psychological factors and cancer progression should include brain and systemic components and their link with critical cellular stages in cancer progression. We present a psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) model that links helplessness-hopelessness (HH) with cancer progression via interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). IL-1beta was elevated in the brain following exposure to inescapable shock, and HH was minimized by antagonizing cerebral IL-1beta. Elevated cerebral IL-1beta increased cancer metastasis in animals. Inescapable shock was associated with systemic elevations of IL-1beta and peripheral IL-1beta was associated with escape from apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Involvement of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are discussed. Future studies need to identify the role of additional factors in this PNI pathway.

  20. Lung cancer mortality among silicotic workers in Hong Kong--no evidence for a link.

    Yu, I T S; Tse, L A; Leung, C C; Wong, T W; Tam, C M; Chan, A C K

    2007-06-01

    The link between silica dust/silicosis and lung cancer is still very controversial. We examined the relationship between silica dust exposure and/or silicosis and lung cancer in a large cohort of silicotic workers in Hong Kong. All workers with silicosis in Hong Kong diagnosed during the period 1981-1998 were followed up till the end of 1999 to ascertain their vital status and causes of death. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for lung cancer and other major causes of death were calculated. Axelson's indirect method was used to adjust for smoking effect. Multiple Cox regression models were carried out to examine the exposure-response relationship between silica dust and lung cancer. About 10% (86) of all 853 deaths were from lung cancer, giving a SMR of 1.69 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-2.09]. Lung cancer SMR for caisson and surface construction workers were 2.39 (95% CI 1.50-3.62) and 1.61 (95% CI 1.21-2.10), respectively, which became 1.56 (95% CI 0.98-2.36) and 1.09 (95% CI 0.82-1.42) after adjusting for smoking. No consistent exposure-response relationship was detected between silica dust or severity of silicosis and lung cancer death. Our cohort study did not offer positive support to a link between silica or silicosis and lung cancer.

  1. APRIL is overexpressed in cancer: link with tumor progression

    Moreaux, Jérôme; Veyrune, Jean-Luc; De Vos, John; Klein, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    BAFF and APRIL share two receptors – TACI and BCMA – and BAFF binds to a third receptor, BAFF-R. Increased expression of BAFF and APRIL is noted in hematological malignancies. BAFF and APRIL are essential for the survival of normal and malignant B lymphocytes, and altered expression of BAFF or APRIL or of their receptors (BCMA, TACI, or BAFF-R) have been reported in various B-cell malignancies including B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. We compared the expression of BAFF, APRIL, TACI and BAFF-R gene expression in 40 human tumor types – brain, epithelial, lymphoid, germ cells – to that of their normal tissue counterparts using publicly available gene expression data, including the Oncomine Cancer Microarray database. We found significant overexpression of TACI in multiple myeloma and thyroid carcinoma and an association between TACI expression and prognosis in lymphoma. Furthermore, BAFF and APRIL are overexpressed in many cancers and we show that APRIL expression is associated with tumor progression. We also found overexpression of at least one proteoglycan with heparan sulfate chains (HS), which are coreceptors for APRIL and TACI, in tumors where APRIL is either overexpressed or is a prognostic factor. APRIL could induce survival or proliferation directly through HS proteoglycans. Taken together, these data suggest that APRIL is a potential prognostic factor for a large array of malignancies

  2. Early Childhood Adversity and its Associations With Anxiety, Depression, and Distress in Women With Breast Cancer.

    McFarland, Daniel C; Andreotti, Charissa; Harris, Kirk; Mandeli, John; Tiersten, Amy; Holland, Jimmie

    2016-01-01

    Certain vulnerability factors have been found to place patients at risk for depression and anxiety, especially within the context of medical illness. We sought to describe the relationships among early childhood adversity (ECA) and anxiety, depression and distress in patients with breast cancer. Patients with breast cancer (stages 0-IV) were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire subscales include Abuse/Neglect/Chaotic Home Environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression), meeting standardized cut-off thresholds for distress (Distress Thermometer and Problem List ≥4 or ≥7)/anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety ≥8)/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression ≥8) and demographic factors. A total of 125 participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p psychologic symptoms, but most specifically depression in the setting of breast cancer. ECA contributes to psychologic burden as a vulnerability factor. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories and influence the provision of patient-centered care for psychologic symptoms in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Childhood cancers in the UK and their relation to background radiation

    Kneale, G.W.; Stewart, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter shows the results of including two independent data sets in a study of several factors with cancer associations including background radiation. One data set came from the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC); the other from the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and findings are compatible with background radiation being the single most important cause of juvenile neoplasms. It also emerged that these neoplasms have a strongly clustered distribution. No obvious cause of clusters was found, but they had associations with prenatal and postnatal illnesses as well as background radiation. Therefore, since there is mounting sensitivity to infections during the latent phase of leukaemia, cancer clusters might be the result of competing causes of death having an epidemic distribution. The findings as a whole are compatible with all man-made additions to background (including leakages of radioactivity from a reprocessing plant) adding to risk of an early cancer death. Proof that certain leukaemia clusters in the vicinity of two reprocessing plants were caused in this way must await collection of data. (author)

  4. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Digestive Organs After Childhood Cancer: A Cohort-Nested Case-Control Study

    Tukenova, Markhaba; Diallo, Ibrahima; Anderson, Harald; Hawkins, Mike; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Sankila, Risto; El Fayech, Chiraz; Winter, Dave; Rubino, Carole; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Haddy, Nadia; Oberlin, Odile; Moller, Torgil; Langmark, Froydis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Cancers of the digestive system constitute a major risk for childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy once they reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of a second malignancy in the digestive organs (SMDO) after a childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: Among 4,568 2-year survivors of a childhood solid cancer diagnosed before 17 years of age at eight French and British centers, and among 25,120 patients diagnosed as having a malignant neoplasm before the age of 20 years, whose data were extracted from the Nordic Cancer Registries, we matched 58 case patients (41 men and 17 women) of SMDO and 167 controls, in their respective cohort, for sex, age at first cancer, calendar year of occurrence of the first cancer, and duration of follow-up. The radiation dose received at the site of each second malignancy and at the corresponding site of its matched control was estimated. Results: The risk of developing a SMDO was 9.7-fold higher in relation to the general populations in France and the United Kingdom. In the case-control study, a strong dose–response relationship was estimated, compared with that in survivors who had not received radiotherapy; the odds ratio was 5.2 (95% CI, 1.7–16.0) for local radiation doses between 10 and 29 Gy and 9.6 (95% CI, 2.6–35.2) for doses equal to or greater than 30 Gy. Chemotherapy was also found to increase the risk of developing SMDO. Conclusions: This study confirms that childhood cancer treatments strongly increase the risk of SMDO, which occur only after a very long latency period.

  5. Stages of Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ... Version Key Points Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system. There are two types of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. Epstein-Barr virus infection increases the risk of childhood Hodgkin ...

  6. Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...

  7. Development of depression in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: a multi-level life course conceptual framework.

    Kaye, Erica C; Brinkman, Tara M; Baker, Justin N

    2017-06-01

    As therapeutic and supportive care interventions become increasingly effective, growing numbers of childhood and adolescent cancer survivors face a myriad of physical and psychological sequelae secondary to their disease and treatment. Mental health issues, in particular, present a significant problem in this unique patient population, with depression affecting a sizable number of childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. Multiple key determinants impact a survivor's risk of developing depression, with variables traversing across biologic, individual, family, community, and global levels, as well as spanning throughout the life course of human development from the preconception and prenatal periods to adulthood. A multi-level life course conceptual model offers a valuable framework to identify and organize the diverse variables that modulate the risk of developing depression in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. This review describes the first multi-level life course perspective applied to development of depression in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. This conceptual framework may be used to guide the investigation of mental health interventions for SCACs to ensure that key determinants of depression occurrence are adequately addressed across various levels and throughout the life trajectory.

  8. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    van Santen, Hanneke M; Geskus, Ronald B; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J H; Caron, Hubert N; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights. The goal of this study was to examine BMI in a large cohort of long-term CCSs and relate this to the BMI at diagnosis, age, sex, tumor type, treatment, and endocrine defects. All patients treated for childhood cancer at the Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center between 1966 and 1996 who had survived for at least 5 years were eligible for inclusion. For 893 CCSs with a mean follow-up of 14.9 years, the BMI at the late effects outpatient clinic was compared with the BMI for the general Dutch population. For girls, an increased prevalence of obesity was found. Risk factors for developing a high BMI at follow-up were a younger age and a high BMI at diagnosis and treatment with cranial radiotherapy. A significantly increased prevalence of severe underweight was found in all adult subgroups except for females aged 26 to 45 years. An association was found between a low BMI at diagnosis and a low BMI at follow-up. No treatment-related variables could be related to changes in BMI. The BMI at diagnosis is one of the most important predictors for the BMI at follow-up, and this suggests an important genetic or environmental cause. Adult CCSs are at high risk for developing severe underweight at follow-up. Future studies should focus on the causes and clinical consequences of underweight. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  9. Influence of health-insurance access and hospital retention policies on childhood cancer treatment in Kenya.

    Mostert, S; Njuguna, F; van de Ven, P M; Olbara, G; Kemps, L J P A; Musimbi, J; Strother, R M; Aluoch, L M; Skiles, J; Buziba, N G; Sitaresmi, M N; Vreeman, R C; Kaspers, G J L

    2014-05-01

    Kenyan national policies for public hospitals dictate that patients are retained on hospital wards until their hospital bills are paid, but this payment process differs for patients with or without access to National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) at diagnosis. Whether these differences impact treatment outcomes has not been described. Our study explores whether childhood cancer treatment outcomes in Kenya are influenced by health-insurance status and hospital retention policies. This study combined retrospective review of medical records with an illustrative case report. We identified children diagnosed with malignancies at a large Kenyan academic hospital between 2007 and 2009, their treatment outcomes, and health-insurance status at diagnosis. Between 2007 and 2009, 222 children were diagnosed with malignancies. Among 180 patients with documented treatment outcome, 54% abandoned treatment, 22% had treatment-related death, 4% progressive/relapsed disease, and 19% event-free survival. Health-insurance status at diagnosis was recorded in 148 children: 23% had NHIF and 77% had no NHIF. For children whose families had NHIF compared with those who did not, the relative risk for treatment abandonment relative to event-free survival was significantly smaller (relative-risk ratio = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.12-0.81, P = 0.016). The case report illustrates difficulties that Kenyan families might face when their child is diagnosed with cancer, has no NHIF, and is retained in hospital. Children with NHIF at diagnosis had significantly lower chance of abandoning treatment and higher chance of survival. Childhood cancer treatment outcomes could be improved by interventions that prevent treatment abandonment and improve access to NHIF. Hospital retention of patients over unpaid medical bills must stop. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Oleuropein and Cancer Chemoprevention: The Link is Hot

    Ammad Ahmad Farooqi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer comprises a collection of related diseases characterized by the existence of altered cellular pathways resulting in an abnormal tendency for uncontrolled growth. A broad spectrum, coordinated, and personalized approach focused on targeting diverse oncogenic pathways with low toxicity and economic natural compounds can provide a real benefit as a chemopreventive and/or treatment of this complex disease. Oleuropein, a bioactive phenolic compound mainly present in olive oil and other natural sources, has been reported to modulate several oncogenic signalling pathways. This review presents and critically discusses the available literature about the anticancer and onco-suppressive activity of oleuropein and the underlying molecular mechanisms implicated in the anticarcinogenic and therapeutic effects. The existence of limitations and the promising perspectives of research on this phenolic compound are also critically analyzed and discussed.

  11. A qualitative cancer screening study with childhood sexual abuse survivors: experiences, perspectives and compassionate care.

    Gesink, Dionne; Nattel, Lilian

    2015-08-05

    The childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivor population is substantial and survivors have been identified as part of the population who were under-screened or never-screened for breast, cervical and colon cancer. Our objective was to learn CSA survivor perspectives on, and experiences with, breast, cervical and colon cancer screening with the intention of generating recommendations to help healthcare providers improve cancer screening participation. A pragmatic constructivist qualitative study involving individual, semistructured, in-depth interviews was conducted in January 2014. Thematic analysis was used to describe CSA survivor perspectives on cancer screening and identify potential facilitators for screening. A diverse purposive sample of adult female CSA survivors was recruited. The inclusion criteria were: being a CSA survivor, being in a stable living situation, where stable meant able to meet one's financial needs independently, able to maintain supportive relationships, having participated in therapy to recover from past abuse, and living in a safe environment. 12 survivors were interviewed whose ages ranged from the early 40s to mid-70s. Descriptive saturation was reached after 10 interviews. Interviews were conducted over the phone or Internet. CSA survivors were primarily from urban and rural Ontario, but some resided elsewhere in Canada and the USA. The core concept that emerged was that compassionate care at every level of the healthcare experience could improve cancer screening participation. Main themes included: desire for holistic care; unique needs of patients with dissociative identity disorder; the patient-healthcare provider relationship; appointment interactions; the cancer screening environment; and provider assumptions about patients. Compassionate care can be delivered by: building a relationship; practising respect; focusing attention on the patient; not rushing the appointment; keeping the environment positive and comfortable; maintaining

  12. Awareness about past diagnosis and treatment history: nationwide survey of childhood cancer survivors and their parents.

    Ahn, Eunmi; Park, Hyeon Jin; Baek, Hee Jo; Hwang, Pyoung Han; Lee, Young Ho; Park, Byung-Kiu; Kim, Young So; Shim, Hye-Young; Shin, Dongwook; Yang, Hyung Kook; Park, Jong Hyock; Park, Kyung Duk

    2017-10-01

    To assess the awareness of past medical history and long-term care issues of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) in Korea. A nationwide survey was conducted on CCS and their parents in 10 regional cancer centers in Korea. Answers regarding cancer diagnosis and treatment history were compared with the treatment summary and categorized into three ('specific,' 'general,' and 'no') or two ('yes' and 'no') groups. Out of 343 contacts, 293 dyads completed the survey, and 281 dyads were analyzed. Awareness of cancer diagnosis was mostly specific for parents (76.5%) and CCS (35.2%). Awareness of anti-cancer treatment exposure was mostly general (84.6% for surgery, 67.9% for chemotherapy, and 53.9% for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) rather than specific. In particular, more than half of the parents were not aware of the exposure to cardiotoxic agents (72.9%) or radiation therapy (56.3%). Providing information about long-term side effects and prevention of secondary cancer was significantly correlated only with more concern and more follow-up visits (P ≤ 0.001, respectively), without correlation with more specific awareness of exposure to cardiotoxic agents or radiation. Most of the parents of CCS were not aware of treatment-related risk factors necessary for long-term care. Providing information was significantly correlated with more concern and more follow-up visits, without improving corresponding knowledge about their past medical history. Effort aimed towards improving awareness about risk factors, the manner of providing information, and the patient referral system within which we use this information is warranted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. A DRD1 Polymorphism Predisposes to Lung Cancer among those Exposed to Secondhand smoke during Childhood

    Robles, Ana I.; Yang, Ping; Jen, Jin; McClary, Andrew C.; Calhoun, Kara; Bowman, Elise D.; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Greathouse, K. Leigh; Wang, Yi; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Deng, Bo; Schwartz, Ann G.; Ryan, Bríd M.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer has a familial component which suggests a genetic contribution to its etiology. Given the strong evidence linking smoking with lung cancer, we studied miRNA-related loci in genes associated with smoking behavior. CHRNA, CHRNB gene families, CYP2A6 and DRD1 were mined for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that fell within the seed region of miRNA binding sites and then tested for associations with risk in a three-stage validation approach. A 3’UTR SNP in DRD1 (Dopamine Recepto...

  14. A link between premenopausal iron deficiency and breast cancer malignancy

    Jian, Jinlong; Li, Jinqing; Huang, Xi; Yang, Qing; Shao, Yongzhao; Axelrod, Deborah; Smith, Julia; Singh, Baljit; Krauter, Stephanie; Chiriboga, Luis; Yang, Zhaoxu

    2013-01-01

    Young breast cancer (BC) patients less than 45 years old are at higher risk of dying from the disease when compared to their older counterparts. However, specific risk factors leading to this poorer outcome have not been identified. One candidate is iron deficiency, as this is common in young women and a clinical feature of young age. In the present study, we used immuno-competent and immuno-deficient mouse xenograft models as well as hemoglobin as a marker of iron status in young BC patients to demonstrate whether host iron deficiency plays a pro-metastatic role. We showed that mice fed an iron-deficient diet had significantly higher tumor volumes and lung metastasis compared to those fed normal iron diets. Iron deficiency mainly altered Notch but not TGF-β and Wnt signaling in the primary tumor, leading to the activation of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). This was revealed by increased expression of Snai1 and decreased expression of E-cadherin. Importantly, correcting iron deficiency by iron therapy reduced primary tumor volume, lung metastasis, and reversed EMT markers in mice. Furthermore, we found that mild iron deficiency was significantly associated with lymph node invasion in young BC patients (p<0.002). Together, our finding indicates that host iron deficiency could be a contributor of poor prognosis in young BC patients

  15. Synaesthesia is linked to more vivid and detailed content of autobiographical memories and less fading of childhood memories.

    Chin, Taylor; Ward, Jamie

    2017-12-15

    People with synaesthesia have enhanced memory on a wide range of laboratory tests of episodic memory, but very little is known about their real-world memory. This study used a standard measure of autobiographical remembering (the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire, AMQ) considering four constructs (Recollection, Belief, Impact and Rehearsal) and two time periods (recent memories from adulthood, remote memories from childhood). Synaesthetes reported more Recollection (e.g., sensory detail) and Belief (e.g., confidence) which interacted with time, such that remote memories are reported to be comparatively better preserved in synaesthetes. This cannot be explained by synaesthetes recalling more salient episodes (the groups did not differ in Impact). It suggests instead that childhood memories have a special status in synaesthesia that reflects the different neurodevelopmental trajectory of this group. With regards to Rehearsal, controls tended to report that more recent memories tend to resurface (i.e., adulthood > childhood), but the synaesthetes showed the opposite dissociation (i.e., childhood > adulthood).

  16. Towards precision medicine: discovering novel gynecological cancer biomarkers and pathways using linked data.

    Jha, Alokkumar; Khan, Yasar; Mehdi, Muntazir; Karim, Md Rezaul; Mehmood, Qaiser; Zappa, Achille; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Sahay, Ratnesh

    2017-09-19

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is playing a key role in therapeutic decision making for the cancer prognosis and treatment. The NGS technologies are producing a massive amount of sequencing datasets. Often, these datasets are published from the isolated and different sequencing facilities. Consequently, the process of sharing and aggregating multisite sequencing datasets are thwarted by issues such as the need to discover relevant data from different sources, built scalable repositories, the automation of data linkage, the volume of the data, efficient querying mechanism, and information rich intuitive visualisation. We present an approach to link and query different sequencing datasets (TCGA, COSMIC, REACTOME, KEGG and GO) to indicate risks for four cancer types - Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma (OV), Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma (UCEC), Uterine Carcinosarcoma (UCS), Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Endocervical Adenocarcinoma (CESC) - covering the 16 healthy tissue-specific genes from Illumina Human Body Map 2.0. The differentially expressed genes from Illumina Human Body Map 2.0 are analysed together with the gene expressions reported in COSMIC and TCGA repositories leading to the discover of potential biomarkers for a tissue-specific cancer. We analyse the tissue expression of genes, copy number variation (CNV), somatic mutation, and promoter methylation to identify associated pathways and find novel biomarkers. We discovered twenty (20) mutated genes and three (3) potential pathways causing promoter changes in different gynaecological cancer types. We propose a data-interlinked platform called BIOOPENER that glues together heterogeneous cancer and biomedical repositories. The key approach is to find correspondences (or data links) among genetic, cellular and molecular features across isolated cancer datasets giving insight into cancer progression from normal to diseased tissues. The proposed BIOOPENER platform enriches mutations by filling in

  17. Ultrasound surveillance for radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Brignardello, Enrico; Felicetti, Francesco; Castiglione, Anna; Gallo, Marco; Maletta, Francesca; Isolato, Giuseppe; Biasin, Eleonora; Fagioli, Franca; Corrias, Andrea; Palestini, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    The optimal surveillance strategy to screen for thyroid carcinoma childhood cancer survivors (CCS) at increased risk is still debated. In our clinical practice, beside neck palpation we routinely perform thyroid ultrasound (US). Here we describe the results obtained using this approach. We considered all CCS referred to our long term clinic from November 2001 to September 2014. One hundred and ninety-seven patients who had received radiation therapy involving the thyroid gland underwent US surveillance. Thyroid US started 5 years after radiotherapy and repeated every 3 years, if negative. Among 197 CCS previously irradiated to the thyroid gland, 74 patients (37.5%) developed thyroid nodules, and fine-needle aspiration was performed in 35. In 11 patients the cytological examination was suspicious or diagnostic for malignancy (TIR 4/5), whereas a follicular lesion was diagnosed in nine. Patients with TIR 4/5 cytology were operated and in all cases thyroid cancer diagnosis was confirmed. The nine patients with TIR 3 cytology also underwent surgery and a carcinoma was diagnosed in three of them. Prevalence of thyroid cancer was 7.1%. Tumour size ranged between 4 and 25 mm, but six (43%) were classified T3 because of extra-thyroidal extension. Six patients had nodal metastases; in eight patients the tumour was multifocal. At the time of the study all patients are disease free, without evidence of surgery complications. Applying our US surveillance protocol, the prevalence of radiation-induced thyroid cancer is high. Histological features of the thyroid cancers diagnosed in our cohort suggest that most of them were clinically relevant tumours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis.

    Knijnenburg, S L; Raemaekers, S; van den Berg, H; van Dijk, I W E M; Lieverst, J A; van der Pal, H J; Jaspers, M W M; Caron, H N; Kremer, L C; van Santen, H M

    2013-04-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of 573 CCS. Multivariable regression analyses were carried out to estimate the influence of different determinants on height SDS at follow-up. Overall, survivors had a normal height SDS at cancer diagnosis. However, at follow-up in adulthood, 8.9% had a height ≤-2 SDS. Height SDS at diagnosis was an important determinant for adult height SDS. Children treated with (higher doses of) radiotherapy showed significantly reduced final height SDS. Survivors treated with total body irradiation (TBI) and craniospinal radiation had the greatest loss in height (-1.56 and -1.37 SDS, respectively). Younger age at diagnosis contributed negatively to final height. Height at diagnosis was an important determinant for height SDS at follow-up. Survivors treated with TBI, cranial and craniospinal irradiation should be monitored periodically for adequate linear growth, to enable treatment on time if necessary. For correct interpretation of treatment-related late effects studies in CCS, pre-treatment data should always be included.

  19. Childhood cancer and residential exposure to highways: a nationwide cohort study

    Spycher, Ben D.; Feller, Martin; Röösli, Martin; Ammann, Roland A.; Diezi, Manuel; Egger, Matthias; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2015-01-01

    Children living near highways are exposed to higher concentrations of traffic-related carcinogenic pollutants. Several studies reported an increased risk of childhood cancer associated with traffic exposure, but the published evidence is inconclusive. We investigated whether cancer risk is associated with proximity of residence to highways in a nation-wide cohort study including all children aged <16 years from Swiss national censuses in 1990 and 2000. Cancer incidence was investigated in time to event analyses (1990–2008) using Cox proportional hazards models and incidence density analyses (1985–2008) using Poisson regression. Adjustments were made for socio-economic factors, ionising background radiation and electromagnetic fields. In time to event analysis based on 532 cases the adjusted hazard ratio for leukaemia comparing children living <100 m from a highway with unexposed children (≥500 m) was 1.43 (95 % CI 0.79, 2.61). Results were similar in incidence density analysis including 1367 leukaemia cases (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.57; 95 % CI 1.09, 2.25). Associations were similar for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (IRR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.10, 2.43) and stronger for leukaemia in children aged <5 years (IRR 1.92; 95 % CI 1.22, 3.04). Little evidence of association was found for other tumours. Our study suggests that young children living close to highways are at increased risk of developing leukaemia

  20. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  1. Oxidative stress, cancer, and sleep deprivation: is there a logical link in this association?

    Noguti, Juliana; Andersen, Monica Levy; Cirelli, Chiara; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2013-09-01

    Sleep disorders are associated with various human pathologies and interfere with biological processes essential for health and quality of life. On the other hand, cancer is one of the most common diseases worldwide with an average of 1,500 deaths per day in the USA. Is there a factor common to both sleep disorders and cancer that serves to link these conditions? It is a normal process for cellular metabolism to produce reactive oxidant series (ROS). However, when the production of ROS overcomes the antioxidant capacity of the cell to eliminate these products, the resulting state is called oxidative stress. Oxidative DNA damage may participate in ROS-induced carcinogenesis. Moreover, ROS are also produced in the sleep deprivation process. The aim of this article is to review pathways and mechanisms that may point to oxidative stress as a link between sleep deprivation and cancer.

  2. Operative link on gastritis assessment stage is an appropriate predictor of early gastric cancer.

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Ge, Zhi-Zheng; Li, Xiao-Bo

    2016-04-07

    To assess the predictive value of Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) and Operative Link on Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Assessment (OLGIM) stages in gastric cancer. A prospective study was conducted with 71 patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) and 156 patients with non-EGC. All patients underwent endoscopic examination and systematic biopsy. Outcome measures were assessed and compared, including the Japanese endoscopic gastric atrophy (EGA) classification method and the modified OLGA method as well as the modified OLGIM method. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status was determined for all study participants. Stepwise logistic regression modeling was performed to analyze correlations between EGC and the EGA, OLGA and OLGIM methods. For patients with EGC and patients with non-EGC, the proportions of moderate-to-severe EGA cases were 64.8% and 44.9%, respectively (P = 0.005), the proportions of OLGA stages III-IV cases were 52.1% and 22.4%, respectively (P cancer.

  3. Long-term inpatient disease burden in the Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS study: A cohort study of 21,297 childhood cancer survivors.

    Sofie de Fine Licht

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk for a wide range of late effects. However, no large population-based studies have included the whole range of somatic diagnoses including subgroup diagnoses and all main types of childhood cancers. Therefore, we aimed to provide the most detailed overview of the long-term risk of hospitalisation in survivors of childhood cancer.From the national cancer registers of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden, we identified 21,297 5-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed with cancer before the age of 20 years in the periods 1943-2008 in Denmark, 1971-2008 in Finland, 1955-2008 in Iceland, and 1958-2008 in Sweden. We randomly selected 152,231 population comparison individuals matched by age, sex, year, and country (or municipality in Sweden from the national population registers. Using a cohort design, study participants were followed in the national hospital registers in Denmark, 1977-2010; Finland, 1975-2012; Iceland, 1999-2008; and Sweden, 1968-2009. Disease-specific hospitalisation rates in survivors and comparison individuals were used to calculate survivors' standardised hospitalisation rate ratios (RRs, absolute excess risks (AERs, and standardised bed day ratios (SBDRs based on length of stay in hospital. We adjusted for sex, age, and year by indirect standardisation. During 336,554 person-years of follow-up (mean: 16 years; range: 0-42 years, childhood cancer survivors experienced 21,325 first hospitalisations for diseases in one or more of 120 disease categories (cancer recurrence not included, when 10,999 were expected, yielding an overall RR of 1.94 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.91-1.97. The AER was 3,068 (2,980-3,156 per 100,000 person-years, meaning that for each additional year of follow-up, an average of 3 of 100 survivors were hospitalised for a new excess disease beyond the background rates. Approximately 50% of the excess hospitalisations were for diseases of the nervous

  4. Development of a Primary Care-Based Clinic to Support Adults With a History of Childhood Cancer: The Tactic Clinic.

    Overholser, Linda S; Moss, Kerry M; Kilbourn, Kristin; Risendal, Betsy; Jones, Alison F; Greffe, Brian S; Garrington, Timothy; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; Yamashita, Traci E; Kutner, Jean S

    2015-01-01

    Describe the development and evolution of a primary-care-based, multidisciplinary clinic to support the ongoing care of adult survivors of childhood cancer. A consultative clinic for adult survivors of childhood cancer has been developed that is located in an adult, academic internal medicine setting and is based on a long-term follow-up clinic model available at Children's Hospital Colorado. The clinic opened in July 2008. One hundred thirty-five patients have been seen as of April 2014. Referrals and clinic capacity have gradually increased over time, and a template has been developed in the electronic medical record to help facilitate completion of individualized care plan letters. A primary care-based, multidisciplinary consultative clinic for adults with a history of childhood cancer survivor is feasible and actively engages adult primary care resources to provide risk-based care for long-term pediatric cancer survivors. This model of care planning can help support adult survivors of pediatric cancer and their primary care providers in non-academic, community settings as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Late effects in childhood cancer survivors: a review with a framing effect bias?

    Fryer, Christopher

    2011-12-15

    Most publications report the adverse (negative) health issues in childhood cancer survivors. Presenting information to the newly diagnosed patient in a positive manner is advocated, while noting that recurrence is the most likely adverse event. Re-analysis of population-based studies on life-threatening toxicities from Nordic, Dutch, United Kingdom, French, Italian, and N. American publications shows that 5-year survivors have a near normal life expectancy, 75% have no severe or life-threatening treatment related toxicity and 87% remain free of a second malignancy. Children who received radiation or anthracycline >250-300 mg/m(2) are at greatest risk for treatment related life-threatening toxicities. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Computerized cognitive training in survivors of childhood cancer: a pilot study.

    Hardy, Kristina K; Willard, Victoria W; Bonner, Melanie J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to pilot a computerized cognitive training program, Captain's Log, in a small sample of survivors of childhood cancer. A total of 9 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors with attention and working memory deficits were enrolled in a home-based 12-week cognitive training program. Survivors returned for follow-up assessments postintervention and 3 months later. The intervention was associated with good feasibility and acceptability. Participants exhibited significant increases in working memory and decreases in parent-rated attention problems following the intervention. Findings indicate that home-based, computerized cognitive intervention is a promising intervention for survivors with cognitive late effects; however, further study is warranted with a larger sample.

  7. Radiation-Related New Primary Solid Cancers in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: Comparative Radiation Dose Response and Modification of Treatment Effects

    Inskip, Peter D.; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Veiga, Lene; Bhatti, Parveen; Ronckers, Cécile; Rajaraman, Preetha; Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan; Hammond, Sue; Henderson, Tara O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of childhood cancer patients now achieve long-term survival, but the treatments that cured their malignancy often put them at risk of adverse health outcomes years later. New cancers are among the most serious of these late effects. The aims of this review are to compare and contrast radiation dose–response relationships for new solid cancers in a large cohort of childhood cancer survivors and to discuss interactions among treatment and host factors. Methods: This review is based on previously published site-specific analyses for subsequent primary cancers of the brain, breast, thyroid gland, bone and soft tissue, salivary glands, and skin among 12,268 5-year childhood cancer survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Analyses included tumor site–specific, individual radiation dose reconstruction based on radiation therapy records. Radiation-related second cancer risks were estimated using conditional logistic or Poisson regression models for excess relative risk (ERR). Results: Linear dose–response relationships over a wide range of radiation dose (0-50 Gy) were seen for all cancer sites except the thyroid gland. The steepest slopes occurred for sarcoma, meningioma, and nonmelanoma skin cancer (ERR/Gy > 1.00), with glioma and cancers of the breast and salivary glands forming a second group (ERR/Gy = 0.27-0.36). The relative risk for thyroid cancer increased up to 15-20 Gy and then decreased with increasing dose. The risk of thyroid cancer also was positively associated with chemotherapy, but the chemotherapy effect was not seen among those who also received very high doses of radiation to the thyroid. The excess risk of radiation-related breast cancer was sharply reduced among women who received 5 Gy or more to the ovaries. Conclusions: The results suggest that the effect of high-dose irradiation is consistent with a linear dose–response for most organs, but they also reveal important organ-specific and host

  8. Radiation-Related New Primary Solid Cancers in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: Comparative Radiation Dose Response and Modification of Treatment Effects

    Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippeter@gmail.com [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Sigurdson, Alice J.; Veiga, Lene [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bhatti, Parveen [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Ronckers, Cécile [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rajaraman, Preetha [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); The University of Oran School of Medicine (Algeria); Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Children' s Hospital and Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Henderson, Tara O. [University of Chicago Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Chicago, Illinois (United States); and others

    2016-03-15

    Objectives: The majority of childhood cancer patients now achieve long-term survival, but the treatments that cured their malignancy often put them at risk of adverse health outcomes years later. New cancers are among the most serious of these late effects. The aims of this review are to compare and contrast radiation dose–response relationships for new solid cancers in a large cohort of childhood cancer survivors and to discuss interactions among treatment and host factors. Methods: This review is based on previously published site-specific analyses for subsequent primary cancers of the brain, breast, thyroid gland, bone and soft tissue, salivary glands, and skin among 12,268 5-year childhood cancer survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Analyses included tumor site–specific, individual radiation dose reconstruction based on radiation therapy records. Radiation-related second cancer risks were estimated using conditional logistic or Poisson regression models for excess relative risk (ERR). Results: Linear dose–response relationships over a wide range of radiation dose (0-50 Gy) were seen for all cancer sites except the thyroid gland. The steepest slopes occurred for sarcoma, meningioma, and nonmelanoma skin cancer (ERR/Gy > 1.00), with glioma and cancers of the breast and salivary glands forming a second group (ERR/Gy = 0.27-0.36). The relative risk for thyroid cancer increased up to 15-20 Gy and then decreased with increasing dose. The risk of thyroid cancer also was positively associated with chemotherapy, but the chemotherapy effect was not seen among those who also received very high doses of radiation to the thyroid. The excess risk of radiation-related breast cancer was sharply reduced among women who received 5 Gy or more to the ovaries. Conclusions: The results suggest that the effect of high-dose irradiation is consistent with a linear dose–response for most organs, but they also reveal important organ-specific and host

  9. Childhood and adolescent energy restriction and subsequent colorectal cancer risk: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study.

    Hughes, Laura A E; van den Brandt, Piet A; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; de Goeij, Anton F P M; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; van Engeland, Manon; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2010-10-01

    Energy restriction during childhood and adolescence is suggested to lower colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We investigated this in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Information on diet and other risk factors was collected by a baseline questionnaire in 1986 when cohort members were 55-69 years of age (n = 120 852). Three indicators of early life exposure to energy restriction were assessed: father's employment status during the Economic Depression (1932-40), place of residence during Second World War years (1940-44) and the 'Hunger Winter' (1944-45), a severe famine. Using the case-cohort approach, incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for total colorectal, proximal colon, distal colon, rectosigmoid and rectal cancers, according to the three time periods of energy restriction. After 16.3 years of follow-up, 2573 cases were available for multivariate analyses. Men who lived in a western city during the Hunger Winter and therefore exposed to the highest degree of energy restriction, had a lower risk of developing CRC (RR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68-0.98), and tumours of the proximal colon (RR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54-0.96) and rectum (RR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53-0.96). In women, non-statistically significant inverse associations were observed for tumours of the distal colon, rectosigmoid and rectum. Inverse associations were also observed between the other two exposure times and studied endpoints, though not statistically significant. This unique observational evidence suggests that severe energy restriction during childhood and adolescence may lower CRC risk, especially in men, thus providing insight regarding the role of energy intake during early life in CRC development.

  10. Spatial clustering of childhood cancer in Great Britain during the period 1969-1993.

    McNally, Richard J Q; Alexander, Freda E; Vincent, Tim J; Murphy, Michael F G

    2009-02-15

    The aetiology of childhood cancer is poorly understood. Both genetic and environmental factors are likely to be involved. The presence of spatial clustering is indicative of a very localized environmental component to aetiology. Spatial clustering is present when there are a small number of areas with greatly increased incidence or a large number of areas with moderately increased incidence. To determine whether localized environmental factors may play a part in childhood cancer aetiology, we analyzed for spatial clustering using a large set of national population-based data from Great Britain diagnosed 1969-1993. The Potthoff-Whittinghill method was used to test for extra-Poisson variation (EPV). Thirty-two thousand three hundred and twenty-three cases were allocated to 10,444 wards using diagnosis addresses. Analyses showed statistically significant evidence of clustering for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) over the whole age range (estimate of EPV = 0.05, p = 0.002) and for ages 1-4 years (estimate of EPV = 0.03, p = 0.015). Soft-tissue sarcoma (estimate of EPV = 0.03, p = 0.04) and Wilms tumours (estimate of EPV = 0.04, p = 0.007) also showed significant clustering. Clustering tended to persist across different time periods for cases of ALL (estimate of between-time period EPV = 0.04, p =0.003). In conclusion, we observed low level spatial clustering that is attributable to a limited number of cases. This suggests that environmental factors, which in some locations display localized clustering, may be important aetiological agents in these diseases. For ALL and soft tissue sarcoma, but not Wilms tumour, common infectious agents may be likely candidates.

  11. Realising the Value of Linked Data to Health Economic Analyses of Cancer Care: A Case Study of Cancer 2015.

    Lorgelly, Paula K; Doble, Brett; Knott, Rachel J

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing appetite for large complex databases that integrate a range of personal, socio-demographic, health, genetic and financial information on individuals. It has been argued that 'Big Data' will provide the necessary catalyst to advance both biomedical research and health economics and outcomes research. However, it is important that we do not succumb to being data rich but information poor. This paper discusses the benefits and challenges of building Big Data, analysing Big Data and making appropriate inferences in order to advance cancer care, using Cancer 2015 (a prospective, longitudinal, genomic cohort study in Victoria, Australia) as a case study. Cancer 2015 has been linked to State and Commonwealth reimbursement databases that have known limitations. This partly reflects the funding arrangements in Australia, a country with both public and private provision, including public funding of private healthcare, and partly the legislative frameworks that govern data linkage. Additionally, linkage is not without time delays and, as such, achieving a contemporaneous database is challenging. Despite these limitations, there is clear value in using linked data and creating Big Data. This paper describes the linked Cancer 2015 dataset, discusses estimation issues given the nature of the data and presents panel regression results that allow us to make possible inferences regarding which patient, disease, genomic and treatment characteristics explain variation in health expenditure.

  12. A bird's eye view of the air pollution-cancer link in China

    Huang, Yu-Bei; Song, Feng-Ju; Liu, Qun; Li, Wei-Qin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Ke-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in China comes from multiple sources, including coal consumption, construction and industrial dust, and vehicle exhaust. Coal consumption in particular directly determines the emissions of three major air pollutants: dust, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxide (NOx). The rapidly increasing number of civilian vehicles is expected to bring NOx emission to a very high level. Contrary to expectations, however, existing data show that the concentrations of major pollutants [particulate matter-10 (PM10), SO2, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] in several large Chinese cities have declined during the past decades, though they still exceed the national standards of ambient air quality. Archived data from China does not fully support that the concentrations of pollutants directly depend on local emissions, but this is likely due to inaccurate measurement of pollutants. Analyses on the cancer registry data show that cancer burden related to air pollution is on the rise in China and will likely increase further, but there is a lack of data to accurately predict the cancer burden. Past experience from other countries has sounded alarm of the link between air pollution and cancer. The quantitative association requires dedicated research as well as establishment of needed monitoring infrastructures and cancer registries. The air pollution-cancer link is a serious public health issue that needs urgent investigation. PMID:24636232

  13. Is there a link between childhood trauma, cognition, and amygdala and hippocampus volume in first-episode psychosis?

    Aas, Monica; Navari, Serena; Gibbs, Ayana; Mondelli, Valeria; Fisher, Helen L; Morgan, Craig; Morgan, Kevin; MacCabe, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Zanelli, Jolanta; Fearon, Paul; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Robin M; Pariante, Carmine M; Dazzan, Paola

    2012-05-01

    Patients with psychosis have higher rates of childhood trauma, which is also associated with adverse effects on cognitive functions such as attention, concentration and mental speed, language, and verbal intelligence. Although the pathophysiological substrate for this association remains unclear, these cognitive deficits may represent the functional correlate of changes observed in relation to trauma exposure in structures such as the amygdala and the hippocampus. Interestingly, these structures are often reported as altered in psychosis. This study investigated the association between childhood trauma, cognitive function and amygdala and hippocampus volume, in first-episode psychosis. We investigated 83 patients with first-episode psychosis and 63 healthy controls. All participants underwent an MRI scan acquired with a GE Sigma 1.5-T system, and a standardized neuropsychological assessment of general cognition, memory, processing speed, executive function, visuo-spatial abilities, verbal intelligence, and language. In a subsample of the patients (N=45) information on childhood trauma was collected with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q). We found that amygdala, but not hippocampus, volume was significantly smaller (p=0.001) in patients compared to healthy controls. There was a trend level interaction for hippocampus volume between group and sex (p=0.056). A history of childhood trauma was associated with both worse cognitive performance and smaller amygdala volume. This smaller amygdala appeared to mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and performance on executive function, language and verbal intelligence in patients with psychosis. This points to a complex relationship between childhood trauma exposure, cognitive function and amygdala volume in first-episode psychosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The biological age linked to oxidative stress modifies breast cancer aggressiveness.

    Sáez-Freire, María Del Mar; Blanco-Gómez, Adrián; Castillo-Lluva, Sonia; Gómez-Vecino, Aurora; Galvis-Jiménez, Julie Milena; Martín-Seisdedos, Carmen; Isidoro-García, María; Hontecillas-Prieto, Lourdes; García-Cenador, María Begoña; García-Criado, Francisco Javier; Patino-Alonso, María Carmen; Galindo-Villardón, Purificación; Mao, Jian-Hua; Prieto, Carlos; Castellanos-Martín, Andrés; Kaderali, Lars; Pérez-Losada, Jesús

    2018-03-14

    The incidence of breast cancer increases with age until menopause, and breast cancer is more aggressive in younger women. The existence of epidemiological links between breast cancer and aging indicates that both processes share some common mechanisms of development. Oxidative stress is associated with both cancer susceptibility and aging. Here we observed that ERBB2-positive breast cancer, which developed in genetically heterogeneous ERBB2-positive transgenic mice generated by a backcross, is more aggressive in chronologically younger than in older mice (differentiated by the median survival of the cohort that was 79 weeks), similar to what occurs in humans. In this cohort, we estimated the oxidative biological age using a mathematical model that integrated several subphenotypes directly or indirectly related to oxidative stress. The model selected the serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and magnesium and total AKT1 and glutathione concentrations in the liver. The grade of aging was calculated as the difference between the predicted biological age and the chronological age. This comparison permitted the identification of biologically younger and older mice compared with their chronological age. Interestingly, biologically older mice developed more aggressive breast cancer than the biologically younger mice. Genomic regions on chromosomes 2 and 15 linked to the grade of oxidative aging were identified. The levels of expression of Zbp1 located on chromosome 2, a gene related to necroptosis and inflammation, positively correlated with the grade of aging and tumour aggressiveness. Moreover, the pattern of gene expression of genes linked to the inflammation and the response to infection pathways was enriched in the livers of biologically old mice. This study shows part of the complex interactions between breast cancer and aging. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of DSM-5 borderline personality symptomatology and traits in the link between childhood trauma and suicidal risk in psychiatric patients.

    Bach, Bo; Fjeldsted, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Childhood traumas appear to be linked to suicidal behavior. However, the factors that mediate between these two phenomena are not sufficiently understood. Recent findings suggest that borderline personality disorder (BPD) may explain some of the association. The present study investigated the potential mediating role of BPD symptomatology and traits between reported childhood trauma and suicidal risk in adult psychiatric outpatients ( N  = 124). BPD symptomatology was measured with DSM-5 Section II criterion-counts (SCID-II; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II), whereas BPD traits were measured with specified DSM-5 Section III traits (PID-5; Personality Inventory for DSM-5). Childhood traumas were self-reported (CTQ; Childhood Trauma Questionnaire), whereas level of suicidal risk was measured with a structured interview (MINI Suicidality Module; Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview). Mediation effects were tested by bias-corrected (10.000 boot-strapped samples) confidence intervals. BPD features account for a considerable part of the cross-sectional association between childhood trauma and level of suicidal risk, even when controlling for the influence of gender, age, and educational level. This finding remained stable when testing the model without the suicidality-related BPD criterion and PID-5 items. DSM-5 Section II BPD criterion-counts explained 67% of the total effect, whereas DSM-5 Section III BPD traits accounted for 82% of the total effect. The specific DSM-5 Section III trait facets of "Depressivity" (52%) and "Perceptual Dysregulation" (37%) accounted for most of this effect. The findings provide preliminary support for the proposed mediation model indicating that BPD features may help explain relations between childhood trauma and elevated suicidal risk in adult life, in particular for DSM-5 Section III personality traits of depressivity (e.g., pessimism, guilt, and shame) and perceptual dysregulation (e.g., dissociation). To

  16. The impact of childhood abuse on inpatient substance users: specific links with risky sex, aggression, and emotion dysregulation.

    Banducci, Anne N; Hoffman, Elana M; Lejuez, C W; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-05-01

    Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report a high prevalence of childhood abuse. Research in the general population suggests specific types of abuse lead to particular negative outcomes; it is not known whether this pattern holds for adults with SUDs. We hypothesized that specific types of abuse would be associated with particular behavioral and emotional outcomes among substance users. That is, childhood sexual abuse would be associated with risky sex behaviors, childhood physical abuse with aggression, and childhood emotional abuse with emotion dysregulation. 280 inpatients (M age=43.3; 69.7% male; 88.4% African American) in substance use treatment completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), HIV Risk-Taking Behavior Scale, Addiction Severity Index, Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and Affect Intensity and Dimensions of Affiliation Motivation (AIM). Consistent with our hypotheses, the CTQ sexual abuse subscale uniquely predicted exchanging sex for cocaine and heroin, number of arrests for prostitution, engaging in unprotected sex with a casual partner during the prior year, and experiencing low sexual arousal when sober. The physical abuse subscale uniquely predicted number of arrests for assault and weapons offenses. The emotional abuse subscale uniquely predicted the DERS total score, AIM score, and DTS score. Among substance users, different types of abuse are uniquely associated with specific negative effects. Assessment of specific abuse types among substance users may be informative in treatment planning and relapse prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reproductive intentions and use of reproductive health care among female survivors of childhood cancer.

    van Dijk, M; van den Berg, M H; Overbeek, A; Lambalk, C B; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Tissing, W J; Kremer, L C; van der Pal, H J; Loonen, J J; Versluys, B; Bresters, D; Kaspers, G J L; van Leeuwen, F E; van Dulmen-den Broeder, E

    2018-06-01

    Do female childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) express a decreased desire to have children and do they use reproductive health care more often compared to women without a history of cancer? Overall, no difference was found in the desire to have children between CCSs and controls, whereas CCSs consult a fertility specialist more often, at a younger age, and sooner after their first attempt at conceiving. Female CCSs may face a shorter than anticipated reproductive window as a result of their cancer treatment. Little is known about their desire to have children and use of reproductive health care, especially in relation to their former cancer treatment. This study is part of the DCOG LATER-VEVO study, a nationwide retrospective cohort study on female fertility in Dutch CCSs. In total, 1749 CCSs and 1673 controls were invited for the study. Data collection took place between January 2008 and May 2014. Data on the desire to have children and use of reproductive health care were collected by questionnaire. The control group consisted of sisters from CCSs and females from the general population. In total, 1106 (63%) CCSs and 818 (49%) controls completed the questionnaire. Overall, no difference was found in the desire to have children between CCSs and controls (86% and 89%, respectively). However, survivors of a CNS tumour were less likely to desire children and CCSs without biological children at time of study were more likely to report that their desire to have children was unfulfilled because of medical reasons (9%), compared to controls (1%). In total, 12% of CCSs ever consulted a fertility specialist compared to 10% of controls (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.4). Mean (SD) age at time of their first visit was 27.7 (4.4) years for CCSs and 29.9 (3.9) years for controls (P self-report and may therefore be subject to recall bias. Decisions about parenthood affect all CCSs. It's important to evaluate reproductive intentions and function timely after cancer treatment, so CCSs can

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Full Text Available ... Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer ... can talk about it in a clear and supportive way. Two viewer guides are also available: for ...

  19. Looking for trouble: Adherence to late-effects surveillance among childhood cancer survivors.

    Reppucci, Marina L; Schleien, Charles L; Fish, Jonathan D

    2017-02-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are at high risk of morbidity and mortality from long-term complications of their cancer treatment. The Children's Oncology Group developed screening guidelines to enable the early identification of and intervention for late effects of cancer treatment. There is a paucity of data on the adherence of CCSs to screening recommendations. A retrospective analysis of medical records to evaluate the rate of adherence of CCSs to the personalized, risk-based recommendations provided to them in the context of a structured long-term follow-up program over a 3-year period. Two hundred eighty-six CCSs visited the survivorship clinic 542 times during the 3-year study period. The overall rate of adherence to recommended screening was 74.2%. Using a univariate model and greater age at diagnosis and at screening recommendation were associated with decreased screening adherence. Gender, cancer diagnosis, radiation therapy, anthracycline exposure, and hematopoietic stem cell transplant were not significantly associated with adherence. In a multivariate model, age over 18 years at the time of the visit was significantly associated with decreased adherence (P < 0.0329) (odds ratio: 1.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-2.25). Adherence to recommended screening tests is suboptimal among CCSs, with lower rates of adherence in CCSs older than 18 years of age compared with those younger than 18 years of age. Given the morbidity and mortality from the late effects of therapy among young adult CCSs, it is critically important to identify and remove barriers to late-effects screening among CCSs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Early Childhood Adversity and Its Associations with Anxiety, Depression, and Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

    McFarland, Daniel C; Andreotti, Charissa; Harris, Kirk; Mandeli, John; Tiersten, Amy; Holland, Jimmie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Certain vulnerability factors have been found to place patients at risk for depression and anxiety, especially within the context of medical illness. Early childhood adversity (ECA) primes adults to become more vulnerable to depression by enhancing their reactivity to stress; this relationship is not adequately described in patients with breast cancer. Methods Breast cancer patients (Stage 0-IV) were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire [RFQ]-subscales include Abuse/Neglect/Chaotic Home Environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List [DT&PL]), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety [HADS-A]), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression [HADS-D]), meeting standardized cut-off thresholds for distress (DT&PL ≥4 or ≥7)/anxiety (HADS-A ≥8)/depression (HADS-D ≥8), and demographic factors. Results One hundred twenty-five participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p<.001), anxiety (p=.001), and distress (p=.006) and with meeting cut-off threshold criteria for distress (p=.024), anxiety (p=.048), and depression (p=.001). On Multivariate analysis, only depression (p=.04) and emotional issues (i.e, component of DT&PL)(p=.001) were associated with ECA. Neglect, but not Abuse and Chaotic Home Environment, was associated with depression (β=.442, p<.001), anxiety (β=.342, p=.002), and self-identified problems with family (β−.288, p=.022), emotion (β=.345, p=.004), and physical issues (β=.408, p<.001). Conclusion ECA and neglect are associated with multiple psychological symptoms but most specifically depression in the setting of breast cancer. ECA contributes to psychological burden as a vulnerability factor. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories and influence the provision of patient centered care for psychological symptoms in patients with breast cancer. PMID:26876888